WorldWideScience

Sample records for vha upper midwest

  1. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  2. Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program, Image Processing Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillesand, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a series of technical guidelines by which land cover information is being extracted from Landsat Thematic Mapper data as part of the Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program (UMGAP...

  3. Regional patterns of major nonnative invasive plants and associated factors in upper Midwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Mark D. Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive plants (IPs) are rapidly spreading into natural ecosystems (e.g., forests and grasslands). Potential threats of IP invasion into natural ecosystems include biodiversity loss, structural and environmental change, habitat degradation, and economic losses. The Upper Midwest of the United States encompasses the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan...

  4. Wetland use and feeding by lesser scaup during spring migration across the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Low food availability and forage quality and concomitant decreased lipid reserves of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; hereafter scaup) during spring migration in the upper Midwest may partially explain reductions in the continental population of scaup. In springs 20042005, we examined wetland use and feeding activity of scaup on 356 randomly-selected wetlands within 6 regions in Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota. We examined wetland characteristics that favor high scaup use in 286 of these wetlands. We found that probabilities of wetland use and feeding by scaup increased with turbidity up to 45 and 30 NTU, respectively, but then declined at higher turbidity levels. Wetland use was positively correlated with size of open-water zone and amphipod densities, but was not correlated with chironomid densities. Feeding increased with amphipod density up to 26 m-3 and then declined at higher amphipod densities; scaup seemingly forage most efficiently at amphipod densities above 26 m -3. Wetland use was higher in North Dakota than in southern Minnesota and Iowa. Our results indicate that effective wetland restoration efforts to benefit scaup require maintaining abundant populations of amphipods (generally near 26 m-3 landscape geometric mean) in wetlands with large (> 500 m diameter) open-water zones throughout the upper Midwest, but especially within Iowa and southern Minnesota.

  5. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...

  7. Maintaining Vitality: Pharmacists' Continuing Professional Education Decision-Making in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Paul Jacob; Marvanova, Marketa

    2018-02-01

    Continuing professional education (CPE) plays an important role in continuing professional development of pharmacists for providing quality pharmaceutical care but also to maintain professional and organizational vitality and meet changing community/population needs. The study objective was to describe and understand factors of importance in selection of CPE credit hours among Upper Midwest pharmacists. A cross-sectional study of licensed pharmacists ( n = 1239) in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota included completion of a questionnaire on demographics and CPE decision-making. Factor analysis, t -test, and multivariate analyses were performed using Stata 10.1. Pharmacists placed greatest importance on maintaining licensure (mean = 2.72/3.00), personal interest (mean = 2.57), and self-improvement (mean = 2.42). Community/population need (mean = 1.83) was rated as slightly more important ( p market, but more importantly to ensure continued provision of quality pharmaceutical care and patient education.

  8. Practices and Processes of Leading High Performance Home Builders in the Upper Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Thoma, Ed [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Ojzcyk, Cindy [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2012-12-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team proposed this study to gain insight into the business, sales, and construction processes of successful high performance builders. The knowledge gained by understanding the high performance strategies used by individual builders, as well as the process each followed to move from traditional builder to high performance builder, will be beneficial in proposing more in-depth research to yield specific action items to assist the industry at large transform to high performance new home construction. This investigation identified the best practices of three successful high performance builders in the upper Midwest. In-depth field analysis of the performance levels of their homes, their business models, and their strategies for market acceptance were explored.

  9. Farmers' objectives toward their woodlands in the upper Midwest of the United States: implications for woodland volumes and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Earl C. Leatherberry; Mark H. Hansen; Brett J. Butler

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study that explores the relationship between farm woodland owners' stated intentions for owning woodland, and the structure and composition of these woodlands in the states of Illinois, Indiana and Iowa in the upper Midwest of the United States. Data from two sample-based inventories conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest...

  10. Experiences of Female Faculty with Maternity Leave at Four-Year Universities in an Upper Midwest State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerchin, Audra Dawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore female faculty members' experiences with maternity leave, while working as a career academic in higher education. Participants consisted of women currently employed in an upper Midwest state at six four-year institutions. An online survey was completed by 121 women, and 30 of these women also…

  11. Assessing the influence of multiple stressors on stream diatom metrics in the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Mark D.; Waite, Ian R.; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2018-01-01

    Water resource managers face increasing challenges in identifying what physical and chemical stressors are responsible for the alteration of biological conditions in streams. The objective of this study was to assess the comparative influence of multiple stressors on benthic diatoms at 98 sites that spanned a range of stressors in an agriculturally dominated region in the upper Midwest, USA. The primary stressors of interest included: nutrients, herbicides and fungicides, sediment, and streamflow; although the influence of physical habitat was incorporated in the assessment. Boosted Regression Tree was used to examine both the sensitivity of various diatom metrics and the relative importance of the primary stressors. Percent Sensitive Taxa, percent Highly Motile Taxa, and percent High Phosphorus Taxa had the strongest response to stressors. Habitat and total phosphorous were the most common discriminators of diatom metrics, with herbicides as secondary factors. A Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model was used to examine conditional relations among stressors and indicated that fine-grain streams had a lower percentage of Sensitive Taxa than coarse-grain streams, with Sensitive Taxa decreasing further with increased water temperature (>30 °C) and triazine concentrations (>1500 ng/L). In contrast, streams dominated by coarse-grain substrate contained a higher percentage of Sensitive Taxa, with relative abundance increasing with lower water temperatures (water depth (water temperature appears to be a major limiting factor in Midwest streams; whereas both total phosphorus and percent fines showed a slight subsidy-stress response. While using benthic algae for assessing stream quality can be challenging, field-based studies can elucidate stressor effects and interactions when the response variables are appropriate, sufficient stressor resolution is achieved, and the number and type of sites represent a gradient of stressor conditions and at least a quasi

  12. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  13. Understanding Climate Adaptation on Public Lands in the Upper Midwest: Implications for Monitoring and Tracking Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt-Depies, Christine M.; Knoot, Tricia Gorby; Rissman, Adena R.; Sharp, Anthony K.; Martin, Karl J.

    2016-05-01

    There are limited examples of efforts to systematically monitor and track climate change adaptation progress in the context of natural resource management, despite substantial investments in adaptation initiatives. To better understand the status of adaptation within state natural resource agencies, we utilized and problematized a rational decision-making framework to characterize adaptation at the level of public land managers in the Upper Midwest. We conducted in-depth interviews with 29 biologists and foresters to provide an understanding of managers' experiences with, and perceptions of, climate change impacts, efforts towards planning for climate change, and a full range of actions implemented to address climate change. While the majority of managers identified climate change impacts affecting their region, they expressed significant uncertainty in interpreting those signals. Just under half of managers indicated planning efforts are underway, although most planning is remote from local management. Actions already implemented include both forward-looking measures and those aimed at coping with current impacts. In addition, cross-scale dynamics emerged as an important theme related to the overall adaptation process. The results hold implications for tracking future progress on climate change adaptation. Common definitions or measures of adaptation (e.g., presence of planning documents) may need to be reassessed for applicability at the level of public land managers.

  14. Decision support system development at the Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy J.; Nelson, J. C.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    A Decision Support System (DSS) can be defined in many ways. The working definition used by the U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is, “A spatially based computer application or data that assists a researcher or manager in making decisions.” This is quite a broad definition—and it needs to be, because the possibilities for types of DSSs are limited only by the user group and the developer’s imagination. There is no one DSS; the types of DSSs are as diverse as the problems they help solve. This diversity requires that DSSs be built in a variety of ways, using the most appropriate methods and tools for the individual application. The skills of potential DSS users vary widely as well, further necessitating multiple approaches to DSS development. Some small, highly trained user groups may want a powerful modeling tool with extensive functionality at the expense of ease of use. Other user groups less familiar with geographic information system (GIS) and spatial data may want an easy-to-use application for a nontechnical audience. UMESC has been developing DSSs for almost 20 years. Our DSS developers offer our partners a wide variety of technical skills and development options, ranging from the most simple Web page or small application to complex modeling application development.

  15. Practices and Processes of Leading High Performance Home Builders in the Upper Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Thoma, E.; Ojczyk, C.

    2012-12-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team proposed this study to gain insight into the business, sales, and construction processes of successful high performance builders. The knowledge gained by understanding the high performance strategies used by individual builders, as well as the process each followed to move from traditional builder to high performance builder, will be beneficial in proposing more in-depth research to yield specific action items to assist the industry at large transform to high performance new home construction. This investigation identified the best practices of three successful high performance builders in the upper Midwest. In-depth field analysis of the performance levels of their homes, their business models, and their strategies for market acceptance were explored. All three builders commonly seek ENERGY STAR certification on their homes and implement strategies that would allow them to meet the requirements for the Building America Builders Challenge program. Their desire for continuous improvement, willingness to seek outside assistance, and ambition to be leaders in their field are common themes. Problem solving to overcome challenges was accepted as part of doing business. It was concluded that crossing the gap from code-based building to high performance based building was a natural evolution for these leading builders.

  16. Flight Synchrony among the Major Moth Pests of Cranberries in the Upper Midwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn A. Steffan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The cranberry fruitworm (Acrobasis vaccinii Riley, sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens, and blackheaded fireworm (Rhopobota naevana Hübner are historically significant pests of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton in the Upper Midwest (Wisconsin, USA. Their respective natural histories are well documented but correlations between developmental benchmarks (e.g., larval eclosion and degree-day accruals are not yet known. Treatment timings are critical to the optimization of any given control tactic, and degree-day accrual facilitates optimization by quantifying the developmental status of pest populations. When key developmental benchmarks in the pest life cycle are linked to degree-days, real-time weather data can be used to predict precise treatment timings. Here, we provide the degree-day accumulations associated with discrete biological events (i.e., initiation of flight and peak flight for the three most consistent moth pests of cranberries in Wisconsin. Moths were trapped each spring and summer from 2003 to 2011. To characterize flight dynamics and average timing of flight initiation, pheromone-baited trap-catch data were tallied for all three pest species within each of seven growing seasons. These flight dynamics were then associated with the corresponding degree-day accumulations generated using the cranberry plant’s developmental thresholds. Finally, models were fit to the data in order to determine the peak flight of each species. The initiation of the spring flight among all three moth species was highly synchronous, aiding in the timing of control tactics; however, there were substantial differences in the timing of peak flight among the moth species. Characterization of the relationship between temperature and pest development allows pest management professionals to target specific life stages, improving the efficacy of any given pest control tactic.

  17. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J C; Levengood, J M; Osborn, J M; Yetter, A P; Kinsella, J M; Cole, R A; Suski, C D; Hagy, H M

    2017-07-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014-2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2-23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  18. Biochemical conversions of lignocellulosic biomass for sustainable fuel-ethanol production in the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J.

    Biofuels are an increasingly important component of worldwide energy supply. This research aims to understand the pathways and impacts of biofuels production, and to improve these processes to make them more efficient. In Chapter 2, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented for cellulosic ethanol production from five potential feedstocks of regional importance to the upper Midwest — hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, switchgrass, diverse prairie grasses, and logging residues — according to the requirements of Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). Direct land use change emissions are included for the conversion of abandoned agricultural land to feedstock production, and computer models of the conversion process are used in order to determine the effect of varying biomass composition on overall life cycle impacts. All scenarios analyzed here result in greater than 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum gasoline. Land use change effects were found to contribute significantly to the overall emissions for the first 20 years after plantation establishment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the effects of biomass mixtures on overall sugar recovery from the combined processes of dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass mixtures studied were aspen, a hardwood species well suited to biochemical processing; balsam, a high-lignin softwood species, and switchgrass, an herbaceous energy crop with high ash content. A matrix of three different dilute acid pretreatment severities and three different enzyme loading levels was used to characterize interactions between pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yield for any species was 70% of theoretical for switchgrass, and maximum xylose yield was 99.7% of theoretical for aspen. Supplemental β-glucosidase increased glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis by an average of 15%, and total sugar recoveries for mixtures could be predicted to within 4% by linear interpolation of the pure

  19. Hastighedskort for Danmark vha. GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Hastighed på vejnettet er en central metrik indenfor trafikplanlægning og trafikoptimering. I denne artikel beskrives, hvorledes et hastighedskort for hele Danmark er skabt udelukkende vha. GPS data. To tilgangsvinkler til at beregne hastigheder vha. GPS data er præsenteret. Dette er hhv. en....... Opsummeret anses den turbaseret for at beregne det mest akkurate estimat, men metoden er meget datakrævende. Det er derfor nødvendigt at have den punktbaserede at falde tilbage på. Generelt mangler metoder til beregning af hastigheder vha. GPS data at blive valideret. Hvordan en sådan validering kan...

  20. Use of DNA sequencing to detect pathogenic, saprotrophic, and stain fungi in sapwood of declining red pine (Pinus resinosa) in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Banik; D.L. Lindner; J. Juzwik; J.A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    An inexpensive kit was developed to collect wood samples for molecular detection of pathogenic, saprotrophic and stain fungi in declining Pinus resinosa in the Upper Midwest. The kit contained materials for "clean" collection of sapwood drill shavings, which were then subjected to PCR of the rDNA ITS region with fungal-specific primers,...

  1. Soil Emissions of N2O and NO in Agricultural Production Systems in the Upper Midwest U.S.: Management Controls and Measurement Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropped fields in the upper Midwest have the potential to emit relatively large quantities of N2O and NO resulting from soil transformation of N fertilizers applied to crops such as corn and potatoes. The mitigation of N2O emissions may be an effective strategy for offsetting greenhouse gas emission...

  2. Is Miscanthus a High Risk Biofuel Feedstock Prospect for the Upper Midwest US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharik, C. J.; VanLoocke, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Miscanthus is a highly productive C4 perennial rhizomatous grass that is native to Southeast Asia, but its potential as a feedstock for cellulosic biofuel in the Midwest US is intriguing given extremely high productivity for low amounts of agrochemical inputs. However, Miscanthus x giganteus, a key variety currently studied is not planted from seed, but rather from rhizomes planted at a soil depth of 5 to 10 cm. Therefore, it is costly to establish on the basis of both time and money, making it a potentially risky investment in geographic regions that experience cold wintertime temperatures that can effectively kill the crop. The 50% kill threshold for M. giganteus rhizomes occurs when soil temperatures fall below -3.5C, which may contribute to a high risk of improper establishment during the first few seasons. Our first objective here was to study a historical, simulated reconstruction of daily wintertime soil temperatures at high spatial resolution (5 min) across the Midwest US from 1948-2007, and use this information to quantify the frequency that lethal soil temperature thresholds for Miscanthus were reached. A second objective was to investigate how the use of crop residues could impact wintertime soil temperatures. In this study, a dynamic agroecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) that has been modified to simulate Miscanthus growth and phenology was used in conjunction with high-resolution datasets of soil texture and daily gridded weather data. Model simulations suggest that across the states of North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and the northern half of Iowa, the kill threshold of -3.5C at a 10cm soil depth was reached in 70-95% of the simulation years. A boundary representing a 50% likelihood of reaching -3.5C at 10cm depth in any given year runs approximately from east central Colorado, thought northern Kansas and Missouri, through central Illinois, central Indiana, and central Ohio. An analysis of monthly mean 10cm soil temperatures

  3. A feasibility study of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ryan Duwain

    Three primary objectives were defined for this work. The first objective was to determine, assess, and compare the performance, heat transfer characteristics, economics, and feasibility of real-world stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the Upper Midwest. This objective was achieved by installing two grid-connected PV systems with different mounting schemes in central Iowa, implementing extensive data acquisition systems, monitoring operation of the PV systems for one full year, and performing detailed experimental performance and economic studies. The two PV systems that were installed, monitored, and analyzed included a 4.59 kWp roof-mounted stationary system oriented for maximum annual energy production, and a 1.02 kWp pole-mounted actively controlled dual-axis tracking system. The second objective was to demonstrate the actual use and performance of real-world stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected PV systems used for building energy generation applications. This objective was achieved by offering the installed PV systems to the public for demonstration purposes and through the development of three computer-based tools: a software interface that has the ability to display real-time and historical performance and meteorological data of both systems side-by-side, a software interface that shows real-time and historical video and photographs of each system, and a calculator that can predict performance and economics of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected PV systems at various locations in the United States. The final objective was to disseminate this work to social, professional, scientific, and academic communities in a way that is applicable, objective, accurate, accessible, and comprehensible. This final objective will be addressed by publishing the results of this work and making the computer-based tools available on a public website (www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/solar). Detailed experimental

  4. Climate induced changes in biome distribution, NPP and hydrology for potential vegetation of the Upper Midwest U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motew, M.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    While much attention is focused on future impacts of climate change on ecosystems, much can be learned about the previous interactions of ecosystems with recent climate change. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on potential vegetation distributions (i.e. grasses, trees, and shrubs) and carbon and water cycling across the Upper Midwest USA from 1948-2007 using the Agro-IBIS dynamic vegetation model. We drove the model using a historical, gridded daily climate data set (temperature, precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) at a spatial resolution of 5 min x 5 min. While trends in climate variables exhibited heterogeneous spatial patterns over the study period, the overall impact of climate change on vegetation productivity was positive. We observed total increases in net primary productivity (NPP) ranging from 20-150 g C m-2, based on linear regression analysis. We determined that increased summer relative humidity, increased annual precipitation and decreased mean maximum summer temperatures were key variables contributing to these positive trends, likely through a reduction in soil moisture stress (e.g., increased available water) and heat stress. Model simulations also illustrated an increase in annual drainage throughout the region of 20-140 mm yr-1, driven by substantial increases in annual precipitation. Evapotranspiration had a highly variable spatial trend over the 60-year period, with total change over the study period ranging between -100 and +100 mm yr-1. We also analyzed potential changes in plant functional type (PFT) distributions at the biome level, but hypothesize that the model may be unable to adequately capture competitive interactions among PFTs as well as the dynamics between upper and lower canopies consisting of trees, grasses and shrubs. An analysis of the bioclimatic envelopes for PFTs common to the region revealed no significant change to the boreal conifer tree climatic domain over the study

  5. Structural-equation models of migration: an example from the Upper Midwest USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, M

    1985-01-01

    "To date, most migration models have been specified in terms of a single equation, whereby a set of regional characteristics are used to predict migration rates for various kinds of spatial units. These models are inadequate in at least two respects. First, they omit any causal links between the explanatory variables, thus ignoring indirect effects between these variables and migration. Second, they ignore the possibility of reciprocal causation, or feedback effects, between migration and the explanatory variables...." The author uses data for State Economic Areas to construct a path model and simultaneous-equation model to identify both indirect and feedback effects on migration in the Upper Midwestern United States. "On the basis of the path model, it is suggested that the direct effects of many variables on migration are at least partially offset by the indirect effects, whereas the simultaneous-equation model emphasizes the reciprocal relationship between income and migration." excerpt

  6. Streamflow response to potential land use and climate changes in the James River watershed, Upper Midwest United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Ahiablame

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study region: North and South Dakotas, United States Study focus: Changes in watershed hydrology are mainly driven by changes in land use and climate. This study evaluated the impacts of climate and land use changes on streamflow in an agricultural watershed in the Upper Midwest. Three projected climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1 of three general circulation models (CGCM3.1, GFDL-CM2.1, and HADCM3 were developed for mid (2046–2065 and end (2080–2099 of the 21st century. Corresponding land use maps for years 2055 and 2090 were obtained from the FOREcasting SCEnarios of Land-Cover (FORE-SCE model. The scenarios were designed in a way that land use was changed while climate conditions remain constant, land use was then held constant under a changing climate, and finally both land use and climate were changed simultaneously to reflect possible future land use and climate conditions. New hydrological insights for the region: Potential land use and climate changes would result in 12–18% % and 17–41% increases in annual streamflow, respectively, by end of the century. The combined effects of land use and climate changes would intensify future streamflow responses with 13–60% increases in the region. This study provides a broad perspective on plausible hydrologic alterations in the region, prompting individual and collective opportunities to engage with this topic for sustainable planning and management of watersheds. Keywords: Watershed modeling, Precipitation, Agricultural land, Grassland, Dakota, SWAT

  7. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  8. Animal welfare in cross-ventilated, compost-bedded pack, and naturally ventilated dairy barns in the upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobeck, K M; Endres, M I; Shane, E M; Godden, S M; Fetrow, J

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to investigate animal welfare in 2 newer dairy housing options in the upper Midwest, cross-ventilated freestall barns (CV) and compost-bedded-pack barns (CB), compared with conventional, naturally ventilated freestall barns (NV). The study was conducted on 18 commercial dairy farms, 6 of each housing type, in Minnesota and eastern South Dakota. The primary breed in all farms was Holstein; 1 CV and 1 NV herd had approximately 30% Jersey-Holstein crossbreds. All freestall herds used sand for bedding. Farms were visited 4 times (once in each season) between January and November 2008, and approximately 93% of all animals in each pen were visually scored on each visit. Outcome-based measurements of welfare (locomotion, hock lesions, body condition score, hygiene, respiration rates, mortality, and mastitis prevalence) were collected on each farm. Lameness prevalence (proportion of cows with locomotion score ≥3 on a 1 to 5 scale, where 1=normal and 5=severely lame) in CB barns (4.4%) was lower than that in NV (15.9%) and CV (13.1%) barns. Lameness prevalence was similar between CV and NV barns. Hock lesion prevalence (proportion of cows with a lesion score ≥2 on a 1 to 3 scale, where 1=normal, 2=hair loss, and 3=swelling) was lower in CB barns (3.8%) than in CV (31.2%) and NV barns (23.9%). Hygiene scores (1 to 5 scale, where 1=clean and 5=very dirty) were higher for CB (3.18) than CV (2.83) and NV (2.77) barns, with no differences between CV and NV barns. Body condition scores, respiration rates, mastitis prevalence, culling, and mortality rates did not differ among housing systems. The CV and NV barns were evaluated using the cow comfort index (proportion of cows lying down in a stall divided by all animals touching a stall) and the stall usage index (proportion of cows lying divided by all animals in the pen not eating). The CV barns tended to have greater cow comfort index (85.9%) than the NV barns (81.4%) and had greater

  9. Dicty_cDB: VHA622 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHA622 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15767-1 VHA622P (Link... to Original site) VHA622F 458 VHA622Z 778 VHA622P 1216 - - Show VHA622 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHA622 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15767-1 Original site URL http://dict...HVQVTCGGCETCSYATGKCEPDSSLCNDNNICTIDICVHEGILDGLP QGNCSNTPVDCGANDEDKCKTWSCDPTKGGCQSTPVVCEDKGKCLVGTCQPSTGQCEYSD...qisnqkmrenlf*lrelsnqilikkkefqf*ivwmpmil*ik rqelvgqmvlsiflxitklviqnlpnlvk--- ---ACNEDEKXITHVQVTCGGCETCSYATGKCEPDSSLCNDNNICT

  10. Using GIS to integrate FIA and remotely sensed data to estimate the invasibility of major forest types by non-native invasive plants in the Upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; W. Keith Moser; Michael K. Crosby; Weiming Yu

    2012-01-01

    Non-native invasive plants (NNIP) are rapidly spreading into natural ecosystems such as forests in the Upper Midwest. Using the strategic inventory data from the 2005-2006 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and forest land cover data, we estimated the regional-invasibility patterns of NNIPs for major...

  11. Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

  12. Management, operational, animal health, and economic characteristics of large dairy herds in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evink, T L; Endres, M I

    2017-11-01

    Recent trends in dairy farm structure in the United States have included a decreasing number of farms, although farm size has increased, especially the share of milk production from very large herds (>2,500 cows). The objectives of this observational study were to describe common management practices; to characterize labor and operational structure; to measure some aspects of animal health, including lameness, hock lesions, mortality, and mastitis incidence; and to summarize cost of production on farms with more than 2,500 cows in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States. The study included 15 dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and South Dakota. Farms were visited twice, once each year, and on-farm herd records were collected for those 2 yr. On-farm herd records were used to investigate mortality, culling, pregnancy rate, and clinical mastitis incidence. At least 1 high-producing pen of mature cows and 1 pen of fresh cows were scored for locomotion. Likewise, at least 1 pen of high-producing mature cows was scored for cleanliness and hock lesions. Median herd size was 3,975 cows (range = 2,606-13,266). Milk sold per employee was 1,120,745 kg and the number of cows per employee was 105. Eighty percent of the farms had Holstein cows, 13% had Jersey, and 7% had Jersey-Holstein crosses. All farms used artificial insemination as the sole form of breeding and 100% of the farms used hormonal synchronization or timed artificial insemination programs in their reproductive protocols; 21-d pregnancy rate was 21.7%. Median lameness prevalence was 18.3% and median severe lameness prevalence was 5.1%. Median hock lesion prevalence was 17.4% and median severe hock lesion prevalence was 1.9%; mortality rate was 7.4%. Clinical mastitis incidence was 62.5 cases per 100 cow-years. Feed costs accounted for approximately 53% of the total cost of producing milk, followed by labor at 11%, interest and depreciation expenses at 10%, and replacement costs at 9.5%. Herds in

  13. Tobacco direct mail marketing and smoking behaviors in a cohort of adolescents and young adults from the U.S. upper Midwest: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the characteristics of adolescents and young adults who received tobacco direct mail materials and the association of receiving these materials with subsequent smoking behaviors. Adolescents from the upper Midwest region of the United States were sampled through clustered random sampling in 2000 and surveyed every 6 months. Participants (n = 3546) were asked at baseline (October 2006-March 2007) whether they had received direct mail materials from tobacco companies during the previous 6 months. Smoking behaviors were assessed 6 months later (April-September 2007). We assessed associations between demographics and receiving tobacco direct mail materials at baseline and the association of receiving these materials with smoking behaviors at follow-up, stratified by baseline smoking status. Overall, 5.2% of nonsmokers and 23.9% of current smokers in our sample received tobacco direct mail materials during the past 6 months (2.6% and 17.1% among nonsmokers and smokers smoked more cigarettes during the previous 30 days at follow-up (p smoked during the past 30 days at follow up (p marketing. Exposure to this market strategy is associated with faster escalation of cigarette consumption among nonsmokers and lower likelihood of smoking reduction among smokers in this adolescent and young adult sample.

  14. Occurrence of Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination and Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce from Retail Stores in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Josephine D; Zietlow, Mark S; Miller, Kevin M; Ellingson, Jay L E

    2015-09-01

    A total of 720 whole, romaine lettuce heads were purchased from retail locations in the Upper Midwest and assessed for coliform and Escherichia coli contamination and for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. During a 16-month period (August 2010 through December 2011), coliform and E. coli counts were enumerated on Petrifilm, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and the virulence gene eae was evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Over half (400 of 720) of the lettuce samples were processed with an immunomagnetic separation step before the qPCR assay. All retail lettuce samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7 when tested with the R.A.P.I.D. LT qPCR targeting a region of the O-antigen, and only two (0.28%) were positive for the eae gene when tested with LightCycler qPCR. On Petrifilm, coliform counts of most lettuce samples (96.4%) were between lettuce samples (98.2%) were lettuce heads. These results contribute to the limited recorded data and understanding of microbial contamination of whole romaine lettuce heads purchased from retail locations, specifically revealing the absence of E. coli O157:H7 and low levels of contamination with coliforms and other E. coli strains.

  15. An economic analysis comparison of stationary and dual-axis tracking grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the US Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wongyu; Pate, Michael B.; Warren, Ryan D.; Nelson, Ron M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of stationary and dual-axis tracking photovoltaic (PV) systems installed in the US Upper Midwest in terms of life-cycle costs, payback period, internal rate of return, and the incremental cost of solar energy. The first-year performance and energy savings were experimentally found along with documented initial cost. Future PV performance, savings, and operating and maintenance costs were estimated over 25-year assumed life. Under the given assumptions and discount rates, the life-cycle savings were found to be negative. Neither system was found to have payback periods less than the assumed system life. The lifetime average incremental costs of energy generated by the stationary and dual-axis tracking systems were estimated to be 0.31 and 0.37 per kWh generated, respectively. Economic analyses of different scenarios, each having a unique set of assumptions for costs and metering, showed a potential for economic feasibility under certain conditions when compared to alternative investments with assumed yields.

  16. Longer wait times affect future use of VHA primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Hernandez, Susan E; Augustine, Matthew R; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D; Hebert, Paul L

    2017-07-29

    Improving access to the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is a high priority, particularly given statutory mandates of the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act. This study examined whether patient-reported wait times for VHA appointments were associated with future reliance on VHA primary care services. This observational study examined 13,595 VHA patients dually enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare. Data sources included VHA administrative data, Medicare claims and the Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP). Primary care use was defined as the number of face-to-face visits from VHA and Medicare in the 12 months following SHEP completion. VHA reliance was defined as the number of VHA visits divided by total visits (VHA+Medicare). Wait times were derived from SHEP responses measuring the usual number of days to a VHA appointment with patients' primary care provider for those seeking immediate care. We defined appointment wait times categorically: 0 days, 1day, 2-3 days, 4-7 days and >7 days. We used fractional logistic regression to examine the relationship between wait times and reliance. Mean VHA reliance was 88.1% (95% CI = 86.7% to 89.5%) for patients reporting 0day waits. Compared with these patients, reliance over the subsequent year was 1.4 (p = 0.041), 2.8 (p = 0.001) and 1.6 (p = 0.014) percentage points lower for patients waiting 2-3 days, 4-7 days and >7 days, respectively. Patients reporting longer usual wait times for immediate VHA care exhibited lower future reliance on VHA primary care. Longer wait times may reduce care continuity and impact cost shifting across two federal health programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Assess and Adapt: Coordinated Ecoregional Forest Vulnerability Assessments Covering the Upper Midwest and Northeast in Support of Climate-informed Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.; Handler, S.; Butler, P.; Brandt, L.; Iverson, L.; Thompson, F.; Ontl, T.; Shannon, D.

    2016-12-01

    Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessments are rapidly becoming an integral component of forest management planning, in which there is increasing public expectation that even near-term activities explicitly incorporate information about anticipated climate impacts and risks. There is a clear desire among forest managers for targeted assessments that address critical questions about species and ecosystem vulnerabilities while delivering this information in an accessible format. We developed the Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment Approach (EVAA), which combines multiple quantitative models, expert elicitation from scientists and land managers, and a templated report structure oriented to natural resource managers. The report structure includes relevant information on the contemporary landscape, past climate, future climate projections, impact model results, and a transparent vulnerability assessment of species and ecosystems. We have used EVAA in seven ecoregional assessments covering 246 million acres of forestland across the upper Midwest and Northeast (www.forestadaptation.org; five published, two in review). We convened a panel of local forest ecology and management experts in each assessment area to examine projected climate effects on system drivers, stressors, and dominant species, as well as the current adaptive capacity of the major ecoregional forest ecosystems. The panels provided a qualitative assessment of the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change over the next century. Over 130 authors from dozens of organizations collaborated on these peer-reviewed assessment publications, which are delivered to thousands of stakeholders through live and recorded webinars, online briefs, and in-person trainings and seminars. The assessments are designed to be used with the Adaptation Workbook (www.adaptationworkbook.org), a planning tool that works at multiple scales and has generated more than 200 real-world forest adaptation demonstration projects.

  18. Understanding the land-atmospheric interaction in drought forecast from CFSv2 for the 2011 Texas and 2012 Upper Midwest US droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Roundy, J. K.; Ek, M. B.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction and thus preparedness in advance of hydrological extremes, such as drought and flood events, is crucial for proactively reducing their social and economic impacts. In the summers of 2011 Texas, and 2012 the Upper Midwest, experienced intense droughts that affected crops and the food market in the US. It is expected that seasonal forecasts with sufficient skill would reduce the negative impacts through planning and preparation. However, the forecast skill from models such as Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2) from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is low over the US, especially during the warm season (Jun - Sep), which restricts their practical use for drought prediction. This study analyzes the processes that lead to premature termination of 2011 and 2012 US summer droughts in CFSv2 forecast resulting in its low forecast skill. Using the North American Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (NLDAS2) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) as references, this study investigates the forecast skills of CFSv2 initialized at 00, 06, 12, 18z from May 15 - 31 (leads out to September) for each event in terms of land-atmosphere interaction, through a recently developed Coupling Drought Index (CDI), which is based on the Convective Triggering Potential-Humidity Index-soil moisture (CTP-HI-SM) classification of four climate regimes: wet coupling, dry coupling, transitional and atmospherically controlled. A recycling model is used to trace the moisture sources in the CFSv2 forecasts of anomalous precipitation, which lead to the breakdown of drought conditions and a lack of drought forecasting skills. This is then compared with tracing the moisture source in CFSR with the same recycling model, which is used as the verification for the same periods. This helps to identify the parameterization that triggered precipitation in CFSv2 during 2011 and 2012 summer in the US thus has the potential to improve the forecast skill of CSFv2.

  19. U-Pb Dating of Calcite to Constrain Basinal Brine Flux Events: An Example from the Upper Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbury, T.; Luczaj, J.

    2017-12-01

    Calcite forms in a variety of settings and can be the product of surface to deep basinal fluids. As such, this mineral can uniquely record details of the fluids responsible for its formation. The forms of calcium carbonates and their stratigraphic relationships from the thin section to the regional scale give important insights on pulses of fluids. A fundamental question is the age of such fluid pulses. While calcite excludes uranium (U) from its crystal structure, some is incorporated and depending on the U/Pb ratio, this provides an opportunity for radiometric dating. Calcite crystals of various sizes and crystal habits are found in Paleozoic carbonate rocks throughout the region from the western Michigan basin to the upper Mississippi valley. These are typically associated with Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) mineralization, including galena, sphalerite, and iron sulfides, but typically post-date the main MVT event. We have analyzed a variety of these calcites and find multiple generations of calcite, separated by tens of millions of years. The initial Pb isotope ratios are similar to the isotope ratios of nearby galena, strongly suggesting a genetic relationship. Our oldest ages are 200 Ma, and we find ages ranging into the Cenozoic. Based on the Paleozoic-hosted galena Pb-isotope isoscapes from the region, the fluids may have been sourced from both the Michigan and Illinois basins. An important and unanswered question is what would cause significant fluid movement out of the basins substantially after Appalachian orogenesis. Noble gas data from brines in the Michigan Basin have a mantle component and have been suggested to be responsible for recognized elevated temperatures across the basin (Ma et al., 2009). Multiple thermal events during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras may have an internal heat source related to reactivation of faults of the Keweenawan Rift system below the Michigan Basin. Perhaps a mantle heat source from below episodically fluxes into the

  20. Dicty_cDB: VHA386 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHA386 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11201-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) - - VHA386Z 730 - - - - Show VHA386 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHA386 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11201-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N L08646 |L08646.1 Dict...19 1 CX835130 |AF255664_1 major vault protein [Ictalurus punctatus], mRNA sequenc

  1. Dicty_cDB: VHA365 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHA365 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16349-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) - - VHA365Z 352 - - - - Show VHA365 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHA365 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16349-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...TTGGGTACCAAGAACTGACCGTCAATTTGCTGGTTCATGGTTT sequence update 2002. 9.10 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---QLFAGIKSICT...wfmv Frame C: ---QLFAGIKSICTEMAMDGCEKCSGNSPTTTCDVLPVYSSLCMAMPDMSQCANWTKMCS SSGQLY

  2. Future Midwest Heat Waves in WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M.; Buzan, J. R.; Yoo, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present heat stress results for the upper Midwest derived from convection resolving Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations carried out for the RCP 8.5 Scenario and driven by Community Earth System Model (CESM) boundary conditions as part of the Indiana Climate Change Assessment. Using this modeling system we find widespread and severe increases in moist heat stress metrics in the Midwest by end of century. We detail scaling arguments that suggest our results are robust and not model dependent and describe potential health, welfare, and productivity implications of these results.

  3. 76 FR 40454 - Proposed Information Collection (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Access to VHA Electronic Health Records, VA Form 10- 0400. OMB Control Number: 2900-0710. Type of Review... were granted power of attorney by veterans who have medical information recorded in VHA electronic...

  4. VHA Chaplains: challenges, roles, rewards, and frustrations of the work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Joan; Yan, Grace W

    2013-01-01

    Chaplains working in the Veterans Health Administration have numerous roles and challenges. They work closely with other behavioral health professionals, especially social workers, to address the multiplicity of needs of the Veteran population. They are essentially an understudied subset of the military Chaplaincy service (most studies focus on those engaged in combat areas). In this exploratory qualitative study, VHA Chaplains responded to a survey to determine how they defined their role and professional challenges, what they felt were the rewards and frustrations of their work and their unique function within the VHA system. Findings showed that role differences between Chaplains and social workers and other behavioral health providers are clearly defined; rewards and challenges were diverse and frustrations were common to those working in a bureaucratic structure.

  5. Midwest regional management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    In response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the States of Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin formed the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. One of the top priorities of the Compact Commission is the development of a comprehensive regional waste management plan. The plan consists of five major elements: (1) waste inventory; (2) waste stream projections; (3) analysis of waste management and disposal options; (4) development of a regional waste management system; and (5) selection of a host state(s) for future low-level waste facilities. When completed, the Midwest Management Plan will serve as the framework for future low-level radioactive waste management and disposal decisions

  6. 76 FR 56503 - Agency Information Collection Activity (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Electronic Health Records, VA Form 10- 0400. OMB Control Number: 2900-0710. Type of Review: Extension of a... power of attorney by veterans who have medical information recorded in VHA electronic health records...

  7. Travel time and attrition from VHA care among women veterans: how far is too far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sarah A; Frayne, Susan M; Berg, Eric; Hamilton, Alison B; Washington, Donna L; Saechao, Fay; Maisel, Natalya C; Lin, Julia Y; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Phibbs, Ciaran S

    2015-04-01

    Travel time, an access barrier, may contribute to attrition of women veterans from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. We examined whether travel time influences attrition: (a) among women veterans overall, (b) among new versus established patients, and (c) among rural versus urban patients. This retrospective cohort study used logistic regression to estimate the association between drive time and attrition, overall and for new/established and rural/urban patients. In total, 266,301 women veteran VHA outpatients in the Fiscal year 2009. An "attriter" did not return for VHA care during the second through third years after her first 2009 visit (T0). Drive time (log minutes) was between the patient's residence and her regular source of VHA care. "New" patients had no VHA visits within 3 years before T0. Models included age, service-connected disability, health status, and utilization as covariates. Overall, longer drive times were associated with higher odds of attrition: drive time adjusted odds ratio=1.11 (99% confidence interval, 1.09-1.14). The relationship between drive time and attrition was stronger among new patients but was not modified by rurality. Attrition among women veterans is sensitive to longer drive time. Linking new patients to VHA services designed to reduce distance barriers (telemedicine, community-based clinics, mobile clinics) may reduce attrition among women new to VHA.

  8. The role of endomembrane-localized VHA-c in plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aimin; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2018-01-02

    In plant cells, the vacuolar-type H + -ATPase (V-ATPase), a large multis`ubunit endomembrane proton pump, plays an important role in acidification of subcellular organelles, pH and ion homeostasis, and endocytic and secretory trafficking. V-ATPase subunit c (VHA-c) is essential for V-ATPase assembly, and is directly responsible for binding and transmembrane transport of protons. In previous studies, we identified a PutVHA-c gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora, and investigated its function in plant growth. Subcellular localization revealed that PutVHA-c is mainly localized in endosomal compartments. Overexpression of PutVHA-c enhanced V-ATPase activity and promoted plant growth in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the activity of V-ATPase affected intracellular transport of the Golgi-derived endosomes. Our results showed that endomembrane localized-VHA-c contributes to plant growth by influencing V-ATPase-dependent endosomal trafficking. Here, we discuss these recent findings and speculate on the VHA-c mediated molecular mechanisms involved in plant growth, providing a better understanding of the functions of VHA-c and V-ATPase.

  9. Short-Term Medical Costs of a VHA Health Information Exchange: A CHEERS-Compliant Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dustin D.; Dixon, Brian E.; Perkins, Susan M.; Myers, Laura J.; Weiner, Michael; Zillich, Allan J.; Haggstrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health program provides the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) a framework whereby VHA providers can access the veterans’ electronic health record information to coordinate healthcare across multiple sites of care. As an early adopter of VLER, the Indianapolis VHA and Regenstrief Institute implemented a regional demonstration program involving bi-directional health information exchange (HIE) between VHA and non-VHA providers. The aim of the study is to determine whether implementation of VLER HIE reduces 1 year VHA medical costs. A cohort evaluation with a concurrent control group compared VHA healthcare costs using propensity score adjustment. A CHEERs compliant checklist was used to conduct the cost evaluation. Patients were enrolled in the VLER program onsite at the Indianapolis VHA in outpatient clinics or through the release-of-information office. VHA cost data (in 2014 dollars) were obtained for both enrolled and nonenrolled (control) patients for 1 year prior to, and 1 year after, the index date of patient enrollment. There were 6104 patients enrolled in VLER and 45,700 patients in the control group. The annual adjusted total cost difference per patient was associated with a higher cost for VLER enrollees $1152 (95% CI: $807–1433) (P < 0.01) (in 2014 dollars) than VLER nonenrollees. Short-term evaluation of this demonstration project did not show immediate reductions in healthcare cost as might be expected if HIE decreased redundant medical tests and treatments. Cost reductions from shared health information may be realized with longer time horizons. PMID:26765453

  10. VHA mental health information system: applying health information technology to monitor and facilitate implementation of VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, Jodie A; Greenberg, Greg; Harris, Alex H S; Tavakoli, Sara; Kearney, Lisa; McCarthy, John; Blow, Fredric; Hoff, Rani; Schohn, Mary

    2013-03-01

    To describe the design and deployment of health information technology to support implementation of mental health services policy requirements in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Using administrative and self-report survey data, we developed and fielded metrics regarding implementation of the requirements delineated in the VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook. Finalized metrics were incorporated into 2 external facilitation-based quality improvement programs led by the VHA Mental Health Operations. To support these programs, tailored site-specific reports were generated. Metric development required close collaboration between program evaluators, policy makers and clinical leadership, and consideration of policy language and intent. Electronic reports supporting different purposes required distinct formatting and presentation features, despite their having similar general goals and using the same metrics. Health information technology can facilitate mental health policy implementation but must be integrated into a process of consensus building and close collaboration with policy makers, evaluators, and practitioners.

  11. Renewables in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wager, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has evaluated the potential for using renewable energy for electricity in the Midwest, and has been carrying out a multifaceted effort to expand the use of renewables in the region. The UCS study presents a strategy for developing renewable-electric technologies and resources in 12 midwestern states. UCS analysts used a geographic information system (GIS) to create data-bases of renewable resources, land uses, vegetation cover, terrain elevation and locations of utility transmission lines, and to analyze and present information on a .6 mi x .6 mi (1 km x 1 km) grid scale. In addition, UCS developed a model to calculate the net employment impact of renewable versus conventional electricity technologies on a state-by-state basis. In evaluating the costs and benefits of renewable energy sources, UCS analysts explored a cost assessment that accounted for the impact of pollution from fossil fuels on energy resource cost. Researchers also considered the risks associated with fuel-price volatility, environmental regulation, construction lead times and other uncertainties. Finally, UCS researchers suggested steps to remove the institutional, regulatory and legislative barriers that inhibit renewable energy development, and proposed policies to expand the use of the region's renewable resources. The UCS analysis showed that wind is currently the least expensive renewable resource. UCS also found numerous opportunities to expand biomass-electric generation in the near term, such as converting small coal-fired power plants to wood fuel, making greater use of logging residues and co-firing a small percentage of biomass with fossil fuel at large power plants

  12. 75 FR 48412 - Proposed Information Collection (Six-Month Post-Exit Focus Interview of Former VHA Employees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235... develop strategic objectives that will increase workforce recruitment and retention throughout VHA...

  13. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  14. Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Bryan

    2002-12-05

    OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

  15. VHA-19 is essential in Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes for embryogenesis and is involved in trafficking in oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J Knight

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop new drugs against parasitic nematodes, which are a significant burden on human health and agriculture. Information about the function of essential nematode-specific genes provides insight to key nematode-specific processes that could be targeted with drugs. We have characterized the function of a novel, nematode-specific Caenorhabditis elegans protein, VHA-19, and show that VHA-19 is essential in the germline and, specifically, the oocytes, for the completion of embryogenesis. VHA-19 is also involved in trafficking the oocyte receptor RME-2 to the oocyte plasma membrane and is essential for osmoregulation in the embryo, probably because VHA-19 is required for proper eggshell formation via exocytosis of cortical granules or other essential components of the eggshell. VHA-19 may also have a role in cytokinesis, either directly or as an indirect effect of its role in osmoregulation. Critically, VHA-19 is expressed in the excretory cell in both larvae and adults, suggesting that it may have a role in osmoregulation in C. elegans more generally, probably in trafficking or secretion pathways. This is the first time a role for VHA-19 has been described.

  16. 2017 Midwest Zebrafish Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Elizabeth; Petersen, Sarah C; Smith, Cody J

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Midwest Zebrafish meeting was held from June 16 to 18 at the University of Cincinnati, sponsored by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Divisions of Developmental Biology, Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. The meeting, organized by Saulius Sumanas, Joshua Waxman, and Chunyue Yin, hosted >130 attendees from 16 different states. Scientific sessions were focused on morphogenesis, neural development, novel technologies, and disease models, with Steve Ekker, Stephen Potter, and Lila Solnica-Krezel presenting keynote talks. In this article, we highlight the results and emerging themes from the meeting.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Registry Veterans in VHA Care in 2015, for the Nation, by VISN and by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report describes the number of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) registry Veterans in VHA care in 2015 based on serologic evidence of HCV infection status (HCV Positive)...

  18. Implementing a cornerstone of culture change: Consistent staff assignment in VHA community living centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonne; Brennan, Penny L; SooHoo, Sonya; Schutte, Kathleen K

    2017-08-01

    In 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) began implementing consistent staff assignment in its nursing homes (called Community Living Centers or CLCs). Consistent assignment, a cornerstone of culture change, minimizes the number of staff who provide a resident's care. The present research assessed the level and stability of consistent assignment in units within VHA CLCs and identified unit characteristics related to implementation of this staff assignment model. Schedulers in 185 of 335 organizational units that make up VHA CLCs completed a Staffing Practices Survey. For the month prior to the survey, 53% of CLC units had full implementation of consistent assignment. Tracked back over time, 37% of CLC units had stable high consistent assignment, 29% had stable low consistent assignment, and 34% were variable. Units with stable high consistent assignment were most likely to use care teams with stable membership and to obtain staff input for care assignments. Schedulers in these units reported more positive experiences with consistent staff assignment and better unit functioning in terms of staff absences, complaints about workload fairness, and resolution of scheduling problems. Units with stable low and variable consistent assignment were similar in most of these respects; however, units with variable consistent assignment made greater use of stable care teams and were less likely to change assignments at a staff member's request. Overall, consistent assignment implementation was not related to unit size, nursing hours per resident day, or specialty focus. Findings can help guide consistent staff assignment implementation in VHA and community nursing homes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. VH gene expression and regulation in the mutant Alicia rabbit. Rescue of VHa2 allotype expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Young-Cooper, G O; Mage, R G

    1993-04-01

    Rabbits of the Alicia strain, derived from rabbits expressing the VHa2 allotype, have a mutation in the H chain locus that has a cis effect upon the expression of VHa2 and VHa- genes. A small deletion at the most J-proximal (3') end of the VH locus leads to low expression of all the genes on the entire chromosome in heterozygous ali mutants and altered relative expression of VH genes in homozygotes. To study VH gene expression and regulation, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the VH genes expressed in spleens of young and adult wild-type and mutant Alicia rabbits. The cDNA from reverse transcription of splenic mRNA was amplified and polymerase chain reaction libraries were constructed and screened with oligonucleotides from framework regions 1 and 3, as well as JH. Thirty-three VH-positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. We found that in mutant Alicia rabbits, products of the first functional VH gene (VH4a2), (or VH4a2-like genes) were expressed in 2- to 8-wk-olds. Expression of both the VHx and VHy types of VHa- genes was also elevated but the relative proportions of VHx and VHy, especially VHx, decreased whereas the relative levels of expression of VH4a2 or VH4a2-like genes increased with age. Our results suggest that the appearance of sequences resembling that of the VH1a2, which is deleted in the mutant ali rabbits, could be caused by alterations of the sequences of the rearranged VH4a2 genes by gene conversions and/or rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development.

  20. Preparing tomorrow's transportation workforce : a Midwest summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Preparing Tomorrows Transportation Workforce: A Midwest Summit, held April 2728, 2010, in Ames, Iowa, was one of several : regional transportation workforce development summits held across the United States in 2009 and 2010 as part of a coordin...

  1. Interdisciplinary Transgender Veteran Care: Development of a Core Curriculum for VHA Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipherd, Jillian C.; Kauth, Michael R.; Firek, Anthony F.; Garcia, Ranya; Mejia, Susan; Laski, Sandra; Walden, Brent; Perez-Padilla, Sonia; Lindsay, Jan A.; Brown, George; Roybal, Lisa; Keo-Meier, Colton L.; Knapp, Herschel; Johnson, Laura; Reese, Rebecca L.; Byne, William

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) has created a training program for interdisciplinary teams of providers on the unique treatment needs of transgender veterans. An overview of this program's structure and content is described along with an evaluation of each session and the program overall. Methods: A specialty care team delivered 14 didactic courses supplemented with case consultation twice per month over the course of 7 months through video teleconferencing to 16 teams of learners. Each team, consisting of at least one mental health provider (e.g., social worker, psychologist, or psychiatrist) and one medical provider (e.g., physician, nurse, physician assistant, advanced practice nurse, or pharmacist), received training and consultation on transgender veteran care. Results: In the first three waves of learners, 111 providers across a variety of disciplines attended the sessions and received training. Didactic topics included hormone therapy initiation and adjustments, primary care issues, advocacy within the system, and psychotherapy issues. Responses were provided to 39 veteran-specific consult questions to augment learning. Learners reported an increase in knowledge plus an increase in team cohesion and functioning. As a result, learners anticipated treating more transgender veterans in the future. Conclusion: VHA providers are learning about the unique healthcare needs of transgender veterans and benefitting from the training opportunity offered through the Transgender Specialty Care Access Network–Extension of Community Healthcare Outcomes program. The success of this program in training interdisciplinary teams of providers suggests that it might serve as a model for other large healthcare systems. In addition, it provides a path forward for individual learners (both within VHA and in the community) who wish to increase their knowledge. PMID:29159298

  2. Integration of Health Coaching Concepts and Skills into Clinical Practice Among VHA Providers: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David A; Thompson, Kirsten; Atwood, Katharine A; Abadi, Melissa H; Rychener, David L; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2018-01-01

    Although studies of health coaching for behavior change in chronic disease prevention and management are increasing, to date no studies have reported on what concepts and skills providers integrate into their clinical practice following participation in health coaching courses. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess Veterans Health Administration (VHA) providers' perceptions of the individual-level and system-level changes they observed after participating with colleagues in a 6-day Whole Health Coaching course held in 8 VHA medical centers nationwide. Data for this study were from the follow-up survey conducted with participants 2 to 3 months after completing the training. A total of 142 responses about individual-level changes and 99 responses about system-level changes were analyzed using content analysis. Eight primary themes emerged regarding individual changes, including increased emphasis on Veterans' values, increased use of listening and other specific health coaching skills in their clinical role, and adding health coaching to their clinical practice.Four primary themes emerged regarding system-level changes, including leadership support, increased staff awareness/support/learning and sharing, increased use of health coaching skills or tools within the facility, and organizational changes demonstrating a more engaged workforce, such as new work groups being formed or existing groups becoming more active. Findings suggest that VHA providers who participate in health coaching trainings do perceive positive changes within themselves and their organizations. Health coaching courses that emphasize patient-centered care and promote patient-provider partnerships likely have positive effects beyond the individual participants that can be used to promote desired organizational change.

  3. Challenges in referral communication between VHA primary care and specialty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchowski, Jessica L; Rose, Danielle E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockdale, Susan E; Meredith, Lisa S; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Cordasco, Kristina M

    2015-03-01

    Poor communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and specialists is a significant problem and a detriment to effective care coordination. Inconsistency in the quality of primary-specialty communication persists even in environments with integrated delivery systems and electronic medical records (EMRs), such as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The purpose of this study was to measure ease of communication and to characterize communication challenges perceived by PCPs and primary care personnel in the VHA, with a particular focus on challenges associated with referral communication. The study utilized a convergent mixed-methods design: online cross-sectional survey measuring PCP-reported ease of communication with specialists, and semi-structured interviews characterizing primary-specialty communication challenges. 191 VHA PCPs from one regional network were surveyed (54% response rate), and 41 VHA PCPs and primary care staff were interviewed. PCP-reported ease of communication mean score (survey) and recurring themes in participant descriptions of primary-specialty referral communication (interviews) were analyzed. Among PCPs, ease-of-communication ratings were highest for women's health and mental health (mean score of 2.3 on a scale of 1-3 in both), and lowest for cardiothoracic surgery and neurology (mean scores of 1.3 and 1.6, respectively). Primary care personnel experienced challenges communicating with specialists via the EMR system, including difficulty in communicating special requests for appointments within a certain time frame and frequent rejection of referral requests due to rigid informational requirements. When faced with these challenges, PCPs reported using strategies such as telephone and e-mail contact with specialists with whom they had established relationships, as well as the use of an EMR-based referral innovation called "eConsults" as an alternative to a traditional referral. Primary-specialty communication is a continuing

  4. 1986 viewpoint of emergency preparedness in the upper midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkyn, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The recent Soviet emergency preparedness disaster has started a new round of interactions between utilities and civil governments regarding the adequacy of emergency preparedness around nuclear plants. The 1986 annual meeting of the cooperative produced several questions regarding the potentials of the plant and its impact on the public and the cooperative in the event of an off-normal situation. Emergency preparedness requires a real partnership between local civil authorities and the utility in a close spirit of cooperation with local law enforcement, which is frequently charged with the strongest burdens of emergency planning. It is more evident that the virtual veto power of local branches of government over emergency preparedness needs to be more fully recognized by utilities. Early notification and warning systems are coming under a tighter scrutiny as public perception of their fallibility increases. Another continuing problem with emergency preparedness has been the recognition that guarantees of reaching every individual, particularly in more hostile environments, can not be easily made. The lessons learned in nuclear planning indicate that this is an area too often not given a high enough threshold in the total spectrum of nuclear safety and which, from the utility standpoint, needs to be elevated to a higher threshold of importance

  5. Demographic characteristics associated with homelessness and risk among female and male veterans accessing VHA outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Fu, Xiaoying; Roberts, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    This study explored demographic influences on veterans' reports of homelessness or imminent risk of homelessness with a particular focus on gender. We analyzed data for a cohort of veterans who responded to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Administration (VHA) universal screener for homelessness and risk during a 3-month period. Multinomial mixed effects models-stratified by gender-predicted veterans' reports of homelessness or risk based on age, race, marital status, and receipt of VA compensation. The proportion of positive screens-homelessness or risk-was 2.7% for females and 1.7% for males. Women more likely to report being at risk of homelessness were aged 35 to 54 years, Black, and unmarried; those more likely to experience homelessness were Black and unmarried. Among male veterans, the greatest predictors of both homelessness and risk were Black race and unmarried status. Among both genders, receiving VA disability compensation was associated with lesser odds of being homeless or at risk. The findings describe the current population of veterans using VHA health care services who may benefit from homelessness prevention or intervention services, identify racial differences in housing stability, and distinguish subpopulations who may be in particular need of intervention. Interventions to address these needs are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A multivariate fall risk assessment model for VHA nursing homes using the minimum data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dustin D; Werner, Dennis C; Campbell, Robert R; Powell-Cope, Gail M; Nelson, Audrey L; Rubenstein, Laurence Z; Bulat, Tatjana; Spehar, Andrea M

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multivariate fall risk assessment model beyond the current fall Resident Assessment Protocol (RAP) triggers for nursing home residents using the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Retrospective, clustered secondary data analysis. National Veterans Health Administration (VHA) long-term care nursing homes (N = 136). The study population consisted of 6577 national VHA nursing home residents who had an annual assessment during FY 2005, identified from the MDS, as well as an earlier annual or admission assessment within a 1-year look-back period. A dichotomous multivariate model of nursing home residents coded with a fall on selected fall risk characteristics from the MDS, estimated with general estimation equations (GEE). There were 17 170 assessments corresponding to 6577 long-term care nursing home residents. The increased odds ratio (OR) of being classified as a faller relative to the omitted "dependent" category of activities of daily living (ADL) ranged from OR = 1.35 for "limited" ADL category up to OR = 1.57 for "extensive-2" ADL (P canes, walkers, or crutches, or the use of wheelchairs increases the odds of being a faller (OR = 1.17, P falls in long-term care settings. The model incorporated an ADL index and adjusted for case mix by including only long-term care nursing home residents. The study offers clinicians practical estimates by combining multiple univariate MDS elements in an empirically based, multivariate fall risk assessment model.

  7. Measurement-based management of mental health quality and access in VHA: SAIL mental health domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonne; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Kearney, Lisa K; Krahn, Dean D; Neuman, Matthew J; Schmidt, Eric M; Trafton, Jodie A

    2017-02-01

    We outline the development of a Mental Health Domain to track accessibility and quality of mental health care in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as part of a broad-based performance measurement system. This domain adds an important element to national performance improvement efforts by targeting regional and facility leadership and providing them a concise yet comprehensive measure to identify facilities facing challenges in their mental health programs. We present the conceptual framework and rationale behind measure selection and development. The Mental Health Domain covers three important aspects of mental health treatment: Population Coverage, Continuity of Care, and Experience of Care. Each component is a composite of existing and newly adapted measures with moderate to high internal consistency; components are statistically independent or moderately related. Development and dissemination of the Mental Health Domain involved a variety of approaches and benefited from close collaboration between local, regional, and national leadership and from coordination with existing quality-improvement initiatives. During the first year of use, facilities varied in the direction and extent of change. These patterns of change were generally consistent with qualitative information, providing support for the validity of the domain and its component measures. Measure maintenance remains an iterative process as the VHA mental health system and potential data resources continue to evolve. Lessons learned may be helpful to the broader mental health-provider community as mental health care consolidates and becomes increasingly integrated within healthcare systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Midwest Logging Firm Perspectives: Harvesting on Increasingly Parcelized Forestlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorna Allred

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Loggers play a critical role in the sustainable production of wood and paper products, and harvesting activities contribute to economic health and viability of many Upper Midwest communities in the United States. If the logging sector is unable to procure wood efficiently and economically from an increasingly parcelized land base, the competitive ability of the forest industry could be jeopardized. Little is known about the functions of the logging sector related to the forest resource land base on which they depend, and it is imperative to improve our understanding of this important part of the forest industry. The purpose of this study was to determine prospective attitudes about the future of the logging industry and how trends in forestland parcelization and harvesting mechanization are impacting the logging industry, especially as it relates to smaller tracts of land.

  9. The Ideological Foundations of Midwest Rural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    A relationship exists between agrarian thought and the practice of formal schooling in the rural Midwest. Three traditions have shaped agrarian thinking about democracy and its application to social institutions, especially education. Fundamentalism, localism, and pastoralism have combined to form the ideological base for rural resistance to…

  10. The Citrus transcription factor, CitERF13, regulates citric acid accumulation via a protein-protein interaction with the vacuolar proton pump, CitVHA-c4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-jia; Yin, Xue-ren; Xie, Xiu-lan; Allan, Andrew C; Ge, Hang; Shen, Shu-ling; Chen, Kun-song

    2016-02-03

    Organic acids are essential to fruit flavor. The vacuolar H(+) transporting adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in organic acid transport and accumulation. However, less is known of V-ATPase interacting proteins and their relationship with organic acid accumulation. The relationship between V-ATPase and citric acid was investigated, using the citrus tangerine varieties 'Ordinary Ponkan (OPK)' and an early maturing mutant 'Zaoshu Ponkan (ZPK)'. Five V-ATPase genes (CitVHA) were predicted as important to citric acid accumulation. Among the genes, CitVHA-c4 was observed, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, to interact at the protein level with an ethylene response factor, CitERF13. This was verified using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. A similar interaction was also observed between Arabidopsis AtERF017 (a CitERF13 homolog) and AtVHA-c4 (a CitVHA-c4 homolog). A synergistic effect on citric acid levels was observed between V-ATPase proteins and interacting ERFs when analyzed using transient over-expression in tobacco and Arabidopsis mutants. Furthermore, the transcript abundance of CitERF13 was concomitant with CitVHA-c4. CitERF13 or AtERF017 over-expression leads to significant citric acid accumulation. This accumulation was abolished in an AtVHA-c4 mutant background. ERF-VHA interactions appear to be involved in citric acid accumulation, which was observed in both citrus and Arabidopsis.

  11. BoB, a best-of-breed automated text de-identification system for VHA clinical documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández, Oscar; South, Brett R; Shen, Shuying; Friedlin, F Jeffrey; Samore, Matthew H; Meystre, Stéphane M

    2013-01-01

    De-identification allows faster and more collaborative clinical research while protecting patient confidentiality. Clinical narrative de-identification is a tedious process that can be alleviated by automated natural language processing methods. The goal of this research is the development of an automated text de-identification system for Veterans Health Administration (VHA) clinical documents. We devised a novel stepwise hybrid approach designed to improve the current strategies used for text de-identification. The proposed system is based on a previous study on the best de-identification methods for VHA documents. This best-of-breed automated clinical text de-identification system (aka BoB) tackles the problem as two separate tasks: (1) maximize patient confidentiality by redacting as much protected health information (PHI) as possible; and (2) leave de-identified documents in a usable state preserving as much clinical information as possible. We evaluated BoB with a manually annotated corpus of a variety of VHA clinical notes, as well as with the 2006 i2b2 de-identification challenge corpus. We present evaluations at the instance- and token-level, with detailed results for BoB's main components. Moreover, an existing text de-identification system was also included in our evaluation. BoB's design efficiently takes advantage of the methods implemented in its pipeline, resulting in high sensitivity values (especially for sensitive PHI categories) and a limited number of false positives. Our system successfully addressed VHA clinical document de-identification, and its hybrid stepwise design demonstrates robustness and efficiency, prioritizing patient confidentiality while leaving most clinical information intact.

  12. A social marketing approach to implementing evidence-based practice in VHA QUERI: the TIDES depression collaborative care model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Jeff; Hagigi, Fred; Parker, Louise E; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Kirchner, JoAnn E

    2009-09-28

    Collaborative care models for depression in primary care are effective and cost-effective, but difficult to spread to new sites. Translating Initiatives for Depression into Effective Solutions (TIDES) is an initiative to promote evidence-based collaborative care in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Social marketing applies marketing techniques to promote positive behavior change. Described in this paper, TIDES used a social marketing approach to foster national spread of collaborative care models. The approach relied on a sequential model of behavior change and explicit attention to audience segmentation. Segments included VHA national leadership, Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) regional leadership, facility managers, frontline providers, and veterans. TIDES communications, materials and messages targeted each segment, guided by an overall marketing plan. Depression collaborative care based on the TIDES model was adopted by VHA as part of the new Primary Care Mental Health Initiative and associated policies. It is currently in use in more than 50 primary care practices across the United States, and continues to spread, suggesting success for its social marketing-based dissemination strategy. Development, execution and evaluation of the TIDES marketing effort shows that social marketing is a promising approach for promoting implementation of evidence-based interventions in integrated healthcare systems.

  13. A social marketing approach to implementing evidence-based practice in VHA QUERI: the TIDES depression collaborative care model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Collaborative care models for depression in primary care are effective and cost-effective, but difficult to spread to new sites. Translating Initiatives for Depression into Effective Solutions (TIDES) is an initiative to promote evidence-based collaborative care in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Social marketing applies marketing techniques to promote positive behavior change. Described in this paper, TIDES used a social marketing approach to foster national spread of collaborative care models. TIDES social marketing approach The approach relied on a sequential model of behavior change and explicit attention to audience segmentation. Segments included VHA national leadership, Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) regional leadership, facility managers, frontline providers, and veterans. TIDES communications, materials and messages targeted each segment, guided by an overall marketing plan. Results Depression collaborative care based on the TIDES model was adopted by VHA as part of the new Primary Care Mental Health Initiative and associated policies. It is currently in use in more than 50 primary care practices across the United States, and continues to spread, suggesting success for its social marketing-based dissemination strategy. Discussion and conclusion Development, execution and evaluation of the TIDES marketing effort shows that social marketing is a promising approach for promoting implementation of evidence-based interventions in integrated healthcare systems. PMID:19785754

  14. Climatic and hydrologic aspects of the 2008 Midwest floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budikova, D.; Coleman, J.; Strope, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Between May and June 2008 the Midwest region of the United States (U.S.) experienced record flooding. The event was produced by distinct hydroclimatic conditions that included saturated antecedent soil moisture conditions and atmospheric circulation that guided moist air from the Gulf of Mexico into the area between late May and mid-June. The latter included a well-developed trough over the central/west U.S., a strong Great Plains Low Level Jet (GPLLJ), and unseasonably strong westerlies that promoted upper level divergence in regions of positive vorticity advection. The flooding coincided with a strongly negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation linked to the strength of the GPLLJ. The atmospheric flow contributed to flooding within three river basins across nine states. Iowa, southern Wisconsin, and central Indiana located within the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) and the Wabash River Basin were most impacted and also recorded the greatest anomalies in rainfall. Record rainfall, persistent multi-day precipitation events, high frequency of localized high-intensity rainfall events all contributed to the severity of the flooding. Conditions peaked between May 21 and June 13 when rain fell somewhere within the region each day. River discharge rates reached record levels in June at many locations; return periods throughout Iowa, southern Wisconsin and in central Indiana were estimated to exceed 100 years, and often times 200 years. Record river stage levels were observed during this time in similar areas. Conditions began to recover into July and August. The timing of occurrence of the precipitation and hydrological anomalies towards late spring and into early summer in the Midwest was rather unusual. The 2008 flood event occurred 15 years after the infamous 1993 event. The importance of its occurrence is underscored by the observed increasing trends in extreme and flood-related precipitation characteristics during the 20th century and the anticipated

  15. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  16. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high T c superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors

  17. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saricks, Christoper [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1997-12-19

    This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.

  18. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master`s Degrees and 9 Doctor`s of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors.

  19. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkert, Wynn; Kumar, Arvind; Becker, Bryan; Schwinke, Victor; Gonzalez, Angel; McGregor, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  20. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor

    2010-12-08

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  1. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master's Degrees and 9 Doctor's of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors

  2. CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC (collectively, CITGO) have agreed to pay a $1,955,000 civil penalty, perform environmental projects totaling more than $2 million, and spend an estimated $42 million in injunctive relief to resolve.

  3. Clinical Policy Recommendations from the VHA State-of-the-Art Conference on Non-Pharmacological Approaches to Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligler, Benjamin; Bair, Matthew J; Banerjea, Ranjana; DeBar, Lynn; Ezeji-Okoye, Stephen; Lisi, Anthony; Murphy, Jennifer L; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2018-05-01

    As a large national healthcare system, Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is ideally suited to build on its work to date and develop a safe, evidence-based, and comprehensive approach to the care of chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions that de-emphasizes opioid use and emphasizes non-pharmacological strategies. The VHA Office of Health Services Research and Development (HSR&D) held a state-of-the-art (SOTA) conference titled "Non-pharmacological Approaches to Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Management" in November 2016. Goals of the conference were (1) to establish consensus on the current state of evidence regarding non-pharmacological approaches to chronic musculoskeletal pain to inform VHA policy in this area and (2) to begin to identify priorities for the future VHA research agenda. Workgroups were established and asked to reach consensus recommendations on clinical and research priorities for the following treatment strategies: psychological/behavioral therapies, exercise/movement therapies, manual therapies, and models for delivering multimodal pain care. Participants in the SOTA identified nine non-pharmacological therapies with sufficient evidence to be implemented across the VHA system as part of pain care. Participants further recommended that effective integration of these non-pharmacological approaches across the VHA and especially into VHA primary care, pain care, and mental health settings should be a priority, and that these treatments should be offered early in the course of pain treatment and delivered in a team-based, multimodal treatment setting concurrently with active self-care and self-management approaches. In addition, we recommend that VHA leadership and policy makers systematically address the barriers to implementation of these approaches by expanding opportunities for clinician and veteran education on the effectiveness of these strategies; supporting and funding further research to determine optimal dosage, duration, sequencing

  4. Midwest Lake uranium discovery, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, F.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Midwest Lake uranium deposit in Saskatchewan came some ten years after the start of exploration. The original mining rights were acquired on the basis of regional published, geology and proximity to the earlier discovery. Aerial radiometric surveys led to the location of a train of radioactive, glacially transported sandstone boulders and cobbles. The source of these mineralized erratics did not outcrop, and an extensive series of magnetic, electromagnetic, seismic and gravity surveys was carried out in an unsuccessful attempt to identify the source location. These surveys were followed by several programmes of diamond drilling, geochemical surveys and Pleistocene geological studies. None of these programmes or surveys encountered bedrock mineralization. When information about ore controls in the Athabasca Basin became available, a limited programme of three 300-m wildcat diamond-drill holes was proposed. The second of these holes cut weak radioactivity in a poorly cored intersection. This intersection was at an unconformity at a depth of 200 m. The programme terminated prematurely with early melting of lake ice. The first hole in the subsequent winter's follow-up drilling intersected uranium values in excess of 8%. (author)

  5. 75 FR 51996 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Midwest ISO Meetings August 16, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings...., St. Paul, MN) [cir] September 15 [cir] October 20 [cir] November 17 [cir] December 1 Midwest ISO...

  6. 76 FR 4104 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Midwest ISO Meetings January 13, 2011. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings...] September 14 [cir] October 19 [cir] November 16 [cir] December 6 Midwest ISO Informational Forum (3 p.m.-5 p...

  7. 75 FR 3228 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Midwest ISO Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Midwest ISO Meetings January 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following Midwest ISO-related meetings...] November 17 [cir] December 1 Midwest ISO Informational Forum (3 p.m.-5 p.m., ET) [cir] January 19 [cir...

  8. Site development in the Central Midwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Illinois and Kentucky, the two members of the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, are well along in fulfilling their responsibility to provide new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal capacity, which has been delegated to states and regions by federal law. The host state for facilities under the compact will be Illinois, and thus the focus of this paper is on Illinois' siting process. Illinois has both the statutory authority for LLW management and a cabinet-level agency, the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), which has the responsibility for implementing the state management act. Based on activities to date, the Central Midwest Region expects to meet the milestones established by the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Illinois, however, cannot take further progress toward managing and disposing of our LLW for granted. IDNS and the Central Midwest Compact Commission (CMCC) must continue vigorously to press ahead to assure timely development of new disposal capacity. This paper provides background information on (1) the laws under which new facilities will be established in the Central Midwest Region, (2) the activities of IDNS and CMCC, and (3) planned activities by both IDNS and the CMCC

  9. Funding Models of Community Colleges in 10 Midwest States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenton, Carol Piper; Schuh, John H.; Huba, Mary E.; Shelley, Mack C., II

    2004-01-01

    The extent to which community colleges in 10 Midwest states relied on 12 current funds revenue sources between 1990 and 2000 is presented in this study. Four models of funding were identified and evaluated. All models generated revenue in excess of the change in the Higher Education Price Index (HEPI), a measure of inflation over the period…

  10. Geographic Constructions of Race: The Midwest Asian American Students Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Poon, OiYan A.; Manzano, Lester J.; Sihite, Ester U.

    2017-01-01

    This case study was focused on the establishment of the Midwest Asian American Students Union (MAASU) as a racial project reflecting students' articulations of a regional, panethnic identity in response to racism. A critical race theory lens was used to analyze interviews with 13 MAASU founders. Findings highlight the role of social context (in…

  11. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  12. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential

  13. 75 FR 3225 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance at Organization of MISO States and Midwest ISO Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Organization of MISO States and Midwest ISO Meetings January 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...: Midwest ISO Headquarters, 720 City Center Drive, Carmel, IN 46032. Except as otherwise noted above, the... Operator, Inc. Docket No. ER08-15, Midwest ISO Transmission Owners Docket No. ER08-55, Midwest Independent...

  14. Diversity in growth and expression pattern of PoHKT1 and PoVHA transporter genes under NaCl stress in Portulaca oleracea taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Bakatoushi R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and the expression of two transporter genes; PoHKT1 and PoVHA transcripts in root and shoot tissues were studied under salt stress of three Portulaca oleracea s.l. taxa. The study showed no significant differences in ratios between root lengths in saline and non-saline treatments of the three taxa, which was correlated with a clear down-regulation of the PoHKT1 transcripts in the root after 150mM NaCl. All measured growth parameters except root length increased in P. oleraceae, decreased in P. granulatostellulata and remain unchanged after 100mM NaCl in P. nitida compared to control under saline conditions. The result was consistent with the type of taxon which had significant effect on the shoot length, number of leaves and dry weight (P< 0.05. All measured growth parameters except root length showed a significant negative correlation with the shoot fold change of PoHKT1 transcripts (r = -0.607, -0.693 and -0.657 respectively. The regulation of PoVHA in root and shoot tissues in the three taxa are significantly different. Under salt stress, both decreased uptake of Na+ into the cytosol by decreasing the expression of PoHKT1 and increased vascular compartmentalization ability of Na+ by inducing the expression of PoVHA seem to work more efficiently in P. oleraceae and P. nitida than in P. granulato-stellulata.

  15. Molecular characterization, light-dependent expression, and cellular localization of a host vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA) subunit A in the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, indicate the involvement of the host VHA in the uptake of inorganic carbon and its supply to the symbiotic zooxanthellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K; Hiong, Kum C; Lim, Leon J Y; Choo, Celine Y L; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Neo, Mei L; Chew, Shit F

    2018-06-15

    The giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, represents a clam-zooxanthellae association. In light, the host clam and the symbiotic zooxanthellae conduct light-enhanced calcification and photosynthesis, respectively. We had cloned the cDNA coding sequence of a Vacuolar-type Proton ATPase (VHA) subunit A, ATP6V1A, from T. squamosa, whereby the VHA is an electrogenic transporter that actively 'pumps' H + out of the cell. The ATP6V1A of T. squamosa comprised 1866 bp, encoding a protein of 622 amino acids and 69.9 kDa, and had a host-origin. Its gene expression was strong in the ctenidium and the colorful outer mantle, but weak in the whitish inner mantle, corroborating a previous proposition that VHA might have a trivial role in light-enhanced calcification. Light exposure led to significant increases in the gene and protein expression levels of ATP6V1A/ATP6V1A in the ctenidium and the outer mantle. In the ctenidium, the ATP6V1A was localized in the apical epithelia of the filaments and tertiary water channels, indicating that the VHA could participate in the increased excretion of H + produced during light-enhanced calcification. Additionally, the excreted H + would augment HCO 3 - dehydration in the external medium and facilitate the uptake of CO 2 by the ctenidium during insolation. In the outer mantle, the ATP6V1A was detected in intracellular vesicles in a type of cells, presumably iridocytes, surrounding the zooxanthellal tubules, and in the apical epithelium of zooxanthellal tubules. Hence, the host VHA could participate in the transfer of inorganic carbon from the hemolymph to the luminal fluid of the tubules by increasing the supply of H + for the dehydration of HCO 3 - to CO 2 during insolation to benefit the photosynthesizing zooxanthellae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Outbreak of caprine abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.

  17. The evaporation from ponds in the French Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AL DOMANY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research shows the results of a study about evaporation in five ponds in the Midwest of France. To realize this study we used climate data from the meteorological station of the Limoges-Bellegarde airport and the data of a weather station installed by us near one of the ponds. We used eight different methods to calculate the evaporation rate and we modified the Penman-Monteith method by replacing the air temperature by water temperature. To understand the role of ponds in water loss through evaporation, we proposed a hypothesis that says : if the pond did not exist, what results would we get? Based on this hypothesis we calculated the potential evapotranspiration rate taking into account the percentage of interception by vegetation. In conclusion, this study indicates that the ponds in the French Midwest present a gain of water

  18. Selling from Ontario into the U.S. midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    2002-01-01

    The market structure of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) for the electric power grid was described with reference to physical bilateral markets, multi-control areas, and MISO services such as security coordination, congestion management, billing, generator interconnections, tariff administration, energy imbalance, market monitoring, and electronic scheduling. The drivers impacting MISO development include MISO-PJM-SPP common market initiative, the FERC Standard Market Design initiative, the integration of alliance companies with MISO, and the division of functional responsibilities between RTOs and ITCs. The characteristics of the Michigan market were described, along with participation in the midwest (Ohio and Michigan) wholesale and retail markets. It was noted that in order for Ontario to sell to the midwest, the Ontario market design would need a successful export bid each hour to get power out of the province. Sales of ancillary services from Ontario-based generation are not permitted in the initial Ontario market design. Energy and transmission is currently bundled in Ontario tariffs. 1 fig

  19. Selling from Ontario into the U.S. midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The market structure of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) for the electric power grid was described with reference to physical bilateral markets, multi-control areas, and MISO services such as security coordination, congestion management, billing, generator interconnections, tariff administration, energy imbalance, market monitoring, and electronic scheduling. The drivers impacting MISO development include MISO-PJM-SPP common market initiative, the FERC Standard Market Design initiative, the integration of alliance companies with MISO, and the division of functional responsibilities between RTOs and ITCs. The characteristics of the Michigan market were described, along with participation in the midwest (Ohio and Michigan) wholesale and retail markets. It was noted that in order for Ontario to sell to the midwest, the Ontario market design would need a successful export bid each hour to get power out of the province. Sales of ancillary services from Ontario-based generation are not permitted in the initial Ontario market design. Energy and transmission is currently bundled in Ontario tariffs. 1 fig.

  20. Challenges with modifications of the McClean Lake mill to process midwest ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.T.; Backham, L.

    2010-01-01

    Midwest is a unique uranium deposit with exceptionally high arsenic content. The ore body is located 17 km west of the McClean Lake operation. The McClean Lake mill will be modified to process Midwest ore and handle solid wastes from the Midwest water treatment plant. This paper describes the modifications required of the McClean Lake mill, process challenges associated with treatment of the arsenic, and the possibility of recovering nickel and cobalt as a by-product. It also reviews the complexity in the design of the Midwest water treatment facility which incorporates reverse osmosis technology with conventional physical-chemical water treatment. (author)

  1. Selecting the recommended waste management system for the midwest compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Robertson, B.C.; Drobny, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    One of the early important steps in the evolution of a low-level waste Compact is the development of a Regional Management Plan. Part of the Regional Management Plan is a description of the waste management system that indicates what kinds of facilities that will be available within the compact's region. The facilities in the waste management system can include those for storage, treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The Regional Management Plan also describes the number of facilities that will be operated simultaneously. This paper outlines the development of the recommended waste management system for the Midwest Compact. It describes the way a data base on low-level radioactive waste from the Compact was collected and placed into a computerized data base management system, and how that data base was subsequently used to analyze various options for treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste within the Midwest Compact. The paper indicates the thought process that led to the definition of four recommended waste management systems. Six methods for reducing the volume of waste to be disposed of in the Midwest Compact were considered. Major attention was focused on the use of regional compaction or incineration facilities. Seven disposal technologies, all different from the shallow land burial currently practiced, were also considered for the waste management system. After evaluating the options available, the Compact Commissioners recommended four waste disposal technologies--above-ground vaults, below-ground vaults, concrete canisters placed above ground, and concrete canisters placed below ground--to the host state that will be chosen in 1987. The Commissioners did not recommend use of a regional waste treatment facility

  2. The spiritual care meanings of adults residing in the midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, S C

    2001-07-01

    Only limited nursing knowledge exists as theoretical guidance for nurses in providing spiritual care. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, the purpose of this ethnonursing research study was to discover the embedded spiritual care meanings, expressions, lived experiences, and practices of adults residing in the Midwest and their perceptions of spiritual nursing care. Data were collected through interviews of 6 key and 12 general informants. Five universal spiritual themes were supported by the findings. Culture care modes were used to explicate spiritual knowledge that can be integrated into nursing practice.

  3. Ethical issues in purchasing: a field study of Midwest hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, K; Motwani, J

    1995-01-01

    A large sum of money is spent annually by salespeople on gifts and favors for purchasing executives. The provision of gifts and favors to buyers remains a common practice despite the fact that it often leads to ethical conflicts for purchasing executives, sales managers, and salespeople. This paper investigates the perceptions of 51 purchasing executives of midwest hospitals regarding their behavior towards certain buying practices, the favors offered by vendors, favors actually accepted, as well as purchasers' discomfort and repayment levels regarding indebtedness. Based on the data analysis, this paper provides conclusions and directions for future research.

  4. MIDWEST PROGRAM ON AIRBORNE TELEVISION INSTRUCTION -- A REGIONAL EXPLORATION IN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IVEY, JOHN E.; AND OTHERS

    STARTING IN FEBRUARY 1961, THE MIDWEST PROGRAM ON AIRBORNE TELEVISION INSTRUCTION (MPATI) TRANSMITTED COURSES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES, SCIENCE, ARITHMETIC, ART, THE HUMANITIES, MUSIC, SOCIAL STUDIES, AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS TO 18 SCHOOLS IN THE MIDWEST. THE AIRBORNE TELECAST OPERATED OVER NORTH CENTRAL INDIANA AND TRANSMITTED COURSES OVER AN AREA…

  5. Environmental and biological controls of urban tree transpiration in the Upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E. B.; McFadden, J.; Montgomery, R.

    2009-12-01

    Urban trees provide a variety of ecosystem services to urban and suburban areas, including carbon uptake, climate amelioration, energy reduction, and stormwater management. Tree transpiration, in particular, modifies urban water budgets by providing an alternative pathway for water after rain events. The relative importance of environmental and biological controls on transpiration are poorly understood in urban areas, yet these controls are important for quantifying and scaling up the ecosystem services that urban trees provide at landscape and regional scales and predicting how urban ecosystems will respond to climate changes. The objectives of our study were to quantify the annual cycle of tree transpiration in an urban ecosystem and to determine how different urban tree species and plant functional types respond to environmental drivers. We continuously measured whole-tree transpiration using thermal dissipation sap flow at four urban forest stands that were broadly representative of the species composition and tree sizes found in a suburban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota. A total of 40 trees, representing different species, plant functional types, successional stages, and xylem anatomy, were sampled throughout the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons (April-November). At each site we monitored soil moisture, air temperature, and relative humidity continuously, and we measured leaf area index weekly. Urban tree transpiration was strongly correlated with diurnal changes in vapor pressure deficit and photosynthetically active radiation and with seasonal changes in leaf area index. We found that plant functional type better explained species differences in transpiration per canopy area than either successional stage or xylem anatomy, largely due to differences in canopy structure between conifer and broad-leaf deciduous trees. We also observed inter-annual differences in transpiration rates due to a mid-season drought and longer growing season in 2007, compared with the cooler, wetter conditions in 2008. These results were scaled to estimate the relative contribution of each tree type at the scale of a suburban landscape. The findings of this study have implications for understanding the role of trees in managing urban water budgets and predicting the impacts of climate change on urban ecosystem services.

  6. Change in Reported Lyme Disease Incidence in the Northeast and Upper Midwest, 1991-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how reported Lyme disease incidence has changed by state since 1991, based on the number of new cases per 100,000 people. The total change has...

  7. Change in Reported Lyme Disease Incidence in the Northeast and Upper Midwest, 1991-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This indicator shows how reported Lyme disease incidence has changed by state since 1991, based on the number of new cases per 100,000 people. The total change has been estimated from the average annual rate of change in each state. This map is limited to the 14 states where Lyme disease is most common, where annual rates are consistently above 10 cases per 100,000. Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island had too much year-to-year variation in reporting practices to allow trend calculation. For more information: www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators

  8. NACP MCI: CO2 Emissions Inventory, Upper Midwest Region, USA., 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a bottom-up CO2 emissions inventory for the mid-continent region of the United States for the year 2007. The study was undertaken as...

  9. NACP MCI: CO2 Emissions Inventory, Upper Midwest Region, USA., 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a bottom-up CO2 emissions inventory for the mid-continent region of the United States for the year 2007. The study was undertaken as part of...

  10. 75 FR 39039 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment for the Upper Midwest Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Bill Hayman, Facility Mechanical Engineer... effluent. Repair fence and gates. Repair eroded bank outside of fence. Restore roadways within fence. The...

  11. Assessment of multimodal freight bottlenecks and alleviation strategies for upper Midwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The freight that passes through the Mississippi Valley Region is high volume and has a substantial impact on the economy of the : region. According to the BTS-sponsored Commodity Flow Survey, trucks carried almost 2.5 billion tons of freight across t...

  12. An operations-partnered evaluation of care redesign for high-risk patients in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA): Study protocol for the PACT Intensive Management (PIM) randomized quality improvement evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Evelyn T; Zulman, Donna M; Asch, Steven M; Stockdale, Susan E; Yoon, Jean; Ong, Michael K; Lee, Martin; Simon, Alissa; Atkins, David; Schectman, Gordon; Kirsh, Susan R; Rubenstein, Lisa V

    2018-06-01

    Patient-centered medical homes have made great strides providing comprehensive care for patients with chronic conditions, but may not provide sufficient support for patients at highest risk for acute care use. To address this, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) initiated a five-site demonstration project to evaluate the effectiveness of augmenting the VA's Patient Aligned Care Team (PACT) medical home with PACT Intensive Management (PIM) teams for Veterans at highest risk for hospitalization. Researchers partnered with VHA leadership to design a mixed-methods prospective multi-site evaluation that met leadership's desire for a rigorous evaluation conducted as quality improvement rather than research. We conducted a randomized QI evaluation and assigned high-risk patients to participate in PIM and compared them with high-risk Veterans receiving usual care through PACT. The summative evaluation examines whether PIM: 1) decreases VHA emergency department and hospital use; 2) increases satisfaction with VHA care; 3) decreases provider burnout; and 4) generates positive returns on investment. The formative evaluation aims to support improved care for high-risk patients at demonstration sites and to inform future initiatives for high-risk patients. The evaluation was reviewed by representatives from the VHA Office of Research and Development and the Office of Research Oversight and met criteria for quality improvement. VHA aims to function as a learning organization by rapidly implementing and rigorously testing QI innovations prior to final program or policy development. We observed challenges and opportunities in designing an evaluation consistent with QI standards and operations priorities, while also maintaining scientific rigor. This trial was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on April 3, 2017: NCT03100526. Protocol v1, FY14-17. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 60457 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning... of comments pertaining to the development of the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat..., intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) under the...

  14. Food Security and Diet Among American Indians in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Kelly; Hale, Jason; Chase, Brian; Clark, Lauren; He, Jianghua; Daley, Christine M

    2018-04-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine levels of food security among American Indians (AI) living in the Midwest and possible correlations between food security levels and various health outcomes, diet, and demographic variables. This study used a cross-sectional design to determine health behaviors among AI. Participants (n = 362) were recruited by AI staff through various cultural community events in the Midwest, such as powwows and health fairs. Inclusion criteria included the following: age 18 years or older, self-identify as an AI, and willing to participate in the survey. Of all participants, 210 (58%) had either low or very low food security, with 96 in the very low category (26.5%). Participants with very low food security tended to have significantly more chronic conditions. Additional significant differences for very low food security existed by demographic variables, including having no insurance (p security levels and the consumption of fast food within the past week (p value = 0.0420), though no differences were found in fruit and vegetable consumption. AI in our sample had higher levels of food insecurity than those reported in the literature for other racial/ethnic groups. AI and non-Native health professionals should be aware of the gravity of food insecurity and the impact it has on overall health. Additional research is needed to determine specific aspects of food insecurity affecting different Native communities to develop appropriate interventions.

  15. The business of optimism. Wisconsin's Midwest Renewable Energy Fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on the Wisconsin Midwest Renewable Energy Fair. The renewable energy business is said to be based on sound technology and sustainable development and is being largely embraced with enthusiasm. However, the keynote speaker, James Kunstler, warned that the transition from fossil fuels to renewables will be complicated and messy. The report mentions the views of several speakers but not all shared Kunstler's views. There were more than 100 workshops at the fair. Although big business was well represented, there were also home-made devices on show including a motorcycle powered by electricity. The importance of the fair is probably best judged by the way in which it generates enthusiasm for preserving the planet through the sustainable development of environmentally-friendly technology. (author)

  16. Efficiency in Midwest US corn ethanol plants: A plant survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Richard K.; Fretes, Nickolas F.; Sesmero, Juan Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Continuation of policy support for the US corn ethanol industry is being debated due to doubts about the greenhouse gas effects of the industry and the effects of the industry on food prices. Yet there is no publicly available data on the economic and technical performance of the current generation of plants, which constitute the overwhelming majority of the industry. This study helps to fill that gap. Seven recently constructed ethanol plants in seven Midwest US states provided details on input requirements and operating costs during 2006 and 2007. Results show that technical performance is substantially better than current estimates available in the literature. Average net operating returns exceeded capital costs during the survey period, but price changes by mid-2008 reduced these margins to near zero. While the economic performance of the industry is currently viable, this study demonstrates that it can be threatened by current price trends, and certainly would be in the absence of current subsidies

  17. Development of a socketed foundation for the Midwest Weak Post (MWP) v1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A socketed foundation was designed and evaluated for use with the Midwest Weak Post (MWP), Version 1. : Dynamic component testing was conducted on five different design configurations with varying embedment : depths, steel reinforcement, and soil con...

  18. Assessment of waste characteristics and waste management practices for the Midwest Compact Region: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report has described how the Midwest Compact region's low-level radioactive waste characteristics were determined and has provided assessments of several key characteristics of the waste. Sources of the data used and comments on the validity and uncertainty of both the raw information and the region-wide estimates that have been generated are indicated. The contents and organization of the computerized Midwest Data Base are also presented. This data base is a resource for rational development of the Midwest Compact's Regional Management Plan. The value of the level of detail contained in Midwest Data Base is demonstrated in its use to analyze the viability of LLW treatment alternatives in other aspects of the regional management plan (RAE86). 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  19. Organizational Contexts and Texts: The Redesign of the Midwest Bell Telephone Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah

    1987-01-01

    Offers a retrospective view of organizational factors affecting the redesign of the Midwest Bell Telephone Bill. Shows how financial considerations, organizational time frame, and employee training and experience influenced the bill's development process. (MM)

  20. A data library management system for midwest FreightView and its data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Midwest FreightView (MWFV) and its associated data repository is part of a large multifaceted : effort to promote regional economic development throughout the Great Lakes : system. The main objective for the system is to promote sustainable maritime ...

  1. Evaluation and analysis of Texas biofuel supply chains originating in the United States Midwest and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This 2009 study, funded by the Southwest Region University Transportation Center, investigates : competing ethanol supply chains terminating in the State of Texas. Midwest corn ethanol and : Brazilian sugarcane ethanol constitute two sources of the b...

  2. The brazilian midwest and its economic transformations from 1970 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Marcos Bittar; Pastre, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The Midwest is the Brazilian region comprising the Central Highlands in the Country. It is the second least populated region of Brazil. Its vegetation is predominantly composed of the Cerrado ecosystem and the region holds important fresh water reserve and focuses the headwaters of rivers belonging to the main river basins of South America. Politically, the Midwest is the seat of the national political administrative decisions, housing the Federal District. Economically, after the decline of ...

  3. The impact of expanding Canadian gas imports in the U.S. Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.

    2000-01-01

    The new competitive natural gas market in the U. S. Midwest is surveyed from an interstate pipeline point of view, taking into account Canadian gas imports, increase in Rocky Mountain imports competing with Canadian imports, the flow dynamics in the Midwest market, supply basin production trends, the infrastructure improvements in local distribution companies, improvements in storage facilities, and the growing demand for natural gas-fired generation

  4. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

    2008-05-27

    The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than

  5. Nutrient Concentrations and Stable Isotopes of Runoff from a Midwest Tile-Drained Corn Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, B. P.; Woo, D.; Li, J.; Michalski, G. M.; Kumar, P.; Conroy, J. L.; Keefer, D. A.; Keefer, L. L.; Hodson, T. O.

    2017-12-01

    Tile drains are a common crop drainage device used in Midwest agroecosystems. While efficient at drainage, the tiles provide a quick path for nutrient runoff, reducing the time available for microbes to use nutrients (e.g., NO3- and PO43-) and reduce export to riverine systems. Thus, understanding the effects of tile drains on nutrient runoff is critical to achieve nutrient reduction goals. Here we present isotopic and concentration data collected from tile drain runoff of a corn field located near Monticello, IL. Tile flow samples were measured for anion concentrations and stable isotopes of H2O and NO3-, while precipitation was measured for dual isotopes of H2O. Results demonstrate early tile flow from rain events have a low Cl- concentration (60% contribution) in the beginning of the hydrograph. As flow continues H2O isotopic values reflect pre-event water (ground and soil water), and Cl- concentrations increase representing a greater influence by matrix flow (60-90% contribution). Nitrate concentrations change dramatically, especially during the growing season, and do not follow a similar trend as the conservative Cl-, often decreasing days before, which represents missing nitrate in the upper surface portion of the soil. Nitrate isotopic data shows significant changes in 15N (4‰) and 18O (4‰) during individual hydrological events, representing that in addition to plant uptake and leaching, considerate NO3- is lost through denitrification. It is notable, that throughout the season d15N and d18O of nitrate change significantly representing that seasonally, substantial denitrification occurs.

  6. Threatened and endangered fish and wildlife of the midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, D.W.; Robeck, K.E.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains information of federally-listed endangered and/or threatened fish and wildlife occurring in the midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The information was compiled as a support document for the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) project sponsored by the Regional Assessments Division of the Office of Technology Impacts within the Department of Energy. The information on midwestern endangered species distribution, habitats, and reasons for population decline included in this document are designed to help assess the potential for adverse impacts if energy activities are sited within the general range of an endangered species. It is hoped that this document will thereby enhance the reliability of one portion of energy-related assessments performed in the Midwest. This report considers only those species listed prior to October 1979 as endangered and/or threatened in the federal endangered species list published in the Federal Register and that have been known to occur in the region in the last 20 years.

  7. Midwest Joint Venture high-grade uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Midwest Joint Venture (MJV) owns a high-grade uranium deposit in northern Saskatchewan. The deposit is located too deep below surface to be mined economically by open pit methods, and as a consequence, present plans are that it will be mined by underground methods. High-grade uranium ore of the type at MJV, encased in weak, highly altered ground and with radon-rich water inflows, has not before been mined by underground methods. The test mining phase of the project, completed in 1989, had three objectives: To evaluate radiation protection requirements associated with the handling of large quantities of radon-rich water and mining high-grade uranium ore in an underground environment; to investigate the quantity and quality of water inflows into the mine; and, to investigate ground conditions in and around the ore zone as an aid in determining the production mining method to be used. With information gained from the test mining project, a mining method for the production mine has been devised. Level plans have been drawn up, ventilation system designed, pumping arrangements made and methods of ore handling considered. All this is to be done in a manner that will be safe for those doing the work underground. Some of the mining methods planned are felt to be unique in that they are designed to cope with mining problems not known to have been encountered before. New problems underground have required new methods to handle them. Remote drilling, blasting, mucking and backfilling form the basis of the planned mining method

  8. A Research Agenda for Advancing Non-pharmacological Management of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Findings from a VHA State-of-the-art Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William C; DeBar, Lynn L; Heapy, Alicia A; Higgins, Diana; Krein, Sarah L; Lisi, Anthony; Makris, Una E; Allen, Kelli D

    2018-05-01

    Chronic pain is widely prevalent among Veterans and can have serious negative consequences for functional status and quality of life among other domains. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) convened a state-of-the-art (SOTA) conference to develop research priorities for advancing the science and clinical practice of non-pharmacological management of chronic musculoskeletal pain. In this perspective article, we present the methods and consensus recommendations for research priorities emanating from the SOTA. In the months leading up to the SOTA, a core group of researchers defined four areas of focus: psychological/behavioral therapies; exercise/movement therapies; manual therapies; and models for delivering multi-modal pain care and divided into workgroups. Each workgroup, in their respective areas of focus, identified seminal studies capturing the state of the evidence. Herein, we present consensus recommendations ranging from efficacy to effectiveness to implementation/dissemination research depending on the state of the evidence as assessed by participants, including commentary on common elements across workgroups and future areas of innovation in study design, measurement, and outcome ascertainment.

  9. Methodologies Used by Midwest Region States for Studying Teacher Supply and Demand. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-080

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, James J.; Wan, Yinmei; Gossin-Wilson, Will

    2009-01-01

    This report describes how state education agencies in the Midwest Region monitor teacher supply, demand, and shortage; details why they monitor these data; and offers estimates of the monetary costs incurred in performing such studies. This study responds to a request from state education agencies in the Midwest Region (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,…

  10. 77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning... our planning partners, intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation... decommissioning of wind energy facilities within all or portions of the eight-State planning area. Activities...

  11. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including... Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject worker group includes on-site leased workers...

  12. Data-base system for northern Midwest regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, A.L.; Mandle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a study of the Cambrian and Ordovician aquifer system of the northern Midwest as part of a national series of Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis (RASA). An integral part of this study will be a simulation of the ground-water flow regime using the Geological Survey's three-dimensional finite-difference model. The first step in the modeling effort is the design and development of a systematic set of processes to facilitate the collection, evaluation, manipulation, and use of large quantities of information. A computerized data-base system to accomplish these goals has been completed for the northern Midwest RASA.

  13. Listening to rural Hispanic immigrants in the Midwest: a community-based participatory assessment of major barriers to health care access and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sergio; Garces, D Marcela; Peters, Karen E; Mueller, Benjamin C

    2008-05-01

    Hispanic immigrants are increasingly residing in rural communities, including in the midwestern United States. Limitations in the ability of rural Hispanics to access and utilize health care contribute to patterns of poor health and health disparity. A conceptual model of "vulnerability" guides this community-based participatory assessment project designed to explore rural Hispanics' perceived barriers to accessing and utilizing health care. Findings from a series of 19 focus groups with 181 participants from three communities in the upper Midwest identified perceived barriers at the individual and health care system levels. The most commonly perceived barriers were the lack of and limitations in health insurance coverage, high costs of health care services, communication issues involving patients and providers, legal status/discrimination, and transportation concerns. Findings imply that these barriers could be addressed using multiple educational and health service delivery policy-related strategies that consider the vulnerable nature of this growing population.

  14. The Big Squeeze on Tax Revenues for the Public Schools: The Midwest in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    Potential revenue prospects for the public schools in the Midwest basically depend on the future outlook for the midwestern economy as a whole. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis is undertaken of the midwestern economy and tax base, and then of trends in educational spending. Topics include: (1) economic growth and taxation systems; (2)…

  15. Factors Affecting the Job Satisfaction of Latino/a Immigrants in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Corinne; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the job satisfaction of 253 Latino/a newcomers in three rural communities in the Midwest. Specifically, the authors explored the effects of ethnic identity, Anglo acculturation, Latino/a acculturation, perceptions of the community (social relations, discrimination/racism, and language pressures), job tenure, work hours, and…

  16. Adaptation resources for agriculture: Responding to climate variability and change in the midwest and northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Daniel D. Dostie; Michael A. Wilson; Michael J. Kucera; R. Howard Skinner; Jerry L. Hatfield; David Hollinger; Christopher W. Swanston

    2016-01-01

    Changes in climate and extreme weather are already increasing challenges for agriculture nationally and globally, and many of these impacts will continue into the future. This technical bulletin contains information and resources designed to help agricultural producers, service providers, and educators in the Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States integrate...

  17. NOAA predicts moderate flood potential in Midwest, elevated risk of ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    March 20, 2014 U.S. Spring Flood Risk Map for 2014. U.S. Spring Flood Risk Map for 2014. (Credit: NOAA moderate flood potential in Midwest, elevated risk of ice jams; California and Southwest stuck with drought minor or moderate risk of exceeding flood levels this spring with the highest threat in the southern

  18. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  19. The Year in Forestry State and Private Forestry in the Northeast and Midwest Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

    2006-01-01

    The geographic region we call the Northeast and Midwest stretches from Maine to Minnesota, south to Missouri, and east to Maryland and the District of Columbia. Nearly half of the Nation's population lives here on slightly less than 20 percent of the Nation's land area. Representing one of the largest concentrations of privately owned forests in the world,...

  20. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  1. 77 FR 24950 - Midwest Independent Transmission, System Operator, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Conference. The Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) and/or Potomac Economics, Inc... that is less than 50 percent of the applicable Reference Level. Provide a justification for this... committed? Please explain. b. Can units committed based on economics in the SCUC and SCED processes be...

  2. Low-level radioactive waste in the Midwest: an economic analysis of selected management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Possible economic scenarios for disposal of low-level radioactive waste generated in the Midwest are presented. Relative waste disposal site costs are estimated for each state separately, and for 5-state, 13-state, and 16-state regions. Costs for publicly and privately owned and operated sites are estimated as are incineration and transportation costs

  3. Exploring the Special Education versus Regular Education Decisions of Future Teachers in the Rural Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSutter, Keri L.; Lemire, Steven Dale

    2016-01-01

    Persistent shortages of special education teachers, particularly in rural areas, exist across the country. This study assessed the openness of teacher candidates enrolled in an introductory education course at two rural Midwest universities to a special education career path. Survey findings confirmed that work or volunteer experience involving…

  4. Vulnerability of grain crops and croplands in the Midwest to climatic variability and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Gylcine max (L.) Merr.) are the dominant grain crops across the Midwest and are grown on 75% of the arable land with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.) small but economically important crops. Historically there have been variations in annual yiel...

  5. Status of neotropical migrant landbirds in the Midwest: identifying species of management concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Stephen J. Lewis; Janet D. Green; David N. Ewert

    1993-01-01

    We ranked species of neotropical migrant landbirds by decreasing management concern for their viability in the Midwest. This was part of a coordinated effort by regional working groups of the Partners In Flight Program, an interagency program for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs). Species were ranked by seven criteria, developed by working group...

  6. 76 FR 43682 - Shetek Wind Inc. Jeffers South, LLC Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest Independent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-53-000] Shetek Wind Inc. Jeffers South, LLC Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc...), Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC, and Allco Renewable Energy Limited (collectively Complainants...

  7. 76 FR 71007 - Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC and Allco Renewable Energy Limited, Midwest Independent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-53-000] Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC and Allco Renewable Energy Limited, Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator... an original and 14 copies of the protest or intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  8. 77 FR 12896 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66458; File No. 600-9] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency Registration February 24, 2012. I... Act provides that in the event any self- regulatory organization is no longer in existence or has...

  9. 77 FR 12898 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Securities Trust Company; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66461; File No. 600-7] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Securities Trust Company; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency Registration February 24, 2012... the event any self-regulatory organization is no longer in existence or has ceased to do business in...

  10. Midwest Forensics Resource Center Project Summary June 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Baldwin

    2005-06-01

    The mission of the MFRC Research and Development Program, is to provide technological advances in forensic science for the benefit of our regional partners as well as the forensic community at large. Key areas of forensic science need are identified through our interactions with our Midwest partners and our R&D advisory group, as well as through our participation in national meetings in forensic science. Under the sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice, the MFRC solicits proposals for the development of practical and useful technology, instrumentation, and methodology that address needs in areas related to forensic science and its application to operational crime laboratories. The MFRC facilitates proposal development by working to establish partnerships between researchers and our regional partners. The MFRC administers a peer-review of the proposals and then funds the selected projects at a cost of approximately $55,000 each, with a 12-month period of performance. The process for selection of these projects includes the following steps: (1) drafting of a call for proposals by MFRC staff, (2) review of the draft call by members of the R&D advisory committee, (3) review and approval of the call by NIJ, (4) issuance of the call to ISU, Ames Laboratory, regional partners, and research organizations, (5) receipt of proposals, (6) review of proposals by R&D advisory committee, (7) ranking and selection by MFRC staff using advisory committee reviews, with concurrence by NIJ, (8) notification of proposers, (9) receipt and review of progress reports by MFRC, (10) receipt and review of final reports by MFRC, R&D advisory committee, and NIJ. The decision to fund any specific project is based upon a peer-reviewed call-for-proposal system administered by the MFRC. The reviewers are crime laboratory specialists and scientists who are asked to rate the proposals on four criteria areas including: (1) relevance to the mission of the MFRC, (2) technical approach and

  11. 76 FR 49762 - FirstEnergy Service Co. v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... declaratory order asking that the Commission declare that Multi-Value Project (MVP) transmission usage charges... unreasonable to apply MVP transmission usage charges to FirstEnergy or its customers migrated from the Midwest...

  12. Understanding the economic, environmental and energy consequences of the Panama Canal expansion on Midwest grain and agricultural exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) is currently building a third lock scheduled to open in 2014, significantly changing the capacity of the : canal for inter-ocean movements. Midwest specialty grain and agricultural product exporters will be directly a...

  13. Long-term nitrous oxide fluxes in annual and perennial agricultural and unmanaged ecosystems in the upper Midwest USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Shcherbak, Iurii; Millar, Neville; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Philip

    2016-11-01

    Differences in soil nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes among ecosystems are often difficult to evaluate and predict due to high spatial and temporal variabilities and few direct experimental comparisons. For 20 years, we measured N 2 O fluxes in 11 ecosystems in southwest Michigan USA: four annual grain crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotations) managed with conventional, no-till, reduced input, or biologically based/organic inputs; three perennial crops (alfalfa, poplar, and conifers); and four unmanaged ecosystems of different successional age including mature forest. Average N 2 O emissions were higher from annual grain and N-fixing cropping systems than from nonleguminous perennial cropping systems and were low across unmanaged ecosystems. Among annual cropping systems full-rotation fluxes were indistinguishable from one another but rotation phase mattered. For example, those systems with cover crops and reduced fertilizer N emitted more N 2 O during the corn and soybean phases, but during the wheat phase fluxes were ~40% lower. Likewise, no-till did not differ from conventional tillage over the entire rotation but reduced emissions ~20% in the wheat phase and increased emissions 30-80% in the corn and soybean phases. Greenhouse gas intensity for the annual crops (flux per unit yield) was lowest for soybeans produced under conventional management, while for the 11 other crop × management combinations intensities were similar to one another. Among the fertilized systems, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 1.33 kg N 2 O-N ha -1  yr -1 and were best predicted by IPCC Tier 1 and ΔEF emission factor approaches. Annual cumulative fluxes from perennial systems were best explained by soil NO3- pools (r 2  = 0.72) but not so for annual crops, where management differences overrode simple correlations. Daily soil N 2 O emissions were poorly predicted by any measured variables. Overall, long-term measurements reveal lower fluxes in nonlegume perennial vegetation and, for conservatively fertilized annual crops, the overriding influence of rotation phase on annual fluxes. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Awareness, perceptions and use of snus among young adults from the upper Midwest region of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean

    2013-11-01

    Since its introduction in 2006, snus has been aggressively marketed by tobacco companies. However, little is known about the awareness, perceptions and use of snus among young adults after Camel and Marlboro snus were sold nationwide in 2010. Data were collected from 2607 young adults (ages 20-28) who participated in the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study in 2010-2011. Data include awareness of snus, ever and past 30-day use, perceived potential of snus as a quit aid, and perceived harmfulness and addictiveness of snus relative to cigarettes. The authors assessed the associations between these outcome variables and socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, 64.8% of participants were aware of snus, 14.5% ever used snus and 3.2% used snus in the past 30 days. Men and participants who smoked >100 cigarettes in their lifetime were associated with these three outcomes (pStrategic health communication interventions targeting young adults to confront the positive perceptions associated with snus may be needed to curb the interest in snus.

  15. Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert...

  16. Cuphea growth, yield, and oil characteristics as influenced by climate and soil environments across the Upper Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea is a potential new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0) that may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objec...

  17. The “Maya Express”: Floods in the U.S. Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Kinter, James L.

    2009-03-01

    The 2008 floods in the U.S. Midwest culminated in severe river flooding, with many rivers in the region cresting at record levels during May and particularly June. Twenty-four people were killed and more than 140 were injured as a result of the floods. Nine states were affected: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, 83 of the state's 99 counties were declared disaster areas. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, was among the cities hardest hit by flooding. At one point, water covered 1300 city blocks across 24 square kilometers, inundating 3900 homes and most of the city's infrastructure and municipal facilities. The flood, which also damaged the Midwest's corn and soybean crops, was presaged by unusually heavy snowpack the preceding winter and by anomalously heavy rainfall during the spring.

  18. Mapping of sand deposition from 1993 midwest floods with electromagnetic induction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, N.R.; Sudduth, K.A.; Drummond, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sand deposition on river-bottom farmland was extensive from the 1993 Midwest floods. A technique coupling electromagnetic induction (EM) ground conductivity sensing and Global Positioning System (GPS) location data was used to map sand deposition depth at four sites in Missouri along the Missouri River. A strong relationship between EM reading and probe measured depth of sand deposition (r 2 values between 0.73-0.94) was found. This relationship differed significantly between sites, so calibration by ground-truthing was required for each sand deposition survey. An example of the sand deposition mapping using the EM/GPS system is shown for two 50-60 ha (125-150 ac) sites. Such maps can provide valuable detailed information for developing restoration plans for land affected by 1993 Midwest floods. (author)

  19. Past and future changes in streamflow in the U.S. Midwest: Bridging across time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Slater, L. J.; Salvi, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflows have increased notably across the U.S. Midwest over the past century, principally due to changes in precipitation and land use / land cover. Improving our understanding of the physical drivers that are responsible for the observed changes in discharge may enhance our capability of predicting and projecting these changes, and may have large implications for water resources management over this area. This study will highlight our efforts towards the statistical attribution of changes in discharge across the U.S. Midwest, with analyses performed at the seasonal scale from low to high flows. The main drivers of changing streamflows that we focus on are: urbanization, agricultural land cover, basin-averaged temperature, basin-averaged precipitation, and antecedent soil moisture. Building on the insights from this attribution, we will examine the potential predictability of streamflow across different time scales, with lead times ranging from seasonal to decadal, and discuss a potential path forward for engineering design for future conditions.

  20. Identity and Mobility: Historical Fractionalization, Parochial Institutions, and Occupational Choice in the American Midwest

    OpenAIRE

    Kaivan Munshi; Nicholas Wilson

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role played by identity, or a sense of belonging to a home community, in determining occupational choice and mobility. The analysis links competition between migrant networks in the Midwest when it was rst developing, and the in-group identity that emerged endogenously to support these networks, to institutional participation and occupational choice today. Individuals born in counties with greater ethnic fractionalization in 1860, where identity was more likely to have...

  1. An examination of ethnic entrepreneurship in the Mid-West of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Birdthistle, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis research was commissioned by Doras Luimní  with the aim of providing a micro and strategic analysis of ethnic entrepreneurs in the Midwest region of Ireland. A number of objectives were formed in order to answer this aim. The study examined two sets of entrepreneurs: those in the planning phase and those that have been established. Both established entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs in the planning phase were studied so as to provide a skill set analysi...

  2. Adapting to warmer climate through prolonged maize grain filling period in the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Zhuang, Q.; Jin, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming is expected to negatively impact the US food productivity. How to adapt to the future warmer environment and meet the rising food requirement becomes unprecedented urgent. Continuous satellite observational data provides an opportunity to examine the historic responses of crop plants to climate variation. Here 16 years crop growing phases information across US Midwest is generated based on satellite observations. We found a prolonged grain-filling period during 2000-2015, which could partly explain the increasing trend in Midwest maize yield. This longer grain-filling period might be resulted from the adoption of longer maturity group varieties or more resistant varieties to temperature variation. Other management practice changes like advance in planting date could be also an effective way of adapting future warmer climate through lowering the possibility of exposure to heat and drought stresses. If the progress in breeding technology enables the maize grain-filling period to prolong with the current rate, the maize grain filling length could be longer and maize yield in Midwest could adapt to future climate despite of the warming.

  3. Assessment of waste characteristics and waste management practices for the Midwest compact region:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    To define that system and optimize its components, it is necessary to know various characteristics of the LLW generated in the Midwest Compact Region. It must have projections for the annual volumes from the states in the compact to determine the size and lifetimes of waste management facilities. Information on the different volumes of the region's LLW that fall into NRC waste classes will help determine volumes of waste that may need separate disposal. Eventually, licensing a LLW disposal facility will require source terms /emdash/ quantities and concentrations of nuclides placed in the facility /emdash/ in order to conduct performance assessments. To provide the information needed to make informed decisions about the nature and size of the Midwest region's low-level waste management system, information was gathered from a number of sources. The information was placed in a computer data base to preserve it and to facilitate extracton of combinations of data. This report describes how the information was assembled and the nature of the computerized data base. It also provides a baseline characterization of the low-level waste being generated and shipped for disposal from the Midwest region in the late 1980's. 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  4. System reliability worth assessment at a midwest utility-survey results for residential customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, A.A.; Mielnik, T.C. [Electric System Planning, MidAmerican Energy Company, Davenport, Iowa (United States); Lawton, L.E.; Sullivan, M.J.; Katz, A. [Population Research Systems, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the overall results of a residential customer survey conducted in service areas of MidAmerican Energy Company, a Midwest utility. A similar survey was conducted concurrently in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors and the survey results are presented in a companion paper. The results of this study are compared with the results of other studies performed in the high cost areas of the US east and west coasts. This is the first ever study of this nature performed for the residential customers in the US Midwest region. Methodological differences in the study design compared to coastal surveys are discussed. Customer survey costing techniques can be categorized into three main groups: contingent valuation techniques, direct costing techniques and indirect costing techniques. Most customer surveys conducted by different organizations in the last two decades used a combination of all three techniques. The selection of a technique is mainly dependent on the type of customer being surveyed. In this MidAmerican study, contingent valuation techniques and an indirect costing technique have been used, as most consequences of power outages to residential users are related to inconvenience or disruption of housekeeping and leisure activities that are intangible in nature. The major contribution of this paper is that particulars of Midwest residential customers compared to residential customers of coastal utilities are noted and customer responses on power quality issues that are important to customers are summarized. (author)

  5. Integrating climate change into northeast and midwest State Wildlife Action Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Morelli, Toni Lyn; Bryan, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) conducts research that responds to the regional natural resource management community’s needs to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. The NE CSC is supported by a consortium of partners that includes the University of Massachusetts Amherst, College of Menominee Nation, Columbia University, Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri Columbia, and University of Wisconsin. The NE CSC also engages and collaborates with a diversity of other federal, state, academic, tribal, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to conduct collaborative, stakeholder-driven, and climate-focused work. The State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAPs) are revised every 10 years; states are currently working towards a target deadline of October 2015. SWAP coordinators have been challenged to incorporate climate change impacts and species responses into their current revisions. This synthesis is intended to inform the science going into Northeast and Midwest SWAPs across the 22 NE CSC states ranging from Maine to Virginia, and Minnesota and Missouri in the eastern United States. It is anticipated that this synthesis will help guide SWAP authors in writing specific sections, help revise and finalize existing sections, or be incorporated as an appendix or addendum. The purpose of this NE CSC-led cooperative report is to provide a synthesis of what is known and what is uncertain about climate change and its impacts across the NE CSC region, with a particular focus on the responses and vulnerabilities of Regional Species of Greatest Conservation Need (RSGCN) and the habitats they depend on. Another goal is to describe a range of climate change adaptation approaches, processes, tools, and potential partnerships that are available to State natural resource managers across the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. Through illustrative case studies submitted by the NE CSC and

  6. Preferrential rearrangement in normal rabbits of the 3' VHa allotype gene that is deleted in Alicia mutants; somatic hypermutation/conversion may play a major role in generating the heterogeneity of rabbit heavy chain variable region sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrucci, M; Young-Cooper, G O; Alexander, C B; Newman, B A; Mage, R G

    1991-02-01

    The rabbit is unique in having well-defined allotypes in the variable region of the heavy chain. Products of the VHa locus, (with alleles a1, a2, and a3), account for the majority of the serum immunoglobulins. A small percentage of the serum immunoglobulins are a-negative. In 1986, Kelus and Weiss described a mutation that depressed the expression of the Ig VH a2 genes in an a1/a2 rabbit. From this animal the Alicia rabbit strain was developed and the mutation was termed ali. We previously showed, using Southern analysis and the transverse alternating field electrophoresis technique, that the difference between the ali rabbit and normal is a relatively small deletion including some of the most 3' VH genes. The most JH proximal 3' VH1 genes in DNA from normal rabbits of a1, a2 and a3 haplotypes encode a1, a2 and a3 molecules respectively, and it has been suggested that these genes are responsible for allelic inheritance of VHa allotypes. The present study suggests that the 3' end of the VH locus probably plays a key role in regulation of VH gene expression in rabbits because VH gene(s) in this region are the target(s) of preferential VDJ rearrangements. This raises the possibility that mechanisms such as somatic gene conversion and hypermutation are at work to generate the antibody repertoire in this species. Our data support the view that the 3' VH1 gene may be the preferred target for rearrangement in normal rabbits, and for the normal chromosome in heterozygous ali animals. However, homozygous ali rabbits with a deletion that removed the a2-encoding VH1 on both chromosomes do survive, rearrange other VH genes and produce normal levels of immunoglobulins as well as a significant percentage of B cells which bear the a2 allotype. This challenges the view that one VH gene, VH1, is solely responsible for the inheritance pattern of VHa allotypes.

  7. Comparison of upper arm and forearm blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiano, Kathy L; Hinck, Susan M; Savinske, Debra L; Hope, Kathryn L

    2008-11-01

    The upper arm is the primary site used to obtain a blood pressure measurement (BPM); however, when it is not possible to use the upper arm, the forearm is a commonly used alternate site. This study determines if there is a significant difference between upper arm and forearm BPMs among adults and examines the relationship of participant characteristics to the BPM difference. A convenience sample was recruited from a low-income, independent-living, 104-apartment complex in the Midwest. Of the 106 participants, 64% were female and 89% were White. Ages ranged from 20 to 85 years (M = 50.7). The investigators calculated the BMIs (range = 18 to 42, M = 29.3, SD = 5.4) for the 89% (n = 94) of participants who reported their weight. The forearm tended to have higher BPMs than the upper arm (M difference = 4.0 mm Hg systolic, 2.3 mm Hg diastolic). However, site differences were greatest for men, obese adults, and middle aged (36 to 65) adults.

  8. Drivers of Change in Managed Water Resources: Modeling the Impacts of Climate and Socioeconomic Changes Using the US Midwest as a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Nathalie; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

    2016-08-01

    A global integrated assessment model including a water-demand model driven by socio-economics, is coupled in a one-way fashion with a land surface hydrology – routing – water resources management model. The integrated modeling framework is applied to the U.S. Upper Midwest (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio) to advance understanding of the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic changes on integrated water resources. Implications for future flow regulation, water supply, and supply deficit are investigated using climate change projections with the B1 and A2 emission scenarios, which affect both natural flow and water demand. Changes in water demand are driven by socio-economic factors, energy and food demands, global markets and prices. The framework identifies the multiple spatial scales of interactions between the drivers of changes (natural flow and water demand) and the managed water resources (regulated flow, supply and supply deficit). The contribution of the different drivers of change are quantified regionally, and also evaluated locally, using covariances. The integrated framework shows that water supply deficit is more predictable over the Missouri than the other regions in the Midwest. The predictability of the supply deficit mostly comes from long term changes in water demand although changes in runoff has a greater contribution, comparable to the contribution of changes in demand, over shorter time periods. The integrated framework also shows that spatially, water demand drives local supply deficit. Using elasticity, the sensitivity of supply deficit to drivers of change is established. The supply deficit is found to be more sensitive to changes in runoff than to changes in demand regionally. It contrasts with the covariance analysis that shows that water demand is the dominant driver of supply deficit over the analysed periods. The elasticity indicates the level of mitigation needed to control the demand in order to reduce the

  9. Molecular Typing of Mycobacterium bovis from Cattle Reared in Midwest Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo César Tavares Carvalho

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB, the pathogen responsible for serious economic impact on the livestock sector. In order to obtain data on isolated M. bovis strains and assist in the control and eradication program for BTB, a cross sectional descriptive molecular epidemiology study in the Brazilian Midwest was conducted. Through spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR methods, 37 clinical isolates of M. bovis circulating in the region were analyzed, 10 isolated from the state of Mato Grosso, 12 from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and 15 from the state of Goiás. The spoligotyping analysis identified 10 distinct M. bovis profiles (SB0121 n = 14, SB0295 n = 6, SB0140 n = 6, SB0881 n = 3, SB1144 n = 2, SB1145 n = 2, SB0134 n = 1, SB1050 n = 1, SB1055 n = 1, SB1136 n = 1 grouped in six clusters and four orphan patterns. The MIRU-VNTR 24-loci grouped the same isolates in six clusters and 22 unique orphan patterns, showing higher discriminatory power than spoligotyping. When associating the results of both techniques, the isolates were grouped in five clusters and 24 unique M. bovis profiles. Among the 24-loci MIRU-VNTR evaluated, two, ETR-A and QUB 11b loci, showed high discriminatory ability (h = ≥ 0.50, while MIRU 16, MIRU 27, ETR-B, ETR-C, Mtub21 and QUB 26 loci showed moderate ability (h = 0.33 or h = 0.49 and were the most effective in evaluating the genotypic similarities among the clinical M. bovis isolate samples. Herein, the 29 patterns found amongst the 37 isolates of M. bovis circulating in the Brazilian Midwest can be due to the animal movement between regions, municipalities and farms, thus causing the spread of various M. bovis strains in herds from Midwest Brazil.

  10. Recent Acceleration of the Terrestrial Hydrologic Cycle in the U.S. Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Wu, Chuanhao

    2018-03-01

    Most hydroclimatic trend studies considered only a subset of water budget variables; hence, the trend consistency and a holistic assessment of hydrologic changes across the entire water cycle cannot be evaluated. Here we use a unique 31 year (1983-2013) observed data set in Illinois (a representative region of the U.S. Midwest), including temperature (T), precipitation (P), evaporation (E), streamflow (R), soil moisture, and groundwater level (GWL), to estimate the trends and their sensitivity to different data periods and lengths. Both the Mann-Kendall trend test and the least squares linear method identify trends in close agreement. Despite no clear trends during 1983-2013, increasing trends are found in P (8.73-9.05 mm/year), E (6.87-7.47 mm/year), and R (1.57-3.54 mm/year) during 1992-2013, concurrently with a pronounced warming trend of 0.029-0.037 °C/year. However, terrestrial water storageis decreased by -2.0 mm/year (mainly due to declining GWL), suggesting that the increased R is caused by increased surface runoff rather than baseflow. Monthly analyses identify warming trends for all months except winter. In summer, P (E) exhibits an increasing (decreasing) trend, leading to increasing R, soil moisture, GWL, and terrestrial water storage. Most trends estimated for different subperiods are found to be sensitive to data lengths and periods. Overall, this study provides an internally consistent observed evidence on the intensification of the hydrologic cycle in response to recent climate warming in U.S. Midwest, in agreement with and well supported by several recent studies consistently reporting the increased P, R and E over the Midwest and Mississippi River basin.

  11. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  12. Coordinators for health science libraries in the Midwest Health Science Library Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, E A; McKloskey, J; Mahan, R

    1977-04-01

    In the summer of 1973 one resource library in each of the six states of the Midwest Health Science Library Network received funding from the National Library of Medicine to hire a coordinator for health science libraries. The development of the role of coordinator is examined and evaluated. The coordinators have proved valuable in the areas of consortium formation, basic unit development, communication facilitation, and program initiation. The function of the coordinators in the extensive planning effort now being undertaken by the network and the future need for the coordinator positions are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of selected near-term energy-conservation options for the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Colsher, C.S.; Hamilton, R.W.; Buehring, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    This report evaluates the potential for implementation of near-term energy-conservation practices for the residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, transportation, and utility sectors of the economy in twelve states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The information used to evaluate the magnitude of achievable energy savings includes regional energy use, the regulatory/legislative climate relating to energy conservation, technical characteristics of the measures, and their feasibility of implementation. This work is intended to provide baseline information for an ongoing regional assessment of energy and environmental impacts in the Midwest. 80 references.

  14. Northeast and Midwest regional species and habitats at greatest risk and most vulnerable to climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Hilberg, Laura; Janowiak, Maria; Swanton, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this Chapter are to describe climate change vulnerability, it’s components, the range of assessment methods being implemented regionally, and examples of training resources and tools. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments (CCVAs) have already been conducted for numerous Regional Species of Greatest Conservation Need and their dependent 5 habitats across the Northeast and Midwest. This chapter provides a synthesis of different assessment frameworks, information on the locations (e.g., States) where vulnerability assessments were conducted, lists of individual species and habitats with their respective vulnerability rankings, and a comparison of how vulnerability rankings were determined among studies.

  15. Management and characteristics of recycled manure solids used for bedding in Midwest freestall dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Janni, K A

    2012-04-01

    Interest in using recycled manure solids (RMS) as a bedding material for dairy cows has grown in the US Midwest. Cost of common bedding materials has increased in recent years and availability has decreased. Information regarding the composition of RMS and its use as a bedding material for dairy cows in the Midwest is very limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize RMS as a bedding material, observe bedding management practices, document methods of obtaining RMS, and describe housing facilities. We visited 38 Midwest dairy operations bedding freestalls with RMS to collect data. Methods of obtaining RMS for bedding included separation of anaerobic digested manure, separation of raw manure, and separation of raw manure followed by mechanical drum-composting for 18 to 24 h. Average bedding moisture of unused RMS was 72.4% with a pH of 9.16. Unused samples contained (on a dry basis) 1.4% N, 44.9% C, 32.7C:N ratio, 0.44% P, 0.70% K, 76.5% neutral detergent fiber, 9.4% ash, 4.4% nonfiber carbohydrates, and 1.1% fat. Moisture was lowest for drum-composted solids before and after use as freestall bedding. After use in the stalls, digested solids had lower neutral detergent fiber content (70.5%) than drum-composted (75.0%) and separated raw (73.1%) solids. Total N content was greater in digested solids (2.0%) than in separated raw (1.7%) solids. Total bacterial populations in unused bedding were greatest in separated raw manure solids but were similar between digested and drum-composted manure solids. Drum-composted manure solids had no coliform bacteria before use as freestall bedding. After use as bedding, digested manure solids had lower total bacteria counts compared with drum-composted and separated raw manure solids, which had similar counts. Used bedding samples of digested solids contained fewer environmental streptococci than drum-composted and separated raw solids and had reduced Bacillus counts compared with separated raw solids. Coliform counts

  16. Plans for dealing with loss of access to the Midwest Compact Regional Disposal Facility: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report describes events that could lead to the premature closure of a disposal facility and the prospects that the closed facility could eventually be reopened. Possible courses of action leading to disposal outside the Midwest region while the Midwest Compact works to reestablish a regional disposal capability are also discussed. A likely division of responsibilities between the Compact Commission and the individual member states, with emphasis on managing low-level waste after a loss of access when disposal outside the Midwest is not possible is presented. Key elements in an agreement between compacts to accept each other's waste when one compact has experienced an unexpected interruption of its disposal operation are described

  17. 76 FR 63991 - Midwest Rail d/b/a Toledo, Lake Erie and Western Railway-Lease and Operation Exemption-Toledo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... provide common carrier rail service over the Line, connecting with and interchanging traffic with NSR, and... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35555] Midwest Rail d/b/a... Railway and Museum, Inc. Midwest Rail d/b/a Toledo, Lake Erie and Western Railway (Toledo), a noncarrier...

  18. Biophysical impacts of climate-smart agriculture in the Midwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin E; Miller, Jesse; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2015-09-01

    The potential impacts of climate change in the Midwest United States present unprecedented challenges to regional agriculture. In response to these challenges, a variety of climate-smart agricultural methodologies have been proposed to retain or improve crop yields, reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, retain soil quality and increase climate resilience of agricultural systems. One component that is commonly neglected when assessing the environmental impacts of climate-smart agriculture is the biophysical impacts, where changes in ecosystem fluxes and storage of moisture and energy lead to perturbations in local climate and water availability. Using a combination of observational data and an agroecosystem model, a series of climate-smart agricultural scenarios were assessed to determine the biophysical impacts these techniques have in the Midwest United States. The first scenario extended the growing season for existing crops using future temperature and CO2 concentrations. The second scenario examined the biophysical impacts of no-till agriculture and the impacts of annually retaining crop debris. Finally, the third scenario evaluated the potential impacts that the adoption of perennial cultivars had on biophysical quantities. Each of these scenarios was found to have significant biophysical impacts. However, the timing and magnitude of the biophysical impacts differed between scenarios. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Risk and Protective Factors for Breast Cancer in Midwest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Emi Inumaru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of physical activity, body composition, and breastfeeding are closely related to health and are influenced by environmental, economic, and social factors. With the increase of sedentary lifestyle and overweight, many chronic diseases have also increased, including cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the knowledge of its risk and protective factors is important to the adoption of primary prevention strategies. We aimed to investigate some risk and protective factors for breast cancer among women from Midwest Brazil. It is a case-control study of outpatient basis, carried out with 93 breast cancer cases and 186 controls. Socioeconomic, gynecological, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected, and odds ratios (ORs values were estimated (significance level, 5%; confidence interval (CI, 95%. Per capita income equal to or lower than 1/2 Brazilian minimum wage (OR=1.88; CI=1.06–3.29, residence in rural area (OR=4.93; CI=1.65–14.73, and presence of family history of breast cancer (OR=5.38; CI=1.46–19.93 are risk factors for breast cancer. In turn, physical activity (past 6 months (OR=0.23; CI=0.10–0.55 and leisure physical activity at 20 years old (OR=0.13; CI=0.03–0.54 are protective factors for the disease in women who live in Midwest of Brazil.

  20. Effects of Land Use Change for Crops on Water and Carbon Budgets in the Midwest USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for food and bioenergy has altered the global landscape dramatically in recent years. Land use and land cover change affects the environmental system in many ways through biophysical and biogeochemical mechanisms. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of land use and land cover change driven by recent crop expansion and conversion on the water budget, carbon exchange, and carbon storage in the Midwest USA. A dynamic global vegetation model was used to simulate and examine the impacts of landscape change in a historical case based on crop distribution data from the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Services. The simulation results indicate that recent crop expansion not only decreased soil carbon sequestration (60 Tg less of soil organic carbon and net carbon flux into ecosystems (3.7 Tg·year−1 less of net biome productivity, but also lessened water consumption through evapotranspiration (1.04 × 1010 m3·year−1 less over 12 states in the Midwest. More water yield at the land surface does not necessarily make more water available for vegetation. Crop residue removal might also exacerbate the soil carbon loss.

  1. Regional climate change projections of streamflow characteristics in the Northeast and Midwest U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora M.C. Demaria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Northeast and Midwest, United States. Study focus: Assessing the climate change impacts on the basin scale is important for water and natural resource managers. Here, the presence of monotonic trends and changes in climate-driven simulated 3-day peak flows, 7-day low flows, and mean base flows are evaluated in the Northeast and Midwest U.S. during the 20th and the 21st centuries using climate projections from sixteen climate models. Proven statistical methods are used to spatially and temporally disaggregate precipitation and temperature fields to a finer resolution before being used as drivers for a hydrological model. New hydrological insights for the region: Changes in the annual cycle of precipitation are likely to occur during the 21st century as winter precipitation increases and warmer temperatures reduce snow coverage across the entire domain especially in the northern basins. Maximum precipitation intensities are projected to become more intense across the region by mid-century especially along the coast. Positive trends in 3-day peak flows are also projected in the region as a result of the more intense precipitation, whereas the magnitude of 7-day low flows and mean base flows are projected to decrease. The length of the low flows season will likely extend by mid-century despite the increased precipitation as the atmospheric demand increases. Keywords: Streamflow peaks, Low flows, Trend analysis, Intense precipitation, Base flows

  2. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowerman, W.W. [Eagle Environmental Inc., Haslett, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.

  3. Precipitation and lake-level changes in the West and Midwest over the past 10,000 to 24,000 years. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T. III; Street, F.A.; Howe, S.

    1980-02-04

    The goal of the research described in this report is to document the climatic variability over the past 10,000 to 20,000 years in areas in which sites may be designated for the burial of nuclear wastes. Three separate data sets were studied, and the results are presented in three chapters. The first data set consisted of radiocarbon dates documenting past changes in lake levels in lakes and playas in the western United States. The sites were mapped where water levels were higher than the levels today and were presented in a table telling what evidence is available at each site. The lake-level fluctuations for the past 24,000 years at sites in the West were also mapped and time series for these fluctuations at four sites were presented. The second data set was a selection of the published radiocarbon-dated pollen diagrams from the western United States. These data are a valuable source of climatic information and complement the geological evidence of lake-level fluctuations in the West. A table is presented that gives the location, elevation, and number of radiocarbon dates for each site. The third data set was a set of fossil pollen data from 20 sites in the upper Midwest. These data were calibrated in terms of precipitation changes over the past 10,000 years, and maps are presented of the estimated precipitation changes between 10,000 and 7000 years ago and between 7000 years ago and today.

  4. Precipitation and lake-level changes in the West and Midwest over the past 10,000 to 24,000 years. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T. III; Street, F.A.; Howe, S.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of the research described in this report is to document the climatic variability over the past 10,000 to 20,000 years in areas in which sites may be designated for the burial of nuclear wastes. Three separate data sets were studied, and the results are presented in three chapters. The first data set consisted of radiocarbon dates documenting past changes in lake levels in lakes and playas in the western United States. The sites were mapped where water levels were higher than the levels today and were presented in a table telling what evidence is available at each site. The lake-level fluctuations for the past 24,000 years at sites in the West were also mapped and time series for these fluctuations at four sites were presented. The second data set was a selection of the published radiocarbon-dated pollen diagrams from the western United States. These data are a valuable source of climatic information and complement the geological evidence of lake-level fluctuations in the West. A table is presented that gives the location, elevation, and number of radiocarbon dates for each site. The third data set was a set of fossil pollen data from 20 sites in the upper Midwest. These data were calibrated in terms of precipitation changes over the past 10,000 years, and maps are presented of the estimated precipitation changes between 10,000 and 7000 years ago and between 7000 years ago and today

  5. Caution, the Use of Humor May Lead to Confusion: Evaluation of a Video Podcast of the Midwest Teen Sex Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Spies, Erica L.; Losch, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Web sites about sexual health lack the interactivity, humor, and "viral" nature required to attract young adults. The Midwest Teen Sex Show (www.midwestteensexshow.com) is an interactive, humor-based Web site that provides sexual health information to young adults. One episode from the Web site was shown to six focus groups of young women, ages…

  6. 75 FR 55820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species AGENCY: Fish... CFR 424.02: (A) Species includes any species or subspecies of fish, wildlife, or plant, and any... species means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its...

  7. 78 FR 24192 - J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corp. v. Midwest Independent System Operator, Inc. PJM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-58-000] J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corp. v. Midwest Independent System Operator, Inc. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on April 10, 2013, J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corporation (JPMVEC or Complainant...

  8. The Influence of a Career Exploration Course on New First-Time Student Retention at a Public Midwest Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Brenda F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between new first- time students enrolled in a career exploration course and retention during the academic years of 2009 to 2011 at a public Midwest community college. Change of major after the first semester was also investigated. The study utilized quantitative, archival data…

  9. Changes in forest habitat classes under alternative climate and land-use change scenarios in the northeast and midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Michael E. Goerndt; Brian F. Walters; Chris Toney

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale and long-term habitat management plans are needed to maintain the diversity of habitat classes required by wildlife species. Planning efforts would benefit from assessments of potential climate and land-use change effects on habitats. We assessed climate and land-use driven changes in areas of closed- and open-canopy forest across the Northeast and Midwest...

  10. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  11. Voices of Women in the Field--The Midwest Women's Leadership Institute--Responding to a Call to Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Midwest Women's Leadership Institute at Minnesota State University did not occur by chance nor did it happen quickly. Rather, it was the direct result of the work, support, and dedication of a number of people committed to strengthening leadership opportunities for women in higher education. In this article, the author relates how the…

  12. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  13. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  14. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  15. Disaster preparedness networks in rural Midwest communities: Organizational roles, collaborations, and support for older residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Zhu, Xi; Robinson, Erin L; Schroer, Audrey

    2018-05-17

    This study investigated the roles and interconnections among community organizations belonging to local disaster coalitions in Midwest in supporting older residents. Representatives from 44 organizations participated in one-time survey. Most were non-profit (68%) or federal/state/local government agencies (23%). The analyses of 761 relationships showed stronger collaborations in assessment (average strength=2.88 on a 5-point scale), emergency response (2.72), and planning (2.61); and weaker collaborations in co-sponsoring programs (1.71) and supporting older residents (2.03). The extent of collaboration (network density) to support older adults was also low. Coalitions may enhance network density and centralization by developing sub-committee structure and strengthening existing collaborations.

  16. Impact of sampling strategy on stream load estimates in till landscape of the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, P.; Hubbard, L.E.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurately estimating various solute loads in streams during storms is critical to accurately determine maximum daily loads for regulatory purposes. This study investigates the impact of sampling strategy on solute load estimates in streams in the US Midwest. Three different solute types (nitrate, magnesium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and three sampling strategies are assessed. Regardless of the method, the average error on nitrate loads is higher than for magnesium or DOC loads, and all three methods generally underestimate DOC loads and overestimate magnesium loads. Increasing sampling frequency only slightly improves the accuracy of solute load estimates but generally improves the precision of load calculations. This type of investigation is critical for water management and environmental assessment so error on solute load calculations can be taken into account by landscape managers, and sampling strategies optimized as a function of monitoring objectives. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Increasing drought and diminishing benefits of elevated carbon dioxide for soybean yields across the US Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenong; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Leakey, Andrew D B; Lobell, David B

    2018-02-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations ([CO 2 ]) are expected to increase C3 crop yield through the CO 2 fertilization effect (CFE) by stimulating photosynthesis and by reducing stomatal conductance and transpiration. The latter effect is widely believed to lead to greater benefits in dry rather than wet conditions, although some recent experimental evidence challenges this view. Here we used a process-based crop model, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), to quantify the contemporary and future CFE on soybean in one of its primary production area of the US Midwest. APSIM accurately reproduced experimental data from the Soybean Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment site showing that the CFE declined with increasing drought stress. This resulted from greater radiation use efficiency (RUE) and above-ground biomass production at elevated [CO 2 ] that outpaced gains in transpiration efficiency (TE). Using an ensemble of eight climate model projections, we found that drought frequency in the US Midwest is projected to increase from once every 5 years currently to once every other year by 2050. In addition to directly driving yield loss, greater drought also significantly limited the benefit from rising [CO 2 ]. This study provides a link between localized experiments and regional-scale modeling to highlight that increased drought frequency and severity pose a formidable challenge to maintaining soybean yield progress that is not offset by rising [CO 2 ] as previously anticipated. Evaluating the relative sensitivity of RUE and TE to elevated [CO 2 ] will be an important target for future modeling and experimental studies of climate change impacts and adaptation in C3 crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  19. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  20. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  2. Science Roles and Interactions in Adaptive Management of Large River Restoration Projects, Midwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Galat, D. L.; Smith, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Most large-river restoration projects include formal or informal implementations of adaptive management strategies which acknowledge uncertainty and use scientific inquiry to learn and refine management options. Although the central role of science in reducing uncertainty is acknowledged in such projects, specific roles and interactions can vary widely, including how science relates to decision-making within the governance of these projects. Our objective is to present some structured generalizations about science roles and interactions as developed from the authors’ experiences in adaptive management of large river restoration in the Midwest United States. Scientific information may be introduced into decision making by scientists acting in any of the three roles common to adaptive management -- action agency representative, stakeholder, or science provider. We have observed that confusion and gridlock can arise when it is unclear if a scientist is acting as an advocate for a stakeholder or management position, or instead as an independent, “honest broker” of science. Although both advocacy and independence are proper and expected in public decision making, it is useful when scientists unambiguously identify their role. While complete scientific independence may be illusory, transparency and peer review can promote the ideal. Transparency comes from setting clear directions and objectives at the decision-making level and defining at the outset how learning will help assess progress and inform decisions. Independent peer reviews of proposals, study plans, and publications serve as a powerful tool to advance scientific independence, even if funding sources present a potential conflict of interest. Selection of experts for scientific advice and review often requires consideration of the balance between benefits of the “outside” expert (independent, knowledgeable but with little specific understanding of the river system), compared to those provided by the

  3. Developing Flexible, Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Systems for Multiscale Analysis in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Chiu, C. M.; Sharma, A.; Byun, K.; Hanson, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Physically based hydrologic modeling of surface and groundwater resources that can be flexibly and efficiently applied to support water resources policy/planning/management decisions at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales are greatly needed in the Midwest, where stakeholder access to such tools is currently a fundamental barrier to basic climate change assessment and adaptation efforts, and also the co-production of useful products to support detailed decision making. Based on earlier pilot studies in the Pacific Northwest Region, we are currently assembling a suite of end-to-end tools and resources to support various kinds of water resources planning and management applications across the region. One of the key aspects of these integrated tools is that the user community can access gridded products at any point along the end-to-end chain of models, looking backwards in time about 100 years (1915-2015), and forwards in time about 85 years using CMIP5 climate model projections. The integrated model is composed of historical and projected future meteorological data based on station observations and statistical and dynamically downscaled climate model output respectively. These gridded meteorological data sets serve as forcing data for the macro-scale VIC hydrologic model implemented over the Midwest at 1/16 degree resolution. High-resolution climate model (4km WRF) output provides inputs for the analyses of urban impacts, hydrologic extremes, agricultural impacts, and impacts to the Great Lakes. Groundwater recharge estimated by the surface water model provides input data for fine-scale and macro-scale groundwater models needed for specific applications. To highlight the multi-scale use of the integrated models in support of co-production of scientific information for decision making, we briefly describe three current case studies addressing different spatial scales of analysis: 1) Effects of climate change on the water balance of the Great Lakes, 2) Future

  4. Design and methods of the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA), 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jessica D.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Button, Daniel T.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2017-10-18

    During 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Project (NAWQA), in collaboration with the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA), and the EPA Office of Pesticide Programs assessed stream quality across the Midwestern United States. This Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) simultaneously characterized watershed and stream-reach water-quality stressors along with instream biological conditions, to better understand regional stressor-effects relations. The MSQA design focused on effects from the widespread agriculture in the region and urban development because of their importance as ecological stressors of particular concern to Midwest region resource managers.A combined random stratified selection and a targeted selection based on land-use data were used to identify and select sites representing gradients in agricultural intensity across the region. During a 14-week period from May through August 2013, 100 sites were selected and sampled 12 times for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment. This 14-week water-quality “index” period culminated with an ecological survey of habitat, periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish at all sites. Sediment was collected during the ecological survey for analysis of sediment chemistry and toxicity testing. Of the 100 sites, 50 were selected for the MSQA random stratified group from 154 NRSA sites planned for the region, and the other 50 MSQA sites were selected as targeted sites to more evenly cover agricultural and urban stressor gradients in the study area. Of the 50 targeted sites, 12 were in urbanized watersheds and 21 represented “good” biological conditions or “least disturbed” conditions. The remaining 17 targeted sites were selected to improve coverage of the agricultural intensity gradient or because of historical data collection to provide temporal context for the

  5. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  6. Supply evaluation of a herbaceous and woody energy crop at three midwest regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, B.C.; Dillivan, K.D.; Ojo, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    While substantial research has been conducted on the argronomic issues of biomass production and on the processes of converting biofuel crops into energy, little work has been completed analyzing the economic and physical impacts of biofuel production on an agriculturally based region. Acres currently devoted to traditional crops will be replaced by biomass crops if such a conversion proves to be economically attractive. These shifts could have impacts on local and regional levels of farm income, current farmland market values, commodity prices received, and the demand for and prices of farm level inputs. This paper examines the economic and physical ramifications of introducing biomass production to three Midwest regions centered in the following counties; Cass County, North Dakota, Olmsted County, Minnesota, and Orange County, Indiana. Using a regional linear programming model that maximizes net returns to producers subject to several constraints, a supply curve for biomass is developed for each of the three regions. The model predicts that at a plant gate price of $26, $40, and $52 per dry ton, biomass begins to enter into production in the Cass, Olmsted, and Orange Regions respectively. Prices of $28, $44, and $54 per dry ton of biomass are sufficient to supply a quantity necessary to operate a power plant requiring 5,000 dry tons per day in Cass, Olmsted, and Orange regions respectively. In the Olmsted and Orange regions, biomass production results in fertilizer being applied, however, in the Cass Region a slight increase in fertilizer use corresponds to biomass production

  7. Reproductive dormancy in boll-weevil from populations of the midwest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, D P; Claudino, D; Timbó, R V; Miranda, J E; Bemquerer, M P; Ribeiro, A C J; Sujii, E R; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an introduced pest in Brazil, which in 30 yr has successfully expanded to various eco-regions and became the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, Malvaceae). Given the limited knowledge about the adaptive mechanisms that allowed successful establishment of the pest population in a tropical region, in this work we studied the potential of the Midwest population of boll weevils to enter a reproductive dormancy and identified the importance of the feeding source for induction of dormancy. We investigated morphological and physiological characters as indicators of the dormancy. We also investigated the occurrence of reproductive dormancy in boll weevils populations from cotton farms of the Midwestern region of Brazil during the cotton and noncotton seasons of 2009 and 2010. The studies revealed that boll weevils entered facultative reproductive dormancy; however, unlike what has been observed for boll weevils from temperate and subtropical regions, the hypertrophy of fat body and hexamerin levels did not straightly correlated to reproductive dormancy. The food source and field conditions during early adult development were decisive factor for the induction of reproductive dormancy. The incidence of reproductive dormancy increased progressively as the phenology of cotton plant advanced, reaching approximately 90% at the end of the crop season. During the noncotton season, the boll weevil was predominantly found in reproductive dormancy, especially females; however, there is evidence of use of multiple adaptive strategies to colonize the next harvest.

  8. High nitrate concentrations in some Midwest United States streams in 2013 after the 2012 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Wieczorek, Michael; Button, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen sources in the Mississippi River basin have been linked to degradation of stream ecology and to Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. In 2013, the USGS and the USEPA characterized water quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 wadeable streams across the midwestern United States. Wet conditions in 2013 followed a severe drought in 2012, a weather pattern associated with elevated nitrogen concentrations and loads in streams. Nitrate concentrations during the May to August 2013 sampling period ranged from nitrate concentrations at the 100 sites were compared with May to June concentrations predicted from a regression model developed using historical nitrate data. Observed concentrations for 17 sites, centered on Iowa and southern Minnesota, were outside the 95% confidence interval of the regression-predicted mean, indicating that they were anomalously high. The sites with a nitrate anomaly had significantly higher May to June nitrate concentrations than sites without an anomaly (means, 19.8 and 3.6 mg L−1, respectively) and had higher antecedent precipitation indices, a measure of the departure from normal precipitation, in 2012 and 2013. Correlations between nitrate concentrations and watershed characteristics and nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate indicated that fertilizer and manure used in crop production, principally corn, were the dominant sources of nitrate. The anomalously high nitrate levels in parts of the Midwest in 2013 coincide with reported higher-than-normal nitrate loads in the Mississippi River.

  9. Perceived correlates of domain-specific physical activity in rural adults in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Matthew; Nothwehr, Faryle; Yang, Jingzen; Oleson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In response to calls for more specificity when measuring physical activity, this study examined perceived correlates of this behavior in rural adults separately by the domain in which this behavior occurs (ie, home care, work, active living, and sport). A cross-sectional survey was completed by 407 adults from 2 rural towns in the Midwest. The questionnaire assessed the perceived social and physical environment, including neighborhood characteristics, as well as barriers to being active. The Kaiser Physical Activity Survey captured domain-specific activity levels. The response rate was 25%. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between social and physical environment factors and domain-specific physical activity. Having a favorable attitude toward using government funds for exercise and activity-friendly neighborhood characteristic were positively associated with active living. Friends encouraging exercise was positively associated with participation in sport. Barriers were inversely associated with active living and sport. Total physical activity was positively associated with workplace incentives for exercise, favorable policy attitudes toward supporting physical education in schools and supporting the use of government funds for biking trails, and it was inversely associated with barriers. There were no factors associated with physical activity in the domains of work or home care. Correlates of physical activity are unique to the domain in which this behavior occurs. Programs to increase physical activity in rural adults should target policy attitudes, neighborhood characteristics, and social support from friends while also working to decrease personal barriers to exercise. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  10. HIV AND HCV COINFECTION: PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection, a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3% and 3 (41.7%. The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  11. HIV and HCV coinfection: prevalence, associated factors and genotype characterization in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  12. Midwest Growers’ Mail Survey of Contributors to Migrant Health and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilanowski, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross–sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services. PMID:22994639

  13. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment—Influences of human activities on streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Coles, James F.

    2018-04-16

    Healthy streams and the fish and other organisms that live in them contribute to our quality of life. Extensive modification of the landscape in the Midwestern United States, however, has profoundly affected the condition of streams. Row crops and pavement have replaced grasslands and woodlands, streams have been straightened, and wetlands and fields have been drained. Runoff from agricultural and urban land brings sediment and chemicals to streams. What is the chemical, physical, and biological condition of Midwestern streams? Which physical and chemical stressors are adversely affecting biological communities, what are their origins, and how might we lessen or avoid their adverse effects?In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment to evaluate how human activities affect the biological condition of Midwestern streams. In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Rivers and Streams Assessment, the USGS sampled 100 streams, chosen to be representative of the different types of watersheds in the region. Biological condition was evaluated based on the number and diversity of fish, algae, and invertebrates in the streams. Changes to the physical habitat and chemical characteristics of the streams—“stressors”—were assessed, and their relation to landscape factors and biological condition was explored by using mathematical models. The data and models help us to better understand how the human activities on the landscape are affecting streams in the region.

  14. Influence of gender equity awareness on women's reproductive healthcare in rural areas of midwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cui, Ying; Zhang, Li; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Yan; Shi, Wei

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the impact of married women's gender equity awareness on use of reproductive healthcare services in rural China. The questionnaire-based study recruited 1500 married women who were aged 15-49years, had at least 1 pregnancy, and were living in rural Gansu, Qinghai, Shanxi, or Xinjiang, China, between October and December 2010. "Gender equity awareness" was quantified by responses to 7 statements, graded in accordance with a system scoring the strength of overall belief (≥19, strong; 15-18, moderate; and ≤14, weak). Only 383 women (26.3%) demonstrated high gender equity awareness. The percentage of women who received consistent prenatal care was highest in the group scoring 15 points or more (Pgender equity awareness is not strong in rural midwest China. There was a positive correlation between gender equity awareness and use of reproductive healthcare services. There should be an emphasis on various activities to educate women so that they can fully access reproductive healthcare. © 2013.

  15. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Midwest Social Workers: Where Do They Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, N Rose; Randall, Jill M; Kiesel, Lisa R

    2018-01-01

    Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is explicitly legal in five states and by court decision in one. Legislative bills have been introduced in other states including Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin. This quantitative study was designed to understand Midwest, hospice and palliative care at end-of-life social workers' attitudes toward PAS, preferred terminology, perception of preparedness for the implementation, and awareness of PAS legislation in their state. Sixty-two social workers from Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin completed an anonymous online survey. The results indicated that over one-half of the participants supported PAS legislation and is consistent with previous research on social workers across the country. While there was a range of perceived preparedness for implementation, a majority felt moderately to very prepared. Professional and personal values as well as professional experience influenced their perceived preparedness. Few social workers had accurate awareness of PAS legislation in their state or had attended workshops/events for further education or as a policy advocate. To practice competently and advocate at all levels of practice, hospice and palliative care at end-of-life social workers' need to understand their own attitudes and values toward PAS and pursue additional education around this ethical issue.

  16. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  17. One-way coupling of an integrated assessment model and a water resources model: evaluation and implications of future changes over the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Liu, L.; Hejazi, M.; Tesfa, T.; Li, H.; Huang, M.; Liu, Y.; Leung, L. R.

    2013-11-01

    An integrated model is being developed to advance our understanding of the interactions between human activities, terrestrial system and water cycle, and to evaluate how system interactions will be affected by a changing climate at the regional scale. As a first step towards that goal, a global integrated assessment model, which includes a water-demand model driven by socioeconomics at regional and global scales, is coupled in a one-way fashion with a land surface hydrology-routing-water resources management model. To reconcile the scale differences between the models, a spatial and temporal disaggregation approach is developed to downscale the annual regional water demand simulations into a daily time step and subbasin representation. The model demonstrates reasonable ability to represent the historical flow regulation and water supply over the US Midwest (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio river basins). Implications for future flow regulation, water supply, and supply deficit are investigated using climate change projections with the B1 and A2 emission scenarios, which affect both natural flow and water demand. Although natural flow is projected to increase under climate change in both the B1 and A2 scenarios, there is larger uncertainty in the changes of the regulated flow. Over the Ohio and Upper Mississippi river basins, changes in flow regulation are driven by the change in natural flow due to the limited storage capacity. However, both changes in flow and demand have effects on the Missouri River Basin summer regulated flow. Changes in demand are driven by socioeconomic factors, energy and food demands, global markets and prices with rainfed crop demand handled directly by the land surface modeling component. Even though most of the changes in supply deficit (unmet demand) and the actual supply (met demand) are driven primarily by the change in natural flow over the entire region, the integrated framework shows that supply deficit over the Missouri River

  18. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  19. EDs in the Midwest and South activate disaster plans as deadly tornadoes sweep through the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Hospitals in the Midwest and South activated their disaster plans in early March to deal with a phalanx of powerful tornadoes that leveled several small towns and killed at least two dozen people. Some hospitals had to activate plans for both internal and external disasters as their own facilities were threatened. One small critical-access hospital in West Liberty, KY, sustained significant damage and had to evacuate its patients to another facility. All the hospitals credit their disaster plans and practice drills with helping them to manage the crisis as efficiently as possible. Morgan County ARH Hospital in West Liberty, KY, went for several days without an operational lab or radiology department, but staff kept the ED open for absolute emergencies. Margaret Mary Community Hospital (MMCH) in Batesville, IN, received six tornado victims, but it was prepared for many more. Administrators credit advanced warning of the storms with helping them to prepare effectively, as well as to coordinate their response with other hospitals in the area. As a level 1 trauma center, the University of Louisville Hospital in Louisville, KY, received all the most seriously injured patients in the region, even while the facility itself was under a tornado warning. Staff had to route families away from the glassed-in waiting room to the basement until the tornado warning had passed. At one point during the crisis, there were 90 patients in the hospital's ED even though the department is only equipped with 29 beds. Administrators at Huntsville Hospital in Huntsville, AL, encouraged colleagues to take advantage of smaller-scale emergencies to activate parts of their disaster plans, and to focus disaster preparation drills on their hospital's top hazard vulnerabilities.

  20. Risk management and market efficiency on the Midwest Independent System Operator electricity exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin

    Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the MISO exchange into question.

  1. A case study of population health improvement at a Midwest regional hospital employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D Adam; Sheehan, Paula

    2010-06-01

    This article reviews the population health improvement initiative of a Midwest regional hospital employer. Services included health risk assessments, health education, and motivational health coaching conducted telephonically. Outcomes categories for this program evaluation comprised participation rates, participant satisfaction, health status and behavior change, productivity change, health care claims savings, and return on investment. Participation rates varied widely with incentive structure, although retention of participants in coaching programs averaged 89%. The participant satisfaction rate for the last 14 months of interventions was 96%. Four years of population health status and behavior trending showed significant improvements in smoking status, dietary fat and fiber intake, exercise, mental health (ie, stress, effects depressive symptoms in the past year, life satisfaction), readiness to change (ie, diet, exercise, stress, smoking, body weight), perceptions of overall health, an index of good health habits, sum of lifestyle health risks, and sum of risks and chronic conditions. Body mass index showed nonsignificant improvements during the years of greatest participation (years 2 to 4). Indicators of productivity demonstrated improvements as well. These gains were noted for employees across all health risk statuses, which suggests population health improvement strategies can influence productivity even for healthy employees. Program year 3 was evaluated for health care claims savings using a 2-stage multivariate regression approach. Stage 1 was a computation of propensity-to-participate scores. Stage 2 was an estimation of per member per month (PMPM) claims savings for participant cohorts using a propensity score-weighted linear regression analysis. Participants averaged $40.65 PMPM savings over the control population. Program return on investment, including incentive costs and vendor fees, was 2.87:1.

  2. Familial autoimmunity and polyautoimmunity in 60 Brazilian Midwest patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Magno Coelho Horimoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a connective tissue disease of unknown etiology, characterized by a triad of vascular injury, autoimmunity and tissue fibrosis. It is known that a positive family history is the greatest risk factor already identified for the development of SSc in a given individual. Preliminary observation of a high prevalence of polyautoimmunity and of familial autoimmunity in SSc patients support the idea that different autoimmune phenotypes may share common susceptibility variants. Objectives: To describe the frequency of familial autoimmunity and polyautoimmunity in 60 SSc patients in the Midwest region of Brazil, as well as to report the main autoimmune diseases observed in this association of comorbidities. Methods: A cross-sectional study with recruitment of 60 consecutive patients selected at the Rheumatology Department, University Hospital, Medicine School, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (FMUFMS, as well as interviews of their relatives during the period from February 2013 to March 2014. Results: A frequency of 43.3% of polyautoimmunity and of 51.7% of familial autoimmunity in SSc patients was found. Patients with the presence of polyautoimmunity and familial autoimmunity presented primarily the diffuse form of SSc, but this indicator did not reach statistical significance. The autoimmune diseases most frequently observed in polyautoimmunity patients were: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (53.8%, Sjögren's syndrome (38.5%, and inflammatory myopathy (11.5%. The main autoimmune diseases observed in SSc patients' relatives were: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (32.3%, rheumatoid arthritis (22.6%, and SLE (22.6%. The presence of more than one autoimmune disease in SSc patients did not correlate with disease severity or activity. Conclusions: From the high prevalence of coexisting autoimmune diseases found in SSc patients, we stress the importance of the concept of shared autoimmunity, in order to promote a

  3. Building a framework to explore water-human interaction for sustainable agro ecosystems in US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Ding, D.; Rapolu, U.

    2012-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. On this context, this team has investigated connections among agriculture, policy, climate, land use/land cover, and water quality in Iowa over the past couple of years. To help explore these connections the team is developing a variety of cyber infrastructure tools that facilitate the collection, analysis and visualization of data, and the simulation of system dynamics. In an ongoing effort, the prototype system is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa in the US Midwest, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. The primary aim of this research is to understand the connections that exist among the agricultural and biofuel economy, land use/land cover change, and water quality. To help explore these connections an agent-based model (ABM) of land use change has been developed that simulates the decisions made by farmers given alternative assumptions about market forces, farmer characteristics, and water quality regulations. The SWAT model was used to simulate the impact of these decisions on the movement of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus across the landscape. The paper also demonstrate how through the use of this system researchers can, for example, search for scenarios that lead to desirable socio-economic outcomes as well as preserve water quantity and quality.

  4. Community Health Worker Employer Survey: Perspectives on CHW Workforce Development in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Virginia; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Trout, Kate E

    2018-05-30

    A statewide Community Health Worker Employer Survey was administered to various clinical, community, and faith-based organizations (n = 240) across a range of rural and urban settings in the Midwest. At least 80% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that items characterized as supervisory support were present in their work environment. Thirty-six percent of respondents currently employed CHWs, over half (51%) of survey respondents reported seeing the need to hire/work with more CHWs, and 44% saw the need for CHWs increasing in the future. Regarding CHW support, a majority of respondents indicated networking opportunities (63%), paid time for networking (80%), adequate time for supervision (75%), orientation training (78%), mandatory training (78%), ongoing training (79%), and paid time for training (82%). Open-ended responses to the question "In your organization, what needs could CHWs meet?" resulted in the largest number of respondents reporting mental health issues as a priority, followed by connecting people with services or resources, educating the public on preventive health, family support, and home care/visitations. Our findings suggest that respondents, who largely have supervisory or managerial roles, view workplace environments in Nebraska favorably, despite the fact that nearly two-thirds of respondents typically work well over 40 h per week. In addition, CHWs could help address mental and physical health needs in a variety of community and clinical settings through primary and secondary prevention activities, such as provision of health screenings, health and nutrition education, connecting people to resources and empowering community members through these activities and more.

  5. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  6. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-05

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  7. Forest Carbon Storage in the Northern Midwest, USA: A Bottom-Up Scaling Approach Combining Local Meteorological and Biometric Data With Regional Forest Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, P. S.; Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Carbon (C) storage increasingly is considered an important part of the economic return of forestlands, making easily parameterized models for assessing current and future C storage important for both ecosystem and money managers. For the deciduous forests of the northern midwest, USA, detailed information relating annual C storage to local site characteristics can be combined with spatially extensive forest inventories to produce simple, robust models of C storage useful at a variety of scales. At the University of Michigan Biological Station (45o35`' N, 84o42`' W) we measured C storage, or net ecosystem production (NEP), in 65 forest stands varying in age, disturbance history, and productivity (site index) using biometric methods, and independently measured net C exchange at the landscape level using meteorological methods. Our biometric and meteorological estimates of NEP converged to within 1% of each other over five years, providing important confirmation of the robustness of these two approaches applied within northern deciduous forests (Gough et al. 2005). We found a significant relationship between NEP, stand age ( A, yrs), and site index ( Is, m), where NEP = 0.134 + 0.022 * (LN[ A* Is]) (r2 = 0.50, P database (ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/) to estimate forest C storage at different scales across the upper midwest, Great Lakes region. Model estimates were validated against independent estimates of C storage for other forests in the region. At the local ecosystem-level (~1 km2) C storage averaged 1.52 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Scaling to the two-county area surrounding our meteorological and biometric study sites, average stand age decreased and site index increased, resulting in estimated storage of 1.62 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, or 0.22 Tg C yr-1 in the 1350 km2 of deciduous forest in this area. For the state of Michigan (31,537 km2 of deciduous forest), average uptake was estimated at 1.55 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, or 4.9 Tg C yr-1 total storage. For the three state region encompassing

  8. Gravity changes in mid-west Greenland from GOCE gravity model and gradient data using ground and airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tscherning, Carl Christian; Herceg, Matija; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna

    GOCE TRF (terrestrial reference frame) vertical anomalous gradients (Tzz) from two periods have been used to determine gravity anomalies changes in mid-west Greenland, where a large mass-loss has been detected using GRACE (Fig. 1). As additional data were used the GOCE DIR-3 model and ground...... gravity at the coast on solid rock, where no mass loss is expected. The methods of Least-Squares Collocation (LSC) and the Reduced Point Mass (RPM) methods have been used, however only LSC included the ground data....

  9. Hydrogeology of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest: B in Regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Siegel, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system contains the most extensive and continuous aquifers in the northern Midwest of the United States. It is the source of water for many municipalities, industries, and rural water users. Since the beginning of ground-water development from the aquifer system in the late 1800's, hydraulic heads have declined hundreds of feet in the heavily pumped Chicago-Milwaukee area and somewhat less in other metropolitan areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a regional assessment of this aquifer system within a 161,000-square-mile area encompassing northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, northern Missouri, and Wisconsin.

  10. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  11. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  12.  Invasibility of three major non-native invasive shrubs and associated factors in Upper Midwest U.S. forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Zhaofei Fan; Mark H. Hansen; Michael K. Crosby; Shirley X. Fan

    2016-01-01

    We used non-native invasive plant data from the US Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, spatial statistical methods, and the space (cover class)-for-time approach to quantify the invasion potential and success ("invasibility") of three major invasive shrubs (multiflora rose, non-native bush honeysuckles, and common buckthorn...

  13. Vulnerabilities of national parks in the American Midwest to climate and land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Shaver, David; Karstensen, Krista A.

    2016-06-08

    Many national parks in the American Midwest are surrounded by agricultural or urban areas or are in highly fragmented or rapidly changing landscapes. An environmental stressor is a physical, chemical, or biological condition that affects the functioning or productivity of species or ecosystems. Climate change is just one of many stressors on park natural resources; others include urbanization, land use change, air and water pollution, and so on. Understanding and comparing the relative vulnerability of a suite of parks to projected climate and land use changes is important for region-wide planning. A vulnerability assessment of 60 units in the 13-state U.S. National Park Service Midwestern administrative region to climate and land use change used existing data from multiple sources. Assessment included three components: individual park exposure (5 metrics), sensitivity (5 metrics), and constraints to adaptive capacity (8 metrics) under 2 future climate scenarios. The three components were combined into an overall vulnerability score. Metrics were measures of existing or projected conditions within park boundaries, within 10-kilometer buffers surrounding parks, and within ecoregions that contain or intersect them. Data were normalized within the range of values for all assessed parks, resulting in high, medium, and low relative rankings for exposure, sensitivity, constraints to adaptive capacity, and overall vulnerability. Results are consistent with assessments regarding patterns and rates of climate change nationwide but provide greater detail and relative risk for Midwestern parks. Park overall relative vulnerability did not differ between climate scenarios. Rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and constraints to adaptive capacity varied geographically and indicate regional conservation planning opportunities. The most important stressors for the most vulnerable Midwestern parks are those related to sensitivity (intrinsic characteristics of the park) and

  14. The ARMADA Project: Bringing Oceanography and the Arctic to the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the fall of 2009, I spent 6 weeks aboard the Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy on a mapping expedition in the Arctic Ocean, through participation in the University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project. Because I grew up in the Midwest, went to college here, and teach in the Chicago suburbs, I had limited first-hand experience in oceanography, as did most of my students. During my time aboard the ship, I primarily served as a member of the mapping team, collecting bathymetric and seismic data. My other science activities included aiding geologists and acoustic engineers in dredging projects and deployment of under-ice recording devices. I collected water data, sent off weather balloons, and assisted marine mammal observers. For the ARMADA Project I kept an on-line journal, which had a far-reaching impact. Students in many schools kept track of my activities and communicated with me via e-mail. Colleagues and friends shared the journal through other media, such as Facebook. Several of my entries were published in blogs belonging to NOAA and the USGS. I received a grant for renting a satellite phone, and through it was able to make "Live from the Arctic" phone calls. After introductory PowerPoints I communicated with more than 420 students in 5 schools in 3 states. When I returned, I made a series of presentations about the Arctic and my adventures to hundreds of people and was featured in an educational magazine with a circulation of more than 90,000. I also participated in an in-depth mentoring program with a new teacher to help her succeed during the first years of her career. The results: My students and I now have a direct connection to the Arctic and to the fields of oceanography, acoustic engineering, and geology. On their own initiative, students have developed individual projects exploring aspects of my research. They have attended presentations from the Extreme Ice Center and have become involved in drilling issues in the Chukchi Sea. A group of students is

  15. Projecting the long-term biogeochemical impacts of a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, K. J.; DeLucia, E. H.; Paul, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    results illustrate the potential long-term biogeochemical impacts that can be generated by a land-use transition to a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest.

  16. Farmers' Market Manager's Level of Communication and Influence on Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) Adoption at Midwest Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Afroza; Smith, Sylvia

    2018-01-01

    To understand market managers' level of communication and use of technology that might influence decision to adopt Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) at farmers' markets. Cross-sectional study using the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation. Electronic survey administered in midwest states of Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Farmers' market managers in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Information on EBT adoption, market managers' communication, and technology use. Binary logistic regression analysis with EBT adoption as the dependent variable and frequency of technology use, partnership with organizations, farmers' market association (FMA) membership, Facebook page and Web site for the market, and primary source of information as independent variables. Chi-square tests and ANOVA were used to compare states and adopter categories. Logistic regression results showed that the odds of adopting EBT was 7.5 times higher for markets that had partnership with other organizations. Compared with non-adopters, a significantly greater number of early adopters had partnership, FMA membership, and a Facebook page and Web site for market, and reported to a board of directors. Markets that had partnership, FMA membership, a Facebook page and Web site, and mandatory reporting to a board of directors were important factors that influenced EBT adoption at midwest farmers' markets. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  18. Focus on Energy: A School Transportation Handbook. Proceedings of the Midwest School Transportation Fleet Management Seminar (Lansing, Michigan, November 28-29, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing.

    Presented are proceedings and supplementary reports of the Midwest School Transportation Fleet Management Seminar, which was held in Lansing, Michigan, November 28-29, 1979. Among the school bus energy management topics discussed are energy feasibility studies, the use of programmed information systems, energy conservation strategies, and…

  19. Comparison of performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT 2009 and 2012 in an extensively tile-drained watershed in Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage systems are widely used in agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern U.S. Tile drainage systems enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but can also create environmental problems, for example nitrate-N contamination associated with drainage w...

  20. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  1. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  2. 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, January 18-20, 2013, Urbana, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Kevin T. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    2016-04-28

    This document is the program for the 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, which was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on January 18-20, 2013. The goals of the conference were to foster a culture in which undergraduate women are encouraged and supported to pursue, and also to succeed in, higher education in physics; to provide career information to students in physics and related fields; to give women the resources, motivation, and confidence to apply to graduate school and successfully complete a Ph.D. program in Physics; to provide information and dispel misconceptions about the application process for graduate school and the diverse employment opportunities in physics and related fields, enabling women to make more informed decisions about their goals and attain them; and to connect female physics students with successful female physicists to whom they can relate and who can act as inspirational role models and mentors.

  3. The greenhouse gas intensity and potential biofuel production capacity of maize stover harvest in the US Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Curtis D. [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Zhang, Xuesong [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Reddy, Ashwan D. [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Robertson, G. Philip [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA; W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners MI 49060 USA; Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA; Izaurralde, Roberto César [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Texas A& M AgriLife Research & Extension Center, Temple TX 76502 USA

    2017-08-11

    Agricultural residues are important sources of feedstock for a cellulosic biofuels industry that is being developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy independence. While the US Midwest has been recognized as key to providing maize stover for meeting near-term cellulosic biofuel production goals, there is uncertainty that such feedstocks can produce biofuels that meet federal cellulosic standards. Here, we conducted extensive site-level calibration of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) terrestrial ecosystems model and applied the model at high spatial resolution across the US Midwest to improve estimates of the maximum production potential and greenhouse gas emissions expected from continuous maize residue-derived biofuels. A comparison of methodologies for calculating the soil carbon impacts of residue harvesting demonstrates the large impact of study duration, depth of soil considered, and inclusion of litter carbon in soil carbon change calculations on the estimated greenhouse gas intensity of maize stover-derived biofuels. Using the most representative methodology for assessing long-term residue harvesting impacts, we estimate that only 5.3 billion liters per year (bly) of ethanol, or 8.7% of the near-term US cellulosic biofuel demand, could be met under common no-till farming practices. However, appreciably more feedstock becomes available at modestly higher emissions levels, with potential for 89.0 bly of ethanol production meeting US advanced biofuel standards. Adjustments to management practices, such as adding cover crops to no-till management, will be required to produce sufficient quantities of residue meeting the greenhouse gas emission reduction standard for cellulosic biofuels. Considering the rapid increase in residue availability with modest relaxations in GHG reduction level, it is expected that management practices with modest benefits to soil carbon would allow considerable expansion of potential cellulosic

  4. Automated lidar-derived canopy height estimates for the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek, Enrika

    2015-01-01

    Land cover/land use (LCU) classifications serve as important decision support products for researchers and land managers. The LCU classifications produced by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) include canopy height estimates that are assigned through manual aerial photography interpretation techniques. In an effort to improve upon these techniques, this project investigated the use of high-density lidar data for the Upper Mississippi River System to determine canopy height. An ArcGIS tool was developed to automatically derive height modifier information based on the extent of land cover features for forest classes. The measurement of canopy height included a calculation of the average height from lidar point cloud data as well as the inclusion of a local maximum filter to identify individual tree canopies. Results were compared to original manually interpreted height modifiers and to field survey data from U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of utilizing lidar data to more efficiently assign height modifier attributes to LCU classifications produced by the UMESC.

  5. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  6. Frequency and characteristics associated with exposure to tobacco direct mail marketing and its prospective effect on smoking behaviors among young adults from the US Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L

    2014-11-01

    We examined the exposure to tobacco direct mail marketing and its effect on subsequent smoking behaviors in a US Midwest regional cohort of young adults. Data were collected from 2622 young adults (mean age = 24 years) in 2010 to 2011 (baseline) and 2011 to 2012 (follow-up). We collected information on demographics, tobacco use, and exposure to tobacco direct mail materials in the previous 6 months at baseline. Smoking behaviors were reassessed at follow-up. We investigated the characteristics associated with receiving these materials at baseline, and the associations between receiving cigarette coupons in the mail at baseline and smoking behaviors at follow-up. Thirteen percent of participants reported receiving tobacco direct mail materials in the previous 6 months. Receipt of these materials was associated with age, education, and tobacco use (P marketing promoted and sustained smoking behaviors among US Midwest young adults. Regulating this marketing strategy might reduce the prevalence of smoking in this population.

  7. Cow- and herd-level risk factors for on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M Q; Reneau, J K; Chester-Jones, H; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe on-farm mortality and to investigate cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds using lactation survival analysis. We analyzed a total of approximately 5.9 million DHIA lactation records from 10 Midwest US states from January 2006 to December 2010. The cow-level independent variables used in the models were first test-day milk yield, milk fat percent, milk protein percent, fat-to-protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen, somatic cell score, previous dry period, previous calving interval, stillbirth, calf sex, twinning, calving difficulty, season of calving, parity, and breed. The herd-level variables included herd size, calving interval, somatic cell score, 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield, and herd stillbirth percentage. Descriptive analysis showed that overall cow-level mortality rate was 6.4 per 100 cow-years and it increased from 5.9 in 2006 to 6.8 in 2010. Mortality was the primary reason of leaving the herd (19.4% of total culls) followed by reproduction (14.6%), injuries and other (14.0%), low production (12.3%), and mastitis (10.5%). Risk factor analysis showed that increased hazard for mortality was associated with higher fat-to-protein ratio (>1.6 vs. 1 to 1.6), higher milk fat percent, lower milk protein percent, cows with male calves, cows carrying multiple calves, higher milk urea nitrogen, increasing parity, longer previous calving interval, higher first test-day somatic cell score, increased calving difficulty score, and breed (Holstein vs. others). Decreased hazard for mortality was associated with higher first test-day milk yield, higher milk protein, and shorter dry period. For herd-level factors, increased hazard for mortality was associated with increased herd size, increased percentage of stillbirths, higher somatic cell score, and increased herd calving interval. Cows in herds with higher milk yield had lower mortality hazard. Results of the study

  8. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  9. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lin

    Full Text Available Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group. The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6% ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1% to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  10. Geospatial assessment of bioenergy land use and its impacts on soil erosion in the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SooHoo, William M; Wang, Cuizhen; Li, Huixuan

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural land use change, especially corn expansion since 2000s, has been accelerating to meet the growing bioenergy demand of the United States. This study identifies the environmentally sensitive lands (ESLs) in the U.S. Midwest using the distance-weighted Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) associated with bioenergy land uses extracted from USDA Cropland Data Layers. The impacts of soil erosion to downstream wetlands and waterbodies in the river basin are counted in the RUSLE with an inverse distance weighting approach. In a GIS-ranking model, the ESLs in 2008 and 2011 (two representative years of corn expansion) are ranked based on their soil erosion severity in crop fields. Under scenarios of bioenergy land use change (corn to grass and grass to corn) on two land types (ESLs and non-ESLs) at three magnitudes (5%, 10% and 15% change), this study assesses the potential environmental impacts of bioenergy land use at a basin level. The ESL distributions and projected trends vary geographically responding to different agricultural conversions. Results support the idea of re-planting native prairie grasses in the identified High and Severe rank ESLs for sustainable bioenergy management in this important agricultural region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Translation of clinical practice guidelines for childhood obesity prevention in primary care mobilizes a rural Midwest community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S Jo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement clinic system changes that support evidence-based guidelines for childhood obesity prevention. Adherence rates for prevention and screening of children in a rural Midwest primary care setting were used to measure the success of the program. Retrospective chart reviews reflected gaps in current practice and documentation. An evidence-based toolkit for childhood obesity prevention was used to implement clinic system changes for the identified gaps. The quality improvement approach proved to be effective in translating knowledge of obesity prevention guidelines into rural clinic practices with significant improvements in documentation of prevention measures that may positively impact the childhood obesity epidemic. Primary care providers, including nurse practitioners (NPs), are at the forefront of diagnosing, educating, and counseling children and families on obesity prevention and need appropriate resources and tools to deliver premier care. The program successfully demonstrated how barriers to practice, even with the unique challenges in a rural setting, can be overcome. NPs fulfill a pivotal primary care role and can provide leadership that may positively impact obesity prevention in their communities. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Indicators of physical fitness in school children from the midwest region of São Paulo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Silveira Böhme

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: a to evaluate indicators of physical fitness in childrenand adolescents according to chronological age and gender; b to classify their performanceusing the PROESP-BR normative tables. A total of 3145 randomly selected school children (1590boys and 1555 girls, ranging in age from 7 to 16 years, were submitted to the following tests:distance covered in a 9-minute run, standing long jump test, medicine-ball throw, and 60-s situptest to measure abdominal muscle endurance. Significant differences were observed betweengenders at all chronological ages and also between boys of different chronological ages. In girls,no significant differences were observed between chronological ages, with performance tendingto stabilize at 11/12 years of age. Classification of the participants according to the PROESP-BRnormative tables showed that more than 50% of all subjects were below the 40th percentile in alltests, especially girls. The same tendency was observed when compared to other Brazilian studies.Considering mean values, it can be concluded that the school children studied, especially girls,presented a low level of physical fitness, thus indicating the need for health promotion programsin the midwest region of São Paulo City addressing physical activity.

  14. Development and Implementation of the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium CO2-Technology Transfer Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Sallie E. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In 2009, the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), in collaboration with the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), created a regional technology training center to disseminate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology gained through leadership and participation in regional carbon sequestration projects. This technology training center was titled and branded as the Sequestration Training and Education Program (STEP). Over the last six years STEP has provided local, regional, national, and international education and training opportunities for engineers, geologists, service providers, regulators, executives, K-12 students, K-12 educators, undergraduate students, graduate students, university and community college faculty members, and participants of community programs and functions, community organizations, and others. The goal for STEP educational programs has been on knowledge sharing and capacity building to stimulate economic recovery and development by training personnel for commercial CCS projects. STEP has worked with local, national and international professional organizations and regional experts to leverage existing training opportunities and provide stand-alone training. This report gives detailed information on STEP activities during the grant period (2009-2015).

  15. Correlation of preadmission organic chemistry courses and academic performance in biochemistry at a midwest chiropractic doctoral program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Marc P

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemistry has been shown to correlate with academic success in the preclinical years of medicine, dentistry, and graduate physiology. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between undergraduate organic chemistry grades and first-semester biochemistry grades at a Midwest chiropractic doctoral program. Students enrolled in a first-semester biochemistry course who had completed the prerequisite courses in organic chemistry offered at this same institution were entered into the study. The total grade for each of the three courses was calculated using the midterm and final exam raw scores with a weighting of 50% each. Analysis consisted of obtaining correlation coefficients between the total grades of organic 1 with biochemistry and organic 2 with biochemistry. Using the biochemistry total grade, the students were divided into quartiles and course grades for both organic chemistry 1 and 2 were calculated. For the 109 students in the study, the correlation coefficient between the biochemistry and organic chemistry 1 and biochemistry and organic chemistry 2 courses was r = 0.744 and r = 0.725, respectively. The difference in organic chemistry grades between those in the first and fourth quartiles was 63.2% and 86.9% for organic chemistry 1 (p organic chemistry 2 (p organic chemistry can be used as an indicator of future academic success in a chiropractic biochemistry course. Knowledge of such a relationship could prove useful to identify students who may potentially run into academic difficulty with first-year biochemistry.

  16. Upper atmosphere research at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemesha, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Upper atmosphere research at INPE is mainly concerned with the chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere, upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and the middle thermosphere. Experimental work includes lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol, measurements of stratospheric ozone by Dobson spectrophotometers and by balloon and rocket-borne sondes, lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium, and photometric observations of O, O 2 , OH and Na emissions, including interferrometric measurements of the OI6300 emission for the purpose of determing thermospheric winds and temperature. The airglow observations also include measurements of a number of emissions produced by the precipitation of energetic neutral particles generated by charge exchange in the ring current. Some recent results of INPE's upper atmosphere program are presented. (Author) [pt

  17. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  18. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  19. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  20. Development Of Sustainable Biobased Products And Bioenergy In Cooperation With The Midwest Consortium For Sustainable Biobased Products And Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ladisch; Randy Woodson

    2009-03-18

    Collaborative efforts of Midwest Consortium have been put forth to add value to distiller's grains by further processing them into fermentable sugars, ethanol, and a protein rich co-product consistent with a pathway to a biorenewables industry (Schell et al, 2008). These studies were recently published in the enclosed special edition (Volume 99, Issue 12) of Bioresource Technology journal. Part of them have demonstrated the utilization of distillers grains as additional feedstock for increased ethanol production in the current dry grind process (Kim et al., 2008a, b; Dien et al.,2008, Ladisch et al., 2008a, b). Results showed that both liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) were effective for enhancing digestibility of distiller's grains. Enzymatic digestion of distiller's grains resulted in more than 90% glucose yield under standard assay conditions, although the yield tends to drop as the concentration of dry solids increases. Simulated process mass balances estimated that hydrolysis and fermentation of distillers grains can increase the ethanol yield by 14% in the current dry milling process (Kim et al., 2008c). Resulting co-products from the modified process are richer in protein and oil contents than conventional distiller's grains, as determined both experimentally and computationally. Other research topics in the special edition include water solubilization of DDGS by transesterification reaction with phosphite esters (Oshel el al., 2008) to improve reactivity of the DDGS to enzymes, hydrolysis of soluble oligomers derived from DDGS using functionalized mesoporous solid catalysts (Bootsma et al., 2008), and ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) production from DDGS by solventogenic Clostridia (Ezeji and Blaschek, 2008). Economic analysis of a modified dry milling process, where the fiber and residual starch is extracted and fermented to produce more ethanol from the distillers grains while producing highly

  1. Naturally occurring Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 infection in a Midwest United States mink (Mustela vison) ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hildebrandt, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) causes acute respiratory disease in humans and a variety of animal species. The virus tends to remain within the species of origin; nonetheless, naturally occurring cross-species transmission of FLUAV has been periodically documented. Multiple cross-species transmissions of FLUAV have been reported from companion animals and captive wild animals, neither of which is historically considered as natural hosts of FLUAV. In the fall of 2010, mink (Mustela vison) inhabiting a 15,000-head mink farm in the Midwest United States experienced persistent severe respiratory distress and nose and/or mouth bleeding. Mink losses averaged approximately 10 animals per day. Six dead mink at 6 months of age were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic investigation. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that all 6 mink had hemorrhagic bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from lungs, probably accounting for hemorrhagic pneumonia. All animals tested negative for Canine distemper virus and Aleutian mink disease virus. Interestingly, FLUAV of H1N2 subtype, which contained the matrix gene of swine lineage, was detected in the lungs. Serological follow-up on mink that remained in the ranch until pelting also confirmed that the ranch had been exposed to FLUAV of H1 subtype (δ clade). The case study suggests that FLUAV should be included in the differential diagnosis when mink experience epidemics of respiratory disease. Since the source of FLUAV appeared to be uncooked turkey meat, feeding animals fully cooked ration should be considered as a preventive measure.

  2. Expanding Local Cancer Clinical Trial Options: Analysis of the Economic Impact of the Midwest Cancer Alliance in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafford, J Atlee; Gurley-Calvez, Tami; Krebill, Hope; Lai, Sue Min; Christiadi; Doolittle, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    Patients benefit from receiving cancer treatment closer to home when possible and at high-volume regional centers when specialized care is required. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the economic impact of retaining more patients in-state for cancer clinical trials and care, which might offset some of the costs of establishing broader cancer trial and treatment networks. Kansas Cancer Registry data were used to estimate the number of patients retained in-state for cancer care following the expansion of local cancer clinical trial options through the Midwest Cancer Alliance based at the University of Kansas Medical Center. The 2014 economic impact of this enhanced local clinical trial network was estimated in four parts: Medical spending was estimated on the basis of National Cancer Institute cost-of-care estimates. Household travel cost savings were estimated as the difference between in-state and out-of-state travel costs. Trial-related grant income was calculated from administrative records. Indirect and induced economic benefits to the state were estimated using an economic impact model. The authors estimated that the enhanced local cancer clinical trial network resulted in approximately $6.9 million in additional economic activity in the state in 2014, or $362,000 per patient retained in-state. This estimate includes $3.6 million in direct spending and $3.3 million in indirect economic activity. The enhanced trial network also resulted in 45 additional jobs. Retaining patients in-state for cancer care and clinical trial participation allows patients to remain closer to home for care and enhances the state economy.

  3. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s -1 ), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m -2 . Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  4. Informing climate change adaptation in the Northeast and Midwest United States: The role of Climate Science Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A. M.; Morelli, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information and tools that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife, and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. The NE CSC partners with other federal agencies, universities, and NGOs to facilitate stakeholder interaction and delivery of scientific products. For example, NE CSC researchers have partnered with the National Park Service to help managers at Acadia National Park adapt their infrastructure, operations, and ecosystems to rising seas and more extreme events. In collaboration with the tribal College of Menominee Nation and Michigan State University, the NE CSC is working with indigenous communities in Michigan and Wisconsin to co-develop knowledge of how to preserve their natural and cultural values in the face of climate change. Recently, in its largest collaborative initiative to date, the NE CSC led a cross-institutional effort to produce a comprehensive synthesis of climate change, its impacts on wildlife and their habitats, and available adaptation strategies across the entire Northeast and Midwest region; the resulting document was used by wildlife managers in 22 states to revise their Wildlife Action Plans (WAPs). Additionally, the NE CSC is working with the Wildlife Conservation Society to help inform moose conservation management. Other research efforts include hydrological modeling to inform culvert sizing under greater rainfall intensity, forest and landscape modeling to inform tree planting that mitigates the spread of invasive species, species and habitat modeling to help identify suitable locations for wildlife refugia. In addition, experimental research is being conducted to improve our understanding of how species such as brook trout are responding to climate change. Interacting with stakeholders during all phases of

  5. Correlation of Preadmission Organic Chemistry Courses and Academic Performance in Biochemistry at a Midwest Chiropractic Doctoral Program*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Marc P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Organic chemistry has been shown to correlate with academic success in the preclinical years of medicine, dentistry, and graduate physiology. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between undergraduate organic chemistry grades and first-semester biochemistry grades at a Midwest chiropractic doctoral program. Methods: Students enrolled in a first-semester biochemistry course who had completed the prerequisite courses in organic chemistry offered at this same institution were entered into the study. The total grade for each of the three courses was calculated using the midterm and final exam raw scores with a weighting of 50% each. Analysis consisted of obtaining correlation coefficients between the total grades of organic 1 with biochemistry and organic 2 with biochemistry. Using the biochemistry total grade, the students were divided into quartiles and course grades for both organic chemistry 1 and 2 were calculated. Results: For the 109 students in the study, the correlation coefficient between the biochemistry and organic chemistry 1 and biochemistry and organic chemistry 2 courses was r = 0.744 and r = 0.725, respectively. The difference in organic chemistry grades between those in the first and fourth quartiles was 63.2% and 86.9% for organic chemistry 1 (p organic chemistry 2 (p organic chemistry can be used as an indicator of future academic success in a chiropractic biochemistry course. Knowledge of such a relationship could prove useful to identify students who may potentially run into academic difficulty with first-year biochemistry PMID:20480012

  6. A descriptive study on selected growth parameters and growth hormone receptor gene in healthy young adults from the American Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Samantha N; Hossain, Waheeda A; Manzardo, Ann M; Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Bortolato, Marco; Butler, Merlin G

    2018-02-12

    The first study of growth hormone receptor (GHR) genotypes in healthy young adults in the United States attending a Midwestern university and impact on selected growth parameters. To describe the frequency of GHR genotypes in a sample of healthy young adults from the United States attending a university in the Midwest and analyze the relationship between GHR genotypes and selected growth parameters. Saliva was collected from 459 healthy young adults (237 females, 222 males; age range = 18-25 y) and DNA isolated for genotyping of GHR alleles (fl/fl, fl/d3, or d3/d3). Selected growth parameters were collected and GHR genotype data examined for previously reported associations (e.g., height, weight or bone mass density) or novel findings (e.g., % body water and index finger length). We found 219 participants (48%) homozygous for fl/fl, 203 (44%), heterozygous fl/d3 and 37 (8%) homozygous d3/d3. The distribution of GHR genotypes in our participants was consistent with previous reports of non-US populations. Several anthropometric measures differed by sex. The distribution of GHR genotypes did not significantly differ by sex, weight, or other anthropometric measures. However, the fl/d3 genotype was more common among African-Americans. Our study of growth and anthropometric parameters in relationship to GHR genotypes found no association with height, weight, right index finger length, BMI, bone mass density, % body fat or % body water in healthy young adults. We did identify sex differences with increased body fat, decreased bone density, body water and index finger length in females. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Upper Danube Nature Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosedla, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    When in 1980 the Upper Danube Nature Park was founded as one of 65 nature sanctuaries in Germany there was great diversity of opinions concerning its intended character. The protected region consisting of a geologically outstanding landscape within central Europe is covering the first 80 km the upper Danube where the young river shortly after it's source in the Black Forest is breaking through the narrow canyons of the Jurassic rock plateau of the so-called Suebian Alps and also locates the subterranean passage where the stream is submerging from the surface for nearly ten miles. Since the purpose of nature preservation according to German las is closely combined with the rather contradicting aim of offering an attractive recreation area thus facing the immense impacts of modern mass tourism there are numerous problems which in the course of years have resulted in an intricate patterns of subtle management methods coping with the growing awareness of the ecological balance. (author)

  8. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  9. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.

  11. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  12. Modelling spatial and temporal variations in the water quality of an artificial water reservoir in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Fabricio D., E-mail: fabricio.cid@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biology ' Prof. E. Caviedes Codelia' , Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Laboratory of Integrative Biology, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Biology (IMIBIO-SL), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Luis (Argentina); Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Anton, Rosa I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain); Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique [Laboratory of Biology ' Prof. E. Caviedes Codelia' , Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Laboratory of Integrative Biology, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Biology (IMIBIO-SL), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Luis (Argentina); Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina)

    2011-10-31

    Highlights: {yields} Water quality of an Argentinean reservoir has been investigated by N-way PCA. {yields} PARAFAC mode modelled spatial and seasonal variations of water composition. {yields} Two factors related with organic and lead pollution have been identified. {yields} The most polluted areas of the reservoir were located, and polluting sources identified. - Abstract: Temporal and spatial patterns of water quality of an important artificial water reservoir located in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina were investigated using chemometric techniques. Surface water samples were collected at 38 points of the water reservoir during eleven sampling campaigns between October 1998 and June 2000, covering the warm wet season and the cold dry season, and analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminum, silica, phosphate, sulfide, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), viable aerobic bacteria (VAB) and total coliform bacteria (TC). Concentrations of lead, ammonium, nitrite and coliforms were higher than the maximum allowable limits for drinking water in a large proportion of the water samples. To obtain a general representation of the spatial and temporal trends of the water quality parameters at the reservoir, the three-dimensional dataset (sampling sites x parameters x sampling campaigns) has been analyzed by matrix augmentation principal component analysis (MA-PCA) and N-way principal component analysis (N-PCA) using Tucker3 and PARAFAC (Parallel Factor Analysis) models. MA-PCA produced a component accounting for the general behavior of parameters associated with organic pollution. The Tucker3 models were not appropriate for modelling the water quality dataset. The two-factor PARAFAC model provided the best picture to understand the

  13. The influence of multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors on benthic communities in a mid-west agricultural stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Killen, Willian D; Anderson, Ronald D; Alden, Raymond W

    2017-08-24

    The objective of this 3-year study was to characterize benthic communities and physical habitat in an agricultural stream in the mid-west area of the United States (Big Bureau Creek, Illinois). Concurrent basic water quality parameters and seven nutrients were measured in the water column. Sediment measurements from depositional areas were conducted for bifenthrin, Total Organic Carbon, grain size, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and eight metals. All parameters were measured at 12 sites annually during the late summer for a 3-year period (2014, 2015 and 2016). Univariate regressions, stepwise multiple regressions and canonical correlation statistical analyses were used to determine the relationship between various benthic metrics (i.e., taxa richness and abundance) and all the measured parameters for the 3-year database. Benthic communities comprising 108-110 taxa were collected annually, and were generally dominated by sensitive caddisflies and mayflies. These communities were rated as good to exceptional using the Ohio Invertebrate Community Index. Physical habitat for the various sites was rated as good using the Ohio Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index, thus suggesting that habitat is not a significant stressor that would likely impact resident benthic communities. Based on a comparison of measured in-stream total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations and criterion value exceedances, it appears that the in-stream nutrient concentrations could be potentially stressful to resident benthic biota. Metal concentrations were below established NOAA Threshold Effects Levels at all sites. Measured PCB concentrations were below levels of detection at all sites. Toxic units' (TUs) calculations based on using sensitive laboratory strains of Hyalella were less than 0.1 for bifenthrin, thus suggesting that bifenthrin sediment toxicity was unlikely. Thirty significant relationships reported between benthic metrics and the various environmental variables based on the

  14. Modelling spatial and temporal variations in the water quality of an artificial water reservoir in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, Fabricio D.; Anton, Rosa I.; Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Water quality of an Argentinean reservoir has been investigated by N-way PCA. → PARAFAC mode modelled spatial and seasonal variations of water composition. → Two factors related with organic and lead pollution have been identified. → The most polluted areas of the reservoir were located, and polluting sources identified. - Abstract: Temporal and spatial patterns of water quality of an important artificial water reservoir located in the semiarid Midwest of Argentina were investigated using chemometric techniques. Surface water samples were collected at 38 points of the water reservoir during eleven sampling campaigns between October 1998 and June 2000, covering the warm wet season and the cold dry season, and analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminum, silica, phosphate, sulfide, arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), viable aerobic bacteria (VAB) and total coliform bacteria (TC). Concentrations of lead, ammonium, nitrite and coliforms were higher than the maximum allowable limits for drinking water in a large proportion of the water samples. To obtain a general representation of the spatial and temporal trends of the water quality parameters at the reservoir, the three-dimensional dataset (sampling sites x parameters x sampling campaigns) has been analyzed by matrix augmentation principal component analysis (MA-PCA) and N-way principal component analysis (N-PCA) using Tucker3 and PARAFAC (Parallel Factor Analysis) models. MA-PCA produced a component accounting for the general behavior of parameters associated with organic pollution. The Tucker3 models were not appropriate for modelling the water quality dataset. The two-factor PARAFAC model provided the best picture to understand the spatial and

  15. Mumps epidemiology in the mid-west of Ireland 2004-2008: increasing disease burden in the university/college setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whyte, D

    2009-01-01

    Mumps is a contagious vaccine-preventable viral disease that is experiencing a revival in students attending second and third level colleges. Large mumps outbreaks have been reported in several countries despite the presence of childhood immunisation programmes over many years, including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. In 2008, 1,377 cases of mumps were notified in Ireland and 1,734 in the first three months of 2009 (provisional data). This paper reviews the recent epidemiology of mumps in the Mid-West region of Ireland and highlights preventive measures. A substantial proportion of cases were not laboratory-confirmed and it is important that doctors continue to notify suspected cases. In the Irish Mid-West, data from enhanced surveillance shows a high proportion of mumps in the age group 15-24 years. Complications were uncommon and rarely severe. Where data were available, over half of the cases did not recall having received two doses of MMR, but most recalled one dose. Parents should continue to ensure children receive both MMR vaccinations so that uptake is optimal for protection. Steps were taken to increase awareness of the disease in the school, college and university settings. Preventive measures implemented to limit mumps transmission in the school\\/college setting over recent years included vaccination of close contacts, isolation for five days and hand hygiene.

  16. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  17. Six upper incisors: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneburg, Mirjam; Meller, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes our therapeutic approach taken in a girl with eruption disturbance of the upper anterior teeth. Two supernumerary teeth were involved, which required a combination of orthodontic and surgical treatment. The initial situation in the upper anterior segment was characterized by two supernumerary mesial incisors, ectopic eruption of the distally located lateral incisors, and crowded tooth buds in the canine areas. Key decisions had to be made as to whether any teeth needed to be extracted and, if so, regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Removing teeth too early would have preempted a complete assessment of tooth quality, whereas late extraction would have carried a risk of eruption disturbance. Once the distal lateral incisors had erupted, the supernumerary mesial incisors were extracted and the central incisors (initially located in between) mesialized with a bracket appliance. Following space closure and mesialization of the lateral incisors, a functional appliance was used. Tooth 13 was erupting, while tooth 23 was displaced and subsequently aligned as part of the final bracket treatment. To successfully treat eruption disturbances, a careful diagnostic workup is essential, including informative radiographs, personalized treatment planning, and correct decision-making as to whether teeth need to be extracted and regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Finally, the eruption of the canines should be monitored.

  18. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  19. Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article.

  20. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacobi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the frame of the European COST 296 project (Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems, MIERS

    investigations of the climate of the upper atmosphere have been carried out during the last four years to obtain

    new information on the upper atmosphere. Mainly its ionospheric part has been analysed as the ionosphere

    most essential for the propagation of radio waves. Due to collaboration between different European partners

    many new results have been derived in the fields of long-term trends of different ionospheric and related atmospheric

    parameters, the investigations of different types of atmospheric waves and their impact on the ionosphere,

    the variability of the ionosphere, and the investigation of some space weather effects on the ionosphere.


  1. The Eco-Behavioral Approach to Surveys and Social Accounts for Rural Communities: Exploratory Analyses and Interpretations of Roger G. Barker's Microdata from the Behavior Setting Survey of Midwest, Kansas in 1963-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Karl A.

    The concept of behavior settings--the environments shaping individual behavior--was originated by Roger Barker in 1950 in connection with his community surveys in a small Kansas town, code-named Midwest. This book seeks to provide rural social scientists with an understanding of Barker's eco-behavioral approach and proposed adaptations of it to…

  2. The drought of 2012: Effects on photosynthesis and soil respiration in bioenergy cropping systems of the Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, M.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of drought conditions across the central US. This heightened risk on producers and economies alike also supports the need to improve our understanding of how extreme environmental conditions impact other ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, which is directly linked to net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In doing so, the scientific community aims to improve the realism of ecosystem models that are relied upon to project changes in large scale and long-term land surface-atmosphere carbon exchange as they are affected by continued land management change and climate change. One such large-scale land management change of the next several decades in the Midwest US could be the expansion of bioenergy cropping systems across the landscape. A wide range of bioenergy cropping systems (e.g., miscanthus, switchgrass, diverse prairie, hybrid poplar) are now targeted to support a feedstock supply chain for production of cellulosic biofuels. Many of these agroecosystems have only recently begun to appear as functional types in dynamic ecosystem models, and a general lack of observational data across a wide range of soils and climate has hampered model development and validation. In response to this shortcoming, from 2009 through 2012, component measurements of ecosystem carbon exchange (total soil respiration and leaf level photosynthetic rates) have been made along with measurements of other soil and meteorological variables in three model bioenergy cropping systems (continuous corn, hybrid poplar and switchgrass) at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) field trial at Arlington, Wisconsin. The three cropping systems encompass a wide range of growth (e.g. C3 vs. C4, annual vs. perennial) and management (e.g., tillage, harvesting) strategies that are predicted to impart different controls on NEE given likely varying biological responses to extreme weather events. Throughout the study period, the

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Dovern, A.; Fink, G. R.; Weiss, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients’ everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients’ prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed...

  4. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Science and Computer Engineering, Teacher Training University, 599 Taleghani Avenue, Tehran 15618 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: soleimani_d@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out.

  5. Upper plenum mixing in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Parameswaran, V.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the emergency core cooling injection into the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor has been formulated and implemented into the TRACB02 computer program. The model consists of a spray model and a submerged jet model. The submerged jet model is used when the spray nozzles are covered by a two-phase mixture, and the spray model is used when the nozzles are uncovered. The upper plenum model has been assessed by comparison to an upper plenum mixing test in the Steam Sector Test Facility. It is found that the model accurately predicts the phenomena in the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor

  6. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Smartphone supported upper limb prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepp D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available State of the art upper limb prostheses offer up to six active DoFs (degrees of freedom and are controlled using different grip patterns. This low number of DoFs combined with a machine-human-interface which does not provide control over all DoFs separately result in a lack of usability for the patient. The aim of this novel upper limb prosthesis is both offering simplified control possibilities for changing grip patterns depending on the patients’ priorities and the improvement of grasp capability. Design development followed the design process requirements given by the European Medical Device Directive 93/42 ECC and was structured into the topics mechanics, software and drive technology. First user needs were identified by literature research and by patient feedback. Consequently, concepts were evaluated against technical and usability requirements. A first evaluation prototype with one active DoF per finger was manufactured. In a second step a test setup with two active DoF per finger was designed. The prototype is connected to an Android based smartphone application. Two main grip patterns can be preselected in the software application and afterwards changed and used by the EMG signal. Three different control algorithms can be selected: “all-day”, “fine” and “tired muscle”. Further parameters can be adjusted to customize the prosthesis to the patients’ needs. First patient feedback certified the prosthesis an improved level of handling compared to the existing devices. Using the two DoF test setup, the possibilities of finger control with a neural network are evaluated at the moment. In a first user feedback test, the smartphone based software application increased the device usability, e.g. the change within preselected grip patterns and the “tired muscle” algorithm. Although the overall software application was positively rated, the handling of the prosthesis itself needs to be proven within a patient study to be

  8. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.

  9. Report from upper atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carignan, G.R.; Roble, R.G.; Mende, S.B.; Nagy, A.F.; Hudson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the understanding of the thermosphere resulted from the analysis of data accrued through the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, and observations from rockets, balloons, and ground based instruments. However, new questions were posed by the data that have not yet been answered. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been less thoroughly studied because of the difficulty of accessibility on a global scale, and many rather fundamental characteristics of these regions are not well understood. A wide variety of measurement platforms can be used to implement various parts of a measurement strategy, but the major thrusts of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program would require Explorer-class missions. A remote sensing mission to explore the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and one and two Explorer-type spacecraft to enable a mission into the thermosphere itself would provide the essential components of a productive program of exploration of this important region of the upper atomsphere. Theoretical mission options are explored

  10. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 consecutive in and out patients who had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at ...

  12. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  13. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Hussain, Shahid; Lozin, Vadim; Monnot, Jé rô me; Ries, Bernard; Zamaraev, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph

  14. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  15. CHUVAS, EROSIVIDADE, ERODIBILIDADE, USO DO SOLO E SUAS RELAÇÕES COM FOCOS EROSIVOS LINEARES NA ALTA BACIA DO RIO ARAGUAIA / Rainfall, erosivity, erodibility, land use and their relationships with erosion sites in the upper Araguaia River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvando Carlos da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensive process of land occupation by farmers in the tropical savanna region of MidwestBrazil during the last three decades has promoted several environment impacts, such as theoccurrence of gully erosion processes as a consequence of intensive deforestation. Just in theUpper Araguaia River Basin, it was identified more than 300 large and medium gully features,which are related with the high natural susceptibility of the sandy soils; high erosivity and erodibility; inadequate land-use; lack of soil conservation practices; and a high annual rainfallindex during the rainy season. The objective of this research was to identify spatial relationshipsbetween rainfall distribution, erosivity, erodibility, land-use, and gully erosion distribution,which may support environmental planning actions related to land use conservation.Quantitative results show a high correlation between gully erosion distribution and higherosivity/erodibility and inadequate land-use.

  16. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  17. Climate influences on upper Limpopo River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Limpopo Valley, hydro-meteorology, surface water deficit. * To whom all ... millenia and there is a history of drought impacts on vegetation. (Ekblom et ... water budget of the upper Limpopo River valley using direct.

  18. γ -phlebography of the upper limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacolot, G.; Legendre, P.; Millour, L.; Barra, J.A.; Perramant, M.; Morin, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    γ-phlebography is an easy and repetitive exploration of deep venous thrombosis. This investigation becomes very useful for the upper limbs on account of the present frequency of iatrogenic thrombosis [fr

  19. Lathlike upper bainite in a silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Zhao Zhenbo; Bhole, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of upper bainite formed isothermally at 400 deg. C for different holding times in a 1.83 wt.% silicon steel have been investigated by optical metallograph, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the early stage of upper bainitic transformation, lathlike bainite whose individual lath ferrite is separated by the thin film type of retained austenite is obtained. As the isothermal holding times are increased, the blocky region consisting of retained austenite and martensite is also found. The stability of retained austenite in lathlike upper bainite is studied in relation to the isothermal treatment times, and the heat treatment conditions. The results show that an optimum combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the formation of bainitic ferrite (BF) and a large amount of thin film carbon-enriched retained austenite in the upper bainite

  20. upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients referred

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... Objective: To determine the pattern of referral and endoscopy ... build a model of a flexible fibre imaging device (2) ..... a retrospective and prospective audit of all upper ... endoscopy should be reserved for the high risk.

  1. Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2

    1977-03-21

    Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.

  2. An approach to the painful upper limb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain in the upper limb is a common presenting complaint in the primary health care setting and the ... disruptions or pathological fracture, as opposed to ... and a neurological assessment of the lower limbs. This is in addition to a thorough.

  3. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  4. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...

  5. Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jagdeesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

  6. Midwest Flood of 2008: Lake Michigan Basin-Wide Summer Plankton Bloom is not due to Nutrient Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhel, R. L.; Aguilar, C.; Balch, B.

    2008-12-01

    Major Midwestern US flooding occurred in June of 2008 following over 30cm of rainfall in a 4-day period. Tributaries to Lake Michigan swelled, with outflow from the Milwaukee River increasing 30-fold from long-term means of 8.5 m3/s to over 250 m3/s. Flood stage was sustained for 8 days and dampened over a protracted 30-day period. A series of inshore, transect, and mid-lake cruises established the presence of unseasonally strong gradients in surface phytoplankton biomass moving progressively offshore, to ultimately influence at least half of the 150 km-wide Lake Michigan basin. Remote sensing of chlorophyll (chl) and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (at 490nm) documented the existence of blooms offshore of each major river on both sides of the lake persisting into mid-July, and then disappearing from surface waters, not visible to space-based satellite sensors. Profiles detailed deep chlorophyll maxima that were distinct from previous years. Surface transects in 2007 yielded typical summer chl of quagga mussel-infested shallower reef zone. Offshore transects displayed high chl in the upper 5m only a few days after the onset of high flow. Unseasonably high phytoplankton population densities progressed with time and distance offshore in a manner suggestive of advection of a surface lens across the well-stratified lake. As the lens progressed offshore, populations continued to grow, appearing as a band of high chl extending across the lake. After 2 weeks, inshore areas had substantially lower surface biomass than those offshore, reflecting settling of denser cells during a long period of relatively calm weather. Development of deep chlorophyll maxima (DCM) at 25-40m followed the decrease of surface populations at all locations deeper than 50m. High satellite- derived diffuse attenuation coefficients also reflected the presence of dense algal populations in the upper water column. 1% PAR penetration reached to only 25m, substantially short of the 35-40m

  7. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  8. Evaluation of a model framework to estimate soil and soil organic carbon redistribution by water and tillage using 137Cs in two U.S. Midwest agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuguang; Schumacher, Joseph A.; Schumacher, Thomas E.; Kaspar, Thomas C.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Napton, Darrell; Jaynes, Dan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic exponents (m = 1.0–1.6 and n = 1.0–1.3) using soil redistribution rates from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that the aggregated 24-m DEM, m = 1.4 and n = 1.0 for rill erosion, and m = 1.0 and n = 1.0 for sheet erosion, provided the best fit with the observation data at both sites. Moreover, estimated average SOC redistributions were 1.3 ± 9.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 1 and 3.6 ± 14.3 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 2. Spatial distribution patterns showed SOC loss (negative values) in the eroded areas and SOC gain (positive value) in the deposition areas. This study demonstrated the importance of the spatial resolution and the topographic exponents to estimate and map soil redistribution and the SOC dynamics throughout the landscape, helping to identify places where erosion and deposition from water and tillage are occurring at high rates. Additional research is needed to improve the application of the model framework for use in local and regional studies where rainfall erosivity and cover management factors vary. Therefore, using this model framework can help to improve the information about the spatial distribution of soil erosion across agricultural landscapes and to gain a better understanding of SOC

  9. Spatial and temporal variation of algal assemblages in six Midwest agricultural streams having varying levels of atrazine and other physicochemical attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, J. Malia, E-mail: andrusm@waterborne-env.com [Waterborne Environmental, Inc., 2001 South First Street, Suite 109, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Winter, Diane, E-mail: dwinter1@juno.com [Rhithron Associates, Inc., 33 Fort Missoula Rd., Missoula, MT 59804 (United States); Algal Analysis, LLC, Missoula, MT (United States); Scanlan, Michael, E-mail: mscanlan@maptech-inc.com [MapTech, Inc., 3154 State Street, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Sullivan, Sean, E-mail: ssullivan@rhithron.com [Rhithron Associates, Inc., 33 Fort Missoula Rd., Missoula, MT 59804 (United States); Bollman, Wease, E-mail: wbollman@rhithron.com [Rhithron Associates, Inc., 33 Fort Missoula Rd., Missoula, MT 59804 (United States); Waggoner, J.B., E-mail: jwaggoner@inovatia.com [Inovatia, Inc., 120 East Davis Street, Fayette, MO 65248 (United States); Hosmer, Alan J., E-mail: alan.hosmer@syngenta.com [Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC, 410 Swing Rd., Greensboro, NC 27419 (United States); Brain, Richard A., E-mail: richard.brain@syngenta.com [Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC, 410 Swing Rd., Greensboro, NC 27419 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Potential effects of pesticides on stream algae occur alongside complex environmental influences; in situ studies examining these effects together are few, and have not typically controlled for collinearity of variables. We monitored the dynamics of periphyton, phytoplankton, and environmental factors including atrazine, and other water chemistry variables at 6 agricultural streams in the Midwest US from spring to summer of 2011 and 2012, and used variation partitioning of community models to determine the community inertia that is explained uniquely and/or jointly by atrazine and other environmental factors or groups of factors. Periphyton and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly structured by year, day of year, and site, and exhibited dynamic synchrony both between site–years and between periphyton and phytoplankton in the same site–year. The majority of inertia in the models (55.4% for periphyton, 68.4% for phytoplankton) was unexplained. The explained inertia in the models was predominantly shared (confounded) between variables and variable groups (13.3, 30.9%); the magnitude of inertia that was explained uniquely by variable groups (15.1, 18.3%) was of the order hydroclimate > chemistry > geography > atrazine for periphyton, and chemistry > hydroclimate > geography > atrazine for phytoplankton. The variables most influential to the assemblage structure included flow and velocity variables, and time since pulses above certain thresholds of nitrate + nitrite, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and atrazine. Time since a ≥ 30 μg/L atrazine pulse uniquely explained more inertia than time since pulses ≥ 10 μg/L or daily or historic atrazine concentrations; this result is consistent with studies concluding that the effects of atrazine on algae typically only occur at ≥ 30 μg/L and are recovered from. - Highlights: • We monitored algal communities at 6 Midwest streams receiving atrazine in 2011 and 2012. • Partitioning of CCA models of

  10. Spatial and temporal variation of algal assemblages in six Midwest agricultural streams having varying levels of atrazine and other physicochemical attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrus, J. Malia; Winter, Diane; Scanlan, Michael; Sullivan, Sean; Bollman, Wease; Waggoner, J.B.; Hosmer, Alan J.; Brain, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Potential effects of pesticides on stream algae occur alongside complex environmental influences; in situ studies examining these effects together are few, and have not typically controlled for collinearity of variables. We monitored the dynamics of periphyton, phytoplankton, and environmental factors including atrazine, and other water chemistry variables at 6 agricultural streams in the Midwest US from spring to summer of 2011 and 2012, and used variation partitioning of community models to determine the community inertia that is explained uniquely and/or jointly by atrazine and other environmental factors or groups of factors. Periphyton and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly structured by year, day of year, and site, and exhibited dynamic synchrony both between site–years and between periphyton and phytoplankton in the same site–year. The majority of inertia in the models (55.4% for periphyton, 68.4% for phytoplankton) was unexplained. The explained inertia in the models was predominantly shared (confounded) between variables and variable groups (13.3, 30.9%); the magnitude of inertia that was explained uniquely by variable groups (15.1, 18.3%) was of the order hydroclimate > chemistry > geography > atrazine for periphyton, and chemistry > hydroclimate > geography > atrazine for phytoplankton. The variables most influential to the assemblage structure included flow and velocity variables, and time since pulses above certain thresholds of nitrate + nitrite, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and atrazine. Time since a ≥ 30 μg/L atrazine pulse uniquely explained more inertia than time since pulses ≥ 10 μg/L or daily or historic atrazine concentrations; this result is consistent with studies concluding that the effects of atrazine on algae typically only occur at ≥ 30 μg/L and are recovered from. - Highlights: • We monitored algal communities at 6 Midwest streams receiving atrazine in 2011 and 2012. • Partitioning of CCA models of

  11. VHA Support Service Center Electronic Wait List (EWL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The goal of the Electronic Wait List (EWL) is to provide care to the patient as quickly as possible. To facilitate this goal, patients may be placed on a Wait List...

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHA227 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available um chromoso... 33 7.5 AY698035_1( AY698035 |pid:none) Desmognathus marmoratus isolate 69... 33 7.5 AY612348_...1( AY612348 |pid:none) Desmognathus quadramaculatus vouch... 33 9.9 AY698038_1( AY698038 |pid:none) Desmogna...thus marmoratus isolate T0... 33 9.9 AY612344_1( AY612344 |pid:none) Desmognathus... marmoratus voucher KH... 33 9.9 AY698041_1( AY698041 |pid:none) Desmognathus marmoratus isolate T0... 33 9.

  13. Dicty_cDB: VHA340 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY698035 |pid:none) Desmognathus marmoratus isolate 69... 33 5.9 AC116957_68( AC116957 |pid:none) Dictyo...stelium discoideum chromoso... 33 7.6 AY612344_1( AY612344 |pid:none) Desmognathus marmoratus voucher KH...

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHA306 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EGIPPDQQRLX Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ---xxgxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxixxvxxxxxxxxxx...wxxxgxxxxxxxxxhskgi xxsxsfkixrwyanfc*nsxw*nyhfgs*rx**y*kckg*npr*rrystrstkinxcr*t ir...PDQQRLXFAGKQ LEDGRTLXDYNIQKESTXHLVLRLXGGMQXFVKTXTGKTITLEVEGXDNIENVKAKIQDK EGIPPDQQRLX Frame C: ---xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxixxxxgxxxxxxxx...xxxvxxxxxvxxxxxxtfxrnx xfx*f*d*xvvckfllklsxvklslwklkvxiilkm*rlkskikkvfhqinkd*xlpvnn

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHA180 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ophrenia region contig 1 section 5 of 11 of the complete...11 clone RP11-195I23, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 25 unordered pieces. 44 0.15 4 AE014308 |AE014308.1 Homo sapiens chromosome 13q34 schiz

  16. 2009 VHA Facility Quality and Safety Report - Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2008 Hospital Report Card was mandated by the FY08 Appropriations Act, and focused on Congressionally-mandated metrics applicable to general patient populations....

  17. 2009 VHA Facility Quality and Safety Report - Patient Satisfaction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2008 Hospital Report Card was mandated by the FY08 Appropriations Act, and focused on Congressionally-mandated metrics applicable to general patient populations....

  18. Estimering af brændstofforbrug vha. GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Det er simpelt og billigt at opsamle GPS målinger fra køretøjer. Når større mængder GPS data indsamles fra et passende antal køretøjer kan dataen bruges til at beregne f.eks. køretider. Det er ligeledes muligt ud fra GPS data at estimere miljøindikatorer så som, hvor aggressivt kører bilister og er...... der nogle vejstrækninger, der har en højere (negativ) miljø påvirkning end andre? I denne artikel præsenterer et forsøg, hvor GPS data anvendes til at estimere brændstofforbruget ved en enkelt tur og for vejnettet generelt. Dette gøres ved at opbygge en database med GPS data. Ud fra disse data gives...

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHA341 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DDMVKEGFVEATQN CKIVFQFVEKQSSYWV*kfdggnlvvsfksicntsdnanfnfeall*n*eknknknkkxi iensi...VEATQN CKIVFQFVEKQSSYWV*kfdggnlvvsfksicntsdnanfnfeall*n*eknknknkkxi iensixxf Frame B: *yykhiif*nafkpcc*kiikr

  20. 2009 VHA Facility Quality and Safety Report - Hospital Settings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2008 Hospital Report Card was mandated by the FY08 Appropriations Act, and focused on Congressionally-mandated metrics applicable to general patient populations....

  1. Dicty_cDB: VHA408 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apiens chromosome 13q34 schizophrenia region contig 1 section 5 of 11 of the complete sequence. 42 0.37 6 DU...ome 11 clone RP11-195I23, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 25 unordered pieces. 44 0.14 4 AE014308 |AE014308.1 Homo s

  2. VHA Support Service Center Primary Care Management Module (PCMM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Primary Care Management Module (PCMM) was developed to assist VA facilities in implementing Primary Care. PCMM supports both Primary Care and non-Primary Care...

  3. Dicty_cDB: VHA709 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 76 6e-13 A...X882278_1( AX882278 |pid:none) Sequence 17183 from Patent EP10746... 76 6e-13 BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecoli

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHA135 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ll open reading fra... 76 1e-12 AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecolic acid oxid... 76 1e-... BC114006_1( BC114006 |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid oxidas... 76 2e-12 protein update 2009. 6.26 PS

  5. Dicty_cDB: VHA439 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Bos taurus L-pipecolic acid oxidas... 76 2e-12 CR457155_1( CR457155 |...pid:none) Homo sapiens full open reading fra... 76 2e-12 AF134593_1( AF134593 |pid:none) Homo sapiens L-pipecoli

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHA862 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available complete sequence. 38 0.17 5 CX072513 |CX072513.1 UCRCS08_28E10_g Parent Washington Navel Orange Callus cDNA...72512.1 UCRCS08_28E10_b Parent Washington Navel Orange Callus cDNA Library UCRCS0... Library UCRCS08-2 Citrus sinensis cDNA clone UCRCS08-28E10-J20-1-4.g, mRNA sequence. 46 1.2 1 CX072512 |CX0

  7. Vridningsstivhed beregnet vha. statisk tilladelige spændingsfordelinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Bo; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    The present report shortly describes the theory of calculation of torsion stiffness by means of the energy equation applied to statically admissible stress fields. Moreover it describes an easy way of determining these stress fields by means of Prandtl's stress function.The calculations are carri...... values) can be achieved. The best solution for the rectangular cross-section has a maximum deviation from the exact solution of 11%. This solution also provides an acceptable approximation to the maximum shear-stress. The deviation from the exact maximum stress is 17%.......The present report shortly describes the theory of calculation of torsion stiffness by means of the energy equation applied to statically admissible stress fields. Moreover it describes an easy way of determining these stress fields by means of Prandtl's stress function.The calculations are carried...... through for two solid cross-sections, a square and a rectangular one. Different solutions are suggested, and comparison with the exact solution is made. The comparison shows that even with very simple assumptions about the stress field, fairly accurate approximations to the torsion stiffness (lower bound...

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHA586 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available il*fcdlfkgkh*pnnqnkk*vl*li cnsd*yhdtcylha*lvdpasshmlvskikpcmskykflydetadgslqq**tnrlsgft fwitavnrg*yiqamgdwqr...lyvfldngta cv*rn*af*lrfkk* Frame B: yfvehg*rpdlticqltm*hlmnlfnw**k*rdlil*fcdlfkgkh*pnnqnkk*vl*li cnsd*yhdtcylha*lvdpasshmlvskikpcms

  9. Dicty_cDB: VHA372 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available and read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering clo...ne MHPP142o16. 50 0.16 1 CR044130 |CR044130.1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineerin...in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering clone MHPP47e19. 50 0.16... 1 CR023465 |CR023465.1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering...insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering clone MHPP414o21.

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHA138 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering clone MHPP186g09. 50 0.17 1 CR034434 |CR034434....1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering...4 CR103667 |CR103667.1 Forward strand read from insert in 3'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engine...ering clone MHPP142o16. 50 0.17 1 CR044130 |CR044130.1 Forward strand read from ins

  11. Dicty_cDB: VHA465 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cid sequence vsrtgdvg*tkywdktsnih**ipqkvlvh*dsrtvamevgir*gvcnnspakwtspeng *r*qwmv...rtgdvg*tkywdktsnih**ipqkvlvh*dsrtvamevgir*gvcnnspakwtspeng *r*qwmvdaqslkeviilltcrka*r*rrslnvnssgvvfsadldgssk

  12. Assessment of the health and environmental effects of power generation in the Midwest. Volume II. Ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, A J; Pentecost, E D

    1977-04-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six Midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Volume I of the report includes a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and the related impacts on air quality, water quality, and human health. Volume II includes background information on the native ecosystems, climate, soils, and agricultural land use and a description of the ecological impacts expected from coal utilization in southern Illinois, which as ecosystems representative of a large segment of the six-state area.

  13. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  14. An analysis of students' perceptions to Just Culture in the aviation industry: A study of a Midwest aviation training program (case study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Lazo Akram

    The research will focus on the discussion of the ways in which the top-down nature of Safety Management Systems (SMS) can be used to create `Just Culture' within the aviation industry. Specific focus will be placed on an aviation program conducted by an accredited university, with the institution in focus being the midwest aviation training program. To this end, a variety of different aspects of safety culture in aviation and aviation management will be considered. The focus on the implementation strategies vital for the existence of a `Just Culture' within the aviation industry in general, and particularly within the aforementioned institution's aerospace program. Some ideas and perspectives will be subsequently suggested and designed for implementation, within the institution's program. The aspect of enhancing the overall safety output gained, from the institution, as per standards set within the greater American Aviation industry will be examined. Overall, the paper will seek to showcase the vital importance of implementing the SMS standardization model in the institution's Aerospace program, while providing some areas of concern. Such concerns will be based on a number of issues, which are pertinent to the overall enhancement of the institution's observance of aviation safety. This will be both in general application of an SMS, as well as personalized/ specific applications in areas in need of improvement. Overall, through the paper, the author hopes to provide a better understanding of the institution's placement, with regard to not only aviation safety, but also the implementation of an effective `Just Culture' within the program.

  15. Beck Depression Inventory-II: Factor Analyses with Three Groups of Midlife Women of African Descent in the Midwest, the South, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Faye A; Yarandi, Hossein; Evans, Edris; Still, Carolyn; Mickels, Prince; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris; Conic, Ruzica

    2018-03-01

    This research encompasses a factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), which involves three groups of midlife women of African descent who reside in the Midwest, the South, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The purpose of the study was to determine the factor structure of the BDI-II when administered to a sample of women aged 40-65 of African descent who reside in the three distinct geographical regions of the United States. A correlational, descriptive design was used, and 536 women of African descent were invited to participate in face-to-face interviews that transpired in community settings. Results of the factor analysis revealed a two-factor explanation. Factor one included symptoms such as punishment feelings and pessimism (cognitive), and the second factor included symptoms such as tiredness and loss of energy (somatic-affective). The application of the Beck Depression Inventory-II among the three groups of women generated specific information about each group and common findings across the groups. Knowledge gained from the research could help to guide specific intervention programs for the three groups of women, and explicate the common approaches that could be used for the three groups.

  16. Interventional studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide a means whereby physiologic and pathophysiologic features can be observed from a unique and noninvasive perspective. While nuclear medicine studies by their very nature lack the high spatial resolution of the radiographic approach, the data derived are readily quantitated and presented in numerical fashion to provide functional and dynamic information in which the influences of interventions may be observed. This chapter outlines the scope of such interventions in studies of the upper GI tract with emphasis on examinations for gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying. The interactions of nutrients, physical maneuvers of pharmacologic agents on nuclear medicine studies of the upper GI tract may be intentional to render a test more sensitive or to evaluate the effect of therapy, or may represent an unintentional side effect that must be taken into account if misinterpretation is to be avoided

  17. Upper limb treatment technigues for stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Kornet

    2017-03-01

    It was considered that the most important elements of the treatment used in the rehabilitation of the paretic upper limb are: exercise matching the anti-spasm pattern, maintaining appropriate position for exercise that provide an approximation of the shoulder joint and the use of cross-facilitation. The study indicates that the treatment of a post stroke upper limb should be based on the: physiotherapy, kinesiotherapy and specific positioning - all of them corresponding to a given stage of the disease. The work also presents the most frequently used methods, especially highlighting: the Prorioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF, Bobath, Brunnstrom, CIMT and OIT. It was also shown that in order to enhance the effects of a post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation, it should be extended by modern methods such as Mirror Therapy, Virtual Reality or Robot-assisted Therapy.

  18. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics

  19. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  20. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  1. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2016-08-08

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph classes, such as P4-free graphs or 2K2-free graphs.For classes defined by finitely many forbidden induced subgraphs, the boundary separating difficult instances of the problem from polynomially solvable ones consists of the so called boundary classes.However, none of such classes has been identified so far for the upper dominating set problem.In the present paper, we discover the first boundary class for this problem.

  2. Transfusion strategy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, James; Lang, Eddy

    2015-09-01

    Clinical question Does a hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 70 g/L yield better patient outcomes than a threshold of 90 g/L in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Article chosen Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013;368(1):11-21. Study objectives The authors of this study measured mortality, from any cause, within the first 45 days, in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, who were managed with a hemoglobin threshold for red cell transfusion of either 70 g/L or 90 g/L. The secondary outcome measures included rate of further bleeding and rate of adverse events.

  3. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  4. Membraneous stenosis of the upper oesophagus ('webs')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.L.; Kurtz, B.

    1981-01-01

    Webs of the upper oesophagus are sail-like mucosal folds of unknown aetiology. Small, transverse webs on the anterior wall of the oesophagus are not uncommon incidental findings which are easily overlooked on routine examination. Extensive, circular membranes in the upper oesophagus, on the other hand, are rare; these may lead to severe difficulty with swallowing and may be associated with regurgitation. One example of a transverse, and three cases of circular webs are described, which caused stenosis and dysphagia and which, in some cases, were multiple. The aetiology is discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Schreiber, Trine; Tønnesen, Pia Hvid

    The discussion paper is a publication from the project Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School. The project is a collaboration between the National Library of Education at the Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, and the Royal School of Library and Information Science....... The project is funded by Denmark's Electronic Research Library (DEFF). The discussion paper is published in connection with the conference Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School on 22 April 2010. See video streaming from the conference etc. at www.dpu.dk/info....

  6. Collaborative Tools in Upper Secondary School - Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Degn, Hans-Peter; Bech, Christian Winther

    2013-01-01

    The paper will discuss potentials of digital media to support student engagement and student production in Danish upper secondary education with a specific focus on group work and collaboration. With the latest school reform, upper secondary education in Denmark has experienced an increased focus...... on the system theoretical approach will be described. Third, the findings from the qualitative, and quantitative studies will be presented. The paper concludes that the study demonstrates changes in the way group work is organised by the students using digital media, and a tendency to develop student engagement...

  7. Emergency readmission following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömdahl, Martin; Helgeson, Johan; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence, clinical predictors, and associated mortality of all-cause emergency readmissions after acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with AUGIB from an area of 600 000 inhabitants in Sweden admitted in a single institution...

  8. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  9. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovern, A; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H

    2012-07-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients' everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients' prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed and ill-treated entity. Based on a systematic literature search, this review summarizes the current tools of diagnosis and treatment strategies for upper limb apraxia. It furthermore provides clinicians with graded recommendations. In particular, a short screening test for apraxia, and a more comprehensive diagnostic apraxia test for clinical use are recommended. Although currently only a few randomized controlled studies investigate the efficacy of different apraxia treatments, the gesture training suggested by Smania and colleagues can be recommended for the therapy of apraxia, the effects of which were shown to extend to activities of daily living and to persist for at least 2 months after completion of the training. This review aims at directing the reader's attention to the ecological relevance of apraxia. Moreover, it provides clinicians with appropriate tools for the reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of apraxia. Nevertheless, this review also highlights the need for further research into how to improve diagnosis of apraxia based on neuropsychological models and to develop new therapeutic strategies.

  11. Team Teaching at Upper Arlington School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Annette R.

    1968-01-01

    Team teaching has been used for 4 years in the 10th-grade English classes at Upper Arlington High School near Columbus, Ohio. Units are prepared, presented, and evaluated by teachers working together voluntarily. A 6-day American literature unit introducing Romanticism has been particularly successful. The contrasts between Neoclassicism and…

  12. Upper Atmosphere Research Report Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-12-30

    as a whol,. The history of the program was given in some detail in the first report*. The part of the Naval Research Laboratory in upper atmosphere...5B and 6. The third gage was installed as a service to the spectroscopy program. The gago elements were simply 6 watt, 110 volt Mazda pilot *1 lamps

  13. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  14. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various upper gastrointestinal problems was 84.7%. The use of medication that can reduce the H. pylori density was common among the infected patients, as history of antibiotics use, acid suppressant use and medications for eradication treatment were ...

  15. Local anaesthesia in the upper jaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, J.A.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The sensory innervation of the upper jaw arises from the second trunk of the trigeminal nerve, the maxillary nerve. This main branch of the trigeminal nerve leaves the neurocranium via the foramen rotundum, reaches the pterygopalatine fossa and runs straight through the infraorbital nerve, branching

  16. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands

  18. Upper blepharoplasty : Defying dogmas and clarifying uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Shariselle Mirna Wietske

    2016-01-01

    Upper blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures by (oculo)plastic surgeons and it is generally recognized as a relatively easy technical procedure. However, seemingly minor aspects before, during and after surgery can be identified that significantly contribute to surgical

  19. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utin, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.utin@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Fabritsiev, Sergey [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Koenig, Werner [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Prebeck, Markus [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Privalova, Elena [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ranzinger, Franz [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Savrukhin, Petr [Russian Federation ITER Domestic Agency, Kurchatov sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Schiller, Thomas [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  20. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utin, Yuri; Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James; Fabritsiev, Sergey; Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio; Koenig, Werner; Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny; Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc; Prebeck, Markus; Privalova, Elena; Ranzinger, Franz; Savrukhin, Petr; Schiller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  1. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  2. Do statins protect against upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Aalykke, Claus

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recently, an apparent protective effect of statins against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) was postulated in a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on acute nonvariceal UGB alone or in combinations with low-dose aspirin and other...

  3. Teaching Astrophysics to Upper Level Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn Bradt, Hale

    2010-03-01

    A Socratic peer-instruction method for teaching upper level undergraduates is presented. Basically, the instructor sits with the students and guides their presentations of the material. My two textbooks* (on display) as well as many others are amenable to this type of teaching. *Astronomy Methods - A Physical Approach to Astronomical Observations (CUP 2004) *Astrophysics Processes-The Physics of Astronomical Phenomena (CUP 2008)

  4. Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; Bremer, J.; Emmert, J. T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 5803 (2006), s. 1253-1254 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Global change * Upper Atmosphere * Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006

  5. Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, Norman B.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m−2 yr−1and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr−1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m−2 yr−1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m−2 yr−1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

  6. Energy efficiency of conventional, organic, and alternative cropping systems for food and fuel at a site in the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2010-05-15

    The prospect of biofuel production on a large scale has focused attention on energy efficiencies associated with different agricultural systems and production goals. We used 17 years of detailed data on agricultural practices and yields to calculate an energy balance for different cropping systems under both food and fuel scenarios. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically based (organic) practices, and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). We compared energy balances under two scenarios: all harvestable biomass used for food versus all harvestable biomass used for biofuel production. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) and the low-chemical input system intermediate (5.2 GJ ha(-1) y(-1)). For each system, the average energy output for food was always greater than that for fuel. Overall energy efficiencies ranged from output:input ratios of 10 to 16 for conventional and no-till food production and from 7 to 11 for conventional and no-till fuel production, respectively. Alfalfa for fuel production had an efficiency similar to that of no-till grain production for fuel. Our analysis points to a more energetically efficient use of cropland for food than for fuel production and large differences in efficiencies attributable to management, which suggests multiple opportunities for improvement.

  7. Assessing non-linear variation of temperature and precipitation for different growth periods of maize and their impacts on phenology in the Midwest of Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enliang; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Alu, Si; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun; Ha, Si

    2018-05-01

    In the past two decades, the regional climate in China has undergone significant change, resulting in crop yield reduction and complete failure. The goal of this study is to detect the variation of temperature and precipitation for different growth periods of maize and assess their impact on phenology. The daily meteorological data in the Midwest of Jilin Province during 1960-2014 were used in the study. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition method was adopted to analyze the non-linear trend and fluctuation in temperature and precipitation, and the sensitivity of the length of the maize growth period to temperature and precipitation was analyzed by the wavelet cross-transformation method. The results show that the trends of temperature and precipitation change are non-linear for different growth periods of maize, and the average temperature in the sowing-jointing stage was different from that in the other growth stages, showing a slight decrease trend, while the variation amplitude of maximum temperature is smaller than that of the minimum temperature. This indicates that the temperature difference between day and night shows a gradually decreasing trend. Precipitation in the growth period also showed a decreasing non-linear trend, while the inter-annual variability with period of quasi-3-year and quasi-6-year dominated the variation of temperature and precipitation. The whole growth period was shortened by 10.7 days, and the sowing date was advanced by approximately 11 days. We also found that there was a significant resonance period among temperature, precipitation, and phenology. Overall, a negative correlation between phenology and temperature is evident, while a positive correlation with precipitation is exhibited. The results illustrate that the climate suitability for maize has reduced over the past decades.

  8. Relationship of nutrition and physical activity behaviors and fitness measures to academic performance for sixth graders in a midwest city school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jane U; Mauch, Lois; Winkelman, Mark R

    2011-02-01

    To support curriculum and policy, a midwest city school district assessed the association of selected categories of nutrition and physical activity (NUTR/PA) behaviors, fitness measures, and body mass index (BMI) with academic performance (AP) for 800 sixth graders. Students completed an adapted Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (NUTR/PA behaviors), fitness assessments (mile run, curl-ups, push-ups, height, and weight) with results matched to standardized scores (Measures of Academic Progress [MAP]), meal price status, and gender. Differences in mean MAP scores (math and reading) were compared by selected categories of each variable utilizing 1-way analysis of variance. Associations were determined by stepwise multiple regression utilizing mean MAP scores (for math and for reading) as the dependent variable and NUTR/PA behaviors, fitness, and BMI categories as independent variables. Significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher MAP math scores were associated with NUTR (more milk and breakfast; less 100% fruit juice and sweetened beverages [SB]) and PA (increased vigorous PA and sports teams; reduced television), and fitness (higher mile run performance). Higher MAP reading scores were associated with NUTR (fewer SB) and PA (increased vigorous PA, reduced television). Regression analysis indicated about 11.1% of the variation in the mean MAP math scores and 6.7% of the mean MAP reading scores could be accounted for by selected NUTR/PA behaviors, fitness, meal price status, and gender. Many positive NUTR/PA behaviors and fitness measures were associated with higher MAP scores supporting the school district focus on healthy lifestyles. Additional factors, including meal price status and gender, contribute to AP. © 2011, Fargo Public School.

  9. Geomechanical Framework for Secure CO2 Storage in Fractured Reservoirs and Caprocks for Sedimentary Basins in theMidwest United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This report presents final technical results for the project Geomechanical Framework for Secure CO2 Storage in Fractured Reservoirs and Caprocks for Sedimentary Basins in the Midwest United States (DE-FE0023330). The project was a three-year effort consisting of seven technical tasks focused on defining geomechanical factors for CO2 storage applications in deep saline rock formations in Ohio and the Midwest United States, because geomechancial issues have been identified as a significant risk factor for large-scale CO2 storage applications. A basin-scale stress-strain analysis was completed to describe the geomechanical setting for rock formations of Ordovician-Cambrian age in Ohio and adjacent areas of the Midwest United States in relation to geologic CO2 storage applications. The tectonic setting, stress orientation-magnitude, and geomechanical and petrophysical parameters for CO2 storage zones and caprocks in the region were cataloged. Ten geophysical image logs were analyzed for natural fractures, borehole breakouts, and drilling-induced fractures. The logs indicated mostly less than 10 fractures per 100 vertical feet in the borehole, with mostly N65E principal stress orientation through the section. Geophysical image logs and other logs were obtained for three wells located near the sites where specific models were developed for geomechanical simulations: Arches site in Boone County, Kentucky; Northern Appalachian Basin site in Chautauqua County, New York; and E-Central Appalachian Basin site in Tuscarawas County, Ohio. For these three wells, 9,700 feet of image logs were processed and interpreted to provide a systematic review of the distribution within each well of natural fractures, wellbore breakouts, faults, and drilling induced fractures. There were many borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures but few natural fractures. Concentrated fractures were present at the Rome-basal sandstone

  10. Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.

  11. CT arteriography of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, K; Matsuura, K; Baba, H; Numaguchi, Y; Komaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-04-01

    The technique of CT arteriography was introduced, and CT images of the upper abdomen were explained. Very clear enhancement of parenchyma and vessels (especially portal vein) of the object organs could be obtained by CT arteriography of the upper abdomen, anatomical structures of organs were identified more easily by CT arteriography than by conventional CT, and the amount of information obtained was increased by using CT arteriography. However, the indication of CT arteriography must be limited, because of its complexity that CT arteriography is performed after angiography and involves the invasion of patients' bodies. As described in many reports, CT arteriography is useful for malignant tumors of the liver, and it is worthwhile, especially when surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma is considered. CT arteriography for organs except the liver has not been discussed sufficiently. Therefore, an application of this method for other organs must be decided after consideration of the balance of the amount of information obtained by CT arteriography with invasion to patients.

  12. Temperature Profile of the Upper Mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.L.

    1980-01-01

    Following the procedure outlined by Magnitsky [1971], thermal profiles of the upper mantle are computed by deriving the thermal gradient from the seismic data given as dv/sub s//drho used along with the values of (dv/sub s//dT9/sub p/ and (dv/sub s//dP)/sub T/ of selected minerals, measured at high temperature. The resulting values of dT/dZ are integrated from 380 km upward toward the surface, where the integrating constant is taken from Akagi and Akimoto's work, T=1400 0 C at 380 km. The resulting geotherms for minerals are used to derive geotherms for an eclogite mantle and a lherzolite mantle, with and without partial melting in the low-velocity zone. The geotherms are all subadiabatic, and some are virtually isothermal in the upper mantle. Some are characterized by a large thermal hump at the lithosphere boundary

  13. Emulating Upper Limb Disorder for Therapy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ayuni binti Che Zakaria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotics not only contributes to the invention of rehabilitation devices, it can also enhance the quality of medical education. In recent years, the use of patient simulators and part-task trainers in the medical education field has brought meaningful improvements in the training of medical practitioners. Nevertheless, in the context of therapy training for upper limb disorders, trainee therapists still have to engage directly with the patients to gain experience of the rehabilitation of physical diseases. In this work, a high-fidelity part-task trainer that is able to reproduce the stiffness of spasticity and rigidity symptoms of the upper limb, such as those observed in post-stroke patients and Parkinson's disease patients, has been developed. Based on the evaluation carried out by two experienced therapists, the developed part-task trainer is able to simulate different patient cases and help trainee therapists gain pre-clinical experience in a safe and intuitive learning environment.

  14. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banisalamah, A.A.; Mraiat, Z.M.

    2007-01-01

    To define the various causes of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to outline management modalities and to determine the final outcome of patients. A retrospective analysis of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from January 2003 to December 2006 (4 years) was conducted. Patients with endoscopically proven variceal bleeding were excluded. Out of the 120 patients, most of the patients belonged to an age group of more than 50 years (mean 48.5 years). Haematemesis was the most common presentation and Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesion (AGML) was the most frequently encountered lesion. The cause of bleeding was not identified in 10 patients (undetermined group). Twenty-two (18.3%) underwent surgery and we had an overall mortality of 15.8%. AGML being the leading cause can be managed conservatively most of the time. There is a male preponderance and the incidence and mortality increases with advancing age. The undetermined group remains a diagnostic problem. (author)

  15. Stereotactic radiosurgery with an upper partial denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayama, Shusaku; Kunieda, Etsuo; Takeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Oku, Yohei

    2009-01-01

    A 54-year-old male with partial denture underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with an infrared camera-guided system for a metastatic brain tumor arising from lung cancer. Although this method utilizes a biteplate mounted on the upper jaw to detect head movement, the patient only had four teeth in his upper jaw. In order to stabilize the biteplate, the maxillary denture was fixed to the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. In addition, the rest-occlusal position of the lower jaw was impressed on the inferior surface of the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. To assess reproducibility and stability, the distance between the left and right incus and left and right markers was measured during pre-planning, as well as before and after stereotactic irradiation. Wearing the biteplate ensures the accuracy of radiotherapy planning for the implementation of radiosurgery in patients who have many maxillary teeth missing. However, a large degree of error was observed when the biteplate was removed. (author)

  16. Upper functional gastrointestinal disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.

  17. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Stake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses.

  18. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Seth; du Breuil, Anne L; Close, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses.

  19. Understanding Nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei in the upper-$sd$ shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A$\\simeq$ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array...

  20. Upper limb position control in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardal Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems are reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM. However, the mechanisms leading to alterations in motor performance are not well understood. In this study, upper limb position control during sustained isometric contractions was investigated in patients with FM and in healthy controls (HCs. Methods Fifteen female FM patients and 13 HCs were asked to keep a constant upper limb position during sustained elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, respectively. Subjects received real-time visual feedback on limb position and both tasks were performed unloaded and while supporting loads (1, 2, and 3 kg. Accelerations of the dominant upper limb were recorded, with variance (SD of mean position and power spectrum analysis used to characterize limb position control. Normalized power of the acceleration signal was extracted for three frequency bands: 1–3 Hz, 4–7 Hz, and 8–12 Hz. Results Variance increased with load in both tasks (P 0.001 but did not differ significantly between patients and HCs (P > 0.17. Power spectrum analysis showed that the FM patients had a higher proportion of normalized power in the 1–3 Hz band, and a lower proportion of normalized power in the 8–12 Hz band compared to HCs (P 0.05. The results were consistent for all load conditions and for both elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. Conclusion FM patients exhibit an altered neuromuscular strategy for upper limb position control compared to HCs. The predominance of low-frequency limb oscillations among FM patients may indicate a sensory deficit.

  1. Bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of tumors of the upper urothelium is high in our country, apart from their relation to specific regions (BEN and PBEN and their frequent bilateralism. Bilateral forms are present in significant percentage and are followed, in most cases, by renal failure, which speaks in favor of conservative surgery, if possible. Objective: The aim of the study was to present epidemiological, pathoanatomical and clinical characteristics of bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium and evaluate the Results of their treatment. Method: Our retrospective study analyzed 12 patients with bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium who were treated in the period from 1992 to 1996, according to their epidemiological, clinical, pathoanatomical and pathohistological characteristics, type of surgical treatment and relevant success. Results: In the observed period, bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium were found in 8.2% of our patients. In the group of 12 patients, 5 females and 7 males, 11 cases were from the region of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN. Renal failure was recorded in high percentage (66%. Radical surgical treatment - total nephroureterectomy was performed in 9 kidney units, and conservative operation in 15 units. Relapse significantly depended on tumor stage and grade, not on type of surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Five-year survival was 58.33%; major cause of death was associated with further evolution of tumor, recurrence and tumor dissemination, respectively, while renal failure complications were the cause of death in one case. Conclusion: The success of treatment mainly depends on tumor stage and grade and not on type of surgical Method in conservative treatment, but renal failure and its complications are an important risk factor in these patients.

  2. Rare upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage of cetuximab

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Shi-Jie; Gao, Zi-Ming; Wang, Peng-Liang; Gong, Bao-Cheng; Huang, Han-Wei; Luo, Lei; Wang, Xin; Xing, Ya-Nan; Xu, Hui-Mian; Liu, Fu-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, is a targeted therapeutic regimen of colorectal cancers. Several common adverse effects have been found, such as cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. However, according to the articles had been published, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is considered to be rare and its mechanism remains unclear. Patient concerns: In this report, we presented a 42-year-old male patient with advanced recto-sigmoid cancer. Af...

  3. PWR upper/lower internals shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homyk, W.A. [Indian Point Station, Buchanan, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    During refueling of a nuclear power plant, the reactor upper internals must be removed from the reactor vessel to permit transfer of the fuel. The upper internals are stored in the flooded reactor cavity. Refueling personnel working in containment at a number of nuclear stations typically receive radiation exposure from a portion of the highly contaminated upper intervals package which extends above the normal water level of the refueling pool. This same issue exists with reactor lower internals withdrawn for inservice inspection activities. One solution to this problem is to provide adequate shielding of the unimmersed portion. The use of lead sheets or blankets for shielding of the protruding components would be time consuming and require more effort for installation since the shielding mass would need to be transported to a support structure over the refueling pool. A preferable approach is to use the existing shielding mass of the refueling pool water. A method of shielding was devised which would use a vacuum pump to draw refueling pool water into an inverted canister suspended over the upper internals to provide shielding from the normally exposed components. During the Spring 1993 refueling of Indian Point 2 (IP2), a prototype shield device was demonstrated. This shield consists of a cylindrical tank open at the bottom that is suspended over the refueling pool with I-beams. The lower lip of the tank is two feet below normal pool level. After installation, the air width of the natural shielding provided by the existing pool water. This paper describes the design, development, testing and demonstration of the prototype device.

  4. New discoveries in Upper and Middle Magdalena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    In six association contracts and one risk participation contract may give Colombia the possibility of finding new oil reserves. These prospects, located in the Upper and Middle Magdalena Valleys and the Eastern Plains. the completion process, evaluation, confirmation and commercialization should be in the next two years, these new discoveries also reveal interesting geological aspects; some in fractured limestone, similar to the found at Maracaibo lake in Venezuela, where vast oil fields were discovered

  5. [Antithrombotic therapy and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanová, Veronika; Gřiva, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is about 85-108/100,000 inhabitants per year, nonvariceal bleeding accounts for 80-90%. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment are the significant risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the general community of patients in a county hospital. And to compare the role played by antiplatelet and anticoagulation drugs and other risk medication. Retrospective analysis of patients over 18 years of age who underwent endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia (haemoglobinupper gastrointestinal tract during a hospital stay in 2013 (from January to June). We included 111 patients of average age 69±15 years, men 60%. Nonvariceal bleeding accounted for 90% of the cases. None of the patients with variceal bleeding (10% of patients) took antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. There were 100 patients with nonvariceal bleeding of average age 70±15, 61% men. With the symptoms of acute bleeding (hematemesis, melena) presented in 73% of patients. The most frequent cause of bleeding was gastric and duodenal ulcer (54%). 32% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding had antiplatelets, 19% anticoagulants and 10% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or corticosteroids. 30-days mortality of patients with nonvariceal bleeding was 11%, annual mortality was 23%. There was no significant difference in mortality, blood transfusion requirements or surgical intervention between the patients with antithrombotic agents and without them. 25% of patients (8 patients) using acetylsalicylic acid did not fulfil the indication for this treatment. Among the patients examined by endoscopy for symptomatic nonvariceal bleeding and/or anaemia (haemoglobingastrointestinal bleeding. With regard to that, it is alarming, that there still exists a nonnegligible percentage of patients taking acetylsalicylic acid even

  6. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    During the report period significant progress on the quantitative understanding of regional upper airway deposition of airborne particle has been realized. Replicate models of the human upper airways obtained from post-mortem casting of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and upper tracheal regions and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same regions of adults and children have been employed to determine the overall and local deposition characteristics of aerosols in the ultrafine (1--100 μm diameter) and fine (0.8--12 μm diameter) region. Studies have been carried out for both nasal and oral breathing during inspiratory and expiratory flow at constant flow rates representative of rest and states of exercise. The results of these investigations indicate that particles in the size range of ''unattached'' radon progeny (1--3 nm) are deposited in both the nasal and oral passages with high efficiency (60--80%) for both inspiration and expiration, with the nasal deposition being somewhat greater (5--10%) than oral deposition. The effect of flow rate on upper airway deposition for both pathways is not great; data analysis indicates that the deposition for all flow rates from 4--50 liters/minute can be grouped by plotting deposition vs Q- 1/8 , where Q is flow rate, a far weaker dependency than observed for inertial deposition. Diffusional transport is the primary mechanism of deposition, and size dependence can be accounted for by plotting, deposition percent vs D n where D is particle diffusion coefficient and n ranges from 0.5--0.66. 2 refs

  7. Upper shielding body in LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Koichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: Preference is given to the strength and thermal insulation of a roof slab thereby ensuring axial size and improving the operationability upon inserting the control rod in the upper shielding body of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: In an upper shielding body in which a large rotational plug is rotatably mounted to a circular hole formed at an eccentric position of a roof slab, while a small rotational plug is rotatably mounted to a circular hole disposed at an eccentric position of the large rotational plug and the reactor core upper mechanisms are supported on the small rotational plug, heat insulation layers are attached to the inside of the inner circumferential wall of the roof slab and the outer circumferential wall of the large rotational plug. By attaching the heat insulation layers, the heat conduction between the roof slab and the large rotational plug can be suppressed remarkably, by which occurrence of specific heat pass or local generation of large thermal stresses can be avoided even if difference is resulted to the temperature distribution between them. In this way, functions taking advantage of respective features of the roof slab and the small rotational plug can be obtained to achieve the purpose. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Volume rejuvenation of the facial upper third.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Edward D; Glasgold, Robert; Kontis, Theda; Smith, Stephen P; Dolev, Yalon; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Lam, Samuel M; Williams, Edwin F; Pollei, Taylor R

    2015-02-01

    The next three articles in this issue take a unique approach to discussing volumetric restoration. Robert Glasgold has provided an assessment for each facial region and five different renowned authors (TK, SPS, RF, SML, and EFW) have been asked to speak on a particular volumetric product, of which they are considered an expert, as it applies to the different regions of the face. The articles are broken into the following: (1) upper third which corresponds to the upper eyelid, brow, temple, and forehead; (2) middle third which will cover lower eyelid, cheek, and perioral area; and (3) lower third which discusses the marionette, prejowl, and jawline. Our hope is that by placing differing opinions of experienced authors, organized by facial region together, the reader will have the opportunity to more readily compare the options. The contributing authors and their product area are as follows: Theda Kontis, MD-hyaluronic acid; Steve Smith, MD-calcium hydroxyl appetite; Rebecca Fitzgerald, MD-poly-L lactic acid; Sam Lam, MD-polymethyl methacrylate; and Edwin Williams, MD-Autologous Fat Transfer. If the author included general comments on the product, they are included in the article on the upper face only and are not repeated. Please note that other individuals may also have significantly assisted in the production of these articles, but those listed above are the senior authors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. The first step is to evaluated land capability this area. The objectives of the research were evaluate land capability of Upper Sekampung Watersheds. The results showed that the Upper Sekampung Watersheds were dominated with class and subclass land capability of III-l2 about 17.630,51 ha (41,58%. All of the constrain for each land capability in this area is erosion hazard, especially land slope. From this research, cultivated land to coffee base crops were allowed in land capability II-l1.e1, III-l2, IV-l3, and VI-l4, with in adequate soil and water conservation practices. In contrary, the land capability of VII-l5 unsuitable for agriculture, they should be a nature or for conservation forest.

  10. Infantile lipofibromatosis of the upper limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, Harvey E.L.; Peh, Wilfred C.G. [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Chan, Mei-Yoke [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Walford, Norman [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Pathology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2005-12-01

    The imaging features of extensive lipofibromatosis presenting in a 1-day-old female infant are reported. This lesion involved her entire right upper limb, extending from the axilla to the palm of the hand. Radiographs showed marked deformity and thinning of all the right upper-limb bones due to pressure effect of soft-tissue enlargement, especially affecting the distal humerus and proximal forearm bones. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge soft-tissue mass infiltrating most of the muscles of the entire upper limb, with bony erosion. The mass was largely T1-isointense, moderately T2-hyperintense and showed marked enhancement. There were intra-lesional signal changes consistent with fatty elements. A lesion debulking procedure was performed and the histology was that of lipofibromatosis. The limb was found to be non-viable after the procedure and a subsequent above-elbow amputation was performed. Although the resection margins were not clear, she had no further recurrence over a subsequent 3-year follow-up period. (orig.)

  11. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  12. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand. ... method of preparation, route of administration and properties of plants. ... Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  13. Arterial variations of upper limb: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollala V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of upper limb arteries are common and there are many reports about this subject. We report multiple variations in arterial pattern of upper extremity, which were encountered in a single cadaver.

  14. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenging surgical dogma in the management of proximal esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula: Outcomes from the Midwest Pediatric Surgery Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Dave R; Gadepalli, Samir K; Downard, Cynthia D; Ostlie, Daniel J; Minneci, Peter C; Swedler, Ruth M; Chelius, Thomas H; Cassidy, Laura; Rapp, Cooper T; Billmire, Deborah; Bruch, Steven; Burns, R Carland; Deans, Katherine J; Fallat, Mary E; Fraser, Jason D; Grabowski, Julia; Hebel, Ferdynand; Helmrath, Michael A; Hirschl, Ronald B; Kabre, Rashmi; Kohler, Jonathan; Landman, Matthew P; Leys, Charles M; Mak, Grace Z; Raque, Jessica; Rymeski, Beth; Saito, Jacqueline M; St Peter, Shawn D; von Allmen, Daniel; Warner, Brad W; Sato, Thomas T

    2017-06-01

    Perioperative management of infants with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is frequently based on surgeon experience and dogma rather than evidence-based guidelines. This study examines whether commonly perceived important aspects of practice affect outcome in a contemporary multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing primary repair for the most common type of esophageal atresia anomaly, proximal EA with distal TEF. The Midwest Pediatric Surgery Consortium conducted a multicenter, retrospective study examining selected outcomes on infants diagnosed with proximal EA with distal TEF who underwent primary repair over a 5-year period (2009-2014), with a minimum 1-year follow up, across 11 centers. 292 patients with proximal EA and distal TEF who underwent primary repair were reviewed. The overall mortality was 6% and was significantly associated with the presence of congenital heart disease (OR 4.82, p=0.005). Postoperative complications occurred in 181 (62%) infants, including: anastomotic stricture requiring intervention (n=127; 43%); anastomotic leak (n=54; 18%); recurrent fistula (n=15; 5%); vocal cord paralysis/paresis (n=14; 5%); and esophageal dehiscence (n=5; 2%). Placement of a transanastomotic tube was associated with an increase in esophageal stricture formation (OR 2.2, p=0.01). Acid suppression was not associated with altered rates of stricture, leak or pneumonia (all p>0.1). Placement of interposing prosthetic material between the esophageal and tracheal suture lines was associated with an increased leak rate (OR 4.7, p24h were used in 193 patients (66%) with no difference in rates of infection, shock or death when compared to antibiotic use ≤24h (all p>0.3). Hospital volume was not associated with postoperative complication rates (p>0.08). Routine postoperative esophagram obtained on day 5 resulted in no delayed/missed anastomotic leaks or a difference in anastomotic leak rate as compared to esophagrams obtained on day 7

  16. Miscanthus establishment and overwintering in the Midwest USA: a regional modeling study of crop residue management on critical minimum soil temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Kucharik

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is an intriguing cellulosic bioenergy feedstock because its aboveground productivity is high for low amounts of agrochemical inputs, but soil temperatures below -3.5 °C could threaten successful cultivation in temperate regions. We used a combination of observed soil temperatures and the Agro-IBIS model to investigate how strategic residue management could reduce the risk of rhizome threatening soil temperatures. This objective was addressed using a historical (1978-2007 reconstruction of extreme minimum 10 cm soil temperatures experienced across the Midwest US and model sensitivity studies that quantified the impact of crop residue on soil temperatures. At observation sites and for simulations that had bare soil, two critical soil temperature thresholds (50% rhizome winterkill at -3.5 °C and -6.0 °C for different Miscanthus genotypes were reached at rhizome planting depth (10 cm over large geographic areas. The coldest average annual extreme 10 cm soil temperatures were between -8 °C to -11 °C across North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Large portions of the region experienced 10 cm soil temperatures below -3.5 °C in 75% or greater for all years, and portions of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin experienced soil temperatures below -6.0 °C in 50-60% of all years. For simulated management options that established varied thicknesses (1-5 cm of miscanthus straw following harvest, extreme minimum soil temperatures increased by 2.5 °C to 6 °C compared to bare soil, with the greatest warming associated with thicker residue layers. While the likelihood of 10 cm soil temperatures reaching -3.5 °C was greatly reduced with 2-5 cm of surface residue, portions of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin still experienced temperatures colder than -3.5 °C in 50-80% of all years. Nonetheless, strategic residue management could help increase the likelihood of overwintering of miscanthus rhizomes in the first few

  17. Comparison of performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT 2009 and 2012 in an extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface tile drainage systems are widely used in agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern US and enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but can also create environmental problems, for example nitrate-N contamination associated with drainage waters. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT has been used to model watersheds with tile drainage. SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 provide new tile drainage routines. However, few studies have used these revisions to study tile drainage impacts at both field and watershed scales. Moreover, SWAT2012 revision 645 improved the soil moisture based curve number calculation method, which has not been fully tested. This study used long-term (1991–2003 field site and river station data from the Little Vermilion River (LVR watershed to evaluate performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT2009 revision 528 (the old routine and SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 (the new routine. Both the old and new routines provided reasonable but unsatisfactory (NSE  <  0.5 uncalibrated flow and nitrate loss results for a mildly sloped watershed with low runoff. The calibrated monthly tile flow, surface flow, nitrate-N in tile and surface flow, sediment and annual corn and soybean yield results from SWAT with the old and new tile drainage routines were compared with observed values. Generally, the new routine provided acceptable simulated tile flow (NSE  =  0.48–0.65 and nitrate in tile flow (NSE  =  0.48–0.68 for field sites with random pattern tile and constant tile spacing, while the old routine simulated tile flow and nitrate in tile flow results for the field site with constant tile spacing were unacceptable (NSE  =  0.00–0.32 and −0.29–0.06, respectively. The new modified curve number calculation method in revision 645 (NSE  =  0.50–0.81 better simulated surface runoff than revision 615 (NSE  =  −0.11–0.49. The calibration

  18. Comparison of performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT 2009 and 2012 in an extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian; Gitau, Margaret; Merwade, Venkatesh; Arnold, Jeffrey; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Hirschi, Michael; Engel, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Subsurface tile drainage systems are widely used in agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern US and enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but can also create environmental problems, for example nitrate-N contamination associated with drainage waters. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been used to model watersheds with tile drainage. SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 provide new tile drainage routines. However, few studies have used these revisions to study tile drainage impacts at both field and watershed scales. Moreover, SWAT2012 revision 645 improved the soil moisture based curve number calculation method, which has not been fully tested. This study used long-term (1991-2003) field site and river station data from the Little Vermilion River (LVR) watershed to evaluate performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT2009 revision 528 (the old routine) and SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 (the new routine). Both the old and new routines provided reasonable but unsatisfactory (NSE runoff. The calibrated monthly tile flow, surface flow, nitrate-N in tile and surface flow, sediment and annual corn and soybean yield results from SWAT with the old and new tile drainage routines were compared with observed values. Generally, the new routine provided acceptable simulated tile flow (NSE = 0.48-0.65) and nitrate in tile flow (NSE = 0.48-0.68) for field sites with random pattern tile and constant tile spacing, while the old routine simulated tile flow and nitrate in tile flow results for the field site with constant tile spacing were unacceptable (NSE = 0.00-0.32 and -0.29-0.06, respectively). The new modified curve number calculation method in revision 645 (NSE = 0.50-0.81) better simulated surface runoff than revision 615 (NSE = -0.11-0.49). The calibration provided reasonable parameter sets for the old and new routines in the LVR watershed, and the validation results showed that the new routine has the potential to accurately

  19. Orthodontic intervention of an impacted upper left central incisor due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fixed orthodontic appliance was used to facilitate traction and correction of malalignement of the impacted upper left central incisor.Treatment outcome: Successful removal of the odontoma, full exposure of the crown of upper left central incisor and good alignment on the arch were achieved. Crowding on the upper and ...

  20. Occupational upper airway disease: how work affects the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Steelant, B.; Fokkens, W.; Nemery, B.; Hellings, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the upper airways is common and can arbitrarily be divided into rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Infection and allergy represent two well-characterized and most frequently diagnosed etiologies of upper airway inflammation. Persistent upper airway inflammation caused by agents

  1. UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT USING HAPTIC INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bardorfer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks – to assess the accuracy of movement – tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces – to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test – to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks–to assess the accuracy of movement-tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces-to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test-to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A comprehensive study, using the developed measurement setup within the

  2. Upper respiratory tract infections in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clifton L; Diehl, Jason J

    2007-07-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) represent the most common acute illnesses in the general population and account for the leading acute diagnoses in the outpatient setting. Given the athlete's expectation to return to activity as soon as possible, the sports medicine physician should be able to accurately diagnose and aggressively treat these illnesses. This article discusses the common pathogens, diagnosis, treatment options, and return-to-play decisions for URTIs, with a focus on the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and infectious mononucleosis in the athlete.

  3. Upper extremity weightlifting injuries: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshani, Kayvon; Cinque, Mark E; O'Halloran, Peter; Softness, Kenneth; Keeling, Laura; Macdonell, J Ryan

    2018-03-01

    Common upper extremity injuries in resistance training athletes include muscle strains, ligament sprains, pectoralis major tendon ruptures, distal biceps tendon ruptures, and chronic shoulder pain and capsulolabral injuries. While each injury is unique in its specific anatomic location and mechanism, each is preventable with proper exercise technique, safety and maintenance of muscle balance. Conservative treatment is the therapeutic modality of choice and these injuries generally resolve with workout modification, appropriate recovery, anti-inflammatory medication, and physical therapy. If conservative treatment fails, surgical intervention is often successful and can return the weightlifter to a level of performance near their pre-injury level.

  4. Material management performance indicators for upper management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Loughlin, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a case for the use of performance indicators by upper management to monitor the effectiveness of material management operations at nuclear power plants. The paper establishes that the use of performance indicators is not a pro forma matter. There are specific standards and conditions to which the material management operation must conform for the performance measures to be meaningful. The paper concludes with discussion of the application and use of specific performance indicators. Proper use of selected performance indicators can remove the mystery and uncertainty for management about an aspect of nuclear plant operations that has significant budget implications

  5. External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel

    This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...... and industrial organization theories, we elaborate a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating and moderating effects of the external environment on TMTs and their impact. Our review distinguishes between industry and institutional level of analyses and three types of environmental...

  6. Exploring Responsible Tourism in Upper Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Loda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “responsible tourism”, which has spread rapidly in recent years, evokes conscious tourist behavior so as to minimize negative impacts on destinations, from an environmental, economic and cultural point of view. While intuitively comprehensible, the concept is not easy to operationalize in empirical studies. Facing this difficulty, our contribution illustrates an attempt to operatively define the concept within the framework of the development of a sustainable destination plan for the Ancient Cities of Upper Myanmar (ACUM. The paper describes the index adopted to survey and measure responsible attitudes among tourists and the main results of the research.

  7. [Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudong Mbethe, G L; Mounguengui, D; Ondounda, M; Magne, C; Bignoumbra, R; Ntsoumou, S; Moussavou Kombila, J-B; Nzenze, J R

    2014-01-01

    The department of internal medicine of the military hospital of Gabon managed 92 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from April 2009 to November 2011. The frequency of these hemorrhages in the department was 8.2%; they occurred most often in adults aged 30-40 years and 50-60 years, and mainly men (74%). Erosive-ulcerative lesions (65.2%) were the leading causes of hemorrhage, followed by esophageal varices (15.2%). These results underline the importance of preventive measures for the control of this bleeding.

  8. The impact of land-use and global change on water-related agro-ecosystem services in the midwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLoocke, Andrew D.

    facility to determine the sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (lambdaET) of a commercial soybean cultivar exposed to ozone concentrations ranging from current levels (ca. 40 ppb) to three times current (ca. 120 ppb). As [O3] increased from the lowest to highest level, soybean canopy lambdaET declined and H increased. Exposure to increased [O 3] also resulted in warmer canopies especially during the day. The [O3]-induced relative decline in ET was half that of the relative decline in seed yield, driving a 50% reduction in seasonal WUE. To assess the impact of land use change for bioenergy production a vegetation model (Agro-IBIS) capable of simulating the growth, function and ecosystem uptake of water and carbon and leaching of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogren (DIN) was coupled with a hydrology model (THMB) that simulated streamflow and DIN export. Algorithms were developed for Agro-IBIS and tested for their ability to simulate miscanthus and switchgrass. Using this modeling framework a series of simulations were conducted using historical climate data throughout the 20th century with Agro-IBIS and THMB for a domain encapsulating the Midwest US and the MARB. On average, throughout the domain miscanthus used more water than any existing land cover, and switchgrass used more water than most. Miscanthus and switchgrass had higher WUE than maize throughout the region, especially when belowground carbon stored in the roots was considered. Due to increases in water use, there were reductions in runoff and streamflow in the MARB for both miscanthus and switchgrass that depended on the fractional crop coverage, with miscanthus having a larger impact than switchgrass. Differences in streamflow were largest when miscanthus replaced current crops in the driest portions of the MARB with miscanthus causing up to 6% reduction in streamflow at the highest replacement levels. Conversely differences in DIN export were more evenly distributed across the basin, with reductions up to 25

  9. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent Insertion in Malignant and Benign Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly being used to manage upper GI obstructions. Initially developed for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer, upper GI stents now play an emerging role in benign strictures of the upper GI tract. Because recurrent obstruction and stent-related complications are common, new modifications of stents have been implemented. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have replaced older plastic stents. In addition, newly designed SEMS have been developed to prevent complications. This review provides an overview of the various types, indications, methods, complications, and clinical outcomes of upper GI stents in a number of malignant and benign disorders dividing the esophagus and gastroduodenum. PMID:26064817

  10. Conservative treatment of perforated upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoi, Daishi; Sano, Wataru; Nakata, Yasuyuki; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Tsuguhiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the validity of indication criteria of the conservative treatment for perforated upper gastrointestinal tract, a retrospective study was carried out. We enrolled 28 patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract who were determined to receive conservative treatment at the time of hospitalization from January 2000 to December 2007. When the following criteria were satisfied, we treated the patients by the conservative treatment after informed consent was gained from them and their families: stable condition of vital signs; peritoneal signs localized in the upper abdomen; and no or slight fluid collection at the Douglas' pouch determined by computed tomography. Patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection during follow-up were promptly converted to surgery. Six patients were converted to surgery, but all of them were discharged very much improved. We compared patient's data of the conservative treatment group and the converted surgery group at the time of consultation. All data were not statistically different between two groups. If all criteria are satisfied, it seemed that we can start conservative treatment for perforated gastrointestinal tract with careful observation and the system of prompt conversion to operation for patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection. (author)

  11. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  12. Consumer design priorities for upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; Beaton, Dorcas; Chau, Tom

    2007-11-01

    To measure consumer satisfaction with upper limb prosthetics and provide an enumerated list of design priorities for future developments. A self-administered, anonymous survey collected information on participant demographics, history of and goals for prosthesis use, satisfaction, and design priorities. The questionnaire was available online and in paper format and was distributed through healthcare providers, community support groups, and one prosthesis manufacturer; 242 participants of all ages and levels of upper limb absence completed the survey. Rates of rejection for myoelectric hands, passive hands, and body-powered hooks were 39%, 53%, and 50%, respectively. Prosthesis wearers were generally satisfied with their devices while prosthesis rejecters were dissatisfied. Reduced prosthesis weight emerged as the highest priority design concern of consumers. Lower cost ranked within the top five design priorities for adult wearers of all device types. Life-like appearance is a priority for passive/cosmetic prostheses, while improved harness comfort, wrist movement, grip control and strength are required for body-powered devices. Glove durability, lack of sensory feedback, and poor dexterity were also identified as design priorities for electric devices. Design priorities reflect consumer goals for prosthesis use and vary depending on the type of prosthesis used and age. Future design efforts should focus on the development of more light-weight, comfortable prostheses.

  13. Laparoscopic jejunostomy for obstructing upper gastrointestinal malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUJIMOTO, HIRONORI; HIRAKI, SHUICHI; TAKAHATA, RISA; NOMURA, SHINSUKE; ITO, NOZOMI; KANEMATSU, KYOHEI; HORIGUCHI, HIROYUKI; AOSASA, SUEFUMI; YAMAMOTO, JUNJI; HASE, KAZUO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive laparoscopic jejunostomy (Lap-J) technique for obstruction due to upper gastrointestinal malignancies and evaluate the nutritional benefit of Lap-J during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cases with obstructing esophageal cancer. Under general anesthesia, the jejunum 20–30 cm distant from the Treitz ligament was pulled out through an extended umbilical laparoscopic incision and a jejunal tube was inserted to 30 cm. The loop of bowel was gently returned to the abdomen and the feeding tube was drawn through the abdominal wall via the left lower incision. The jejunum was then laparoscopically sutured to the anterior abdominal wall. Lap-J was performed in 26 cases. The median operative time was 82 min. The postoperative course was uneventful. Lap-J prior to NAC was not associated with a decrease in body weight or serum total protein during NAC, compared with patients who received NAC without Lap-J. This minimally invasive jejunostomy technique may be particularly useful in patients in whom endoscopic therapy is not feasible due to obstruction from upper gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:26807238

  14. Upper limb lymphedema after breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salah, H.; Bahri, M.; Jbali, B.; Daoud, J.; Guermazi, M.; Frikha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - To study the frequency and risk factors for upper limb lymphedema through a series of patients treated for breast cancer. Patients and methods. - It is a retrospective study about 222 patients treated for breast cancer during the period between February 1993 and December 2003 in Sfax hospitals. Average age was 51 years (27-92 years). Tumour was T2 in 59% of cases. All patients had surgery with lymph node dissection. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (80% of cases), with predominant SBR II grade (62%). The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 12 (2-33). Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in 124 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered in 200 patients, including axillary irradiation in 30 cases. The mean follow-up was 68 months (12-120). Results. - Lymphedema appeared in 23% of cases (51 patients), 14 months after surgery (mean period). Lymphedema affected the brachium in 17% of cases, the forearm in 12% of cases and all upper limb in 71% of cases. Fifty percent of patients had rehabilitation. However, improvement of lymphedema was obtained in 18 cases. Parameters predicting lymphedema were studied. Significant risk factors were obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. The type of surgery, axillary irradiation and shoulder abduction deficit did not predict lymphedema. Conclusion. - Lymphedema of the arm is a frequent consequence of breast cancer treatment. The risk of lymphedema is correlated with obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. (authors)

  15. Mammal extinctions in the Vallesian (Upper Miocene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti, J.; Moya-Sola, S.

    The term Vallesian was created by Crusafont (1950) to designate the first European Mammalian palaeofaunas containing the equid Hipparion, the remainder of the faunas being composed of typical elements coming from the Middle Miocene such as Micromeryx, Euprox, Sansanosmilus, Pseudaelurus, and Listriodon. Thus, the Aragonian-Vallesian boundary does not show a strong change among European Miocene mammalian faunas (Agusti et al., 1984). On the other hand, the Lower Vallesian/Upper Vallesian transition corresponds to a major biotic crisis. This boudnary is characterized by the disappearence of most of the Aragonian artiodactyl forms such as Protragocerus, Miotragocerus, Listriodon, Hyotherium, Parachleusastochoerus, etc. Among the rodents, this crisis affects the family Eomyidae and most of the cricetid and glirid species. On the other hand, a number of eastern elements appear in the area at the same time. This is the case of the suid Schizochoerus and the murid Progonomys. Other eastern forms are Tragoportax, Graecoryx, Adcrocuta, Paramachairodus, Microstonyx, etc. Most of these are typical elements of the next Mammal stage, the Turolian. Thus, whereas the Lower Vallesian fauna has a typical Aragonian composition except for Hipparion. After the Middle Vallesian event, the Upper Vallesian faunas are already largely Turolian in character. The possible factors involved in this extinction event are discussed.

  16. Irradiated produce reaches Midwest market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszczola, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1992, the Chicago-area store gave its shoppers a choice between purchasing irradiated and nonirradiated fruits. The irradiated fruits were treated at Vindicator Inc., the first U.S. food irradiation facility (starting up on January 10, 1992). The plant, located in Mulberry, Fla., then shipped the fruits in trucks to the store where they were displayed under a hand-lettered sign describing the irradiated fruits and showing the irradiation logo

  17. Mid-upper-arm-circumference and mid-upper-arm circumference z-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Andersen, A; Fisker, A B

    2012-01-01

    Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is a simple method of assessing nutritional status in children above 6 months of age. In 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a MUAC z-score for children above 3 months of age. We evaluated whether MUAC or MUAC z-score had the best ability to identify...

  18. Prospects for an upper Givetian substage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Aboussalam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New ammonoid and conodont data from Germany, the Montagne Noire (France and southeastern Morocco document a complex sequence of sedimentary events and faunal changes within an extended Givetian (late Middle Devonian Taghanic Event Interval or Taghanic Biocrisis. Direct association of supposed typical middle Givetian ammonoids, trilobites and corals with upper Givetian marker taxa such as pharciceratids have been found, for example, in Moroccan and French time equivalents of the New York Upper Tully Limestone. The initial and eustatic Taghanic Onlap level is not known to be characterized by the first appearance of any widespread index conodont, goniatite or other taxon. A future upper Givetian substage, therefore, might be based either on the entry of Ozarkodina semialternans or on the first appearance of Schmidtognathus hermanni. The semialternans Zone correlates with a third sedimentary cycle within the Tully Limestone and with the spread of the first Pharciceratidae. Eobeloceratidae (Mzerrebites juvenocostatus and Archoceratidae n. fam. (Atlantoceras. The (Lower hermanni Zone is marked by a post-event transgression which led to a significant conodont radiation and to a further diversification of Pharciceratidae and Eobeloceratidae (Mz. erraticus. Neue Ammonoideen- und Conodonten-Daten aus Deutschland, Frankreich (Montagne Noire und aus Südost-Marokko belegen eine komplexe Abfolge sedimentärer Ereignisse und von Faunenwechseln in einem längerfristigen Taghanic-Event-Intervall bzw. einer Taghanic-Biokrise des Givetiums (oberes Mittel-Devon. Direkte Vergesellschaftungen von Ammonoideen, Trilobiten und Korallen, die früher als typische Mittel-Givetium-Formen angesehen wurden, mit Leitformen des Ober-Givetiums (z. B. Pharciceraten konnten in Marokko und Frankreich in Zeitequivalenten des Oberen Tully-Kalkes von New York nachgewiesen werden. Der initiale und eustatisch bedingte Taghanic Onlap ist bisher nicht durch das Einsetzen eines weit

  19. Upper abdominal malignancies (not including esophagus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, Tyvin A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This course will give an overview of the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies in the upper abdomen, with an emphasis on carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas and biliary tract. For each site, information will be presented related to failure patterns with conventional surgical treatment and the indications for surgery for different stages of disease. The possible uses of radiation therapy as an adjuvant to surgical resection will be discussed as well as the use of radiation therapy alone. In addition, the combination of radiation therapy with chemotherapy will be discussed for each of these sites, as well as the information available at present as to the optimal way to combine chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is not generally accepted to have a role in the treatment of patients with adenocarcinomas of the stomach. This is related to the fact that gastric cancer has been standardly treated with surgical resection alone, and delivery of high dose radiation therapy to the upper abdomen can be difficult because of the sensitivity of nearby normal tissues. Nonetheless, data on failure patterns suggest that local recurrence is common in patients with disease through the gastric wall and with positive nodes. Although there is some suggestive data to indicate that radiation therapy is effective as an adjuvant, results of an ongoing trial will be necessary for determination of the exact role of radiation therapy. Possible uses of radiation therapy as preoperative therapy or given alone will also be briefly discussed. Radiation therapy has been often used in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, either alone or combined with surgical resection. Its use is more common for this site both because of the extremely poor prognosis of standard therapies, and because of the difficulty in performing an adequate surgical resection. Data will be reviewed suggesting that radiation therapy has a role when

  20. Understanding nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kshetri, Ritesh [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064, India and Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia - 723101 (India); Sarkar, S. [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah - 711103 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Nuclei in the upper-sd shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A ≃ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

  1. Vortices in nonuniform upper-hybrid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, T.A.; Vranjes, J.

    1992-01-01

    The equations describing the interaction of an upper-hybrid pump wave with small low-frequency density perturbations are discussed under assumption that the pump is spatially nonuniform. The conditions for the modulational instability are investigated. Instead of a dispersion relation, describing the growth of perturbations in the case of an uniform pump, in our case of nonuniform pump a differential equation is obtained and from its eigenvalues are found the instability criteria. Taking into account the slow-frequency self-interaction terms some localized solutions similar to dipole vortices are found, but described by analytic functions in all space. It is shown that their characteristic size and speed are determined by the pump intensity and its spatial structure. (au)

  2. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  3. Hemospray application in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Lyn A; Stanley, Adrian J; Bergman, Jacques J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemospray TM (TC-325) is a novel hemostatic agent licensed for use in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) in Europe. GOALS: We present the operating characteristics and performance of TC-325 in the largest registry to date of patients presenting with NVUGIB in everyday...... in combination with other hemostatic modalities at the endoscopists' discretion. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (44 men, 19 women), median age 69 (range, 21 to 98) years with NVUGIB requiring endoscopic hemostasis were treated with TC-325. There were 30 patients with bleeding ulcers and 33 with other NVUGIB...... pathology. Fifty-five (87%) were treated with TC-325 as monotherapy; 47 [85%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 76%-94%] of them achieved primary hemostasis, and rebleeding rate at 7 days was 15% (95% CI, 5%-25%). Primary hemostasis rate for TC-325 in patients with ulcer bleeds was 76% (95% CI, 59%-93%). Eight...

  4. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  5. [Upper respiratory tract infections and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle

    2010-08-11

    Upper respiratory tract infections are frequent in athletes. Mainly of viral origin, they are treated symptomatically. Infectious mononucleosis is associated with an estimated 2% per hundred risk of splenic rupture, which occurs between day four and twenty one of the illness. Therefore return to play guidelines recommend avoiding, exercice during the first twenty one days. Physical exercise seems to influence the immune system, depending on the intensity and length of it. But the relationship between physical exercise and risk of infections remains controversial: some articles showing an increase in risk, whereas others suggesting a certain degree of protection, in athletes. The actual generally accepted working theory is the J-curve proposed by Nieman. This model remains to be formally proven.

  6. Women in Upper Houses: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neiva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In analyses of female representation in lower houses, the adoption of quotas, the electoral system and the religious aspect have been identified as the main explanatory variables. In the case of upper houses, I see a relationship between their political strength and women’s presence in them: when they are weak, the presence of female representatives tends to be larger, when they are strong, women’s presence is smaller. Furthermore, the article shows that an analysis based solely on the number of seats held by women is insufficient for one to gather the true dimensions of their participation in politics. Evaluating the role and expressiveness of the institutions in which they are present is also necessary.

  7. Palpation of the upper thoracic spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner; Vach, Kirstin

    2002-01-01

    procedure. RESULTS: Using an "expanded" definition of agreement that accepts small inaccuracies (+/-1 segment) in the numbering of spinal segments, we found--based on the pooled data from the thoracic spine--kappa values of 0.59 to 0.77 for the hour-to-hour and the day-to-day intraobserver reliability......OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability (in terms of hour-to-hour and day-to-day reliability) and the interobserver reliability with 3 palpation procedures for the detection of spinal biomechanic dysfunction in the upper 8 segments of the thoracic spine. DESIGN: A repeated....... INTERVENTION: Three types of palpation were performed: Sitting motion palpation and prone motion palpation for biomechanic dysfunction and paraspinal palpation for tenderness. Each dimension was rated as "absent" or "present" for each segment. All examinations were performed according to a standard written...

  8. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Cathy; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2014-01-01

    Background Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. This review includes updated searches and new trials.Objectives To assess the effects of tranexamic acid versus......-effect and random-effects model meta-analyses and presented results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used I² as a measure of between-trial heterogeneity. We analysed tranexamic acid versus placebo or no intervention and tranexamic acid versus antiulcer drugs separately. To analyse...... sources of heterogeneity and robustness of the overall results, we performed subgroup, sensitivity and sequential analyses.Main results We included eight randomised controlled trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, we identified one large ongoing pragmatic randomised...

  9. Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.

  10. Temperature structure of the Uranian upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.

    1979-01-01

    The temperature structure of the upper atmosphere of Uranus at two locations on the planet was determined from observations of the occultation of the star SAO158687 by Uranus on 10 March 1977, carried out at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The temperature-pressure relationships obtained from the immersion and emersion data for 7280 A channel show peak-to-peak variations of 45 K for immersion and 35 K for emersion. The mean temperature for both immersion and emersion profiles is about 100 K, which shows that Uranus has a temperature inversion between 0.001 mbar and the 100 mbar level probed by IR measurements. Both profiles show wavelike temperature variations, which may be due to dynamical or photochemical processes.

  11. Upper extremity injuries in Homer's Iliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Richard L; Hirthler, Maureen A

    2013-09-01

    Homer's Iliad remains a fascinating source of medical history. This epic poem, compiled around 800 BCE, describes several weeks of the last year of the 10-year siege of Troy (Ilion) by the Achaeans. Homer composed the epic by combining and formalizing oral poems, legends, customs, and experiences that originated in the later Mycenaean age (1600-1100 bce). The story centers on the rage of the great warrior Achilles. The Iliad remains the oldest record of Greek medicine and a unique source of surgical history. This study examines the upper extremity injuries described in the Iliad and compares them to those other sites of injury. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bayesian network modelling of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Nazziwa; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-09-01

    Bayesian networks are graphical probabilistic models that represent causal and other relationships between domain variables. In the context of medical decision making, these models have been explored to help in medical diagnosis and prognosis. In this paper, we discuss the Bayesian network formalism in building medical support systems and we learn a tree augmented naive Bayes Network (TAN) from gastrointestinal bleeding data. The accuracy of the TAN in classifying the source of gastrointestinal bleeding into upper or lower source is obtained. The TAN achieves a high classification accuracy of 86% and an area under curve of 92%. A sensitivity analysis of the model shows relatively high levels of entropy reduction for color of the stool, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, consistency and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine. The TAN facilitates the identification of the source of GIB and requires further validation.

  13. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Late renal function after upper abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Monica M.; Willett, Christopher G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the late renal function and complications following upper abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six adult patients were identified who were treated with curative intent to the upper abdomen, received greater than 50% unilateral kidney irradiation to doses of at least 26 Gy, and survived for 1 year or more. Following treatment, the clinical course, blood pressure, addition of anti-hypertensive medications, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were determined. Creatinine clearance was calculated by the formula: creatinine clearance equals [(140 - age) x (weight in kilograms)] / (72 x serum creatinine), which has a close correlation to creatinine clearances measured by 24 hour urine measurement. The percent change in creatinine clearance from pre-treatment values was analyzed. Mean follow-up was 6.7 years. Seventeen patients were followed for 11 or more years. Results: Of the 16 patients with pre-radiotherapy hypertension, eight required an increase in the number of medications for control and eight required no change in medication. Twenty-one patients developed hypertension in follow-up, 15 of whom required no medication. One patient developed malignant hypertension on the basis of renal artery stenosis. Acute or chronic renal failure was not observed in any patient. The serum creatinine for all 86 patients prior to irradiation was below 2 mg/100 ml; in follow-up it rose to between 2-3 mg/100 ml in five patients. On univariate analysis, older patient age, female sex, pre-existing hypertension and initially abnormal renal function (creatinine clearance <90mg/ml) were significantly correlated with later poor creatinine clearance (<50 mg/ml). Conclusions: After significant unilateral kidney irradiation, patients demonstrated a laboratory trend to increased creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. With long-term follow-up, these physiologic changes did not appear to translate into a clinically relevant alteration in

  15. Southern Hemisphere Upper Thermospheric Wind Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Emmert, J. T.; Drob, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study is focused on the poorly understood large-scale upper thermospheric wind dynamics in the southern polar cap, auroral, and mid latitudes. The gaps in our understanding of the dynamic high-latitude thermosphere are largely due to the sparseness of thermospheric wind measurements. Using data from current observational facilities, it is unfeasible to construct a synoptic picture of the Southern Hemisphere upper thermospheric winds. However, enough data with wide spatial and temporal coverage have accumulated to construct a meaningful statistical analysis of winds as function of season, magnetic latitude, and magnetic local time. We use long-term data from nine ground-based stations located at different southern high latitudes and three space-based instruments. These diverse data sets possess different geometries and different spatial and solar coverage. The major challenge of the effort is to combine these disparate sources of data into a coherent picture while overcoming the sampling limitations and biases among the datasets. Our preliminary analyses show mutual biases present among some of them. We first address the biases among various data sets and then combine them in a coherent way to construct maps of neutral winds for various seasons. We then validate the fitted climatology against the observational data and compare with corresponding fits of 25 years of simulated winds from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. This study provides critical insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and sets a necessary benchmark for validating new observations and tuning first-principles models.

  16. Oncolytic virotherapy in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoda R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Raquel Yokoda,1 Bolni M Nagalo,1 Mansi Arora,1 Jan B Egan,1 James M Bogenberger,1 Thomas T DeLeon,1 Yumei Zhou,1 Daniel H Ahn,1 Mitesh J Borad1–3 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 3Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies are among the most challenging cancers with regard to response to treatment and prognosis. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and biliary tree have dismal 5-year survival, and very modest improvements in this rate have been made in recent times. Oncolytic viruses are being developed to address these malignancies, with a focus on high safety profiles and low off-target toxicities. Each viral platform has evolved to enhance oncolytic potency and the clinical response to either single-agent viral therapy or combined viral treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A panel of genomic alterations, chimeric proteins, and pseudotyped capsids are the breakthroughs for vector success. This article revisits developments for each viral platform to each tumor type, in an attempt to achieve maximum tumor selectivity. From the bench to clinical trials, the scope of this review is to highlight the beginnings of translational oncolytic virotherapy research in upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies and provide a bioengineering perspective of the most promising platforms. Keywords: oncolytic viruses, hepatopancreatobiliary, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, biliary cancer

  17. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Ga??zka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szo?tys, Edyta; Sm??ka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Rados?aw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardle...

  18. An upper limb mathematical model of an oil palm harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumit, N. P.; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh, Y. M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail, I. A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.

    2014-09-01

    The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. In this paper, a 2-D closed-kinematic biomechanical model that represents a harvesting movement is developed. The model of six segments consisted of upper right arm, right forearm, harvesting equipment, left forearm, upper left arm, and upper part of trunk. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in matrix form.

  19. A STUDY ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vomiting of blood almost always proximal to the ligament of Treitz is the upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been estimated to be 50-100 per 1,00,000 person per year, with an annual hospitalization rate of approximately 100 per 1, 00,000 hospital admission. This study is to find out the prevalence of nature of lesion on Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in patients admitted for Gastrointestinal bleeding. (UGI Bleed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Place of Study- Department of General Medicine, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India. Type of Study- Prospective study. Period of Study- July 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS The Results Study on Endoscopic Findings in Upper Gastro Intestinal Bleed are 1. The peptic ulcer disease was the most common lesion found on endoscopy with prevalence of 54%. 2. Varices contributes second common lesion, next to peptic ulcer disease in UGI bleed with prevalence of 16%. 3. Minor UGI bleed was the commonest presentation. Majority of lesions (60% presented with minor UGI bleed, 28% lesions presented as moderate UGI bleed. Only 8% presented as major UGI bleed. 4. Varices account for the most common cause for major UGI bleed contributing 50%. 5. Gastric ulcer was commonest lesions accounting for 37 cases (37% among 72 cases having single acid peptic lesions on endoscopy. The second most common is duodenal ulcer (31%. 6. Multiple lesions were found in 10% of cases. Peptic ulcer lesions were found in 20% of total number of varices cases. CONCLUSION Peptic ulcer disease was found to be most common lesion causing UGI bleed, with most common presentation as minor UGI bleed and variceal bleed being most common cause of major UGI bleed.

  20. Unilateral versus bilateral upper limb training after stroke: The upper limb training after stroke clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Delden, AL; Peper, CE; Nienhuys, KN; Zijp, NI; Beek, PJ; Kwakkel, G

    2013-01-01

    This article is available open access through the publisher’s website at the link below. Copyright © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Background and Purpose — Unilateral and bilateral training protocols for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke represent conceptually contrasting approaches with the same ultimate goal. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the merits of modified constraint-induced movement therapy, modified bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing,...

  1. H.R.2635: a Bill to grant the consent of the Congress to the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, May 23, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    H.R.2635 grants Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Wisconsin, and any future members of the Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact regional status in planning and implementing a comprehensive strategy for managing such waste. The consent is in accordance with the Low-Level Radio Active Waste Policy Act, which designates responsibility to each state to see that space is available, either within the state or in a regional site. The consent recognizes that regional management has economic, ecological, and social benefits. It assumes the cooperative effort of member states and appropriate federal agencies. Article III establishes a Commission made up of one voting member from each state, and specifies the responsibilities and financing of the Commission. The regional management plan will emphasize public safety and source waste reduction. Member states have designated rights and obligations

  2. Essential learning tools for continuing medical education for physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows: the Midwest Reproductive Symposium International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gretchen G; Jeelani, Roohi; Beltsos, Angeline; Kearns, William G

    2018-04-01

    Essential learning tools for continuing medical education are a challenge in today's rapidly evolving field of reproductive medicine. The Midwest Reproductive Symposium International (MRSi) is a yearly conference held in Chicago, IL. The conference is targeted toward physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows engaged in the practice of reproductive medicine. In addition to the scientific conference agenda, there are specific sessions for nurses, mental health professionals, and REI fellows. Unique to the MRSi conference, there is also a separate "Business Minds" session to provide education on business acumen as it is an important element to running a department, division, or private clinic.

  3. Risk analysis and management of pipeline systems - the TRANSPETRO's experience in Sao Paulo and Brazil's Mid-West; Analise e gerenciamento de riscos de sistemas de dutos - a experiencia da TRANSPETRO em Sao Paulo e no Centro Oeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Yogui, Regiane Tiemi Teruya [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risk Analysis is an important instrument on risk management and emergency control. TRANSPETRO has a long pipeline network to transport oil and by-products in Sao Paulo State and Brazil Midwest. The beginning of the elaboration of Risk Analysis in TRANSPETRO was in 1987 and extended continually until 2000. Since 2001, with the Excellence Program on Environmental and Operational Safety Management, a review of Risk Analysis has been done on all pipeline's system. This work presents the experience acquired, the main difficulties, the solutions adopted, the results about individual and social risks, the main risk management actions and the evolution of the studies during the last fifteen years pointing out the technical development of the TRANSPETRO, the environment agency and the consultant companies. (author)

  4. H.R.: a bill to grant the consent of the Congress to the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, April 16, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The revised bill, after submission to the House Committees on Interior and Insular Affairs and on Energy and Commerce, grants the Central Midwest Interstate Compact for the regional management and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The amended bill applies to the states of Illinois and Kentucky, and outlines procedures for the affected states to cooperate in the transport and the siting and operation of storage facilities. A compact commission to administer the program will include voting members from each eligible state. The bill also specifies the rights and obligations of participants and requirements for joining or withdrawing from the compact and for terminating the compact. Other sections cover related laws, congressional review, and penalties for non-compliance

  5. International Experience in Upper Echelon Theory: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerđa Dino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international experience of top managers is an evolving research within the upper echelon theory; therefore this literature review summarizes everything made so far.

  6. Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

    2012-01-13

    The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)  GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.

  7. Nasopharyngeal polymicrobial colonization during health, viral upper respiratory infection and upper respiratory bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture. NP colonization rates of multiple otopathogens during health were significantly lower than during viral URI, and during URI they were lower than at onset of upper respiratory bacterial infection in both AOM infection-prone and non-prone children. AOM infection-prone children had higher polymicrobial colonization rates than non-prone children during health, viral URI and AOM. Polymicrobial colonization rates of AOM infection-prone children during health were equivalent to that of non-prone children during viral URI, and during viral URI were equivalent to that of non-prone during AOM infection. Spn colonization was positively associated with NTHi and Mcat colonization during health, but negatively during AOM infection. The infection-prone patients more frequently have multiple potential bacterial pathogens in the NP than the non-prone patients. Polymicrobial interaction in the NP differs during health and at onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  9. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  10. Upper pinch radius limit in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-12-01

    A simple static equilibrium model of the Z-pinch is considered where a hot plasma core is surrounded by a cold-mantle (gas blanket). The pinch radius, defined as the radial extension of the fully ionized plasma core, is uniquely determined by the plasma particle. momentum and heat balance equations. In Extrap configurations an octupole field is introduced which imposes a magnetic separatrix on Z-pinch geometry. This makes the conditions for Extrap equilibrium 'overdetermined' when the characteristic pinch radium given by the plasma parameters tends to exceed the characteristic radius of the magnetic separatrix. In this case no conventional pinch equilibrium can exist, and part of the current which is forced into the plasma discharge by external sources must be channelled outside of the separatrix, i.e. into the surrounding support structure of the Extrap conductors and the vessel walls. A possibly existing bootstrap current in the plasma boundary layer is further expected to be 'scraped off' in this case. The present paper gives some illustrations of the marginal case of this upper pinch radius limit, in a state where the pinch current is antiparallel to the external rod currents which generate the octupole field. (authors)

  11. Upper Blepharoplasty and Lateral Wound Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Jamshidian-Tehrani, Mansooreh; Sharzad, Sahab; Sanjari, Mostafa Soltan

    2015-01-01

    To report the frequency of lateral wound dehiscence (LWD) after upper blepharoplasty (UB), a technique and its outcome to prevent LWD. A retrospective review was performed for cases of LWD after UB presenting between 2003 and 2009, and then a prospective comparative study was performed between February 2009 and March 2013. For the comparison, subjects were divided into two groups based on intraoperative assessment of lateral wound tension (same technique and surgeon). Group 1 received 1-3 orbicularis/subcutaneous buried sutures (6-0 polyglactin) before interrupted 6-0 nylon skin closure. Group 2 underwent skin closure only. Subjects, who had re-operation, skin healing disorders, and incomplete follow-up (LWD with a mean age of 36.2 years in the audit (2003-2009). The prospective study included 68 subjects (68/293, 23.2%) in Group 1 and 225 in Group 2. Gender and simultaneous forehead and eyebrow procedures were similar between groups (P = 0.3 and P = 0.4 respectively). Group 1 was statistically significantly younger at mean age of 41.4 years, compared to Group 2 at 56.1 years (P = 0.000). The frequency of LWD significantly (P = 0.04) decreased to 0.3% (1/293). In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment), tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD.

  12. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Abulezz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome.

  13. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the deposition of aerosols ranging in size from 1 nm to 10 [mu]m in the human nasal, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal airways. These experimental studies were performed in replicate upper airway physical models and in human volunteer subjects. New replicate models of the oral passage of an infant, the oral passage of an adult at two openings and the combined nasal and oral airways of an adult were constructed during the period, adding to the existing models of adult, child and infant nasal and oral airways models. Deposition studies in the adult oral and adult nasal models were performed under simulated cyclic flow conditions with 1 nm particles to compare with previously measured constant flow studies. Similar studies with inertial particles (1--10 [mu]m diameter) were performed with the adult nasal model; in both instances, results with cyclic flow were similar to constant flow results using a simple average flow rate based on inspiratory volume and time of inspiration. Human subject studies were performed with particle sizes 5--20 nm for nasal inspiration; preliminary analysis shows good agreement with model studies at several representative flow rates. Nasal inspiratory inertial deposition of 1--4 [mu]m diameter particles was measured in several adults as a function of airway dimensions; dimensional changes of the valve area by decongestion did not produce concomitant deposition changes.

  15. Hand dominance in upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Varonen, Helena; Heliövaara, Markku; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the role of hand dominance in common upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD) in a population study. The target population consisted of a representative sample of people aged 30 years or older residing in Finland during 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4%) were included in the study. The prevalence of UEMSD was as follows: rotator cuff tendinitis 3.8%, bicipital tendinitis 0.5%, lateral epicondylitis 1.1%, medial epicondylitis 0.3%, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) 3.8%, and surgery due to CTS 1.3%. CTS was 2.5 times as prevalent in women as men, whereas the other UEMSD were as common in both sexes. Rotator cuff and bicipital tendinitis and medial epicondylitis were more prevalent in the dominant arm only in women, whereas lateral epicondylitis was more prevalent in the dominant elbow in both sexes. The higher prevalence of rotator cuff and bicipital tendinitis in the dominant side persisted beyond working age. The prevalence of CTS did not differ by hand dominance. Dominant hand had been operated more frequently for CTS in women. Our findings show that UEMSD are more prevalent in the dominant than nondominant arm mainly in women. For shoulder tendinitis, the difference persists throughout adult age. Physical load factors may have long-lasting effects on the shoulder and they may play a greater role in women than men.

  16. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po 218 particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po 218 particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po 218 particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig

  17. Radiogrammetric analysis of upper limb long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.

  18. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  19. Palatoglossus coupling in selective upper airway stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Edenharter, Günther; Bas, Murat; Wirth, Markus; Hofauer, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) of the hypoglossal nerve is a useful therapy to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Is it known that multiple obstructions can be solved by this stimulation technique, even at the retropalatal region. The aim of this study was to verify the palatoglossus coupling at the soft palate during stimulation. Single-center, prospective clinical trail. Twenty patients who received an sUAS implant from April 2015 to April 2016 were included. A drug-induced sedated endoscopy (DISE) was performed before surgery. Six to 12 months after activation of the system, patients' tongue motions were recorded, an awake transnasal endoscopy was performed with stimulation turned on, and a DISE with stimulation off and on was done. Patients with a bilateral protrusion of the tongue base showed a significantly increased opening at the retropalatal level compared to ipsilateral protrusions. Furthermore, patients with a clear activation of the geniohyoid muscle showed a better reduction in apnea-hypopnea index. A bilateral protrusion of the tongue base during sUAS seems to be accompanied with a better opening of the soft palate. This effect can be explained by the palatoglossal coupling, due to its linkage of the muscles within the soft palate to those of the lateral tongue body. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:E378-E383, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment.

  1. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment. (orig.)

  2. Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hendrik Koelzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: 1 Validation of prognostic scoring systems for tumor budding in large, multi-center studies 2 Consensus on the optimal assessment method 3 Inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

  3. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, Simon J; Mladenoff, David J; Cogbill, Charles V; Record, Sydne; Paciorek, Christopher J; Jackson, Stephen T; Dietze, Michael C; Dawson, Andria; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; McLachlan, Jason S; Williams, John W

    2016-01-01

    EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection. We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog), and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs). Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from remnants, depending on historical forest

  4. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Goring

    Full Text Available EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US. More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan, using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS, with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection.We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog, and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs. Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from remnants, depending on historical

  5. Unexplained right upper quadrant abdominal pain? do not forget the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Right upper quadrant abdominal pain is a common reason for consulting a gastroenterologist. Commonly, it portends pathological processes occurring in the liver, gall bladder, or the gut however, unusual causes have been reported. We report cervical intervertebral disc prolapse causing right upper quadrant ...

  6. Cerebral gas embolism due to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; Totte, Erik; van Hulst, Rob A.; van der Linde, Klaas; van der Kamp, Wim; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E.

    Cerebral gas embolism as a result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rare complication and bares a high morbidity. A patient is presented who underwent an upper endoscopy for evaluation of a gastric-mediastinal fistula after subtotal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction because of

  7. Cerebral gas embolism due to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; Totte, Erik; van Hulst, Rob A.; van der Linde, Klaas; van der Kamp, Wim; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral gas embolism as a result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rare complication and bares a high morbidity. A patient is presented who underwent an upper endoscopy for evaluation of a gastric-mediastinal fistula after subtotal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction because of

  8. Upper limb function in adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bartels (Bart); R.F. Pangalila (Robert); M.P. Bergen (Michael); N.A.M. Cobben (Nicolle); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo determine upper limb function and associated factors in adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A sample of 70 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (age range 20-43 years). Methods: General motor function and, in particular, upper limb distal

  9. Isolated primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Farzaneh; Ravari, Hasan; Kazemzadeh, Gholamhossein; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    Primary lymphedema tarda is considered as a congenital disease with late presentation. Primary lymphedema tarda usually affects lower limbs, and primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limbs usually accompanies lower limb lymphedema. In the current case report, we present an 80-year-old male patient with isolated left upper limb swelling that lymphoscintigraphy imaging proved to be lymphedema.

  10. Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-01-01

    to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar

  11. LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATION OF UPPER AIRWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje Karmiati Purwanegara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influenced of respiration to dentocraniofacial growth and development is still controversial. The accurate radiologic examination is important factor for proper diagnosis. Deviation of upper airway (i.e. nasopharynx, oropharymx and nasal cavity could be evaluated by lateral and anteroposterior cephalometric projection technique. This paper explains several methods to evaluate upper respiratory tract by lateral radiograph.

  12. Wenckebach upper rate response in single chamber pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barold, S S

    2000-07-01

    The Medtronic Minix pacemaker during normal function in the VVT mode was found to exhibit a Wenckenbach upper rate response similar to that of dual chamber devices. This behavior occurred only when the upper rate interval was longer than the pacemaker refractory period. In a single chamber device this response may simulate pacemaker malfunction.

  13. Upper limb fractures in rugby in Huddersfield 1986-1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Eyres, K S; Abdel-Salam, A; Cleary, J

    1991-01-01

    Most injuries sustained by rugby players affect the soft tissues, and fracture is relatively uncommon. Whereas the lower limb is most affected in footballers, the upper limb tends to be injured in rugby players. Thirty consecutive fractures and ten dislocations affecting the upper limb, sustained by 35 rugby players, are reported.

  14. Traumatic upper cervical esophageal perforation in childhood with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rae. The next step was an upper gastrointestinal series, in which posterior oropharyngeal and cervical esophageal perforation draining to the posterior mediastinum was detected (Fig. 1). Emergency laryngobronchoscopy and esophagoscopy were performed. The upper and lower airways were normal except mild laryngeal ...

  15. International Spinal Cord Injury Upper Extremity Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryden, A; Curt, A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Upper Extremity Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets, which facilitates consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population. SETTING: International. METHODS: A first draft...

  16. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  17. A Combinatorial Formula for Certain Elements of Upper Cluster Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungyong; Li, Li; Mills, Matthew R.

    2015-06-01

    We develop an elementary formula for certain non-trivial elements of upper cluster algebras. These elements have positive coefficients. We show that when the cluster algebra is acyclic these elements form a basis. Using this formula, we show that each non-acyclic skew-symmetric cluster algebra of rank 3 is properly contained in its upper cluster algebra.

  18. Aerosol deposition in the upper airways of a child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.; Rinkel, M.J.G.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2005-01-01

    In a small child, normally only a small amount of inhaled aerosol particles reaches the lungs because the majority deposits in the upper airways. In this study, the upper airways of a 9- month-old child, based on computed tomography (CT) data, are modeled to serve as input for a computational fluid

  19. A dichotomy for upper domination in monogenic classes

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Hussain, Shahid; Lozin, Vadim V.; Monnot, Jé rô me; Ries, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality. The problem of finding an upper dominating set is NP-hard for general graphs and in many restricted graph families. In the present

  20. Pattern of presentation and management of benign upper urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper urinary tract obstruction is a common cause of severe symptoms, recurrent urinary tract infection and deterioration or complete loss of renal function when intervention is not timely. Objective: To document the pattern of presentation and the management options for the benign upper urinary tract ...

  1. Risk stratification in upper gastrointestinal bleeding; prediction, prevention and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we developed a novel prediction score for predicting upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in both NSAID and low-dose aspirin users. Both for NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin use risk scores were developed by identifying the five most dominant predictors. The risk of upper

  2. Mycotic corneal ulcers in upper Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the association of various risk factors and epidemiological variables of mycotic keratitis treated at a tertiary referral hospital of upper Assam. Materials and Methods: In this hospital-based prospective study a total of 310 consecutive corneal ulcer cases attending the ophthalmology outpatient department of Assam Medical College were enrolled between April 2007 and March 2009. After clinical and slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination in all suspected cases, smears and culture examination for fungus was done to establish the etiology. Demographic information and associated probable risk factors of individual cases were noted in a predesigned questionnaire. Results: In 188 (60.6% cases fungal etiology could be established. Out of them 67.6% were males. The most commonly affected age group was 41-50 years (25.5%. The maximum (23.4% cases were reported during the paddy harvesting season in Assam (January and February. Fungal element could be demonstrated in 65.2% cases in direct potassium hydroxide (KOH mount. The commonest predisposing factor was corneal injury (74.5%. While diabetes was a significant systemic predisposing factor in mixed bacterial and fungal infections in 11.1% cases, blocked naso-lacrimal duct was the local predisposing factor in 11.1% of cases. Fusarium solani (25% was the commonest isolate followed by Aspergillus species (19%, Curvularia species (18.5% and Penicillium species (15.2%. Yeasts were isolated in 2.7% (n=5 cases. Conclusions : Ocular trauma was the commonest cause of fungal corneal ulcer in Assam and Fusarium solani was the commonest species responsible for it. Most of the mycotic ulcer cases come from rural areas including the tea gardens.

  3. Sensory feedback for upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Steven S; Fettiplace, Michael; Darbandi, Bejan

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the neurophysiological basis of how to provide sensory feedback to users with an upper limb prosthesis and discuss some of the theoretical issues that need to be considered when directly stimulating neurons in the somatosensory system. We focus on technologies that are currently available and discuss approaches that are most likely to succeed in providing natural perception from the artificial hand to the user. First, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing feedback by stimulating directly the remaining afferents that originally innervated the arm and hand. In particular, we pay close attention to the normal functional roles that the peripheral afferents play in perception. What are the consequences and implications of stimulating these afferents? We then discuss whether it is reasonable to stimulate neurons in the ascending pathways that carry the information from the afferents to the cortex or directly in neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. We show that for some modalities there are advantages for stimulating in the spinal cord, while for others it is advantageous to stimulate directly in the somatosensory cortex. Finally, we discuss results from a current experiment in which we used electrical stimuli in primary somatosensory cortex to restore the percept of the intensity of a mechanical probe indented into the hand. The results suggest that the simple percept of stimulus intensity can be provided to the animal from a single finger using four electrodes. We propose that significantly more electrodes will be needed to reproduce more complex aspects of tactile perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Upper airway muscles awake and asleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sériès, Frédéric

    2002-06-01

    Upper airway (UA) structures are involved in different respiratory and non-respiratory tasks. The coordination of agonist and antagonist UA dilators is responsible for their mechanical function and their ability to maintain UA patency throughout the respiratory cycle. The activity of these muscles is linked with central respiratory activity but also depends on UA pressure changes and is greatly influenced by sleep. UA muscles are involved in determining UA resistance and stability (i.e. closing pressure), and the effect of sleep on these variables may be accounted for by its effect on tonic and phasic skeletal muscle activities. The mechanical effects of UA dilator contraction also depend on their physiological properties (capacity to generate tension in vitro, activity of the anaerobic enzymatic pathway, histo-chemical characteristics that may differ between subjects who may or may not have sleep-related obstructive breathing disorders). These characteristics may represent an adaptive process to an increased resistive loading of these muscles. The apparent discrepancy between the occurrence of UA closure and an increased capacity to generate tension in sleep apnea patients may be due to a reduction in the effectiveness of UA muscle contraction in these patients; such an increase in tissue stiffness could be accounted for by peri-muscular tissue characteristics. Therefore, understanding of UA muscle physiological characteristics should take into account its capacity for force production and its mechanical coupling with other UA tissues. Important research goals for the future will be to integrate these issues with other physiological features of the disease, such as UA size and dimension, histological characteristics of UA tissues and the effect of sleep on muscle function. Such integration will better inform understanding of the role of pharyngeal UA muscles in the pathophysiology of the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.

  5. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  6. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete's health were discussed.

  7. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Youbin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the petrological study, according to single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method, the quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage of the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied. The Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks; in addition, clastic and siliceous rocks occur with rare coals and pyroclastic rocks. Lithofacies can be divided into five types, including clastic rock assemblage, clastic rock–limestone assemblage, limestone assemblage, limestone–siliceous rock assemblage, and siliceous rock–clastic rock assemblage. Four fundamental ecological types and five fossil assemblages were recognized in the Changxing Stage. On the basis of the petrological and palaeoecological study, eight single factors were chosen including thickness, content of marine rocks, content of shallow water carbonate rocks, content of bioclasts with limemud matrix, content of bioclasts with sparry cement, distribution of reefs, content of thin bedded siliceous rocks and content of deep water sedimentary rocks. And eight single factor maps and one lithofacies paleogeographic map of the Changxing Stage were compiled. Paleoenvironments from west to east include an erosional area, fluvial plain, clastic platform, carbonate platform and reefs that developed there, slope and basin, low energy organic banks, and high energy organic banks. Sedimentary environments have an obvious control on the development of the source rocks, and the excellent source rocks are developed in the Dalong Formation. Changxing Stage reservoirs should be dominated by the reef and platform surrounding the Guangyuan–Liangping Basin rim area, and is the most favorable exploration area of the reef petroleum reservoirs of the Changxing Formation.

  8. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hot jupiter upper atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, George B.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Arras, Phil, E-mail: gbt8f@virginia.edu, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu, E-mail: arras@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Two-dimensional simulations of hot Jupiter upper atmospheres including the planet's magnetic field are presented. The goal is to explore magnetic effects on the layer of the atmosphere that is ionized and heated by stellar EUV radiation, and the imprint of these effects on the Lyα transmission spectrum. The simulations are axisymmetric, isothermal, and include both rotation and azimuth-averaged stellar tides. Mass density is converted to atomic hydrogen density through the assumption of ionization equilibrium. The three-zone structure—polar dead zone (DZ), mid-latitude wind zone (WZ), and equatorial DZ—found in previous analytic calculations is confirmed. For a magnetic field comparable to that of Jupiter, the equatorial DZ, which is confined by the magnetic field and corotates with the planet, contributes at least half of the transit signal. For even stronger fields, the gas escaping in the mid-latitude WZ is found to have a smaller contribution to the transit depth than the equatorial DZ. Transmission spectra computed from the simulations are compared to Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Advanced Camera for Surveys data for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, and the range of model parameters consistent with the data is found. The central result of this paper is that the transit depth increases strongly with magnetic field strength when the hydrogen ionization layer is magnetically dominated, for dipole magnetic field B {sub 0} ≳ 10 G. Hence transit depth is sensitive to magnetic field strength, in addition to standard quantities such as the ratio of thermal to gravitational binding energies. Another effect of the magnetic field is that the planet loses angular momentum orders of magnitude faster than in the non-magnetic case, because the magnetic field greatly increases the lever arm for wind braking of the planet's rotation. Spin-down timescales for magnetized models of HD 209458b that agree with the observed transit depth

  10. Upper Eyelid Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing With Incisional Blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlus, Brett S; Schwarcz, Robert M; Nakra, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    Laser resurfacing, performed at the same time as blepharoplasty, has most commonly been applied to the lower eyelid skin but can effectively be used on the upper eyelid to reduce rhytidosis and improve skin quality. The authors evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing was performed in conjunction with incisional upper blepharoplasty. The ultrapulsed laser energy was applied to the sub-brow skin, the upper medial canthal skin, and the pretarsal skin in 30 patients. Photos were obtained preoperatively and at 3 months. All patients demonstrated reduction in upper eyelid rhytidosis without any serious complications. Independent rhytidosis grading (0-4) showed a mean improvement of 42%. One patient experienced wound dehiscence that satisfactorily resolved without intervention. Upper eyelid laser resurfacing is effective and can be safely performed at the same time as upper blepharoplasty. This approach reduces or eliminates the need for medial incisions to address medial canthal skin redundancy and rhytidosis and it directly treats upper eyelid wrinkles on residual eyelid and infra-brow skin during blepharoplasty.

  11. [High risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after neurosurgical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang; Wu, Gang; Cheng, Neng-neng; Yao, Cheng-jun; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2005-12-21

    To analyze high risk factors of postoperative upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after neurosurgery so as to give guidance for prevention of GI bleeding. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the medical records of 1500 patients who were hospitalized and underwent neurosurgical operations in 1997. Logistic regression analysis was made. 1430 valid questionnaires were obtained. Postoperative upper GI bleeding occurred in 75 patients (5.24%). The incidence of upper GI bleeding were 6.64% (54/813) in the male patients and 3.40% (21/617) in the female persons (P = 0.007); 9.88% (41/415) in those aged > 50 and 3.35% in those aged hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and extradural hematoma were 15.7%, 10.0%, 6.00%, and 2.94% respectively (P = 0.02). The incidence of upper GI bleeding of the patients with tumors of fourth ventricle of cerebrum, brainstem, cerebral hemisphere, and sellar hypothalamus were 15.79% (3/19), 7.89%, 5.71%, and 3.74% respectively. In the emergent cases, the incidence of upper GI bleeding was higher in those with hypertension. The incidence of upper GI bleeding was 5.46% in the patients undergoing adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly higher than that in those who did not receive such treatment (2.13%). Patients who are at high risk of developing postoperative upper GI bleeding including that: age greater than 50 years; male; Glasgow Coma Score less than 10 pre and post operation; The lesion was located in brain stem and forth ventricle; Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage; Intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhagic brain trauma; Postoperative pneumonia, brain edema, encephalic high pressure, pyogenic infection of the central nervous system and other postoperative complications. The mortality of patients with postoperative upper GI bleeding was evidently higher than that of the patients without postoperative upper GI bleeding.

  12. Survey of upper extremity injuries among martial arts participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesselhorst, Matthew M; Rayan, Ghazi M; Pasque, Charles B; Peyton Holder, R

    2013-01-01

    To survey participants at various experience levels of different martial arts (MA) about upper extremity injuries sustained during training and fighting. A 21-s question survey was designed and utilised. The survey was divided into four groups (Demographics, Injury Description, Injury Mechanism, and Miscellaneous information) to gain knowledge about upper extremity injuries sustained during martial arts participation. Chi-square testing was utilised to assess for significant associations. Males comprised 81% of respondents. Involvement in multiple forms of MA was the most prevalent (38%). The hand/wrist was the most common area injured (53%), followed by the shoulder/upper arm (27%) and the forearm/elbow (19%). Joint sprains/muscle strains were the most frequent injuries reported overall (47%), followed by abrasions/bruises (26%). Dislocations of the upper extremity were reported by 47% of participants while fractures occurred in 39%. Surgeries were required for 30% of participants. Females were less likely to require surgery and more likely to have shoulder and elbow injuries. Males were more likely to have hand injuries. Participants of Karate and Tae Kwon Do were more likely to have injuries to their hands, while participants of multiple forms were more likely to sustain injuries to their shoulders/upper arms and more likely to develop chronic upper extremity symptoms. With advanced level of training the likelihood of developing chronic upper extremity symptoms increases, and multiple surgeries were required. Hand protection was associated with a lower risk of hand injuries. Martial arts can be associated with substantial upper extremity injuries that may require surgery and extended time away from participation. Injuries may result in chronic upper extremity symptoms. Hand protection is important for reducing injuries to the hand and wrist.

  13. A Case Report on Upper Extremity Pain of Cardiac Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Altınbilek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper extremity pain can originate from the musculoskeletal system, or be a reflection of problems originating from various organs. Therefore, it is highly important to perform a detailed clinical evaluation on patients during differential diagnosis. In this case report, we present a 61 year-old male patient who was admitted with pain in both upper extremities and the upper back that presumed to be of cardiac origin following our clinical evaluations. The patient was referred to the cardiology department, where he was diagnosed with coronary heart disease. The patient’s complaints of pain were fully resolved through the application of an intracoronary stent.

  14. Congenital upper eyelids ectropion in Down’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Congenital bilateral ectropion of the upper eyelids is a rare, benign condition reported in ophthalmic literature. It is more frequently associated with Down’s syndrome, ichthyosis, and sporadic cases in newborns from black population. We report three cases of congenital bilateral upper eyelid ectropion associated with Down’s syndrome. Management of these patients usually requires medial and lateral canthoplasties, full-thickness pentagonal resection of the upper eyelids and placement of skin grafts. We present herein the evolution of one of these patients and we will discuss the mechanism of the eyelid ectropion and its treatment.

  15. Upper Domination: Towards a Dichotomy Through Boundary Properties

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2017-07-14

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal dominating set of maximum cardinality. The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard. We study the complexity of this problem in finitely defined classes of graphs and conjecture that the problem admits a complexity dichotomy in this family. A helpful tool to study the complexity of an algorithmic problem is the notion of boundary classes. However, none of such classes has been identified so far for the upper dominating set problem. We discover the first boundary class for this problem and prove the dichotomy for monogenic classes.

  16. Upper intestinal lipids regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Grace W C; Kokorovic, Andrea; Lam, Tony K T

    2009-09-01

    Upon the entry of nutrients into the small intestine, nutrient sensing mechanisms are activated to allow the body to adapt appropriately to the incoming nutrients. To date, mounting evidence points to the existence of an upper intestinal lipid-induced gut-brain neuronal axis to regulate energy homeostasis. Moreover, a recent discovery has also revealed an upper intestinal lipid-induced gut-brain-liver neuronal axis involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this mini-review, we will focus on the mechanisms underlying the activation of these respective neuronal axes by upper intestinal lipids.

  17. Management of upper respiratory tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major ... by a watery nasal discharge, which after one to three days becomes .... iron supplementation is remarkably effective in areas where iron.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG CT for upper abdominal pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT scan contributes to the final diagnosis in organ-specific upper- abdominal ..... planes to encase the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, the superior ... men, and possibly pelvis, to evaluate for extrahepatic disease.15 In one.

  19. Upper Limb Absence : Predictors of Work Participation and Work Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). SETTING: Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops.

  20. Combined Effects of Medicinal Plants on Induced Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined Effects of Medicinal Plants on Induced Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Injury ... treated in different doses of single and combined extracts of Allium sativum, ... was no visible sign of ulceration or perforation observed on the stomach and ...