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Sample records for vetus aristotle categoriae

  1. Nicolaus Graecus and the Translatio Vetus of Aristotle's De Sensu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    I diskussion med en artikel skrevet til samme tidsskrift af Griet Galle (Leuven) argumenteres for, at den middelalderlige oversættelse af Aristoteles' De Sensu blev lavet af Robert Grossetestes samarbejdspartner Nicolaus Graecus...

  2. Categorias do ser e biologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available As categorias do ser são as distintas maneiras de se ver um objeto - as distintas maneiras de predicação. Um breve histórico do emprego das categorias por Aristóteles e por alguns autores hindus é apresentado. As categorias do ser podem ser formalizadas conjuntistamente e constituem um importante fundamento para as classificações biológicas.The categories of being are the distinct manners of " seeing" an object - the different manners of predication. A brief history of the utilization of categories by Aristotle and some Hindu authors is presented. The categories of being may be formalized in set theory, constituting an important foundation for biological classification.

  3. Irreflexivity and Aristotle's Syllogismos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncombe, Matthew

    Aristotle's definition of syllogismos at Prior Analytics 24b18–20 specifies syllogistic consequence as an irreflexive relation: the conclusion must be different from each premise and any conjunction of the premises. Typically, commentators explain this irreflexivity condition as Aristotle's attempt

  4. Galen's use of Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S K

    1997-01-01

    The thought of Aristotle has stamped itself on the whole subsequent course of Natural philosophy including the philosophy of healing art since the 4th century B. C. He is known to be the great codifier of ancient Natural philosophy. He developed coherent theories of generation and functional morphology of animals and heredity in his treaties. Aristotle dissected about 70 species of animals and founded the basis of comparative Anatomy.

  5. Aristotle on Memory and Recollection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    Twentieth-century scholarship on Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia was dominated by the view that Aristotle's theories of memory and recollection are basically very similar to ours. By means of a new critical edition of the Greek text, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on th...

  6. Aristotle Said It First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, David L.

    Ever since Aristotle, educators have stressed the need for education for the worthy use of leisure time. Problems with individual and societal perceptions, teacher preparation and attributes, and curriculum organization, however, have prevented meaningful leisure education programs from becoming a reality. The major barrier to effective leisure…

  7. Aristotle, Autonomy, and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Second Edition (Kindle Edition), translated and annotated by Terence Irwin (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company), p. 2. 7 the face of a threat...an optimist myself and believe that creative thinking, sound government policy, and motivated entrepreneurship could make more progress toward the...References Aristotle , Politics. Translated with an introduction and notes by C.D. C. Reeve. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1998

  8. Aristotle Meets Zeno: Psychophysiological Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Stachtea, Xanthi; Papageorgiou, Panos; Alexandridis, Antonio T; Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Angelopoulos, Elias

    2016-01-01

      This study, a tribute to Aristotle's 2400 years, used a juxtaposition of valid Aristotelian arguments to the paradoxes formulated by Zeno the Eleatic, in order to investigate the electrophysiological...

  9. New Perspectives on Aristotle's De caelo

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aristotle's great ambition in his "De caelo" was to determine the nature and structure of the geocentric universe. This collection of essays addresses key epistemological and methodological issues raised by the numerous arguments that Aristotle offers.

  10. Questing for Happiness: Augmenting Aristotle with Davidson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing heavily on Aristotle, Tabensky attempts to establish 'an ethic that flows from the very structure of our being', but he also calls on Davidson\\'s arguments about the essentially social character of rationality to shore up Aristotle\\'s claim that we are essentially social beings. This much of his project, I argue is successful.

  11. Simplicius on Aristotle physics 81-5

    CERN Document Server

    Bodnár, István; Share, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary on Aristotle Physics book eight, chapters one to five, the sixth-century philosopher Simplicius quotes and explains important fragments of the Presocratic philosophers, provides the fragments of his Christian opponent Philoponus Against Aristotle On the Eternity of the World, and makes extensive use of the lost commentary of Aristotles leading defender, Alexander of Aphrodisias. This volume contains an English translation of Simplicius important commentary, as well as a detailed introduction, explanatory notes and a bibliography.

  12. A categoria de experiencia na teoria feminista

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furlin, Neiva

    2012-01-01

    ... a centralidade das "experiencias das mulheres". Nesse sentido, o feminismo como teoria permitiu distinguir conhe-cimentos situados por meio de uma proposta epistemologica alternativa que trouxe para o cenario aoademico novos sentidos sobre o que se considera conhecimento e um processo de ressignificacao da objetividade e de outras categorias centrais nas...

  13. Aristotle on music and emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Chaparro, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to offer an original reconstruction of Aristotle’s psychology of music that explains his views on the relation between instrumental music and emotions. I argue that, contrary to the relevant scholarship, for Aristotle instrumental music cannot convey emotions to the listener. What instrumental music does, I claim, is to cause an objectless mood or disposition (διάθεσις) that “prepares the way” (προοδοποιεῖν) for the emotions. Most interpreters of Politics ...

  14. Aristotle and Philoponus on light

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Originally published in 1991. Philoponus' long commentary on Aristotle's definition of light sets up the major concerns, both in optics and theory of light, that is discussed here. Light was of special interest in Neoplatonism because of its being something incorporeal in the world of natural bodies and therefore had a special role in the philosophical analysis of the interpenetration of bodies and also as a paradigm for the soul-body problem. The material investigated in this book contains much about the physiology of vision as well as the propagation of light. Several chapters investigate th

  15. The Aldine Edition of Aristotle's De Sensu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This small article examines the quality of and the textual foundation for the først printed edition ever of Aristotle's De Sensu et Sensibilibus, that is, Aldus Manutius' (1497).......This small article examines the quality of and the textual foundation for the først printed edition ever of Aristotle's De Sensu et Sensibilibus, that is, Aldus Manutius' (1497)....

  16. William Harvey, Aristotle and astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I argue that William Harvey believed in a form of astrology. It has long been known that Harvey employed a macrocosm-microcosm analogy and used alchemical terminology in describing how the two types of blood change into one another. This paper then seeks to examine a further aspect of Harvey in relation to the magical tradition. There is an important corollary to this line of thought, however. This is that while Harvey does have a belief in astrology, it is strongly related to Aristotle's views in this area and is quite restricted and attenuated relative to some contemporary beliefs in astrology. This suggests a more general thesis. While Harvey was amenable to ideas which we associate with the natural magic tradition, those ideas had a very broad range of formulation and there was a limit to how far he would accept them. This limit was largely determined by Harvey's adherence to Aristotle's natural philosophy and his Christian beliefs. I argue that this is also the case in relation to Harvey's use of the macrocosm-microcosm analogy and of alchemical terminology, and, as far as we can rely on the evidence, this informs his attitudes towards witches as well. Understanding Harvey's influences and motives here is important in placing him properly in the context of early seventeenth-century thought.

  17. Aristotle on physiology of logos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benéitez Prudencio, José Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a view of Aristotle’s understanding of the relation of human intellect to human body. Given that for Aristotle intellect is a ‘psychic’ capacity or power: does Aristotle think of human understanding as a part or aspect of form (ειδος of the human body, in the way that the other powers (i.e. sensitive and nutritive are both parts of the form of an animal body? This question is still in dispute, but the objective in my inquiry is to justify the possibilities of an Aristotelian’s physiology of mind or thought.

    El presente artículo trata de estudiar la relación del entendimiento humano con el cuerpo en el pensamiento aristotélico. Dado que para Aristóteles la inteligencia constituye una capacidad o facultad ‘psíquica’, podríamos preguntarnos si no piensa, entonces, que sea una parte o un aspecto de la forma (ειδος del cuerpo humano, de la misma manera que se da esta relación con los otras facultades (así, por ejemplo, con la sensación y la nutrición. La cuestión es motivo todavía de disputa. El objetivo de mi investigación radica en justificar las posibilidades de una fisiología aristotélica de la mente o del pensamiento.

  18. Triarchic theories of intelligence: Aristotle and Sternberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigner, R B; Tigner, S S

    2000-05-01

    Aristotle's triarchic theory of intelligence prefigures, but apparently does not serve directly as a source for, Sternberg's comparable contemporary theory. The indepently derived similarities in their gross structure lend weight to some triarchic view. Sternberg's analytical, practical, and creative intelligences closely resemble Aristotle's theoretical, practical, and productive excellences of intelligence. Each comparable component incorporates significantly related ideas. Disparities may be attributed to a variety of differences in the aims, methods, and resources of Aristotle's and Sternberg's inquiries. This is not the first time in the history of psychology that roughly parallel investigations have yielded comparable theories, but it is surely among the most temporally disjoined.

  19. The second Book of Aristotle's Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi Bereterbide, Francisco L.

    2008-01-01

    The second Book of the Politics has been object of multiple considerations, but it has called the attention of the scholars mainly because of its detailed criticism of Plato's political projects, especially the Republic. In fact Aristotle devotes 6 of the 12 chapters of Book II to examine Plato's proposals. Most of the scholarly contributions are focused on the criticism of Plato trying either to demonstrate the justice of Aristotle's reproaches or to invalidate his chapters on the basis of ...

  20. Methodology in Aristotle's Theory of Spontaneous Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Karen R

    2017-10-10

    Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation offers many puzzles to those who wish to understand his theory both within the context of his biology and within the context of his more general philosophy of nature. In this paper, I approach the difficult and vague elements of Aristotle's account of spontaneous generation not as weaknesses, but as opportunities for an interesting glimpse into the thought of an early scientist struggling to reconcile evidence and theory. The paper has two goals: (1) to give as charitable and full an account as possible of what Aristotle's theory of spontaneous generation was, and to examine some of its consequences; and (2) to reflect on Aristotle as a scientist, and what his comments reveal about how he approached a difficult problem. In particular, I propose that the well-recognized problem of the incompatibility between Aristotle's concept of spontaneity and his theory of spontaneous generation presents an opportunity for insight into his scientific methodology when approaching ill-understood phenomena.

  1. Aristotle and the Theory of Decision (Prohairesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Shirkhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The term of prohairesis was systematically entered in philosophical debates by Aristotle. This concept is generally translated as intention, will, purpose, choice, purposive choice, rational choice, and deliberative choice that the later seems to be Aristotle’s definition of prohairesis. To understand the internal structure of prohairesiss, we have to understand the conceptions of action, intention, belief, whish, will, and virtues. For Aristotle if an action will be done through a decision, this action is voluntary, but its contrary is not credible. He believes that the children and animals act voluntarily, but they have not any decision, because they have not any deliberation.

  2. Aristotle, De Memoria et Reminiscentia. Text, Translation and Interpretive Essays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition.......The dissertation analyses Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. It contains an introduction, a critical edition accompanied by an English translation, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay on the Aristotelian tradition....

  3. Perspectives on Rhetorical History: Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    The most important historical theory of persuasion is Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory. Aristotle's work, "The Rhetoric," is divided into three books, each of which discuss principles relevant to persuasion. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic; establishes the purposes of rhetoric; discusses three types of…

  4. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…

  5. Noncommutative phase spaces on Aristotle group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancille Ngendakumana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We realize noncommutative phase spaces as coadjoint orbits of extensions of the Aristotle group in a two dimensional space. Through these constructions the momenta of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of a naturally introduced magnetic eld. These cases correspond to the minimal coupling of the momentum with a magnetic potential.

  6. Transference and katharsis, Freud to Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Maria Grazia

    2015-04-01

    Aristotle's theory of tragic katharsis is the most ancient and debated theory of the effect of the theatrical experience on the audience. It affirms that tragedy effects the katharsis of fear and pity, engaging readers with the controversy whether by katharsis Aristotle meant purification of the emotions (i.e. their perfection within the mind) or purification of the mind from the emotions (i.e. their abreaction from the mind). In this paper I will explore how Freud's theory of transference can suggest a new interpretation of Aristotle's tragic katharsis. Transference allows for the representation and expression of repressed emotions through the re-enactment of past relational dynamics. Although this process is essential to the psychoanalytic method, it is the subsequent analytic endeavour which allows for the "working through" of repressed emotions, bringing into effect the transference cure. I argue that the dynamic between emotional arousal in re-enactment and emotional distancing in analysis offers an effective parallel of the dynamic between katharsis of fear and katharsis of pity in Aristotle's theory. Such interpretation of tragic katharsis suggests that the theatrical effect in audiences may be an opportunity for self-analysis and the 'working through' of unconscious psychic dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  7. Democratic Ethics, Politics, and Education: Aristotle Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    1993-01-01

    In our modernized, changing, and dissatisfied society, values and ideologies have split into two extremes (nihilistic postmodernism and totalitarianism/fundamentalism) antagonistic to developing democratic life ways requiring rational discourse and agreement based on mutual respect. Aristotle tried to elaborate how to act well to achieve a good…

  8. Aristotle CHRONICLES OF MEDICAL HISTORY IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... scientist, and mathematician, sometimes called the fa- ther of modern philosophy. Born in La Haye, Touraine (a region and former prov- ince of France), Descartes was the son of a minor. CHRONICLES OF MEDICAL HISTORY IN AFRICA. PIONEERS OF HEART SURGERY: FROM ARISTOTLE TO GRILLO.

  9. Radulphus Brito's Commentary on Aristotle's De anima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Sander W.

    2012-01-01

    In 1974, Winfried Fauser published his edition of Radulphus Brito's commentary on the third book of Aristotle's De anima. This contribution continues his project by providing an edition of Brito's commentary on the first book and the first third of the second book. An analysis of this part of the

  10. FRIENDSHIP AND THE COMMON GOOD IN ARISTOTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRED GUYETTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For theorists of political liberalism, individual rights take priority over the good. Communitarians hold, however, that a society focused exclusively on individual rights will be made up of atomistic selves who cannot sustain any commitment to the common good. Aristotle’s discussions of friendship and the common good can contribute to the conversation concerning the polis and its ends. Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics emphasizes homonoia, but his Politics envisions “political friendship” more as a space for agonistic struggle. Aristotle knows about the destructive effects of pleonexia, and he describes several community-building virtues that are opposed to it: justice, temperance, and liberality. Aristotle also claims that the genre of tragedy can inform a commitment to work for the common good.

  11. The pancreas from Aristotle to Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Ryoichi; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The first description of the pancreas in literature is found in Aristotle's Historia Animalium, but it is modified by "so-called". Therefore, the origin is pursued more extensively. The Greek-English Lexicon recommends three treatises as a possible original source. These three and Galen's other papers are investigated. In 2005, Sachs et al. suggested an origin of the pancreas might have derived from the intestinal divination using the avian pancreas. This report is evaluated. The avian pancreas which is the intraperitoneal organ, might have been well known by the intestinal divination, and people have called the organ pankreas or kallikreas. Anatomical dissection on human body was not accepted before the Aristotle's time. "So-called pancreas" in Historia must have been interpolated by Theophrastus. He was the most faithful and reliable disciple of Aristotle and succeeded the Aristotle's school. He and Macedonian ruler of Egypt Ptolemy I had known each other and there had been a strong link between them. The contemporary Herophilus performed many public dissections on both human and animal bodies in Alexandria. He named the various parts of the human body and designated the beginning intestine as duodenum. Yet in his extant works, the pancreas is not found. It is surmised that Herophilus may be the first to recognize the human pancreas, which is fixed with retroperitoneal tissue, and he named it "so-called pancreas". Theophrastus might have interpolated Herophilus' designation in Historia Animalium. Galen also uses "so-called pancreas" to designate the human pancreas. Galen's descriptions, that is, "Nature created 'so-called pancreas 'and spread it beneath all vessels" are not generally acceptable but propose the very rare portal vein anomalies. Since the early years of the 20th century, cases with a preduodenal portal vein or a prepancreatic portal vein have been reported. Although the incidence is very rare, its surgical importance is emphasized. Copyright © 2014

  12. Aristotle on Animals in the Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the apparently very harsh views on animals that are found in two passages of the Politics. These passages have not received much scholarly attention, but they have regularly been invoked by defenders of animal rights. In this article it is argued that an interpretation...... of these passages demands close scrutiny of the context, and furthermore that they must be taken into consideration along with the psychological and the biological writings if Aristotle's views on animals are to be convincingly established....

  13. Philoponus on Aristotle physics 41-5

    CERN Document Server

    Algra, Keimpe; van Ophuijsen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Aristotles account of place, in which he defined a things place as the inner surface of its nearest immobile container, was supported by the Latin Middle Ages, even 1600 years after his death, though it had not convinced many ancient Greek philosophers. The sixth century commentator Philoponus took a more common-sense view. For him, place was an immobile three-dimensional extension, whose essence did not preclude its being empty, even if for other reasons it had always to be filled with body. However, Philoponus reserved his own definition for an excursus, already translated in this series, Th

  14. Aristotle, Hume and the goals of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, David

    2016-08-01

    Whilst medicine is now an immense global industry clinicians often appear unclear as to its goals. This paper uses two philosophical steps to clarify our conceptualization of health and thus our goals for healthcare. Firstly, clinicians need to understand the significance of Hume's fact / value distinction in medicine, for medicine relies on both facts and values. Secondly clinicians need a better specified definition of 'health' to use as a goal for healthcare. Aristotle's model of human flourishing is used as the starting point for a new conceptualization of health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Aristotle on the Pleasure of Knowledge and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Aristotle's views on the pleausre of learning with particular reference to the Nicomachean Ethics, the Rhetorics and the Poetics.......This paper examines Aristotle's views on the pleausre of learning with particular reference to the Nicomachean Ethics, the Rhetorics and the Poetics....

  16. The Causal Priority of Form in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Koslicki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In various texts (e.g., Met. Z.17, Aristotle assigns priority to form, in its role as a principle and cause, over matter and the matter-form compound. Given the central role played by this claim in Aristotle's search for primary substance in the Metaphysics, it is important to understand what motivates him in locating the primary causal responsibility for a thing's being what it is with the form, rather than the matter. According to Met. Theta.8, actuality [energeia/entelecheia] in general is prior to potentiality [dunamis] in three ways, viz., in definition, time and substance. I propose an explicitly causal reading of this general priority claim, as it pertains to the matter-form relationship. The priority of form over matter in definition, time and substance, in my view, is best explained by appeal to the role of form as the formal, efficient and final cause of the matter-form compound, respectively, while the posteriority of matter to form according to all three notions of priority is most plausibly accounted for by the fact that the causal contribution of matter is limited to its role as material cause. When approached from this angle, the work of Met. Theta.8 can be seen to lend direct support to the more specific and explicitly causal priority claim we encounter in Met. Z.17, viz., that form is prior to matter in its role as the principle and primary cause of a matter-form compound's being what it is.

  17. Consequence etiology and biological teleology in Aristotle and Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J

    2008-12-01

    Aristotle's biological teleology is rooted in an epigenetic account of reproduction. As such, it is best interpreted by consequence etiology. I support this claim by citing the capacity of consequence etiology's key distinctions to explain Aristotle's opposition to Empedocles. There are implications for the relation between ancient and modern biology. The analysis reveals that in an important respect Darwin's account of adaptation is closer to Aristotle's than to Empedocles's. They both rely on consequence etiological considerations to evade attributing the purposiveness of organisms to chance. Two implications follow: (l) Darwinian explanations of adaptation are as teleological as Aristotle's, albeit differently; and (2) these differences show how deeply resistant Aristotle's version of biological teleology is to descent from a common ancestor.

  18. The Rhetoric of Explanation: Explanatory Rhetoric from Aristotle to 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Follows the slow growth of a body of knowledge about how information could best be communicated without necessary references to overt persuasion from Aristotle's "Rhetoric" through the beginnings of a theory of written discourse in the American nineteenth century. (FL)

  19. With Aristotle towards a differenciated concept of information?

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    With Aristotle towards a differenciated concept of information? - In: Philosophy, computing and information science / ed. by Ruth Hagengruber ... - London : Pickering & Chatto, 2014. - S. 41-44. - (History and philosophy of technoscience ; 3)

  20. The thoroughly modern Aristotle: was he really a functionalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C D

    1998-02-01

    In recent years a debate has developed over whether Aristotle's theory of the psuche is properly characterized as having been "functionalist" in the sense that contemporary computational cognitive scientists claim to be adherents of that position. It is argued here that there are indeed some similarities between Aristotle's theory and that of contemporary functionalists but that the differences between them make it misleading, at best, for functionalists to look to Aristotle for ancient support. In particular, it is argued that Aristotle would not have--indeed, specifically did not--support the claim, central to functionalism, that the mind can in principle be transported from one body to another simply by instantiating in the new body some set of organizational properties that were instantiated in the old.

  1. Time in Physics IV: Aristotle's reductionistic vision in four movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Anthony Phillip

    Aristotle's definition of time in Physics IV.11 as ``a number of motion with respect to the before and after'' is often claimed to be viciously circular, since it is thought that `before' and `after' are terms that cannot be explicated independently of temporal concepts. My project in this dissertation is to defend Aristotle's theory against this charge of circularity and, further, to argue that it succeeds where some modern theories of time fail. The centerpiece of my interpretation is an explication of theoretical entities that Aristotle calls `the before and after in motion', entities that I have dubbed `kinetic positions'. Kinetic positions are instantaneous happenings within a movement that can be specified as functions of a moving object's actual spatial location and the telos, or end, of the movement. On Aristotle's view, time is an aspect of motion, and kinetic positions are the lower-level metaphysical counterparts of instants. It is in this sense that Aristotle's account is reductionistic: time derives its existence and structure from that of motion, and motion derives its existence and structure from that of spatial magnitudes. The success of my project requires that I: (i)establish that Aristotle's kinetic theory can be explicated independently of temporal concepts; (ii)explain how the asymmetrically-ordered kinetic continuum derives from the symmetrically-ordered spatial continuum; (iii)show that my interpretation of kinetic positions is consistent with Aristotle's claim in Physics VI that motion in an instant is impossible; (iv)explain the significance of Aristotle's placement of time within the genus number; (v)justify Aristotle's claim in IV.14 that time would not exist if there were no perceptive souls; (vi)how that Aristotle's account integrates temporal passage, the ``flow'' of time, in such a way as to be immune from devastating arguments, devised by McTaggart and others, against its possibility. I conclude that Aristotle ultimately conceives

  2. An interpretation on Aristotle's concept of incidental perception

    OpenAIRE

    堀江, 聡

    1986-01-01

    In De Anima B6, Aristotle divides objects of perception into essential and incidental ones. Furthermore, he divides objects of incidental perception into three kinds. (1) common objects, (2) proper objects of heterogeneous perception, and (3) objects such as "son of Diares". Many Commentators think that the latter two are irrelevant to Aristotle's theory of perception. I think, however, these kinds of perception play the most important part not only in recognizing the existence of individual ...

  3. Desiring the good: motivational development in Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Mysen, Reidar

    2011-01-01

    According to Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics, character-development is closely connected to perception and our emotional pull towards objects of desire. The problem is, though The Ethics is brimming with a variety of psychological mechanisms, we lack supporting theories to understand how they work together. My aim with this thesis is to establish the theoretical scaffolding necessary with Aristotle's text as a theoretic basis. To test the theories, if have constructed a though-experiment ...

  4. Aristotle's ethical theory & modern health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S K

    1996-01-01

    The Greek physician of antiquity - Hippocrates (460-356 B.C.) is called the Father of Modern Medicine and the Hippocratic Oath to which doctors of modern medicine traditionally and formally express their allegiance, forms the basic foundation of medical ethics. The tradition of Western ethical philosophy began with the ancient Greeks. From Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and his immediate successors, Plato (427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), there is a clear line of continuity, through Hellenistic period (from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) to the end of Ptolemic dynasty (30 B.C.) and the Roman annexation of Egypt - broadly post-Aristotelian and medieval thought to the present day. But the society has qualitatively and quantitatively changed since the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Society, today, is just a collection of discrete individuals, each with his or her own purposes and interests. Hence it has become almost imperative to apply the principle of autonomy to issues in the ethics of health care. The aim of this short essay is, therefore, an attempt to explore the relevance, if any, of Aristotelian ethical theory to the modern health care.

  5. Categorias marxianas fundamentais para o estudo do trabalho imaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Oliveira Santos

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: A presente pesquisa anseia apreender determinados elementos fundamentais na obra de Karl Marx que elucidam questões pertinentes para o estudo do trabalho imaterial no capitalismo. Além de isoladas menções diretas a este tipo de trabalho, há em Marx categorias e conceitos que municiam uma análise do trabalho imaterial, tais como: trabalho produtivo e improdutivo, a noção ampliada de indústria, o trabalho vendido como serviço, o tempo de rotação do capital, etc.. Tomaremos como objeto n...

  6. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  7. An Explanation of True Dreams: Aristotle and Jung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sanai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalistic explanation of realized dream (or dreams that come true means that this phenomen will be explained regardless of supernatural agents. Aristotle in Parva naturalia and Jung in his works explained dream visionary. In this article by scrutiny on these thinkers’ theory, we will indicate the naturalistic approach to dream that is far- fetched for followers of metaphysics. In spite of this fact that Aristotle and Jung both belongs to different historical contexts, they have common aspects in terms of naturalistic method; in the universal or broad sense of word, but in terms of content both explain the true dream by the term “coincidence” or accidental conformity between objective events and psychological affairs. It also seems that the notion of Neutral monism in Jung is adaptive to Hylomorphism in Aristotle psychology, and this, provides a path for naturalistic approach to dream as one forms of consciousness.

  8. Space, Time, Matter, and Form Essays on Aristotle's Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bostock, David

    2006-01-01

    Space, Time, Matter, and Form collects ten of David Bostock's essays on themes from Aristotle's Physics, four of them published here for the first time. The first five papers look at issues raised in the first two books of the Physics, centred on notions of matter and form, and the idea of substance as what persists through change. They also range over other of Aristotle's scientific works, such as his biology and psychology and the account of change in his De Generatione et Corruptione. The volume's remaining essays examine themes in later books of the Physics, including infinity, place, time

  9. Aristotle's "De Caelo" III introduction, translation and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Kouremenos, Theokritos

    2013-01-01

    This is the first full-scale commentary on Aristotle's de Caelo III to appear in recent decades. de Caelo III can serve as a good introduction to Aristotle's physics and its character. In it he answers some very general questions about the elements of all material things except celestial objects: how many these elements are, why they cannot be infinitely many but must be more than one, whether they are eternal or can be generated and decay, and, if the second, how. His discussion is often framed as a critique of rival theories, and he argues systematically against the geometri

  10. Liberating the Liberal Arts: An Interpretation of Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of the debate over the definition of liberal education and the extent to which education should be liberal. Contrasts the position of Aristotle with those of his teachers, and of later theorists, including John Dewey, Mortimer Adler, Robert Maynard Hutchins, Allan Bloom, and E. D. Hirsch. (DMM)

  11. The Hamartia of Aristotle | Sackey | Legon Journal of the Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term hamartia, as it appears in Aristotle s Poetics, has baffled critics. Two schools of thought have dichotomized the meaning of the word. While the first attempts to explain it in terms of moral evil and proposes tragic suffering as the retributive consequence of a "tragic flaw" in the individual's character, the second rejects ...

  12. The issue of life: Aristotle in nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Ingunn; Torjuul, Kirsti

    2009-10-01

    This paper explores the issue of life and its relevance to nursing, through Aristotle's philosophy and an Aristotelian interpretation of Nightingale's Notes on Nursing. Life as process and becoming has ontological status in Aristotle's philosophy and this dynamism is particularly relevant for nursing. The paper presents aspects of Aristotle's philosophy of life: his account of life as inherent powers of the individual, his analysis of change and time, and his understanding of sickness and health as qualitative states of living beings. It is shown how the Greek medical-philosophical tradition, continued by Galenic medicine and hygiene into modern time, influenced Nightingale's nursing. Individuals' life-maintaining metabolic relations to their surroundings are investigated through Aristotle and modern philosophy of biology and through Nightingale's nursing emphasis on the patient's relation to her or his immediate surroundings. It is argued that Nightingale's concern is really the processes of individual life, which in sickness necessitate temporally continuous nursing observation. Humans' radical dependency on their surroundings is actualized as interpersonal interdependency. The paper argues that the end of nursing care, the telos for which sake it is practised, is inherent in the individual course of the patients' life. When life processes are affected by sickness, infirmity, medical interventions or mental suffering, individuals need competent help to live - and to live as well as possible. It is suggested that the special responsibility of nursing is to facilitate, relieve and protect individual life continuously during such times.

  13. Aristotle's "homo mimeticus" as an Educational Paradigm for Human Coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzo, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    In the "Poetics" of Aristotle there is a definition of the human being that perhaps has not yet been well considered in educational theory and practice. This definition calls into question a dynamism that according to Plato was unavoidable for an appropriate understanding of the educational process that turns a human being into a…

  14. Aristotle's Lyric: Re-Imagining the Rhetoric of Epideictic Song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the critical paradigms that have shaped thinking about lyric poetry, dominated by the prose/lyric antithesis. Argues that these antitheses, based on Aristotle's dismissal of versification as the defining feature of poetic discourse, are unnecessary, and that the argumentative, dramatic, expressive, and prosodic motives need not be…

  15. On Three Locations Connected with Aristotle: Ancient Stagira - Mieza - Athens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed well-nigh simultaneous discoveries on three archaeological sites connected with Aristotle, which have eliminated many cliches and mistaken assumptions about the philosopher's life and work. These are: (1 his native town of Stagira, or Stagirus; (2 his school in the Macedonian town of Mieza; and (3 the location of the Peripatetic school, the Lyceum, at Athens. The first part of the article thus briefly surveys the most important discoveries about the layout of ancient Stagira, as described in the monograph by Konstantinos Sismanidis. The  main  archaeological finds include an early classical town-wall (an admirable example of military architecture, the  stoa,  an  aqueduct, the  foundations of three  temples, silver coins with the type of a wild boar, etc.-The second part moves from a preliminary description of Mieza to an  attempt at  reconstructing the philosophical ideas transmitted by Aristotle to Alexander and  his peers at Mieza- not  Pella-, using  Plutarch's Life of Alexander as a starting-point. Such education would have been  impossible if the Macedonians had not been  Greeks  and  their  language a Greek  dialect, and  it is the failure to realize this fact that has long impeded- and  still does- our understanding of Aristotle's attitude to Philip and  Alexander. The article touches on  the potential relevance of Alexander's politics for  the  present, which  may be sought in  its interplay of  two processes: the  spreading of Greek culture abroad on  the  one hand, and, on  the  other, the  preservation of  other cultures with which  the Greeks came into contact. The third part, drawing on  Rupp's book Peripatoi, presents the  latest archaeological discoveries relating to the exact location of Aristotle's Peripatos in Athens. In 323 BC -immediately after Alexander's death- Aristotle retired from Athens for the  second time, his life endangered by the  prevailing anti

  16. Einstein contra Aristotle: The sound from the heavens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, J. C. S.

    2017-09-01

    In "On the Heavens" Aristotle criticizes the Pythagorean point of view which claims the existence of a cosmic music and a cosmic sound. According to the Pythagorean argument, there exists a cosmic music produced by stars and planets. These celestial bodies generate sound in its movements, and the music appears due to the cosmic harmony. For Aristotle, there is no sound produced by celestial bodies. Then, there is no music as well. However, recently, LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory) has detected the gravitational waves predicted by Einstein. In some sense, a sound originated from black holes has been heard. That is, Einstein or the General Relativity and LIGO appear to be with the Pythagoreanism and against the master of the Lyceum.

  17. Einstein contra Aristotle: the sound from the heavens

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2016-01-01

    In "On the Heavens" Aristotle criticizes the Pythagorean point of view which claims the existence of a cosmic music. According to the Pythagorean argument, there exists a cosmic music produced by stars and planets. These celestial bodies generate sound in its movements, and the music appears due to the cosmic harmony. For Aristotle, there is no sound produced by celestial bodies. Then, there is no music as well. However, recently, LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory) has detected the gravitational waves predicted by Einstein. In some sense, a sound originated from black holes has been heard. That is, Einstein and LIGO appear to be with the Pythagoreanism and against the master of the Lyceum.

  18. David Hartley's psychobiological associationism and the legacy of Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, H W; Finger, S

    1997-04-01

    The idea that there are certain "laws" of learning (similarity, contrast, contiguity) can be traced to Aristotle. He maintained that external stimuli cause small movements in the vessels to the dominant heart, the vestiges of which can be linked to one another. Aristotle's laws of learning were incorporated into the writings of Hobbes, Locke, and Berkeley, men who said nothing about the physiological correlates of mental associations. This left the door open for David Hartley to combine mental associationism with the Newtonian idea that sensations can cause minute particle vibrations in the nerves. Hartley's amalgam of psychology, philosophy, and neurology was first presented in 1746, as a "trial balloon" at the end a little-known monograph on a treatment for kidney stones. It was repeated three years later in his better-known Observations on Man. In many ways, modern psychobiological connectionism can be traced back to Hartley's Conjectures of 1746, in which Aristotle's original thoughts were modified with then current ideas about functions of the mind and the nervous system.

  19. A Categoria Trabalho na Produção Teórica de Marilda Iamamoto

    OpenAIRE

    WANTIL, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    A presente pesquisa trata da apreensão da categoria trabalho na obra de Marilda Iamamoto, bem como sua formulação a respeito do trabalho profissional de Serviço Social, com base na fundamentação teórica desta categoria. Utiliza-se como fonte de pesquisa as obras publicadas pela autora e como apoio fundamental a clássica literatura de Karl Marx, além de outros autores de tradição marxista, visando dissertar sobre o fundamento filosófico e forma social da categoria estudada. Busca-se contemplar...

  20. Natural Justice and the Best Regime in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García Huidobro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle states that although political regimes vary from place to place, only one is by nature the best regime possible anywhere. The article analyzes some of the problems deriving from this statement, in order to show that the diversity of political forms is not abolished in that best regime and that conventional justice does not end up being superfluous. Furthermore, the Aristotelian idea of the best regime is radically different from later utopianism. Finally, the article examines the relation between the naturally just, as it is set forth in the Nicomachean Ethics, and the issue of the best regime, as dealt with in the Politics.

  1. Aura music art - Aristotle's philosophical aesthetics of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2001-12-01

    in music. Referring to Damon, Plato and other philosophers of music Aristotle develops his own conception of musical imitation, which conveys the similarity between art and life. This affinity is the ground for different powers ofmusic: entertainment, education and civilised pursuits. The responsibility and care for the education of children and of citizens is conceived as care and diligence about art and music which becomes a real care for the soul, cultura animi. The article has following sections: 1. Poetry, music, education, 2. Ethos and musical mimesis, 3. Music and Education, 4. The purpose ofmusic and musical katharsis, 5. Musical katharsis, aesthetic pleasure and art experience, 6. Concluding remarks on music and katharsis.

  2. THE LOGIC OF JUSTICE IN ARISTOTLE'S NICOMACHEAN ETHICS, BOOK V

    OpenAIRE

    Hideya, Yamakawa; 桃山学院大学文学部

    1999-01-01

    In this paper I probe into the geometrical structure which lurks behind Aristotle's argument of justice in distribution (το διανεμητικον δικαιου) and especially justice in reciprocity (το αντιπεπονθοζ δικαιον) in the Book V of Nicomachean Ethics, and present a new solution for the interpretation of justice in reciprocity.

  3. Aristotle's Educational Politics and the Aristotelian Renaissance in Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the historical meaning and contemporary significance of Aristotle's educational ideas. It begins with a broad characterisation of the project of Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics" and "Politics", which he calls "political science" ("he politike episteme"), and the central place of education in his vision of statesmanship. It…

  4. Books and Becoming Good: Demonstrating Aristotle's Theory of Moral Development in the Act of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    In the Nicomachean ethics, Aristotle sets down a scattered and fractional account of the development of moral virtue within young people. Philosopher Martha Nussbaum defends Aristotle's neglect of a systematic account of moral development and argues that more complex expressions of character-building, such as learning to expose oneself to proper…

  5. A cladistic analysis of Aristotle's animal groups in the Historia animalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lieven, Alexander Fürst; Humar, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    The Historia animalium (HA) of Aristotle contains an extraordinarily rich compilation of descriptions of animal anatomy, development, and behaviour. It is believed that Aristotle's aim in HA was to describe the correlations of characters rather than to classify or define animal groups. In order to assess if Aristotle, while organising his character correlations, referred to a pre-existing classification that underlies the descriptions in HA, we carried out a cladistic analysis according to the following procedure: by disentangeling 147 species and 40 higher taxa-designations from 157 predicates in the texts, we transcribed Aristotle's descriptions on anatomy and development of animals in books I-V of HA into a character matrix for a cladistic analysis. By analysing the distribution of characters as described in his books, we obtained a non-phylogenetic dendrogram displaying 58 monophyletic groups, 29 of which have equivalents among Aristotle's group designations. Eleven Aristotelian groupings turned out to be non-monophyletic, and six of them are inconsistent with the monophyletic groups. Twelve of 29 taxa without equivalents in Aristotle's works have equivalents in modern classifications. With this analysis we demonstate there exists a fairly consistent underlying classification in the zoological works of Aristotle. The peculiarities of Aristotle's character basis are discussed and the dendrogram is compared with a current phylogenetic tree.

  6. Mathematical definitions and axioms in Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetnikov, Andrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrej Schetnikov, a historian of mathematics from Novosibirsk, discusses the problem of origins of the concepts of definitions and axioms in Ancient mathematics prior Euclid. Having noticed the fact that axioms and postulates are entirely absent from geometry in the time of Plato, the author turns to the problem of definitions in Plato and Aristotle instead and reads relevant passages from their works against the background of the “Elements” of Euclid. His working hypothesis is that the greater part of proofs from the first book of the “Elements” should be traced back to the time of Aristotle‘s school rather then Plato’s Academy despite the degree of sophistication of the mathematical technique in the time of the latter.

  7. Aristotle and Aquinas on the Teleology of Parts and Wholes

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    C.F.J. Martin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle, in the first book of the Nicomachean Ethics, makes two attempts at establishing the thesis that being a human being has a point (a telos, using two parallel sets of examples. His first step is to claim that whenever anything has a characteristic activity (ergon that activity is its end (telos, using the example of “the flute-player, the sculptor, and in general any craftsman”. This identification of the characteristic activity of a craftsman with the location of his “good and well”, qua craftsman, and thus presumably with the telos of the craftsman may be questioned, of course, but it does not affect the course of the arguments and the use of the examples I wish to pursue. It is enough that for given roles there should be a teleological relation to some point for that role.

  8. Aristotle on Sentence Types and Forms of Speech

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    Gábor Bolonyai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Hermeneutics, Ch. 4, the analysis of non-assertoric sentences such as wishes, commands, etc. belongs to rhetoric or poetics. They are, however, examined neither in the Rhetoric nor in the Poetics, where (Ch. 20 their treatment. is explicitly excluded from the art of poetry and referred to that of delivery or performance. The paper gives an explanation for this discrepancy, based on an interpretation of Aristotle's rejection of Protagoras' criticism of Homer. The sophist found fault with the first line of the Iliad where Homer invokes the Muse by the imperative Menin aeide, thea thus uttering a command while believing that he is expressing a prayer. Aristotle's grounds for rejecting this criticism remain implicit, but it appears very likely that he thought that, if uttered or performed in the right manner, the sentence could he taken as a prayer. From this observation, which is certainly valid in this particular case, he drew the conclusion that performative or vocal features in themselves, i.e. rhythm, intonation and volume of sound, are always sufficient to identify particular „figures of speech“, as he calls non-assertoric sentence types in the Poetics. This conclusion is, however, not entirely justified. Performative features are not always enough to differentiate between two `figures of speech'; the possible range of verbal moods and sentence types is likewise determined by morphological marks (e.g. mood signs, syntactical features (word-order, and lexical items (certain adverbs or particles. Aristotle’s decision to dismiss figures of speech altogether from the field of lexis may also have contributed to the later development of keeping linguistics and theory of style apart as two separate branches of inquiry.

  9. ESSÊNCIA E VERDADE: DUAS CATEGORIAS DO MÉTODO EM MARX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieri Carli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende estudar alguns dos aspectos do método de Marx,especialmente o tratamento dado a duas categorias: essência e verdade. Herdeiro datradição racionalista, Marx mantém em seu aparato categorial tanto a essência quanto averdade, ambas entrelaçadas uma à outra. Na mesma medida, será nosso intento atentarpara a peculiaridade do tratamento legado por Marx a essas duas categorias, tendo emconta as especificidades do materialismo de sua concepção teórica.

  10. ESSÊNCIA E VERDADE: DUAS CATEGORIAS DO MÉTODO EM MARX

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri Carli

    2011-01-01

    O presente artigo pretende estudar alguns dos aspectos do método de Marx,especialmente o tratamento dado a duas categorias: essência e verdade. Herdeiro datradição racionalista, Marx mantém em seu aparato categorial tanto a essência quanto averdade, ambas entrelaçadas uma à outra. Na mesma medida, será nosso intento atentarpara a peculiaridade do tratamento legado por Marx a essas duas categorias, tendo emconta as especificidades do materialismo de sua concepção teórica.

  11. Aristotle's study of the animal world: the case of the kobios and phucis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Jason A

    2006-01-01

    Aristotle was a remarkable observer of the living world. He made detailed observations on the anatomy and life history characteristics of many organisms as part of a larger study into the differentiae (diaphora) of groups of animals. This reexamination of Aristotle's observations of two small fishes is a study into the work or the way of being of particular organic wholes. As such, it is directed by three main objectives: to evaluate the accuracy of those observations Aristotle makes with regard to the kobios and phucis in the History of Animals, as well as to understand how he might have conducted his research; to determine whether aspects of those observations would ground more philosophical arguments; and to contribute to the understanding of the basic biology of these fishes. In so doing, this article also may introduce a new generation of biologists to the richness of Aristotle's biological observations and the questions that motivated them.

  12. The melancholy according to Aristotle in the magic square on Duerer's Melencolia I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Kurent

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In the numbers of Duerer's Melancolia  magic square is hidden the Aristotle's wonder: "How come, that all the people, excelling in philosophy or in politics or in poetry or in arts, are evidently melancholical..."

  13. Notes on Agricultural Terminology in Aristotle (Sens. 441a10-17)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines Aristotle's terminology in a much debated passage of the De Sensu et Sensibilibus. Based on this examination, the text itself and the conjectures that have so far been proposed are discussed....

  14. In search of Aristotle: Temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2007-01-01

    ...? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related...

  15. Motivação na aprendizagem organizacional: construindo as categorias afetiva, cognitiva e social.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Kleinübing Godoi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos processos complexos de aprendizagem encontra no fenômeno motivacional um elemento fundamental. O que se busca neste ensaio é compreensão do entrelaçamento dos aspectos afetivos, cognitivos e sociais da motivação no interior do processo de aprendizagem organizacional. A delimitação do objeto – motivação na aprendizagem organizacional – emerge, inicialmente, da construção de cada categoria: a categoria afetiva, originária da confluência entre a teoria psicanalítica freudiana e abordagem psicodinâmica da aprendizagem; b categoria cognitiva, procedente do pensamento piagetiano; e c categoria social, sob a influência das teorias da aprendizagem social e sociocognitiva. Em virtude de as teorias referenciais terem sido desenvolvidas historicamente sob paradigmas distintos, elabora-se uma aproximação entre o paradigma criticalista, que transpassa a abordagem psicanalítica, e o construcionismo social, que sustenta as abordagens da psicologia utilizadas. A análise conjunta das três categorias e de seus fatores envolve dois momentos: a análise dos fatores da motivação na aprendizagem, descritos por autores que atuam no campo do indivíduo, observando aqueles que podem ser adaptados para o campo organizacional, e inseridos nas categorias desenvolvidas; e proposição de um quadro-síntese de categorias e fatores que possa ser utilizado em estudos subsequentes sobre o tema. Este artigo pretende contribuir para um novo olhar sobre as teorias da motivação e da aprendizagem nas organizações, uma vez que a sua relação constitui um objeto de estudo que não pode ser reduzido a um tipo motivacional, tampouco a um tipo de cenário de engajamentos, semelhante à motivação no trabalho, mas consiste em um conceito inerente aos processos do aprender organizacional. Atribui-se a relevância do estudo à abertura de uma perspectiva multiparadigmática de compreensão do fenômeno.

  16. Nursing Philosophy 2016, response to Peter Allmark's article, "Aristotle for Nursing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Beverly J B

    2017-10-01

    Preparing to lecture on Aristotle's contribution to Nursing at the International Philosophy of Nursing Conference August 22, 2016, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, I came upon the recently published article by my IPONS colleague, Allmark (2016), "Aristotle for Nursing." Allmark (2016) provides a comprehensive and understandable overview of Aristotle's philosophical system including the substantial nature of being and the four causes of change. Nurses using Aristotle to support practice and theoretical research will benefit from a careful reading of Allmark to enrich their use of the realist understanding of knowledge of nature (epistemology) and the matter-form causal relationships within natural being (ontology and teleology). Allmark carefully displays the distinction between good health and flourishing; a distinction sometimes hard to grasp. Nurses are concerned with the end of health, but cannot achieve for others, the fullness of living which is flourishing. We will limit ourselves to expanding three areas that seem important, first, that nursing is much more than a productive science or craft, second, that Aristotle does provide an important note on the persistence of the soul, and, third, while Aristotle does not address the possibility of a personal creative highest being as Allmark says, his references to the divine are worth considering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. ARISTOTLE AND THE ECONOMY WITHIN THE BOUNDS OF PRACTICAL REASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHIAS VOLLET

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Comparada con la economía de hoy, la de la Grecia antigua —por lo menos en una de sus concepciones— era una economía limitada. Exteriormente,porque en Hesíodo sirve para el sustento de la casa, y en Aristóteles para el sustento de la ciudad; interiormente y de manera sistemática, en el primer caso, por su origen divino y su sentido dentro de la relación hombre-dioses, y en el segundo caso, por su subordinación a la teleología ética y política de la vida humana, tal y como la concibe Aristóteles. La autarquía, como límite de la economía, es doble. Por una parte, autarquía económica en sentido estricto, ya que la economía sólo ha de llegar hasta el punto de poder asegurar la supervivencia de la comunidad que es su sujeto. Pero, por otra, la autarquía, para Aristóteles, tiene sobre todo un sentido antropológico: el hombre más autárquico es el que practica aquello que, para su praxis, no necesita de otra cosa: esta praxis más alta es la de la razón, desarrollada en la Polis, que es su meta. Esta autarquía del ser razonable da sentido y también límite al buen actuar económico, que es una mera herramienta.Abstract: By contrast to the contemporary economy, Ancient Greece had a closed economy. In what follows I distinguish an outer and an inner perspective. The outer perspective is determined by the autarky of the household (Hesiod or of the city (Aristotle, which is the exclusive moral aim for economic activity. The inner perspective is determined by the moral implications of economic activity, founded in the gods (Hesiod or in practical human reason (Aristotle. Both of these perspectives limit the scope and range of an economy and of economic influence on society. The distinction between the persepcectives gives us the basis for another distinction explicitly stated in Aristotle’s Politics. That distinction has influenced economic thought for several centuries and consistsin distinguishing two forms of

  18. Patterns of Light Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Beeson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Light is all around us – even when we do not see it. Our eyes do not detect the higher energy and shorter-than-visible-wavelength ultraviolet radiation, yet we know it is there from the sunburn we receive in Arizona. We know that window glass can block ultraviolet rays so we do not get a burn while driving with the windows rolled up. Our eyes do not detect the low-energy, long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation but we know it exists from discussions of war applications and televised images of guided weapons targets. We also know about radio waves from the little boxes that talk to us and x-rays from the dentist's office. Patterns of Light, Chasing the Spectrum from Aristotle to LEDs, written by Steve Beeson and Jim Mayer starts with the visible – the straight path of light. It continues with chapters detailing reflection (mirrors, storefront windows) and refraction (eyeglasses, binoculars). Color is then introduced with the query "Why is the sky blue?" After answering that and other similar questions ("Wh...

  19. Knowledge and Accountability in Aristotle - Wissen und Zurechenbarkeit bei Aristoteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Meyer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is intended to show that Aristotle was the first European philosopher to provide a systematic analysis of the so-called accountability problem. In the third book of his Nicomachean Ethics, he lays particular stress on the central role of knowledge: deficiencies in the knowledge of the perpetrator mean that we do not hold him responsible for his actions, or only to a limited extent; he is thus either not at all, or only to a certain degree, accountable for his acts.Der Beitrag soll zeigen, daß Aristoteles als erster europäischer Denker eine systematische Analyse der sog. Zurechnungsproblematik vorgelegt hat. Im 3. Buch seiner Nikomachischen Ethik hebt er dabei v. a. auf die zentrale Rolle des Wissens ab: Wissensmängel auf Seiten des Täters führen dazu, daß wir ihn nicht oder nur eingeschränkt für seine Handlungen verantwortlich machen; ihm also seine Taten entweder gar nicht oder nur begrenzt zurechnen.

  20. Wissen und Zurechenbarkeit bei Aristoteles / Knowledge and Accountability in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Meyer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag soll zeigen, daß Aristoteles als erster europäischer Denker eine systematische Analyse der sog. Zurechnungsproblematik vorgelegt hat. Im 3. Buch seiner Nikomachischen Ethik hebt er dabei v. a. auf die zentrale Rolle des Wissens ab: Wissensmängel auf Seiten des Täters führen dazu, daß wir ihn nicht oder nur eingeschränkt für seine Handlungen verantwortlich machen; ihm also seine Taten entweder gar nicht oder nur begrenzt zurechnen. This contribution is intended to show that Aristotle was the first European philosopher to provide a systematic analysis of the so-called accountability problem. In the third book of his Nicomachean Ethics, he lays particular stress on the central role of knowledge: deficiencies in the knowledge of the perpetrator mean that we do not hold him responsible for his actions, or only to a limited extent; he is thus either not at all, or only to a certain degree, accountable for his acts.

  1. The triune brain in antiquity: Plato, Aristotle, Erasistratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U M Chris

    2010-01-15

    Tripartite neuropsychologies have featured through two and half millennia of Western thought. They received a modern airing in Paul MacLean's well-known text The Triune Brain. This paper examines the origin of these triune psychophysiologies. It is argued that the first such psychophysiology was developed in the fifth century BCE in the Republic and its Pythagorean sequel, the Timaeus. Aristotle, Plato's pupil and colleague, developed a somewhat similar theory, though this time based on his exhaustive biological researches. Finally, a generation later, Herophilus and Erasistratus at the Alexandrian Museum put together a more anatomically informed tripartite theory that, somewhat modified by Galen in the second century AD, remained the prevailing orthodoxy for nearly fifteen hundred years until it was overturned by the great figures of the Renaissance. Nonetheless, as already mentioned, the notion that human neuropsychology is somehow best thought of as having a tripartite structure has remained remarkably resilient and has reappeared time and again in modern and early modern times. This paper investigates its origins and suggests that it is perhaps now time to move on.

  2. A informação sobre a categoria gramatical nos dicionários bilingues

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte Sanromán, Álvaro

    2003-01-01

    Será pertinente incluir no dicionário informação sobre a categoria gramatical do lema? Do ponto de vista lexicográfico existem outras maneiras de fornecer informação gramatical para o utilizador comum. Assim, pode-se informar sobre a transitividade ou a regência verbal por meio de exemplos. Para alguns linguistas, a informação sobre a categoria gramatical do lema será imprescindível para poder ser aplicado o chamado "princípio lexicográfico de substituição". Fundação para a Ciência e a Te...

  3. Leonico Tomeo—the First Interpreter and Translater of Aristotle From Original Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaj, Tatjana; Mulaj, Zenun

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of XV century, in European Renaissance, it was necessary to study the Aristotle in original Greek, because translations from Arab in Latin had caused considerable alterations in the meaning of original texts. This task in the beginning was trusted to Leonico Tomeo, which, not only opened the way for the studying of the Aristotle in original, but himself made important interpretations about philosophic and social problems and gave his arguments about concepts of natural sciences, as for motion, atoms etc. He translated some works of Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy etc, from the Greek to Latin. The work of Tomeo gave revolutionary results and prepared the way for the scientific method of Galileo, which from Padua, where worked and lived Tomeo and later, Galileo, propagates in all European universities.

  4. FORMATION OF ANTIQUE RHETORIC: CHRONOLOGY OF RHETORICAL METHODS AND STYLES (PLATO, ARISTOTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Pantelyeyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: to analyze the basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle, to prove that from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense starts being approved, and Aristotle is an ancestor of real theory of speech of the new genre, the new form, the new purposes and tasks of the description of verbal art. Problem statement: development of the ancient principles of rhetorical style’s creating is reached by efforts of outstanding speakers, each of them were differed not only by the ideological sympathies or antipathies, but also by nature of works, the concepts put in their basis. Two Ancient Greek philosophers: Plato and Aristotle are considered as founders of ancient rhetorical science. Methodology. Author has used system method, methods of content and comparative analysis. Scientific novelty is displayed in the received results from the comparative analysis of two concepts of public speech of Plato and Aristotle from a position of philosophical justification of rhetoric’s rules with orientation on ancient "popular" declamation practices. Practical value of article consists in development of insufficiently studied object "Antique declamation discourse" where Plato and Aristotle's two central rhetorical concepts appear as the intermediate stage in development of a declamation discourse of Ancient Greece and, subsequently, and Ancient Rome. Conclusions. The conclusions can be given by the following facts: from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense is approved: true rhetorical art isn’t based only on argument technique, the true rhethor appears as the philosopher. Plato raises the problem of an ambiguity of two opposite rhetorics presented in "Gorgias" and "Phaedrus ". Rhetoric as scientific discipline, as the present theory of speech is first considered by Aristotle. The rhetoric is presented as the science "about speech and about thoughts", about the relation of thinking to the word.

  5. Paranoia como catástrofe social: sobre o problema da gênese de categorias clínicas

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    Vladimir Safatle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de discutir as relações entre a constituição da paranoia como categoria clínica e experiências estético-sociais de crise. Esta é uma maneira de se perguntar sobre as relações que categorias clínicas tecem com processos e valores advindos dos campos da política e da estética.

  6. O conceito de categoria ontológica: um novo enfoque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz B. Puntel

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo oferece um novo enfoque do conceito de categoria ontológica. O ponto de partida é a afirmação de que as "ontologias da substância" baseiam-se na aceitação do Princípio da Composicionalidade Semântica, o qual se mostra ter implicações ontológicas inaceitáveis. Este artigo delineia uma nova semântica baseada no Princípio de Contextualidade Sentencial (ou Princípio do Contexto e, em concordância com ele, uma nova ontologia. A partir desse princípio uma nova categoria semântica denominada "estado de coisas primário" ("primestado", de forma abreviada é derivada, e é mostrado que sobre essa base é possível desenvolver a categoria ontológica fundamental e, em um sentido, única chamada "fato primário" ("primofato", de forma abreviada.The paper offers a new approach of the concept of ontological category. The starting point is the claim that the "substance ontologies" are based on the acceptance of the Semantic Compositionality Principle which is shown to have unacceptable ontological implications. The paper delineates a new semantics based on the Principle of Sentential Contextuality (or Context Principle and, in accordance with it, a new ontology. From this principle a new semantic category dubbed "prime state of affairs" ("pristate" for short is derived and it is shown that on this basis it is possible to work out the fundamental and, in one sense, unique ontological category called "prime fact" ("prifact" for short.

  7. PRESTÍGIO PROFISSIONAL DO ENFERMEIRO: ESTIMAÇÃO DE MAGNITUDES E DE CATEGORIAS EXPANDIDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa

    Full Text Available O prestígio social de profissões de nível superior exercidas por: assistente social, biólogo, dentista, enfermeiro, engenheiro, farmacêutico, físico, fisioterapeuta, fonoaudiólogo, médico, psicólogo, químico e sociólogo foi escalonado pelos métodos psicofísicos de estimação de magnitude e de categorias expandidas. Os resultados mostraram que: 1 quando aumentamos a amplitude limitada das categorias, esse método passa a ter as mesmas características da estimação de magnitudes 2 a relação entre as estimativas de magnitudes e as estimativas de categorias expandidas é uma função de potência com um expoente não significativamente diferente de 1,0. Em função desses dados, podemos concluir que: (1 a profissão de Enfermeiro ocupa a sétima ou a oitava posição em termos do prestígio das 13 profissões, enquanto a de médico ocupa a primeira posição nas escalas obtidas pelos métodos utilizados; (2 as ordenações resultantes dos métodos produzem posições de prestígio altamente concordantes para as diferentes profissões.

  8. Borges e as categorias lógico-fenomenológicas de peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floyd Merrell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentos de J.L.Borges servem, aqui, a uma "descrição semioticamente orientada", baseada na teoria das categorias de C.S.Peirce. Não se pretende fazer, portanto, o desenvolvimento de uma "semiótica da literatura" com foco no texto Borgeano. Ele serve-nos como exemplares para um tratamento das categorias fenomenológicas de Peirce.En este ensayo, selecciones de la obra de J. L. Borges componen una "descripción semioticamente orientada", basada en la teoría de las categorías de C. S. Peirce. Sin embargo, de ninguna manera hay la presunción de desarrollar una "semiótica de la literatura" a través de un enfoque en textos borgianos, sino que los textos sirven como prototipos que ejemplifican las categorías fenomenológicas de Peirce.In this essay, literary fragments from J. L. Borges combine to form a "semiotically oriented description", based on C. S. Peirce's theory of categories. However, there is no intention to develop a "semiotic theory of literature" through focus on Borgesian texts. Rather the texts are used as exemplary semiotic prototypes that illustrate Peirce's phenomenological categories.

  9. A categoria racionalidade médica e uma nova epistemologia em saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Cabral do Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo é um relato analítico da trajetória de 20 anos da categoria racionalidade médica, que emergiu no Campo da Saúde Coletiva, área das Ciências Sociais e Humanas em Saúde, no início da década de 1990, com o objetivo de estudar sistemas médicos complexos e terapêuticas tradicionais, complementares e alternativas. Com base em revisão crítica da literatura, apresentam-se aspectos do contexto cultural, político-institucional e social de seu surgimento, como também suas principais contribuições e desdobramentos nos planos teórico e das políticas e práticas sociais em saúde. Utiliza-se o conceito de epistemologia do sul de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, para a reflexão sobre a contribuição da categoria racionalidade médica à crítica da racionalidade científica pós-moderna e à construção de uma nova epistemologia em saúde.

  10. CATEGORIAS DE JOGO E JOGOS TEXTUAIS: UMA LEITURA DE O JOGO DA AMARELINHA

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    Tânia Winch Lisbôa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a noção de jogo e de jogos textuais na obra O jogo da amarelinha (no original Rayuela, de Julio Cortázar. Para a efetivação dessa análise foram utilizados, como referencial teórico, os estudos de Johan Huizinga, Roger Caillois e Wolfgang Iser, destacando as quatro categorias de jogo - agôn, alea, mimicry e ilinx - introduzidas por Caillois e readequadas ao texto literário, sob o ponto de vista dos jogos textuais, por Iser. A partir desses conceitos teóricos que evidenciam questões pertinentes ao jogo em geral e aos jogos textuais em particular, considerando-se que esse é um estudo de aplicação, procurou-se evidenciar como essas quatro categorias de jogo se manifestam no texto literário do escritor argentino através dos jogos textuais.

  11. Liberal vs. Useful Education: Reevaluating the Historical Appeals to Benjamin Franklin and Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    1981-01-01

    In a long-standing debate, those who argue that "useful" studies are liberal have often appealed to Franklin, while those who oppose this have usually appealed to Aristotle. Both of these historical appeals are flawed, however, a fact revealing deeper misunderstanding in the contemporary debate. (Author/MSE)

  12. ABSTRACT The Hamartia of Aristotle Albert A. Sackey1 The term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    he uses the Arabic word zalal, meaning "error'', to translate hamartia. According to Avicenna, this error implies a "straying .... Secondly, Cooper's identification of Milton's and Shakespeare's heroes with .... dialect of Homer, through the New Ionic of Thucydides, to the Attic dialect of Plato, Aristotle's contemporary, the meaning ...

  13. Aristotle's Rhetoric, Hitler's Program, and the Ideological Problem of Praxis, Power, and Professional Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Steven B.

    1993-01-01

    Examines Hitler's use of propaganda to construct praxis and define phronesis in Nazi Germany in terms of the rational but open-ended nature of Aristotle's political-ethical thought. Examines the failure of professional discourse surrounding the siting of a low-level nuclear waste facility to create a persuasive reality and yet ideologically…

  14. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was

  15. 76 FR 37290 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule; Aristotle International, Inc.'s Application for Safe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... comments must be received by August 8, 2011. ADDRESSES: Interested parties may file a comment online or on... file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/aristotle , by following the... modifications. Section C. Invitation To Comment You can file a comment online or on paper. For the Commission to...

  16. The "Physically Educated" Person: Physical Education in the Philosophy of Reid, Peters and Aristotle

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, James

    2013-01-01

    This article will derive a definition and account of the physically educated person, through an examination of the philosophy of Andrew Reid, Richard Peters and Aristotle. Initially, Reid's interpretation of Peters' views about the educational significance of practical knowledge (and physical education) will be considered. While it will…

  17. Proposition and Contradiction: The Definition of Proposition in Aristotle's Logical Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ammar Kalantar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle in his logical works, in addition to the statement, introduces the concept of proposition and defines it based on affirmation and negation in Prior Analytics. There are two issues about Aristotle's view of preposition, i.e., the interpretation of its definition, and its relation to the statement. In this article, first, three interpretations of preposition, including Alexander of Aphrodisias' and classical ones, are discussed and criticized. And because Aristotle points to the relation between contradiction and proposition, first, the definition of contradiction from Aristotle's point of view and, then, its relation to proposition are discussed. Finally, my interpretation of proposition is explained: proposition is a statement which its relation with contradiction is considered and the attention to this relation leads to the acceptation of the rule of contradiction which is the foundation of each deduction. The linguistics meaning of proposition is compatible with this interpretation: proposition is to propose one side of contradiction, and because of this, the dialectical proposition has two forms: question form the answerer and its replay as a premise in dialectical deduction.

  18. Difference between the Approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in Proof of the Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Tayebnia, M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparing between approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in proof of the existence of God, is a sign of basic difference between Peripatetic idea of Aristotle and Avicenna, also the different way that has been gone in the Muslim world compared to the west, in proof of the existence of God.Aristotle in “On Philosophies”, has been mentioned to the two arguments: "degrees of perfection argument" and "teleological argument", but his main argument on the existence of God, is “the argument from motion” that has explained details of it in the Lambda Book of Metaphysics and Physics. Each of the three above arguments has a cosmological approach and is categorized as the posteriori arguments.For Avicenna, acceptance of that Aristotle had wanted to prove the existence of God by natural things, such as world motion, is very hard. According to this thinking, he focused all his efforts on not using the cosmological arguments to prove the existence of God. Avicenna used “the proof of middle and the end” and “the proof from contingency and necessity” in several of his books and his latest exposition of the proof from contingency and necessity has named “proof of the truthful”. His argument is ontological and priori too

  19. Using Hip-Hop Music and Music Videos to Teach Aristotle's Three Proofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciullo, Nick J.

    2014-01-01

    Aristotle's three proofs remain central to students' understanding of argumentation and persuasion. They are fundamental for those just beginning rhetorical study, as well as being of interest to experienced scholars. Investing time in learning the proofs supports students' future practice and study of rhetoric. Unfortunately, the…

  20. Difference between the Approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in Proof of the Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadsaleh Tayebnia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available   Comparing between approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in proof of the existence of God, is a sign of basic difference between Peripatetic idea of Aristotle and Avicenna, also the different way that has been gone in the Muslim world compared to the west, in proof of the existence of God.   Aristotle in “Philosophies”, has been mentioned to the two arguments: "degrees of perfection argument" and "teleological argument", but his main argument on the existence of God, is “the argument from motion” that has explained details of it in the Lambda Book of Metaphysics and Physics. Each of the three above arguments has a cosmological approach and is categorized as the posteriori arguments.   For Avicenna, acceptance of that Aristotle had wanted to prove the existence of God by natural things, such as world motion, is very hard. According to this thinking, he focused all his efforts on not using the cosmological arguments to prove the existence of God. Avicenna used “the proof of middle and the end” and “the proof from contingency and necessity” in several of his books and his latest exposition of the proof from contingency and necessity has named “proof of the truthful”. His argument is ontological and priori too.

  1. The Problems of Translating Aristotle: Some Typical Unresolved Questions of Terminology and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle's scientific language of' philosophy includes "sublime words", (semna onomata such as Being, Cosmos, Harmony, God, infinity, and so remains halfway between poetry and science. In Vico's view Aristotle's prose represents a completed transition from poetry to ordinary language, whereas Heidegger's theory of translating considers the basic Greek philosophical terms, such as to on and logos to be as untranslatable as high poetry. Aristotle's language and terminology are a reflection of his philosophy. The foundation of his first philosophy is the experience that the term "being" (to on has several senses (pollahos legetai In order to engage in debate we must first be able to establish ill how many senses a given term can be used. Therefore some philosophical subjects are treated by Aristotle in the form of a philosophical dictionary, i.e. Book V of the Metaphysics. The rendering of many basic terms from Greek philosophy into modern languages entails a preliminary interpretation, as well as an inquiry into the terminological possibilities of the target language. In the case of Slovene some Greek terms lack translation equivalents while others have been translated with an overabundance of synonyms.

  2. Difference between the Approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in Proof of the Existence of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeedimehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparing between approach of Aristotle and Avicenna in proof of the existence of God, is a sign of basic difference between Peripatetic idea of Aristotle and Avicenna, also the different way that has been gone in the Muslim world compared to the west, in proof of the existence of God.   Aristotle in “Philosophies”, has been mentioned to the two arguments: "degrees of perfection argument" and "teleological argument", but his main argument on the existence of God, is “the argument from motion” that has explained details of it in the Lambda Book of Metaphysics and Physics. Each of the three above arguments has a cosmological approach and is categorized as the posteriori arguments.   For Avicenna, acceptance of that Aristotle had wanted to prove the existence of God by natural things, such as world motion, is very hard. According to this thinking, he focused all his efforts on not using the cosmological arguments to prove the existence of God. Avicenna used “the proof of middle and the end” and “the proof from contingency and necessity” in several of his books and his latest exposition of the proof from contingency and necessity has named “proof of the truthful”. His argument is ontological and priori too.

  3. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  4. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossan (and Reed), a more refined comparison of social justice in Paul on the one hand and Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics on the other. If Paul tried to establish egalitarian and sharing Christian communities under the Roman empire, how do this vision and program compare and contrast with Plato\\'s hierarchical but ...

  5. How Much Aristotle Is in Levine and Boaks’s Leadership Theory?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schäfer, Viktoria Ramona; Hühn, Matthias Philip

    2016-01-01

    ..., is essentially un-Aristotelian and that other approaches, for instance Alejo Sison’s and Joanne Ciulla’s are not only closer to Aristotle, but also do not have the problems that the authors identify in the mainstream of the leadership literature.

  6. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    started by quoting Hesiod, Solon and Socrates, as I do here, and continued with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics. With reference to Plato, I argued that if social justice is indeed the issue, it would not suffice to stop with Plato's dualism of soul over body, but would be imperative to engage seriously with. Plato's Republic as well.

  7. Ibn Khaldun's Text al-Muqaddima in terms of Plato's and Aris-totle's Views of Policy

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    Muhammet ÖZDEMİR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ibn Khaldun's work al-Muqaddima is investigated in the context of basic Ancient texts which are relevant to the political philosophy. Firstly, whether Aristotle's book Politics is known in medieval Islamic philosophy or not and it has been translated into Arabic or not and how much Ibn Khaldun is aware of this text are discussed. Secondly, we focus on the basis of views of Plato and Aristotle which are related to policy. Thirdly, the basic contexts of po-litical considerations in al-Muqaddima and the relation between al-Muqaddima and two Ancient philosophers' opinions are mentioned. Fourthly, we focus on modern findings about the originality and innovation in al-Muqaddima's politi-cal thoughts. The study claims that Ibn Khaldun's method for investigation in al-Muqaddima is close to Aristotle's and he innovatively made the history as a basic concept, being not unaware of Aristotle's views.

  8. Aristotle and Galen on sex difference and reproduction: a new approach to an ancient rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, S M

    2000-09-01

    [I]n contrast to Aristotle's male oriented explanation of procreation the Galenic was 'feminist' inasmuch as both sexes were presented as contributing equally in conception and accordingly both had to experience pleasure... Anatomically, the two sexes were presented in Galenic accounts as complementary, the difference being that the man's genitalia were on the outside and the woman's on the inside. The clitoris was likened to the penis and the ovaries considered 'testicles' or 'stones' that produced seed. The male seed was, it is true, depicted by Galenists as superior in having 'spiritual' qualities lacking in the female, but Galen's reproductive schema was far more egalitarian than Aristotle's. (McLaren, 1985, p. 327)

  9. [Relations between the scientific thought and the medicine: the contributions of Plato and Aristotle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Lelubre, C

    2015-01-01

    Since the advent of philosophy and rational thought, a question has been raised: Is medicine an art, a science, a technique, or the three of them? In this paper we discuss two monuments of Western thought that have approached this topic: Plato and Aristotle. For Plato, medicine is focused on what is transient and changing and therefore it is a subordinate science. However, he has a positive view because it presupposes knowledge of all and he takes medicine as a dialectical model. Aristotle places medicine in his classification of sciences. He emphasizes the idea that the purpose of medicine is based on what "happens most often" and insists on essential role of experimentation. It is remarkable to notice that these ideas developed 2.500 years ago are still relevant and remain the core of the epistemological conceptions of modern medicine.

  10. A short commentary on Aristotle's scientific legacy and his definition of the physiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarros, Apostolos

    2014-06-01

    The roots of physiology - on the basis of a systematic study of the human body's functions and their correlation to anatomy - date back to the works of Aristotle. The pupil of Plato and the tutor of Alexander the Great was a one-man university, and his contributions to the medical sciences have been immense. His surviving works highlight the first serious approach towards the rejection of metaphysical and mythological thought, and have: (i) demonstrated a deep appreciation for a systematic, non-metaphysical study of the natural world, (ii) set the foundations of comparative and human anatomy, (iii) established the first (indirect) definition of the "physiologist", and (iv) exercised a dominant influence upon the subsequent history of Hellenistic, European and Arabic Medicine. The current letter provides a short commentary on the historical account of Physiology as a scientific field and underlines the unique legacy that Aristotle has provided us with.

  11. Aristotle's Theory of Deviance and Contemporary Symbolic Interactionist Scholarship: Learning from the Past, Extending the Present, and Engaging the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Robert

    Although his work has been largely overlooked by symbolic interactionists and other students of deviance, Aristotle (c384-322BCE) addresses community life, activity, agency, and persuasive interchange in ways that not only are remarkably consistent with contemporary symbolic interactionist approaches to deviance, but that also conceptually inform present day theories of deviance and provide valuable transhistorical comparison points for subsequent analysis. Following (1) a brief overview of an interactionist approach to the study of deviance, attention is given to (2) classical Greek conceptions of good and evil (especially as these are articulated by Plato) before turning more directly to (3) Aristotle's notions of wrongdoing as this is reflected in his considerations of community, morality, agency, and culpability. While informed by Aristotle's considerations of causality (as addressed in Physics and Metaphysics), this statement builds most centrally on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Rhetoric. Striving for a broader understanding of deviance as a humanly engaged feature of community life, the paper briefly compares Aristotle's "theory of deviance" with Prus and Grills (2003) interactionist analysis of deviance. The paper (4) concludes with an assessment of the relative contributions of contemporary interactionist scholarship and Aristotle's materials for the study of deviance as a community-engaged process.

  12. CONSEQUENCES OF ARISTOTLE'S ASSERTION IN FIRST PART OF NEWTON'S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Sharma*

    2018-01-01

    Objective: One of the fundamental propositions of Aristotelian philosophy is that there is no effect without a cause. Aristotle justified that force is continuously needed to push or pull bodies. It was contradicted by Philonopus and Buridan, and then Galileo established law of inertia. Descartes and Newton’s laws are based on law of inertia. All facts are scientifically and neutrally discussed. However Aristotle’s assertion appears in first part of Newton’s first law of motion. Methods/...

  13. The normativity of nature in Aristotle and St. Thomas. Physis and natural just in classical philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Contreras Aguirre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the concept of «physis» that the classical philosophy —specifically Aristotle and Aquinas— exposes about the problem of «natural just». In this sense, the author pretends a review of the main theoretical and metaphysical implications of the existence of a normative nature in legal philosophy and ethics.

  14. The contribution of Nicomachean ethics iii5 to Aristotle's theory of responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Curren, Randall R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a radical reinterpretation of the argument in Nicomachean Ethics iii 5 concerning responsibility for character. I argue that what is at stake is the new standard of liability Aristotle is introducing there, the so-called "negligence" standard, and that the scope of the discussion is limited to the class of agents who are negligent through an inability to take care. Thus, I argue, there is no claim being made that in general responsibility for acts requires r...

  15. Geração e categorias geracionais nas pesquisas sobre saúde e gênero no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florêncio Mariano da Costa Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O campo da saúde há muito que reconhece os fatores socioculturais como multideterminantes nos processos de produção de saúde-adoecimento-cuidado e tem discutido o dinamismo das articulações entre gênero, raça/etnia e classe social, bem como a conjugação destas categorias para compreender as diferenças e desigualdades em saúde. A categoria geração, como uma das construções sociais altamente influentes no processo de saúde-adoecimento ainda aparece timidamente explorada nos estudos no campo da saúde e, muitas vezes, reduzida a coortes etárias. Este estudo de revisão de literatura, com caráter descritivo-discursivo, objetivou situar criticamente, nos estudos de gênero em saúde produzidos no país nos anos de 2001 a 2013, o construto teórico e analítico da categoria geração, bem como as categorias empíricas relacionadas (infância, juventude, maturidade e velhice. Foram realizadas, a partir das buscas bibliográficas no portal da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, análises descritivas de 225 resumos e análise qualitativa de 57 textos completos. Os resultados indicam esvaziamento de referencial conceitual acerca da geração e das categorias empíricas analisadas, especialmente quanto à categoria maturidade. Nos estudos empíricos, evidencia-se a necessidade de melhor apropriação do referencial conceitual de geração e, dentre os estudos de revisão ou de caráter teórico e ensaísticos, nota-se a importância em ampliar o referencial conceitual da própria categoria geracional, bem como trazer elementos para sua aplicabilidade no âmbito das políticas e práticas de saúde.

  16. Das categorias aos grupos sociais: representações sociais dos grupos urbano e rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bonomo

    Full Text Available As reflexões que conduziram o estudo focalizaram a referência entre a elaboração do campo representacional e o processo de identificação social referentes à ruralidade e à urbanidade. Esse propósito serviu-se de dois objetos que integram as categorias sociais de interesse e os grupos sociais vinculados, pessoas do meio rural e pessoas da cidade. Os corpora de dados, processados através do software EVOC- 2003, foram coletados por meio da técnica da associação livre a partir de entrevistas com 200 integrantes de quatro gerações de uma comunidade rural, com idades entre 07 e 81 anos. Os resultados indicaram que as representações sobre o endogrupo estão fundamentadas em estereótipos positivos, enquanto as representações sobre o exogrupo retratam a imagem dos citadinos como negativa, dinâmica que sugere um campo valorativo sustentado na ideologia, respectivamente, de um grupo com valores humanitários versus um grupo referenciado por valores capitalistas. Discute-se a função identitária do campo representacional para a manutenção da identidade social positiva do grupo rural.

  17. RACIONALIZAÇÃO E MONETARIZAÇÃO: categorias da globalização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses do Valle

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar alguns aspectos de uma dimensão central do fenômeno frequentemente conhecido como globalização. Trata-se de entender a economia monetária global à luz de duas categorias fundamentais da sociologia: racionalização (Max Weber e monetarização (Georg Simmel. A partir disso, apresentaremos algumas ideias do sociólogo franco-suíço Aldo Haesler, no que toca às consequências da eletronização dos fluxos monetários que está na base da globalização. Entre outros aspectos, Haesler nos chama a atenção ao correlacionar, de maneira sistemática, três aspectos fundamentais associados à economia monetária global: a invisibilização do dinheiro, a indolorização do sacrifício efetuado nas trocas econômicas, e a dissolução do esquema reciprocitário da ação.

  18. CATEGORIAS DE INFORMAÇÕES EVIDENCIADAS NOS RELATÓRIOS ANUAIS

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    Clea Beatriz Macagnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar as categorias e as subcategorias de informações evidenciadas nos relatórios anuais das empresas, classificadas como: nível 1, nível 2 e Novo Mercado de governança corporativa, no mercado de capitais brasileiro, pela BM&FBovespa. Desenvolveu-se uma análise de conteúdo, com base nas evidências qualitativas dos relatórios anuais das companhias, correspondente ao exercício encerrado de 31/12/07, publicados e coletados até o período de junho de 2008. Constatou-se que a maioria das empresas apresentam seus relatórios anuais com conteúdo claro, objetivo e adequado. Evidenciam itens obrigatórios, segundo a Lei nº 6.404/76 e os recomendados pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários, conforme orientação nº 15/87. A pesquisa constatou que foram divulgadas informações de natureza voluntárias, o que indicaria comprometimento das companhias em informar a realidade do negócio e minimizar a problemática de assimetria de informação. Isso leva a inferir uma preocupação dos gestores em minimizar possíveis conflitos de agência entre esses e acionistas ou investidores.

  19. A mediação cultural como categoria autônoma.

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    Edmir Perrotti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Reflexão sobre a noção de mediação cultural,  como categoria teórica e operacional autônoma, definida em articulação permanente com as  da produção e da recepção culturais, considerados processos dinâmicos e complexos que regem a ecologia simbólica.Objetivo: definir a mediação cultural como instância essencial dos processos de produção de sentidoMetodologia: estudo dos elementos constitutivos de uma experiência cultural autobiográfica,  relatada por Clarice Lispector no conto Felicidade Clandestina.Resultados: a mediação cultural não é simples recurso de transferência de dados/informações, mero “canal” ou instância de apoio visando a criação de elos entre sujeitos.Conclusão: A mediação cultural  é ato autônomo, com identidade e lógicas próprias, definidas em relação com as esferas da produção e da recepção de informação e cultura. Tal abordagem, assumindo modelo triádico (mediação-produção-recepção, rompe com compreensões dualistas e mecânicas dos campos da Informação e da Comunicação, mostrando-se heurística, posto que se compatível com a centralidade dos dispostivos de mediação cultural na atualidade.

  20. A infância enquanto categoria estrutural Childhood as a structural form

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    Jens Qvortrup

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos países do hemisfério norte, um dos símbolos da consolidação de uma área de conhecimento é a publicação de um handbook - em português, manual ou compêndio - cujos capítulos apresentam um breve estado da arte de seus respectivos temas. Em 2009, The Palgrave Handbook of Childhood Studies foi publicado, indicando o reconhecimento da área dos estudos da infância. Sabe-se que as crianças foram principalmente investigadas pela psicologia ou pela pedagogia e que as ciências sociais pouco produziram sobre elas, priorizando estudos sobre a família ou sobre a escola. Há pouco mais de vinte anos, entretanto, começaram a tornar-se o foco dos estudos sociais da infância, que a tomaram como um fenômeno social. Nesse sentido, foi definido um campo que investiga as crianças como agentes sociais, produtoras de culturas, e a infância como categoria na estrutura social, o que ampliou de modo significativo a produção de conhecimento sobre as relações sociais estabelecidas entre as próprias crianças (seus pares e com os adultos (relações intra e intergeracionais, sobre suas competências como protagonistas de suas vidas, como agentes sociais cuja ação modifica/transforma os mundos sociais nos quais estão inseridas. O texto do Prof. Jens Qvortrup, responsável pela constituição do primeiro grupo de pesquisa no campo da sociologia da infância (RC53 na Associação Internacional de Sociologia (ISA, e um dos organizadores do Handbook, trata da infância como estrutura social. Publicado como primeiro capítulo do The Palgrave Handbook of Childhood Studies, o trabalho apresenta a infância como segmento na estrutura social e as aplicações de uma perspectiva estrutural, ou seja, inserido nos fundamentos teóricos dos estudos da infância, o capítulo define uma abordagem que difere tanto de pesquisas sobre socialização quanto de estudos sobre desenvolvimento infantil, oferecendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas que

  1. Aristotle's illusion in Parkinson's disease: evidence for normal interdigit tactile perception.

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    Mirta Fiorio

    Full Text Available Sensory alterations, a common feature of such movement disorders as Parkinson's disease (PD and dystonia, could emerge as epiphenomena of basal ganglia dysfunction. Recently, we found a selective reduction of tactile perception (Aristotle's illusion, the illusory doubling sensation of one object when touched with crossed fingers in the affected hand of patients with focal hand dystonia. This suggests that reduced tactile illusion might be a specific feature of this type of dystonia and could be due to abnormal somatosensory cortical activation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether Aristotle's illusion is reduced in the affected hand of patients with PD. We tested 15 PD patients, in whom motor symptoms were mainly localised to one side of the body, and 15 healthy controls. Three pairs of fingers were tested in crossed (evoking the illusion or parallel position (not evoking the illusion. A sphere was placed in the contact point between the two fingers and the blindfolded participants had to say whether they felt one or two stimuli. Stimuli were applied on the affected and less or unaffected side of the PD patients. We found no difference in illusory perception between the PD patients and the controls, nor between the more affected and less/unaffected side, suggesting that Aristotle's illusion is preserved in PD. The retained tactile illusion in PD and its reduction in focal hand dystonia suggest that the basal ganglia, which are dysfunctional in both PD and dystonia, may not be causally involved in this function. Instead, the level of activation between digits in the somatosensory cortex may be more directly involved. Finally, the similar percentage of illusion in the more affected and less or unaffected body sides indicates that the illusory perception is not influenced by the presence or amount of motor symptoms.

  2. ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOwards The hoListic Early-warning)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold-Arias, Delia

    2017-04-01

    The Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) is the EU coordination office for humanitarian aid and civil protection operations of DG ECHO (EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection). ERCC needs rapidly authoritative multi-hazard scientific expertise and analysis on 24*7 basis since, when a disaster strikes, every minute counts for saving lives and immediate, coordinated and pre-planned response is essential. The EU is committed to providing disaster response in a timely and efficient manner and to ensure European assistance meets the real needs in the population affected, whether in Europe or beyond. The ARISTOTLE consortium was awarded the European Commission's DG ECHO "Pilot project in the area of Early Warning System for natural disasters" (OJ 2015 S/154-283349). The tender articulates the needs and expectations of DG ECHO in respect of the provision of multi-hazard advice to the Emergency Response & Coordination Centre in Brussels. Specifically, the tender aims to fill the gap in knowledge that exists in the: • first 3 hours immediately after an event that has the potential to require a country to call on international help • provision of longer term advice following an emergency • provision of advice when a potential hazardous event is starting to form; this will usually be restricted to severe weather and flooding events and when possible to volcanic events. The ARISTOTLE Consortium was awarded the tender and the project effectively started on February 1st, 2016, for a duration of 2 years. ARISTOTLE (aristotle.ingv.it) is a multi-hazard partnership created by combining expertise from of total of 5 hazard groups [4 main hazard groups plus a sub-hazard - Severe Weather, Floods, Volcanos (only for ashes and gases hazard deriving from eruptions), Earthquakes and the related Tsunamis as a sub-hazard given its peculiarities and potential huge impact]. Each Hazard Group brings together experts from the particular hazard domain to deliver a 'collective

  3. Aristotle Reclaimed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Sharp, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Given that social media dominates informal and often formal communication routes, we argue that schools must reshape their attention to a fourth rhetorical dimension: the media through which they communicate. Specifically, schools must find ways to embrace social media as a mechanism to reach their broad audiences. This article identifies clear…

  4. PUBLICIDADE, ENUNCIAÇÃO E REALIDADE AUMENTADA: desdobramentos da categoria de pessoa na era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Tôrres de Azevedo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, visamos refletir sobre uma ação publicitária que se utilizou da tecnologia de realidade aumentada, desenvolvida para a marca Linx, em março de 2011. Mobilizamos fundamentos da Semiótica Discursiva, especificamente sobre a questão da enunciação e a instalação da categoria de pessoa, articulando-os com conceitos afeitos à Comunicação Social, em especial a perspectivas utilizadas para compreensão dos fenômenos da cibercultura. Pretendemos, assim, identificar peculiaridades nas interações mediadas por dispositivos de realidade aumentada, considerando esse tipo de atividade comunicativa como aspecto absolutamente novo para os estudos do discurso publicitário.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: publicidade; semiótica; comunicação; cibercultura; realidade aumentada.   ABSTRACT In this article, we aim to reflect on an advertising action that was used augmented reality technology developed for Linx brand in March 2011. We mobilized foundations of semiotics Discursive, specifically on the subject of enunciation and the installation of the category of person, articulating with concepts accustomed to the media, especially the perspectives used to understand the phenomenon of cyberculture. We intend, therefore, to identify peculiarities in interactions mediated by augmented reality devices, considering this type of communicative activity as absolutely new aspect to the studies of advertising discourse.   KEYWORDS: advertising; semiotics; communication; cyberculture; augmented reality.   RESUMEN En este artículo, pretendemos reflexionar sobre una acción de publicidad que utiliza tecnología de realidad aumentada, desarrollada para la marca Linx en marzo de 2011. Movilizamos a fundaciones de la semiótica discursiva, específicamente en el sujeto de enunciación y la instalación de la categoría de persona, articulando los conceptos aficionado a los medios de comunicación, en particular las perspectivas que se utilizan para la

  5. Sistema de Classificação de Pacientes Pediátricos: construção e validação de categorias de cuidados

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    Ariane Polidoro Dini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A classificação de pacientes é essencial para o gerenciamento de uma unidade. Entretanto, a literatura não dispõe de conceituações de categorias de pacientes pediátricos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram definir e validar categorias de cuidado de pacientes pediátricos, de acordo com o grau de dependência da equipe de enfermagem. Utilizou-se revisão bibliográfica para definição das categorias de cuidado e a validação de conteúdo das categorias propostas foi realizada por um grupo de juízes envolvidos em assistência e gerência de unidades pediátricas e por juízes envolvidos em ensino e pesquisa de pediatria e construção de instrumentos de classificação de pacientes. Foram estabelecidas e validadas cinco categorias de cuidados: Mínimos, Intermediários, Alta dependência, Semi-intensivo e Intensivo. A validação das categorias de cuidado subsidiou a construção de um sistema de classificação de pacientes pediátricos que poderá contribuir para o processo de tomada de decisão do enfermeiro na prática gerencial e assistencial.

  6. Categorias morais e política: uma abordagem etnográfica do voto numa favela do Recife

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Vidal

    2004-01-01

    A partir de uma pesquisa de campo realizada numa favela urbanizada do Recife - a Brasília Teimosa -, este artigo analisa o uso de categorias morais no deciframento da política, o impacto da mídia na interpretação das atividades políticas, o enfraquecimento da eficácia das práticas clientelistas e os determinantes da escolha eleitoral. O autor sugere que uma abordagem micro-analítica baseada em métodos etnográficos possibilita um melhor entendimento de fenômenos geralmente percebidos através d...

  7. COMIC AGENTS: FROM A POETIC TO AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF COMEDY (ARISTOTLE AND ALFRED GELL

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    ANNA KAWALEC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle was concerned with the comedy genre as a kind of poetry. Its creators, the comic poets, interested him only marginally. This genological approach to its subject-matter dominated the theory and philosophy of art for subsequent centuries as evidenced by the subsequent elaborations of interpretations of Aristotle’s catharsis. The alternative approach focused instead on subjects as creators of art. As a consequence of the long-term development of anthropocentrism in the humanities, however, this approach took over. The “ performative turn” represents its more recent version. It allows one to interpret Poetics and other classical works not in the context of an object (comedy, but in the context of the acting subject. I claim that social anthropology further explores the concept of comedy and itself presumes it in its conceptual foundations and research approach. I elaborate the argument on the basis of the concept of the “spirit of comedy” coined by Alfred Gell .

  8. From Aristotle to Schrödinger the curiosity of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Modinos, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    From Aristotle to Schrödinger: The Curiosity of Physics offers a novel introduction to the topics commonly encountered in the first two years of an undergraduate physics course, including classical mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, and astrophysics. The book presents physics as it evolved historically; it covers in considerable depth the development of the subject from ancient Greece to the present day. Though the emphasis is on the observations, experiments, theories, and applications of physics, there are additionally short sections on the life and times of the main protagonists of physics. This book grew out of the author's long experience in giving undergraduate and graduate courses in classical physics and in quantum mechanics and its elementary applications. Although meant primarily for the student and teacher of physics, it will be of interest to other scientists and to historians of science, and to those...

  9. FABLES IN THE AGORA: FROM ARISTOTLE TO THE CENTURY OF ENLIGHTENMENT

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    Márcia Seabra Neves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having been long established in western poetic tradition as a short composition of ethical intent, usually performed by anthropomorphized animals and conveying a rule of behavior, the fable has represented, ever since its origins, a key strategy of persuasion at the service of orators seeking to convince and influence an audience. Originally defined as a rhetorical genre and inevitably mirroring social and historical mutations, the fable as well as the moralities inferred from it have played varying functions and accomplished different goals in the course of centuries, so as to accommodate changing communicative needs. In this article, we seek to provide a critical and diachronic survey of the resonance of classical rhetoric in the definition of fable as a genre and examine its literary manifestations from Aristotle to the Enlightenment.

  10. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Akiskal, Kareen K

    2007-06-01

    Is suffering associated with melancholia and "madness" necessary for artistic creativity and eminence? Or do creativity and leadership have something to do with the temperaments associated with affective disease? We integrate concepts dating back to Greek psychological medicine and philosophy--especially work attributed to Aristotle--with modern data-based examination of the role of cyclothymic and related temperaments in the interface between mixity, the bipolar spectrum and normality. We place our query within the general framework of evolutionary biology and human nature. In doing so, we propose that affective disease--including mania and associated psychotic states--exist because they serve as the genetic reservoir for adaptive temperaments and the genes for genius. Affective disorder can therefore be regarded as the price of exceptional greatness. Thus, creative and eminent individuals, by virtue of their being exceptional, occupy a somewhat unstable terrain between temperament and affective disease.

  11. [Sports practice and body's limits in the Corpus Hippocraticum, Plato and Aristotle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Romero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We deal with ancient Greek texts (above all texts of the Corpus Hippocraticum, Plato and Aristotle) where the training and, in general, the way of life of the professional athletes are blamed, because of several reasons: 1) They are harmful to the health, because health is the consequence of an adequate balance between the four major body humours and between feeding and physical exercises; instead, illness comes when this balance is broken, either for lack or, as in the case of the athletes, due to an excess. 2) Bodies that the professional practice of sport makes, are neither beautiful nor harmonious, but deformed because of the overdeveloped muscles and the overspecialized training. 3) Athletes' way of life and training aim at the development of the physical strength and neglect the development of intellectual and moral qualities.

  12. ANÁLISE DAS CATEGORIAS CIDADANIA/ DIREITOS, POBREZA E ASSISTÊNCIA SOCIAL NO DISCURSO OFICIAL DO PROGRAMA FOME ZERO

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    Eveline Alves Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a reflexão sobre as noções de cidadania/direitos, pobreza e assistência social produzidas pelo documento oficial do Programa Fome Zero e pelos discursos veiculados pela mídia sobre este Programa. A direção será, portanto, de compreender os significados apresentados de Cidadania, Pobreza e Assistência Social e analisá-los através de autores especialistas nestas categorias. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva em janeiro de 2003, no ato de sua posse, definiu como o “carro-chefe” de seu governo, no campo social, o Programa Fome Zero. Com este Programa, o presidente Lula assumiu publicamente, como meta social principal de sua administração, a responsabilidade em acabar com a fome no Brasil. Sua principal finalidade é combater a fome de 44 milhões de brasileiros através de ações de cunho emergencial, estrutural e participativo na construção de uma ampla política de segurança alimentar para o Brasil. Deste modo, é imprescindível ter acesso à forma como categorias norteadoras deste Programa são definidas e tratadas no documento oficial; pois a partir destas será possível analisarmos criticamente a essência do Programa Fome Zero e sua implementação na atual realidade brasileira.

  13. As aporias da categoria de pessoa e o uso do impessoal nas análises de Roberto Esposito

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    José Roque Junges

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo recolhe as análises do filósofo italiano Roberto Esposito sobre o itinerário aporético do conceito de pessoa, principalmente a sua recuperação na filosofia contemporânea pela mão dos personalistas como reação à dessubstancialização e dessubjetivação do ser humano. Explicita o caminho alternativo da categoria do impessoal a partir de Simone Weil, passando por Levinas e chegando até Foucault e Deleuze. Tendo presente essas análises, o artigo levanta a possibilidade de complementar essa categoria com a equipolência do conceito de humanidade sugerido por Morin para completar o de indivíduo, espécie e sociedade como um modo de dar conteúdo ao impessoal e servir de referência para um universalismo ético que não passa pelo sujeito transcendental.

  14. Comparison of cardiac troponins I and T measured with high-sensitivity methods for evaluation of prognosis in atrial fibrillation: an ARISTOTLE substudy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hijazi, Ziad; Siegbahn, Agneta; Andersson, Ulrika; Lindahl, Bertil; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Horowitz, John; Husted, Steen; Hylek, Elaine M; Lopes, Renato D; McMurray, John J V; Wallentin, Lars

    2015-01-01

    .... Samples were collected. At the time of randomization, we analyzed cTnI and cTnT concentrations of 14806 AF patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE...

  15. Materialismo histórico e dialético: uma discussão sobre as categorias centrais

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Masson

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo apresenta as principais categorias que fundamentam o método materialista histórico e dialético desenvolvido por Marx, objetivando contribuir para a discussão metodológica da pesquisa em educação. Trata-se de tentar entender as dificuldades e desafios do estatuto teórico de obras marxianas e de autores que abordam tal concepção metodológica e que possibilitam compreender o sentido e a direção da educação no âmbito do modo de produção capitalista. Palavras-chave: Materialismo ...

  16. Negosiasi Antara Homoerotika Dan Budaya Machismo Dalam Novel Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Adji, Alberta Natasia

    2016-01-01

    Artikel ini bertujuan mengungkap negosiasi antara homoerotika dan prinsip machismo yang dijunjung tinggi dalam budaya Meksiko serta pengaruh faktor kelas sosial dan pendidikan keluarga terhadap hubungan tersebut dalam sastra Amerika Latin kontemporer berjudul Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe karya Benjamin Alire Sáenz. Masalah yang menjadi fokus penelitian adalah bagaimana negosiasi antara homoerotika dan prinsip machismo serta bagaimanakah faktor kelas sosial dan pend...

  17. Alunos com transtornos globais do desenvolvimento: da categoria psiquiátrica à particularidade do caso a caso nos processos de inclusão escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda do Valle Corrêa Ramos

    2012-01-01

    A pesquisa teve por objetivo geral analisar, por meio de estudos de casos clínicos, os processos de inclusão dos alunos identificados à escola regular através da categoria psiquiátrica de transtornos globais do desenvolvimento (TGD). Como objetivos específicos, listam-se: repertoriar as dificuldades dos professores na execução dos processos de inclusão; delimitar conceitualmente o termo transtorno global do desenvolvimento; e produzir material sobre tal categoria psiquiátrica, para favorecer ...

  18. O trabalho da enfermeira: a pertinência da categoria analítica do gênero para o seu estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilza Rocha Pereira

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de alguns pressupostos teóricos traçados pelos estudos feministas, procuramos mostrar a pertinência no uso da categoria gênero como valioso instrumento para o estudo de uma profissão eminentemente feminina, como é a enfermagem. Essa categoria pode contribuir para quebrar as estruturas ideológicas fortemente androcêntricas que impedem a visualização e valorização do trabalho da enfermeira.

  19. CENTRALIDADE DA CRÍTICA AO TRABALHO: APONTAMENTOS SOBRE A CATEGORIA TRABALHO NOS MANUSCRITOS DE 1844 E NOS GRUNDRISSE DE MARX

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Vinicius dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    *Mestre em Filosofia pela Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar). Professor Efetivo de Filosofia do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de Educação Básica do Estado de São Paulo.Centralidade da crítica ao trabalho: apontamentos sobre a categoria trabalho nos Manuscritos de 1844 e nos Grundrisse de MarxResumo: O objetivo do artigo é refletir criticamente acerca da categoria trabalho em dois momentos da teoria marxiana: os Manuscritos Econômico-Filosóficos, texto de juventude de Marx, e os Grund...

  20. The power of semen: Aristotle and some Galen’s fallacies

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    Andrey Darovskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I try to demonstrate how critical empiricism and philosophical reasoning intertwine with each other and affected the development of medicine. It is a case study considering the problems of generation and semen in the writings of Aristotle and Galen via relationship between such concepts as matter, form, movement, change, causes and some others. The main question addressed in the paper is the reason of Galen’s return to Hippocratic paradigm of two-semina (male and female. I argue that the reason is two-fold: 1 Different philosophical reasoning and erroneous understanding of some aspects of Aristotle’s embryological model by Galen. 2 Empirical discoveries, which proved to be wrong. I demonstrate that Galen’s understanding of form/matter relationship, and his view on matter as an underling principle conditioned his understanding of the notion of physical change, that allowed him to speak about conception only as quantitative mixture between equal substrata. Finally, I show that Galen’s view on teleology and his limited understanding of formal/final vs efficient causes and their relationship forced him to claim the inadequacy of Aristotle’s biology and necessitated Galen to introduce emendations in definitions of seminal faculties of genders and reproductive fluids.

  1. Klugheit. Grundbegriff des Praktischen bei Aristoteles [Prudence.The Basic Concept of the Practical in Aristotle

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    Berthold Wald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by recalling the most important understandings associated with the term prudence in the history of philosophy.Then it introduces the Aristotelian concept of prudence linked to practical truth—prudence seen in contrast to wisdom and knowledge of manufacturing. The article discusses various forms of rational knowledge associated with the right will, and proves the need of linking prudence to all the other ethical virtues based on moral principles. It emphasizes the problem of how to relate general principles to specific actions which involve particular goods. For resolving this problem, the article refers to Aristotle who sees the solution in political ethics which has a significant impact on individual behavior; consequently, good law and proper education are considered to be necessary conditions which allow to form the moral judgment skills for providing a morally good life. The article concludes with the claim that the proper field to capture the specificity of prudence includes the theory of human action and that of human morality.

  2. Mechanosensitivity: From Aristotle's sense of touch to cardiac mechano-electric coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; Schaefer, Jochen; Wilder, Nicolaus

    2017-11-01

    Scientific interest in mechanosensation likely commenced with Aristotle's description of the sense of touch in his treatise de Anima [On the Soul]. Considering touch as a vital sense distributed over the whole body, the philosopher outlined a "physiological concept" at the macro-level already 2400 years ago. From this starting point, we outline the onset of modern sensory physiology during the early 19th century. Physiologists distinguished between outer and inner senses at that time, without, however, referring to specific receptors or nerves. We then outline how research on four topics concerning cardiac mechano-electric coupling developed up until the 1960's (cardio-respiratory coupling, Bainbridge reflex, Bezold-Jarisch reflex, stretch-induced arrhythmias). Following the discovery of macroscopic phenomena (e.g. change of heart rate, induced by atrial distension) during that period, researchers sought to identify the pertinent receptors and reflex loops, while nowadays the underlying subcellular mechanisms such as stretch-activated ion channels are under investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EM BUSCA DE CATEGORIAS TEÓRICAS-METODOLÓGICAS PARA ANALISAR A ARTE POR UMA PERSPECTIVA QUEER

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    Eduardo Pereira Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A ideia de “artivismo” surge como conceito que procura compreender um tipo de fenômeno contemporâneo que habita a intersecção de arte e política numa perspectiva ativista. Mais do que estabelecer um limite entre as duas definições, pretende-se entender a complexidade da relação entre os dois campos. Acredita-se que esse conceito auxilie na compreensão de como algumas manifestações artísticas estão alinhadas aos ativismos das dissidências sexuais e de gênero. Estudar os pontos de contato existentes entre arte e ativismo político, principalmente no campo das sexualidades e gêneros, permite pensar estratégias que podem ser mobilizadas como ação de mudança social no combate às violências da heteronormatividade sobre corpos e subjetividades que nela não se encaixam e, também, refletir sobre o potencial da arte na criação de novas subjetividades que fogem às normas de gênero e sexualidade.  Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é revisar e sistematizar algumas apropriações teórico-metodológicas realizadas por pesquisadoras e pesquisadores do campo das artes e dos estudos queer que: 1 definem “artivismo” e buscam pensar categorias metodológicas para analisar o fenômeno que ele delimita; 2 analisam produções artísticas através de uma perspectiva queer; 3 permitem pensar como essas manifestações se alinham a um ativismo das dissidências sexuais e de gênero. Como resultado deste exercício de sistematização, esquematiza-se um quadro de indicações metodológicas como sugestão de roteiro de pesquisa. Mais do que um manual rígido de análise, ele deve servir como um roteiro aberto que permita a inclusão de novas operações e apropriação de novos conceitos e categorias a depender da demanda da pesquisa.

  4. Pensar por si mesmo: as considerações de Schopenhauer sobre estilo e escrita no contexto da dedução transcendental das categorias

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    Lucas Ribeiro Vollet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo será discutir as semelhanças e analogias entre os escritos de Schopenhauer compilados sob o nome de A arte de escrever, e a consagrada dedução transcendental das categorias na Crítica da Razão Pura de Kant.

  5. Amiodarone, anticoagulation, and clinical events in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaker, Greg; Lopes, Renato D; Hylek, Elaine; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Thomas, Laine; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Garcia, David; Hanna, Michael; Amerena, John; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Dorian, Paul; Avezum, Alvaro; Keltai, Matyas; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B

    2014-10-14

    Amiodarone is an effective medication in preventing atrial fibrillation (AF), but it interferes with the metabolism of warfarin. This study sought to examine the association of major thrombotic clinical events and bleeding with the use of amiodarone in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Baseline characteristics of patients who received amiodarone at randomization were compared with those who did not receive amiodarone. The interaction between randomized treatment and amiodarone was tested using a Cox model, with main effects for randomized treatment and amiodarone and their interaction. Matching on the basis of a propensity score was used to compare patients who received and who did not receive amiodarone at the time of randomization. In ARISTOTLE, 2,051 (11.4%) patients received amiodarone at randomization. Patients on warfarin and amiodarone had time in the therapeutic range that was lower than patients not on amiodarone (56.5% vs. 63.0%; p amiodarone-treated patients had a stroke or a systemic embolism (1.58%/year vs. 1.19%/year; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 2.10; p = 0.0322). Overall mortality and major bleeding rates were elevated, but were not significantly different in amiodarone-treated patients and patients not on amiodarone. When comparing apixaban with warfarin, patients who received amiodarone had a stroke or a systemic embolism rate of 1.24%/year versus 1.85%/year (HR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.15), death of 4.15%/year versus 5.65%/year (HR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.98), and major bleeding of 1.86%/year versus 3.06%/year (HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.96). In patients who did not receive amiodarone, the stroke or systemic embolism rate was 1.29%/year versus 1.57%/year (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.00), death was 3.43%/year versus 3.68%/year (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.05), and major bleeding was 2.18%/year versus 3.03%/year (HR: 0.72, 95

  6. Apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and prior coronary artery disease: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahit, Maria Cecilia; Lopes, Renato D; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Alexander, John H; Lewis, Basil S; Aylward, Philip E; Verheugt, Freek W A; Keltai, Matyas; Diaz, Rafael; Hanna, Michael; Granger, Christopher B; Wallentin, Lars

    2013-12-10

    A substantial portion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) also have coronary artery disease (CAD) and are at risk for coronary events. Warfarin is known to reduce these events, but increase the risk of bleeding. We assessed the effects of apixaban compared with warfarin in AF patients with and without prior CAD. In ARISTOTLE, 18,201 patients with AF were randomized to apixaban or warfarin. History of CAD was defined as documented CAD, prior myocardial infarction, and/or history of coronary revascularization. We analyzed baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with and without prior CAD and compared outcomes by randomized treatment using Cox models. A total of 6639 (36.5%) patients had prior CAD. These patients were more often male, more likely to have prior stroke, diabetes, and hypertension, and more often received aspirin at baseline (42.2% vs. 24.5%). The effects of apixaban were similar among patients with and without prior CAD on reducing stroke or systemic embolism and death from any cause (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-1.27, P for interaction=0.12; HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.81-1.13, P for interaction=0.28). Rates of myocardial infarction were numerically lower with apixaban than warfarin among patients with and without prior CAD. The effect of apixaban on reducing major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage was consistent in patients with and without CAD. In patients with AF, apixaban more often prevented stroke or systemic embolism and death and caused less bleeding than warfarin, regardless of the presence of prior CAD. Given the common occurrence of AF and CAD and the higher rates of cardiovascular events and death, our results indicate that apixaban may be a better treatment option than warfarin for these high-risk patients. © 2013.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atrial fibrillation: Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durheim, Michael T; Cyr, Derek D; Lopes, Renato D; Thomas, Laine E; Tsuang, Wayne M; Gersh, Bernard J; Held, Claes; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B; Palmer, Scott M; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2016-01-01

    Comorbid chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with poor outcomes among patients with cardiovascular disease. The risks of stroke and mortality associated with COPD among patients with atrial fibrillation are not well understood. We analyzed patients from ARISTOTLE, a randomized trial of 18,201 patients with atrial fibrillation comparing the effects of apixaban versus warfarin on the risk of stroke or systemic embolism. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the associations between comorbid COPD and risk of stroke or systemic embolism and of mortality, adjusting for treatment allocation, smoking history and other risk factors. COPD was present in 1950 (10.8%) of 18,134 patients with data on pulmonary disease history. After multivariable adjustment, COPD was not associated with risk of stroke or systemic embolism (adjusted HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.60, 1.21], p=0.356). However, COPD was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.60 [95% CI 1.36, 1.88], p<0.001) and both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. The benefit of apixaban over warfarin on stroke or systemic embolism was consistent among patients with and without COPD (HR 0.92 [95% CI 0.52, 1.63] versus 0.78 [95% CI 0.65, 0.95], interaction p=0.617). COPD was independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality among patients with atrial fibrillation, but was not associated with risk of stroke or systemic embolism. The effect of apixaban on stroke or systemic embolism in COPD patients was consistent with its effect in the overall trial population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics

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    Johan Strijdom

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available n “In search of Paul” (2004 Crossan and Reed argue that Paul’s vision and program were essentially in continuity with Jesus’: both opposed, be it in Galilean villages or Roman cities, an unjust imperial system by means of an alternative project of egalitarian, distributive justice. Although Crossan elsewhere demonstrates the deep roots of this concern in the Jewish tradition, he tends to downplay the importance of Greek contributions in this regard. The purpose of this essay will be to offer, in constant dialogue with Crossan (and Reed, a more refined comparison of social justice in Paul on the one hand and Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics on the other. If Paul tried to establish egalitarian and sharing Christian communities under the Roman empire, how do this vision and program compare and contrast with Plato's hierarchical but communal concept of justice, Aristotle’s distributive notion according to merit, and most importantly the Stoics’ argument of “oikeiosis” (i.e., other-concern by concentrical familiarization with the other? Imagine, say Crossan and Reed (CR hereafter in their recent book on Paul, the following dialogue between ourselves and Paul: Do you think, Paul, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights? I am not speaking about all men, but about all Christians. But do you think, Paul, that all people should be Christians? Yes, of course,. And do you think, Paul, that all Christians should be equal with one another?Yes, of course. Then do you think, Paul, that it is God’s will for all people to be equal with one another? Well, let me think about that one for a while and, in the meantime, you think about equality in Christ. (CR 2004:234

  9. Promoção de saúde e a sensibilidade epistemológica da categoria 'comunidade'

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    Castiel Luis David

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pela 'sensibilidade epistemológica', ferramenta argumentativa baseada no conceito epidemiológico de 'sensibilidade' ajustada ao campo da epistemologia, se faz uma discussão sobre o alcance da categoria 'comunidade' na promoção de saúde. São apresentadas breves revisões de tópicos de suas respectivas propostas e uma sucinta descrição do uso sociológico do conceito 'comunidade', formulado por Tönnies. Também são abordadas questões de definição das comunidades contemporâneas. Sugere-se que formulações hegemônicas da promoção de saúde não levam em conta fundamentos filosóficos e aspectos socioculturais cruciais. Assim, sofrem de profundos descompassos teóricos que fragilizam seus pressupostos e produzem resultados insuficientes nas intervenções neles baseadas.

  10. Aquisição de escrita por alunos surdos: a categoria aspectual como um exemplo do processo

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    Rossana Finau

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a formação de interlíngua no processo de aquisição de escrita da Língua Portuguesa por alunos surdos. Para esse propósito, a categoria aspectual é o principal objeto de análise, a partir das propostas teóricas dos trabalhos de Jake (1998, White (2003, Ilari (1997, Castilho (1994, entre outros. Os resultados da investigação indicam a formação da interlíngua no processo de aquisição de segunda língua, bem como a influência do período em que os alunos entraram em contato com a Libras para organização gramatical da língua alvo. Esses resultados permitem apontar a hipótese de que é importante que os alunos surdos tenham acesso à escrita da língua de sinais como apoio para a aprendizagem da modalidade escrita da oral.

  11. História de vida e genealogia: categoria narrativa específica em busca do Tempo Perdido...

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    Sandra Maia Farias Vasconcelos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo tem como objetivo trazer à tona uma nova categorização dos estudos da narrativa a partir da especificidade histórica pessoal e genealógica. Percebemos haver uma lacuna nos estudos linguísticos acerca das narrativas familiares, históricas e genealógicas, formadoras da pessoa em sua estrutura pessoal e profissional. Consideramos haver uma camada intergenérica entre o tipo narrativo e suas manifestações genéricas no que diz respeito às escritas biográficas e autobiográficas, entre a escrita ficcional e a escrita de si, caracterizadas pela veracidade e pela pessoalidade na escrita, segundo a perspectiva iniciada por Gaston Pineau. Essa camada ou classe textual, aqui chamada classe narrativa, passa além das categorias tratadas por Barthes, denominadas pelo autor: níveis da narrativa. História de vida e genealogia formam uma classe narrativa que abrange as diversas formas de manifestações narrativas cunhadas na emotividade – relação com o emissor – e na realidade dos fatos, aspectos relevantes na construção discursiva.

  12. Da categoria gramatical pessoa

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Martinez de Rezende

    1986-01-01

    A presente dissertação discute o conceito de pessoa gramatical, com base na proposta de que pessoa é fenômeno de linguagem, não um fato de língua. Ao considerá-la assim, procura estabelecer suas características e as implicações do seu conceito, através do comentário de termos que as gramáticas tradicionais relacionam à pessoa gramatical: pessoa do verbo, impessoalidade e sujeito, por exemplo.

  13. A Curious Mistake Concerning Cranial Sutures in Aristotle's Parts of Animals, or, the Use and Abuse of the Footnote

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    Barbara Clayton

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an erroneous claim Aristotle makes in Parts of Animals about the number of cranial sutures in men and women, in the context of a discussion of this mistake by Robert Mayhew in his study, The Female in Aristotle’s Biology. By subjecting both Mayhew’s use of existing commentary on this passage and the references in his corresponding footnote to a literary analysis, the author explores the potential for play in the footnote, and its ability to destabilize the very argument it is intended to support.

  14. Economic Analysis of Apixaban Therapy for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation From a US Perspective Results From the ARISTOTLE Randomized Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowper, Patricia A.; Sheng, Shubin; Lopes, Renato D.

    2017-01-01

    to their baseline risk and treatment using time-based and age-based survival models developed using the overall ARISTOTLE population. Quality-of-life adjustment factors were obtained from external sources. Cost-effectiveness (incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained) was evaluated from a US...... treated with apixaban therapy and warfarin therapy were not statistically different (difference, -$ 60; 95% CI, -$ 2728 to $ 2608). Life expectancy, modeled from ARISTOTLE outcomes, was significantly longer with apixaban therapy vs warfarin therapy (7.94 vs 7.54 quality-adjusted life years......IMPORTANCE The Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial reported that apixaban therapy was superior to warfarin therapy in preventing stroke and all-cause death while causing significantly fewer major bleeds. To establish the value...

  15. Dieter Henrich, leitor de Kant: sobre o fato legitimador na dedução transcendental das categorias

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    Christian Klotz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reconstrói os momentos principais dos trabalhos de Dieter Henrich sobre a filosofia teórica de Immanuel Kant. Henrich procura esclarecer e recuperar os fundamentos da teoria do conhecimento de Kant, dos quais seus seguidores teriam se distanciado, a partir da análise da dedução transcendental das categorias. De início, Henrich investiga a estrutura da prova na dedução, comparando a primeira e a segunda edição da Crítica da Razão Pura. Em seguida, Henrich investiga no argumento kantiano a relação entre o princípio de identidade da consciência de si, por um lado, e objetividade, por outro. Por fim, estendendo a comparação à Crítica da Razão Prática, Henrich elucida o programa e a metodologia na dedução, mostrando como o "fato" legitimador se torna o elemento fundamental.This article reconstructs the principal moments of Dieter Henrich's work on Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy. Henrich tries to clarify and recover the foundations of Kant's theory of knowledge, from which his followers would have taken distance, based on the analysis of the "transcendental deduction of categories". Firstly, Henrich investigates the proof structure in the deduction, comparing the first and the second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason. Secondly, he investigates, inside Kantian argument, the relationship between the identity principle of self-consciousness and objectivity. Finally, extending the comparison to the Critique of Practical Reason, Henrich elucidates the program and methodology of deduction, showing how the legitimating fact becomes the fundamental element.

  16. Las Bellas Artes como Terapia en Aristóteles The Fine Arts as Therapy in Aristotle

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    Sergio González A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde Homero en adelante, los textos griegos abundan en menciones a la función terapéutica de las bellas artes. En los diálogos platónicos se encuentra el sistema más acabado respecto a este tema en sus diversas manifestaciones, sin embargo los múltiples análisis aristotélicos se encuentran dispersos y aislados. Para empezar, se expone la visión de la salud como armonía en el pensamiento de Aristóteles, a continuación se describen y comparan los conceptos de tékhne y phrónesis, se demuestra la necesidad del arte para la paideía, y se detalla el uso terapéutico de diferentes artes para preservar o restaurar la salud.From Homer onwards, Greek texts show abundant references to the therapeutic applications of the fine arts. The most complete system dealing with this issue in its diverse manifestations is to be found in the Platonic dialogues. However, Aristotle's manifold analyses are scattered and isolated. First, the view of health as harmony in Aristotle's thought is expounded, then the concepts of tékhne and phrónesis are described and compared, the necessity of art to paideía is demonstrated, and finally the therapeutic use of the different arts in order to preserve or restore health is examined'm detall.

  17. The Relationship between Virtue and Happiness in Aristotle and Al-Fārābī’s Views

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    Ali Sabri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, different schools including both descriptive and non-descriptive ones, have been concerned with revealing relationship between happiness and virtue. As the First and Second teachers, Aristotle and Al-Fārābī can be named as having very important roles in this sense. So, the main tenet of ethics for these two philosophers is happiness, which is mostly derived from virtue. Considering theories of these two philosophers, it became evident that Aristotle had significant effects on Islamic thinkers. In other words, they claim they have been strongly influenced by Aristotle’s ideas. An obvious example for this can be ‘Nicomachean Ethics’ which attracted the attention of both western and eastern thinkers. As the greatest and the most salient commentator, Al-Fārābī could elaborate on Aristotle’s ideas on ethics and so suggest a comprehensive theory of ultimate happiness and Utopia' ('al-madīnat al-fāḍilah'. On the other hand, following Aristotle, Al-Fārābī divided ethics into two theoretical and practical branches. Hence, basis of ethical theories introduced by the two of these philosophers is based on happiness; However, Al-Fārābī added notions of Islam and mysticism to happiness. The most straightforward definition that Aristotle offers for happiness concerns an ultimate goal which humans are eagerly seeking to acquire it. He considers the best life as a happy life which can be reached by reasoning about humans’ actions and reactions and through adopting a viewpoint. In this sense, Aristotle introduced three types of lives, namely life with pleasure, political life, and life with intellect; he knows the third type of life better and more sublime than the other two. In his book on ethics, Aristotle defined happiness as soul’s performance according to perfect virtue. Regarding soul, Aristotle divided virtues into moral and rational ones. He believed that virtue is inasmuch as its genus is a hexis (habit

  18. Polypharmacy and effects of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: post hoc analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers Focks, Jeroen; Brouwer, Marc A; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Thomas, Laine; Lopes, Renato D; Washam, Jeffrey B; Lanas, Fernando; Xavier, Denis; Husted, Steen; Wallentin, Lars; Alexander, John H; Granger, Christopher B; Verheugt, Freek W A

    2016-06-15

     To determine whether the treatment effect of apixaban versus warfarin differs with increasing numbers of concomitant drugs used by patients with atrial fibrillation.  Post hoc analysis performed in 2015 of results from ARISTOTLE (apixaban for reduction in stroke and other thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation)-a multicentre, double blind, double dummy trial that started in 2006 and ended in 2011.  18 201 ARISTOTLE trial participants.  In the ARISTOTLE trial, patients were randomised to either 5 mg apixaban twice daily (n=9120) or warfarin (target international normalised ratio range 2.0-3.0; n=9081). In the post hoc analysis, patients were divided into groups according to the number of concomitant drug treatments used at baseline (0-5, 6-8, ≥9 drugs) with a median follow-up of 1.8 years.  Clinical outcomes and treatment effects of apixaban versus warfarin (adjusted for age, sex, and country).  Each patient used a median of six drugs (interquartile range 5-9); polypharmacy (≥5 drugs) was seen in 13 932 (76.5%) patients. Greater numbers of concomitant drugs were used in older patients, women, and patients in the United States. The number of comorbidities increased across groups of increasing numbers of drugs (0-5, 6-8, ≥9 drugs), as did the proportions of patients treated with drugs that interact with warfarin or apixaban. Mortality also rose significantly with the number of drug treatments (P<0.001), as did rates of stroke or systemic embolism (1.29, 1.48, and 1.57 per 100 patient years, for 0-5, 6-8, and ≥9 drugs, respectively) and major bleeding (1.91, 2.46, and 3.88 per 100 patient years, respectively). Relative risk reductions in stroke or systemic embolism for apixaban versus warfarin were consistent, regardless of the number of concomitant drugs (Pinteraction=0.82). A smaller reduction in major bleeding was seen with apixaban versus warfarin with increasing numbers of concomitant drugs (Pinteraction=0.017). Patients with interacting

  19. As três categorias peircianas e os três registros lacanianos The three Peirce’s categories and the three Lacan’s registers

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    Maria Lucia Santaella Braga

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A primeira parte deste artigo propõe uma comparação geral entre as categorias fenomonológicas universais de Peirce, primeiridade, secundidade e terceiridade, de um lado, e os três registros lacanianos, também chamados de categorias conceituais da realidade humana, as categorias do imaginário, real e simbólico, de outro lado. A segunda parte avança alguns passos na análise comparativa entre Peirce e Lacan, ao discutir que a lógica da terceira categoria, que é a lógica do signo, pode funcionar como um mapa de orientação para o entendimento das interações complexas que os três registros, imaginário, real e simbólico, mantêm entre si.The first part of this paper proposes a general comparison between Peirce’s three universal phenomenological categories of firstness, secondness, and thirdness on one hand and Lacan’s three registers, also called the conceptual categories of human reality, the categories of the imaginary, the real, and the symbolic on the other hand. The second part develops the comparative analysis between Peirce and Lacan even further, showing that the logic of the third category, which is the logic of the sign, can function as a guiding map towards the understanding of the complex interactions that the three registers, the imaginary, the real, and the simbolic, have with each other.

  20. INTERVENÇÃO PRECOCE NA PSICOSE: DE ESTRATÉGIA CLÍNICA A POSSÍVEL CATEGORIA DIAGNÓSTICA

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    Luna Rodrigues Freitas-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No campo psiquiátrico, as possibilidades de prevenir o risco de desenvolver transtornos mentais começam a reunir interesse, motivar pesquisas e provocar controvérsias. Entre as diversas investigações sobre risco e categorias psiquiátricas que vêm sendo conduzidas no cenário internacional destacam-se as propostas destinadas a detectar e intervir precocemente no desenvolvimento da psicose. Os programas de detecção precoce da psicose têm como objetivo atingir duas categorias de pacientes: os que vivem o primeiro surto psicótico e aqueles considerados em estado mental de risco ou pré-psicóticos. Apesar da controvérsia em torno do estado mental de risco, com a elaboração de uma nova versão do DSM aventou-se a possibilidade de criar uma categoria específica que identificasse o risco para a psicose. Neste artigo analisamos as propostas de intervenção precoce na psicose de estratégia clínica dividindo essa análise em três etapas: 1- a do surgimento das ações no contexto de refinamento da clínica do primeiro surto; 2- a da sistematização controversa da noção de estado mental de risco; 3- a da formalização da proposta de nova categoria diagnóstica durante a elaboração do DMS-5.

  1. Relações raciais e de gênero: a educação física escolar na perspectiva da alquimia das categorias sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Nascimento Corsino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de pesquisa realizada em Escola Pública e analisa as identidades produzidas e reveladas pela rica mistura das especificidades das categorias sociais no âmbito das aulas de Educação Física. Nestas, assim como em outras situações escolares, as diferenças hierarquizadas estão intrinsecamente relacionadas aos conflitos raciais e ao modo como as/os professores lidam, usualmente de modo desigual, com alunos e alunas. As formas como os/as docentes separam ou misturam meninas e meninos e como sistematizam e escolhem temas e conteúdos revelam a importância do debate tanto da heteronormatividade quanto da exaltação de determinada raça/etnia em detrimento de outras. Tais processos são exemplares da produção da homossexualidade como desvio e da negritude como defeito. Assim, ao pensar, como pano de fundo, no ardente culto aos privilégios heterossexuais e na negação da negritude, o texto propõe reflexões que abordam tanto gênero quanto raça como categorias que estão intrinsecamente relacionadas e que, tornam-se emergentes nas políticas educacionais e nas práticas pedagógicas, a partir de imbricado feixe de categorias sociais.

  2. Efeitos de um programa de ensino de discriminação de categorias estruturais implícitas de histórias em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Sella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas mostram a importância de se identificar categorias estruturais na formação de um repertório efetivo de contação de histórias. Consequentemente, procedimentos de ensino de identificação destas categorias vêm sendo desenvolvidos. O objetivo do presente manuscrito, o qual consiste em dois estudos, foi investigar os efeitos de um procedimento de ensino de identificação de categorias de histórias em 12 crianças (seis em cada estudo, com idades entre oito e 12 anos. Foi empregado um delineamento de sondas múltiplas, caracterizado pela avaliação do desempenho de cada participante antes e após o ensino de cada categoria. O ensino foi dividido em duas etapas, descrição e identificação de cada categoria, nas quais foram apresentadas instruções orais e escritas, assim como diferentes histórias. Em ambos os estudos, o procedimento resultou na aprendizagem de todas as categorias pelos participantes. Os estudos contribuem com a literatura acerca do ensino da discriminação de categorias estruturais de histórias.

  3. Representacions gramaticals i activitat metalingüística dels alumnes de secundària: la categoria verb

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    Carme Durán Rivas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’article descriu una investigació sobre la representació gramatical que alumnes de l’últim curs de la secundària obligatòria han construït sobre la categoria verb, una noció de gran dificultat epistemològica. La finalitat última és identificar les estràtegies que han fet servir per conceptualizar-la i conèixer les dificultats amb què es troben com un primer pas per, d’una banda, entendre com es produeix el procés d’interiorització dels coneixements gramaticals i, d’una altra, poder dissenyar dispositius didàctics a través d’una metodologia d’ensenyament de la gramàtica basada en el diàleg i en la reflexió sobre la llengua.Es tracta d’una recerca exploratòria que inclou aproximacions quantitatives i qualitatives a l’anàlisi de les dades, en un intent d’ajustar la metodologia als objectius inicials. L’autora destaca l’ús de l’entrevista com a instrument metodològic que permet captar l’activitat metalingüística dels estudiants a través de la interacció amb la investigadora, però també com a instrument d’ensenyament i aprenentatge.Algunes de les conclusions corroboren resultats d’estudis anteriors sobre les representacions gramaticals dels escolars com la falta de coherència i de sistematització dels conceptes gramaticals dels estudiants, la fossilització d’aquests coneixements o la necessitat de partir dels coneixement previs i les representacions per tal de construir el saber gramatical des de bases més sòlides. Mostra la necessitat d’un canvi metodològic en l’ensenyament i aprenentatge de la gramàtica, que es fonamenti sobretot en la reflexió sobre la llengua i el seu ús, i en la interacció amb els altres com a manera de fer emergir la consciència metalingüística.

  4. El ¿delito? de Aristóteles Aristotle's crime?

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    MARÍA CLAUDIA CECCHI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available El filósofo griego Aristóteles es reconocido como uno de los más tempranos naturalistas del mundo occidental. Sus acabados y precisos conocimientos sobre zoología están contenidos en una variedad de escritos dedicados al estudio de los animales. Sorprende que, pese a su gran acervo de conocimientos biológicos, el estagirita nunca se planteó la posibilidad de que los organismos pudieran transformarse o estar conectados por relaciones de origen, ideas sustentadoras de la teoría de la evolución orgánica. Nosotros planteamos que hay en la biología aristotélica tres factores principales que explican esta falta de visión: (1 la idea eternizadora de la reproducción de los entes que no da lugar a la posibilidad de la transformación genérica de los organismos a través del nexo reproductivo; (2 el planteamiento que los fenómenos naturales tienen un propósito (causa final que determina su existencia, cuestión que lleva a desestimar la eventual existencia de conexiones en el origen entre los distintos géneros (sensu Aristóteles de organismos vivos; y (3 como consecuencia de lo anterior, la clasificación de los seres vivos según criterios analógico-funcionales que oscurece la existencia de vínculos estructurales y semejanzas de origen entre los organismos. El análisis de esta situación propia de la biología aristotélica nos lleva a examinar la importancia que tiene, para la formulación y desarrollo de las ideas evolucionistas, el advenimiento de una clasificación biológica de tipo jerárquica, inclusiva y ramificada, como la fundada por Linné y desarrollada, sobre la base de correspondencias estructurales y semejanzas de origen entre los organismos, por los grandes naturalistas del siglo XVIII y XIXThe Greek philosopher Aristotle is recognized as one of the earliest naturalists of the Western world. His thorough and precise knowledge of zoology is contained in various writings dedicated to the study of animals. It is

  5. Competition, Values and the Rhythm of Life: Some Reflections on Antiphon, Thucydides and Aristotle

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    Valentin Kalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games had more than a gymnastic significance in ancient Greece, as is best attested by Pindar’s odes. The modern interpretation of Greek culture was first introduced to the notion of the ajgwvn and the concept of the agonistic or competitive, “das Agonale”, by J. Burckhardt. Nietzsche elaborated it further, perceiving the phenomenon of competition as the origin of the fundamental Greek values, especially of justice and truth, and as the prerequisite for any fair evaluation. In Antiphon, the idea of competition runs both through his forensic speeches and philosophical writings. His Tetralogies in particular reveal the competitive dynamics of judicial trials. A judicial procedure is a competition, ajgwnivzesqai, between the truth of facts and the truth of words, which may result in an unjust verdict. In that case injustice has prevailed over justice and truth. What is thus at stake is the truth of facts, ajlhv/qeia tw`n pragmavtwn. Antiphon uses the Olympic and Pythian competitions to elucidate the important decisions and activities in human life, such as education, marriage, and the pursuit of happiness in general. Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War provides not only a description of the historical facts but also their evaluation. The development of military events, which is a competition of actions, ajgw;n e[rgwn, is elucidated by speeches, which frequently occur in antithetic pairs as antilogies, ajgw;n lovgwn. Political competition, however, is not limited to foreign policy but can be seen in the Athenian home politics as well. According to Alcibiades, the Athenian polis could only retain its supremacy through incessant competition, ajgwnizomevnhn aijei;. Nor does Thucydides neglect the Panhellenic significance of the Olympic festival. Aristotle's philosophy, on the other hand, appears to distance itself from competition, being based on rJa/stwvnh, "easiness", and diagwgh, “pastime”. None the less, the

  6. The notion of Threshold: an investigation into conceptual accompaniment in Aristotle and Hegel

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    Jason Carter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available What is unique to the idea of a threshold is that it is a threshold’s proper definition to generate or signal an inevitable accompanying image of a surrounding boundary or a further field of exploration, even though these accompanying terms or images seem like they should be excluded from its definition. Hegel described this phenomenon of the movement from a concept’s definition to its accompanying terms as the determination of a concept through ‘negation’, and viewed such a method as central to philosophical insight. However, what is not usually noted is that Hegel’s notion of negation is both crucially related to Aristotle’s thought on how definitions are formulated, as well as his postulations about opposites and their connection through a third substantial thing. Through a close examination of the problem of Aristotle’s categories, along with Aristotle’s description of the differentiae, movement, and the meaning of the copula, we can demonstrate that Aristotle’s thinking is at core structured by non-binary ‘threshold concepts’ which are essential to his philosophical system. Finally, we will show how Hegel attempted to take these essentially structural threshold concepts in Aristotle and turn their function into a methodology for both thought itself as well as the philosophical determination of the categories of being.Ce qui est particulier à l’idée de seuil c’est que c’est sa propre définition de générer un contour conceptuel qui va vers un autre champ d’exploration, même si ces images de contour semblent devoir être exclues de sa définition. Hegel a décrit ce phénomène du mouvement de la définition d’un concept vers les termes qui l’accompagnent comme la détermination d’un concept à partir de sa « négation » et a considéré cette méthode comme fondamentale à toute approche philosophique. Ce texte explore le fait que la notion hégélienne de la négation remonte aux idées d

  7. [The assimilation of the books on animals of Aristotle in the medicine of Arnau de Vilanova (c. 1240-1311)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Latin translation of Aristotle's books on animals, which was carried out during the middle ages, lead to the dissemination of new theories in the field of biology and zoology in the western culture. From the second half of the 13th century, this group of books contributed to the development of a new medical practice based on the recovery of classical authorities and natural philosophy. On different occasions, Arnau de Vilanova (c. 1240-1311)--one of the most preeminent physicians of the Latin middle ages--used the books on animals to describe biological and physiological processes, and also to formulate a new medical discipline within the framework of discussions between natural philosophy and medicine in Montpellier; this took place at the end of the 13th century and early 14h century.

  8. Negosiasi antara Homoerotika dan Budaya Machismo dalam Novel Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe

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    Alberta Natasia Adji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini bertujuan mengungkap negosiasi antara homoerotika dan prinsip machismo yang dijunjung tinggi dalam budaya Meksiko serta pengaruh faktor kelas sosial dan pendidikan keluarga terhadap hubungan tersebut dalam sastra Amerika Latin kontemporer berjudul Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe karya Benjamin Alire Sáenz. Masalah yang menjadi fokus penelitian adalah bagaimana negosiasi antara homoerotika dan prinsip machismo serta bagaimanakah faktor kelas sosial dan pendidikan keluarga memberikan pengaruh terhadapnya dalam novel tersebut. Dengan perspektif teori queer yang dicetuskan Annamarie Jagose dan metode pembacaan cermat, penelitian ini menghasilkan temuan bahwa machismo yang masih kuat dalam masyarakat Meksiko melahirkan perasaan homofobia, bahkan dalam diri kaum homoseksual sendiri. Kare-nanya, para gay cenderung menjadi rendah diri dengan orientasi seksualnya. Latar belakang pendidikan keluarga dan perbedaan kelas sosial memengaruhi persepsi tentangmachismo pada kaum lelaki. Keduanya merupakan faktor penting yang mendasari perilaku seseorang dalam me-nentukan orientasi seksualnya di lingkungan sekitar. The article strives to reveal the negotiation between homoeroticism and machismo norms highly valued in Mexican culture, as well as the impact of social class and academic background, toward such relationship in a contemporary Latin American literary work, Benjamin Alire Sáenz‘s Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe. The focus of the study is how the negotiation between homoeroticism and machismo values, as well as social class and academic background, affect that relationship. Using Annamarie Jagose’s queer theory and close reading technique, the study results in the fact that machismo, still strongly held in Mexican communities, begets a homophobic feeling even for the homosexuals themselves. Therefore, the gays tend to feel inferior with their sexual orientation. The family’s academic

  9. Efeitos de uma intervenção alimentar em atletas de futsal de diferentes categorias etárias

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    Melissa Acunha Da Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência é a fase compreendida dos 10 aos 19 anos de idade, é o segundo período em que o crescimento tem sua velocidade máxima. Atletas adolescentes, em função da demanda energética, podem apresentar erros alimentares importantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adequação e a qualidade da dieta de adolescentes jogadores de futsal das categorias sub 13, sub 15 e sub 17 de um clube esportivo antes e depois de intervenção nutricional para uma alimentação saudável. Foi realizada uma intervenção nutricional durante os meses de março a maio de 2015 com adolescentes da equipe de futsal de um clube esportivo da cidade de Pelotas/RS, que consistiu em orientações para hábitos alimentares mais saudáveis, utilizando como parâmetro os Dez Passos da Alimentação Saudável para Adolescentes do Ministério da Saúde. O estado nutricional e o consumo alimentar foram avaliados antes e após a intervenção, com um intervalo de oito semanas entre os encontros. Participaram do estudo 32 adolescentes do sexo masculino. A média de índice de massa corporal dos atletas foi de 22,3 ± 4,1 kg/m². Em relação ao consumo alimentar, os macronutrientes e a ingestão calórica não apresentaram mudanças estatisticamente significativas e a ingestão hídrica foi a única variável que apresentou aumento pós-intervenção (p=0,05. Os resultados reforçam a importância do acompanhamento nutricional para atletas adolescentes. A intervenção nutricional utilizada mostrou-se ineficiente para modificação de hábitos alimentares no dado período de tempo. ABSTRACT Effects of a food intervention on futsal athletes of different age categories Adolescence is the period comprised from 10 to 19 years old, is the second period in which growth has its maximum speed. Adolescent athletes, due to the energy demand, may have significant dietary deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy and quality of the diet of teenagers

  10. A ATUALIDADE DAS TEORIAS CRÍTICAS E A REVITALIZAÇÃO DA CATEGORIA ANALÍTICA "IDEOLOGIA" NA PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Guareschi,Pedrinho A.; Roso,Adriane; Amon,Denise

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar a atualidade das teorias críticas ao campo da Psicologia Social, propondo a revitalização da categoria analítica ideologia. Trata-se de um artigo teórico-empírico, dividido em quatro partes: (a) breve histórico do conceito de ideologia, (b) articulação teórica da ideologia com a Psicologia Social, (c) identificação das tendências na produção de artigos na Psicologia & Sociedade, de maneira a verificar alguns caminhos conceituais de ideologia nesta revi...

  11. A avaliação da aprendizagem em Educação Física escolar: desvelando a categoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem como objeto de estudo a avaliação da aprendizagem em Educação Física. O objetivo central deste texto é analisar a categoria avaliação e sua interação direta com outras categorias importantes, como é o caso do projeto histórico, projeto político-pedagógico e organização do trabalho pedagógico, este especialmente em sala de aula. PALAVRA-CHAVE: Avaliação da aprendizagem em Educação Física. This text focuse on the evaluation of learning in Physical Education. The main aim is to analyse the evaluation category and its interation with other important categories, such as the historical project, the political and pedagogical project and the organization of the pedagogical work, this specifically in the classroom. KEY-WORD: Evaluation of learning in Physical Education

  12. The family as the foundation of political rule in western philosophy: a comparative analysis of Aristotle's politics and Hegel's philosophy of right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Douglas E

    2011-01-01

    For both Aristotle and Hegel, the family is the foundation in which the universalized rule of law is validated according to the political structure of the 'Polis' or 'State' itself. This composite whole or structure of society (Ancient Polis/Modern State) is the political end of humanity for both philosophers, which in turn finds its primordial beginning in the family. For Aristotle, it is in the kingly rule of the household that the property-based distinction of citizenship is set for the rule of his ideal Polis. For Hegel, it is in the love affirmed through caring affection within the nuclear family that the dialectical framework for the freedom of civil society, and the rational unity of a congregational 'spirit' in the State, finds its foundation. For both thinkers, the family sets the base for a political theory that defines citizenship in a manner that transcends the particularities of kin bonds.

  13. 'Setting the joy free' with Cadbury UK : A CDA analysis of how persuasion is communicated within Cadbury UK's social media discourse, according to Aristotle's 'persuasive proofs'

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a CDA analysis in order to take a critical look at how linguistic and visual techniques are used to create positive messages about a ‘modern’ brand, British confectionary company, Cadbury UK, in their social media discourse on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. The study goes further in exploring how these messages are constructed in a way which according to Aristotle, is ‘persuasive’, looking at how they appealed to emotion (pathos), the character or trustworthiness of the bran...

  14. Avaliação da simetria e descarga de peso entre os membros inferiores de atletas de futebol da categoria de base

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    Daniel Lucas Spagnuolo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A avaliação instrumentada dos saltos verticais informa sobre as capacidades funcionais e variáveis neuromusculares, auxiliando no atendimento dos atletas. Essencial dar atenção maior para as categorias de base, pois contém fases importantes do desenvolvimento dos atletas que serão o futuro do esporte. Objetivo: Avaliar as características funcionais e neuromusculares de atletas de futebol da categoria de base, no desempenho em saltos verticais. METODOLOGIA: Foram avaliados atletas de futebol com idade entre 15 e 17 anos. Foram realizados em duas plataformas de força os seguintes saltos verticais: salto em agachamento, salto em contramovimento, salto pliométrico de 40 cm de altura. Para análise das variáveis das forças concêntrica, excêntrica, impacto e altura dos saltos utilizou-se a prova estatística de Shapiro-Wilk, descrição das variáveis em média e desvio padrão, considerando quando p 0,05. Sem diferença na força concêntrica entre as categorias e os tipos de saltos. Maior força de impacto no contramovimento. Maior força em membro inferior direito em todos os saltos e variáveis de força. CONCLUSÕES: Encontramos assimetria entre os membros inferiores, podendo correlacionar com um déficit de potência muscular, má desaceleração do movimento e erros biomecânicos. Fatores predisponentes a lesões musculoesqueléticas, os quais podem ser prevenidos. A avaliação instrumentada da força através desses testes pode subsidiar os profissionais do clube como uma ferramenta de trabalho, capaz de aprimorar o treinamento, preparação e reabilitação. Entretanto, são necessárias mais pesquisas, de forma que momentos distintos da idade e da temporada do atleta sejam avaliados.

  15. Design and baseline findings of a large-scale rapid response to an HIV outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzakis, Angelos; Sypsa, Vana; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Micha, Katerina; Panopoulos, Anastasios; Malliori, Meni; Psichogiou, Mina; Pharris, Anastasia; Wiessing, Lucas; van de Laar, Marita; Donoghoe, Martin; Heckathorn, Douglas D; Friedman, Samuel R; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2015-09-01

    To (i) describe an intervention implemented in response to the HIV-1 outbreak among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Greece (ARISTOTLE programme), (ii) assess its success in identifying and testing this population and (iii) describe socio-demographic characteristics, risk behaviours and access to treatment/prevention, estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors, as assessed at the first participation of PWIDs. A 'seek, test, treat, retain' intervention employing five rounds of respondent-driven sampling. Athens, Greece (2012-13). A total of 3320 individuals who had injected drugs in the past 12 months. ARISTOTLE is an intervention that involves reaching out to high-risk, hard-to-reach PWIDs ('seek'), engaging them in HIV testing and providing information and materials to prevent HIV ('test') and initiating and maintaining anti-retroviral and opioid substitution treatment for those testing positive ('treat' and 'retain'). Blood samples were collected for HIV testing and personal interviews were conducted. ARISTOTLE recruited 3320 PWIDs during the course of 13.5 months. More than half (54%) participated in multiple rounds, resulting in 7113 visits. HIV prevalence was 15.1%. At their first contact with the programme, 12.5% were on opioid substitution treatment programmes and the median number of free syringes they had received in the preceding month was 0. In the multivariable analysis, apart from injection-related variables, homelessness was a risk factor for HIV infection in male PWIDs [odds ratio (OR) yes versus no = 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.41, 2.52] while, in female PWIDS, the number of sexual partners (OR for > 5 versus one partner in the past year = 4.12, 95% CI = 1.93, 8.77) and history of imprisonment (OR yes versus no = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.43, 5.31) were associated with HIV. In Athens, Greece, the ARISTOTLE intervention for identifying HIV-positive people among people who inject drugs (PWID) facilitated rapid

  16. Categorias peirceanas e o mundo sígnico dos deuses iorubás: por uma semiose dos orixás

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    Alexandre de Oliveira Fernandes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Apresenta as categorias semióticas de Charles Sanders Peirce, ícone, índice e símbolo, como ferramenta de análise dos signos presentes nos mitos dos deuses iorubás.  O presente trabalho pretende aproximar academia e terreiro, estudando a ação dos signos, a semiose no culto aos orixás, com vistas a responder como a mitologia dos orixás e os ritos do candomblé se unem para formar o ethos deste grupo religioso? Como os símbolos veiculados expressam determinados “comandos”? Como “sentem” os adeptos do mundo dos orixás o que “sentem”?

  17. Diversos nomes para o cansaço: categorias emergentes e sua relação com o mundo do trabalho

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    Rafaela Zorzanelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo explorar, do ponto de vista sociocultural, a emergência de duas entidades clínicas entre 1970 e 1980 que, no campo da clínica geral e dos saberes psi, nomeiam quadros centrados no sintoma da fadiga: a síndrome da fadiga crônica (CID-10 G93.3 e o burnout (CID-10 Z73.0. Pretendemos, após uma breve apresentação de ambas, analisar o surgimento dessas categorias, para indicar o cansaço e a exaustão como sintomas a serem tratados medicamente e explorar os pontos de aproximação e afastamento entre elas.

  18. Respostas evocadas de incongruência a categorias na percepção da fala = Mismatch evoked responses to categories in speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Daniel Márcio Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A percepção dos sons da fala envolve operações de categorização em que os eventos acústicos que compõem o fluxo sonoro da fala são agrupados em classes de equivalência, ou seja, categorias cujos membros são tratados pelos falantes como funcionalmente equivalentes. Diversas linhas de evidência indicam efeitos relacionados a essas categorias sobre a percepção. Neste contexto, medidas da atividade neuronal relacionada ao processamento perceptivo no córtex cerebral são de grande relevância. Estudos psicofisiológicos indicam que o componente das respostas evocadas auditivas denominado “negatividade de incongruência” (MMN, ou Mismatch Negativity, considerado como um índice da memória sensorial auditiva e da discriminação entre estímulos sonoros, é sensível não apenas aos atributos físicos dos sons da fala, mas também ao modo como os mesmos são categorizados pelos falantes de uma língua. No presente trabalho é apresentada uma retrospectiva crítica sobre o emprego dessa resposta nas investigações sobre a categorização dos sons da fala e uma apreciação de suas contribuições para a compreensão do aspecto perceptivo da comunicação verbal

  19. The influence of Plato, Aristotle, and the ancient Polis on a programme for congenital cardiac surgery: the virtuous partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Backer, Carl L

    2007-09-01

    The problems that exist in maintaining a partnership in paediatric cardiac surgery are considerable. They relate to fairness in allocation of time for leisure, the apportioning of cases between the partners, internal competition between them, financial considerations, and promotion of the ego. In this review, we discuss our own experiences in maintaining a partnership over a period of more than 18 years, relating such a "virtuous partnership" to the writings of Plato and Aristotle, and setting it against the tenets of the ancient Greek polis. The polis, or city state, came to prominence in ancient Greece during the golden age of Pericles, this period seeing the initial evolution of Western philosophy, as well as numerous other scientific, artistic and architectural advances. The concept of the polis was to create a natural association with its citizens that nurtured all that is best in people, at the same time defining their character. In this respect, according to Plato, the person and the polis are mirror images. Aristotle then expanded this notion to incorporate the various forms of friendship, which he pointed out last only as long as the interrelated pleasure survives. Using these principles as the point of departure, we argue that cardiac surgeons should respect moral virtue in each other. Extending this process means that we should also respect, and celebrate, our relationships with affiliated physicians, nurses, perfusionists, administrators, and all concerned in the care of children with congenitally malformed hearts. In this way, we create a virtuous partnership for congenital cardiac surgery that promotes all that was good, as engendered in the ancient Greek polis. As we extend these observations to the modern world, we discuss some of the features that have permitted us to work so well together. One of the most important is a summoning and unwritten tenet that greets us as we enter the operating room, namely "check your ego at the door". The operative

  20. Clinical Outcomes and History of Fall in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Oral Anticoagulation: Insights From the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meena P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Granger, Christopher B

    2017-11-06

    We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban vs warfarin are consistent in this population. Of the 18,201 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study, 16,491 had information about history of falling-753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. When compared with patients without a history of falling, patients with a history of falling were older, more likely to be female and to have dementia, cerebrovascular disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, fractures, and higher CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke or TIA or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category female) and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal and liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs or alcohol) scores. Patients with a history of falling had higher rates of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.84; P = .020), including intracranial bleeding (adjusted HR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .044) and death (adjusted HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.14; P history of falling. Among those with a history of falling, subdural bleeding occurred in 5 of 367 patients treated with warfarin and 0 of 386 treated with apixaban. Patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling receiving anticoagulation have a higher risk of major bleeding, including intracranial, and death. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin were consistent, irrespective of history of falling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recursos humanos, financeiros e materiais de atletas de basquetebol nas categorias de base e a percepção dos treinadores sobre a formação dos atletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Pereira REIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os recursos humanos, financeiros e materiais de atletas de basquetebol nas categorias de base e a percepção dos treinadores sobre estes recursos no processo de formação do atleta. A amostra do estudo foi composta por: 47 atletas de categoria sub-19 anos de Minas Gerais e os respectivos treinadores e 47 atletas profissionais. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Questionário sobre o Contexto da Prática para Atletas de Basquetebol (QCP-Basq, Versão Recursos para o Treinamento e entrevista semiestruturada. Com base nos resultados foi possível entender que os atletas profissionais treinaram em instituições com mais recursos desde a iniciação esportiva em comparação aos atletas da categoria sub-19 anos de Minas Gerais. Os treinadores de Minas Gerais indicam precariedade na estruturação dos recursos na formação do jovem atleta e ressaltam que há dificuldade em aproveitar o jogador que se destaca nas categorias de base nas equipes profissionais do Estado.

  2. Concepção de currículo em Dermeval Saviani e suas relações com a categoria marxista de liberdade

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    Carolina Nozella Gama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermeval Saviani analisa o trabalho educativo pelo enfoque marxista, articulando questões relativas à filosofia e história da educação, política educacional e teoria pedagógica, fornecendo sustentação para o enfrentamento do esvaziamento do currículo escolar. A partir da contribuição desse educador e de outros que a ele se somam, na construção da pedagogia histórico-crítica, alguns princípios curriculares podem ser formulados para a seleção dos conteúdos do ensino. Um exemplo é a questão dos clássicos, que Saviani aponta como referência para a seleção dos conteúdos escolares. A categoria de liberdade é compreendida, pela tradição marxista, de maneira contraposta à visão liberal-burguesa e tem como fundamento a análise histórica da construção da sociabilidade e da cultura a partir da atividade de trabalho. É esta perspectiva histórica que dá sentido às ideias defendidas por Saviani sobre o conhecimento, a formação humana e o currículo escolar.

  3. A qualidade dos alimentos: análise de algumas categorias da dietética popular Quality of foods: analysis of some folk dietary categories

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    Ana Maria Canesqui

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda os conhecimentos dietéticos tradicionais expressos nas seguintes categorias: "quente/frio"; "forte/fraco" e "reimoso", que definem a qualidade e a propriedade dos alimentos e da comida e os seus efeitos sobre o corpo. Vale-se da literatura antropológica nacional e dos estudos qualitativos produzidos desde 1975 a 2005. Os estudos antigos são mais abundantes do que os atuais e, apesar dessa limitação, o artigo contribui para discutir as diferentes abordagens conceituais usadas pelos autores e demonstra a persistência do saber dietético tradicional, que convive com o saber científico da nutrição, sendo importante não desprezá-lo nas intervenções nutricionais.The article analyses the traditional dietary knowledge expressed in the following categories: "hot/cold"; "strong/ weak" and "reimoso" (watery which define food quality and properties and its effects on the body. The discussion originates from Brazilian anthropological and qualitative studies published from 1975 to 2005. Old studies are more abundant than current ones and, in spite of this limitation, the article contributes to discuss conceptual approaches utilized by authors and demonstrates that traditional dietary knowledge survives with the scientific knowledge on nutrition. Therefore, it is important not to reject them in nutritional interventions.

  4. Predição de malignidade em pacientes das categorias 4 e 5 BI-RADS™ Malignancy prediction in patients with BI-RADS™ category 4 and 5

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    Augusto Vasconcellos Vieira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo, de agosto de 1999 a junho de 2002, que selecionou 6.999 laudos mamográficos consecutivos que seguiram a padronização Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS™. Neste estudo objetivamos uma análise regional de achados mamográficos categorias 4 e 5 BI-RADS, que foram recomendados a estudo histopatológico, avaliando a sensibilidade do método nessas categorias como indicador de malignidade. Foram laudados 43,65% (n = 3.055 como negativos, 47,36% (n = 3.315 como achados mamográficos benignos, 7,47% (n = 523 como achados mamográficos provavelmente benignos, 0,87% (n = 61 como achados mamográficos suspeitos e 0,64% (n = 45 como achados mamográficos altamente suspeitos. Das pacientes das categorias 4 (61 pacientes e 5 (45 pacientes, todas encaminhadas à biópsia, foram obtidos resultados histopatológicos de 27 da categoria 4 (44,26% e de 27 da categoria 5 (60%. Das pacientes da categoria 4, obteve-se 55,55% (n = 15 de lesões malignas, e das pacientes da categoria 5, obteve-se 96,29% (n = 26 de lesões malignas. O estudo mostra o alto valor preditivo positivo de malignidade da categoria 5 BI-RADS e a necessidade real de prosseguimento da investigação das mamografias categoria 4 BI-RADS.In a retrospective study, from August 1999 until June 2002, 6,999 consecutive mammograms were analyzed using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS™ guidelines, with the purpose of a regional analysis of mammographic findings in the categories 4 and 5 BI-RADS, which were all recommended to histopathologic study, evaluating the sensibility of this method in these categories, as an indicator of malignancy. The analysis revealed 43.65% (n = 3,055 of negative findings, 47.36% (n = 3,315 of benign lesions, 7.47% (n = 523 of probably benign lesions, 0.87% (n = 61 of suspicious lesions, and 0.64% (n = 45 of highly suspicious lesions. All the patients fitted in the categories 4 (61 patients and 5 (45

  5. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard ...

  6. Aristotle on Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    by the polity: politics is about making these choices well so that the good life of all citizens is optimally secured; rhetoric is the principal means to do this. These links have not been much discussed by scholars, probably because few studies range across these three Aristotelian ‘arts’; a proper discussion...

  7. Aristotle and Byzantine Iconoclasm

    OpenAIRE

    Thalia Anagnostopoulos

    2013-01-01

    The defense of icons shifted gradually from a theory of mimesis to Aristotelian symbolism; this reflected not a revival of learning but arguments developed in the debate itself and hinted at already by Constantine V and at the Council of 787.

  8. Aristotle and Byzantine Iconoclasm

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    Thalia Anagnostopoulos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The defense of icons shifted gradually from a theory of mimesis to Aristotelian symbolism; this reflected not a revival of learning but arguments developed in the debate itself and hinted at already by Constantine V and at the Council of 787.

  9. RESENHA DO LIVRO:Emoções, Sociedade e Cultura: a categoria de análise emoções como objeto de investigação na sociologia.

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    Rosinete V. Schmitt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-4512.2012n26p132 RESENHA DO LIVRO  Emoções, Sociedade e Cultura: a categoria de análise emoções como objeto de investigação na sociologia, escrito por Mauro Guilherme Pinheiro KOURY, publicado pela Editora CRV de Curitiba em 2009. O livro apresenta-se como um mapeamento de um campo pouco conhecido. Busca apresentar um estado da arte, ainda que de forma sucinta, introduzindo os leitores à disciplina da Sociologia das Emoções. nos propõe o reconhecimento e a localização, no campo cientifico, de  uma categoria (as emoções,  muito importante para as pesquisas que tratam das relações humanas.

  10. A dimensão econômica da teoria política aristotélica Economical dimension of aristotle's political theory

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    Miguel Angel Rossi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é enfatizar o lugar que ocupa a economia na cosmovisão política de Aristóteles, assumindo o pressuposto segundo o qual o filósofo considera a economia como uma dimensão central da mesma forma que uma condição de possibilidade para pensar a comunidade política. Nesse sentido, percorre-se três aspectos de tal problemática. O primeiro aspecto, o mais visível, cujo descobrimento é mérito da hermenêutica arendtiana, é aquele que diz respeito especificamente ao problema da crematística como desconstrução do objeto da política, considerada como vida comunitária ligada ao bom viver. O segundo aspecto é o que conduz o filósofo a vincular, pela primeira vez na história do Ocidente, os regimes políticos à estrutura social da polis. O terceiro aspecto consiste em realizar uma leitura dos regimes políticos na chave econômica, aspecto central das profundas críticas de Aristóteles à oligarquia. Desse modo, deixa-se explícita outra das hipóteses que se sustenta no texto: a de que as reflexões de Aristóteles se concentram na noção de esfera pública e, por isso, privilegiam teoricamente a aristocracia, a politeia e, inclusive, a democracia.The objetive of the article is to emphasize the place of economics in the political cosmovision of Aristotle under the assumption of economics as a central dimension and a prerequisite of the philosopher's thinking about political community. In that sense, it covers three aspects of that problematic. The firs aspect, the most visible one, which discovery is merit of Arendtian hermeneutics, attends specifically to the problem of bad chrematistic as a deconstruction of the politics's object, in so far as communitarian life is related to the good life. The second aspect allows the philosopher to relate, for the first time in Western history, the political regimes to the social structure of the polis. The third aspect implies a vision of political regimes in economic terms

  11. Toward a pro-active scientific advice on global volcanic activity within the multi-hazard framework of the EU Aristotle project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Duncan, Melanie; Loughlin, Susan; Gísladóttir, Bryndis; Roberts, Matthew; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Scollo, Simona; Salerno, Giuseppe; Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The demand for timely analysis and advice on global volcanic activity from scientists is growing. At the same time, decision-makers require more than an understanding of hazards; they need to know what impacts to expect from ongoing and future events. ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOwards Trans-boundary hoListic Early-warning) is a two-year EC funded pilot project designed to do just that. The Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) works to support and coordinate response to disasters both inside and outside Europe using resources from the countries participating in the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism. Led by INGV and ZAMG, the ARISTOTLE consortium comprises 15 institutions across Europe and aims to deliver multi-hazard advice on natural events, including their potential interactions and impact, both inside and outside of Europe to the ERCC. Where possible, the ERCC would like a pro-active provision of scientific advice by the scientific group. Iceland Met Office leads the volcanic hazards work, with BGS, INGV and NOA comprising the volcano observatory team. At this stage, the volcanology component of the project comprises mainly volcanic ash and gas dispersal and potential impact on population and ground-based critical infrastructures. We approach it by relying upon available and official volcano monitoring institutions' reporting of activity, existing assessments and global databases of past events, modelling tools, remote-sensing observational systems and official VAAC advisories. We also make use of global assessments of volcanic hazards, country profiles, exposure and proxy indicators of threat to livelihoods, infrastructure and economic assets (e.g. Global Volcano Model outputs). Volcanic ash fall remains the only hazard modelled at the global scale. Volcanic risk assessments remain in their infancy, owing to challenges related to the multitude of hazards, data availability and model representation. We therefore face a number of

  12. A categoria da mediação: contribuições para a educação escolar e para o trabalho do professor

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    Carina Alves da Silva Darcoleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem o objetivo de tratar a educação escolar como uma fundamental mediação entre o homem (singular e o conhecimento produzido e acumulado pela humanidade historicamente (geral; concebendo-a na sua relação de interdependência com a totalidade da sociedade, o que será elucidado com o exame da categoria ontológica da mediação, a qual permite compreender o homem inserido no contexto da sociedade capitalista, as possibilidades e os limites que dela derivam, de modo geral, e as questões próprias à educação escolar, em particular. Para tanto, recorrer-se-á à análise das mediações apresentada por István Mészáros, em suas obras “Marx: a teoria da alienação” (1981 e “Para além do capital: rumo a uma teoria da transição” (2002, a qual fornece a chave para se pensar em uma educação escolar comprometida com a transformação social. Abstract: This paper aims to provide analysis of the school as a mediating key between man (singular and the knowledge which has been historically accumulated and produced by humanity (general; designing it in its relationship of interdependence with the totality of the society. This will be clarified by examining the ontological category of mediation, which allows understanding the man inserted in the context of capitalist society, the possibilities and limits which derive from it, and the issues related to Education in particular. Thus, we will open the analysis of mediation presented by István Mészáros, in his works "Marx: the theory of alienation" (1981 and "Beyond the capital: Toward a Theory of Transition" (2002, which provides the key to understand a school committed to the social transformation.

  13. Categoria, teoria, conceito (para dizer o ser em múltiplos sentidos Category, theory, concept (saying to be in multiple senses

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    Lílian do Valle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualquer que seja o ponto de partida dessa experiência que se denomina pensar, seu desenvolvimento e efetividade tomam a forma de uma manifestação. Como não há manifestação sem espectador, o pensamento depende, pois, do outro a quem ele se endereça: nem que, precária e temporariamente, eu seja para mim mesmo a figura desse outro. Assim, se os humanos são 'feitos de mundo', o pensamento humano é feito das palavras que, engendradas nesse e por esse mundo, fornecem, por sua vez, ao mundo os sentidos que o fazem ser para nós. Assim, talvez uma das primeiras tarefas da reflexão filosófica da educação seja a de contribuir para o questionamento dos sentidos e das torções de sentido a que os modismos, ou a simples rotina, submetem as palavras: neste artigo, entre tantas ocorrências que se poderia invocar, interessou examinar a noção de 'categoria', cuja trajetória parece especialmente ilustrativa dos riscos a que o uso dogmático pode submeter a reflexão.No matter what the starting point for this experience called thought, the development and existence of thought take on the shape of an event. Just as there cannot be an event without spectators, a thought depends on the person to whom it is addressed; even if precariously and temporarily, I become, for myself, the figure of this other person. Thus, if human beings are 'made of the world,' human thought is made of words which, created in and by this world, lead, in turn, to the world of meanings and what they signify to us. As such, perhaps one of the first tasks of philosophical reflection on education is to contribute to questioning the meanings and distorsions of meaning that trends, or simple routine, impose on words. In this article, among the many occurrences that could be mentioned, the goal was to examine the notion of 'category,' the path of which seems to be especially illustrative of the risks that dogmatic use can impose on reflection.

  14. EFFECT OF DIET QUALITY ON NUTRIENT ALLOCATION TO THE TEST AND ARISTOTLE'S LANTERN IN THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS (LAMARCK, 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Laura Elizabeth; Gibbs, Victoria K; Powell, Mickie L; Makowsky, Robert; Lawrence, Addison L; Lawrence, John M

    2012-08-01

    Small adult (19.50 ± 2.01g wet weight) Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (12 to 36% dry weight as fed) and carbohydrate (21 to 39 % dry weight) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily ration of 1.5% of the average body weight of all individuals for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion scores were used to compare six different dietary composition hypotheses for eight growth measurements. For each physical growth response, different mathematical models representing a priori hypotheses were compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) score. The AIC is one of many information-theoretic approaches that allows for direct comparison of non-nested models with varying number of parameters. Dietary protein level and protein: energy ratio were the best models for prediction of test diameter increase. Dietary protein level was the best model of test with spines wet weight gain and test with spines dry matter production. When the Aristotle's lantern was corrected for size of the test, there was an inverse relationship with dietary protein level. Log transformed lantern to test with spines index was also best associated with the dietary protein model. Dietary carbohydrate level was a poor predictor for growth parameters. However, the protein × carbohydrate interaction model was the best model of organic content (% dry weight) of the test without spines. These data suggest that there is a differential allocation of resources when dietary protein is limiting and the test with spines, but not the Aristotle's lantern, is affected by availability of dietary nutrients.

  15. Alterações dermatológicas em crianças com Aids e sua relação com categorias clínico-imunológicas e carga viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Vânia Oliveira de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Desde o início da epidemia da Aids as dermatoses têm sido freqüentemente descritas em pacientes com essa doença, com relatos de casos atípicos e estudos de séries de pacientes adultos; no entanto, há poucas publicações sobre alterações cutâneas em pacientes pediátricos com Aids. OBJETIVOS: Estudo prospectivo para avaliar a presença de dermatoses em 40 pacientes pediátricos com Aids. MÉTODOS: Quarenta pacientes, com idade inferior a 13 anos e portadores de Aids, foram estudados por um período de seis meses para avaliação de: número de alterações dermatológicas; suas características clínicas; distribuição conforme as categorias clínico-imunológicas e o valor da carga viral. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de dermatoses foi de 82,4%, na primeira consulta, e, no acompanhamento longitudinal, 92,5% dos pacientes tiveram alterações dermatológicas, com proporção de cinco diagnósticos por doente. As crianças com classificação clínico-imunológica grave e carga viral acima de 100.000 cópias/ml apresentaram maior número de alterações dermatológicas quando comparadas àquelas das categorias clínico-imunológicas leves. A proporção de diagnósticos por paciente na categoria clínica C foi de 6,8 e na A de 3,6; na categoria imunológica grave, de sete, e na leve de 3,7; e na carga viral > 100.000 de 7,3, e na < 100.000 de 4,2 (todos com significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: As dermatoses foram freqüentes nas crianças com Aids e ocorreram em maior número nos pacientes pertencentes às categorias graves. A elevada freqüência de alterações da pele nos pacientes pediátricos com a doença indica ser imprescindível sua avaliação dermatológica minuciosa e freqüente.

  16. Características do tabagismo na categoria médica do Distrito Federal Characteristics of smoking among physicians in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer as características do tabagismo na categoria médica do Distrito Federal. MÉTODOS:Foi enviado pelo correio um questionário sobre tabagismo, adaptado da Organização Mundial de Saúde, a todos os médicos inscritos no Conselho Regional de Medicina do Distrito Federal. De um total de 7.023 questionários enviados, 830 foram respondidos adequadamente (12% da população alvo. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo entre os médicos participantes do estudo foi de 7,2%, sendo 5,9% de fumantes regulares e 1,3% de fumantes ocasionais, com 70,1% de não fumantes e 22,7% de ex-fumantes. Em relação ao tabagismo de acordo com o gênero, cerca de 8,5% dos médicos eram fumantes contra 5,3% das médicas (p > 0,05. No que se refere à iniciação do tabagismo, 80% dos médicos fumantes iniciaram o hábito antes dos vinte anos de idade, 13% entre 21 e 30 anos e 7% acima de 31 anos de idade. A prevalência de fumantes de acordo com o agrupamento por especialidades foi: cirúrgicas e Anestesia com 10,3% cada, clínicas (9,1%, Ginecologia (2,9% e Pediatria (2,4%. Cerca de 75% dos fumantes já haviam sido aconselhados por médico a parar de fumar e apenas 34,9% tentaram parar de fumar no último ano. Admitiam que o cigarro faz mal à saúde 57,1% dos médicos, e 26,3% referiram fumar em hospitais e/ou consultórios. CONCLUSÃO:É necessário que medidas para controle do tabagismo sejam intensificadas e direcionadas aos médicos do Distrito Federal, mesmo que a prevalência de tabagismo esteja em declínio entre esses profissionais.OBJECTIVE: To profile the characteristics of smoking among physicians working in the Federal District of Brazil. METHODS: A questionnaire on smoking, adapted from that used by the World Health Organization, was mailed to all physicians registered with the Federal District Regional Council of Medicine. Of the 7023 questionnaires mailed, 830 (12% were duly completed and returned. RESULTS: Among the physicians

  17. Motivações e significados do abandono de categoria: aprendizado a partir da investigação com ex-fumantes e ex-proprietários de automóveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Suarez

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investiga por que os indivíduos tomam a decisão de abandono de categoria, tendo em vista diferentes contextos de estímulo e questionamento ao consumo. Para isso, foram escolhidas as categorias de automóvel e cigarro, considerando-se o conteúdo do sistema da publicidade, que, no caso do automóvel, é predominantemente de reforço ao consumo e, para o cigarro, de proibição dos anúncios por parte da indústria e demarketing através das campanhas governamentais. A pesquisa utiliza-se de metodologia qualitativa de coleta e análise dos dados, obtidos a partir de entrevistas em profundidade com 29 consumidores (ex-fumantes e ex-proprietários de automóveis. O trabalho enriquece os estudos de anticonsumo ao diferenciar três tipos de abandono e evidenciar que este não é apenas movimento de distanciamento de significados negativos, com o objetivo de proteger a autoestima (Hogg et al., 2009, mas também passível de operar diferenciação afirmativa, positiva e de reforço da autoestima. O abandono contingencial acontece quando o indivíduo, apesar de compartilhar os significados com os consumidores da categoria, vê-se forçado a abandonar o consumo. O abandono posicional é motivado principalmente pela rejeição às associações simbólicas que o consumo proporciona. Por fim, o abandono ideológico apresenta uma perspectiva coletiva, onde o indivíduo acredita que a sociedade (e não apenas ele individualmente deve abandonar aquele consumo.

  18. On the Contemporary Relevance of Greek παιδεία to the Concept of a Balanced Education: Aristotle, Nietzsche, Camus, H. Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary education systems are in a constant process of restructuring, thus requiring philosophy to reconsider the basic assumptions of education. The phenomenon of education can only be defined and clarified historically, i.e. with reference to the ancient Greek paideia. The Greek culture created a comprehensive system of both education and pedagogy as a theory of education, teaching, and knowledge (Dilthey.  (1 A phenomenological approach to Aristotle's pedagogy. Aristotle's theory of physical, moral, and political education (Nicomachean Ethics and Politics is founded upon the notion of the natural development of every being. In addition, Aristotle creates the concept of philosophical pedagogy. A philosophically educated person (ho pepaideumenos has the competence to treat problems emerging with the formation of particular sciences, and to reflect on the method of each scientific discipline. This philosophical culture is also connected with dialectic, rhetoric, and politics.  (2 Nietzsche's ideas on education and culture are presented in two of his early works: On the Future of Our Educational Institutions and We Philologists. In his criticism of the German education system of his time, he explains his basic historical assumption that the real homeland of education is the Hellenic world. A restructuring of the education system cannot be carried out without the Greek and Roman antiquity as the embodied categorical imperative of all culture. A general education which disregards antiquity is considered barbaric. However, Nietzsche's philosophy of education remains unfinished, giving no definite conclusions.  (3 Camus’ philosophy describes the modern West European culture as nihilistic. The essence of nihilism is a systematic ignorance of the limits of human nature, which can lead to historical crimes and to destroying the conditions for the human existence in the world. The formation of a world that will not be subdued by the

  19. Mensuração da gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias: estimação de magnitudes versus estimação de categorias

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Giuntini, Patrícia Bodnar

    2001-01-01

    A gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias foi escalonada pelos métodos psicofísicos de estimação de magnitudes e de categorias por 20 médicos e 20 enfermeiros. Os resultados mostraram: 1) o contínuo de gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias tem características quantitativas ou protéticas, e não qualitativas ou metatéticas; 2) a variabilidade das estimativas de magnitudes é uma função linear da magnitude das estimativas, segundo a lei de Ekman. The gravity of ...

  20. Metadados digitais: revisão bibliográfica da evolução e tendências por meio de categorias funcionaisDigital metadata: bibliographical review on evolution and trends using functional categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Revisão bibliográfica sobre metadados digitais no campo da ciência da informação, objetivando precisar as várias funcionalidades dos metadados. Empregando-se uma técnica de análise de conteúdo temática, constatou-se a recorrência de tecnologias como XML, RDFS, ontologias, data warehouses, Web Semântica, serviços Web, entre outras, e de dez categorias relativas às funções dos metadados que fundamentavam os textos examinados. Com suporte na análise temática, adotando-se uma perspectiva técnica e histórica, relacionaram-se as categorias funcionais às tecnologias e mostrou-se como as categorias são tratadas em dezenove dos artigos revisados, destacando-se as ênfases empregadas e a convergência dos temas. Notou-se que trabalhos e tecnologias que versam sobre padrões e modelos para preservação digital adotam perspectivas mais abrangentes e integradas, incorporando todas ou quase todas as categorias. Com base nos resultados, foram comentadas tendências e questões latentes percebidas na revisão bibliográfica, e sugeridas abordagens e metodologias para a análise de metadados e das tecnologias relacionadas.By means of a bibliographical review on digital metadata in the information science field, aiming to distinguish the various functionalities of metadata and employing thematic content analysis, it was noticed the recurrence of technologies like XML, RDFS, ontology, data warehouses, semantic Web, Web services, among others, and of certain categories connected to metadata functions that grounded the examined works. Based on these findings, adopting a technical and historical approach, the functional categories were related to the technologies and it was showed how the categories wereexpounded in 19 texts selected from the review. It was observed that studies and technologies that deal with models and standards for digital preservation adopt more comprehensive and integrated perspectives, encompassing all or nearly all

  1. O desvelar da categoria transpessoal : uma visão para a Filosofia, a Psicologia e a Mitologia nas obras de Eudoro de Sousa, Vicente e Dora Ferreira da Silva

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    Aguiar, Giancarlo de

    2016-01-01

    A presente tese intitulada O Desvelar da Categoria Transpessoal; Uma Visão para a Filosofia, a Psicologia e a Mitologia nas Obras de Eudoro de Sousa, Vicente e Dora Ferreira da Silva no ramo de investigação da filosofia da cultura, procurou tratar destes três autores que marcaram um importante período histórico para o pensamento poético e filosófico em língua portuguesa. Articulamos o pensamento filosófico de Vicente Ferreira da Silva, com forte inclinação à transcendência, na ...

  2. Conhecimento tático em jovens jogadores de Futebol da categoria sub-17: Comparação do Conhecimento Tático Processual entre nascidos em diferentes anos

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    Gibson Praça

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o nível do CTP (conhecimento tático processual de jovens jogadores de Futebol da categoria sub-17 com diferentes anos de nascimento. A amostra foi composta por 18 atletas de futebol do gênero masculino da categoria sub-17, participantes de competições de nível nacional. Destes atletas, nove nasceram no ano de 1998 e nove nasceram em 1997. Avaliou-se o CTP por meio do instrumento TCTP:OE (Teste de Conhecimento Tático Processual: Orientação Esportiva (Morales, Aburachid e Greco, 2011. Utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado para comparação da frequência das ações táticas e realizaram-se protocolos de fiabilidade inter e intra-avaliador. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença significativa entre diferentes idades para uma mesma categoria (sub-17 no CTP. Conclui-se que não houve diferença significativa no nível de CTP em atletas de futebol de diferentes anos para uma mesma categoria. ABSTRACT Tactical knowledge in youth soccer players of the sub-17 category: comparison of tactical knowledge between born in different years The aim of this study was to compare the level of procedural tactical knowledge (PTK of young football players of with different years of birth under-17. The sample consisted of 18 U-17 national level male soccer players, of which nine were born in 1998 and nine were born in 1999. The PTK was assessed by TCTP:OE (test of procedural tactical knowledge: sporting orientation. The chi-square test was used to compare the frequencies of tactical actions. Moreover, inter and intra reliability protocols were adopted. The results showed no significant differences on the tactical behavior of football players with different years of birth. It was concluded that there were no significant differences related to the PTK level of young football players of with different years of birth in same category. Further studies are necessary to improve the knowledge about news variables in

  3. Nèg Blanc sa a (Aquela negra branca – desafiando as categorias de cor, nacionalidade e pertença a partir de um olhar afro-brasileiro sobre o Haiti

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    Renata de Melo Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo  Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a centralidade da categoria de pessoa no Haiti contemporâneo, a qual se funda a partir dos sentidos contextuais atribuídos à noção de nèg, (que em tradução livre para o português pode ser entendida como “negro/a” que antecede e funda, ao mesmo tempo, a categoria de pessoa. No entanto, mesmo que a categoria de pessoa no Haiti se ancore em uma nomenclatura “racial”, nèg não é uma categoria necessariamente atrelada à cor da pele, mas à qualidade da pertença de cada sujeito à nação haitiana. Identificar-se e ser identificado como um “nèg” atualiza, no processo identitário e no diálogo inter-subjetivo, diacríticos importantes, cujos sentidos são dados coletiva e contextualmente na rede de significados tecidas no contexto haitiano. Assim, pela natureza contextual e por sua constante dinâmica, é possível que uma “pessoa” que, aos olhos ocidentais, possa se assemelhar com o que nós entendemos como um/a “negro/a” no Brasil, no Haiti esta mesma “pessoa” pode não estar imediatamente identificada como um nèg ou como uma pessoa que  “pertença” ao Haiti. Em outras palavras, é preciso que cada nèg (para continuar sendo nèg e, portanto, “pessoa” atualize, de acordo com os contornos da cultura haitiana que inscrevem um nèg, as diversas obrigações rituais de pertença a esta categoria. Vista desta perspectiva, a categoria nèg pode ser ritualizada por um (a haitiano (a branco (a, desde que os rituais de pertença à nação também sejam atualizados, tornando o sujeito em um (a Nég Blanc (negro branco, expressão que dá título a este artigo. Por último, esta reflexão propõe que a categoria nèg como sinônimo da categoria de pessoa é uma contra narrativa às tentativas de inferiorização racial vigentes no período colonial francês. Palavras chave: nèg; noção de pessoa; Haiti; nação, categorias de cor. Nèg Blanc sa a (Aquella negra

  4. Força e sua exteriorização na lógica da essência de Hegel: uso dessa categoria nas ciências contemporâneas

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    Christian Iber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Eu gostaria de reconstruir a crítica de Hegel à relação entre a força e sua exteriorização em quatro passos: (I Hegel destrincha, primeiramente, a contradição interna da categoria de força na relação com a sua exteriorização, (II em seguida, ele apresenta o tautológico da relação da força e de sua exteriorização. Este ponto eu gostaria de elucidar a partir de um exemplo da psicologia. (III Em terceiro lugar, Hegel explicita que a exteriorização da força não depende de modo algum dessa força, mas sim é condicionada, e precisamente por meio de uma outra força, o que conduz a um progresso infinito de solicitação (isto é, da ativação ou do reavivamento de forças. Por fim (VI, quero apresentar um panorama geral da relação entre o interior e o exterior e da categoria da efetividade.

  5. Sexo e cor: categorias de controle social e reprodução das desigualdades socioeconômicas no brasil Sex and aolor skin: categories of social aontrol and reproduction of economic inequality in brazil

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    Waldemir Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetiva apresentar algumas reflexões sobre os dados contidos no Retrato das Desigualdades de Gênero e Raça, terceira edição, acerca das desigualdades socioeconômicas e da pobreza. Tendo como linha argumentativa a tese de que, como categorias de controle social, sexo e cor configuram marcos reguladores de oportunidades sociais, apresentamos alguns dados sobre a desigualdade entre homens e mulheres e entre negros e brancos que ilustram as iniquidades de poder associadas a essa desigualdade. Ressalta-se que tais categorias são fundamentais para a compreensão da produção e da reprodução das iniquidades de poder que permeiam a sociedade brasileiraThis article presents some reflections on the data contained in the Portrait of Inequalities of Gender and Race - 3rd Edition on socioeconomic inequalities and poverty. Following a line of argument that, as categories of social control, gender and ethnicity shape regulatory frameworks of social opportunities, we present some data on inequality between men and women and between blacks and whites that illustrate the inequities of power associated with them. It is emphasized that these categories are fundamental to understand the production and reproduction of inequities of power that permeate Brazilian society

  6. Os alcances e limites da medicalização do risco para a psicose: a emergência de uma nova categoria? Scope and limits of medicalization of the risk for psychosis: emergence of a new category?

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    Stephan Malta Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo consistiu em discutir a medicalização do risco para a psicose; especificamente, a construção de uma nova categoria diagnóstica que vem sendo realizada pela força-tarefa de elaboração do DSM-5, nomeada "síndrome de risco para a psicose" e, mais recentemente, "síndrome dos sintomas psicóticos atenuados". A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica. Foi realizado um breve relato da genealogia do risco na psiquiatria. Na parte inicial do artigo, procurou-se discutir a medicalização de uma forma mais geral, focando sobre os aspectos do controle social e das tecnologias do self, sob uma ótica foucaultiana. Posteriormente, foi dada ênfase ao processo da medicalização do risco para a psicose; em especial, à construção de uma categoria relacionada a esse risco. Dentre os alcances desse processo, destacou-se a possibilidade de se intervir precocemente na psicose e com isso retardar seu início. Ainda não está claro se a intervenção precoce pode reduzir a gravidade do quadro quando instalado ou mesmo impedir seu aparecimento. Quanto aos limites, mostrou-se o risco de se produzir uma hipermedicalização com a construção da categoria, levando ao uso indiscriminado de medicamentos neurolépticos e aos riscos relacionados a esse uso, bem como à estigmatização dos indivíduos incluídos na categoria. Foi mostrado também o problema do elevado número de indivíduos "falsos positivos", ou seja, indivíduos que serão categorizados e mais tarde não desenvolverão qualquer transtorno psicótico. Procurou-se com o trabalho estabelecer uma crítica consistente à construção da categoria nosológica em questão.This paper aimed to discuss the medicalization of the risk for psychosis, and more specifically, the building of a new diagnostic category which has been carried out by the DSM-5 elaboration Task Force, named psychosis risk syndrome and, more recently, attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome. The

  7. Crescimento de crianças até seis meses de idade, segundo categorias de aleitamento Growth of children up to six months of age and breast feeding practices

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    Giana Zarbato Longo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar a relação das velocidades de incremento diário de peso e de comprimento e de índices antropométricos com categorias de aleitamento em crianças até seis meses de idade. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado em Centros de Saúde de 12 cidades, nas cinco regiões do Brasil, com 3172 crianças. As variáveis estudadas foram: índices antropométricos (peso/idade, comprimento/idade, peso/comprimento, peso ao nascer, peso atual, comprimento ao nascer, comprimento atual, velocidade média de incremento diário de peso e de comprimento; categorias de aleitamento exclusivo, predominante, materno e sem aleitamento. RESULTADOS: verificou-se uma associação positiva na velocidade do ganho de peso e de comprimento e de índices antropométricos nas categorias de aleitamento materno exclusivo e predominante nos primeiros meses de vida, ajustados com os fatores idade, peso e comprimento ao nascer, sexo e escolaridade da mãe. CONCLUSÕES: o tipo de amamentação, principalmente nos primeiros meses, influencia positivamente para um crescimento adequado, juntamente com os fatores nível de escolaridade da mãe no estrato maior que cinco anos e peso de nascimento.OBJECTIVES: to determine daily weight and lenght gain plus anthropometric rates increment with breast feeding regime in children up to six months of age. METHODS: cross-cutting study conducted in the Healthcare Clinics of 12 cities in the five regions of Brazil using a sample of 3172 children. Variables were: anthropometric rates (weight for age, weight for height, height for age, birth weight, birth length, current length, velocity of average daily increment of weight and length; regimes of exclusive and predominant breast feeding and the use of formulas. RESULTS: it was found a positive association of velocity in weight and height gains and of anthropometric rates in children fed in an exclusive and predominant breastfeeding regime in the first months of life, adjusted

  8. Processos de captação de dados: categorias e tendências na pesquisa brasileira em áreas da saúde Data collection processes: categories and tendencies of Brazilian research in health areas

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    Guido Rummler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo caracterizar a pesquisa em áreas da Saúde quanto aos processos utilizados na captação de dados, propondo um sistema de categorias para sua classificação. Para isso foram analisados 1.741 artigos extraídos de fascículos editados entre 2001 e 2003, de 46 periódicos nacionais indexados. O sistema estabelecido define duas vias e seis categorias de processos. A via direta abrange as categorias de processo indagativo (IN, perceptivo (PE, analítico (AN e experimental (EX, e a via indireta abrange os processos apropriativo-transcritivo (AP-T e apropriativo-aplicativo (AP-A. Suas ocorrências em relação ao conjunto das publicações analisadas correspondem, respectivamente, na via direta, a 30,0%, 7,0%, 31,1%, 15,7%; e na via indireta, a 21,8% e 1,1%. Num agrupamento de 922 artigos de Saúde Pública/Coletiva, a ocorrência, por ordem decrescente da freqüência relativa de cada categoria, é: AN, IN, AP-T, EX, PE, AP-A. Noutro, de 369 artigos de Enfermagem, corresponde a: IN, AP-T, PE, AN, EX, AP-A. No de Odontologia, com 220 artigos: EX, AN, AP-T, IN, PE, AP-A; e no de Educação Física, com 134 artigos: AN, IN, EX, AP-T, PE, AP-A. De acordo com essas tendências, o escore de similaridade de cada grupo acima em relação aos demais corresponde a 8 em Saúde Pública/Coletiva, 3 em Enfermagem, 6 em Odontologia e 7 em Educação Física. Este estudo aventa a possibilidade de que o sistema classificatório identificado seja aplicável a pesquisas de outros campos disciplinares como uma forma de caracterizá-las operacionalmente.This paper aims at characterizing research in Health areas in relation to the processes in use for the gathering of data, and it also proposes a system of categories for their classification. For that reason, 1,741 articles have been selected from fascicles edited between 2001 and 2003, of 46 indexed national journals. The classification system forms a matrix that identifies two ways

  9. Crime, sujeito e sujeição criminal: aspectos de uma contribuição analítica sobre a categoria "bandido" Crime, subject and criminal subjection: aspects of a contribution towards bandit category

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    Michel Misse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor toma, neste artigo, o conceito de "sujeição criminal" (Misse, 1999, visando contribuir para uma melhor compreensão de como opera a categoria "bandido" na sociedade brasileira. Nesse sentido, recupera temas contemporâneos da chamada "teoria do sujeito" bem como das abordagens clássicas sobre ator e agência, rótulo e estigma, para melhor definir o conjunto de questões envolvidas em sua contribuição.In this article the author recovers the concept of "criminal subjection" (Misse, 1999, to contribute to a better understanding of how operates the category of "bandido" (bandit in Brazilian society. In this sense, the contemporary themes of the so-called "theory of the subject" are discussed as well as the classical approaches of actor and agency, label and stigma, to better define the range of issues involved in its contribution.

  10. Uma visita a Georg Simmel: o “conflito” como uma categoria crítica de análise conceitual fundamental para os estudos antropológicos de violências no Brasil

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    Micheline Ramos de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2009v43n2p537 Nesse artigo faço um debate acerca de juízos estéticos e reflexivos presentes nas escolhas metodológicas dos antropólogos nos estudos de violências no Brasil, elegendo o “conflito simmeliano” como uma categoria crítica de análise conceitual fundamental no indicativo da necessidade de um constante escrutínio dos valores incrustados em nossos pressupostos teóricos, cujos argumentos parecem, nos estudos antropológicos das violências, por vezes, não escaparem da conhecida ideologia liberal iluminista e normatizadora, constituinte, entre outros, de nosso discurso de política e poder na contemporaneidade.

  11. Análise do perfil de liderança dos treinadores das categorias de base do futebol brasileiro Analysis of the leadership profile of soccer coaches of Brazilian youth teams

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    Israel Teoldo da Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar o perfil de liderança dos treinadores das categorias de base do futebol brasileiro. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se um questionário de identificação da amostra e a Escala de Liderança Revisada para o Esporte (ELRE, versão auto-percepção. Participaram deste estudo 109 treinadores com média de idade de 38,64 anos (± 10,33 e uma média de tempo de envolvimento na função de treinador igual a 7,05 anos (± 6,01. Os treinadores entrevistados advinham de quatro categorias: sub-20 (33 treinadores, sub-17 (28 treinadores, sub-15 (25 treinadores e sub-13 (23 treinadores. A análise estatística foi realizada no SPSS versão 11.0. Os resultados mostraram que os treinadores se auto-percebem como sendo mais autocráticos e voltados para os aspectos de treino-instrução de suas equipes. Constatou-se que não houve diferença entre as percepções dos treinadores que trabalham nas quatro categorias de base coletadas. Em relação à forma de trabalho desses treinadores em suas equipes conclui-se que eles são autocráticos e mostram uma preocupação com a conduta educativa e de instrução, denotando preocupação com a melhoria do desempenho técnico, tático e motivacional das equipes. Conclui-se também, que os profissionais entrevistados mostram perfis de liderança semelhantes independentemente da categoria na qual eles estão trabalhando no momento.This study aimed to identify the factors derived from the real leadership style of soccer coaches. This study used a questionnaire to characterize the sample and the Revised Leadership Scale for Sport, real profile version, as instruments for data collection. One hundred and nine soccer coaches of youth teams participated of this research. They presented an average age of 38.64 years (± 10.33 and a direct involvement with coaching of 7.05 years (± 6.01. The interviewees were coaches of four age groups: under 20's (33 coaches, under 17's (28 coaches

  12. A categoria Luz na Biblioteca Copta de Nag Hammadi (The category "Light" in the Coptic Nag Hammadi library - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p983

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    Maria Aparecida de Andrade Almeida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Em 1945, uma coleção de manuscritos em língua copta foi encontrada por camponeses egípcios, próxima à cidade de Nag Hammadi. Esta coleção, contendo treze códices feitos de papiro e cobertos com couro, recebeu o nome de Biblioteca Copta Nag Hammadi. Uma importante descoberta para a língua copta, para a história da filosofia antiga e para o cristianismo primitivo, pois esta biblioteca abre-nos uma nova janela sobre o período formativo do cristianismo por fornecer tratados de teologia sistemática, obras exegéticas, epístolas, apocalipses, biografias e diários de viagem, relatos apócrifos da paixão de Jesus e códigos morais de várias fontes e inspirações. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a categoria “luz” no Evangelho de Tomé e no Evangelho de Filipe e fazer um paralelo com a categoria “luz” que aparece no Quarto Evangelho. A idéia sobre a categoria "luz" que aparece nesses manuscritos circularam pela comunidade joanina? A comunidade joanina deixou-se influenciar por algumas idéias ou seitas de sua época? Esses textos demonstram a possibilidade de que tais categorias circulavam anteriormente, mesmo os manuscritos tendo sido copiados décadas ou mesmo séculos depois? Palavras-chave: Nag Hammadi. Luz. Judaísmo. Identidade. Quarto Evangelho. Abstract In 1945 some Egyptian farmers discovered a collection of Coptic manuscripts near the city of Nag Hammadi. The collection that consists of thirteen leather-bound papyrus codices received the name Nag Hammadi Library. It was an important discovery regarding the Coptic language as well as the history of ancient philosophy and early Christendom, because this library gives new insights about the period when Christianity produced a huge variety of scriptures. The content of the Nag Hammadi Library ranges from systematic-theological treatises, exegesis, letters, apocalypses, biographies and travel diaries to apocryphic accounts of the Passion of Jesus and moral codices from

  13. A provocação poética dos elementos materiais: novas categorias de análise na abordagem sócio-poética

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    Cláudia Tavares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Gauthier, Santos (1996 descrevem a sócio-poética como uma abordagem no conhecimento do ser humano e da sociedade, um caminho para a produção do conhecimento, que por meio de práticas diferenciadas de pesquisa e do educar mutual transforma poeticamente o saber para melhor conhecer. Os idealizadores da sócio-poética utilizam os lugares sócio-míticos, como categorias de produção e análise dos dados. Mas estimulam aqueles que trabalham com esta abordagem, a criarem novas técnicas e vivências, que facilitem a produção de dados no grupo pesquisador. Atendendo a este desafio e inspiradas no conceito de Imaginação Material de Gaston Bachelard, na Técnica da Imaginação Ativa de C.G.Jung e nos experimentos de crescimento da gestalt-terapia de John Stevens, criamos novas técnicas e categorias de estudo na abordagem sócio-poética denominando-as de Técnica dos Elementos Materiais. Como os primeiros filósofos gregos, acreditamos que muito das imagens que produzimos provêm da provocação dos 4 elementos materiais (água, terra, fogo e ar. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida com diferentes grupos de enfermeiras, professoras de enfermagem, pós-graduandas em enfermagem e equipe de enfermagem de um hospital psiquiátrico. Evidenciou-se que a Técnica dos Elementos Materiais favorece a expressão de conteúdos inconscientes ou silenciados que interferem no cuidado de enfermagem, possibilitando à enfermeira explorar criativamente a si mesma, para inovar sua prática profissional.

  14. Apixaban in Comparison With Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Valvular Heart Disease: Findings From the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avezum, Alvaro; Lopes, Renato D; Schulte, Phillip J; Lanas, Fernando; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Pais, Prem; Erol, Cetin; Diaz, Rafael; Bahit, M Cecilia; Bartunek, Jozef; De Caterina, Raffaele; Goto, Shinya; Ruzyllo, Witold; Zhu, Jun; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H

    2015-08-25

    Apixaban is approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. However, the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial included a substantial number of patients with valvular heart disease and only excluded patients with clinically significant mitral stenosis or mechanical prosthetic heart valves. We compared the effect of apixaban and warfarin on rates of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and death in patients with and without moderate or severe valvular heart disease using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Of the 18 201 patients enrolled in ARISTOTLE, 4808 (26.4%) had a history of moderate or severe valvular heart disease or previous valve surgery. Patients with valvular heart disease had higher rates of stroke or systemic embolism and bleeding than patients without valvular heart disease. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin in patients with and without valvular heart disease in reducing stroke and systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.97 and HR, 0.84; 95%, CI 0.67-1.04; interaction P=0.38), causing less major bleeding (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.04 and HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.77; interaction P=0.23), and reducing mortality (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.84-1.22 and HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; interaction P=0.10). More than a quarter of the patients in ARISTOTLE with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation had moderate or severe valvular heart disease. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin in reducing stroke or systemic embolism, causing less bleeding, and reducing death in patients with and without valvular heart disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Stratification of complexity in congenital heart surgery: comparative study of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) method, Aristotle basic score and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio- Thoracic Surgery (STS-EACTS) mortality score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo Ernando Ferraz; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; dos Santos, Cecília Andrade; Esmeraldo, Isaac Melo; Chaves, Mariana Leal; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether stratification of complexity models in congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1, Aristotle basic score and STS-EACTS mortality score) fit to our center and determine the best method of discriminating hospital mortality. Methods Surgical procedures in congenital heart diseases in patients under 18 years of age were allocated to the categories proposed by the stratification of complexity methods currently available. The outcome hospital mortality was calculated for each category from the three models. Statistical analysis was performed to verify whether the categories presented different mortalities. The discriminatory ability of the models was determined by calculating the area under the ROC curve and a comparison between the curves of the three models was performed. Results 360 patients were allocated according to the three methods. There was a statistically significant difference between the mortality categories: RACHS-1 (1) - 1.3%, (2) - 11.4%, (3)-27.3%, (4) - 50 %, (P<0.001); Aristotle basic score (1) - 1.1%, (2) - 12.2%, (3) - 34%, (4) - 64.7%, (P<0.001); and STS-EACTS mortality score (1) - 5.5 %, (2) - 13.6%, (3) - 18.7%, (4) - 35.8%, (P<0.001). The three models had similar accuracy by calculating the area under the ROC curve: RACHS-1- 0.738; STS-EACTS-0.739; Aristotle- 0.766. Conclusion The three models of stratification of complexity currently available in the literature are useful with different mortalities between the proposed categories with similar discriminatory capacity for hospital mortality. PMID:26107445

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Apixaban Versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and a History of Cancer: Insights from the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Chiara; Dunning, Allison; Granger, Christopher B; Thomas, Laine; Khouri, Michel G; Garcia, David A; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Gersh, Bernard J; Douglas, Pamela S; Alexander, John H; Lopes, Renato D

    2017-12-01

    Cancer is associated with a prothrombotic state and increases the risk of thrombotic events in patients with atrial fibrillation. We described the clinical characteristics and outcomes and assessed the safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and cancer in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial. The association between cancer and clinical outcomes was assessed using Cox regression models. At baseline, 1236 patients (6.8%) had a history of cancer; 12.7% had active cancer, and 87.3% had remote cancer. There were no significant associations between history of cancer and stroke/systemic embolism, major bleeding, or death. The effect of apixaban versus warfarin for the prevention of stroke/systemic embolism was consistent among patients with a history of cancer (event/100 patient-years = 1.4 vs 1.2; hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-2.26) and no cancer (1.3 vs 1.6; HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93) (P interaction = .37). The safety and efficacy of apixaban versus warfarin were preserved among patients with and without active cancer. Apixaban was associated with a greater benefit for the composite of stroke/systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, and death in active cancer (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.83) versus without cancer (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95), but not in remote cancer (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.01-2.10) (interaction P = .0028). Cancer was not associated with a higher risk of stroke. The superior efficacy and safety of apixaban versus warfarin were consistent in patients with and without cancer. Our positive findings regarding apixaban use in patients with atrial fibrillation and cancer are exploratory and promising, but warrant further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Core biopsy no diagnóstico das lesões mamárias impalpáveis na categoria mamográfica BI-RADS® 5 Core biopsy in nonpalpable BI-RADS® 5 breast lesions

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    Álvaro Ferreira Lima Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Determinar a associação entre alterações mamográficas classificadas na categoria BI-RADS® 5 (lesões altamente suspeitas de malignidade e diagnóstico histopatológico em material obtido por core biopsy estereotáxica e estabelecer o valor preditivo positivo dessa categoria mamográfica para o diagnóstico de câncer. MÉTODOS: Por meio de estudo retrospectivo, transversal, analítico, de comparação entre métodos diagnósticos, foram analisadas 70 core biopsies de lesões mamárias impalpáveis, classificadas como BI-RADS® 5, de 70 pacientes, atendidas em serviços privados de Anatomia Patológica e Radiologia em Recife, Brasil, entre 2001 e 2006. RESULTADOS: Foram mais acometidos: sexo feminino (97,1%, mama esquerda (60% e quadrante superior externo (62,9%. Os nódulos irregulares espiculados constituíram 70% da amostra e as microcalcificações estavam presentes em 44,3%. O número médio de fragmentos obtidos foi 6 ± 2. Os diagnósticos histopatológicos foram: carcinoma (59 casos; 84,3%; lesões benignas (sete casos; 10% e hiperplasia ductal atípica ou lesão suspeita de malignidade (quatro casos; 5,7%. Os nódulos irregulares espiculados corresponderam significantemente a carcinoma invasivo (p = 0,005. O carcinoma ductal in situ (CDIS padrão comedônico puro associou-se mais frequentemente às microcalcificações na histologia. Os valores preditivos positivos foram: 84,3% para a categoria mamográfica BI-RADS® 5 como um todo; 100% para nódulo irregular espiculado com microcalcificações; 87,8% para nódulo irregular espiculado com ou sem microcalcificações; 84,2% para nódulo irregular espiculado sem microcalcificações; e 75% para microcalcificações sem nódulos. CONCLUSÃO: Lesões mamárias impalpáveis da categoria mamográfica BI-RADS® 5 são de alto valor preditivo para carcinoma, particularmente os nódulos irregulares espiculados com microcalcificações.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES

  18. O nervosismo como categoria nosográfica no começo do século XX Nervousness as a nosographic category in the early twentieth century

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    Luiz Fernando Duarte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta o quadro conceitual que cerca a categoria nervosismo na psiquiatria brasileira do começo do século XX, tal como evidenciado em artigo de Henrique Roxo publicado nos Arquivos Brasileiros de Psiquiatria, Neurologia e Medicina Legal em 1916, e enseja sua contextualização na história das classificações psiquiátricas e das representações sobre os nervos e o sistema nervoso. Com isso, pretende contribuir para o mapeamento do naturalismo fisicalista (ou epifenomenismo, como tendência constante das representações sobre a pessoa e suas perturbações na cultura ocidental moderna.The paper presents the conceptual framework surrounding the category of nervousness in Brazilian psychiatry in the early twentieth century as represented in an article by Henrique Roxo published in Arquivos Brasileiros de Psiquiatria, Neurologia e Medicina Legal in 1916, and contextualizes it in the history of psychiatric classifications and representations about nerves and the nervous system. As such, it intends to contribute towards mapping out physicalistic naturalism (or epiphenomenalism, which can be seen throughout the representations of the human person and their disturbances in modern western culture.

  19. Processing yield of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: head cut types and two weight classes Rendimento do processamento da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus: tipos de corte da cabeça em duas categorias de peso

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    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the best type of head cut of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus resulting in better fillet processing yields. The experiment was carried out at the Pisciculture Station of UEM/Codapar, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. One hundred and twenty specimens were slaughtered, head cut, eviscerated, and had their fin, skin and fillet removed. The fillet processing was undertaken by a single person. Plotting was completely randomized by a 2x3 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of two weight categories ( W1=250-400g and W2=401-550g and three types of head cut (C1=oblique, OB; C2=Contour, CO, and C3=strainght, ST, with 20 replicates. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Mean values of yield were expressed in relation to fish body weight. There was an influence of head cut types and weight categories on the dressed out and fillet yield. The yields in W2 (OB=50.42%, 35.27%; CO=50.70%, 35.18% and ST=48.50%, 33.82% were higher (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o melhor tipo de corte de cabeça para decapitação da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, que resulte em melhores rendimentos de filetagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação de Piscicultura da UEM/Codapar, Maringá, PR. Foram abatidos 120 exemplares cortadas as cabeças, eviscerados, removidas as nadadeiras, pele e filés. O processo de filetagem foi realizado por uma única pessoa. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3. Os tratamentos foram: duas categorias de peso (P1= 250-400 g e P2= 401-550 g e três tipos de corte de cabeça (C1=oblíquo, OB; C2=contornado, CO e C3=reto, RE, com 20 repetições. Cada peixe foi considerado a unidade experimental. Os valores médios de rendimento foram expressos em relação ao peso corporal do peixe. Houve influência do tipo de corte e categoria de peso sobre o rendimento do tronco limpo e filé. Os rendimentos em P2 (OB=50,42%, 35,27%; CO=50,70%, 35,18% e RE=48

  20. LA INSTITUCION: UNA CATEGORIA A RECONSTRUIR

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    Gloria Alvarado Forero

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de las teorías del Sujeto modificó, de manera sensible, las estrategias de construcción del concepto de Institución y por tanto impuso la necesidad de reconsiderar a uno de los pilares en los cuales se fundamenta el saber de las Ciencias Sociales. Tales teorías, articuladas de manera indisoluble con los problemas del orden simbólico y por tanto con el problema del sentido, no han conducido sinembargo, a viabilizar satisfactoriamente un concepto dinámico de la institución como acción en y por la creación, manteniendo por el contrario afianzada su condición de entidad y estado de cosas. Una aproximación a la lógica del sentido, muestra por el contrario interesantes posibilidades, a la luz de las cuales ciertos debates sobre lo instituído y lo instituyente como momentos de la institución se revelan irrelevantes.

  1. Orthopedic injuries in a formation of a soccer club Lesões Ortopédicas nas Categorias de Formação de um Clube de Futebol

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    Daniel Augusto de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Football is one of the most popular sports in the world with approximately 400 million practitioners. All physical activity generates an overload somewhere in the locomotor system, above all, in young athletes. OBJECTIVE: To conduct the epidemiological survey of orthopedic injuries in a medical department of the categories of junior soccer a football club in Curitiba. METHODS: Epidemiological survey of injuries in 310 different athletes during the 2009 and 2010 seasons. RESULTS: The number of recorded visits was 3.64 per athlete orthopedic complaints in two years. Furthermore, we find 2.88 injuries / 1,000 hours of play, and the junior (under 20 and under 18 with the highest rate (3.05. The most frequent injury was contusion (32.15%, lower limbs, especially the thigh (3.94%. The higher incidence of injuries occurred in the Middle - campers (30.65%, being the training responsible for 88.31% of the complaints. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological survey of medical care is a medical department is an important tool for analysis of the main complaints, as well as the primary means of prevention and maintaining the health of athletes. INTRODUÇÃO: O futebol é uma das modalidades esportivas mais populares do mundo, com aproximadamente 400 milhões de praticantes. Toda atividade física gera uma sobrecarga em algum ponto do aparelho locomotor, sobretudo em atletas jovens. OBJETIVO: fazer o levantamento epidemiológico das lesões ortopédicas de um departamento médico das categorias de formação de um clube de futebol de Curitiba. MÉTODOS: Levantamento epidemiológico das lesões em 310 atletas durante as temporadas 2009 e 2010. RESULTADOS: O número de registros de atendimentos por atleta foi de 3,64 queixas ortopédicas em dois anos. Além disso, encontramos 2,88 lesões/1.000 h de jogo, sendo a categoria júnior (sub 20 e sub 18 com a maior taxa (3,05. A lesão mais frequente foi a contusão (32,15% em membros inferiores, principalmente

  2. Tempo médio de hospitalização e categorias diagnósticas em hospital psiquiátrico Mean hospitalization time and diagnostic categories in a psychiatric hospital

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    José Carlos Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o tempo médio de hospitalização (TMH e os diagnósticos dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Fez-se um levantamento documental dos registros de 2.247 prontuários de pacientes internados de janeiro a dezembro de 2004 em um hospital psiquiátrico. Foram investigados TMH, idade, sexo, procedência e grupos diagnósticos. Usaram-se medidas de tendência central e de dispersão, testes t de Student, de Kruskal-Wallis ou análise da variância, qui-quadrado e de Pearson. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Eram procedentes de Campo Grande (MS 59,8% dos pacientes, 65,5% eram do sexo masculino (p = 0,000 e 43,3% apresentavam diagnóstico de esquizofrenia; não houve diferença significativa na idade entre os dois sexos (p = 0,080. O TMH foi de 27,66 dias por paciente. Houve diferença significativa do TMH em função das características diagnósticas (p = 0,001 entre os três grupos de procedência (p = 0,045, ficando as cidades a mais de 200 km de Campo Grande com média maior de dias de hospitalização (29,1 dias. Também foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas na distribuição das categorias diagnósticas em função do número de hospitalizações (p = 0,000, na distribuição das principais categorias diagnósticas (p = 0,000 e também nas distribuições em relação à procedência (p = 0,000. CONCLUSÃO: O TMH está dentro da média recomendada pelo Ministério da Saúde brasileiro.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate mean hospitalization time (MHT and patient diagnosis. METHODS: Records of 2,247 patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital from January to December 2004 were reviewed to retrieve MHT, age, sex, origin and diagnostic categories. Measures of central tendency and dispersion, Student's t, Kruskal-Wallis or analysis of variance, chi-square and Pearson tests were used for statistical analyses at a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Of all patients, 59.8% were from Campo Grande (MS

  3. Da possibilidade de um direito injusto em face do querer como categoria fundante e ontológica do ser / The possibility of an unjust law in face to willing as a foundational and ontological category of being

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    Hisashi Toyoda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo trata da questão do Direito injusto. Volta-se para as fontes clássicas do pensamento, adentrando na cosmovisão juspositivista, tendo como expoente Kelsen. É retomada, também, a questão da justiça e do justo sob o ponto de vista da filosofia contemporânea em sua proposta de resgate da virtude como categoria fundante do Direito e a efetividade da justiça como experiência vivida e não apenas posta como ideal. A pesquisa, em um processo não-linear de pensamento, pelo qual os diferentes pensadores e suas idéias se contrapõem, definiu uma forma de melhor compreender posições contraditórias, realçando a força e contrariedade dos seus argumentos. Este trabalho demonstra a importância do resgate das propostas clássicas de um Direito. Reconhece a intrínseca relação deste com a justiça, enquanto valor máximo, e a necessidade de transpor os limites do rigorismo objetivo e científico. Mostra que esse é o caminho para se apreender o sentido e significado do viver pessoal e coletivo, a partir das cosmovisões que reforçam o caráter pragmático do querer como categoria essencial, construída como prática que conduz à virtude. A partir dela, como ato e produto humano e social, como expressão do querer, a justiça deixa de ser ideal posto, para se tornar parte indissociável do Direito e superação da norma injusta. Palavras-chave: Direito injusto. Querer. Justiça. Abstract This article addresses the issue of unjust law. It turns to the classical sources of thought, stares out into the worldview positive law doctrine, with the exponent Kelsen, and enters the resumption of the issue of justice and fair from the point of view of contemporary philosophy in his proposed bailout of virtue as a basic category of effectiveness of law and justice as a lived experience and not just put up as ideal. The research, in a non-linear process of thought, by which different thinkers and their ideas are opposed, has defined a

  4. Urbanização Turística: esboço para a definição de uma categoria do espaço social

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    Pedro de Alcântara Bittencourt César

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo

    O presente trabalho busca, através da análise dos aspectos espaciais, apresentar um aporte metodológico para a reflexão sobre a prática da atividade turística. Para fundamentá-la, embasa-se no estudo da teoria social. Assim, remete-se ao processo de urbanização, como categoria de análise, observando seus valores expressos na malha urbana de Caxias do Sul. Aprecia-se como os equipamentos urbanos do cotidiano sobressaem, com características tipicamente definidas, para a prática da visitação turística. Através das estruturas de hospitalidade, inicia-se uma reflexão dialética dos contrastes na definição do espaço turístico da cidade. Condição esta que, deslocando as categorias tradicionais de pesquisa, referencia uma forma de abordagem do espaço social produzido para a visitação turística.

    Palavras-chave: planejamento turístico; urbanização turística; análise social do espaço turístico; urbano; planejamento. AbstractThis study aims at providing a methodological approach to research in tourism, through an analysis of spatial features. In order to base it, social theory is studied. Therefore, this article refers to the process of urbanization, as a category of analysis, examining its values, expressed by the urban fabric of Caxias do Sul. It addresses how the urban facilities for daily life stand out, with their typically defined features, regarding tourist

  5. O sistema posição-prática como categoria epistemológica: contribuições para análise de discurso crítica

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    Elaine MATEUS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos críticos do discurso têm se consolidado como instrumento importante no campo da crítica explanatória de práticas sociais. Este artigo propõe uma reflexão epistemológica em torno do diálogo transdisciplinar entre o Realismo Crítico – abordagem filosófica do funcionamento da sociedade proposta por Roy Bhaskar – e a Análise de Discurso Crítica na versão de Norman Fairclough – abordagem teórica do funcionamento social da linguagem e dispositivo metodológico para análise situada de textos, e, mais especificamente, aborda a relação entre estrutura, prática e ação social, tomando o sistema posição-prática como argumento epistemológico. A discussão teórica decorre de dois estudos situados: um que trata de posições híbridas e tensões entre posições objetivas previamente existentes e sua ocupação subjetiva no contexto de um movimento social; outro que trata de posições flutuantes em contexto de formação de professores/as de inglês, conforme texturizadas em subprojetos institucionais. O texto explora implicações da categoria sistema posição-prática no campo teórico, epistemológico e metodológico, e reitera o enquadre teórico de agência situada.

  6. Uma investigação sobre o perfil da categoria comerciária varejista: reflexões sobre o processo de gestão de pessoas

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    Christiane Fabíola Momm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta uma investigação sobre o perfil da categoria comerciária varejista de Blumenau (SC. Para tanto, utilizou-se como método a pesquisa exploratória e aplicada, no qual a técnica de coleta de dados foi o levantamento por meio de questionário aplicado a uma amostra de 470 respondentes. Os resultados acerca do perfil dos gestores demonstraram que a maior parte (70% deles é filiada ao Sindicato do Comércio Varejista de Blumenau (Sindilojas.Conforme opinião dos gestores, a carência de mão de obra qualificada é a principal limitação no que diz respeito à contratação de pessoas. Quanto ao perfil dos colaboradores, 89% são provenientes da região sul do Brasil e 47% não possuem cursos de qualificação na área de atuação. Na opinião dos colaboradores, 27% das empresas nas quais atuam não fornecem nenhum tipo de convênio médico, odontológico e educacional. Foi possível concluir a existência de uma insatisfação por parte dos gestores no que concerne à qualificação do profissional que atua no comércio varejista local e que grande parte desses colaboradores não se sente motivada e amparada pelas empresas. Assim sendo, o Senac poderá atuar como mediador na integração entre gestores e colaboradores.

  7. Man and «polis»; the gordian knot of education in Aristotle Hombre y «polis»: el nudo gordiano de la educación en Aristóteles

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    Concepción NAVAL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is better seen as a help in order to grow in freedom and dignity, inside a society. Aristotle helps us to better understand this question. He gives us suggestive insights of the concepts of man, and education, very much related to the polis. The social dimesion of education is always present in the Greek tradition, but in Aristotle there is also a genuine knowledge of the individual. There is no educative problem separeted to the social and political roots.La educación se puede ver como una ayuda para crecer en libertad y dignidad. Será educativo aquello que favorezca la perfección de la persona; y por eso, cuando se habla de la educación como un factor de reproducción social, se intentará referir unos factores externos a la propia persona, y determinarlos según la armonía personal. Esta cuestión de plena actualidad tienen un planteamiento sugerente en Aristóteles quien nos ofrece una visión del hombre y de la educación, en estrecha relación con la polis, que son de interés. El carácter social de la educación está siempre presente en la tradición y pensamiento griego, puesto que el hombre es un animal político. Sin embargo, también está vivo en este autor el conocimiento del valor individual. No existía un problema educativo separado del aspecto político y moral.

  8. Evaluation of three different categories of beef cattle finished in feedlot Avaliação de três diferentes categorias de bovinos de corte terminados em regime de confinamento

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    Eduardo Tonet Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The current work had the objective to evaluate the economic-biological performance of three different categories of beef cattle finished in a feedlot system. The study was based on data from 625 animals collected during the year of 2004. One group had 143 younger steers (YS, the other one 241 young steers (S and the last one 241 cull cows (CC. The average weight at beginning of the feedlot (IW was 262.0 for the YS group, 257.57 for the S group and 418.30 for the CC group, staying confined on average (ATP, for 89.0; 115.2; and 52.1 days, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG, obtained at the end of the experiment was 1.146 kg (YS, 1.075 kg (S and 1.032 kg (CC, reporting a final average weight of 364.03; 399.53 and 472.15 kg, respectively for the three categories. The feed conversion (FC calculated was 7.8 (YS, 8.5 (S and 10.7 kg DM ingested/kg gain weight (CC. Data from: Purchase value/animal; Feed cost/animal; Production cost/produced kg; Total cost/sold kg; Total cost/animal; Sell value/kg; Total sell value/animal; Gross margin/animal; Profit on the period; Profit/month; Difference purchase/sell value. The younger steers obtained higher ADG and lower FC among the analyzed categories, following byyoung steers and cull cows. The profit was 17.46% YS, 24.57% (S and 19.47% (CC. The profit/month was 5.82% for the YS group, 6.39% for the S group and 9.05% for CC the group. The results showed a higher biological efficiency for the YS group. The S group showed a higher profit on the period and the CC reached higher profit/month, obtaining higher economic return.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho bio-econômico de três diferentes categorias de bovinos de corte submetidas ao regime de confinamento. Durante o ano de 2004, foram coletados dados de 625 animais, sendo 143 novilhos superprecoces (NSP, 241 novilhos precoces (NP, e 241 vacas de descarte (VD. O peso médio ao início do confinamento (PI, foi de 262,0 kg para NSP, de 275,6 kg

  9. Empregabilidade e Sociedade Disciplinar: uma análise do discurso do trabalho contemporâneo à luz de categorias foucaultianas [Employability and Society: an analysis of the discourse of contemporary work in light of Foucault’s catagories

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    Vinicius de Carvalho Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO debate contemporâneo acerca das condições de incorporação dos profissionais ao mercado de trabalho vem sendo pautado por uma nova forma de conceber as atitudes dos indivíduos com relação ao trabalho, a qual tem no termo empregabilidade sua melhor tradução. Apesar de orientar as discussões atuais sobre as condições de inserção dos trabalhadores no mercado de trabalho, o termo empregabilidade é controverso e impreciso quanto ao seu sentido, sendo valorizado de forma desigual pelos participantes do debate acerca das disposições comportamentais que são exigidas aos trabalhadores, vis-à-vis as transformações no mundo da produção. Esse caráter controverso e inacabado do discurso acerca da empregabilidade motivou a elaboração deste trabalho, que tem como objetivo central analisar, criticamente, o referido discurso. A análise apresentada baseou-se em conceitos apresentados por Foucault em alguns de seus textos clássicos, sobretudo em Vigiar e Punir, conduzindo os autores a uma reflexão crítica que aborda as dimensões subjacentes à categoria empregabilidade menos como garantidoras de autonomia individual e mais como perpetuadoras da submissão dos trabalhadores à dinâmica do sistema produtivo. ---- Employability and Society: an analysis of the discourse of contemporary work in light of Foucault’s catagories ---- Abstract ---- The contemporary debate about the incorporation of the professionals in the labor market is being based on a new way of seeing the attitudes of individuals in relation to work, that of employability. Although present discussions about the conditions of workers entering the labor market are based in this construct, employability is a controversial and unclear term, and it used in varying ways by the participants in the debate about the behaviors that are required of workers vis-à-vis the changing labor market. This controversial and unfi nished discourse about the employability is the

  10. Análise da adequação das propagandas de medicamentos dirigidas à categoria médica distribuídas no Sul do Brasil Adequacy of drug advertisements distributed to prescribers in Southern Brazil

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    Felipe Dal Pizzol

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise da qualidade da publicidade dirigida à categoria médica foi feita com base na coleta de materiais publicitários distribuídos em consultórios médicos e hospitais no Sul do Brasil. Foram coletadas 127 peças publicitárias, nas quais se observou o cumprimento ou não das leis que regulamentam a propaganda de medicamentos no Brasil e os argumentos mais prevalentes de cada propaganda. A Denominação Comum Brasileira aparece em 121 propagandas (95%, sempre em segundo plano, com tamanho de letras menor. Nenhuma das peças publicitárias analisadas cumpre na íntegra as exigências da legislação. Considerando os Critérios Éticos para Promoção de Medicamentos da OMS, apenas 59% apresentam a composição do produto, e 43% apresentam precauções; em 73%, o tamanho das letras e o espaçamento entre frases é pequeno, dificultando sua leitura. Apenas 73% das propagandas apresentam a posologia. Os argumentos mais utilizados nesta amostra são: eficácia, segurança, comodidade posológica, rapidez de ação, alta tolerabilidade. A inobservância da legislação em vigor, a ausência de precauções e excesso de argumentos, levam à conclusão de que há a necessidade de instrumentos efetivos de controle visando a uma melhor qualidade nas informações distribuídas aos prescritores.Drug advertisements for prescription drugs gathered from private clinics and hospitals in southern Brazil were analyzed. None of the 127 advertisement inserts that were analyzed complied with all the criteria specified by Brazilian legislation. The official Brazilian generic drug name was present in 95% of the advertisements, but always in finer and/or fainter print. With regard to the "WHO ethical criteria for medicinal drug promotion" the study showed that only 59% of the advertisement inserts declared the product composition and only 43% provided information on precautions, and in most of these cases (73%, the precautions were in fine print and

  11. Angioplastia infra-inguinal em pacientes com isquemia crítica grau III, categoria 5 de Rutherford Infra-inguinal angioplasty in patients with critical limb ischemia Rutherford grade III, category 5

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    Abdo Farret Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a eficiência da angioplastia primária infra-inguinal como método de salvamento de membros em pacientes portadores de lesões tróficas por isquemia crítica. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 36 pacientes submetidos a angioplastias primárias sem stent. Todos os pacientes apresentavam isquemia crítica com lesão trófica - grau III, categoria 5 de Rutherford -, sendo 17 lesões na artéria femoral superficial, 16 na artéria poplítea e 51 em artérias da perna, totalizando 84 angioplastias. Foram analisadas também as prevalências em relação a sexo, membro afetado, idade e principais comorbidades, sendo tecidas considerações técnicas sobre os procedimentos, assim como os materiais utilizados. RESULTADOS: Considerou-se sucesso quando a lesão trófica que motivou a angioplastia cicatrizou, ou o nível de amputação limitou-se a artelhos ou ao antepé, sem ter havido necessidade de procedimento cirúrgico de reconstituição do fluxo sanguíneo (bypass, independentemente de tempo, drogas associadas e números de desbridamentos realizados. CONCLUSÃO: As angioplastias no segmento femoropoplíteo e infrapoplíteo são procedimentos de elevado sucesso técnico, baixa morbidade e mortalidade, constituindo-se procedimento eficaz em pacientes com isquemia crítica de membro inferior.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of infra-inguinal, primary angioplasty as a method of limb salvage in patients with trophic lesions secondary to critical ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients submitted to primary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty without stenting were evaluated. All of them presented critical limb ischemia with trophic lesion (Rutherford grade III, category 5. Eighty-four angioplasties were performed for 17 lesions in superficial femoral artery, 16 lesions in popliteal artery, and 51 lesions in below-knee arteries. Additionally, prevalence in relation to sex, age, limb involved and main comorbidities

  12. Comer, alimentar e nutrir: categorias analíticas instrumentais no campo da pesquisa científica Eating, nourishment and nutrition: instrumental analytic categories in the scientific research field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia da Veiga Soares Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comer, alimentar ou nutrir circulam na nossa cultura, aproximadamente, como sinônimos e desse modo não dão conta das transformações que vêm ocorrendo na alimentação, que desejadas ou indesejadas contam com um hibridismo de padrões que representa uma mudança tanto de regras como de preferências alimentares. O objetivo do artigo é tornar essas concepções de senso comum categorias de análise e interpretação para pesquisas das Ciências Humanas e da Saúde, numa perspectiva teórica, através da conceituação. Neste espaço interdisciplinar da Nutrição e das Ciências Sociais, o alimento aparece associado a uma função natural (biológica, numa concepção em que natureza se contrapõe à cultura, e a comida assume sentidos e significados culturais (simbólicos. A alimentação expressa divisão do trabalho, da riqueza, é criação histórico-cultural através da qual se pode estudar uma sociedade. Atribui-se à Nutrição um sentido de ação racional, oriundo da constituição dessa ciência na modernidade, inserida num processo histórico de racionalização científica do comer e do alimentar-se. Consideramos que através da conceituação na prática interdisciplinar de pesquisa, que envolve um espaço compartilhado de saberes, podemos ser menos limitados por um modelo teórico uniformizado de saber e mais livres para pensar questões sobre a vida.Eating, nourishment or nutrition circulate in our culture as synonyms and thus do not account for the changes that occur in nourishment, which intended or unintended, have a hybridization pattern that represents a change of rules and food preferences. This paper aims to take these common sense conceptions as analytic categories for analyzing and interpreting research for the Humanities and Health Sciences in a theoretical perspective, through conceptualization. The food is associated with a natural function (biological, a concept in which nature is opposed to culture, and

  13. Dyslipidemia and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Treated With Oral Anticoagulation Therapy: Insights From the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Tymon; Held, Claes; Westerbergh, Johan; Lindbäck, Johan; Alexander, John H; Alings, Marco; Erol, Cetin; Goto, Shinya; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Huber, Kurt; Hanna, Michael; Lopes, Renato D; Ruzyllo, Witold; Granger, Christopher B; Hijazi, Ziad

    2018-02-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events. The prognostic importance of lipoproteins in patients with atrial fibrillation is not well understood. We aimed to explore the association between apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB) and cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation. Using data from the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, ApoA1 and ApoB plasma levels were measured at baseline in 14 884 atrial fibrillation patients. Median length of follow-up was 1.9 years. Relationships between continuous levels of ApoA1 and ApoB and clinical outcomes were evaluated using Cox models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, medication including statins, and cardiovascular biomarkers. A composite ischemic outcome (ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) was used as the primary end point. Median (25th, 75th) ApoA1 and ApoB levels were 1.10 (0.93, 1.30) and 0.70 g/L (0.55, 0.85), respectively. In adjusted analyses, higher levels of ApoA1 were independently associated with a lower risk of the composite ischemic outcome (hazard ratio, 0.81; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2018 The Authors and Bristol‐Myers Squibb. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System - BI-RADS®: valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5. revisão sistemática da literatura Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System - BI-RADS®: positive predictive value of categories 3, 4 and 5. A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Procaci Kestelman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar artigos, na literatura, que verificam o valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5 do Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS®. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizada pesquisa na base de dados Medline utilizando os termos "predictive value" e "BI-RADS". Foram incluídos 11 artigos nesta revisão. RESULTADOS: O valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5 variou entre 0% e 8%, 4% e 62%, 54% e 100%, respectivamente. Três artigos avaliaram, concomitantemente, os critérios morfológicos das lesões que apresentaram maior valor preditivo positivo na mamografia, sendo nódulo espiculado o critério com maior valor preditivo positivo. CONCLUSÃO: Houve grande variabilidade do valor preditivo positivo das categorias 3, 4 e 5 do BI-RADS® em todos os estudos, porém foram identificadas diferenças metodológicas que limitaram a comparação desses estudos.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about the positive predictive value of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS® categories 3, 4 and 5. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A research was performed in the online Medline database, entering the terms "predictive value" and "BI-RADS". Eleven studies were included in this review. RESULTS: The positive predictive values ranged respectively between 0% and 8%, 4% and 62%, and 54% and 100% for BI-RADS® categories 3, 4 and 5. Three studies have also evaluated morphological criteria with higher positive predictive value in mammography, mass with spiculated margins being the finding with highest positive predictive value for malignancy. CONCLUSION: A high variability was found in the reviewed literature among positive predictive values of BI-RADS® categories 3, 4 and 5, although methodological differences have been identified, limiting the comparative analysis.

  15. Identificação das categorias de participação da CIF em instrumentos de qualidade de vida utilizados em indivíduos acometidos pelo acidente vascular encefálico Identification of ICF participation categories in quality-of-life instruments utilized in cerebrovascular accident victims

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    Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar categorias do componente de participação da Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (CIF que já foram sistematicamente relacionadas aos instrumentos de Qualidade de Vida Relacionada à Saúde (QVRS comumente utilizados em indivíduos acometidos pelo acidente vascular encefálico (AVE - Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 e Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL - e sugerir a utilização dos mesmos para avaliar e/ou caracterizar tal componente nessa população. MÉTODOS: Por meio de busca nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO e Lilacs, foi realizado levantamento dos estudos que associavam os conceitos mensurados pelos itens do NHP, SF-36 e SS-QOL com os componentes e categorias da CIF. RESULTADOS: Dos 24 estudos identificados, quatro atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos: dois avaliaram os três instrumentos de QVRS, um avaliou o NHP e SF-36, e outro apenas o SS-QOL. Para cada instrumento, foram encontrados três estudos que associaram seus conceitos até, no mínimo, o segundo nível de hierarquia das categorias da CIF. Considerando os resultados concordantes entre os três estudos que avaliaram o mesmo instrumento, nove categorias de participação foram associadas ao NHP, sete ao SF-36 e 15 ao SS-QOL, sendo que apenas uma foi específica para o NHP, uma para o SF-36, e sete para o SS-QOL. CONCLUSÕES: Para a avaliação da participação de indivíduos acometidos pelo AVE segundo a estrutura da CIF, o SS-QOL pareceu ser o instrumento mais adequado, pois, além de avaliar o maior número de categorias, também avalia o maior número de categorias distintas quando comparado aos outros dois instrumentos de QVRS, que acrescentam apenas uma categoria àquelas mensuradas pelo SS-QOL.OBJECTIVE: To identify the categories of the participation component of the International Classification of Functionality, Incapacity, and Health (ICF which are currently related to

  16. Desenvolvimento dos sistemas de vigilância epidemiológica da varíola e da poliomelite: a transformação de conceitos em categorias operacionais The development of epidemiological surveillance systems for smallpox and poliomyelitis: changing concepts in operational categories

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    José Fernando de S. Verani

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo descreve o processo através do qual alguns conceitos de vigilância epidemiológica são elaborados e transformados em categorias operacionais, constituindo, assim, o Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica de algumas doenças transmissíveis. A descrição do modo pelo qual alguns conceitos e categorias epidemiológicas foram sendo elaborados enfoca o Programa de Erradicação da Varíola e, mais recentemente, o Programa de Erradicação do Vírus Selvagem da Poliomielite. Conceitos como os de bloqueio e notificação cruzada, bem como as definições de casos, são descritos de modo a apresentar sua transformação em categorias operacionais no contexto de ações que, articuladas num sistema de vigilância epidemiológica, são capazes de controlar e erradicar algumas doenças imunopreveníveis, como a varíola, a poliomielite e o sarampo. Finalmente, vale ressaltar que a descrição de que trata este artigo baseia-se nas observações diretas dos autores enquanto participantes no Programa de Erradicação da Varíola em Bangladesh e na Somália, e no Programa de Erradicação da Poliomielite, na região das Américas.This article describes the process by which some concepts of epidemiological surveillance are elaborated and turned into operational categories to comprise the so-called epidemiologial surveillance system for two specific diseases. The authors describe some epidemiological concepts and categories which were elaborated over the course of the smallpox eradication program and more recently in the poliomyelitis eradication program. Such concepts and categories as outbreak containment, cross-notification, and case definitions are described as they fit into a series of actions which make up the epidemiological surveillance system. Finally, it is worth noting that the description developed in this article is based on personal observations, since the authors participated in the smallpox eradication program in Bangladesh and

  17. Blood Pressure Control and Risk of Stroke or Systemic Embolism in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meena P; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Wojdyla, Daniel; Thomas, Laine; Alexander, John H; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Bahit, M Cecilia; Lopes, Renato D; De Caterina, Raffaele; Erol, Cetin; Goto, Shinya; Lanas, Fernando; Lewis, Basil S; Husted, Steen; Gersh, Bernard J; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B

    2015-12-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension are at high risk for stroke. Previous studies have shown elevated risk of stroke in patients with AF who have a history of hypertension (regardless of blood pressure [BP] control) and in patients with elevated BP. We assessed the association of hypertension and BP control on clinical outcomes. In ARISTOTLE (n=18 201), BP was evaluated as history of hypertension requiring treatment and elevated BP (systolic ≥140 and/or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg) at study entry and any point during the trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) were derived from Cox proportional hazards models including BP as a time-dependent covariate. A total of 15 916 (87.5%) patients had a history of hypertension requiring treatment. In patients with elevated BP measurement at any point during the trial, the rate of stroke or systemic embolism was significantly higher (HR, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.86), as was hemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.85; 95% CI, 1.26-2.72) and ischemic stroke (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.90). Rates of major bleeding were lower in patients with a history of hypertension (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.98) and nonsignificantly lower in patients with elevated BP at study entry (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.03). The benefit of apixaban versus warfarin on preventing stroke or systemic embolism was consistent among patients with and without a history of hypertension (P interaction=0.27), BP control at baseline (P interaction=0.43), and BP control during the trial (P interaction=0.97). High BP measurement at any point during the trial was independently associated with a substantially higher risk of stroke or systemic embolism. These results strongly support efforts to treat elevated BP as an important strategy to optimally lower risk of stroke in patients with AF. URL: https://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Uma Proposta para a Validação de Categorias sobre Gestão Estratégica de CustosA Proposal for the Validation of Categories on Strategic Cost ManagementUna propuesta para la Validación de Categorías sobre Gestión Estratégica de Costos

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    WRUBEL, Franciele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA Gestão Estratégica de Custos (GEC é tema de ampla discussão entre diversos pesquisadores por sua abrangência, que alcança todas as organizações, com impactos significativos sobre a estratégia. A GEC tem se desenvolvido e expandido, sem que se tenha obtido um consenso sobre as práticas a ela referidas. O presente estudo teve por objetivo propor um conjunto de categorias sobre o GEC. Para tal, realizou-se pesquisa bibliográfica para mapear termos relacionados ao GEC e, com isso, elaborar um conjunto de categorias e subcategorias. Percebe-se não haver concordância entre os diferentes autores sobre as práticas que podem ser consideradas no escopo dessa área. As categorias iniciais foram definidas com base nos temas-chave propostos por Shank e Govindarajan (1997: Análise dos direcionadores de custos, da cadeia de valor e do posicionamento estratégico. Para validá-las utilizou-se a técnica de Rodada Delphi, momento em que 17 categorias e 124 subcategorias foram submetidas ao exame por três especialistas da área, reconhecidos por sua experiência em pesquisa, formação acadêmica e atuação destacada em fóruns relacionados a esta abordagem. Por meio de três rodadas obteve-se consenso e validaram-se 16 categorias e 84 subcategorias. O tema mais extenso é a Análise da Cadeia de Valor, com 48 práticas, seguido pela Análise dos Direcionadores de Custos (22 e, por fim, pela Análise do Posicionamento Estratégico (14. Assim, identificou-se um conjunto extenso de práticas que puderam ser validadas, estabelecendo um conjunto de categorias relacionadas com GEC que poderão servir como base para pesquisas futuras nessa área.ABSTRACTThe Strategic Cost Management (SCM is a matter of wide discussion among researchers because it is an overarching theme, which reaches all organizations, with significant impacts on the strategy. SCM has developed and expanded, without having reached a consensus on the practices referred to it

  19. Would Aristotle have played Russian roulette?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper continues the debate between myself and Peter Singer et al started in the Journal of Medical Ethics volume 21, no 3 about the ethical respectability of the use of QALYs in health care allocation. It discusses the question of what, in the way of health care provision, would be chosen by rational egoists behind a Rawlsian "veil of ignorance", and takes forward the vexed question of what is to count as "doing good" and hence as "doing the most good" in health care. Most importantly, this paper argues that it would be unfair to discriminate against people because they have been disadvantaged by their genetic condition. It notes that McKie et al in their reply to my first contribution to this debate continue to fail to distinguish between chance and probability and it is argued that this failure causes them to miss the whole point of the argument. PMID:8863145

  20. Teaching Socrates, Aristotle, and Augustine on Akrasia

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    J. Caleb Clanton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing debate among moral philosophers centers on the question of whether ignorance is always at the root of moral wrongdoing, or whether, in certain cases, wrongdoing stems from something else—namely akrasia. This paper is a discussion of how undergraduate core curriculum teachers can incorporate Augustine’s work into this debate. I begin by briefly reconstructing Socrates’ and Aristotle’s accounts of wrongdoing, and then I sketch an Augustinian approach to the issue. Socrates contends that ignorance is the fundamental source of all wrongdoing; hence, akrasia is illusory. Though Aristotle’s view can seem more roundabout than Socrates’, it, too, is plausibly interpreted as entailing that robust, open-eyed akrasia is impossible. For Augustine, prior to receiving the illumination that comes with God’s grace, an individual’s sinfulness can be characterized as being the result of ignorance concerning the proper focus of one’s love. However, after receiving this illuminating grace, sinful action can be characterized as an instance of akrasia.

  1. Aristotle CHRONICLES OF MEDICAL HISTORY IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... brought with his philosophy of mind-body duality. René Descartes (1596-1650): French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician, sometimes called the fa- ... sented a turning point in thinking about mind by mak- ing a strong distinction between bodies and minds, or the physical and the mental. This duality ...

  2. Trabalho e atividade: categorias de análise na psicologia histórico-cultural do desenvolvimento Trabajo y actividad: categorías de análisis en la psicología sociocultural del desarrollo Work and activity: analysis categories in the development historical-cultural psychology

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    Lígia Márcia Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é resultado de estudos teóricos e pretende apresentar algumas contribuições ao estudo da psicologia histórico-cultural do desenvolvimento, mais especificamente no que se refere à relação existente entre as categorias de trabalho e atividade. Estudos desta natureza são importantes para psicólogos, pedagogos e demais profissionais envolvidos direta ou indiretamente com a prática educativa, na busca por compreender o problema da periodização do desenvolvimento em uma perspectiva não naturalizante. Nesta direção, a categoria de atividade principal mostra-se central como força motriz do processo de desenvolvimento humano, portanto encontra-se estreitamente ligada ao lugar que cada indivíduo ocupa na sociedade de classes bem como às condições objetivas de sua existência material. O estudo do desenvolvimento coincide com o estudo da pessoa concreta, imersa numa trama de relações sociais e num sistema político e econômico; enfim, outra coisa não é senão o estudo da história objetivada em cada indivíduo particular.This article is the result of theoretical studies and intends to show some contributions to the Development Historical-Cultural Psychology, more specifically, regarding to the relationship between the work and activity categories. These studies show to be relevant to the psychologists, pedagogues and other professionals involved directly or indirectly with the educational practice, in the quest to understand the problem of development periodization in a non-naturalistic perspective. In this way, the main activity category shows up as a central driving force of human development process and, therefore, it is closely linked to the place which each individual takes up in the class society as well as the objective conditions of his material existence. The development study matches with the study of specific person, immersed in a web of social relations; in a political and economic system; and finally

  3. Representações sociais como produtos e processos: embates em torno da construção discursiva da categoria “vândalos” no contexto das manifestações sociais no Rio de Janeiro em 2013 * Social representation as products and process

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    ANA LUCIA ENNE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo, pretendemos discutir como, no decorrer das manifestações sociais que se desenrolaram no Brasil em 2013, em especial no Rio de Janeiro, uma categoria semântica ocupou papel central: a de “vândalos”. Eleito pela mídia hegemônica como termo síntese das ações violentas dos manifestantes, o signo “vândalos” permitiu a construção, via indústria cultural, de uma série de representações sociais sobre as manifestações, os manifestantes e seus atos. A mesma categoria vai ser utilizada, em estratégias diversas, por aqueles que se colocaram, discursivamente, contra as representações produzidas pela grande mídia, através de deslocamentos e reapropriações. Neste trabalho, buscamos não só mapear esses embates, mas indicar o caráter ambivalente das representações, como produto e processo da relação entre os sujeitos e a realidade social.Palavras-chave: Representações sociais – Vândalos – Disputas discursivas. Abstract: In this article, we intend to discuss how, within social protests that occurred in Brazil on 2013, especially in Rio de Janeiro, a semantic category has occupied a key role: the so-called "vandals". Singularized by the hegemonic media as the term that best signified the violent actions of some participants of the riots, the sign "vandals" has made possible the construction, via culture industry, of a series of social representations about the social protests, the participants and its acts. The same category is used, in different strategies, by those who have discursively manifested a discordance against the hegemonic media representations of the social protests through displacement and reappropriation. In this article, we will try to map such debates and also to single out the ambivalent character of the social representation, both as product and process of the relationship between subjects and social reality.Keywords: Social representations – Vandals – Discursive disputes.

  4. Mensuração da gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias: estimação de magnitudes versus estimação de categorias Medición de la gravedad de cuadros clinicos resultantes de cirugias: estimación de magnitudes versus estimación de categorías Gravity of clinical illnesses resultant of surgeries: magnitude estimation and categories estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa; Patrícia Bodnar Giuntini

    2001-01-01

    A gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias foi escalonada pelos métodos psicofísicos de estimação de magnitudes e de categorias por 20 médicos e 20 enfermeiros. Os resultados mostraram: 1) o contínuo de gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias tem características quantitativas ou protéticas, e não qualitativas ou metatéticas; 2) a variabilidade das estimativas de magnitudes é uma função linear da magnitude das estimativas, segundo a lei de Ekman.La gravedad de los ...

  5. O sofrimento como categoria de pertencimento no fotojornalismo: o olhar estigmatizante sobre o sertanejo nas fotorreportagens de O Cruzeiro (1946-1951 = Suffering as a category of belonging in photojournalism: the stigmatizing look on O Cruzeiro of sertanejo photo reports (1946-1951

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    Costa, Ialê Menezes Leite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo parte de pesquisa de mestrado, a qual busca identificar por meio das fotorreportagens de Pierre Verger um outro olhar na revista O Cruzeiro (1946-1951 acerca da figura do sertanejo. Aqui, pretendemos explorar a construção de uma certa linguagem visual presente nas páginas da revista, que pareceu construir um discurso estigmatizador de sofrimento em torno do tema. A fim de compreender o momento de formação da identidade visual do periódico, se faz necessário analisar e criticar as diferentes linguagens visuais em diálogo, não apenas a de Pierre Verger. Por meio de uma análise qualitativa de fotorreportagens, sendo estas pertencentes ao período de análise (qual seja, o do primeiro contrato de Pierre Verger com a revista, buscaremos mostrar o processo de constituição de um certo discurso visual veiculado no fotojornalismo de O Cruzeiro que associa o sofredor a uma categoria de pertencimento. As fotorreportagens parecem apontar para a estratégia de representação do sertanejo (ainda hoje utilizada acerca de sua miséria, de seu incipiente habitat, bem como de seu atraso frente ao Brasil considerado moderno, através de um olhar vitimizador e estigmatizante

  6. Comparação entre os métodos psicofísicos escalares de estimação de magnitudes e de estimação de categorias da percepção social do enfermeiro Comparación entre los métodos psicofísicos escalares de estimación de magnitudes y de estimación de categorias de la percepción social del enfermero Comparison between the psychophysical scale methods for magnitude stimation and category estimation of nurses' social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi escalonar a percepção social do enfermeiro pelos métodos de estimação de magnitudes e de categorias. Participaram estudantes do 2º grau e universitários, profissionais atuantes e aposentados em medicina, psicologia, enfermagem e odontologia. Os resultados mostraram: (1 os traços asseado, responsável, limpo, cuidadoso e eficaz ocupam as primeiras posições em termos da percepção social do enfermeiro, enquanto os traços inútil, desonroso, desonesto, irresponsável e odioso ocupam as últimas posições nas escalas obtidas pelos dois métodos psicofísicos diretos e (2 o contínuo não-métrico de percepção social possui características protéticas.El objetivo de este experimento fue escalonar la percepción social del enfermero por los métodos de estimación de magnitudes y de categorías. Participaron alumnos de la enseñanza fundamental y de universidades, profesionales actuantes y jubilados en medicina, psicología, enfermería y odontología. Los resultados mostraron que (1 las características aseado, responsable, limpio, cuidadoso y eficaz ocupan las primeras posiciones en términos de la percepción social del enfermero, como las características inútil, deshonroso, deshonesto, irresponsable y odioso ocupan las últimas posiciones en las escalas obtenidas por los dos métodos psicofísicos directos y (2 el continuo no métrico de percepción social tiene características protéticas.This experiment aimed to rank nurses' social perception through the magnitude and category estimation methods. Study participants were high school and university students, active and retired professionals in the areas of medicine, psychology, nursing and dentistry. The results showed: (1 the characteristics neat, responsible, clean, careful and efficacious occupied the first positions in terms of nurses' social perception; whereas the characteristics useless, dishonorable, irresponsible and hateful occupied the

  7. Um sistema de categorias de habilidades sociais educativas

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    Zilda Aparecida Pereira Del Prette

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta um Sistema de Habilidades Sociais Educativas (SHSE, com classes e subclasses aplicáveis à tarefa de pais, professores e demais pessoas comprometidas com a promoção do desenvolvimento e aprendizagem do outro. A elaboração do SHSE iniciou-se com a análise da literatura, a definição funcional de habilidades sociais educativas e uma primeira proposta de classes e subclasses, sucessivamente testadas e aperfeiçoadas em estudos empíricos de observação direta. Como resultado, apresenta-se a versão atual do SHSE, com definições, exemplos e indicadores de viabilidade e confiabilidade. São discutidas algumas questões e encaminhamentos de pesquisa para estudos futuros nessa temática.

  8. La contrapublicidad electoral como categoria de la comunicacion politica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro Avila, Mariela

    2010-01-01

    ... (en tanto que ideologica) y por tanto, en una forma de resistencia de los movimientos sociales, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y personas individuales para denunciar y en el mejor de los casos, modificar ciertas...

  9. Desplazados forzados en Colombia: ?una nueva categoria de ciudadanos?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomez Garcia, Lucas Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    ..., la cifra historica de mas de 4 millones de personas desplazadas por la violencia (CODHES, 2007) (1). Los desplazados, quienes en caso de un reconocimiento institucional de su condicion son beneficiarios de un reconocimiento juridico a traves de la Ley 387 de 1997, han sido definidos, segun la politica publica de atencion integral a la poblaci...

  10. A infância enquanto categoria estrutural

    OpenAIRE

    Qvortrup,Jens

    2010-01-01

    Nos países do hemisfério norte, um dos símbolos da consolidação de uma área de conhecimento é a publicação de um handbook - em português, manual ou compêndio - cujos capítulos apresentam um breve estado da arte de seus respectivos temas. Em 2009, The Palgrave Handbook of Childhood Studies foi publicado, indicando o reconhecimento da área dos estudos da infância. Sabe-se que as crianças foram principalmente investigadas pela psicologia ou pela pedagogia e que as ciências sociais pouco produzir...

  11. Categorias sociais da Ópera do Malandro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luis Thomaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho expõe uma interpretação das categoriais sociais representativas no Brasil na década de 1970, retratadas em cinco canções de Chico Buarque de Hollanda na peça Ópera do malandro. Procuramos demonstrar, a partir dos exemplos musicais propostos, que Hollanda fez da relação tensa entre censura e produção artística a base de sua matéria poética, imprimindo um sentido político-social original em sua obra musical, indo além dos limites da canção de protesto tradicional. Essa opção do autor teve como base a proposta teórico-prática do dramaturgo e teórico alemão Bertolt Brecht, que, em seus escritos sobre ópera, defende uma maior independência da música com relação à ação dramática.

  12. Compreendendo a violência doméstica a partir das categorias gênero e geração Comprendiendo la violencia doméstica a partir de las categorías género y generación Understanding domestic violence from the categories gender and generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadielene Pereira Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura realizada a partir de 20 textos, entre artigos, livros, dissertações e teses entre 1996 a 2007 com o objetivo de compreender como as categorias gênero e geração influenciam na construção da violência doméstica contra a mulher. Foram estabelecidas duas categorias: violência de gênero e violência intergeracional. A análise dos textos indicou que o núcleo familiar, permeado pela visão patriarcal, configura-se enquanto um espaço de construção da violência de gênero e da violência intergeracional. Faz-se, portanto, necessária a re-estruturação da família com base em relações mais simétricas entre homens e mulheres e entre pais e filhos.El presente estudio trata de una revisión de literatura realizada a partir de 20 textos, entre artículos, libros, tesis de Maestria y de Doctorado existentes entre 1996 al 2007 con el objetivo de comprender cómo las categorías género y generación influyen en la construcción de la violencia doméstica contra la mujer. Fueron establecidas dos categorías: violencia de género y violencia intergeneracional. El análisis de los textos permitió concluir que el núcleo familiar, impregnado por una visión patriarcal, se configura como un espacio de construcción de la violencia de género y de la violencia intergeneracional. Se hace, por tanto, necesaria la reestructuración de la familia teniendo como base relaciones más simétricas entre hombres y mujeres y entre padres e hijos.This article is a literature review of 20 bibliographic sources, among them articles, books and thesis from 1996 to 2007. Regarding articles, Scielo represented the database consulted most often. The objective consisted of understanding how the categories 'gender' and 'generation' influence the occurrence of domestic violence against women. Two categories had been established about the topic: gender-based violence and intergenerational-based violence. The study showed that

  13. Comparação das categorias espaciais por meio de sistemas lingüístico e pictórico em pré-escolares de diferentes grupos sócio-econômico-culturais Comparison of spacial categories in preschool children by means of linguistic and pictorial methods in three different socio-economic-cultural groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Sclair Cabral

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado um sistema discriminativo relacionado à psicolingüística a ser aplicado no Programa Centro de Educação e Alimentação de Pré-Escolar (CEAPE. Optou-se por explorar a representação espacial por meio de sistemas lingüístico e pictórico. A amostra estudada foi constituída de 105 crianças de 3 a 6 anos e meio pertencentes a três grupos: do Programa CEAPE, de um grupo controle "Não-Ceapense" e de um outro de nível sócio-econômico alto da cidade de São Paulo. Estudou-se o poder discriminativo das perguntas nos três grupos de pré-escolares. Em relação às variáveis, nível sócio-econômico-cultural e estimulação, houve diferenças significativas para testes de compreensão lingüística em favor do grupo de alto nível sócio-econômico-cultural. As percentagens de categorias dominadas por 100% dos componentes dos três grupos foram, respectivamente: 41,7% (São Paulo, 30,6% (CEAPE e, 25,0% (não CEAPE; 95% dos componentes dos três grupos dominaram, respectivamente, 50,0% (São Paulo, 47,2% (CEAPE e 36,1% (não CEAPE das categorias.A research into a system, related to psycholinguistics, which is to be applied to a CEAPE program for preschool-age children is described. The choice fell upon spacial representation through linguistic and pictorial systems. A cross-section of ages was studied (from 3 to 6. Sample children came from 3 groups: those from a CEAPE program, a control group of children not covered by CEAPE and a high level socio-economic group from the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. The differentiating power of the items was studied in the 3 groups. With regard to socio-economic-cultural level and stimulation, significant differences in linguistic understanding to the advantage of the high level socio-economic-cultural group were observed Percentages of categories in which all subjects, answered correcty were respectively: 41.7% (S. Paulo, 30.6% (CEAPE and 25.0% (non-CEAPE. Ninety-five percent of the members

  14. Categorias de Riscos Evidenciadas nos Relatórios da Administração de Empresas Brasileiras com ADRsRisk Categories Disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian Companies with ADRsCategorías de Riesgos Constatadas en los Informes de Administración de Empresas Brasileñas con ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZONATTO, Vinícius Costa da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO estudo objetiva identificar as categorias de riscos evidenciadas no Relatório da Administração (RA, relativa ao ano de 2007, das empresas brasileiras com emissão de American Depositary Receipt (ADRs. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como descritiva, realizada por meio de análise documental. A amostra compreende 28 empresas brasileiras com emissão de ADRs na Bolsa de Valores de Nova Iorque (EUA. Consideraram-se sete categorias de riscos corporativos, identificadas a partir da metodologia do Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO, 2004: riscos estratégicos, riscos de mercado, riscos de crédito, riscos de liquidez, riscos operacionais, riscos legais e riscos de imagem. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que, em geral, não há uma padronização quanto aos tipos de riscos evidenciados pelas empresas. Ao todo foram identificados 14 tipos de riscos. A categoria predominante na evidenciação foi risco operacional, com 20,72% das observações. Não foi encontrada evidenciação de riscos de imagem nos RA das empresas pesquisadas. Constatou-se que 19 empresas evidenciam algum tipo de risco a que a empresa está exposta, o que representa 67,86% da amostra. Por outro lado, nove empresas (32,14% não evidenciaram nenhum tipo de risco.ABSTRACTThe study aims to find the categories of risks disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian companies with the issuance of ADR's. The research is characterized as descriptive, accomplished through documentary analysis. The sample includes 28 Brazilian companies with the issuance of American Depositary Receipt (ADR's in the Stock Exchange of New York (USA. We have tried to identify the categories of risk, presented by the companies surveyed in the Administration Reports (AR of 2007. Seven categories of corporate risks were considered, identified through COSO (2004 methodology: strategic risks, market risks, credit risks, liquidity risks, operational risks, legal risks

  15. Acurácia diagnóstica da biópsia percutânea com agulha grossa orientada por estereotaxia nas lesões mamárias categoria BI-RADS® 4 Diagnostic accuracy of stereotactic core-needle biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions categorized as BI-RADS® 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Petty Moutinho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a acurácia da biópsia com agulha grossa (BAG orientada por estereotaxia nas lesões mamárias categoria BI-RADS® 4. MÉTODOS: realizou-se uma análise retrospectiva das lesões categoria BI-RADS® 4 que foram submetidas à BAG orientada por estereotaxia no período de junho de 1998 a junho de 2003. As pacientes com resultados benignos, mas com baixa suspeição à imagem radiográfica, foram orientadas a acompanhamento mamográfico. As pacientes com resultados malignos ou com lesões especiais (atipias e lesões papilíferas foram submetidas ao tratamento padronizado. Aquelas com resultado benigno, mas que apresentavam imagem mamográfica de maior risco, foram encaminhadas para biópsia cirúrgica (BC. Foram considerados padrão-ouro (1 o acompanhamento radiográfico inalterado por, no mínimo, três anos daquelas lesões de baixa suspeição que resultaram benigno na BAG e (2 os resultados das biópsias cirúrgicas, quando essas foram realizadas (nas BAG cujos resultados foram malignos ou benignos com imagem de maior risco. Foram realizados os cálculos estatísticos de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo e negativo do método. RESULTADOS: das 118 lesões não palpáveis categoria BI-RADS® 4 submetidas à BAG orientada por estereotaxia, 27 casos correspondiam à doença maligna, 81 eram benignas e 10 eram lesões com atipia ou papilíferas. Para a análise estatística, foram selecionados 108 pacientes (excluídas as lesões com atipia e papilíferas. A sensibilidade da BAG foi de 87,1% e a especificidade foi de 100%. O valor preditivo positivo foi de 100% e o negativo, de 95,1%. A acurácia da BAG nessa casuística foi de 96,3%. A taxa de falso-negativo foi de 3,7% (4/108. A prevalência de diagnóstico de malignidade nas lesões BI-RADS® 4 nessa amostra foi de 29,7% (31/118. CONCLUSÕES: a biópsia estereotáxica com agulha grossa mostrou-se uma alternativa segura à BC. Quando seu resultado

  16. Algumas reflexões sobre produção da categoria de gênero em contextos como o movimento feminista e o poder judiciário Some reflections on the production of the gender category in contexts such as the feminist movement and the judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Galvão Adrião

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensando na discussão instaurada com a modernidade (em distintos contextos sociais, sobre a constituição dos sujeitos de direitos humanos universais, o presente trabalho buscará refletir sobre o indivíduo em sua interface com a busca de "cidadania" e do "acesso à justiça". Para tanto, analisaremos três casos concretos: duas conferências de Políticas para Mulheres, tidas aqui como rituais do movimento feminista no Brasil. Ambas dizem respeito à relação entre políticas para mulheres em duas perspectivas não-excludentes; uma delas entre as próprias mulheres - lésbicas, heterossexuais, brancas, negras, deficientes - e suas tensões direcionadas ora aos direitos individuais, ora aos direitos coletivos, num momento de discussão por cotas. A outra conferência aborda a tensão entre sexo e gênero, entre diferença como sinônimo de desigualdade. O terceiro caso retrata um julgamento de guarda e responsabilidade voltado à não-concessão da maternidade a uma mulher homossexual, mas seu deferimento ao pai tido como biológico. Por fim, sugerimos pensar como, nos dois contextos rituais distintos (Judiciário e Movimento Feminista, a categoria de gênero é produzida e se produz atrelada ao binômio biológico "macho e fêmea".Concerning the discussion arisen by modern times (in different social contexts, about the constitution of universal human rights subjects, this paper aims to reflect upon the individual and his search for "citizenship" and "access to justice". Three cases will be analyzed: two conferences on Women"s Politics, important in the Brazilian feminist movement. Both concern the relation among women"s politics within two non exclusive perspectives: one among women themselves - lesbians, heterosexual, white, black. handicapped - and their tensions related either to individual rights or to collective rights, in a time when quotas are being discussed. The other conference approaches the tension between sex and gender

  17. Análise da aptidão física, da antropometria e da prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares na categoria infanto-juvenil do voleibol Analysis of physical fitness, anthropometry and prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the youth volleyball category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Anza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O controle da ocorrência de lesões durante todo o processo de treinamento possui expressiva importância para o atleta, bem como o monitoramento das adaptações físicas decorrentes do programa de exercícios. OBJETIVOS: Descrever o perfil antropométrico e a aptidão física dos times de voleibol infanto-juvenil e determinar a prevalência de sintomas osteomusculares. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal. Participaram 38 atletas da categoria infanto-juvenil do voleibol monitorados por quatro meses através de testes de aptidão física, mensurações antropométricas e do questionário de sintomas osteomusculares. Foram utilizadas análises descritivas e comparativas através de médias e desvio padrão e teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: Os principais indicadores estatisticamente significativos observaram-se nas variáveis: estatura (p = 0,001 para o sexo masculino e 0,003 para o feminino envergadura para os meninos (p INTRODUCTION: The control of the occurrence of injuries throughout the training process and the monitoring of physical adaptations resulting from the exercise program present significant importance for the athlete. Objective: To describe the anthropometric profile and physical capacity of youth volleyball teams and determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: A longitudinal study where 38 athletes participated in the Children and Youth Volleyball category monitored for four months through physical fitness and anthropometric tests and questionnaire of musculoskeletal symptoms. Descriptive analysis and comparative means and standard deviations and t test were applied. RESULTS: The main statistically significant indicators observed were in the variables: height (p = 0.001 for males and 0.003 for females scale for males (p <0.001, pitch (p = 0.003 for boys and p <0.001 for girls, abdominal for girls (p = 0.001. The most prevalent symptoms were found in the back (56.5%, shoulder (52.2%, hips/thighs (52

  18. Estimation of the impact of warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range on stroke and major bleeding rates and its influence on the medical cost avoidance associated with novel oral anticoagulant use-learnings from ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh; Deitelzweig, Steve; Jing, Yonghua; Makenbaeva, Dinara; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Lin, Jay; Graham, John

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) is highly variable among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of variations in wafarin's TTR on rates of stroke/systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleedings among NVAF patients in the ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials. Additionally, differences in medical costs for clinical endpoints when novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were used instead of warfarin at different TTR values were estimated. Quartile ranges of TTR values and corresponding event rates (%/patient - year = %/py) of SSE and major bleedings among NVAF patients treated with warfarin were estimated from published literature and FDA documents. The associations of SSE and major bleeding rates with TTR values were evaluated by regression analysis and then the calculated regression coefficients were used in analysis of medical cost differences associated with use of each NOAC versus warfarin (2010 costs; US payer perspective) at different TTRs. Each 10 % increase in warfarin's TTR correlated with a -0.32%/py decrease in SSE rate (R(2) = 0.61; p estimated medical cost decreased from -$902 to -$83 for apixaban, from -$506 to +$314 for rivaroxaban, and from -$596 to +$223 for dabigatran. Among NVAF patients there is a significant negative correlation between warfarin's TTR and SSE rate, but not major bleedings. The variations in warfarin's TTR impacted the economic comparison of use of individual NOACs versus warfarin.

  19. Investigação do valor da categoria diagnóstica de células epiteliais atípicas, de significado indeterminado, e origem indefinida da nomenclatura brasileira para laudos citopatológicos cervicais Investigation of the value of the atypical epithelial cells of undetermined significance and origin diagnostic category proposed by the Brazilian nomenclature for reporting cervical cytological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Piazzetta Pinto

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em 2002 a Nomenclatura Brasileira para Laudos de Citopatologia Cervical Uterina foi revisada, sendo criada uma categoria para atipias de significado indeterminado (ASI e elaborada uma categoria de origem indefinida (ASIOI. Assim como as células atípicas de significado indeterminado de origem escamosa (ASCUS e as células atípicas de significado indeterminado de origem glandular (AGUS, a categoria diagnóstica ASIOI é controversa. Apesar disso, nenhum estudo nacional anterior a este investigou sua validade. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo principal investigar a importância da categoria ASIOI. Secundariamente, visa ainda contribuir com a divulgação da Nomenclatura Brasileira para Laudos de Citopatologia Cervical Uterina, através de sua publicação na íntegra. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Este estudo resultou da colaboração de dois laboratórios privados de anatomia patológica e citopatologia. Os casos foram selecionados a partir de arquivos de exames citopatológicos, realizados entre 2000 e 2004, com diagnóstico de ASCUS ou AGUS e seguidos por exame histológico. Foram selecionados e revisados 30 casos, sendo identificados campos citológicos diagnósticos de ASIOI, ASCUS e AGUS. RESULTADOS: Dos 30 casos, 26 foram selecionados para o estudo após revisão citopatológica. Desses, 19 apresentavam apenas campos citológicos com diagnóstico de ASCUS e/ou AGUS, sendo utilizados como grupo-controle. Apenas sete casos continham campos compatíveis com ASIOI, dos quais 4 (57,1% estavam associados a AGUS; 1 (14,3% a ASCUS; 1 (14,3% estava associado a ambos; e 1 (14,3% não possuía alterações compatíveis com ASCUS e/ou AGUS. DISCUSSÃO: Os casos de ASIOI encontrados mostraram forte associação com a categoria AGUS e com alterações glandulares na histologia. A maior parte dessas correspondeu a alterações reacionais e benignas, exceto por um caso de displasia e um de adenocarcinoma in situ. O diagnóstico de ASIOI

  20. Emoção e soma (desconectadas em páginas de revista: as categorias temáticas do discurso prescritivo sobre os fenômenos da vida e da doença Emotion and soma (disconnected in magazine pages: the thematic categories of the prescriptive discourse on phenomena of life and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Pereira Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As revistas vendidas nas bancas têm se tornado textos de autoajuda e o estudo de suas matérias possibilita compreender como seus discursos são construídos, como se tornam repertórios utilizados para dar sentido à vida. No caso das revistas que versam sobre a esfera da saúde, que prescrevem receitas de tratamento, prevenção e até estilos de vida saudáveis, os estudos permitem compreender os significados dos discursos sobre corpo e saúde. Em algumas matérias, por vezes o destaque dado ao físico se faz acompanhar da inserção de aspectos mentais. Tal fato originou o presente estudo que tem por objetivo clarificar como esta conexão mente e corpo é conceituada e prescrita nessas páginas. Seis matérias de uma revista brasileira de saúde, publicadas entre agosto de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006, foram analisadas quanto ao conteúdo dos textos e ao destaque gráfico e textual. Considerou-se significativo o formato em que esta mídia opera, pois associado às categorias temáticas: autodiagnóstico, o lugar das emoções, as prescrições e a causalidade reforça estilos de vida saudáveis. Para tanto o leitor deve aprender a se autodiagnosticar e controlar suas emoções, consideradas contrapostas ao físico. As matérias delineiam um campo de saúde em que a cisão mente corpo se adensa e se prolonga, instaurando a medicalização da sociedade.Magazines sold on newsstands have become self-help texts, and the study of the topics covered makes it possible to understand how the discourses are constructed, how they become repositories used to give meaning to life. In the case of magazines that deal with the sphere of health, prescribing methods of treatment, prevention and even healthy lifestyles, the studies allow us to understand the meanings of discourses about body and health. In some articles, the emphasis that sometimes highlights the physical aspect is accompanied by the inclusion of mental aspects. This fact gave rise to this study

  1. Mensuração da gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias: estimação de magnitudes versus estimação de categorias Medición de la gravedad de cuadros clinicos resultantes de cirugias: estimación de magnitudes versus estimación de categorías Gravity of clinical illnesses resultant of surgeries: magnitude estimation and categories estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros Sousa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias foi escalonada pelos métodos psicofísicos de estimação de magnitudes e de categorias por 20 médicos e 20 enfermeiros. Os resultados mostraram: 1 o contínuo de gravidade de quadros clínicos resultantes de cirurgias tem características quantitativas ou protéticas, e não qualitativas ou metatéticas; 2 a variabilidade das estimativas de magnitudes é uma função linear da magnitude das estimativas, segundo a lei de Ekman.La gravedad de los cuadros clínicos que resultan de cirugías, fue escalonada por los métodos psicofísicos de estimación de magnitudes y de categorías por 20 médicos y 20 enfermeros. Los resultados mostraron: 1 El continuo de gravedad de cuadros clínicos resultantes de cirugías tiene características cuantitativas o protéticas y no cualitativas o metatéticas; 2 La variabilidad de las estimativas de magnitudes es una función linear de la magnitud de las estimativas, según la ley de Ekman.The gravity of clinical illnesses resultant of surgeries was scaled by the psychophysics methods of magnitude and categories estimations by 20 physicians and 20 nurses. Results showed: 1- the continuum of gravity of clinical illnesses resultant of surgeries has quantitative or prosthetic characteristics and non-qualitative or metathetic characteristics. 2- the variability of the estimations of magnitudes is a linear function of the magnitude of the estimations according to Ekman's law.

  2. Was Aristotle an Exponent of Antiscientific Mumbo-Jumbo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koznjak, Boris

    2012-01-01

    During the past few decades, a wide consensus has been reached in the community of science educators that it is almost unimaginable to conduct a quality science education without including the history and philosophy of science in some form in the science curriculum, and this is especially the case for physics education (Matthews 1994). However, in…

  3. Integrating History of Mathematics into the Classroom: Was Aristotle Wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasuk, Regina M.; Horton, Leslie Bolinger

    This article describes a part of a large scale study which helped to gain understanding of the high school mathematics teachers' perceptions related to the integration of history of mathematics into instruction. There is obvious lack of correspondence between general perception about possible benefits of students learning the history of…

  4. Aristotle's Humanistic Ethics | Onwuegbusi | Global Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , let alone trouble to think about it. The paper therefore argues that man's self realization through contemplation is merely an activity satisfying only man's intellectual well-being, outside this there is nothing guaranteeing that such self realization ...

  5. Explanation and teleology in Aristotle's Philosophy of Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, Mariska Elisabeth Maria Philomena Johannes

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation explores Aristotle’s use of teleology as a principle of explanation, especially as it is used in the natural treatises. Its main purposes are, first, to determine the function, structure, and explanatory power of teleological explanations in four of Aristotle’s natural treatises,

  6. The Hamartia of Aristotle | Sackey | Legon Journal of the Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  7. The aristotle in Thomas Aquinas | Omoyefa | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  8. The Text of Aristotle's De Sensu and De Memoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts.......An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts....

  9. Aristotle Meets Youth Work: A Case for Virtue Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    What ethical framework provides the best guide for contemporary youth work is the central question in this article. An account is provided of why the two dominant ethical frameworks, namely, utilitarianism and deontic ethics, are not appropriate. It is argued that virtue ethics is most relevant because it specifies the nature of social goods, and…

  10. Habituated Reason: Aristotle and the "Paradox of Moral Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2006-01-01

    R.S. Peters coined the term "paradox of moral education". In this article, the author identifies two subordinate paradoxes: how habituated reason is psychologically possible and how heteronomously formed autonomy is morally/politically possible and justifiable. He sketches possible Aristotelian solutions of those paradoxes and argues that for…

  11. Prudence. The Basic Concept of the Practical in Aristotle

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold Wald

    2016-01-01

    The article is written in German. The article begins by recalling the most important understandings associated with the term prudence in the history of philosophy. Then it introduces the Aristotelian concept of prudence linked to practical truth—prudence seen in contrast to wisdom and knowledge of manufacturing. The article discusses various forms of rational knowledge associated with the right will, and proves the need of linking prudence to all the other ethical virtues based on moral pr...

  12. Aristotle's 'completeness test' as Heuristics for an Account of Dynamicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibt, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    heuristic leads to a class of inferential data (aspectual inferences) that analytical ontologists have all but overlooked so far. In addition, I suggest that the passage also can offer some ideas about how one might formulate, in mereological terms, a component of an implicit definition of dynamicity....

  13. Explanation and teleology in Aristotle's Philosophy of Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Leunissen, Mariska Elisabeth Maria Philomena Johannes

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation explores Aristotle’s use of teleology as a principle of explanation, especially as it is used in the natural treatises. Its main purposes are, first, to determine the function, structure, and explanatory power of teleological explanations in four of Aristotle’s natural treatises, that is, in Physica (book II), De Anima, De Partibus Animalium (including the practice in books II-IV), and De Caelo (book II). Its second purpose is to confront these findings about Aristotle’s pra...

  14. LAS PROTEINAS SEMINALES DEL MANI (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, LEGUMINOSAE y SU RELACION CON LAS CATEGORIAS INFRAESPECIFICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Grosso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Las proteínas seminales de 122 muestras diferentes de Arachis hypogaea L. originarios de Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador fueron estudiadas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida.
    Se detectaron siete bandas constantes y 27 bandas inconstantes. Los resultados de las últimas se utilizaron para analizar las similitudes entre las muestras empleando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el método de ligamiento promedio de la media aritmética no ponderada(UPGMA.
    Las proteínas seminales permitieron separar totalmente la subespecies de A.hypogaea y las variedades en menor medida.

  15. Explorando o DP: a presença da categoria NumP

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    Marina R.A. Augusto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on NumP, an independent projection for number,which was proposed in pre-minimalist research (Picallo, 1991; Ritter,1991. Arguments for the relevance of maintaining it as anindependent projection in a minimalist framework, contrary toChomsky (1999, who assumes number is one of the j-featuresassociated to N, are provided. The consequences such presenceimposes for DP internal agreement phenomenon are discussed andsome alternatives to account for it are offered.

  16. Incidencia de lesiones en categoria Benjamin en una escuela de futbol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez Sanz, David

    2008-01-01

    Es cada vez mas frecuente la practica de actividades deportivas desde edades tempranas, con el consecuente riesgo de aparicion de lesiones y encontrandose los deportistas de estas edades en una etapa...

  17. CATEGORIAS CONCEPTUALES PARA EL ESTUDIO DEL CONOCIMIENTO ESTRATEGICO EMPLEADO AL INTERACTUAR CON SIMULACIONES EDUCATIVAS

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    María José Bouciguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan algunas relaciones entre elementos provenientes de referenciales psicológicos a los fines de elaborar un marco referencial que permita interpretar y comprender las acciones que se realizan durante prácticas escolares con simulaciones computacionales que incluya, además de conceptos propios del proceso de aprendizaje de una disciplina particular, conceptos que refieran a las relaciones sociales, tanto interacciones entre personas como los vínculos de las personas con la cultura, las instituciones sociales y la estructura social. Desde un enfoque constructivista social, se propone constituir el objeto de estudio en el sistema persona más herramienta en un contexto situado en el aprendizaje de la ciencia escolar, a fin de obtener categorías para indagar sobre el conocimiento estratégico empleado por los estudiantes al utilizar simulaciones educativas y la influencia de estas en el aprendizaje de las Ciencias. Consideramos que el estudio del conocimiento estratégico puesto en juego por alumnos en clases de ciencias cuando interactúan con simulaciones computacionales es un problema de la mediación tecnológica de los aprendizajes. Por tal razón, desde la perspectiva socio histórica se han seleccionado las siguientes categorías: la mediación instrumental, el carácter distribuido de la cognición, la zona de desarrollo próximo y el carácter situado de la cognición.

  18. La categoria de producto y el mensaje transmitido en la publicidad infantil de alimentos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez Diaz, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    El presente articulo, contextualizado bajo la preocupacion de la obesidad infantil y la acusacion que desde numerosos sectores se ejerce sobre la publicidad, ha pretendido desarrollar un marco teorico...

  19. La ‘Bildung’: una categoria pedagogica significativa anche in Italia

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    Franco Cambi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio discute la pedagogia della Bildung in Italia mediante ildialogo e il confronto con la cultura tedesca e la sua identità formativa. Al centro dell’analisi l’herbartismo di Credaro, il neoidealismo spaventiano di Gentile, il neokantismo di Banfi, lo storicismo di Croce, il marxismo di Gramsci, correnti di pensiero che hanno attivato un dialogo forte e originale con la pedagogia dellaBildung. Si problematizza il dialogo critico che è continuato negli anni Sessanta/Settanta con i richiami alla lectio dei francofortesi, poi negli anni Ottanta/Novanta con la presenza dell’ermeneutica e con le sue diverse frontiere, poi ancora negli anni Novanta e Duemila con un doppio e esplicito richiamo: alla formazione dell’“uomo umano” e alla storia complessa nella cultura attuale della teoria della Bildung.

  20. LAS PROTEINAS SEMINALES DEL MANI (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, LEGUMINOSAE y SU RELACION CON LAS CATEGORIAS INFRAESPECIFICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Grosso

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Las proteínas seminales de 122 muestras diferentes de Arachis hypogaea L. originarios de Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador fueron estudiadas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida.Se detectaron siete bandas constantes y 27 bandas inconstantes. Los resultados de las últimas se utilizaron para analizar las similitudes entre las muestras empleando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el método de ligamiento promedio de la media aritmética no ponderada(UPGMA.Las proteínas seminales permitieron separar totalmente la subespecies de A.hypogaea y las variedades en menor medida.

  1. A CATEGORIA STATUS EM MARSHALL: contrlbuicóes para os estudos dos direitos socials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bazi Brandáo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thls article aims to demonstrate the contributions 01 the use 01 category status for studies on social rights and social policies. The paper reviews concepts and analyzes of Marshall about status and social rights. To do so, it investigates the determinants 01 capltalíst society and the emergence 01 social rights in this contex!. Discusses the tendency 01 debate about rights in the literature of Brazilian social policy and identifies the analysis gaps that can be harnessed from the use of the category status. Then presents and discusses the marxist critic formulated by Brazilian researchers on the concepts of Marshall, while pointing out the Iimits 01 this critico Finally, índlcates some contributions that the category status can present for studies on social pollcy and social rights, such as the possibility 01 identilying the implications 01 access to social rights in the social posítlon 01 groups and indlviduals.

  2. INFLUENCIA DE LAS CATEGORIAS SEMANTICAS INNATAS EN LA REPRESENTACION DEL DISCURSO

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    Leonardo Francisco Barón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre las teorías sobre el funcionamiento del lenguaje, se cuenta el Modelo de Situación de Kintsch y van Dijk, referido al proceso y a la estructura resultante de la comprensión del discurso textual; también, la teoría de las Categorías Semánticas Innatas, defendidapor Chomsky y por los teóricos de la Nueva Síntesis, referida a estructuras conceptuales que guían la adquisición, comprensión y uso de las formas lingüísticas. De existir, tales categorías innatas de significados habrían de influenciar la forma en que es representado el conocimiento en la mente, y por lo tanto, la estructura resultante de la comprensión del discurso. Una aproximación teórica a este fenómeno es la propuesta en este escrito.

  3. Comparação entre os métodos psicofísicos escalares de estimação de magnitudes e de estimação de categorias da gravidade de quadros clínicos Comparación entre los métodos psicofísicos escalares de estimación de magnitudes y de estimación de categorías de la gravedad de cuadros clínicos Comparison between the psychophysical methods of magnitude and categories estimation of illness seriousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kamizaki

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, 15 diagnósticos foram selecionados e avaliados pelo método de estimação de magnitude e de categoria. Os instrumentos foram aplicados em 46 participantes (20 enfermeiros, 16 psicólogos e 10 médicos. Os resultados indicam que a escala psicofísica dos quadros clínicos é um contínuo protético, além da confirmação da validade da lei de Ekman também para contínuos não métricos.En este estudio, 15 diagnósticos, fueron seleccionados y evaluados por el método de estimación de magnitud y de categoría. Los instrumentos fueron aplicados a 46 participantes (20 enfermeros, 16 psicólogos y 10 médicos. Los resultados indican que la escala psicofísica de los cuadros clínicos es un continuo protético, además de la confirmación de la validez de la Ley de Ekman también para continuos no métricos.In this study, 15 diagnoses were selected and evaluated by the methods of estimation of magnitudes and estimation of categories. These methods were performed by 46 subjects (10 physicians, 20 nurses and 16 psychologists. The results show that the non-metric continuum of seriousness of an illness exhibits prothetic characteristics and the variability of estimates is a linear function of the magnitude estimation, thus confirming that Ekman's law is also valid for non-metric continua.

  4. Şiir Sanatında Anlatım Araçlarına Poetik Metinlerin Yaklaşımı ve “Yeni” Yorumu (Aristoteles, Şerşeneviç ve Orhan Veli’nin Poetik Metinleri Bağlamında Poetic Text’s Approaches to Means of Expression and “Modern” Interpretation in Poetry (In the Context of Poetic Texts of Aristotle, Shershenevich and Orhan Veli

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    Özlem PARER

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the history of poetry adventure from ancient times to date, thepoet’s invariable characteristic has been his creativity glorified all thetime. However, creativity criteria may vary in different periods. The firstdescription of Poetry and Poet go back to Poetics of Greek philosopherAristotle, who had an understanding close to modern literary theoryand performed the first systematic study on the literature principlesfunctioning and organization based on perceptible data. The mostimportant aspect of Poetics in terms of the subject of this study is thedescription of the poetry language as a specific area of language and theclassification of the functional elements of this structure. However,poetry elements, which have become a tradition in historical processwith changing sense and expectation of art due to many reasons, wereneeded to be reviewed again and caused the pursuit of novelty in 20thcentury. The opposition to the tradition and pursuit of novelty have ledus to find intersection point between Russian futurism and the “Garip”movement in Turkish poetry, although they are not followers of oraffected by each other. Shershenevich and Orhan Veli, explained theiropposition to the traditional and stereotype attitudes towards poetry foryears such as vocabulary, rhyme and meter and rhetorical devices intheir poetry as well as their poetic knowledge by giving justifications.While reviewing the characteristics of poetry, Russian futuristssupported the tendency to neologism, and Garip poets supported thetendency to simplified language of the people that new poetryconception is addressed to. When discussing the common and differentpoint of views of three different authors from different ages, in the poetictext we have studied by giving examples from 20th century Russian andTurkish poetries, it was found out that the idea welcomed for long thatthe poetry is valuable in proportion to its compliance with specific formshas not been accepted. Antik

  5. La categoria gramatical del temps i les relacions deíctiques i anafòriques

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    Manuel Pérez Saldanya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the distinction between absolute and relative tenses (or between deictic and anaphoric tenses and suggests that the absolute tenses have got a complex temporal interpretation at the level of the Logical Form. In this interpretation there are two different temporal elements involved, one of which functions as a pronominal and follows Principle B of the Bounding Theory.

  6. La categoria gramatical del temps i les relacions deíctiques i anafòriques

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Saldanya, Manuel

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinction between absolute and relative tenses (or between deictic and anaphoric tenses) and suggests that the absolute tenses have got a complex temporal interpretation at the level of the Logical Form. In this interpretation there are two different temporal elements involved, one of which functions as a pronominal and follows Principle B of the Bounding Theory.

  7. Autonomia como Categoria Abstrata: Interpretação e Tradução Libras-Português-Libras

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    Flávia Medeiros Álvaro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A prática do tradutor-intérprete de Libras/TILS envolve várias competências. Estudos sobre os processos de categorização humana, com base no Realismo Corpóreo, têm elucidado fenômenos relativos à influência de modelos cognitivos e culturais. ( e.g. LAKOFF, 1987; LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1999 e outros. Neste estudo, de natureza experimental, investigam-se conceitos abstratos, tais como AUTONOMIA e CRÍTICO, nos processos tradutórios da Língua de Sinais, em estudo comparativo entre grupos (TILS/Surdos do RS e SC. Essa investigação visa examinar hipóteses que levem ao aperfeiçoamento da competência de TILS, nos processos de compreensão e ao elaborarem construções que expressem conceitos abstratos que possuem correspondentes lexicais/gramaticais na LP, mas não, necessariamente, em Libras. Trata-se de um estudo empírico em situação controlada, utilizando recursos de filmagem e manipulação do software ELAN.

  8. CONSIDERAÇÕES SOBRE A ANÁLISE DA CATEGORIA ‘PERTENCIMENTO’ EM FAMÍLIAS MIGRANTES

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    Susana Kramer de Mesquita Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresentará a pesquisa de doutorado da autora, ‘Afetividade da família migrante: um estudo sociodramático’ (UnB, 2008, cujo objetivo principal foi compreender o processo de reorganização interna (‘familidade’ e de pertença social de famílias que migraram do nordeste do Brasil (Ceará para a capital brasileira (Brasília, por razões profissionais. A pesquisa se fundamentou no arcabouço conceitual e na proposta metodológica da Socionomia (Jacob Levy Moreno, que têm se mostrado um importante instrumento para análise de grupos em processo de transformação. Os sujeitos foram duas famílias de classe sócio econômica media, que participaram, em grupo, de quatro sessões de sociodrama temático: 1. Dinâmicas de pertencimentos e imagens idealizadas de família, 2. Historiodrama da migração, 3. Sociometria da migração, 4. Perspectivas futuras da família migrante. O presente trabalho tem como objetivos: 1. Apresentar os principais conceitos que nortearam a problematização da pesquisa; 2. Discutir o alcance do Sociodrama como método de pesquisa qualitativo; 3. Apresentar o quadro “análise do pertencimento” elaborado na discussão da tese, a partir dos aspectos críticos da experiência dos sujeitos; 4. Estabelecer elementos comuns para a investigação de novos fluxos migratórios contemporâneos, no Brasil e mundo. Palavras-chave: Migração; Família; Pertencimento; Socionomia.   The paper presents the author’s doctoral research, “Migrant familya ffection: a Sociodramatic study” (UnB, 2008, whose main objective was understanding the internal reorganization (‘familility’ and social belonging of families who migrated from northeastern Brazil (Ceará to the Brazilian capital (Brasilia, for professional reasons. The research was based on the conceptual framework and methodological proposal of Socionomy (Jacob Levy Moreno, which have been an important tool for analysis of groups in the process of transformation. The subjects were two families of middle socioeconomic class, who participated in four sessions of thematic Sociodrama in group: 1. Dynamics of belongings and idealized family images, 2. Historical drama (drawing of the migration, 3. Sociometry of the migration, 4. Future perspectives of the migrant family. This study aims to: 1. introduce the main concepts that guided the problematics of research; 2. discuss the scope of Sociodrama as a qualitative research method; 3. display the table “belonging analysis”, presented in discussion of the thesis, from the critical aspects of the experience of the group; 4. stablish common elements for the investigation of new contemporary migratory movements in Brazil and the world. Keywords: Migration; Family; Belonging; Socionomy.

  9. CATEGORIAS ESENCIALES PARA COMPRENDER LA EXISTENCIA DEL SER HUMANO Y SUS TRANSFORMACIONES EN LA PSICOLOGIA HUMANISTA EXISTENCIAL

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    Clara Ines Vega Palacio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article appears as an intent to buildup a conceptual, punctual, and deep reflectionin the exercise of an enlightening thought aboutthe human being and his transformations, whatthe Humanistic-Existential psychology considersto be the principles to understand existence;four essential categories are approached beingthe capital elements for the research in theContemporary Transformations group.

  10. Trabalho familiar: uma categoria esquecida de análise Family work: a forgotten category of analysis

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    Maria Ignez S. Paulilo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A influência do marxismo na Sociologia do trabalho e no feminismo foi e ainda é muito grande, o que trouxe uma ênfase nos estudos sobre o operariado. Com isso, o campesinato tornou-se um tema de difícil articulação dentro do marxismo e do feminismo. Havia uma crença generalizada de que liberação das mulheres passaria necessariamente por sua independência financeira, fruto da inserção individual no mercado de trabalho. Como 'encaixar' aí as mulheres em regime de trabalho familiar? Elas não foram bem 'encaixadas', havendo com freqüência um 'viés urbano' perpassando as análises do trabalho feminino no campo. O surgimento de vários movimentos de mulheres agricultoras no Brasil colocou em cheque a visão corrente de 'vítimas' que se tinha sobre elas, na medida em que estão se impondo como 'atoras'. Neste momento, porém, os movimentos feministas estão mais voltados para questões de reconhecimento, de identidade, que de redistribuição de renda, propriedades e, o que nos interessa mais, terra. Nosso objetivo neste trabalho é desvelar os preconceitos imbricados na análise do campesinato e trazer de volta questões sobre a condição econômica desigual das mulheres envolvidas na agricultura familiar, cujo acesso à terra se faz quase unicamente pelo casamento. O direito de tomar decisões sobre a própria vida pode ser desvinculado da obtenção de um salário individual, mas não do acesso a uma renda própria.The influence of Marxism on Labor Sociology and Feminism was and still is very strong. This has led to an emphasis on working class studies. Questions concerning the peasantry became difficult to work with within Marxism and Feminism. There used to be a general belief the liberation of women would necessarily require their financial independence, which would be the result of individual insertion in the labor market . This has raised the question of where to consider the role of women's work within the family. This issue was not adequately considered by theory that was frequently dominated by urban perspectives and that overlooked issues of the role of women in rural activities. The rise of various rural women's movements in Brazil has questioned the "victim" status normally attached to such women, to the degree that they have proved to be true social "actors". At this time, however, feminist movements are more concerned with issues of recognition and identity, then with income redistribution, property, and that which most interests us, land. The purpose of this paper is to unveil the prejudices permeating the analysis of peasantry and bring back the issue of the economic inequality of women involved in family agriculture, whose access to land is achieved almost exclusively through marriage. The right to take decisions about one's own life may not depend on an individual salary, but it certainly depends on access to one's own source of income.

  11. A CONSTRUÇÃO E O USO DE SISTEMAS DE CATEGORIAS PARA AVALIAR O ENTENDIMENTO DOS ESTUDANTES

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    Amanda Amantes

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, expomos três metodologias utilizadas para identificar patamares de entendimento de sujeitos em situações específi cas de pesquisa. Construímos sistemas categóricos para analisar respos tas de estudantes de diferentes séries do Ensino Médio. Três perspec tivas fundamentaram a elaboração: a Teoria de Habilidades Dinâmicas (FISCHER, 1980, 2006, a Taxonomia SOLO (BIGGS e COLLIS, 1982 e a perspectiva docente de avaliação. Duas investigações são relatadas, porém, o foco do trabalho é evidenciar os três métodos de análise qua litativa, explicitando os critérios e os procedimentos realizados para a construção dos sistemas. Acreditamos que discussões metodológicas dessa natureza devam ser realizadas no âmbito das pesquisas educacio nais para que os parâmetros de investigação sejam melhor pensados em termos de elaboração e aplicação.

  12. DIRETOR DE ESCOLA PÚBLICA: CATEGORIAS TEÓRICAS DE ANÁLISE NA PESQUISA SOBRE O SEU PAPEL

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    Miguel Henrique Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of school principals are analyzed from the theoretical categories used on an empiric research. The study confronted the functions that the State attributes to school principals and the perception that those on that position have about how this determines their practice. To build the analysis referential were used categories from the organizational theory and from the social Psychology, such as: function, role, stereotype, post, social identity, social rule and others. The focus of this text is centered on the clarification of the meanings attributed to the categories that support the analysis and interpretation of the research empiric data. Therefore, it became necessary to look in Literature for the senses attributed to the various categories that come up in the urge to comprehend the research object and clarify the senses they got in the study. An extract of the use of those categories is presented in the study conclusion.

  13. Abordar o trabalho para compreender e transformar as condições de adoecimento na categoria dos teleatendentes no Brasil

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    Ada Ávila Assunção

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresenta-se um modelo de abordagem da saúde no trabalho. Tal modelo considera a atividade para obter elementos explicativos do perfil de morbidade auto-referida e gerar propostas de intervenção na organização do trabalho no setor de teleatendimento. Realizou-se um estudo ergonômico em uma grande empresa de telefonia e telemarketing; foram acompanhadas negociações entre trabalhadores e empregadores e intervenções do Ministério Público do Trabalho no quadro de um Procedimento Prévio Investigatório, o qual motivou o estudo ergonômico. Os resultados evidenciaram as exigências das tarefas provocadas pelos métodos de gestão e a associação dos seus efeitos com sintomas mórbidos, conforme descreve a literatura consultada. Os representantes das empresas nas audiências públicas resistiram em reconhecer o caráter patogênico de suas organizações. A estratégia de buscar a ação intersetorial mostrou-se profícua, permitindo viabilizar a elaboração de instrumentos práticos, como divulgação de resultados científicos e elaboração de notas técnicas, com elevada potencialidade para transformar a realidade sanitária dos teleatendentes.

  14. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators; Radioprotecao em irradiadores de grande porte de categoria III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro, E-mail: neivaldo@cena.usp.b, E-mail: gilfurlan@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Natanael Marcio, E-mail: natanael.itepan@unianhanguera.edu.b [Universidade Anhanguera, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  15. Optimizando las cinco categorias de calificacion para una escala de socializacion de atletas bajo el modelo Rasch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montiel, Jose Maria; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Antonio Machado, Afonso

    2016-01-01

    .... El objetivo de este estudio consistio en optimizar los items de las escalas en una prueba de socializacion basada en el modelo de los Cinco Grandes, estableciendo asociaciones a partir de adjetivos...

  16. An Amphictyonic Decree, Aristotle, and the Scythians: A Crux in Didymus’ Commentary on Demosthenes

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    Craig A. Gibson

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In the papyrus of Didymus’ commentary on Demosthenes, a fragmentary passage concerning “benefactors” can be shown to concern Dem. 10.31 and to relate to a story about Alexander’s dealings with Scythians whose name he changed to Euergetai.

  17. Aristotle and Chamaeleon and Anonymous in the Margins of Genev.gr. 44

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    Robert Mayhew

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A scholion in a 13th-century ms., citing contradictory explanations of Zeus’ comments about war, gives not only Aristotle’s view and Chamaeleon’s reply but also a third view as well.

  18. Teaching Theology Students Who Don't Know Aristotle from Aquinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the increasing numbers of graduate theology students, both part-time and full-time, who have little knowledge of the Bible, theological concepts, and church history. Suggests this is due to the decline of liberal arts education, the marginalization of religious instruction, and a radical change in the type of students who may be new…

  19. Aristotle's carp as Claretus' bird comor? Tracing the origin of one medieval term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 111-123 ISSN 0567-8269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ancient and medieval zoology * Latin lexicography * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré * Claretus * carp * komor * comor Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics http://www.karolinum.cz/ink2_stat/index.jsp?include=AUC_clanek&id=2668&casopis=94&zalozka=0&predkl=0

  20. Development of the ARISTOTLE webware for cloud-based rarefied gas flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Timothy R.; Grot, Jonathan; Cline, Jason A.

    2016-11-01

    Rarefied gas dynamics are important for a wide variety of applications. An improvement in the ability of general users to predict these gas flows will enable optimization of current, and discovery of future processes. Despite this potential, most rarefied simulation software is designed by and for experts in the community. This has resulted in low adoption of the methods outside of the immediate RGD community. This paper outlines an ongoing effort to create a rarefied gas dynamics simulation tool that can be used by a general audience. The tool leverages a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) library that is available to the entire community and a web-based simulation process that will enable all users to take advantage of high performance computing capabilities. First, the DSMC library and simulation architecture are described. Then the DSMC library is used to predict a number of representative transient gas flows that are applicable to the rarefied gas dynamics community. The paper closes with a summary and future direction.

  1. Creativity in the Research Process. Accompanying Aristotle on a scuba diving excursion in the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Nilsén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates creativity as an attitude on demand from the researcher in a special situation in the research process. The situation occurs when the collected data does not coinside with the antecipated result. Hans Joas understanding of creative action is abolished for the adaptation of the Aristotelian concept of practical wisdom (phronesis as the foundation for the attitude. The data has to be analysed with the unique and particular in focus in order for new connections and relations to be revealed. An attitude concentrated on revealing the particular in the data is necessary. From there a new attitude takes over that focuses the general on behalf of the particular. The research process is exposed in a parallell text on Scuba diving.

  2. From Aristotle to Today: Making the History and Nature of Science Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2009-01-01

    Students connect to science in multiple ways. For some students, learning how real people have developed and defended their scientific ideas makes science relevant and interesting. Tracking the changes in scientific thought over time can be fascinating for students as they see how scientists based their growing understanding on empirical data that…

  3. The six requirements of premises of scientific proof in Aristotle (Posterior Analytics A 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Angioni

    2012-01-01

    Discuto neste artigo os seis requisitos que Aristóteles propõe para as premissas das demonstrações científicas em Segundos Analíticos I 2, 71b20-33. Pretendo mostrar que os seis requisitos não respaldam a interpretação "axiomatizante". Ao contrário, os seis requisitos podem ser entendidos consistentemente de acordo com uma interpretação segundo a qual o traço mais fundamental da demonstração científica consiste na explicação pela causa apropriada. I discuss in this paper the six requiremen...

  4. Klugheit. Grundbegriff des Praktischen bei Aristoteles [Prudence.The Basic Concept of the Practical in Aristotle

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold Wald

    2016-01-01

    The article begins by recalling the most important understandings associated with the term prudence in the history of philosophy.Then it introduces the Aristotelian concept of prudence linked to practical truth—prudence seen in contrast to wisdom and knowledge of manufacturing. The article discusses various forms of rational knowledge associated with the right will, and proves the need of linking prudence to all the other ethical virtues based on moral principles. It emphasizes the problem of...

  5. Aristotle and Autism: Reconsidering a Radical Shift to Virtue Ethics in Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Virtue-based approaches to engineering ethics have recently received considerable attention within the field of engineering education. Proponents of virtue ethics in engineering argue that the approach is practically and pedagogically superior to traditional approaches to engineering ethics, including the study of professional codes of ethics and normative theories of behavior. This paper argues that a virtue-based approach, as interpreted in the current literature, is neither practically or pedagogically effective for a significant subpopulation within engineering: engineers with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because the main argument for adopting a character-based approach is that it could be more successfully applied to engineering than traditional rule-based or algorithmic ethical approaches, this oversight is problematic for the proponents of the virtue-based view. Furthermore, without addressing these concerns, the wide adoption of a virtue-based approach to engineering ethics has the potential to isolate individuals with ASD and to devalue their contributions to moral practice. In the end, this paper gestures towards a way of incorporating important insights from virtue ethics in engineering that would be more inclusive of those with ASD.

  6. What is political in sub-politics? How Aristotle might help STS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent contributions by Collins, Evans, Jasanoff and Wynne to the discussion of how science and technology studies (STS) might contribute to understanding ‘subpolitics’ - the complex, expert knowledge-intensive and distributed political issues technological societies have to deal with - and

  7. Basic Evaluation and the Virtuous Realisation of Values: The Integrative Model of Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Riedenauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human affectivity is a research topic situated at the intersection of psychology, philosophical anthropology, theory of action and ethics. This article reconstructs the Aristotelian theory of emotions in the context of his theory of aspiration (o/recij and in terms of their function as primary evaluators of situations, which forms the basis for virtue ethics. The Aristotelian model integrates desire, motivation and morality for a rational being in community. Affects (pa/Jh reveal the profile of relevance of the world to a person as an indispensable basis for the work of practical reason. They are analysed in the dimensions of their cognitive core, their social, bodily, and motivational aspects. Affectivity constitutes a primary evaluative response to situations and thereby disposes human beings to realise their call to morally good, virtuous and fulfilling action.

  8. [Does the thumb have two phalanges or three? Development of ideas since Aristotle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, R; Le Nen, D; Richou, J; Seizeur, R; Williams, T; Lefèvre, C

    2009-01-01

    Many controversies mark the long road of the history of anatomy. The hand is not exempt of them. Even Galen's clear thinking, founded on the strict determinism between the structure of an organ and its function, and based on animal dissection, was criticized. In view of the structural complexity of the hand, we will limit our study to one of the most symptomatic conceptual disagreements: whether the human thumb has two or three phalanges, according to whether we include the first metacarpus, or if the thumb's first phalanx is considered as the initial element. According to the latter theory, there is a missing element in the first digital row, and this missing element is the metacarpus. This theory is ancient and its evolution throughout history is discussed in our study. Finally, we explain the origin and bases of the reasoning that led us to suggest the word 'metaphalanx' to designate the first metacarpus.

  9. Com"position": Ecocomposition, Aristotle, and the First-Year Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Peter Wayne

    2011-01-01

    I see a parallel between the illiteracy I witnessed while working in the court system and the challenges facing first-year writers at the university. In both cases, problems arise due to unfamiliarity with the discourse community into which one enters. In response, because much of the language governing composition and rhetoric is rife with place…

  10. Ancestor Worship in The Logic of Games. How foundational were Aristotle's contributions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Woods

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding their technical virtuosity and growing presence in mainstream thinking, game theoretic logics have attracted a sceptical question: "Granted that logic can be done game theoretically, but what would justify the idea that this is the preferred way to do it?'' A recent suggestion is that at least part of the desired support might be found in the Greek dialectical writings. If so, perhaps we could say that those works possess a kind of foundational significance. The relation of being foundational for is interesting in its own right. In this paper, I explore its ancient applicability to relevant, paraconsistent and nonmonotonic logics, before returning to the question of its ancestral tie, or want of one, to the modern logics of games.

  11. About Being a Friend: Friendship and Metaphysics by Plato, Aristotle, Augustine and Albert the Great

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Quero Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Friendship defines an ontological scope in which being is not only regarded as the totality of things «being merely there to be used for something». That is, the area of beings which are wanted for their own sake (propter se ipsa or gratia sui), i.e. absolutely. This paper distinguishes between two different concepts of friendship which are based on two ways of understanding being: an idealistic one — as we find it in Plato’s Lysis and above all in St. Augustine’s Confessions, who maintain th...

  12. About Being a Friend: Friendship and Metaphysics by Plato, Aristotle, Augustine and Albert the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Quero Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    of friendship in his commentaries on the Nicomachian Ethics (both Super Ethica and Ethica and we show how his metaphysics should be considered as Christian Aristotelism, according to the traditional interpretation, which has, as is known, been questioned for decades

  13. Monstrosities and Twitterings: A Note on the Early Reception of Aristotle's Posterior Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    2010-01-01

    En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser.......En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser....

  14. The Quest for a Poetics of Goodness in Plato and Aristotle

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    Dairo Orozco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo compara las concepciones de actividad artística en Platón y Aristóteles y se divide en tres partes. En la primera, se discuten la mimesis y la technē en el Ion de Platón, así como el papel de la poesía en la República. En la segunda, se hace un recuento de la idea de felicidad de Aristóteles como fin de la acción. En la última se discute el intento de reconciliación de las posiciones de Platón y Aristóteles realizado por el pensador neoplatónico renacentista, Torquato Tasso.

  15. Economics, chrematistics, oikos and polis in Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas

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    José Luis Cendejas Bueno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Aristotle’s thought, economic activity refers to a kind of praxis consisting in allocating the human and material means that constitute the oikos –the domestic community- to fulfil its natural ends: ensure both life and the means of life. By means of natural chrematistics -acquisitive art- families acquire the necessary means for this, which come from production and exchange. Families group together in the political community (polis whose end is living well, according to virtues, among which justice is highlighted as the ‘complete virtue’. For its part, the Christian êthos regards every human act, internal and external, of this complete system (polis, oikos and chrematistics as tending towards its ultimate purpose (beatitudo. In St. Thomas’s view, eternal law harmonizes necessity of irrational beings, loving God’s action (divine law, natural law, and the contingency of ‘human things’ where the economy is included. Trading activity is lawful if it is at the service of the oikos or polis and according to how is exercised, by following commutative justice. The family, political and religious character of human nature establishes what the natural-necessary consists of, embracing, apart from bodily goods, others derived from considering social status and the life chosen (civil, religious, active or contemplative. Economic activity based on this anthropological root has a specific place as a part of an ordered natural-legal totality that provides the economy with meaning and sufficient moral guidance.

  16. Drivin' Trucks, Huntin' Bucks, and Reading Aristotle?: The Rural Student's College Choice Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Rachel Mayes

    2014-01-01

    Even though rural students make up a fifth of the population of all American students, they do not attend college in numbers equivalent to urban and suburban students. The rural student faces influences related to college choice that differ from those of suburban and urban students. These influences, which could be considered problems or barriers,…

  17. On social justice: Comparing Paul with Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    reading of early Christianity and argued that far from offering a solution, the. Jews became the new scapegoats of the Christians. My purpose is not to debate the theories of Girard or Mack here, but only to underline the importance of analysing the process of myth-making itself, of how myths and rituals are manipulated and ...

  18. What Einstein Would Have Said to Aristotle Regarding Dynamics and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio Ernesto Cala Vitery

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parallel in the forms of Aristotle’s and Einstein’s physics. It’s an exercise on conceptual analysis rather than history. The possible similarity between Aristotle’s world and the form (global geometry of Einstein’s universe is discussed. The correlation between kinematics, dynamics and gravity in their respective theories is also studied. Finally, Aristotle’s ontology of space is compared to the relativistic ontology spacetime.

  19. Aristotle Imagines Being. Dialectics and Phantasia in the Origin of Knowledge

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    Claudia Carbonell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore the cognitive performance of imagination [φαντασία] in building the starting point of scientific explanations. I wish to indicate how φαντασία plays a rol in the construction of meaningful wholes which allow the emergence of conceptual horizons for scientific theories. With this in mind, I turn first to the traditional doctrine of the knowledge of principles in Posterior Analytics II, 19. Secondly, I will discuss De Anima 402b16-403a2, a text which I believe sheds light on this issue. In conclusion, I point out some overlaps between the role of imagination in understanding theoretical principles and the role its plays in shaping the ultimate goal of human life.

  20. The Commentary on Aristotle's De Anima by Alphonsus Vargas Toletanus, OESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.J.J.M.; Bercken, J.H.L. van den

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the commentary on Aristotle’s De anima by Alphonsus Vargas Toletanus, OESA († 1366). The commentary has been preserved in one manuscript, Cremona, Biblioteca Statale, Ms. 113 (Nl-12193), written in Bologna in 1475, and in at least five editions printed between 1477 and 1609.

  1. The early reception of Aristotle through Averroes in medieval Jewish philosophy: the case of the Midrash ha-Hokhmah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Midrash ha-hokhmah ('The exposition of science') is a thirteenth-century Hebrew encyclopedic text that aims to divu lge contemporary science and philosophy among Jews. Its author is the rather unknown Judah ben Solomon ha-Kohen of Toledo. Originally drafted in Arabic in Toledo, the Hebrew

  2. “La tua Grecia, la quale a me non è Dio”: Martello and Metastasio in reinterpreting Aristotle

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    Flavio Ferri-Benedetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Martello in 1714 and Metastasio in 1773-1783: two Italian authors who, bothbelonging to the Accademia dell’Arcadia, tried, on one hand, to reinterpret andunderstand the dictates of Aristotle’s Poetics (largely “twisted” during the previouscentury by a number of zealous scholars through the literary and philosophical innovations of their time; and, on the other hand, to apply this new perspective to the important genre of musical theatre or dramma per musica. We look for (and compare eventual links between both authors in the treatment of Aristotelian prescriptions applied to the rich patterns of late baroque theatre and melodramma.

  3. Aristotle, the jewish sages and Solomon in an unpublished collection of sayings, Palabras breves: dichos de sabios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Haro Cortés

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edition of an unpublished collection of sayings, of Jewish origin, to be found in Manuscript 5644 of the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid, on folios 78V (lxxxv to 84V (lxxxviv. The contents are to be found in the Libro de los buenos proverbios (translated from Arabic into Spanish and Hebrew in the 13th century; in the Pirqué Abot, the only wisdom tractate in the Mishnah; and in the Proverbs of Solomon, part of the Tanakh, i.e. the Hebrew bible. The compilation of the work involved selecting and reorganising materials from various sources, following the editor’s tastes and interests, and giving rise to a new literary product which is a perfect example of the process and techniques involved in the assimilation and transmission of the Jewish wisdom legacy to the Castilian Middle Ages.

  4. Estudo das categorias narrativas, variações e permanências nas versões de Basile, Perrault, Grimm e Disney de A Bela Adormecida

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Bruna Cardoso Brasil de [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Los cuentos populares se difunden en el tiempo y en el espacio. Desde los tiempos más remotos, las civilizaciones más distantes comparten las mismas historias con algunas modificaciones que generalmente dicen respecto al contexto en que vivían. Fundamentado en el principio de que estos cuentos tienden a perpetuarse en la historia, estudiaremos cuatro versiones actualmente conocidas como La Bella Durmiente, siendo ellas: Sol, Luna y Talia, de Giambattista Basile; La bella durmiente en el bosqu...

  5. PERFIL DE IMC, SOMATOTIPO, AGILIDADE E RESISTÊNCIA ANAERÓBICA LÁCTICA DE ATLETAS DE FUTSAL FEMININO DAS CATEGORIAS SUB 15, 17, 19 E ADULTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to verify and compare the possible differences in body mass index (BMI, somatotype, agility and anaerobic endurance athletes of lactic futsal sub categories of 15, 17, 19 and adult in São José do Rio Pardo. Materials and Methods: A sample of 45 athletes futsal members of the sub categories 15, 17, 19 and adult who signed the consent form. The athletes underwent a routine evaluation were conducted in two sessions. The first session was conducted anthropometric measurements (weight, height, skinfolds, circumferences and breadths to calculate BMI and somatotype and the second session tests were applied to verify lactic anaerobic endurance and agility. We used descriptive statistics (mean values, standard deviation, maximum and minimum. Results: BMI had sub 15 average (20.1, under 17 (20.9, under 19 (21.3 and adult (23.6. In Somatotype average values Endomorphy were sub 15 (5.3, under 17 (5.5, sub 19 (5.6 and adult (6.4, the mean values were Mesomorphy in sub 15 (1.9, under 17 (2.1, sub 19 (2.4 and adult (3.1, and the mean values were Ectomorphia in sub 15 (3.0, under 17 (2.5, sub 19 (2.6 and adult (1.8. In agility test Shuttle Run had sub 15 average (12.4, under 17 (12.1, under 19 (12.0 and adult (12.1. And in anaerobic lactic endurance test 40' mean values were sub 15 (132.4, sub 17 (133.3, sub 19 (133.6 and adult (130.8. Conclusion: Through this study we can see that the group is very heterogeneous athletes evaluated, the results were as varied as possible in their respective categories, so we can say that the same individual does not have the same physical profile in all evaluations.

  6. Construindo relacionamentos com a marca: qual é o papel da experiência de marca, da individualidade do consumidor e da categoria de produto nesse processo?

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Alberto Rodrigues Silva

    2016-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é identificar os efeitos de diferenças individuais dos consumidores sobre a experiência de marca e a qualidade do relacionamento com a marca para produtos de consumo público (roupas) e privado (eletrodomésticos de linha branca). Para alcançar esse objetivo, foi concebido um modelo teórico para ser testado empiricamente. A partir de uma revisão de literatura acerca de experiência de marca e qualidade do relacionamento com a marca, percebeu-se o potencial do emprego de e...

  7. Categorias, níveis e causas de resistência de genótipos de feijoeiro a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo, Wellington Ivo [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to select bean genotypes with resistance-related traits against Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to identify resistance categories, levels and mechanisms. The experiment was carried out at UNESP/FCAV, in the Departamento de Fitossanidade, Laboratório de Resistência de Plantas a Insetos, at 25 ± 1 ºC temperature, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 12h photophase. Was evaluated antibiosis of bean genotypes to Z. subfasciatus, using completely ra...

  8. Reflexões sobre o estatuto epistemológico das CSH: uma revisão das categorias verdade, sujeito e subjetividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Rochelle Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio teórico tem como objetivo discutir o conceito de verdade com ênfase nas obras de Friedrich Nietzsche e Michel Foucault, percebendo a temática como um dos conceitos chaves para se pensar o estatuto epistemológico das Ciências Sociais e Humanas (CSH na atualidade, já que o mesmo se faz intrinsicamente ligado a condições de possibilidades dadas, incidindo por sua vez na questão da produção de subjetividades, bem como do próprio sujeito, na medida em que estes são produzidos a partir e numa teia de relações invisíveis pautada em jogos de verdades e relações de poder. Para tanto, optamos num primeiro momento por realizar uma breve discussão acerca dos principais conflitos epistemológicos no campo das CSH, entre eles a antiga dualidade entre individuo x social, bem como a questão de causa e feito.

  9. Sistema de categorias para análisis didáctico de los trabajos prácticos en la enseñanza de la biologia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucia Puentes Echeverri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis documental de fuentes especializadas en Didáctica de las Ciencias, se propone un sistema de categorías para la realización de análisis didáctico de los Trabajos Prácticos (TP en la enseñanza de la Biología. Las categorías propuestas son: naturaleza, finalidad, aspectos metodológicos, evaluación, y relación con aspectos epistemológicos de la Biología y de las Ciencias. Dadas las características del sistema propuesto, éste posibilita la realización de estudios sobre caracterización de TP, estructuración de TP, análisis en la planificación y desarrollo de TP, reflexiones sobre el conocimiento didáctico del contenido biológico en profesores.

  10. AVANCE DE INVESTIGACION: CONSTRUCCION DE CATEGORIAS DE ANALISIS PARA DETERMINAR LA INCLUSION DE LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PROFESIONALES EN BIOLOGIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Pérez Cediel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación para lograr identificar como se encuentra incluida la Educación Ambiental en el programa de Biología de la Universidad del Tolima, se hace necesario plantear un sistema de categorías que permitan la construcción de instrumentos, interpretación y análisis de documentos y datos, así como la discusión de resultados. Para lograr el objetivo, se plantean tres categorías que engloban los diferentes temas que se deben tener en cuenta en un currículo ambientalizado: (A concepción de ambiente, (B tendencia en Educación Ambiental y (C ambientalización curricular; y cada categoría cuenta con unas subcategorías que entre ellas se entrelazan y construyen la categoría superior y la unión de las categorías permiten diagnosticar el estado de la Educación Ambiental.

  11. Participação racial e de gênero nas categorias gerentes, empregados especialistas, empregados qualificados e supervisores no Brasil (1992 e 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Anacleto dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the fact that white women have managed to make use of their degrees to get higher work positions with access to authority more than black women and, partly, even more than white and black men. This statement considers the significant women advance in occupations requiring higher education and exercise of authority at work, analyzing the racial contours in this configuration. Therefore there are repercussions on their income, which has changed the profile of gender categories of the Brazilian average employee.

  12. Altporn, Bodies, Categories, And Clicks: Ethnographic Notes About Online Pornography [altporn, Corpos, Categorias E Cliques: Notas Etnográficas Sobre Pornografia Online

    OpenAIRE

    Parreiras C.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the topic of porn videos found on the Internet in order to think about the possible impacts and modifications provided by this technology in pornographic representation. The choice for the online was due to the tremendous growth and market segmentation of porn in this space, as well as national and transnational constant attempts to control the content posted on the network, whose main points of discussion are pornography, pedophilia and piracy. So, in this paper, I int...

  13. Percepção social sobre categorias de risco do suicídio entre colonos alemães do noroeste do rio grande do sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Heck

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir para una comprensión más amplia e como los individuos que pertenecen al medio rural, descendientes de alemanes que se auto-denominan de colonos, identifican, explican y lidan/enfrentan el problema mental que involucra el suicidio. La metodología consistió en la etnografía. El abordaje de la Antropología de la Salud hizo posible que a través de las narrativas de diferenciación “la enfermedad de los nervios” se llegue a la categoría del riesgo del suicidio. La comprensión del contexto de vida es indispensable para que los profesionales del sistema del cuidado de la salud tengan una intervención de credibilidad con el grupo de colonos.

  14. Manual de entrenamiento para mejorar la calidad en el servicio del departamento de recepción para hoteles de primera categoria de la ciudad de Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Touma, Maria Soledad; Velarde, Maria Gabriela; Caicedo Gutierrez, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    El propósito del Manual de entrenamiento para mejorar la calidad en el servicio del departamento de recepción para los hoteles de primera categoría de la ciudad de Guayaquil fue creado ante la necesidad de brindar un servicio de excelencia en estos hoteles mediante la capacitación de sus empleados. Ofrecemos una herramienta de trabajo que además de motivar a los empleados en su trabajo diario, les brindará los conocimientos necesarios para avanzar hacia mejores oportunidades. Para lograr...

  15. Altporn, corpos, categorias e cliques: notas etnográficas sobre pornografia online Altporn, bodies, categories, and clicks: ethnographic notes about online pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Parreiras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discuto o tema dos vídeos pornôs encontrados na internet, para pensar sobre os possíveis impactos e modificações proporcionados por essa tecnologia nos modos de representação pornográfica. A escolha do on-line se deu a partir da constatação do enorme crescimento e segmentação do mercado pornô nesse espaço, bem como das constantes tentativas nacionais e transnacionais de controle do conteúdo veiculado na rede, cujos principais pontos de discussão são a pornografia, a pedofilia e a pirataria. Assim, pretendo neste paper, a partir de uma perspectiva antropológica, abordar as maneiras como o online atua no mercado erótico, especialmente no Brasil, aumentando a segmentação do gênero pornográfico e permitindo o crescimento da chamada pornografia alternativa (altporn. Para tal, tomarei como base dados de minha pesquisa empírica enfocando o site brasileiro pioneiro na produção e comercialização de pornografia alternativa. Meu intento é perceber de que modo se organiza a produção desse ramo da pornografia - com estreita ligação com os avanços tecnológicos - e quais convenções de gênero estão operando nesse segmento a partir da observação dos corpos, desejos e práticas sexuais encontrados nos vídeos e imagens.This article discusses the topic of porn videos found on the Internet in order to think about the possible impacts and modifications provided by this technology in pornographic representation. The choice for the online was due to the tremendous growth and market segmentation of porn in this space, as well as national and transnational constant attempts to control the content posted on the network, whose main points of discussion are pornography, pedophilia and piracy. So, in this paper, I intend, from an anthropological perspective, to address the ways in which online acts in the porn market, especially in Brazil, increasing segmentation of the genre pornographic and enabling the growth of pornography so called alternative (altporn. To do this, I take examples of my database of empirical research focusing on the pioneer Brazilian website in the production of alternative pornography. My intent is to understand the ways in which this kind of production are organized - with close liaison with technological advances - and what are the genre conventions that operate in this segment from the observation of bodies, desires and sexual practices found in videos and pictures.

  16. CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES FOR THE STUDY OF Strategic KNOWLEDGE USED WHEN INTERACTING WITH EDUCATIONAL SIMULATIONS CATEGORIAS CONCEPTUALES PARA EL ESTUDIO DEL CONOCIMIENTO ESTRATEGICO EMPLEADO AL INTERACTUAR CON SIMULACIONES EDUCATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Bouciguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce some relationships between elements coming from psychological referentials with the purpose of developing a referential framework for interpreting and understanding the actions that take place during school practices with computer simulations that include, in addition to concepts of the learning process of a particular discipline, concepts that refer to social relationships, not only interactions among people but also between people with to culture, social institutions and social structure. From a social constructivist approach is proposed to constitute the object of study in the system “person + tool” in the situated context in the learning of science in the school, in order to obtain categories that allow us investigate the strategic knowledge employed by the students when they use educational simulations and the influence of the latter in science learning. We believe that the study of the strategic knowledge performed by the students in science classes when they interact with computer simulations is an issue of the technological mediation of learning. For that reason, from the socio-historical perspective we have selected the following categories: instrumental mediation, the distributed character of cognition, the zone of proximal development and the situated character of cognition.En este trabajo se presentan algunas relaciones entre elementos provenientes de referenciales psicológicos a los fines de elaborar un marco referencial que permita interpretar y comprender las acciones que se realizan durante prácticas escolares con simulaciones computacionales que incluya, además de conceptos propios del proceso de aprendizaje de una disciplina particular, conceptos que refieran a las relaciones sociales, tanto interacciones entre personas como los vínculos de las personas con la cultura, las instituciones sociales y la estructura social. Desde un enfoque constructivista social, se propone constituir el objeto de estudio en el sistema persona más herramienta en un contexto situado en el aprendizaje de la ciencia escolar, a fin de obtener categorías para indagar sobre el conocimiento estratégico empleado por los estudiantes al utilizar simulaciones educativas y la influencia de estas en el aprendizaje de las Ciencias. Consideramos que el estudio del conocimiento estratégico puesto en juego por alumnos en clases de ciencias cuando interactúan con simulaciones computacionales es un problema de la mediación tecnológica de los aprendizajes. Por tal razón, desde la perspectiva socio histórica se han seleccionado las siguientes categorías: la mediación instrumental, el carácter distribuido de la cognición, la zona de desarrollo próximo y el carácter situado de la cognición.

  17. Educação, pobreza e emprego: uma análise a partir das categorias escolaridade, gênero e cor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon de Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2013v31n2p687 A partir da crítica aos pressupostos da Teoria do Capital Humano, objetiva-se mostrar que as variáveis sexo, cor e escolaridade têm pesos diferentes na defi nição da entrada e permanência dos trabalhadores no mercado de trabalho, bem como têm repercussão direta nas condições da ocupação, quando são levados em conta o salário e os direitos trabalhistas. Analisando informações do mercado de trabalho, conclui-se que a desigualdade estabelecida no trato de negros e mulheres inibe a infl uência dos ganhos que possam ser decorrentes do aumento de escolarização, principalmente entre as mulheres negras e que, por conseguinte, a articulação direta entre escolarização e diminuição do quadro de pobreza não encontra sustentação empírica.

  18. O ESTRANHO COMO CATEGORIA POLÍTICA: PSICANÁLISE, TEORIA QUEER E AS EXPERIÊNCIAS DE INDETERMINAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Moreira Lima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Judith Butler se apropria de vários conceitos da psicanálise, mas não explora o estranho (Unheimliche freudiano. Trata-se, aqui, de investigar a função política desse conceito, considerando que a norma o converte em abjeção, como em casos de homofobia e transfobia. No encontro entre um sujeito cujo semblante sexuado é estruturado dentro da hegemonia heterossexual e um sujeito com semblante abjeto, o primeiro espera ver i(a, um outro-espelho de sua imagem narcísica, mas se defronta com a, o estranho abismo do desejo do Outro. Com Lacan, esse Unheimliche é produtor de angústia no eu do sujeito, o que faz vacilar suas identificações em uma experiência de indeterminação. Porém, nossas formas de vida sustentam ficções identitárias demasiado rígidas, que convertem essa angústia do indeterminado em medo e violência. Em certos casos de homofobia e transfobia, um sujeito com semblante normalizado vivencia de maneira improdutiva a ameaça de dissolução do seu eu frente a um estranho que é tido como abjeto, inumano, monstruoso. Torna-se crucial pensar formas de vida em que experiências de indeterminação possam ser vividas de maneira produtiva, em que identificações sejam mais porosas em relação àquilo que não se reduz à forma determinada de um eu.

  19. Hannah Arendt e Agamben: o totalitarismo como categoria biopolítica e a politização da vida nas sociedades democráticas liberais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elivanda Oliveira Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available O texto tem como objetivo apresentar uma leitura biopolítica da obra de Hannah Arendt, o que requer uma análise da relação entre vida e política, a partir dos elementos biopolíticos contidos na filosofia da autora, especialmente no que diz respeito ao totalitarismo como forma de governo sem precedentes na história da humanidade. Por conseguinte, examinaremos o processo de politização do biológico que elevou a vida a bem supremo, resultando em consequências radicais para o domínio público. Para tanto, lançaremos mão também do arcabouço conceitual de Agamben, principalmente, dos conceitos de vida nua, estado de exceção, homo sacer, para que possamos trazer à luz os elementos biopolíticos que perpassam a obra arendtiana e que fundamentam o jogo político das atuais democracias liberais.

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA RECEPCIÓN EN VOLEIBOL EN CATEGORIA JUVENIL, EN FUNCIÓN DE LA INTENSIDAD DEL SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Carrero Pajares

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La recepción en voleibol es una de las acciones más importante dentro del K1. La importancia de ésta, estriba en la construcción de un ataque con éxito, puesto que si la recepción es defectuosa, el balón no llegará al colocador en las condiciones idóneas para organizar un ataque eficaz. Sin una buena recepción no se consiguen ataques rápidos o múltiples, con lo que estamos facilitando el juego de defensa del equipo contrario (Fiedler, 1982; González, Ureña, Santos, Llop & Navarro, 2001. Debido a su importancia, son diversos los estudios que han analizado dicha acción, pero pocos los que han tenido en cuenta variables situacionales como el número de set, el lugar del partido (Campos,  Stanganélli, Campos, Pasquarelli & Gómez, 2014 o la intensidad del set (Drikos, & Vagenas, 2011. Poniendo de manifiesto la importancia de tener en cuenta las variables situacionales en los estudios de analisis de juego Objetivo: El objetivo de nuestra investigación es analizar las características de la recepción en voleibol, en función de la intensidad del partido.

  1. Seguridad social para adultos mayores en Venezuela: caracteristicas, bondades y limitaciones del Regimen Prestacional de Servicios Sociales al Adulto Mayor y Otras Categorias de Personas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arraga Barrios, Marisela Virginia

    2011-01-01

    ... y humanos, caracteristicas y necesidades particulares, propias de la edad. Tal logro en la formulacion de politicas publicas, motivo la realizacion de este estudio de tipo cualitativo, analitico, mixto...

  2. Formulação de casos com transtorno bipolar I por meio da análise de categorias descritivas e psicodinâmicas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Meirilane Naves da

    2013-01-01

    Contexto: o Transtorno Bipolar (TB) representa um grande problema para a saúde pública e para os profissionais de saúde mental. É um transtorno recorrente, crônico, grave, com baixa adesão ao tratamento e gera prejuízos sociais, relacionais, psicológicos e financeiros que afetam a pessoa acometida e seus familiares, o sistema de saúde e a sociedade. A ausência de uma avaliação precoce do transtorno e os erros diagnósticos contribuem ...

  3. Família como categoria de análise e campo de investigação em enfermagem Familia como categoria de análisis y campo de investigación en enfermeria Family as an analysis category and research field in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Ângelo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescente corpo de informações sobre família presente na literatura de enfermagem significa progresso neste campo de conhecimento. As contribuições da pesquisa de enfermagem sobre família incluem a experiência da doença, o contexto de cuidado e intervenções. A ampliação da pesquisa sobre família em enfermagem torna imperativa a reflexão acerca da qualidade da pesquisa considerando a complexidade inerente aos estudos de família. Pesquisar famílias representa mais do que definir um grupo peculiar de estudo. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir aspectos teóricos e metodológicos que devem ser considerados quando o pesquisador planeja pesquisar a família. As reflexões e os desafios da pesquisa sobre família apresentados são frutos de um processo de investigação sobre famílias e doenças que vivenciamos em nosso grupo de pesquisa ao longo de mais de uma década.El creciente cuerpo de información sobre familia presente en la literatura de enfermería significa progreso en este campo del conocimiento. Las contribuciones de la investigación de enfermería sobre familia incluyen la experiencia de la enfermedad, el contexto del cuidado y las intervenciones. La expansión de la investigación sobre familia en enfermería hace necesaria la reflexión sobre la calidad de la investigación, teniendo en cuenta la complejidad inherente a los estudios de familia. Investigar familias representa algo más que definir un grupo peculiar de estudio. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir aspectos teóricos y metodológicos que deben considerarse cuando el investigador planea estudiar la familia. Las reflexiones y los desafíos de la investigación sobre familia presentados, son el resultado de un proceso de investigación sobre familias y enfermedades que vivenciamos en nuestro grupo de investigación durante más de una década.The increasing information about family in nursing literature expresses the progress in this area of knowledge. The research contribution on family nursing has included the illness experience, and both the context of care and interventions. The increase of family research in nursing studies demands consideration regarding the research quality, in view of the complexity of the studies that deal with family. Researching family represents more than defining a unique group of study. The aim of this study was to discuss theoretical and methodological aspects which should be taken into account by the researchers in their work with families. The reflections and challenges when studying family and illness have been described in this work and represent our 10-year experience investigating families and illnesses in our research group.

  4. "With His Sharp Lok Perseth the Sonne": A New Quadrant from Canterbury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Elly

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a medieval instrument, a "quadrans novus", which turned up during archaeological works in England. The invention of the instrument by Profacius in 1288 is discussed in terms of two other medieval instruments, the "quadrans vetus" and the common astrolabe. The characteristics of the present instrument are compared with those of…

  5. Die huwelik in die eerste-eeuse Mediterreense wêreld (III): Jesus en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    30 Jan 2007 ... teks die Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia van Elliger & Rudolph [1983] gebruik), maak gebruik van die eklektiese LXX-uitgawe van Göttingen (Septuaginta. Vetus Testamentum Graecum). Steyn (1996:451-458) toon egter by implikasie aan dat Loader, indien hy van Kodeks. Aleksandrinus (LXX) of Kodeks ...

  6. Latin cults through Roman eyes : Myth, memory and cult practice in the Alban hills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of the Latin past in the Roman present, by investigating three large sanctuaries in the Alban hills: that of Diana Nemorensis, Juno Sospita and Jupiter Latiaris. The Alban hills are volcanic highlands southeast of Rome, which are located in the heart of Latium Vetus

  7. Aristotle and the Mathematical Tradition on diastēma and logos: An Analysis of Physics 3.3, 202a18-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ugaglia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Physics 3.3, by distinguishing two kinds of kinesis involved in the same interval, constitutes evidence of a debate on the respective merits of proportion theory vs. harmonic theory.

  8. Arterial stiffness and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in young healthy volunteers: the early vascular ageing Aristotle University Thessaloniki Study (EVA-ARIS Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Stabouli, Stella; Karafillis, Ioannis; Papakatsika, Sofia; Rizos, Zoe; Miyakis, Spiros; Goulopoulou, Sofia; Parati, Gianfranco; Nilsson, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Differences in 24 h blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters such as average 24 h BP, day to night BP ratio and BP variability could have an impact in arterial stiffness. The study hypothesis was that despite similar average BP values in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring subjects with increased 24 h BP variability may have increased arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 115 consecutive young healthy volunteers. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in all subjects. Clinic BP was measured and an appropriate cuff was fitted on the non-dominant arm of each subject for a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring session. Waist to hip ratio as well as BMI was measured. Family history and smoking habits were recorded. In univariate analysis, estimated carotid-femoral PWV showed a significant correlation with age, weight, waist circumference, height, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP variability, daytime systolic and diastolic BP, daytime pulse pressure, daytime systolic and diastolic BP variability, nighttime systolic BP, nighttime pulse pressure and nighttime systolic BP variability. In multivariate regression analysis, age (B=0.95, P<0.001) and 24 h systolic BP variability (B=0.28, P<0.001) were independent determinanats of arterial stiffness. In conclusions, increased 24 h systolic BP variability is associated with arterial stiffness in young healthy volunteers. Pulse wave velocity in a young healthy population is useful to identify determinants of premature arterial stiffness, thus further elucidating the aspects of early vascular ageing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Study of Muslim Philosophers’ Views about Rhythm and Rhyme (with emphasis on the works of Aristotle, al-Farabi, Averroes, Ibn Sina, Baghdadi, Khajeh Nasir and Ghartajeni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Zarghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A part of Muslim philosophers’ studies is allocated to music. They categorize music as a sub-branch of mathematical sciences and investigate it scientifically, not artistically. Al-Musighi al-Kabir by al-Farabi and Javame’ Elm al-Musighi by Ibn Sina are among the most important works in this regard. Under the general category of music, they also allocate a section to the music of poem and investigate it scientifically. Their ideas about the music of poem are similar to as well as different from the ideas of prosodists. This article aims to study their ideas about the music of poem briefly. The first section is allocated to the issue of rhythm in verbal arts and it is shown that our philosophers consider two kinds of rhythm: quantifiable and not quantifiable. The first one exists in poem and the second one is in non-poetic language. Also they define certain characteristics for each of these rhythms. Quantity, the equality of cadences, provoking admiration and having distant returns are the features of poetic rhythm, whereas regular join and separation, similar endings, symmetry of sentences with regard to length, agreement and similarity of symmetrical words regarding movements, pauses and numbers of such words, appropriate usage of music-creating devices such as puns, alliterations and parallelisms are among the features of non-poetic rhythms. The significance of rhythm in poem and its status is another issue investigated in this article and it is shown that music and mimesis are two necessary elements that poem is made simply by the presence of them and the fundamental matter in the music of poem is “proportion”. Also it is shown that such matter is the basis of meters and prosodies. Our investigation shows that musical sounds and poetic meters are following the same system. Under other issues such as “Tanghim” it is shown that, by creating such terms, philosophers try to show that the factor of sound is important in the formation of rhythm and the proposition of issues such as the relationship between rhythm and emotional-semantic backgrounds of poem makes it clear if in their views there is a meaningful relationship between these two factors or not?Rhyme is the second music-creating element in the poem. Philosophers have investigated this element less than rhythm. For example, Ibn Sina and al-Farabi explain the relation between rhyme and Arabic as well as other poems. The disagreements between philosophers and prosodists with regard to this element are also studied in this article.

  10. The eternal search for justice: from Aristotle to Chaim PerelmanA eterna busca pela justiça: de Aristóteles a Chaim Perelman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Cardoso Montal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the search for Justice, equity, whose roots date back to Antiquity, and the new rhetoric, proposed by Chaim Perelman in the work Ethics and Law, should be used as guiding instruments for the application of rules to specific cases. In order to assure a fair and balanced social coexistence in a society with an increasing and rapid evolution, whose legislation is not always able to follow this same evolution, it is necessary that the interpreters of the Law make use of ethical values. Justice is an aspiration of the human being who intends to find the Justice that is possible to be achieved, having the Law as a means to achieve this purpose, through the establishment of rules of conduct that assure peace and social harmony. However, Justice is an unfinished idea, since society is always in constant transformation and evolution, seeking to improve what it considers as fair and good.>Na busca da Justiça, deve-se utilizar da eqüidade, cujas raízes remontam à Antigüidade, e da lógica do razoável, proposta por Chaim Perelman na obra Ética e Direito, como instrumentos norteadores da aplicação das normas aos casos concretos. É preciso garantir um convívio social justo e equilibrado numa sociedade em crescente e acelerada evolução, porém as leis nem sempre conseguem acompanhar, então é necessário que os intérpretes do Direito se utilizem de valores éticos. A Justiça é uma aspiração do ser humano que procura encontrar aquela Justiça possível de ser concretizada, e o Direito é um vetor na consecução deste objetivo, mediante o estabelecimento de regras de conduta que garantam a paz e a harmonia social. Porém, a Justiça é uma idéia inacabada, uma vez que a sociedade está sempre em constante transformação e evolução, e busca aprimorar o que considera como justo e bom.

  11. ["adeste omnes Logicae et Mathematicae Musae". Johannes Broscius's Apology of Aristotle and Euclid (1652) and the issue of anti-Ramism at the Academy of Cracow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choptiany, Michał

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a largely overlooked aspect of the last work by Johannes Broscius (1585 - 1652), his Apologia pro Aristotele et Euclide contra Petrum Ramum et alios of 1652. While the past researchers focused their attention on the evaluation of Broscius's contribution to mathematics, geometry in particular, they ignored the socio-scientific aspect of his work, that is the way Peter Ramus and his followers have been presented and how did the dark legend of Ramus have been thus revived at the Central-European university in the middle of 17th century. I am showing types of rhetorical arguments employed by Broscius and analyse the way he portrayed Ramus and depicted events related to the reception of Ramism at the Academy of Cracow. The article is followed by an appendix which contains a critical edition of excerpts from the manuscript rough draft of Apologia which has been preserved until nowadays (Jagiellonian Library MS. 3205 I). In the apparatus I identify the references and show how Broscius rewrote and rearranged the original paragraphs of his anti-Ramist work.

  12. A Study of Muslim Philosophers’ Views about Rhythm and Rhyme (with emphasis on the works of Aristotle, al-Farabi, Averroes, Ibn Sina, Baghdadi, Khajeh Nasir and Ghartajeni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdi Zarghani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A part of Muslim philosophers’ studies is allocated to music. They categorize music as a sub-branch of mathematical sciences and investigate it scientifically, not artistically. Al-Musighi al-Kabir by al-Farabi and Javame’ Elm al-Musighi by Ibn Sina are among the most important works in this regard. Under the general category of music, they also allocate a section to the music of poem and investigate it scientifically. Their ideas about the music of poem are similar to as well as different from the ideas of prosodists. This article aims to study their ideas about the music of poem briefly. The first section is allocated to the issue of rhythm in verbal arts and it is shown that our philosophers consider two kinds of rhythm: quantifiable and not quantifiable. The first one exists in poem and the second one is in non-poetic language. Also they define certain characteristics for each of these rhythms. Quantity, the equality of cadences, provoking admiration and having distant returns are the features of poetic rhythm, whereas regular join and separation, similar endings, symmetry of sentences with regard to length, agreement and similarity of symmetrical words regarding movements, pauses and numbers of such words, appropriate usage of music-creating devices such as puns, alliterations and parallelisms are among the features of non-poetic rhythms. The significance of rhythm in poem and its status is another issue investigated in this article and it is shown that music and mimesis are two necessary elements that poem is made simply by the presence of them and the fundamental matter in the music of poem is “proportion”. Also it is shown that such matter is the basis of meters and prosodies. Our investigation shows that musical sounds and poetic meters are following the same system. Under other issues such as “Tanghim” it is shown that, by creating such terms, philosophers try to show that the factor of sound is important in the formation of rhythm and the proposition of issues such as the relationship between rhythm and emotional-semantic backgrounds of poem makes it clear if in their views there is a meaningful relationship between these two factors or not?   Rhyme is the second music-creating element in the poem. Philosophers have investigated this element less than rhythm. For example, Ibn Sina and al-Farabi explain the relation between rhyme and Arabic as well as other poems. The disagreements between philosophers and prosodists with regard to this element are also studied in this article.

  13. The Arabic Aristotle In The 10 Century Bagdãd: the case of yahyã ibn 'adî`s commentary on metaph. alpha elatton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonadeo, Cecilia Martini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, procura-se mostrar, através de um autor cristão do século 10, como comentários às obras de Aristóteles foram continuamente feitos, desde os gregos até Averróis. Por meio de alguns textos da metafísica, é possível percebere que, mesmo sem ter contato direto com o original grego, foram cotejadas pelo autor diversas traduções, tanto do grego como do siríaco. Nesses casos, tratava-se não apenas de traduçõ, mas também de comentário ao texto de Aristóteles

  14. A categoria Luz na Biblioteca Copta de Nag Hammadi (The category "Light" in the Coptic Nag Hammadi library) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p983

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida de Andrade Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Em 1945, uma coleção de manuscritos em língua copta foi encontrada por camponeses egípcios, próxima à cidade de Nag Hammadi. Esta coleção, contendo treze códices feitos de papiro e cobertos com couro, recebeu o nome de Biblioteca Copta Nag Hammadi. Uma importante descoberta para a língua copta, para a história da filosofia antiga e para o cristianismo primitivo, pois esta biblioteca abre-nos uma nova janela sobre o período formativo do cristianismo por fornecer tratados de teologia sistemátic...

  15. Life cycle assessment and product category rules for the construction sector. The floor and wall tiles sector case study; Analisis de ciclo de vida y reglas de categoria de producto en la construccion. El caso de las baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benveniste, G.; Gazulla, C.; Fullana, P.; Celades, I.; Ros, T.; Zaera, V.; Godes, B.

    2011-07-01

    This paper illustrates the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) activities performed during the preparation of the Spanish Product Category Rules (PCR) relative to the construction sector. Specifically, the study presents the results obtained from the life cycle analysis of the floor and wall tile sector, which served as the basis for the drafting of the PCR required for the definition of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). More than 50 Spanish companies in the ceramic tile sector participated in the study, providing inventory data on the manufacture of their products. Additionally, bibliographic information and the GaBi 4 software database by PE International were used to complete background and generic data, such as those related to energy and transportation processes. EPDs are voluntary declarations based on LCA studies that permit the disclosure and dissemination of environmental information quantified over the life cycle of a product. The definition of PCRs for ceramic tiles was performed in accordance to the UNE EN ISO 14025 and ISO 21930 standards and they have been submitted to industries and professional association public consultations. PCRs have been developed in the context of the DAPc program (promoted by the Catalan Government and CAATEEB) and represents the first eco labelling activity for building products in Spain. (Author) 18 refs.

  16. Sistemática de seleção de variáveis para classificação de produtos em categorias de modelos de reposição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Mazzillo Júnior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empresas integradas a cadeias de suprimento constantemente buscam iniciativas para melhorar o desempenho global da cadeia, principalmente no que concerne ao fornecimento de produtos e gerenciamento dos canais diretos e indiretos de distribuição. O VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory auxilia as empresas a melhor gerenciar e balancear o estoque ao longo da cadeia. Para o bom funcionamento do VMI,é necessário que parâmetros e modelos de cálculo alinhem-se às características dos produtos e locais de reposição, normalmente descritos por elevado número de variáveis. Este artigo propõe uma sistemática de seleção de variáveis para classificação de produtos em modelos de reposição. Para tanto, utiliza a Análise dos Componentes Principais (ACP em conjunto com as ferramentas de classificação k-Nearest Neighbor(KNN e Análise Discriminante Linear (ADL. Ao ser aplicado em um estudo prático do setor de consultoria em Supply Chain, o método proposto alcançou uma acurácia de classificação de 90% ao reter 55% das variáveis originais.

  17. A marca própria na categoria de nutrição infantil : perceção de risco e estratégias adotadas pelo consumidor

    OpenAIRE

    Guerreiro, Joana Isabel da Costa Neto

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing Em muitos países os retalhistas usam as marcas próprias (ou de distribuidor), i.e. marcas desenvolvidas pelos próprios retalhistas ou grossistas, para se diferenciarem dos seus concorrentes e criarem fidelização às suas lojas com base na variedade, qualidade e preço. O acentuado crescimento das marcas próprias nas últimas décadas, fruto da sua crescente popularidade entre os consumidores e evolução em qualidade, continua a atrair a atenção dos pesquisadores. Neste...

  18. Codificação estatística das categorias fonéticas: vestígio da dinâmica da fala na fonotaxe lexical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora C. Albano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new, intriguing finding and discusses some ofits theoretical implications: phonetic categorization, including majorclass membership, is entirely predictable from phonotactic biases inthree Brazilian Portuguese word databases. The predictors are logfrequencies of ‘VC, ‘CV and V’CV sequences consisting of the 7stressed vowels combined with the 19 onset consonants, plus the 5Southeastern pre-stressed vowels. Correct vowel categorizationarises through discriminant analysis of ‘VC and ‘CV data. Correctconsonant categorization arises through discriminant analysis of V’CVdata. Results are consistent across databases and, thus, strongly suggestthat statistical biases in the lexicon can be so stable as to code phoneticcategories. The findings and their corollaries bear on the issue of therelationship of lexical phonotactics to speech dynamics.

  19. A TRANSFORMAÇÃO DO FUTEBOL BRASILEIRO: avanços e recuos na sua modernização e repercussões nas categorias de base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Couto de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation, presented for taking the master degree in Physical Education by UFSC, had central theme to understand Brazilian soccer in it’s social transformations along the history. A special attention was destined to instrumental technical soccer, as much at school as in the clubs. It was discussed the modernization of the Brazilian soccer, taking into account the ruptures ands synthesis between art soccer and force soccer, soccer as show and commodity, and the new sport laws, like Lei Zico and Lei Pelé. In search of studying this context, it was necessary to "retreat", and to understand the directions taken by the modern society, that brings together the marks and pretensions of science and absolut truth, fundamental points that impels the soccer in the direction of systemization and strong technical efficiency. It’s saw as very problematic, the instrumental character that this process assumes, mainly by teaching and training of young players.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DA ADOÇÃO DAS MEDIDAS DE PRECAUÇÕES PADRÃO EM CATEGORIAS ESPECÍFICAS DE PROFISSIONAIS DE SAÚDE

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    Tatiane M. Pereira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY - A survey of health care workers who were thought likely have frequent and intensive exposures to blood and other body fluids, anaesthetists, was carried out to asses the frequency of self-reported occupational exposures to blood and other body fluids, the knowledge and the compliance with regard standard precautions. Of all interviewed profissionals, 62.8% reported occupational exposures to blood and/or other body fluids by percutaneous injuries and/or mucous membranes contacts. All profissionals reported knowledge about standard precautions and the most of them assumed the use of these precautions, and hepatitis B vaccination. Nevertheless was observed a poor adherence to standard precautions in their practices, principally, concerning the use of masks, protective eyeglasses and handwashings. This study emphasizes the importance of developing new strategies for precautions standards training.

  1. A concepção de alma em Avicena: não apesar de Aristóteles e, sim, através de Aristóteles = Avicenna’s concept of the soul: not despite Aristotle, but rather through Aristotle

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    Genz, Antonio Carlos de Madalena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No artigo, analisa-se a concepção de alma de Avicena (Ibn Sina, apresentada no Livro da alma, com particular atenção ao experimento do Homem Suspenso no Espaço (HSE e as questões derivadas a partir do mesmo. Essas dizem respeito ao vínculo de Avicena com o aristotelismo ou o neoplatonismo, as duas principais influências filosóficas sobre o autor. Embora utilize principalmente conceitos aristotélicos, com o mencionado experimento Avicena rompe com a concepção aristotélica da alma, afirmando a estrita substancialidade dessa última. No artigo, busca-se mostrar que, não obstante a noção de substancialidade ser estranha ao quadro aristotélico, ainda assim Avicena é mais bem compreendido, quanto à doutrina da alma, se visto pela ótica aristotélica, e não por uma ótica neoplatônica

  2. The Mosaics with Animals Theme in the Southern Adriatic Between 4th and 6th century A.D.: Decorative and Iconographic Schemes in Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    OMARI, Elda

    2012-01-01

    The study of the mosaics found on the south-east Adriatic coasts, between Epirus Nova and Epirus Vetus (the current Albania), highlights significant analogies between the animals’ representations depicted on these floors and those represented on the early Christian basilicas or buildings cover floors in Syria, Turkey and in some other important centers of Eastern Mediterranean and Northern Adriatic. The iconographic and the iconological analyses offer new clues to reflect on some well-know...

  3. Inmortalidad e Intelección según Tomás de Aquino

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    David Ezequiel Téllez Maqueo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available After a brief discussion and some conclusions on the meaning of the eternity and inmortality of the soul according to Aristotle, the paper tries to show some differences between Aristotle's and Aquinas's approaches to the subject,

  4. La definición: acceso a la substancia sensible en el pensamiento de Aristóteles

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    Rocío Mier y Terán de G.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle was the first philosopher who admitted a formal principle of permanence in the singular material being. The author -referring to Aristotle's thought- tries to show the "definition" as an access to the sensible substance.

  5. Averroes Latinus on Memory. An Aristotelian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the teori that is put forward in Averroes' commentary on Aristotle's Parva Naturalia; in particular, it is concerned with the use of Averroes as an interpreter of Aristotle's theories.......This article examines the teori that is put forward in Averroes' commentary on Aristotle's Parva Naturalia; in particular, it is concerned with the use of Averroes as an interpreter of Aristotle's theories....

  6. ARİSTOTELES, STOACILAR VE İBN RÜŞD'ÜN KIYASA BAKIŞI

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAPAK, İbrahim

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the main ideas on syllogism in the logical systems of Aristotle, Stoics and Avveros. Aristotle, is the firts philosopher who formulated a system of logic. . He influenced many philosophers in this respect in the subsequent centuries. Aristotle gives an extreme importance to establishing the proof through syllogism which consists of two propositions or premises and conclusion. Aristotle investigates categorical and component syllogistic but not conditional one. According to...

  7. Aristóteles e a práxis: uma filosofia do movimento = Aristotle and praxis: a philosophy of movement = Aristóteles y praxis: una filosofía del movimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Valllle, Lílian de Aragão Bastos do

    2014-01-01

    Muito embora a notável influência que continua inegavelmente a exercer no campo filosófico, a obra aristotélica permanece, no que respeita à reflexão correntemente praticada no campo educacional, quase inexplorada. Buscando desfazer alguns preconceitos e desautorizar lugares-comuns que, baseados em leituras pouco confiáveis do autor, não encontram fundamento nos textos, este artigo examina como se tematiza e equaciona, em algumas de suas obras, a relação entre vida e movimento. E, muito espec...

  8. A Study of Muslim Philosophers’ Views about Rhythm and Rhyme (with emphasis on the works of Aristotle, al-Farabi, Averroes, Ibn Sina, Baghdadi, Khajeh Nasir and Ghartajeni

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    S. Mahdi Zarghani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract A part of Muslim philosophers’ studies is allocated to music. They categorize music as a sub-branch of mathematical sciences and investigate it scientifically, not artistically. Al-Musighi al-Kabir by al-Farabi and Javame’ Elm al-Musighi by Ibn Sina are among the most important works in this regard. Under the general category of music, they also allocate a section to the music of poem and investigate it scientifically. Their ideas about the music of poem are similar to as well as different from the ideas of prosodists. This article aims to study their ideas about the music of poem briefly. The first section is allocated to the issue of rhythm in verbal arts and it is shown that our philosophers consider two kinds of rhythm: quantifiable and not quantifiable. The first one exists in poem and the second one is in non-poetic language. Also they define certain characteristics for each of these rhythms. Quantity, the equality of cadences, provoking admiration and having distant returns are the features of poetic rhythm, whereas regular join and separation, similar endings, symmetry of sentences with regard to length, agreement and similarity of symmetrical words regarding movements, pauses and numbers of such words, appropriate usage of music-creating devices such as puns, alliterations and parallelisms are among the features of non-poetic rhythms. The significance of rhythm in poem and its status is another issue investigated in this article and it is shown that music and mimesis are two necessary elements that poem is made simply by the presence of them and the fundamental matter in the music of poem is “proportion”. Also it is shown that such matter is the basis of meters and prosodies. Our investigation shows that musical sounds and poetic meters are following the same system. Under other issues such as “Tanghim” it is shown that, by creating such terms, philosophers try to show that the factor of sound is important in the formation of rhythm and the proposition of issues such as the relationship between rhythm and emotional-semantic backgrounds of poem makes it clear if in their views there is a meaningful relationship between these two factors or not?   Rhyme is the second music-creating element in the poem. Philosophers have investigated this element less than rhythm. For example, Ibn Sina and al-Farabi explain the relation between rhyme and Arabic as well as other poems. The disagreements between philosophers and prosodists with regard to this element are also studied in this article. Â

  9. Master Works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides as Illuminated by Aristotle's "Poetics." Curriculum Projects, February 7-April 11, 1991. The Huntington Theatre Company's Master Works Study in Greek Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington Theatre Co., Boston, MA.

    Developed by the participants of the Huntington Theatre Company's Master Works Study in Greek drama, this collection presents lesson plans and curriculum projects for teaching the master works of Greek drama. The collection offers 22 lesson plans or curriculum projects (ranging from one day to several weeks) suitable for secondary school students…

  10. Fuzzyics =CATEGORYICS =PRAGMATYICS (``Son of ``TRIZ''')/CATEGORY-SEMANTICS Cognition (fcp/csc) of Plato-Aristotle ``SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION''(SoO): Linguistics: Antonyms VS ``SYNONYMS'' VS Analogy/ Metaphor: Coarsest-Possible Topology: Shocks/High-Pressures Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Edward Plato Aristotle Archimedes Carl-Ludwig; Young, Frederic; Lewis, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Siegel[MRS Fall-Mtgs,:Symp.Fractals(89)-5-papers!!!;Symp.Scaling(90)] FCP/CSC {aka SPD}(Tic-Tac-Toe-Matrix/Tabular List-Format) ``COMMON-FUNCTIONING-PRINCIPLE'' DI/TRI-CHOTOMY GENERIC ``INEVITABILITY_-WEB'' PURPOSEFUL PARSIMONY-of-DI/TRI-CHOTOMY STRATEGY REdiscovery of SoO automatically/optimality is in NON-list-format/matrix: DIMENSIONALITY-DOMINATION -INEVIT-ABILITY ROOT-CAUSE(RC) ULTIMATE-ORIGIN(UO): (level-0.-logic) DIMENSIONALITY (level-0. logic): [dst = ODD-Z] {Dst=FRACTAL-UNcertainty FLUCTUATIONS} (dst = EVEN-Z): CAUSES: (level- I.-logic): EXTENT/SCALE/RADIUS: (relative)-[LOCALITY] (relative)-(...GLOBALITY...) & (level-II.-logic): POWER-SPECTRUM{noise ≅generalized-susceptibility}: [``l''/ω0-White] (...-``l''/ω 1 . 000 . . . - HYPERBOLICITY...) & (level-III.-logic) CRITICAL-EXPONENT:n =0 n = 1.000... ; BUT ALL 3 ALSO CAUSED BY ANOTHER INdependent RCUO (level-IV.-logic):

  11. Philosophy of Law at (Aristotle (فلسفة القـــانون عند(أرسطو

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    Mustafa Fadhil Karim al-Khafaji مصطفى فاضل كريم الخفاجي

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available the subject of legal thought the ancient Greek great represent the importance among researchers in the field of legal systems and legislation and that this importance comes from the success of Greek thought from disclosing some of the concepts of legal and political elements of these concepts, enriched by the human intellect heritage is still a source of inspiration for everyone who wants poll doors of science and knowledge

  12. Physics Proofs of Four Millennium-Problems(MP) via CATEGORY-SEMANTICS(C-S)/F=C Aristotle SQUARE-of-OPPOSITION(SoO) DEduction-LOGIC DichotomY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, London; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Siegel-Baez Cognitive-Category-Semantics"(C-C-S) tabular list-format matrix truth-table analytics SoO jargonial-obfuscation elimination query WHAT? yields four "pure"-maths MP "Feet of Clay!!!" proofs: (1) Siegel [AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-03-126: (CCNY;64)(94;Wiles)] Fermat's: Last-Thm. = Least-Action Ppl.; (2) P=/=NP TRIVIAL simple Euclid geometry/dimensions: NO computer anything"Feet of Clay!!!"; (3) Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture; (4) Riemann-hypotheses via COMBO.: Siegel[AMS Natl.Mtg.(02)-Abs.973-60-124] digits log-law inversion to ONLY BEQS with ONLY zero-digit BEC, AND Rayleigh[1870;graph-thy."short-CUT method"[Doyle-Snell, Random-Walks & Electric-Nets,MAA(81)]-"Anderson"[(58)] critical-strip C-localization!!! SoO DichotomY ("V") IdentitY: #s:(Euler v Bernoulli) = (Sets v Multisets) = Quantum-Statistics(FD v BE) = Power-Spectra(1/f(0) v 1/f(1)) = Conic-Sections(Ellipse v Hyperbola) = Extent(Locality v Globality);Siegel[(89)] (so MIScalled) "complexity" as UTTER-SIMPLICITY(!!!) v COMPLICATEDNESS MEASURE(S) definition.

  13. P ≠NP Millenium-Problem(MP) TRIVIAL Physics Proof Via NATURAL TRUMPS Artificial-``Intelligence'' Via: Euclid Geometry, Plato Forms, Aristotle Square-of-Opposition, Menger Dimension-Theory Connections!!! NO Computational-Complexity(CC)/ANYthing!!!: Geometry!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, London; Menger, Karl; Rota, Gian-Carlo; Euclid, Alexandria; Siegel, Edward

    P ≠NP MP proof is by computer-''science''/SEANCE(!!!)(CS) computational-''intelligence'' lingo jargonial-obfuscation(JO) NATURAL-Intelligence(NI) DISambiguation! CS P =(?) =NP MEANS (Deterministic)(PC) = (?) =(Non-D)(PC) i.e. D(P) =(?) = N(P). For inclusion(equality) vs. exclusion (inequality) irrelevant (P) simply cancels!!! (Equally any/all other CCs IF both sides identical). Crucial question left: (D) =(?) =(ND), i.e. D =(?) = N. Algorithmics[Sipser[Intro. Thy.Comp.(`97)-p.49Fig.1.15!!!

  14. Causalidade, contingência, complexidade: o futuro do conceito de risco Causality, contingency, complexity: the future of the concept of risk

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    Naomar de Almeida-Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Defendemos a tese de que, na atual fase de maturação do campo epidemiológico, uma reavaliação do conceito de risco é necessária. Inicialmente, discutimos os fundamentos das categorias causalidade e contingência a partir da obra de dois filósofos, Aristóteles e Pascal. Em segundo lugar, recuperando algumas reflexões anteriores sobre as bases lógicas do conceito de risco, discutimos criticamente sua adequação e eficácia explicativa frente ao objeto saúde-doença. Em terceiro lugar, apresentamos brevemente categorias e conceitos fundantes do paradigma da complexidade, capazes de dar conta dos fenômenos da emergência, não-linearidade e borrosidade relacionados aos novos objetos complexos e mutantes da saúde. Concluímos com alguns comentários e reflexões ainda preliminares sobre fundamentos, perspectivas e conseqüências da aplicação da modalidade "contingência" como alternativa à noção de determinação no campo da saúde, a fim de visualizar o futuro do conceito de risco para além da área temática (científica e tecnológica da Epidemiologia contemporânea.We contend the thesis that, in the current phase of maturity of the epidemiological field, a reevaluation of the risk concept is timely needed. Initially, we discuss the foundations of categories of causality and contingency in the work of two philosophers, Aristotle and Pascal. Secondly, recovering previous reflections on logical bases of the concept of risk, we critically discuss its explanatory adequacy and efficacy for the health-disease object. Thirdly, we briefly present ground categories and concepts of the complexity paradigm, capable of tackling phenomena of emergency, non-linearity and fuzziness related to new, mutant, complex health objects. We conclude with a few remarks and thoughts yet preliminary on foundations, perspectives and consequences of applying the modality of "contingency" as alternative to notions of determination in the health field, in

  15. Orden de palabras en hebreo, griego, latín y romanceamiento castellano medieval de Joel (I

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    Olegario García de la Fuente

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available A complete analysis of the word order in the Hebrew, Greek, Latin and medieval Spanish version of Joel’s text reveals that the word order of the Greek version of the Septuagint and Vulgate is based on the Hebrew text and that the word order of the Vetus Latina is based on the Greek version. The word order of the medieval Spanish version, Manuscript I-I-6 of El Escorial, up to now unpublished, depends also a great deal on the word order of the Vulgate, on which this version is based.

  16. Determinação das atividades séricas de creatina quinase, lactato desidrogenase e aspartato aminotransferase em eqüinos de diferentes categorias de atividade Determination of serum activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase in horses of different activities classes

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    I.A. Câmara e Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST seric activities in horses of different activity classes (athlete, traction, and reproduction, were compared. Fifty-eight horses were alloted into three groups - group 1 with 20 athletes, "vaquejada" competitors; group 2 with 20 breeding horses; and group 3 with 18 draft horses, averaging 10 working hours daily. The average values for CK serum activity were 80.2, 83.9, and 94.4 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Result of group 3 was significantly different from the other groups. The averages values for LDH were 102.5, 98.6, and 112.8 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with no statistical difference between groups. The AST averages were 56.8, 33.0, and 50.1 U/l in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with group 2 significantly differing from the others. Clinical biochemistry values of muscular function in horses varied according to activity category.

  17. ESTUDO DA CATEGORIA MODO DE PRODUÇÃO DA EXISTÊNCIA NA OBRA DE MARX ENGELS E SUAS IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A COMPREENSÃO DA PROBLEMÁTICA DO LAZER: relatório final do projeto 04927

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    Elza Margarida de Mendonça Peixoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main resultsobtained from the development ofthe research project entitled “Studyof the category ‘Mode of ExistenceProduction’ in the work of Marxand Engels, and its implications tothe understanding of the leisureproblem”. It was conducted by the“Marxism, History, Free Time andEducation” Studies and ResearchGroup, over a period of 3 yearsfrom 2007 to 2010. The research question, objectives, and mainconclusions are presented here, aswell as the production in Teaching,Research and Extension.

  18. Predictive values of Bi-Rads categories 3, 4 and 5 in non-palpable breast masses evaluated by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging; Valores preditivos das categorias 3, 4 e 5 do sistema Bi-Rads em lesoes mamarias nodulares nao-palpaveis avaliadas por mamografia, ultra-sonografia e ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roveda Junior, Decio; Fleury, Eduardo de Castro Faria [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: decio.jr@uol.com.br; Piato, Sebastiao [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Obstetricia e Ginecologia. Clinica Ginecologica; Oliveira, Vilmar Marques de [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Obstetricia e Ginecologia. Ginecologia Geral; Rinaldi, Jose Francisco [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Obstetricia e Ginecologia. Clinica de Mastologia; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Clinica Medica. Servico de Imagenologia Mamaria

    2007-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of BI-RADS{sup TM} categories 3, 4 and 5 in non-palpable breast masses assessed by mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Materials And Methods: Twenty-nine patients with BI-RADS categories 3, 4 and 5 non-palpable breast masses identified by mammograms were submitted to complementary ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging studies, besides excisional biopsy. In total, 30 biopsies were performed. The lesions as well as their respective BI-RADS classification into 3, 4 and 5 were correlated with the histopathological results. The predictive values calculation was made by means of specific mathematical equations. Results: Negative predictive values for category 3 were: mammography, 69.23%; ultrasound, 70.58%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 100%. Positive predictive values for category 4 were: mammography, 63.63%; ultrasound, 50%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 30.76%. For category 5, positive predictive values were: mammography and ultrasound, 100%; and magnetic resonance imaging, 92.85%. Conclusion: For category 3, the negative predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging was high, and for categories 4 and 5, the positive predictive values of the three modalities were moderate. (author)

  19. Analiza structurii arboretelor naturale din siturile natura 2000 glodeasa și Cheile Doftanei – jud. Prahova în raport cu criteriile de încadrare în categoria pădurilor cvasivirgine/ The analysis of the structure of natural stands from natura 2000 sites, glodeasa and Doftana Canyon – Prahova county, reported to the cvasi-virgin forests categorizing criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Dorin GÎRBACEA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitats protection and conservation of flora and fauna species of communitarian interest, represents an important topic at national and European level in the context of climate change. The data analysis from documents records, has led to the conclusion that the sites formed in Natura 2000 ecological network in Doftana Valley basin, are poorly studied in terms of biodiversity. The multi-criterial analysis we used, showed that the forests natural habitats from Glodeasa fits better in the category of cvasi-virgin forest relative to the natural forest habitat from Doftana Canyon site.

  20. O complexo da educação em Lukács: uma análise à luz das categorias trabalho e reprodução social The complex of education in Lukács: an analysis based upon the categories of labor and social reproduction

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    Marteana Ferreira de Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a educação em Lukács, a partir de sua Ontologia do Ser Social. Prioritariamente, destaca os elementos que assinalam o lugar da educação no processo de reprodução social, em cuja dinâmica esta manteria, com o trabalho, uma relação de dependência ontológica e autonomia relativa. Explicita que, se, em sentido lato, a educação é um complexo universal, empenhado em efetivar a apropriação, por parte dos indivíduos, das objetivações constituintes do gênero humano, esta não paira sobre a totalidade social, vinculando-se, em sentido estrito, às necessidades da sociedade de classe. Por esse prisma, a análise lukacsiana permite concluir que o complexo da educação, conquanto impelido a manter o sistema de acumulação privada e a exploração do homem pelo homem sob o capital, pode constituir-se em espaço para objetivação de posições teleológicas voltadas à emancipação humana.The study discusses the education complex in the context of Lukács' Ontology of the Social Being. First and foremost, it indicates the place of education in the social reproduction process, in whose dynamics, such complex maintains with labor, an ontological dependency and a relative autonomy kind of rapport. It points out that, if, in a lato sense, education represents a universal complex, committed to guarantee that the objectivities which constitute the human gender are appropriated by each individual, it does not hover above social totality, indeed, connecting itself, in a strict sense, to the needs of a class society. From this perspective, Lukacsian analysis allows for the conclusion that, although pushed towards the reproduction of private accumulation and man by man exploitation under the capital system, education may also represent a field for the activation of teleological positions aiming the human emancipation.

  1. On Intellectus Agens and Aristotellian separate substances: Aquinas' waterloo

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    Hector Zagal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with Saint Thomas's commentary to Aristotle's De Anima III, in wich we find the famous analogy of light. It is sustained that due to the limitations of the analogy, Saint Thomas is forced to introduce a series of Neo-platonic elements incompatible with Aristotle's philosophy. The author means to explain this "betrayal" to Aristotle's philosophy by one of his most credited commentators. It is concluded that in order to reconcile the pagan world with the Catholic theology, Thomas Aquinas needs to redirect Aristotle through a less economical argument; that is, the introduction of the Intellectus Agens

  2. La Teoria de la Informacion ante las nuevas tecnologias de la comunicacion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aladro Vico, Eva

    2011-01-01

    .... Analiza la desaparicion de categorias como la de comunicacion de masas, el esquema bipolar de la comunicacion, y las sacudidas a categorias de la Emision de los mensajes y aboga por plantear nuevas...

  3. Aristotelian Finitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawar, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that Aristotle rules out the existence of actual infinities but allows for potential infinities. However, precisely why Aristotle should deny the existence of actual infinities remains somewhat obscure and has received relatively little attention in the secondary literature. In

  4. New Directions in Interdisciplinarity: Broad, Deep, and Critical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert; Mitcham, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Aristotle launched Western knowledge on a trajectory toward disciplinarity that continues to this day. But is the knowledge management project that began with Aristotle adequate for the age of Google? Perhaps an undisciplined discourse more evocative of Plato can help us constitute new, more relevant inter- and transdisciplinary forms of…

  5. Transition and the Problems of Modern Nigerian Poetry: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ever since Aristotle propounded the theory of the difference between literature and history, scholars and researchers have continued to develop different levels of interests on the problems bothering on these two fields of study. Even though Aristotle expressed the view that 'history reports the particular truth while literature ...

  6. Sources of delusion in 'Analytica Posteriora 1.5'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasper, Pieter Sjoerd

    2006-01-01

    Aristotle's philosophically most explicit and sophisticated account of the concept of a (primary-)universal proof is found, not in Analytica Posteriora 1.4, where he introduces the notion, but in 1.5. In 1.4 Aristotle merely says that a universal proof must be of something arbitrary as well as of

  7. Opmerkings oor Hans-Georg Gadamer se begrip van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly: there are similar thinking patterns by different philosophers that demonstrate that Gadamer\\'s concept of the Wirkungsgeschichte is not so new and strange. Lastly: Gadamer\\'s use of Aristotle\\'s concept of phronesis or judgement (practical reasoning) is the concretization of the Wirkungsgeschichte and his great ...

  8. Moving beyond traditional null hypothesis testing: evaluating expectations directly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, R.; Hoijtink, H.J.A.; Romeijn, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    This mini-review illustrates that testing the traditional null hypothesis is not always the appropriate strategy. Half in jest, we discuss Aristotle's scientific investigations into the shape of the earth in the context of evaluating the traditional null hypothesis. We conclude that Aristotle was

  9. A Computational Approach to the Quantification of Animal Camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    their visual backgrounds (Hanlon and Messenger 1996; Messenger 2001b) – a trait noted in Aristotle’s Historia Animalium (Aristotle 1910), and grossly...Computation in Neural Systems 14 (2):321-333 Aristotle (1910) Historia Animalium (trans: Thompson DAW). Clarendon Press, Oxford Arnold SE, Faruq S

  10. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES VOL 11, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR MARTIN OKWU O

    the intellectual virtues. Thus, Aristotle demonstrates the relation between ethics and psychology of human nature. We now move to consider the activities of these two rational faculties in man with regard to virtue and the good. III. Human Virtues and the Role of. Reason. According to Aristotle, happiness which is the good for ...

  11. John of Salisbury on Aristotelian Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    The First substantial treatment of John of Salisbury's views on Aristotelian science. Important for our understanding of the reception of Aristotle's works and for the history of theories of science.......The First substantial treatment of John of Salisbury's views on Aristotelian science. Important for our understanding of the reception of Aristotle's works and for the history of theories of science....

  12. Aristóteles y el objeto de la ciencia en la lógica tardomedieval

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    José Angel García Cuadrado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of science developed by Aristotle in his treatises on logic was a necessary reference point for medieval thinkers. However, the interpretation proposed by Ockham and the Nominalists led to a linguistic revolution in the formulation of this concept. Vincent Ferrer, though continuing the Thomistic tradition, assumes the linguistic transformation brought about by Nominalism, and reformulates Aristotle's doctrine.

  13. The Philosophical Roots of Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rosa B.

    The philosophical roots of the concept of lifelong learning are considered in relation to the views of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They pioneered in their analyses of intellectual development and in the importance of the use of the mind throughout the life span. Plato and Aristotle added metaphysical arguments to support their systems of…

  14. The case of farmers and cattle graziers in the northwest region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Coke, Voltaire, Locke, Aristotle and Rousseau assert that human rights are derived from natural rights, this study is limited to a review of the analyses of. John Locke and Aristotle. John Locke (1680) argues that equality is a right given to all human beings by nature and that this right should be respected by all.

  15. a pillar for an enduring constitutional democracy: an appraisal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    In Nigeria the rate of executive lawlessness and abuse of power has been the order of the day. For example ... Aristotle was categorical when he said that a rightly constituted law was the final authority. Aristotle posits, .... supremacy of the law over all person and authorities in a state, supremacy of the constitution in theory ...

  16. What It Is and that It Is

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatella, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The title of this paper comes from Aristotle's "Metaphysics." It appropriately captures how he understood art education. In what follows, a considerable amount of the author's thinking is indebted to Plato's and Aristotle's understanding of art education as mimetic education. On first view, an art mimetic educational approach may appear worryingly…

  17. Career Counselling Development: A Case Study of an Innovative Career Counselling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakota, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    Promoting the use of new technologies in the career counselling process, the Career Services Office of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki has developed an easy-to-use career counselling guide containing multimedia applications. The purpose of this career guide, called "Career Counseling@Career Office of Aristotle University of…

  18. The Relationship between Deliberative Belief, Critical Thinking and College Students' Engagement Attitudes in Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Aristotle once said that moral deliberation is supposed to find reasons, which may lead us to renounce spurious moral beliefs in pursuit of authentic goodness. The aim of this study was to construct a theoretical model, based on Aristotle's deliberation theory framework, representing college students' attitudes toward volunteering in nursing…

  19. La retórica aristotélica y la oratoria de su tiempo (sobre el ejemplo de Lisias III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cortés Gabaudan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle's Rhetoric is a descriptive text to a greater extent than normally recognised and so our understanding of Aristotle can be improved with the analysis of speeches previous to him; as a case study, the third speech of Lysias has been chosen. The argumentation of judicial speeches previous to Aristotle was built with enthymemes whose first premises are based on emotions and characters explaining human behaviour; therefore the first purpose of Rhetoric 11.2-11 (about emotions and 11.2-17 (about characters was to supply the orators with first premises. In those speeches the emotions of the audience were stirred up by enthymemes; therefore Aristotle accepted that the orator could use emotions in this rational and logic way. Nevertheless he condemned the arousing of emotions by direct and irrational requests, a procedure found in the judicial speeches. This way the apparent contradictory treatment of emotions in Aristotle's Rhetoric can be solved.

  20. Separate Material Intellect in Philosophy of Averroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علی قربانی

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Explanation of the De Anima of Aristotle is the most important issue for Scholastic Philosophers. Averroes as the Commentator of Aristotle, explains De Anima of Aristotle in three works: Short Commentary, Middle Commentary and Long Commentary on de Anima. The latter contains the latest and most perfect of Averroes view about material intellect. He is trying to present a coherent explain about human knowledge that is vague in Aristotle philosophy. For Averroes this faculty must be the identical receptive of external forms and before its thinking, not anyone of them. According to Averroes this intellect is one and shared for all, thae is, Material Intellect provides the one and shared knowledge for men .In this article we will investigate the point of Averroes in his explanations of Aristotle, particularly in Long Commentary on de anima.

  1. El bien entre Aristóteles y Freud: la inversión del pensamiento psicoanalítico en la dimensión ética. // The final good between Aristotle and Freud: psychoanalytical thought reversal in the ethical dimension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Pérez Herrera.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a brief introduction to the philosophical conception of the final good and the good, the author presents Freud’s reversal from a psychoanalytical approach as shown by Lacan in Seminar 7, passing from the question of the good to the function of the good in the ethical dimension of psychoanalysis. // En el presente artículo se desarrolla un breve recorrido en la concepción filosófica de el bien y lo bueno, para exponer la inversión hecha por Freud desde el psicoanálisis y mostrada por Lacan en el Seminario 7, pasando de la cuestión de el bien a la función del bien en la dimensión ética del psicoanálisis.

  2. Los afectos como efectos del lenguaje sobre el cuerpo: de las pasiones de Aristóteles a los afectos en la teoría psicoanalítica de Freud y Lacan/Affections as effects of language on the body: from Aristotle's passions to affections in freudian and lacanian psychanalysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Conde Soto

    2015-01-01

    ... de pulsión de Freud, basado en la distinción entre un afecto y una representación. Finalmente, se presentará la comprensión lacaniana del afecto a partir de textos de su seminario La angustia (1962-63), Radiofonía (1970) y Televisión (1972). Palabras clave: afectos, psicoanálisis, Lacan, Freud, Aristóteles, pasiones. Abstract: The aim of this paper is to stand up the continuity between Aristotelian analysis of passions and the understanding of afections by Freudian and especially Lacanian psychoanalysis as effects of ...

  3. Latynse vertalings van die Ou Testament - ’n Bespreking aan die hand van Genesis 17: 1-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. van Rooy

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Raakpunte in die studie van Latyn en Hebreeus kom nie dikwels tot hulle reg in die akademiese wêreld nie, en Suid-Afrika is seker geen uitsondering op die reël nie. Tog is daar 'n groot terrein wat op ontginning wag in hierdie verband. As blyk van waardering word hierdie poging in die rigting aangebied aan 'n geëerde leermeester op wie se rekening die gebreke nie geplaas moet word nie. Die Latynse vertalings van die Ou Testament waaraan aandag gegee word, is die Vetus Latina (VL en die Vulgaat (V. Hulle word vergelyk met die Massoretiese teks (MT, die standaard Hebreeuse teks van die Ou Testament, en met die Septuaginta (LXX, die Griekse vertaling van die Ou Testament wat in die vroeë kerk geweldige aanhang geniet het.

  4. Aristotele Detective. Tra fascino della storia e fascino delle storie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bencivenni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to Aristotle Detective, set in fourth century Athens, Margaret Doody realizes her assumption about the Hellenistic beginnings of the Novel. Two heroes, the historical Aristotle and Stefanos, a fictional former pupil of the Lyceum, act as forerunners of the couple Sherlock Holmes/Watson in the year 332 B.C. The juridical framework of the plot fits ancient sources about Greek institutions. Clues to the resolution of the murder puzzle are chosen from archaeological evidence. Vases and inscriptions, deceiving story characters and modern readers, help Aristotle to come out of the maze.

  5. EL MUNDO FÍSICO DE ARISTÓTELES

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    JOSE DUARTE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle raised the most popular of the Greek theories about the universe and the bodies movement. In this paper I collect and integrate scattered ideas in the literature about the physical world of Aristotle, dividing this paper in two parts. The first talk in general about Aristotelian philosophy and his contributions to human knowledge. The second deals specifically Aristotelian mechanics and geocentric universe. This paper shows how Aristotle was more concerned with the movement causes than its description, relying primarily on philosophical methods.

  6. Sindrome de costillas cortas y polidactilia: displasia esqueletica fetal incompatible con la vida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huertas, Erasmo; Ingar, Jaime; Gutierrez, Guiselle; Quinones, Eva Maria

    2010-01-01

    El sindrome costillas cortas polidactilia es una categoria descriptiva para un grupo de displasias esqueleticas incompatibles con la vida, caracterizadas por torax estrecho, costillas extremadamente...

  7. Carencia de agua y sus implicaciones en las practicas alimentarias, en Turbo, Antioquia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez-Villamil, Natalia; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra; Zambrano-Bejarano, Ingri

    2013-01-01

    .... La informacion se codifico, se conformaron categorias empiricas y posteriormente analiticas. Palabras Clave: Agua potable, consumo de alimentos, conducta alimentaria, escasez de agua, condiciones sociales...

  8. Childhood: An Endangered Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Margaret G.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the concept of childhood as it evolved from Aristotle and Plato's time and cites the threat to the childhood today of eletronic media, which may lead to a majority of asocial, amoral, child-adults. (CL)

  9. The historical origins of the vegetative state: Received wisdom and the utility of the text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zoe M; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is one of the most iconic and misunderstood phrases in clinical neuroscience. Coined as a diagnostic category by Scottish neurosurgeon Bryan Jennett and American neurologist Fred Plum in 1972, the phrase "vegetative" first appeared in Aristotle's treatise On the Soul (circa mid-fourth century BCE). Aristotle influenced neuroscientists of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, Xavier Bichat and Walter Timme, and informed their conceptions of the vegetative nervous system. Plum credits Bichat and Timme in his use of the phrase, thus putting the ancient and modern in dialogue. In addition to exploring Aristotle's definition of the "vegetative" in the original Greek, we put Aristotle in conversation with his contemporaries-Plato and the Hippocratics-to better apprehend theories of mind and consciousness in antiquity. Utilizing the discipline of reception studies in classics scholarship, we demonstrate the importance of etymology and historical origin when considering modern medical nosology.

  10. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  11. 1 The Fall of the Tragic Hero: A Critique of the “Hubristic Principle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    1998-01-01

    according to Aristotle, those men who enjoy prosperity and high reputation like Oedipus and Thyestes etc.) did not start with the three tragic poets, namely;. Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, but rather it dates back even to ...

  12. "Friendship". To appear in the Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Professor Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The essay discusses the nature of friendship and the role of parental love in the development of what Aristotle refers to as perfect friendship. I also conclude with some remarks regarding the influence of technology upon the significance of friendship.

  13. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-06-13

    Jun 13, 2017 ... &Corresponding author: Georgios Karamitros, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), Administration Building (opposite AHEPA. Hospital) University Campus 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece. Key words: Enterobiasis, oxyuriasis, enterobius vermicularis, helminth, refugees. Received: ...

  14. Ethical And Religious Analysis On Euthanasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdi Omar Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an analysis on euthanasia from ethical and religious perspectives. Historically, the classical Greek thinkers including Aristotle had categorically accepted euthanasia with the main reason of minimizing pain...

  15. Advanced Formal Methods for Reactive Systems Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleaveland, Rance; Stark, Eugene; Smolka, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    ...) Tool and comparing its performance to the PRISM model checker. The authors also designed and implemented the Aristotle runtime verification tool suite and applied it to the Linux kernel, as well as the GMC software model checker for GCC...

  16. The Classical Model of Science: a Millennia-Old Model of Scientific Rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W.R.; Betti, A.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout more than two millennia philosophers adhered massively to ideal standards of scientific rationality going back ultimately to Aristotle's Analytica posteriora. These standards got progressively shaped by and adapted to new scientific needs and tendencies. Nevertheless, a core of conditions

  17. St. Thomas and the Divine Origin of Law: Some Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Dewan, O.P.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a series of notes on the concept of Law and itsrelationship to God in Classical Antiquity, specifically taking into account the viewpoints of Aristotle and Saint Thomas Aquinas.

  18. BUENA FORTUNA Y LIBERTAD EN QUODLIBETALES XXI DE DUNS ESCOTO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gloria Silvana Elías

    2014-01-01

    .... On the issue of Quaestiones Quodlibetales XXI, Duns Scotus, relying on such apocryphal discusses what Aristotle meant by the fortune, and what relationship it is the cause of the will is the will...

  19. Ethical And Religious Analysis On Euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi Omar Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an analysis on euthanasia from ethical and religious perspectives. Historically, the classical Greek thinkers including Aristotle had categorically accepted euthanasia with the main reason of minimizing pain. However, as science develops ethical and religious isuues related to the subject have increasingly created fervent debates on euthanesia. ABSTRAK: Kertas ini mengkaji euthanasia dari perspektif agama dan etika. Sejarah telah melihat para pemikir Greek termasuk Aristotle sec...

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 8, May 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-11

    parallel basis, rational and ethic substantiations for moral doc- trines appeared ( Socrates , Plato , Aristotle, Spinosa and Kant). What meaning do I...Klassikd" [History of Esthetics of Antiquity: Early Classics]. Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1963; "Sofisty, Sokrat, Platon" [The Sophists, Socrates and... Plato ]. Iskusstvo, Moscow, 1969; "Vysokaya Klassika" [The High Classics]. Iskusstvo, Moscow, 1974; "Aristotel i Pozdnyaya Klassika" [Aristotle and the

  1. Pseudo Justino y la recepción de la Física aristotélica en la antigüedad tardía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Boeri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the critical discussion that Ps. Justinus (an Aristotelian author of the fifth century AD addresses to some basic principles of Aristotle's philosophy of nature. Ps. Justinus concentrates his criticism on the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of movement, of time and of the world. He also argues against Aristotle to show the non eternity of the ether, implying an unification of the terrestrial and celestial realms.

  2. Les commentaires de Simplicius et de Jean Philopon à la "physique" d'Aristote tradition et innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Golitsis, Pantelis

    2008-01-01

    In Greek Late Antiquity philosophy defined itself above all through the interpretation of authoritative texts such as Plato's dialogues or the treatises of Aristotle. This work looks at the last Late Antique commentaries on Aristotle's Physics, the pagan Simplicius and the Christian Philoponus (both 6th cent. AD). Golitsis demonstrates how differently the two contemporaries interpreted the philosophical tradition and how this led them to deducedifferent routes to finding the truth.

  3. ΑΝΑΛΥΣΙΣ ΠΕΡΙ ΤΑ ΣΧΗΜΑΤΑ. Restoring Aristotle’s Lost Diagrams of the Syllogistic Figures

    OpenAIRE

    Wesoły, Marian

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the relevance of Aristotle’s analysis that concerns the syllogistic figures. On the assumption that Aristotle’s analytics was inspired by the method of geometric analysis, we show how Aristotle used the three terms (letters), when he formulated the three syllogistic figures. So far it has not been appropriately recognized that the three terms — the major, the middle and the minor one — were viewed by Aristotle syntactically and predicatively in the form of diagrams. Many ...

  4. Anicio Manlio Severino Boecio: notas sobre una traducción inédita a la Metafísica de Aristóteles

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    Jorge R. Morán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based upon Saint Thomas' commentary to the books Peri Hermeneias and Metaphysics of Aristotle, we raise two hypothesis: a There was a translation and a commentary of Severinus Boethius on Aristotle's Metaphysics, b Boethius is not only an authority on logic but also en prôtèphilosophía. We try to prove our thesis with specific texts of Aquinas's philosophical commentaries.

  5. La generación absoluta, según la exposición aquiniana de Aristóteles

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    Héctor Velázquez Fernández

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between absolute and relative generation implies the difference between substance and not-substance, instead of that between being and not-being, according to Aristotle. This paper tries to explain how this distinction makes possible to talk about the absolute not-being, an unavoidable concept when Aristotle tries to explain the absolute generation and corruption without appealing to the nothing.

  6. Correlations between Theories of Human Nature and Politics: A Search for a Relationship in the Work of Dewey and Rawls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-08

    to fathom assertion, but at lest two qualifications should be made. First, we must not confuse the idea with egoism . Even though the parties are...14Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 5. 3. 1131a25. 15Rawls, Theory of Justice, p. 156. 16Actually, we might argue for a three part division in Rawls: noumenal...nature/nurture portion of the self. pij BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics . Dewey, John. Human Nature and Conduct: An

  7. Theodore Roszak (1933-2011 - Um contra-obituário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Luján Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosso texto não pretende mais do que lembrar algumas categorias do recentemente falecido historiador e sociólogo americano Theodore Roszak. Categorias como “contracultura” e “tecnocracia” que, embora pensadas ao “calor” dos acontecimentos do final da década dos anos sessenta, nos parecem ainda pertinentes.

  8. The Aristotelian account of "heart and veins".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2008-04-25

    The exploration of the cardiovascular (CV) system has a history of at least five millennia. The model of the heart and veins represented by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is one of the earliest and accurate descriptions of the CV system. With his own specific metaphysical approach, Aristotle discussed why there might be a vascular tree composed of two vessels and also why these vessels must extend throughout the entire body. Herein, the authors present a history of the original account of the CV system based on the studies and teachings of Aristotle who made detailed observations and experimented upon animals and human corpses to explore the anatomy of the heart and vessels and thus provided the basis for modern CV medicine. The Aristotelian CV model consisted of two related but slightly dissimilar passages based on experimentation and tradition, which could be perceived as the morphology and metaphysical accounts of physiology, respectively. Restricted by his own methodology of dissecting dead animals, Aristotle was the first to describe the anatomy of the heart and blood vessels. A thorough reading of his Historia Animalium showed that he was able to morphologically delineate the right atrium in addition to three distinct heart cavities corresponding to the left atrium and right and left ventricles. The authors conclude that when interpreting Aristotelian doctrine, the methodology and terminology should be taken into account in order to prevent potential misconceptions. It is the early work of such scientists as Aristotle on which we base our current understanding of the CV system.

  9. As meninas e os meninos fruindo e fluindo por pensamentos, sonhos e sentimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Aizza, Divino Evangelista [UNESP

    2003-01-01

    A pesquisa foi feita com crianças de uma escola de primeira à quarta série, localizada ao lado de favela em Ribeirão Preto. Com o intuito de perceber nas crianças as categorias de paz, alegria, gostosuras, valores, prazeres em suas relações humanas. Em entrevista, ouvimos pareceres das crianças sobre cada categoria. Dando uma idéia bem clara das categorias, como situações práticas bem vivenciadas por elas na escola, principalmente no pátio, na biblioteca, na sala de aula, na cantina, na quali...

  10. Contexto e normas de associação para palavras: a redução do campo semântico

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson Américo Janczura

    2005-01-01

    Este estudo teve por objetivo coletar normas de associação semântica para categorias naturais. Utilizando-se o método da associação livre, os participantes foram solicitados a produzir a primeira associada que completasse o significado de sentenças que serviam como contexto para as categorias. As associações produzidas em dois contextos semânticos diferentes foram comparadas com associações produzidas sem contexto. As seguintes medidas foram produzidas para cada categoria: o tamanho da catego...

  11. Historical antecedents to the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munévar, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Paul Feyerabend has been considered a very radical philosopher of science for proposing that we may advance hypotheses contrary to well-confirmed experimental results, that observations make theoretical assumptions, that all methodological rules have exceptions, that ordinary citizens may challenge the judgment of experts, and that human happiness should be a key value for science. As radical as these theses may sound, they all have historical antecedents. In defending the Copernican view, Galileo exemplified the first two; Mill, Aristotle and Machiavelli all argued for pluralism; Aristotle gave commonsense reasons for why ordinary citizens may be able to judge the work of experts; and a combination of Plato's and Aristotle's views can offer strong support for the connection between science and happiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Die term dramaties: terug na Aristoteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pauw

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The word dramatic: Back to AristotleExpressions such as dramatic portrayal, dramatic action or dramatic scene frequently occur in works discussing drama. What is, however, meant by the word dramatic? Do we fully appreciate its meaning as it was meant to be understood by Aristotle in his Ars Poetica? Commencing from Aristotle's definition of tragedy and his ensuing discussion of its elements, the wide spectrum of meaning of the word dramatic is illustrated. The aspects touched upon are the following: the functionality of information, conflict, complication, suspense, turning point, tragic flaw, catharsis and pathos. The identification with protagonist and antagonist is discussed, as well as the relevance of character portrayal for the action. Graphic, exciting and moving descriptions form part of dramatic portrayal, and so do the monologue, the speech and dialogue, finally, the word dramatic may he defined in terms of emotions evoked, while dramatic action mostly comprises a timeless universal truth.

  13. El gran teatro de Vetusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Donaire del Yerro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende llevar a cabo una inmersión en la realidad novelesca de La Regenta. Accederemos desde el epicentro mismo del relato, el capítulo XVI, en el que se concentra todo el asunto de la novela1. Clarín destacó este capítulo como «uno de los principales para la acción interna del libro»2. Y su ubicación central, sirviendo de gozne entre la primera y la segunda parte de este fragmento de vida de los vetustenses, así parece indicarlo. Tal ubicación junto con la estructura de los distintos planos de la realidad, para nosotros ficcional, dentro del propio capítulo XVI evoca la imagen de un juego de muñecas rusas. Aunque, como veremos más adelante, la complejidad del universo vetus- tense, como estudio mimético3 que es de la realidad extraliteraria, no puede constreñirse en un solo esquema estructural estático. Al contrario, Clarín dota a esta realidad de un dinamismo vital con el que hace patente el estancamiento de Vetusta.

  14. Possible astronomical references in two megalithic building of ancient Latium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magli, G.

    In the wide area of the ancient Latium Vetus - roughly enclosed within the coast and the Apennines between Rome and Terracina, in Central Italy - there are several examples of town's walls and buildings constructed with the spectacular megalithic technique called polygonal, in which enormous blocks are cut in irregular shapes and perfectly fit together without mortar. In many cases, for instance in Alatri, Arpino, Circei, Norba and Segni, the megalithic size of the blocks and the ingenuity in construction reach the same magnificence and impression of power and pride which characterize the worldwide famous Mycenaean towns of Tiryns and Mycenae, constructed around the XIII century BC. In Italy however, all polygonal walls are currently attributed to the Romans, and dated to the first centuries of the Roman republic (V-III century BC), although for most of these constructions no reliable stratigraphy is available. In the present work, which is part of an ongoing project aiming at a complete study of these buildings, we investigate the possible astronomical references in the planning of two among the most imposing of them, namely the so called Acropolis of Alatri and Circei.

  15. [In Process Citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Eva

    2014-01-01

    A discrepancy of word choice can be noted in the account of Jacob's wrestling at the river Jabbok (Gen. 32, 23-33) if we compare the Hebrew version on one hand and the Greek and Latin versions on the other. The lesion that incurred Jacob a permanent limp and constitutes the dietary ban on the sciatic nerve is described as a luxation or strain (see symbol) of the hip joint (see symbol) in the Hebrew bible, whereas Septuagint, Vetus Latina and Vulgata use (see symbol) and emarceo or obstipesco as well as (see symbol) and latitudinem faemoris. They thus suggest hints of a painful sensory deficit felt on the outside of the thigh and a paralysis. In a synopsis of knowledge of sciatica in antiquity and modern knowledge on nerve root irritation and compression syndromes, it can be argued that the originators of the Septuagint and subsequent Greek and Latin translators and authors supported their translations with a diagnosis that we today would call an L5-syndrome with sciatica, sensory deficit, weak foot dorsiflexion and Trendelenburg gait.

  16. CONFESIÓN Y SIGILO SACRAMENTAL EN EL CONCILIO LATERANENSE IV: DE LA NORMATIVA A LA REFLEXIÓN DOCTRINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tarantino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the standards approved by the Fourth Lateran Council the XXI stands out as the most important in the sacramental discipline. As usual it takes the name from its opening words, Omnis utriusque sexus. Through it, not only did the Church sanction a universal law that established the obligation of the believer to confess all his sins to their priest annually, in order to receive at least at Easter, after the execution of the imposed penance, the sacrament of the Eucharist, but also introduced a broader regulation of the same sacrament which brought up a relevant subject such as the sigillum confessionis and the related penalties which were applicable if violated. For the first time this institution, which has its roots in the divine right, received a general and organic legislative discipline intended to become the subject for reflection on the part of the doctrine, especially in the wake of its reception in the Liber Extra by Gregory IX (X 5. 38. 12. Given a brief excursus on the emergence in the jus vetus of a first regulation in relation to the duty of the Seal of Confession, we will try to understand the impact of l of the Innocentian legislation on doctrinal reflection and the development of the following regulation on the subject between the Middle Ages and the modern age.

  17. Magnesium Lowers the Incidence of Postoperative Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in Congenital Heart Surgical Patients: Is There a Relationship to Surgical Procedure Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dingchao; Sznycer-Taub, Nathaniel; Cheng, Yao; McCarter, Robert; Jonas, Richard A; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Moak, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    Magnesium sulfate was given to pediatric cardiac surgical patients during cardiopulmonary bypass period in an attempt to reduce the occurrence of postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia (PO JET). We reviewed our data to evaluate the effect of magnesium on the occurrence of JET and assess a possible relationship between PO JET and procedure complexity. A total of 1088 congenital heart surgeries (CHS), performed from 2005 to 2010, were reviewed. A total of 750 cases did not receive magnesium, and 338 cases received magnesium (25 mg/kg). All procedures were classified according to Aristotle score from 1 to 4. Overall, there was a statistically significant decrease in PO JET occurrence between the two groups regardless of the Aristotle score, 15.3 % (115/750) in non-magnesium group versus 7.1 % (24/338) in magnesium group, P < 0.001. In the absence of magnesium, the risk of JET increased with increasing Aristotle score, P = 0.01. Following magnesium administration and controlling for body weight, surgical and aortic cross-clamp times in the analyses, reduction in adjusted risk of JET was significantly greater with increasing Aristotle level of complexity (JET in non-magnesium vs. magnesium group, Aristotle level 1: 9.8 vs. 14.3 %, level 4: 11.5 vs. 3.2 %; odds ratio 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31-0.94, P = 0.028). Our data confirmed that intra-operative usage of magnesium reduced the occurrence of PO JET in a larger number and more diverse group of CHS patients than has previously been reported. Further, our data suggest that magnesium's effect on PO JET occurrence seemed more effective in CHS with higher levels of Aristotle complexity.

  18. "Es ist meine Art, einen und denselben Gegenstand zu verfolgen, bis ich ihn aufgeklärt habe" Äußerungen Alexander von Humboldts über sich selbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Schwarz

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and Spanish. Alexander von Humboldt has been characterized as the second, scientific discoverer of the New World, as the last universal scientist, Aristotle of modern times, etc. However, more or less hidden in his correspondence we find certain self-characterizations which are not that well-known. Some of them are quoted and discussed in the paper. Thus, an attempt is made to answer the question why Humboldt liked to call himself "the old man from the mountains", and whether or not he found it appropriate to be called "Aristotle of our age."

  19. An approach to research on embodiment and forms of knowledge : methodological challenges for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard

    a subjective or cultural perspective keeping the other part in mind. Consequently, their respective theories fail to account for how the subjective perspectives and cultural contexts are necessarily interwoven – as Merleau-Ponty puts it – or ethical – as Aristotle would claim – or interdependent – as Højrup...... argues. Studying a teacher training program, specifically the relation between placement and teaching, this presentation argues for a ‘meeting point’ and theoretical frame of Merleau-Ponty, Aristotle and Højrup that all dialectally grasps the relations between researcher and interviewee by understanding...

  20. La poesía como causalidad en la Poética de Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Díaz Tejera

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle's Poetics is much more than a literary preceptive and much more than a treatise on Greek tragedy. The author believes that a great part of its message is lost if it is not seen from a broader perspective: that of art as a creative and infinite principle which exists in the mind of men. In this respect Aristotle was a major innovator: he considers poetry as the foundation and cause rather than a copy of reality, and therefore frees it from ethical considerations.

  1. La poesía como causalidad en la Poética de Aristóteles

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Díaz Tejera

    1984-01-01

    Aristotle's Poetics is much more than a literary preceptive and much more than a treatise on Greek tragedy. The author believes that a great part of its message is lost if it is not seen from a broader perspective: that of art as a creative and infinite principle which exists in the mind of men. In this respect Aristotle was a major innovator: he considers poetry as the foundation and cause rather than a copy of reality, and therefore frees it from ethical considerations.

  2. Dynamis a energeia: příspěvek k interpretaci Aristotelovy Metafyziky

    OpenAIRE

    Rabas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    in English: In the first half of the book Theta of his Metaphysics, Aristotle discusses dunamis as a property of a being. In this sense, dunamis is primarily a principle of change in another thing or in the thing itself qua other, thereby exercising itself in its energeia. In the second half of the book, Aristotle discusses dunamis as a way of being. In this sense, a being is dunamei another thing and in the course of its becoming that thing it changes into being energeiai. The aim of the pre...

  3. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  4. Necesidad práctica y akrasía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trueba Atienza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine Aristotle's notion of practical necessity in the Nicomachean Ethics. This topic has received little attention in spite of its importance for the understanding of aristotelian practical syllogism. I focus my analysis on the controverted example of akratic reasoning in EN VII, 3, 1147a 26-30, in which Aristotle seems to showcase properties of practical reasoning connected with action. Nevertheless, as I hope to show, the aristotelian approach to this issue is insuficient to support an strong interpretation of practical necessity.

  5. O Significado do Direito Natural a partir do Critério de Equidade na Concepção Aristotélica de Justiça Política

    OpenAIRE

    Coitinho Silveira, Denis

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the meaning of Aristotle's natural law (φνσικον δικαιον) in Nicomachean Ethics, Book V, verifying your nonfoundationalist model. Thus, I use, too, some passages in Politics (Pol.), Rhetoric (Ret.) and spurious Magna Moralia (MM). I want to show a unit about the role of natural law in Aristotle's ethics, verifying if the fairness or reasonableness (επιεικεια) it can be understood as what is the correct one.

  6. Ethical And Religious Analysis On Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Omar Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis on euthanasia from ethical and religious perspectives. Historically, the classical Greek thinkers including Aristotle had categorically accepted euthanasia with the main reason of minimizing pain. However, as science develops ethical and religious isuues related to the subject have increasingly created fervent debates on euthanesia. ABSTRAK: Kertas ini mengkaji euthanasia dari perspektif agama dan etika. Sejarah telah melihat para pemikir Greek termasuk Aristotle secara kategorinya menerima Euthanasia dengan sebab utama untuk mengurangkan kesakitan. Bagaimanapun, apabila sains berkembang, perbahasan mengenai isu-isu agama dan etika tentang Euthanasia telah meningkat dengan nyata.KEYWORDS: mercy killing; religion; ethics; morality; euthanasia

  7. Verdad y verosimilitud en la poética: Paz y Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josemaría Camacho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to discover the close relation that Paz's opinion keeps with Aristotle's when they talk about the reaches of poetry. First, I try to explain the various meanings of the concept 'truth' in Aristotle's work, in order to understand the precise way that he means when refering to poetry. Then, I try to compare both opinions grounded in the similar conceptions about the necesity of verosimilitude they think poetry must observe. Altough they both predicate this necesity to poetry, they have diferent reasons to do it. I conclude this work explaining those reasons.

  8. Causa Efficiens versus Causa Formalis: origens da discuss\\~ao moderna sobre a dimensionalidade do espa\\c{c}o

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Metascientific criteria used for explaining or constraining physical space dimensionality and their historical relationship to prevailing causal systems are discussed. The important contributions by Aristotle, Kant and Ehrenfest to the dimensionality of space problem are considered and shown to be grounded on different causal explanations: {\\it causa materialis} for Aristotle, {\\it causa efficiens} for young Kant and an ingenious combination of {\\it causa efficiens} and {\\it causa formalis} for Ehrenfest. The prominent and growing r\\^ole played by {\\it causa formalis} in modern physical approaches to this problem is emphasized.

  9. Anaximander’s ‘Boundless Nature’

    OpenAIRE

    Couprie, Dirk L.; Kočandrle, Radim

    2013-01-01

    The usual interpretation has it that Anaximander made ‘the Boundless’ (τὸ ἄπειρον) the source and principle of everything. However, in the works of Aristotle, the nearest witness, no direct connection can be found between Anaximander and ‘the Boundless’. On the contrary, Aristotle says that all the physicists made something else the subject of which ἄπειρος is a predicate (Phys. 203 a 4). When we take this remark seriously, it must include Anaximander as well. This means that Anaximander did ...

  10. Algunas notas sobre la discusión con los eléatas en Física I de Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rossi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the role of peculiar elements of Aristotle's dialectical developments —namely, those raised in the Sophistical Refutations (SE— in the analysis and discussion of the Eleatic thesis in Physics I, 2-3. The paper attends to some of Aristotle's preliminary thoughts (Phys. I, 2 (which are read as methodological considerations, and to certain remarks against Melisos' argument (Phys. I, 3, in order to find connections between such claims and passages of the SE, as well as the Topics.

  11. Aristotelian Syllogistic, Subalternate Modes, Theophrastus’ Modes and the Fourth Figure

    OpenAIRE

    СЛИНИН Я.А.

    2015-01-01

    In his treatise «New Essays Concerning Human Understanding» Leibniz gives some evidence which suggests that he believed that each of the four figures of Aristotle’s categorical syllogism has 6 correct modes. It is known that Aristotle stated and proved correct syllogisms modes in the three figures, with the fi rst of them having a number of the indirect modes. Why Aristotle did not explicitly introduced into his syllogistic subalternative modes and modes with conversed conclusion? In the pape...

  12. Môže umenie vypestovať dobrého občana? Aristotelov príspevok vo svetle teórie výchovy / Can art help to prepare a good citizen? Aristotle’s contribution to the philosophy of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Danišková

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The text discusses the importance and contribution of political philosophy outlined by Aristotle to the current context of civic education. It analyzes Aristotle’s thinking about who a citizen of polis is, how he becomes a citizen, which characteristics he should have and finally it explains how such a citizen should be educated. One of the means preferred by Aristotle is music, its melodic and rhythmic significance, thanks to which a citizen habits the virtues. This concept of education is an expression of growing mythic-poetic experience that can be transferred by the humanistic and educational courses.

  13. Human Good in the Nicomachean Ethics I

    OpenAIRE

    Hudoletnjak Grgić, Maja

    2008-01-01

    In the Nicomachean Ethics, the theory of human happiness is set forth in two separate accounts, in Book I and in Book X. In Book X, Aristotle distinguishes two kinds of happiness, while the discussion in Book I strongly suggests that only one definition of happiness should be accepted. Yet, it appears that in Book X Aristotle identifies happiness with one activity, while in Book I it is assumed that it includes more than one activity. I try to show what is the conception of happiness offered ...

  14. Aristote, Saussure et la convention du signe

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    Vincenzo PARDO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new critical reading of Aristotle and Saussure, a new point of view on the conventionalist thesis, the composition of acoustic and articulatory sign, and the limits of arbitrariness of the sign. We will show that the more congenial translation of κατà συνθηκην [kata suntheken], expression of a primitive thesis of the "conventional arbitrariness" and, anticipated in the De Interpretatione of Aristotle, rather than “for convention” we believe, it would be “for composition".

  15. La Sociedad de Naciones y el problema del distanciamiento mexicano: la mision internacional de Julian Nogueira en Mexico, agosto-septiembre de 1923

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera Leon, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    La estancia en Mexico de Julian Nogueira, funcionario de primera categoria de la Sociedad de Naciones, supuso el primer contacto formal y duradero entre esta organizacion internacional y el pais revolucionario ausente...

  16. Violence on TV: analysis of children's programming/Violencia en television: analisis de la programacion en horario infantil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez-Ugena, Alvaro; Menor, Juan; Salas, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    .... La metodologia utilizada ha sido la propia de los estudios sobre el contenido: visionado (mas de 8.100 horas) codificacion y encuadre en las categorias formalizadas para su posterior tratamiento...

  17. Politicas de reclutamiento de trabajadores en Espana: la construccion social de "emigrantes patriotas" e "inmigrantes responsables"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betrisey, Debora

    2012-01-01

    ... de los procesos y practicas estatales como es la construccion de las categorias de "emigrantes" e "inmigrantes" en el interior de su "comunidad nacional" junto a su regulacion o administracion, a traves...

  18. Novas possibilidades metodológicas: a quebra dos paradigmas qualitativo e quantitativo em psicologia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edna Maria Peters Kahhale; Elisa Maria Barbosa Esper

    2014-01-01

    O presente relato propõe uma metodologia materialista dialética de análise de dados que rompe com os paradigmas qualitativos e quantitativos, numa perspectiva transdisciplinar e complexa, tomando como categorias...

  19. Empresarialidad y empresa: una aproximación desde la escuela austriaca

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charry, Geovanny Perdomo

    2010-01-01

    Este articulo de revision teorica de las categorias Empresarialidad y Empresa es abordado desde la escuela austriaca, debido a su alta influencia en los estudios de administracion en la sociedad capitalista actual...

  20. Complicaciones de lo ilegal y de lo informal: el "Business", una propuesta conceptual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parra, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    .... Examina los usos de las categorias ilegal e informal y las limitaciones que presentan estas definiciones juridicas y economicas para el estudio antropologico de la economia y de la sociedad, para...

  1. Efectos del Huracan Paloma sobre los pastos marinos del archipielago Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Zuniga, Adan; Pina, Fabian; Matos, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    .... Del 29 de noviembre al 5 de diciembre 2008 se determinaron los efectos del huracan Paloma, categoria tres en la escala SaffirSimpsom, sobre los pastos marinos del extremo oriental del Archipielago Jardines de la Reina...

  2. El plan de manejo para el Paisaje Agavero y las Antiguas Instalaciones Industriales de Tequila: el Patrimonio Cultural como detonador del desarrollo regional, antecedentes, compromisos y retos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gomez Arriola, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    El presente texto explora los valores como patrimonio cultural de la comarca del volcan de Tequila, recientemente inscrita en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO, en la categoria de paisaje...

  3. Acerca de la teoria general de la racionalidad: lectura de la cultura, la religion y los comportamientos economicos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arriaga Martinez, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    ... en los comportamientos economicos colectivos. Explicamos los conceptos y las categorias propios a esta escuela y ofrecemos bajo un enfoque metodologico comparativo ejemplos de aplicacion y explicacion, considerando en particular algunas...

  4. Desarrollo forestal comunitario sustentable en la region norte de mexico y su desafio en el contexto de la globalizacion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez, Concepcion Lujan; Garcia, Jesus Miguel Olivas; Hernandez, Hilda Guadalupe Gonzalez; Alvarez, Susana Vazquez; Alvarez, Jose Ciro Hernandez Diaz y.Humberto Lujan

    2016-01-01

    ... de la globalizacion economica. En el estudio fueron aplicadas encuestas a ejidos/comunidades, considerando la tipologia de las cuatro categorias de productores forestales de Conafor, asi como a informantes clave externos y ademas...

  5. Una aproximacion al concepto de crimenes contra la humanidad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diaz Soto, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    El presente articulo explora el concepto de "crimenes contra la humanidad", a partir de una revision historica y del analisis de los distintos instrumentos internacionales que han consagrado esta categoria normativa...

  6. La importancia de la satisfaccion del usuario

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernandez Salazar, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    ...; antecedentes y definicion de satisfaccion de usuarios; tendencias metodologicas (modelos teoricos, metodos, tecnicas e instrumentos de medida); y las categorias o las variables que determinan la satisfaccion de usuarios.

  7. Submissão às recomendações do BI-RADS? por médicos e pacientes: análise preliminar de 3.000 exames realizados em uma clínica particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godinho Eduardo Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS? do American College of Radiology é um sistema que objetiva padronizar o laudo mamográfico, reduzir os fatores de confusão na descrição e interpretação das imagens e facilitar a emissão do resultado final do exame. OBJETIVO: Buscar identificar o grau de submissão das mulheres e médicos às recomendações do BI-RADS em Goiânia, GO. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas, prospectivamente, 3.000 mulheres submetidas à mamografia em um serviço radiológico particular em Goiânia (janeiro a dezembro de 2002. Os laudos foram emitidos de acordo com o BI-RADS. As mulheres classificadas nas categorias 0, 3, 4 e 5 foram acompanhadas por contato telefônico. RESULTADOS: Mulheres que se recusaram a seguir orientação: categorias 0 (11,5%, 3 (13,8%, 4 (28% e 5 (0%. Não houve orientação médica para seguir recomendação: categorias 0 (18,2%, 3 (17%, 4 (20%. Mulheres que se submeteram à recomendação: categorias 0 (1,8%, 3 (5,7%, 4 (40%, 5 (100%. Perdidas no seguimento: categorias 0 (68,5%, 3 (39% e 4 (12%. CONCLUSÃO: É baixa a submissão às recomendações do BI-RADS nas categorias 0 e 3, e moderada na categoria 4. Aproximadamente 30% das mulheres classificadas na categoria 0 não se submeteram à avaliação adicional por imagem, por recusa própria ou por falta de orientação médica.

  8. A interpretação do cuidado com o ostomizado na visão do enfermeiro: um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Gemelli, Lorena Moraes Goetem; Zago,Márcia Maria Fontão

    2002-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar como os enfermeiros de uma instituição hospitalar interpretam o cuidado com o ostomizado, por meio do método de estudo de caso. Os resultados obtidos deram origem a quatro categorias: o paciente precisa de um cuidado especial; é preciso orientar; para orientar a enfermagem precisa...; reconhecimento das dificuldades para o cuidado especial. Por essas categorias consideramos que os enfermeiros fornecem um cuidado inadequado devido à falta de conhecime...

  9. [Chapter 1. Beyond the reification of vulnerability, thinking vulnerability as the subject capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol-Baum, Mylène

    2016-12-29

    In this introduction I will draw an overview of theories associated with the notion of care from feminist studies to clinical theory by articulating the concept of vulnerability to that of capability in Amartya Sen and showing the roots of capability theory in Aristotle and anti-utilitarian theories.

  10. Should psychology be ‘positive’? Letting the philosophers speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief commentary on the value of optimism in therapy. It draws on the philosophical writings of Schopenhauer and Aristotle. It suggests that the modern preoccupation with optimism may be as extreme as the bleak pessimistic outlook favoured by Schopenhauer. PMID:25237498

  11. Should psychology be 'positive'? Letting the philosophers speak: Commentary on... Hope, optimism and delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2014-04-01

    This is a brief commentary on the value of optimism in therapy. It draws on the philosophical writings of Schopenhauer and Aristotle. It suggests that the modern preoccupation with optimism may be as extreme as the bleak pessimistic outlook favoured by Schopenhauer.

  12. Psychoanalytical Theories about Dance and Art | Akunna | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the recent trend of crossing academic boundaries and integrating the humanities with social and abstract sciences in contemporary times, this article focuses on the role of art in the school of psychoanalytical thought and by extension, modern medicine. In the process, it explores the relationship between Aristotle's ...

  13. Theories of the Syllogism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet; Johnson-Laird, P. N.

    2012-01-01

    Syllogisms are arguments about the properties of entities. They consist of 2 premises and a conclusion, which can each be in 1 of 4 "moods": "All A are B," "Some A are B," "No A are B," and "Some A are not B." Their logical analysis began with Aristotle, and their psychological investigation began over 100 years ago. This article outlines the…

  14. The Elements of Taste: How Many Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    What is the number of tastes or flavors we have? Is it five, as most Chinese believe? None, as the ancient Taoists asserted? Four, as Western science traditionally claims? Recently, "umami" has been added to the traditional four: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (the Chinese added another: spicy or pungent). Aristotle and Raghavan Iyer (of India)…

  15. Inflamed with Study: Eighteenth-Century Higher Education and the Formation of the American Constitutional Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    familiar with Aristotle’s + .e archetypic governmental forms of monarchy, aristocracy and const’ &ional democracy (the last of these being variously...judges and lawyers." And according to J.P. Kenyon, he "has an assured place in the mythology of early American history as a spokesman for judicial review

  16. Poetry of the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2011-06-01

    From Homer to the Bible looking at the heavenly vault is an enchanted moment in human life. It produces that wonder which Aristotle maintains is the beginning of the love of wisdom, that is to say of philosophy, science, and philomythia-the love of myth: poetry.

  17. Outdoor Experiential Education: Its Power and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    1985-01-01

    Traces origin of outdoor education to Aristotle. Expresses concern over cutbacks and "back to basics" movements that are eliminating outdoor programs. Proposes outdoor educators examine program objectives, staff, student needs, focus, and techniques to improve physiological and psychological aspects and avoid instructor traps to become stronger,…

  18. Interactionism in Personality in the Twentieth Century. Research Report #146.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Norman S.; Edwards, Jean M.

    This paper examines the historical development of the interaction model of personality in the 20th century. The philosophical roots of interactionism can be traced to the writings of Aristotle and Descartes. One of the earliest interactionist positions in psychology can be found in the works of Kantor (1924, 1926). Although theoretical interest in…

  19. Purifying Rhetoric: Empedocles and the Myth of Rhetorical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencarella, Stephen Olbrys

    2010-01-01

    The polymath Empedocles has not been considered a prominent figure in the history of rhetorical studies nor contemporary appropriations of antiquity, despite the reported attribution of his invention of rhetoric by Aristotle. This neglect is understandable, as the surviving fragments of Empedocles' work provide no significant reference to rhetoric…

  20. It's Nothing, Really...Nothing at All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, George L.

    Philosophy was created by accident out of nothing. The verb "to be" can be confused with "to exist." The accidents of the fact that the "copula" is both a transitive and an intransitive verb are sometimes thought to have plagued ancient Greek thinking until Aristotle discovered logic and thus saved the world from…

  1. Resurrecting Thirty Years of Historical Insight about Kinesiology: A Supplement to "What Is Kinesiology? Historical and Philosophical Insights"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Twietmeyer (2012) reviews the historical and contemporary state of kinesiology and appraises what he calls unexamined philosophical commitments. He begins with a historical and philosophical review of the foundations of kinesiology, beginning with Aristotle's ancient influences and Polanyi's and C. P. Snow's modern influences. He then focuses on…

  2. Thucydides'"History" as Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Surveys Thucydidean scholarship attempting to determine how the "Tragedy of Athens" should be interpreted. Highlights views of Thucydides as dramatic poet and as scientific historian, comparing his work to that of Aristotle and Plato. Concludes that Thucydides was a political theorist and that his narrative of the Peloponnesian War is…

  3. PATSALIDES, Savas, Grammatas, Theodoros, eds.: Struggling with the Classics: About Locality and Globality. Vol. 22 (1, 2014 de Gramma / Gramma. Journal of Theory and Criticism / PERIODIKO QEWRIAS KAI KRITIKHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno S. Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PATSALIDES, Savas, Grammatas, Theodoros, eds.: Struggling with the Classics: About Locality and Globality. Vol. 22 (1, 2014 de Gramma / Gramma. Journal of Theory and Criticism / PERIODIKO QEWRIAS KAI KRITIKHS (Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2014 177 p. ISBN 1106-1170.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_67_31

  4. The First Sophists and the Uses of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarratt, Susan C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of intellectual views on the Greek sophists in three phases: (1) their disparagement by Plato and Aristotle as the morally disgraceful "other"; (2) nineteenth century British positivists' reappraisal of these relativists as ethically and scientifically superior; and (3) twentieth century versions of the sophists as…

  5. The Boundaries of Language and Rhetoric: Some Historical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Robert O.

    1968-01-01

    Important ideas and events in the history of rhetoric are examined in order to illumine the present situation, especially the problem of defining the concept of rhetoric. From Plato's hostility to rhetoric and Aristotle's epistomological rehabilitation of it to the later ethical emphasis of Cicero and the Medieval Christian rhetoriticians, the…

  6. Cloud Nine: A Work of Agitprop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Epic theater, which is formed by Bertolt Brecht in the early 20th century and peaks in the following decades, challenges the persistent drama convention initiated first by Aristotle. Bertolt Brecht, who is propelled by Marxist convictions and dialectical conception of history while shaping his epic theatre, aims to expose social degradation,…

  7. Vocational Preparation and General Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robert H.

    The premise of this paper is that vocational and nonvocational education can be reconstructed in a way that uses both in fashioning a new set of courses. This new curriculum should be able to bridge the differences perceived in the relations between academic and vocational cultures. The paper focuses most on educational history, from Aristotle and…

  8. A History of Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Philip L.; Safford, Elizabeth J.

    This book presents an interdisciplinary chronological perspective on the history of children considered exceptional and how services to them have evolved over time. It begins by placing the origins of special education in historical context from Aristotle through the Enlightenment and beyond. Subsequent chapters consider individual conditions…

  9. Historical Research: A Qualitative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, George N.

    1996-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of the uses of rhetoric in the history of writing about music. Discusses Aristotle's topology of the three different kinds of rhetoric: deliberative, judicial, and epideictic (demonstrative). Includes excerpts from past music criticism, copious notes, and a 27-item bibliography. (MJP)

  10. The Art of Wondering: A Revisionist Return to the History of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, William A.

    Reacting to the tradition which has reduced rhetorics to summaries of rules and principles, this book presupposes that Plato's "Phaedrus," Aristotle's "Rhetoric," and Cicero's "De Oratore" cannot be reduced to summary information or pedagogical advice. The book considers that these works, on the contrary, along with…

  11. Mathematical Justification as Non-Conceptualized Practice: the Babylonian Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Those Greek philosophers who write about mathematics consider demonstration as central to it. Grosso modo, what Aristotle writes about the topic is congruent with what Euclid does. Demonstration was thus not only practised but also an explicit concern for Greek mathematics. Other early mathematical...

  12. The Wasps in Court: Argument and Audience in the Athenian Dikasteries.

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    Rodgers, Raymond S.

    In an attempt to explain why Aristotle devotes a substantial part of Book Two of "The Rhetoric" to methods for arousing jurors' emotions, despite stating previously that such emotional appeal is nonessential and unethical, this paper examines the nature of the Athenian jury courts, or dikasteries. It first discusses the historical…

  13. Critical Thinking in Its Contexts and in Itself

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    Coney, Christopher Leigh

    2015-01-01

    The nature of critical thinking remains controversial. Some recent accounts have lost sight of its roots in the history of philosophy. This article discusses critical thinking in its historical and social contexts, and in particular, for its educational and political significance. The writings of Plato and Aristotle are still vital in considering…

  14. Kritik Ibn Rusyd Terhadap Pandangan Para Filsuf Tentang Ketuhanan

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    Sujiat Zubaidi Saleh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Being indirect disciple of Aristotle, Ibn Rusyd mostly studied deeply in the area of philosophy, but he also criticized frequently the view of other Muslim philosophers. Ibn Rusyd’s critics in this case are in order to purify Aristotle’s philosophy from infiltration and distorted ideas. So then he could present the philosophy of Aristotle genuinely. In this article, the writer wishes to present the analysis of Ibn Rusyd on the views of Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina and Al-Ghazali. Among the philosophers except al-Ghazali, he criticized both two from their views on the existence of God through the theory of wajib al-wujud (necessary being and mumkin al-wujud (possible being. Ibnu Rusyd also rejected the theory on emanation of al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, because not derived from Aristotle. Ibn Rusyd concerned upon the al-Ghazalis Tahafut Al-Falasifah (Incoherence of the Philosophers not represented all philosophers views, but the views of philosophers on Neo-Platonic which destroys the thought of Aristotle. In this point Ibn Rusyd judges, that Al-Ghazali’s criticism is incoherence.

  15. Expeditionary Learning in Information Systems: Definition, Implementation, and Assessment

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    Abrahams, Alan S.; Singh, Tirna

    2013-01-01

    In the natural sciences, collecting, cataloguing, and comparing living specimens have long been a popular, collaborative mode of discovery and learning. New species are discovered, and the relationships between species are theorized. From Aristotle's "History of Animals" to Darwin's "On the Origin of Species", and beyond, this…

  16. Alcune note sulla ricezione anglosassone di Jacques Derrida

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    Luca Gianconi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates some aspects of the relations between Derrida’s thought and the XX century american mainstream of thought in philosophy. In order to do this, it deepens the relevant perspective of deconstruction through frequent comparisons with crucial standpoint in history of philosophy, such as Aristotle, Descartes, Hegel, Heidegger.

  17. Current Composition: Beyond Process vs. Product.

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    Farris, Christine R.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the development of writing paradigms from Aristotle's emphasis on invention, to eighteenth-century emphasis on induction and style, to the recent process approach, and the current expressive and cognitive approaches to writing instruction. Notes problems left unresolved by process theory and recommends the socio-contextual approach which…

  18. Social Foundations in Exile: How Dare the School Build a New Social Order

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    Dotts, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The idea of breaking free from outdated ideas and practices is nothing new. It is an idea advocated by individuals like Aristotle, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson. In 1935 Dewey asserted that he viewed education and schooling as the ideal setting for democracy's gestation. He believed that a democratic way of life could best be achieved by…

  19. Audience and Situational Context in Historical Perspective.

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    LeTourneau, Mark S.

    Audience and situational context, the latter defined as a pairing of time and place coordinates, have passed through stages of union, separation, and identification in the history of rhetoric. From Aristotle through Cicero and Quintilian to Hugh Blair and George Campbell, audience was a synecdoche for the situations of utterance that defined…

  20. History of Science, Physics, and Art: A Complex Approach in Brazilian Syllabuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, José Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about new contents that can be introduced into science education. It is a description of an experience aimed at introducing a complex approach into the final grade of a Brazilian elementary school. The aim is to show the transformation of the conception of space and time from the Middle Ages with the physics of Aristotle to the 20th…