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Sample records for vetiver chrysopogon zizanioides

  1. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of <1 for all the metals. This study revealed the defense mechanisms employed by Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase.

  2. The possible role of hydroxylation in the detoxification of atrazine in mature vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides Nash) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcacci, Sylvie; Raventon, Muriel; Ravanel, Patrick; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The resistance mechanism of vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) to atrazine was investigated to evaluate its potential for phytoremediation of environment contaminated with the herbicide. Plants known to metabolise atrazine rely on hydroxylation mediated by benzoxazinones, conjugation catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases and dealkylation probably mediated by cytochromes P450. All three possibilities were explored in mature vetiver grown in hydroponics during this research project. Here we report on the chemical role of benzoxazinones in the transformation of atrazine. Fresh vetiver roots and leaves were cut to extract and study their content in benzoxazinones known to hydroxylate atrazine, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and their mono- and di-glucosylated forms. Identification of benzoxazinones was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and comparison of retention factors (Rf) and UV spectra with standards: although some products exhibited the same Rf as standards, UV spectra were different. Furthermore, in vitro hydroxylation of atrazine could not be detected in the presence of vetiver extracts. Finally, vetiver organs exposed to [14C]-atrazine did not produce any significant amount of hydroxylated products, such as hydroxyatrazine (HATR), hydroxy-deethylatrazine (HDEA), and hydroxy-deisopropylatrazine (HDIA). Altogether, these metabolic features suggest that hydroxylation was not a major metabolic pathway of atrazine in vetiver.

  3. Uptake of 2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine by Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) from Hydroponic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S X; Li, Y M; Zheng, Y; Hua, Y; Datta, R; Dan, Y M; Lv, P; Sarkar, D

    2016-04-01

    2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine (prometryn) poses a risk to aquatic environments in several countries, including China, where its use is widespread, particularly due to its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) was tested for its potential for phytoremediation of prometryn. Vetiver grass was grown in hydroponic media in a greenhouse, in the presence of prometryn, with appropriate controls. Plant uptake and removal of prometryn from the media were monitored for a period of 67 days. The results showed that the removal of the prometryn in the media was expedited by vetiver grass. The removal half-life (t1/2) was shortened by 11.5 days. Prometryn removal followed first-order kinetics (Ct = 1.8070e(-0.0601t)). This study demonstrated the potential of vetiver grass for the phytoremediation for prometryn.

  4. A preliminary study to design a floating treatment wetland for remediating acid mine drainage-impacted water using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskila, Jeffrey D; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Feuerstein, Kailey A; Datta, Rupali

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is extremely acidic, sulfate-rich effluent from abandoned or active mine sites that also contain elevated levels of heavy metals. Untreated AMD can contaminate surface and groundwater and pose severe ecological risk. Both active and passive methods have been developed for AMD treatment consisting of abiotic and biological techniques. Abiotic techniques are expensive and can create large amounts of secondary wastes. Passive biological treatment mainly consists of aerobic or anaerobic constructed wetlands. While aerobic wetlands are economical, they are not effective if the pH of the AMD is systems declines overtime and requires continuous maintenance. Our objective is to develop an alternative, low-cost, and sustainable floating wetland treatment (FWT) system for AMD for the abandoned Tab-Simco coal mining site in Illinois using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Tab-Simco AMD is highly acidic, with mean pH value of 2.64, and contains high levels of sulfate and metals. A greenhouse study was performed for a 30-day period in order to screen and optimize the necessary parameters to design a FWT system. Water quality and plant growth parameters were continuously monitored. Results show significant SO 4 2- removal, resulting in increased pH, particularly at higher planting densities. Vetiver also helped in metal removal; high amounts of Fe, Zn, and Cu were removed, with relatively lower amounts of Pb, Al, and Ni. Iron plaque formation on the root was observed, which increased metal stabilization in root and lowered root to shoot metal translocation. Vetiver was tolerant of AMD, showing minimal change in biomass and plant growth. Results obtained are encouraging, and a large scale mesocosm study is now in progress, as the next step to develop the vetiver-based system for AMD treatment.

  5. Study of the spatial distribution of mercury in roots of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) by micro-pixe spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Cristina; Wang, Yaodong; Doronila, Augustine; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Siegele, Rainer; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-01-01

    Localization of Hg in root tissues of vetivergrass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated by micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry to gain a better understanding of Hg uptake and its translocation to the aerial plant parts. Tillers of C. zizanioides were grown in a hydroponic culture for 3 weeks under controlled conditions and then exposed to Hg for 10 days with or without the addition of the chelators (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. These treatments were used to study the effects of these chelators on localization of Hg in the root tissues to allow better understanding of Hg uptake during its assisted-phytoextraction. Qualitative elemental micro-PIXE analysis revealed that Hg was mainly localized in the root epidermis and exodermis, tissues containing suberin in all Hg treatments. Hg at trace levels was localized in the vascular bundle when plants were treated with a mercury solution only. However, higher Hg concentrations were found when the solution also contained (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. This finding is consistent with the observed increase in Hg translocation to the aerial parts of the plants in the case of chemically induced Hg phytoextraction.

  6. Greenhouse study on the phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides L., in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Quispe, Mario A; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this greenhouse study was to assess the capacity of vetiver grass to accumulate arsenic from pesticide-contaminated soils of varying physico-chemical properties. Results indicate that vetiver is capable of tolerating moderate levels of arsenic up to 225 mg/kg. Plant growth and arsenic removal efficiency was strongly influenced by soil properties. Arsenic removal was highest (10.6%) in Millhopper soil contaminated with 45 mg/kg arsenic, which decreased to 4.5 and 0.6% at 225 and 450 mg/kg, respectively. High biomass, widespread root system and environmental tolerance make this plant an attractive choice for the remediation of soils contaminated with moderate levels of arsenic.

  7. Study of Chrysopogon Zizanioides ability to decontaminate irrigation water in Southwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea Grajera, F. A.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional agriculture is characterized by the increasing use of agrochemicals to maintain and improve soil fertility. One of the main problems arising from this practise is the generation of leachates, which contain a high concentration of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and other contaminating components, causing soil and water pollution. This is a common problem in irrigated areas such as Las Vegas Bajas del Guadiana (Extremadura, Spain). Different techniques are being developed and used to control leachate generation, however, these practises happen to be very expensive. In this situation, the emergence of alternative technologies such as phytoremediation, based on the ability of some plants to absorb and accumulate high concentrations of pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and radiactive components, is being explored to restore the degraded lands and it seems very feasible, economical and environment-friendly. The Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a perennial grass originally from India, widely known for its ability to retain soil and prevent erosion. Recently, the new use of this grass for phytoremediation has stimulated research in this area. It produces up to two meter high plant with a strong dense and mainly vertical root system with emerging secondary roots which form a dense and strong network that grows horizontally and vertically to depths greater than 5 meters, useful in soil erosion control. It is vegetatively propagated and is non-invasive, resistant to pests and diseases and widely used worldwide for soil and moisture conservation and soil restoration. This study, carried out in Badajoz, in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, focuses in the use of Vetiver in the area. Its adaptation to climatic and soil conditions was tested for three years. Bunches of selected species were first grown in pots and later planted in experimental plots exposed to the weather conditions in the area. When adaptation to edaphic and climatic

  8. Erosion and Soil Contamination Control Using Coconut Flakes And Plantation Of Centella Asiatica And Chrysopogon Zizanioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Rasyikin; Che Omar, Rohayu; Nor Zuliana Baharuddin, Intan; Zulkarnain, M. S.; Hanafiah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Land degradation in Malaysia due to water erosion and water logging cause of loss of organic matter, biodiversity and slope instability but also land are contaminated with heavy metals. Various alternative such as physical remediation are use but it not showing the sustainability in term of environmental sustainable. Due to that, erosion and soil contamination control using coconut flakes and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides are use as alternative approach for aid of sophisticated green technology known as phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Soil from cabonaceous phyllite located near to Equine Park, Sri Kembangan are use for monitoring the effect of phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control. Five laboratory scale prototypes were designed to monitor the effect of different proportion of coconut flakes i.e. 10%, 25%, 50% & 100% and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides to reduce the top soil from eroding and reduce the soil contamination. Prototype have been observe started from first week and ends after 12 weeks. Centella asiatica planted on 10% coconut flakes with 90% soil and Chrysopogon zizanioides planted on 25% coconut flakes with 75% soil are selected proportion to be used as phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control.

  9. Assisted phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil from a mined site with Typha latifolia and Chrysopogon zizanioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, Alexander Kofi; Akoto, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    Chemically assisted phytoremediation is fast gaining attention as a biotechnology to accelerate heavy metal removal from contaminated substrates, but how different chemical amendments affect the process remains an important research question. Here, bioaccumulation factor (BAF), translocation factor (TF), removal efficiency (RE) and uptake of Hg, As, Pb, Cu and Zn by cattail (Typha latifolia) and vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) were quantified in a potted experiment to determine the effects of amendments on the phytoremediation success. Baseline concentrations of heavy metals within the studied mined site were determined. The experiment involved three soil treatments (each comprising 16 samples amended with 0.05mol/L ethylene di-aminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 3g of aluminum sulfate [Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ], and unamended control) transplanted with equal numbers of vetiver and cattail. Growth performance (height) of plant species was monitored every two weeks. Sixteen weeks after transplanting, heavy metal levels in plant and soil samples were quantified following standard protocols, and the biomass and root length measured for each plant species. Results indicated strong negative impact of mining activities on heavy metal levels of soil in the study area. Soil amendment considerably enhanced the BAF, TF, RE and uptake but the effect varied with plant species and heavy metal in question. The amendment also stimulated strong positive correlation between RE and BAF, TF and metal uptake, and generally did not show any negative effects on plant growth performance. In general, soil amendment aided the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in the plant species studied, and could be explored for cleaning up contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The uptake of uranium from soil to vetiver grass (vetiver zizanioides (L.) nash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Viet Hung; Bui Duy Cam; Dang Duc Nhan

    2012-01-01

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (LP), Dystric Fluvisols (TT) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils be contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg per kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF U , kg kg -1 ). It was found that the TF U values are dependent upon the soil properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increase soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content as well as ferrous and potassium inhibit the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil the higher uranium uptake. The grass could tolerate to the high extent (up to 77%) of uranium in soils and could survive and grow well without fertilization. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studies almost higher than that in its shoot. It seem that vetiver grass potentially be use for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium. (author)

  11. Alternative to conventional extraction of vetiver oil: Microwave hydrodistillation of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. S.; Altway, A.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the extraction of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides) has been carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation. In the extraction of vetiver oil using microwave hydrodistillation method is studied the effect of microwave power, feed to solvent (F/S) ratio and extraction time on the yield of vetiver oil. Besides, in this study can be seen that microwave hydrodistillation method offers important advantages over hydrodistillation, such as shorter extraction time (3 h vs. 24 h for hydrodistillation); better yields (0.49% vs. 0.46% for hydrodistillation); and environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing hydrodistillation than that required for extraction using microwave hydrodistillation). Based on the analysis using GC-MS can be seen 19 components on vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation. In addition, GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation method were β-Gurjunene (30.12%), α-Vetivone (20.12%), 4-(1-cyclohexenyl)-2-trimethylsilymethyl-1-buten-3-yne (13.52%) and δ-Selinene (7.27%).

  12. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, W.U.; Rashid, A.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal

  13. Physiological responses of Vetiver plant (Vetiver zizanioides to municipal waste leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Mohsenzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver plant is tolerant to acidity and temperature variations. Has rapid growth for biomass production and has high tolerance to organic and non-organic compounds in municipal waste leachate for example heavy metals. So this plant is good for landfill cultivation. In this study, physiological responses to municipal waste leachate were studied. Statistical design was a randomized complete block and each block treated with different concentrations of latex at levels of zero, 15, 30, 45 and 60 percent compared to the original latex waste. The leachate collected from the Shiraz landfill and brought into the greenhouse. The physiological characterization including leaf area, dry weight, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, proline, soluble sugars and total protein were measured. The result indicated that the dry weight, chlorophyll and anthocyanin decrease with increasing of latex concentration. The leaf area, leaf relative water, soluble sugars and total protein increased with increasing latex concentration. Proline concentration at 15 percent of leachate increased significantly compared to controls, whereas at higher concentrations decreased. According to the results, it is recommended that 45 percent of leachate in a landfill can be used to irrigate Vetiver. This is the maximum concentration of leachate that Vetiver plant can survive as green space. Primary filtration of leachate before using is recommended. If the aim is more growth or perfume application from root, less concentration of leachate is better.

  14. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em sistemas alagados construídos, com Chrysopogon zizanioides e Polygonum punctatum cultivadas em leito de argila expandida

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    Nilton de Freitas Souza Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO No presente estudo avaliou-se a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, nitrogênio total (NT e fósforo total (PT da água residuária de suinocultura (ARS em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs de escoamento horizontal subsuperficial, além da contribuição das espécies vegetais cultivadas: Polygonum punctatum (erva-de-bicho e Chrysopogon zizanioides (capim-vetiver. Foram implantados três SACs, utilizando-se argila expandida como meio suporte, sendo um cultivado com P. punctatum (SACE, outro cultivado com C. zizanioides (SACV e um mantido como controle, sem cultivo (SACC. Para um tempo de retenção hidráulica nominal (τ de 3,2 dias, observou-se remoção de DBO, NT e PT, ao longo do período experimental, com eficiências médias de 85, 38 e 51% (SACC, 89, 48 e 69% (SACE e 81, 36 e 45% (SACV, respectivamente. O melhor desempenho foi observado no SACE. Foram obtidas, em termos de matéria seca, produtividades de 2,79 e 1,91 g m-2 d-1 e remoções de NT de 1,54 e 1,01% e de PT de 0,81 e 1,19%, da carga aplicada, para a erva-de-bicho e o capim-vetiver, respectivamente.

  15. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em sistemas alagados construídos, com Chrysopogon zizanioides e Polygonum punctatum cultivadas em leito de argila expandida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton de Freitas Souza Ramos

    Full Text Available RESUMO No presente estudo avaliou-se a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, nitrogênio total (NT e fósforo total (PT da água residuária de suinocultura (ARS em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs de escoamento horizontal subsuperficial, além da contribuição das espécies vegetais cultivadas: Polygonum punctatum (erva-de-bicho e Chrysopogon zizanioides (capim-vetiver. Foram implantados três SACs, utilizando-se argila expandida como meio suporte, sendo um cultivado com P. punctatum (SACE, outro cultivado com C. zizanioides (SACV e um mantido como controle, sem cultivo (SACC. Para um tempo de retenção hidráulica nominal (τ de 3,2 dias, observou-se remoção de DBO, NT e PT, ao longo do período experimental, com eficiências médias de 85, 38 e 51% (SACC, 89, 48 e 69% (SACE e 81, 36 e 45% (SACV, respectivamente. O melhor desempenho foi observado no SACE. Foram obtidas, em termos de matéria seca, produtividades de 2,79 e 1,91 g m-2 d-1 e remoções de NT de 1,54 e 1,01% e de PT de 0,81 e 1,19%, da carga aplicada, para a erva-de-bicho e o capim-vetiver, respectivamente.

  16. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andra, Syam S.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Saminathan, Sumathi K.M.; Mullens, Conor P.; Bach, Stephan B.H.

    2009-01-01

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PC n , metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg -1 dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PC n , and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg -1 EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg -1 dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC 1 ) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC 1 -Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass. - Chelated lead in conjunction with phytochelatins synthesis and complexation reduces stress in the lead tolerant vetiver grass.

  17. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andra, Syam S., E-mail: syam.andra@gmail.co [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Datta, Rupali [Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ (United States); Saminathan, Sumathi K.M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mullens, Conor P.; Bach, Stephan B.H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PC{sub n}, metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PC{sub n}, and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg {sup -1} EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC{sub 1}) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC{sub 1}-Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass. - Chelated lead in conjunction with phytochelatins synthesis and complexation reduces stress in the lead tolerant vetiver grass.

  18. Fitoremediasi Tanaman Akar Wangi (Vetiver zizanioides Terhadap Tanah Tercemar Logam Kadmium (Cd Pada Lahan TPA Tamangapa Antang Makassar

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    Alfia Patandungan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One example of soil contamination on land landfill is (TPA Makassar. The method of prevention is phytoremediation of the contaminated land. This study examined the ability of the plant will vetiver (Vetiver zizanioides in reducing the levels of Cd in the soil. To increase the potential of these plants to remediate Cd, the soil where the plants grow is combined with compost in which bacteria within the compost might improve the absorption of Cd. Planting medium used is pure soil and compost from Tamangapa Makassar. Research carried out for 28 days with a variation of the study. The composition of the media that the contaminated soil (TT metal kadmium  (Cd  and compost (K with a ratio of 100% (TT: 0 K, 5 (TT: 1 (K, 4.5 (TT: 1.5 (K and 4 (TT: 2 (K. The results shwed that vetiver plants were able to absorb Cd of 0,298 mg/Kg so it can be concluded that the composition of the planting medium with a combination of compost less significant because the combination of the contaminated soil with compost are less precise in  helping vetiver plants accumulate or reduce metal pollution cadmium in  contaminated soil Tamangapa Antang Makassar.

  19. Performance of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Water

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    Syed Hasan Sharifah Nur Munirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tolerance towards metal uptake, there is a need to evaluate the performance of vetiver grass for metal removal to reduce water impurity. This study was aimed to evaluate contaminant removal by vetiver grass at varying root length and plant density and determine the metal uptake in vetiver plant biomass. Pollutant uptake of vetiver grass was conducted in laboratory experiment and heavy metal analysis was done using acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Findings indicated that the removal of heavy metal was decreased in seven days of the experiment where iron shows the highest percentage (96%; 0.42 ppm of removal due to iron is highly required for growth of vetiver grass. Removal rate of heavy metals in water by vetiver grass is ranked in the order of Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu. Results also demonstrated greater removal of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn at greater root length and higher density of vetiver grass because it increased the surface area for metal absorption by plant root into vetiver plant from contaminated water. However, findings indicated that accumulation of heavy metals in plant biomass was higher in vetiver shoot than in root due to metal translocation from root to the shoot. Therefore, the findings have shown effective performance of vetiver grass for metal removal in the phytoremediation of contaminated water.

  20. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  1. Cultivation of vetiver in saline tailings contaminated with arsenic under phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. de O. P. Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The processing of gold ores exploited in Paracatu, MG, generates tailings that are challenging for revegetation, mainly because of the high content of arsenic and salinity. Aiming at the revegetation of the area of disposal of these tailings, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of phosphorus doses on vetiver plants (Chrysopogon zizanioides and on the planting substrate, which consisted of tailings from the processing of ore named B1, exploited in Paracatu, with water restriction. Vetiver was grown for four months in the substrate under doses of 0, 140, 280, 560 and 1280 mg kg-1 of P2O5. Increasing doses of phosphorus improved the chemical characteristics of the substrate. However, the highest dose (1280 mg kg-1 P2O5 resulted in higher toxicity of arsenic for the plants. Under the evaluated conditions, the dose of 560 mg kg-1 of P2O5 is the most suitable for the fertilization of vetiver and, therefore, also for the revegetation of the substrate. Vetiver survives under low availability of water in the tailings.

  2. Biofiltro con cascarilla de arroz y pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del INPEC – Yopal, Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Katheryne Higuera Infante

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación se evaluó un biofiltro a escala laboratorio para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del Inpec de Yopal, Casanare, cuya finalidad era lograr un efluente de calidad óptima para reúso del agua en riego agrícola. Se contemplaron tres fases, la primera caracterización y análisis de los parámetros microbiológicos como fisicoquímicos del efluente. La segunda fase diseño y construcción del sistema a escala laboratorio del humedal artificial, se construyó en vidrio, usando cascarilla de arroz, intercalada con grava, se sembró pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides y se inundó el sistema para que funcionará con flujo subsuperficial, el tiempo de retención hidráulico TRH fue de 3.4 días. La desinfección con cloro se diseñó a partir de una prueba de demanda de cloro. La tercera fase consistió en la operación del sistema a flujo continuo, el seguimiento se realizó a través de 4 muestreos con frecuencia semanal, en dos de estos muestreos se incluyó medición de DBO5, coliformes totales y fecales y conductividad.  Los resultados mostraron que la cascarilla de arroz como sustrato funciona bien, las plantas crecieron permanentemente, ayudando a disminuir la carga orgánica. Como conclusión la cascarilla puede ser un sustituto total o parcial de otros sustratos de biofiltros o humedales de flujo subsuperficial, al ser menos costosa y estar disponible especialmente en la región de la Orinoquía. Sin embargo, su uso debe complementarse con un proceso de reoxigenación del agua, ya que su condición anaerobia es un aspecto negativo para los cuerpos de agua receptores de vertimientos.

  3. Propagação e conservação in vitro de vetiver In vitro propagation and conservation of vetiver grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana C Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides é um capim perene com características físico-químicas e agronômicas importantes que o torna uma espécie destaque. De suas raízes é extraído um óleo essencial utilizado amplamente na produção de perfumes e devido à sua baixa volatilidade, como fixador de odor. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo de propagação e de conservação in vitro de vetiver. Para o ensaio de multiplicação in vitro testaram-se combinações dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA. Na aclimatização foram testados substratos contendo pó de coco e/ou vermiculita suplementado com calcário, fertilizante NPK (3-12-6 e concentrações dos sais do meio MS. Nos ensaios de conservação in vitro foram avaliadas as temperaturas de 18 e 25°C, reguladores osmóticos (sacarose, manitol e sorbitol, o inibidor de crescimento ABA e diferentes concentrações dos sais MS. Verificou-se que a micropropagação de vetiver UFS-VET003 é promovida em meio MS líquido acrescido de 3,33 mg L-1 de BAP, sendo a etapa de enraizamento das brotações proporcionada em meio MS básico, também líquido. Para aclimatização recomenda-se o substrato PBC. A conservação in vitro é possível em meio MS semissólido com 25% dos sais MS e temperatura de 18°C por um período de 270 dias.Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides is a perennial grass which presents physicochemical and agronomic characteristics that highlights the importance of this species. From the roots of vetiver grass essential oil is extracted which is widely used for perfume production, and because of its low volatility it is used as fragrance fixer. We developed a protocol for in vitro propagation and conservation of vetiver grass. For the in vitro multiplication assay, combinations of the growth regulators BAP and NAA were tested. For acclimatization, substrates containing coconut coir and/or vermiculite, supplemented with limestone, NPK (3-12-6 fertilizer and the

  4. Performance evaluation of Chrysopogon zizanoides under urban conditions of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Majda Khalil; Bhat, Narayana Ramachandra; Jacob, Sheena; Al-Burais, Meali

    2018-02-01

    Plant physiological and morphological attributes should be critically evaluated for selecting any species for landscaping projects. The selection of a species should be based on the evaluation of its adaptability, noninvasiveness, growth potential, and performance under the prevailing local arid conditions for their aesthetic looks, soil stabilization, and afforestation values. Chrysopogon zizanoides (Vetiver), is suitable for Kuwait because it can withstand fluctuating temperatures ranging from -14 to 55 °C with unique physical and physiological characteristics. Despite the successful growth performance of Vetiver in landscaping projects mostly in several tropical countries, it has not been utilized and evaluated in the Arabian Gulf region. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the performance of selected ten cultivars of Vetiver (ODV-1, 8, 9, 13, 17, 21, 23, Silent Valley, Urlikal, and Pannimedu) in the deficient soil and environmental conditions of Kuwait in urban landscape at minimal maintenance. It is suggested that based on visual greenery effect and overall growth performance cultivars, Pannimedu, Silent Valley, ODV-13, ODV-8 and ODV-9 can be considered for landscaping projects in Kuwait. To obtain the superior crown volume (which considers height and canopy) cultivar Pannimedu is suggested and to get a bushy growth (considering the number of tillers) cultivar ODV-13 and ODV-8 is found to be suitable.

  5. Uranium uptake of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Viet Hung; Maslov, O.D.; Trinh Thi Thu My; Phung Khac Nam Ho; Dang Duc Nhan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (BG), Dystric Fluvisols (HP) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg/kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF U , kg·kg -1 ). It was found that the TF U values are dependent upon the soils properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increased soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content, as well as iron and potassium, inhibits the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil, the higher uranium uptake. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studied is almost higher than that in its shoot. It seems that vetiver grass could potentially be used for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium

  6. The use of vetiver for remediation of heavy metal soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antiochia, Riccarda [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padua (Italy); Campanella, Luigi; Ghezzi, Paola [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Rome (Italy); Movassaghi, K. [University of Isfahan, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan (Iran)

    2007-06-15

    The use of Vetiveria zizanioides (vetiver) was studied to evaluate its efficiency for the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. Vetiver plants were tested for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoextraction and bioremediation experiments were carried out by irrigating the vetiver plants and the dry plants with solutions containing suitable amounts of Cr, Cu, Pd and Zn. The concentrations of the heavy metals were determined in both experiments in shoot and root parts of vetiver plants using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy after a mineralization step. Phytoextraction experiments showed a poor efficiency of vetiver for Cr and Cu uptake (both less than 0.1% in shoots and roots after 30 days), but a quite high capability of Pb and Zn uptake (0.4% in shoots and 1% in roots for Pb and 1% both in shoots and in roots for Zn, after 30 days). For these reasons the vetiver plant can be considered a quite good ''hyperaccumulator'' only for Pb and Zn. As for bioremediation experiments, the vetiver plant showed heavy metal uptake values significantly lower than those obtained with other biological substrates. (orig.)

  7. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Shakya, Kabindra M.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g -1 ), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media

  8. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g{sup -1}), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media.

  9. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Shakya, Kabindra M.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L -1 for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit (∼1 μg L -1 ) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media

  10. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  11. Comparison of Pretreatment Methods on Vetiver Leaves for Efficient Processes of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Neurospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Dewi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material for bioethanol production. Neurospora sp. can be used to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol because of its ability to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, lignin content, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity of cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass can inhibit cellulosic-biomass digestion by Neurospora sp, so that a suitable pretreatment method of lignocellulosic biomass is needed. The focus of this research was to investigate the suitable pretreatment method for vetiver leaves (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used as a raw material producing bioethanol in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Neurospora sp.. Vetiver plants obtained from Garut are deliberately cultivated to produce essential oils extracted from the roots of this plant. Since the vetiver leaves do not contain oil, some of harvested leaves are usually used for crafts and cattle feed, and the rest are burned. This study intended to look at other potential of vetiver leaves as a source of renewable energy. Pretreatments of the vetiver leaves were conducted using hot water, dilute acid, alkaline & dilute acid, and alkaline peroxide, in which each method was accompanied by thermal treatment. The results showed that the alkaline peroxide treatment is a suitable for vetiver leaves as indicated by the increase of cellulose content up to 65.1%, while the contents of hot water soluble, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash are 8.7%, 18.3%, 6.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Using this pretreatment method, the vetiver leaves can be converted into bioethanol by SSF process using Neurospora sp. with a concentration of bioethanol of 6.7 g/L operated at room temperature.

  12. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, S.; Frister, T.; Alemdar, S.; Li, Z.; Scheper, T.; Beutel, S.

    2015-01-01

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L −1 were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni 2+ -IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg 2+ containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC–MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis–Menten model, kinetic parameters of K M  = 1.111 μM (±0.113), v max  = 0.3245 μM min −1 (±0.0035), k cat  = 2.95 min −1 , as well as a catalytic efficiency k cat /K M  = 4.43 × 10 4  M −1 s −1 were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. - Highlights: • Uncharacterized (+)-zizaene synthase from C. zizanoides was cloned and expressed. • Fusion to SUMO and cold-shock induction enhanced soluble yields in E. coli. • Ni 2+ -IMAC purification of the SUMO-fused and unfused enzyme. • (+)-Zizaene identified as main cyclization product by GC–MS. • Enzyme kinetic parameters comparable to related sesquiterpene synthases

  13. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, S.; Frister, T.; Alemdar, S.; Li, Z.; Scheper, T.; Beutel, S., E-mail: beutel@iftc.uni-hannover.de

    2015-03-20

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L{sup −1} were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni{sup 2+}-IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg{sup 2+} containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC–MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis–Menten model, kinetic parameters of K{sub M} = 1.111 μM (±0.113), v{sub max} = 0.3245 μM min{sup −1} (±0.0035), k{sub cat} = 2.95 min{sup −1}, as well as a catalytic efficiency k{sub cat}/K{sub M} = 4.43 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1} s{sup −1} were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. - Highlights: • Uncharacterized (+)-zizaene synthase from C. zizanoides was cloned and expressed. • Fusion to SUMO and cold-shock induction enhanced soluble yields in E. coli. • Ni{sup 2+}-IMAC purification of the SUMO-fused and unfused enzyme. • (+)-Zizaene identified as main cyclization product by GC–MS. • Enzyme kinetic parameters comparable to related sesquiterpene synthases.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 781 ... Vol 2, No 1 (1975), Semen Characteristics of First and Second Ejaculates of Buffalo ... Vol 24, No 1 (1997), Sexual dimorphism in the growth pattern of ... Dwarf (WAD) Goats Fed Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides ...

  15. The use of vetivers in coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Jaspers Focks, D.J.; Algera, A.; Vu, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Vetiver grass is a sustainable and innovative solution for the protection of banks. It is shown that Vetiver grass is able to establish a full-stop of bank erosion caused by rapid drawdown. Therefore it provides us with strong indications that it is highly suitable as an anti-erosion measure. A

  16. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  17. Potentiation of antimalarial activity of arteether in combination with Vetiver root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sangeeta; Gunjan, Sarika; Pal, Anirban; Tripathi, Renu

    2016-05-01

    In malaria, development of resistance towards artemisinin derivatives has urged the need for new drugs or new drug combinations to tackle the drug resistant malaria. We studied the fresh root extract of Vetiver zizanioides (Linn.) Nash (VET) with a CDRI-CIMAP antimalarial α/β arteether (ART) together for their antimalarial potential. Our results showed additive to synergistic antimalarial activity of VET and ART with sum fractional inhibitory concentrations Σ FICs 1.02 ± 0.24 and 1.12 ± 0.32 for chloroquine sensitive (CQS) and chloroquine resistant (CQR) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (William H. Welch), respectively. Further, these combinations were explored against multidrug resistant rodent malaria parasite i.e. P. yoelii nigeriensis. Analysis of in vivo interaction of ART and VET showed that 10 mg/kg x 5 days of ART with 1000 mg/kg of VET x 5 days cured 100% mice infected with MDR parasite, while the same dose of ART could produce only up to 30% cure and VET fraction was not curative at all. Synergism/additiveness, found between VET and ART is reported for the first time. The curative dose of ART in the combination was reduced to its one fourth, and thus limits the side effects, if any. Although antimalarial potential of ART was enhanced by VET, action mechanism of later needs to be elucidated in detail.

  18. [Chemical components of Vetiveria zizanioides volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghua; Li, Huashou; Yang, Jun; Chen, Yufen; Liu, Yinghu; Li, Ning; Nie, Chengrong

    2004-01-01

    The chemical components of the volatiles from Vetiveria zizanioides were analyzed by SPME and GC-MS. In the roots, the main component was valencene (30.36%), while in the shoots and leaves, they were 9-octadecenamide (33.50%), 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (27.46%), and 1,2-benzendicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester(18.29%). The results showed that there were many terpenoids in the volatils. In shoot volatiles, there existed 3 monoterpenes, 2 sequiterpenes and 1 triterpene. Most of the volatiles in roots were sesquiterpenes.

  19. Activity of vetiver extracts and essential oil against Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetiver, a nonhost grass for certain nematodes, was studied for production of compounds active against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays studying effects on second-stage juvenile (J2) activity and viability, crude vetiver root and shoot extracts were nematotoxic, res...

  20. Phytostabilization potential of two ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides in cadmium-contaminated soils: greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusantisampan, Theerawut; Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Saengwilai, Patompong; Pichtel, John; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2016-10-01

    Soil contamination by cadmium (Cd) poses a serious environmental and public health concern. Phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, has been proposed for treatment of Cd-contaminated ecosystems. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of Vetiveria zizanioides, commonly known as vetiver, to serve as an effective phytoremediation agent. Two ecotypes, i.e., India and Sri Lanka, were grown in greenhouse pots and in the field. Soils were amended with cow manure, pig manure, bat manure, and an organic fertilizer. Among all amendments, pig manure performed best in both greenhouse and field studies in terms of increasing total V. zizanioides biomass production in both ecotypes. In both greenhouse and in the field, tissue of the Sri Lanka ecotype had higher Cd concentrations than did the India ecotype. In the greenhouse, the presence of Cd did not affect total biomass production or root dry weight. The Sri Lanka ecotype had 2.7 times greater adventitious root numbers and 3.6 times greater Cd accumulation in roots than did the India ecotype. In the field study, the Sri Lanka ecotype offers potential as an excluder species, as it accumulated Cd primarily in roots, with translocation factor values 1 for all experiments except for the pig manure amendment. In addition, the highest Cd concentration in the Sri Lanka ecotype root (71.3 mg kg(-1)) was consistent with highest Cd uptake (10.4 mg plant(-1)) in the cow manure treatment. The India ecotype contained lower root Cd concentrations, and Cd accumulation was slightly higher in shoots compared to roots, with translocation factor (TF) values >1. The India ecotype was therefore not considered as an excluder in the Cd-contaminated soil. With the use of excluder species combined with application of organic amendments, soil contamination by Cd may be treated by alternative remediation methods such as phytostabilization.

  1. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kadarohman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%. The quality of organic and non-organic vetiver oil was analyzed by Indonesian Standard (SNI parameter, pesticide residue test, chemical composition by GC/MS, and the appearance of vetiver root. In general, the result of organic and non-organic vetiver oil has fulfilled the national standard; the quality of organic vetiver oil was better than non-organic one. Physically, the appearance of organic vetiver root was better than non-organic vetiver root; organic vetiver root was denser, more appealing, and did not have any black spots. The pesticide residue of organic vetiver oil was lower than non-organic vetiver oil. Based on SNI test, vetiverol (oxygen compounds in organic vetiver oil was higher than non-organic vetiver oil.

  2. GROWTH PROCESS OF ORGANIC VETIVER ROOT WITH POTATO AS INTERCROPPING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kadarohman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides is one of Indonesia main export commodities. Vetiver root is perennial plant and generally planted with vegetables as intercropping plant. Increasing the selling price of vetiver oil can be done by transferring the production of conventional vetiver oil (non-organic to organic vetiver oil. Demonstration of land used was one hectare, which 2,000 m2 for planting vetiver root with potato (Solanum tuberosum as inter-cropping plant and 8,000 m2 for vetiver root without intercropping, in Sukakarya-Samarang, Garut. The planting used goat and cow dung as manure, distillate water of vetiver oil and liquid bio-pesticide as pesticide. Variables studied included plant height, number of leaf and crotch. In the first quarter of the years, the number of leaf and crotch of vetiver root with intercropping was better than vetiver root without inter-cropping. However, there was not significant difference for plant height of vetiver root, both with and without intercropping. Products of organic potato as intercropping plant of vetiver root were less than those of non-organic potato, but the latter had a better texture and durability.

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a ...

  4. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  5. Efficacy of vetiver oil and nootkatone as soil barriers against Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrello, L; Henderson, G; Laine, R A

    2001-12-01

    Vetiver oil and its components nootkatone and cedrene were assessed as sand treatments for their efficacy to disrupt food recruitment by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Termites were required to tunnel through sand treated with vetiver oil, nootkatone, cedrene, or untreated sand to reach a food source. Results showed that sand treated with vetiver oil or nootkatone disrupted termite tunneling behavior. As a consequence, after 21 d, wood consumption and termite survival were significantly lower compared with cedrene-treated or untreated sand treatments. Sand treated with vetiver oil or nootkatone at 100 microg/g substrate were effective barriers to termites.

  6. Kajian Rumput Vetiver Sebagai Pengaman Lereng Secara Berkelanjutan

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    Susilawati Susilawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flores is the island in the NTT province, which has a row of volcanoes, with the mountainous topography. Transportation is state road, along the coast with high cliffs on the other side. That often causes problems during the rainy season as several landslides. Various methods are used to overcome this landslide. Studies on vetiver grass as slope protection done to secure the slopes on a sustainable basis. First, an evaluation done for the slope construction along the slope safety from Nangaroro to Aegela, which are using vetiver grass as a safety slopes in addition to other security structures. It is also done for the same job of the road from Ende to Nangaroro and Ende-Detusoko. This study covers the technical aspects, ecological, construction and sustainability of the infrastructure that has been built. Furthermore, it is done the literature study to find more appropriate method, environmentally friendly and sustainable in securing these slopes problematic. From the literature studies and the field survey done, it can be concluded and recommended several models of eco-friendly structural design of vetiver grass and geotextile for slope protection, which is based on technical-meet standard strength, ecologically-friendly environment, locally-developed local wisdom, so it is easy to construct.

  7. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Padmini [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.c [Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School Of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg{sup -1}), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg{sup -1}) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  8. Absorção e distribuição de chumbo em plantas devetiver, jureminha e algaroba Absorption and distribution of lead in vetiver, mimosa and mesquite plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do Carmo Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas como agentes remediadores de áreas contaminadas com metais pesados (fitorremediação é uma técnica emergente, sendo necessários estudos sobre tolerância, absorção e distribuição destes elementos em plantas para se obter sucesso em programas dessa natureza. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância, absorção e distribuição de Pb em plantas de vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash], jureminha [Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd] e algaroba [Prosopis juliflora (SW DC], submetidas a doses crescentes do elemento em solução. As espécies foram cultivadas em estufa telada do DSER/CCA/UFPB, Areia-PB, em solução nutritiva que continha doses crescentes de Pb (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1, por 45 dias. O delineamento empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em parcela subdividida, com três repetições. A parcela principal foi representada pelas espécies, enquanto a subparcela foi constituída pelas doses de Pb. Foram constatadas reduções significativas na matéria seca da raiz, parte aérea e planta inteira das três espécies estudadas de acordo com a elevação das doses de Pb. Com base nas doses críticas de toxidez, constatou-se que o vetiver demonstrou maior tolerância à contaminação com Pb que as demais espécies. A raiz apresentou maior sensibilidade à contaminação com Pb nas plantas de vetiver e algaroba, tendo a jureminha apresentado comportamento similar entre os compartimentos da planta. Os teores e conteúdos de Pb nos compartimentos das plantas foram significativamente alterados pela elevação das doses de Pb em solução, tendo sido verificado maior acúmulo deste elemento nas raízes das três espécies estudadas. O vetiver apresentou maiores teores e conteúdos de Pb em todos os compartimentos, evidenciando o seu potencial para programas de fitorremediação de áreas contaminadas com Pb.The use of plants for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated areas is an emerging technology

  9. Anxiolytic and nootropic activity of Vetiveria zizanioides roots in mice

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    Abhijit M Nirwane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ (family: Poaceae, an aromatic plant commonly known as “Vetiver“ has been used for various ailments. Concerning the various ailments being listed as the traditional uses of VZ, no mention about anxiety and memory was found. Objective: The present study examined the anxiolytic and memory enhancing activity of ethanolic extract of V. zizanioides (EEVZ dried roots in mice. Materials and Methods: Activity of EEVZ was assessed using models of anxiety (elevated plus-maze [EPM], light/dark test, hole board test, marble-burying test and learning and memory (EPM, passive shock avoidance paradigm. Results: EEVZ at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. illustrated significant anxiolytic activity indicated by increase in time spent and number of entries in open arm, time spent in lightened area, number of head poking and number marble buried when compared to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg b.w., a reference standard. The same treatment showed a significant decrease in transfer latency to reach open arm, shock-free zone, and number of mistakes when compared to that of scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg b.w.. EEVZ in all the doses (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. significantly decreased mortality in sodium nitrite (250 mg/kg b.w. induced hypoxia and also significantly increases contraction induced by acetylcholine on rat ileum preparation. Conclusion: The result emanated in the present investigation revealed EEVZ possesses significant anxiolytic and nootropic activity by possibly interplaying with neurotransmitters implicated in anxiety and learning and memory.

  10. Effect of Vetiver Grass on Reduction of Soil Salinity and Some Minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Noshadi; Hosein Valizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Soil salinity is one of the major limitations of agriculture in the warm and dry regions. Soil sodification also damages soil structure and reduce soil permeability. Therefore, control of soil salinity and sodium is very important. Vetiver grass has unique characteristics that can be useful in phytoremediation. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation with different salinities on vetiver grass and the effects of this plant o...

  11. Effect of Vetiveria zizanioides L. Root extracts on the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston

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    N Aarthi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent potential of the ethanolic extract from Vetiveria zizanioides (V. zizanioides roots against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi . Methods: The dried clean V. zizanioides roots were powerdered and extracted with ethanol for 8 h in a soxhlet apparatus. After evaporation, the residue was dissolved in acetone. One hundred freshly laid eggs of A. stephensi were exposed to the extract at differnt concentrations for 48 h, and the hatch rate was calculated to evaluate the ovicidal activity. Those exposed to actone aqueous solution were used as control. The egg laying behavior of gravid female A. stephensi was also observed using oviposition deterrent test. Effective repellency (ER was used to evaluate the oviposition deterrent activity. Results: Exposure to the crude ethanol extract of V. zizanioides reduced the hatchability rate of A. stephensi eggs, and zero hatchability was exerted at 375 ppm. In the oviposition deterrent test, the extract alleviated the egg laying with an ER of 78.9% at the highest concentration of 375 ppm and even 53.7% at the lowest concentration of 125 ppm. Moreover, the negative values of oviposition active index also suggests the extract was a good deterrent agent. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of V. zizanioides roots may be used an alternative pesticide to control A. stephensi at the early stage of life history, possibly due to the presence of various active chemical compounds.

  12. Interaction between Vetiver Grass Roots and Completely Decomposed Volcanic Tuff under Rainfall Infiltration Conditions

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    Ling Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The important role of vetiver grass roots in preventing water erosion and mass movement has been well recognized, though the detailed influence of the grass roots on soil has not been addressed. Through planting vetiver grass at the Kadoorie Farm in Hong Kong and leaving it to grow without artificial maintenance, the paper studies the influence of vetiver grass roots on soil properties and slope stability. Under the natural conditions of Hong Kong, growth of the vetiver grass roots can reach 1.1 m depth after one and a half year from planting. The percentage of grain size which is less than 0.075 mm in rooted soil is more than that of the nonrooted soil. Vetiver grass roots can reduce soil erosion by locking the finer grain. The rooted soil of high finer grain content has a relatively small permeability. As a result, the increase in water content is therefore smaller than that of nonrooted soil in the same rainfall conditions. Shear box test reveals that the vetiver grass roots significantly increased the peak cohesion of the soil from 9.3 kPa to 18.9 kPa. The combined effects of grass roots on hydrological responses and shearing strength significantly stabilize the slope in local rainfall condition.

  13. The Potential Use of Vetiveria zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Antimony, Arsenic and Their Co-Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mubarak, Hussani; Chai, Li-Yuan; Yong, Wang; Khan, Muhammad Jamil; Khan, Qudrat Ullah; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Farooq, Umar; Sarwar, Rizwana; Yang, Zhi-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) contaminations are the well reported and alarming issues of various contaminated smelting and mining sites all over the world, especially in China. The present hydroponic study was to assess the capacity of Vetiveria zizanioides for Sb, As and their interactive accumulations. The novelty of the present research is this that the potential of V. zizanioides for Sb and As alone and their interactive accumulation are unaddressed. This is the first report about the interactive co-accumulation of Sb and As in V. zizanioides. Highest applied Sb and As contaminations significantly inhibited the plant growth. Applied Sb and As alone significantly increased their concentrations in the roots/shoot of V. zizanioides. While co-contamination of Sb and As steadily increased their concentrations, in the plant. The co-contamination of Sb and As revealed a positive correlation between the two, as they supplemented the uptake and accumulation of each other. The overall translocation (TF) and bioaccumulation factors (BF) of Sb in V. zizanioides, were 0.75 and 4. While the TF and BF of As in V. zizanioides, were 0.86 and 10. V. zizanioides proved as an effective choice for the phytoremediation and ecosystem restoration of Sb and As contaminated areas.

  14. Effect of Vetiver Grass on Reduction of Soil Salinity and Some Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Noshadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil salinity is one of the major limitations of agriculture in the warm and dry regions. Soil sodification also damages soil structure and reduce soil permeability. Therefore, control of soil salinity and sodium is very important. Vetiver grass has unique characteristics that can be useful in phytoremediation. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation with different salinities on vetiver grass and the effects of this plant on the control of soil salinity and soil reclamation.The experimental design was randomized complete block design. Irrigation water salinities were 0.68(blank, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS/m, respectively, which artificially were constructed using sodium chloride and calcium chloride. At first, vetiver was transplanted and then moved to the farm. The amount of soil moisture was measured by the neutron probe. Irrigation depth was applied to refill soil water deficit up to field capacity. To evaluate the soil salinity in above salinity treatments, soil was sampled in each plot from 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm depths and for each layer, electrical conductivity of saturated extract (ECe, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations was measured .To measure the sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in the leaves and roots of vetiver plant, samples were dried in oven. The dried samples were powdered and passed through the sieve (No. 200 and they were reduced to ash in 250 ◦C. 5 ml HCl was added to one gram of the ash, and after passing through filter paper, the volume of sample was brought to 50 ml by boiled distilled water. After preparing plant samples, the sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were measured by Flame Photometer. Reults and discussion: The results showed that the vetiver grass was able to decrease soil salinity at different salinity levels except highest water salinity (10 dS/m and prevented salt accumulation in the soil. However, in the

  15. Mycorrhizo-remediation of lead/zinc mine tailings using vetiver: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ching Chi; Shu, Wen Sheng; Khan, Adual G; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-01-01

    A field study of Pb/Zn mine tailings was conducted to assess the influence of AM fungi and refuse compost on phytoremediation using vetiver grass slips. Our investigation revealed that vetiver could thrive on Pb/Zn mine tailings. The addition of refuse compost resulted in biomass that was more than 3-times higher when compared with the control, and were mainly attributed to an improvement of soil properties, as well as better nutrient supply than untreated control. AMF inoculation also significantly increased the dry matter of vetiver by a rate of 8.1-13.8%. It was observed that concentrations of N and P in the shoots were significantly higher in mycorrhizal treatments than those without AMF inoculation. However, AMF inoculation significantly decreased the metal concentrations in root, but not in shoot. Based on the results, it seems clear that AMF can play an essential role in the phytostabilization of metal contaminated soils.

  16. LAHAN BASAH BUATAN SEBAGAI MEDIA PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamaei BERSALINITAS RENDAH (Constructed Wetland for Remediation of Brackish Wastewater from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamaei Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Raharjo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Air limbah budidaya udang berjumlah relatif banyak dan mengandung bahan pencemar yang berpotensi mencemari lingkungan. Di sisi lain, air limbah tersebut dapat diolah dan diresirkulasi dalam sistem budidaya udang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menyelidiki kemampuan sistem lahan basah buatan-aliran air permukaan (LBB-AAP yang ditanami dengan rumput vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides, L dalam menghilangkan pencemar (NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ dan PO43- dari air limbah budidaya udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamaei kondisi mesohaline dan mengevaluasi kinerja sistem tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem LBB-AAP mampu mengeliminasi parameter NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ dan PO43- secara signifikan. Rumput vetiver mampu tumbuh pada kondisi mesohaline dan dapat melakukan remediasi air limbah tersebut. Serapan rumput vetiver dalam sistem LBB-AAP untuk NO3-, NH4+ dan PO43-adalah 28, 63 dan 83 %. Desain konstruksi LBB-AAP tipe Hidroponik menunjukkan kinerja terbaik dalam pengendalian air limbah budidaya udang vaname dibandingkan dengan tipe emergent, kombinasi hidroponik dan emergent. ABSTRACT The amount of wastewater shrimp cultivation is relatively/too much, contains a variety of pollutants and potentially pollute the environment. In other side, The wastewater can be treated and also recirculated in shrimp cultivation systems. The purpose of research is to investigate the ability of flow water surface-constructed wetland system (FWS-CWs that planted vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides, L that removes of pollutants (NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ and PO43- from wastewater vaname shrimp cultivation (Litopenaeus vannamaei on conditions mesohaline and with the aim of evaluating the performance of the system. The results of the research indicate that FWS-CWs able to eliminate the parameters significantly of NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ and PO43-. Vetiver grass could grow on mesohaline conditions and it can perform remediation of the wastewater. Uptake of

  17. A review on moringa tree and vetiver grass - Potential biorefinery feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Alves, Catarina M; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2018-02-01

    Plants and derivatives have been explored for unlimited purposes by mankind, from crop cultivation for providing food and animal feed, to the use for cosmetics, therapeutics and energy. Moringa tree and vetiver grass features, capabilities and applications were explored through a literature review. The suitability of these plants for the bioenergy industry products is evidenced, namely for bioethanol, biogas and biodiesel, given the lignocellulosic biomass content of these plants and characteristics of moringa seed oil. In addition, moringa leaves and pods are an important source for food and animal feed industries due to their high nutrient value. Thus, the co-cultivation of moringa and vetiver could provide energy and food security, and contribute to more sustainable agricultural practices and for the development of rural areas. Policymakers, institutions and scientific community must engage to promote the cultivation of multipurpose crops to cope with energy and food industries competition for biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is vetiver grass of interest for the remediation of Cu and Cd to protect marketing gardens in Burkina Faso?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Dousset, Sylvie; Mbengue, Saliou; Munier-Lamy, Colette

    2014-10-01

    In Burkina-Faso, urban vegetable agriculture is often characterized by urban solid waste fertilizer inputs containing heavy metals such as Cu and Cd. Thus, the relevance of surrounding urban vegetable plots with vetiver hedges to reduce environmental pollution by Cu and Cd was investigated by adsorption studies and pot experiments. Vetiver biomass, its metal contents and, its total and MgCl2 extractable soil metals were monitored over 6months in the presence of a mixture of metal at two concentrations: 2-10 and 100-500mgkg(-1), for Cd and Cu, respectively. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) values increased after vetiver growth and were significantly higher for vertisol than for lixisol. After 6months, the vetiver that was grown on lixisol accumulated more metal, increasing up to 4635mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 21.8mgkg(-1) for Cd, than did the vetiver that was grown on vertisol, increasing up to 1534mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 7.2mgkg(-1) for Cd. The metal bioconcentration factor, which was significantly higher for Cd, increased with the applied concentration and ranged from 1.6 to 14 for Cu and from 2.3 to 22 for Cd. Additionally, the translocation factors were higher for Cd (0.38-7.3) than for Cu (0.07-2.6), and the translocation was easiest from lixisol than from vertisol. Thus our results demonstrate the ability of vetiver for Cu and Cd phytoremediation in Burkina Faso soils. Nevertheless, these results should be confirmed across the field to advocate the establishment of vetiver hedges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiofilm activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Arunachalam; Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Srinivasan, Ramanathan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading human pathogen responsible for causing chronic clinical manifestation worldwide. In addition to antibiotic resistance genes viz. mecA and vanA, biofilm formation plays a prominent role in the pathogenicity of S. aureus by enhancing its resistance to existing antibiotics. Considering the role of folk medicinal plants in the betterment of human health from the waves of multidrug resistant bacterial infections, the present study was intended to explore the effect of Vetiveria zizanioides root on the biofilm formation of MRSA and its clinical counterparts. V. zizanioides root extract (VREX) showed a concentration-dependent reduction in biofilm formation without hampering the cellular viability of the tested strains. Micrographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) portrayed the devastating impact of VREX on biofilm formation. In addition to antibiofilm activity, VREX suppresses the production of biofilm related phenotypes such as exopolysaccharide, slime and α-hemolysin toxin. Furthermore, variation in FT-IR spectra evidenced the difference in cellular factors of untreated and VREX treated samples. Result of mature biofilm disruption assay and down regulation of genes like fnbA, fnbB, clfA suggested that VREX targets these adhesin genes responsible for initial adherence. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of sesquiterpenes as a major constituent in VREX. Thus, the data of present study strengthen the ethnobotanical value of V. zizanioides and concludes that VREX contain bioactive molecules that have beneficial effect over the biofilm formation of MRSA and its clinical isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  1. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negisa Darajeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME, a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST. This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD. In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in high concentration POME, while control sets (without plant only was able to reduce 15% of BOD. The COD reduction was 94% in low concentration POME and 39% in high concentration POME, while control just shows reduction of 12%. Morphologically, maximum root and shoot lengths were 70 cm, the number of tillers and leaves was 344 and 86, and biomass production was 4.1 kg m−2. These results showed that VST was effective in reducing BOD and COD in POME. The treatment in low concentration was superior to the high concentration. Furthermore, biomass of plant can be considered as a promising raw material for biofuel production while high amount of biomass was generated in low concentration of POME.

  2. Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Vetiver grass (Vetiviera ziznoides L.) -- Preliminary results from a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, K. M.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene(TNT) is a potent mutagen and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. As a result, vast areas that have been previously used as military ranges, munition burning and open detonation sites have been heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remedial activities in such contaminated sites commonly rely on methods such as incineration, land filling and soil composting. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective solution, utilizing plants to phytoextract TNT from the contaminated soil. We propose the use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) to remove TNT from such contaminated soils. Vetiver is a fast-growing and adaptive grass, enabling its use in TNT-contaminated sites in a wide variety of soil types and climate. We also hypothesized that TNT removal by vetiver grass will be enhanced by utilizing a chaotropic agent (urea) to alter rhizosphere/root hair chemical environment. The objectives of this preliminary hydroponic study were: i) to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver grass in removing TNT from solution, and ii) to evaluate the use of a common agrochemical (urea) in enhancing TNT removal by vetiver grass. Vetiver plants were grown in a hydroponic system with five different TNT concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg TNT L-1) and three urea concentrations (0, 0.01 and 0.1%). A plant density of 10 g L-1 and three replicate vessels per treatment were used. Aliquots were collected at several time intervals up to 192 hour, and were analyzed for TNT with HPLC. Results showed that vetiver was able to remove TNT from hydroponic solutions. The overall magnitude and kinetics of TNT removal by vetiver grass was enhanced in the presence of urea. TNT removal kinetics depended on TNT and urea initial concentrations, suggestive of second-order kinetic reactions. Preliminary results are encouraging, but in need for verification using more detailed studies involving TNT-contaminated soils. Ongoing

  3. Bioengineering Technology to Control River Soil Erosion using Vetiver (Vetiveria Zizaniodes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwati, M.; Pallu, S.; Selintung, M.; Lopa, R.

    2018-04-01

    Erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock or dissolved material from one location on the earth’s crust, and then transport it away to another location. Bioengineering is an attempt to maximise the use of vegetation components along riverbanks to cope with landslides and erosion of river cliffs and another riverbank damage. This study aims to analyze the bioengineering of Vetiver as a surface layer for soil erosion control using slope of 100, 200, and 300. This study is conducted with 3 variations of rain intensity (I), at 103 mm/hour, 107 mm/hour, and 130 mm/hour by using rainfall simulator tool. In addition, the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) method is used in order to measure the rate of soil erosion. In this study, there are few USLE model parameters were used such as rainfall erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, length-loss slope and stepness factor, cover management factor, and support practise factor. The results demonstrated that average of reduction of erosion rate using Vetiver, under 3 various rainfalls, namely rainfall intensity 103 mm/hr had reduced 84.971%, rainfall intensity 107 mm/hr had reduced 86.583 %, rainfall intensity 130 mm/hr had reduced 65.851%.

  4. Comparative effects of vetiver oil, nootkatone and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate on Coptotermes formosanus and its symbiotic fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrello, Lara; Henderson, Gregg; Laine, Roger A

    2003-01-01

    The potential of vetiver oil and nootkatone as wood treatments against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was examined by assessing the effects on termite tunneling, feeding activity and survival, and the consequences on the symbiont protozoa responsible for wood digestion. Comparisons were made with non-treated wood (control), wood treated with the borate compound Tim-Bor (a commonly used lumber preservative) and absence of a food source (starved termites), using choice and no-choice tests. All wood slices were prepared at the same time using a 10 g liter(-1) solution of each substance and were tested in four different sessions over one year to investigate longevity of the effects. Termites had to tunnel through sand to exploit the food sources, consisting of two wood slices, placed on opposite sides of the experimental enclosure. No-choice tests showed that in the presence of vetiver oil or nootkatone, tunneling activity was always the lowest; wood consumption, termite survival and flagellate numbers and species distribution were significantly different from the control and similar to the results obtained for starved termites and with Tim-Bor-treated wood. Nootkatone negatively affected termites for 12 months and was longer lasting than vetiver oil. In choice tests, when vetiver oil or nootkatone were present, termites exhibited a significant preference for non-treated wood. Our results confirmed both the toxicity and absence of repellency of Tim-Bor. Vetiver oil and especially nootkatone affected Formosan subterranean termites and their protozoa, acting as arrestants, repellents and feeding deterrents, and represent a promising natural alternative for the control of this invasive pest.

  5. Design of combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, A. D.; Lindu, M.; Yanidar, R.; Faruq, M.

    2018-01-01

    As environmental regulation has become stricter in recent years, there is an increasing concern about the issue of wastewater treatment in urban areas. Senior High School as center of student activity has a potential source to generated domestic wastewater from toilet, bathroom and canteen. Canteen wastewater contains high-organic content that to be treated before discharged. Based on previous research the subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow is an attractive alternative to provide efficient treatment of canteen wastewater. The effluent concentration complied with regulation according to [9]. Due to limited land, addition of preliminary treatment such as the presence of biofilter was found to improve the performance. The aim of this study was to design combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) treating canteen wastewater. Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) is used because from previous research, subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration (SCW-MLF) with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) can be an alternative canteen wastewater treatment that is uncomplicated in technology, low cost in operational and have a beautiful landscape view, besides no odors or insects were presented during the operation.

  6. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  7. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Vetiver grass technology for mitigating sediment loads in the Talakhaya Watershed areas in Rota, CNMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Golabi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Talakhaya watershed in Rota is identified as a Coral Reef Management Priority site for CNMI (Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands. In 2010 federal and jurisdictional partners developed a Conservation Action Plan (CAP for the Talakhaya Watershed. The goal of this initial Watershed Soil Loss Assessment therefore, was to assist in evaluating the re-vegetation objectives of ‘Mitigating Sediment Load’ in the Talakhaya watershed by making a thorough characterization of its main river systems. The objectives of this project were to reach those goals by measuring the hydrological parameters following the installation and the use of water meters, barometric level loggers, turbidity meters and rain gauges. The water flow as well as the turbidity level of each stream leading to the ocean from the Talakhaya Watershed was measured and sedimentation level was assessed accordingly. The results from the monitoring of the watershed conducted during the project timeline reported here show that all four rivers under study have statistically different stage-discharge curves. The river's relationship between time and turbidity also vary especially in the summer months of the first-year observations. Linear and convex polynomial relationships were sometimes observed in the different rainfall groupings for the four river systems, however relationships were often not significant. This-being-said, Quantile Regressions suggest that when data from all four river systems are combined for cases where there is some detectable rainfall, a maximum possible turbidity level can be defined. Keywords: Watershed Management, Vetiver grass system, Coral, Badlands, Micronesia, Rota, CNMI

  9. Application Effect’s Research of Vetiver Eco Blanket in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the ecological disasters in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone, ecological blanket governance model is proposed in this paper, which may provide good early environment for plants’ survival in fluctuation zone, and then play the function of greening and sustainable development to ensure the slopes’ stability. Meanwhile, based on the result of vetiver ecological blanket in Hanyuan experimental zone, we find that three kinds of typical Fluctuating Zone slope’s greening effect is good, which includes the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope, and it gets an average coverage of 90.3 % as well as good strength. Due to the different geological conditions, the ecological blankets’ governance effect differs from slope to slope. Using analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight, we get the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope’s weights are 0.41, 0.17, 0.42, respectively, namely, the dirt piling up slope and the gravel piling up slope have good results overall, followed by the whole lump of rock slope.

  10. Environmental performances of coproducts. Application of Claiming-Based Allocation models to straw and vetiver biorefineries in an Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai

    2018-04-24

    Among the renewables, non-food and wastelands based biofuels are essential for the transport sector to achieve country's climate mitigation targets. With the growing interest in biorefineries, setting policy requirements for other coproducts along with biofuels is necessary to improve the products portfolio of biorefinery, increase the bioproducts perception by the consumers and push the technology forward. Towards this context, Claiming-Based allocation models were used in comparative life cycle assessment of multiple products from wheat straw biorefinery and vetiver biorefinery. Vetiver biorefinery shows promising Greenhouse gas emission savings (181-213%) compared to the common crop based lignocellulose (wheat straw) biorefinery. Assistance of Claiming-Based Allocation models favors to find out the affordable allocation limit (0-80%) among the coproducts in order to achieve the individual prospective policy targets. Such models show promising application in multiproduct life cycle assessment studies where appropriate allocation is challenging to achieve the individual products emission subject to policy targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) enhances phytoextraction of lead by vetiver grass from contaminated residential soils in a panel study in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinti, Ramesh; Barrett, Kirk R; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction is a green remediation technology for cleaning contaminated soils. Application of chelating agents increases metal solubility and enhances phytoextraction. Following a successful greenhouse experiment, a panel study under field weather elucidated the efficiency of the chelating agent ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) on phytoextraction of lead (Pb) by vetiver grass, a hyperaccumulator of Pb, and a nonaccumulator fescue grass from residential soils contaminated with Pb-based paint from Baltimore, MD and San Antonio, TX. Three soils from each city with Pb content between 1000 and 2400 mg kg -1 were chosen for the panel study. Sequential extraction revealed that Fe-Mn oxide (60-63%) and carbonate (25-33%) fractions of Pb dominated in Baltimore soils, whereas in San Antonio soils, Pb was primarily bound to the organic fraction (64-70%) because organic content was greater and, secondarily, to the Fe-Mn oxide (15-20%) fraction. Vetiver and fescue grasses were transplanted and grown on wood panels in the field with EDDS applied after 3 months and 13 months. Soil and leachate results indicated that EDDS applications increased Pb solubility in soils. Plant tissues results indicated enhanced the uptake of Pb by vetiver and showed that EDDS application promoted translocation of Pb from root to shoot. Average Pb concentration increased by 53% and 203% in shoots and by 73% and 84% in roots of vetiver after the first and second applications of EDDS, respectively. Concentrations in roots and shoots increased in all tested soils, regardless of soil pH or clay content. After the second application, average Pb concentrations in vetiver were higher than those in fescue by 3.6x in shoots and 8.3x in roots. Visual phytotoxic symptoms from increased bioavailable Pb from EDSS applications were observed in fescue but not in vetiver. This study demonstrated the potential of a chemically-catalyzed phytoremediation system as a cleanup method for lead-contaminated soils

  12. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  13. CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS EM DIFERENTES MODELOS DE PLANTIO NA RECUPERAÇÃO DE ÁREA DEGRADADA POR DISPOSIÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Auxiliadora de Resende

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o desenvolvimento silvicultural e a sobrevivência das espécies em diferentes modelos de plantio de mudas para recuperação da área do lixão de Inconfidentes – Sul de Minas Gerais/Brasil, a qual se encontra com deficiência de vegetação, o que proporciona impactos visual e ambiental, com o intuito de indicar diferentes espécies vegetais que possam ser ideais para serem utilizadas na requalificação dos lixões. O experimento foi instalado no delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado com quatro modelos de plantio envolvendo mudas de 11 espécies arbóreas nativas e da gramínea Chrysopogon zizanioides (M1- Leguminosas; M2- Leguminosas + Chrysopogon zizanioides; M3- nativas e M4- Eremanthus erytropappus e Nectandra lanceolata e três repetições. As parcelas de 3 x 5 m de cada tratamento foram compostas por 15 mudas arbóreas, sendo acrescidas em cada modelo de plantio M2 oito mudas da gramínea Vetiver (C. Zizanioides. Foram avaliados ao longo de 20 meses a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule ao nível do solo, a área de copa e a sobrevivência, em intervalos de 30 dias. Os dados do crescimento silvicultural e sobrevivência entre os tratamentos e entre as espécies foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Scott Knott a 5% de probabilidade. A partir da análise dos resultados da recuperação da área do desativado Lixão de Inconfidentes – Sul de Minas Gerais/Brasil, conclui-se que o modelo de plantio M2 e as espécies Bauhinia forficata, Eritrina falcata, Senna multijuga, Schizolobium parahyba e Schinus terebinthifolius são as mais indicadas para recuperação da área.

  14. Effects of inorganic nitrogen forms on growth, morphology, nitrogen uptake capacity and nutrient allocation of four tropical aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia cucullata, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyperus involucratus and Vetiveria zizanioides)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the growth and morphological responses, nitrogen uptake and nutrient allocation in four aquatic macrophytes when supplied with different inorganic nitrogen treatments (1) NH4+, (2) NO3−, or (3) both NH4+ and NO3−. Two free-floating species (Salvinia cucullata Roxb. ex Bory...... and Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) and two emergent species (Cyperus involucratus Rottb. and Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small) were grown with these N treatments at equimolar concentrations (500 M). Overall, the plants responded well to NH4+. Growth as RGR was highest in S. cucullata (0.12±0.003 d−1......) followed by I. aquatica (0.035 ±0.002 d−1), C. involucratus (0.03±0.002 d−1) and V. zizanioides (0.02±0.003 d−1). The NH4+ uptake rate was significantly higher than the NO3− uptake rate. The free-floating species had higher nitrogen uptake rates than the emergent species. The N-uptake rate differed between...

  15. Phytoextraction of lead-contaminated soil using vetivergrass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.), cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica L.) and carabaograss (Paspalum conjugatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Alberto, Annie Melinda; Sigua, Gilbert C; Baui, Bellrose G; Prudente, Jacqueline A

    2007-11-01

    The global problem concerning contamination of the environment as a consequence of human activities is increasing. Most of the environmental contaminants are chemical by-products and heavy metals such as lead (Pb). Lead released into the environment makes its way into the air, soil and water. Lead contributes to a variety of health effects such as decline in mental, cognitive and physical health of the individual. An alternative way of reducing Pb concentration from the soil is through phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is an alternative method that uses plants to clean up a contaminated area. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the survival rate and vegetative characteristics of three grass species such as vetivergrass, cogongrass and carabaograss grown in soils with different Pb levels; and (2) to determine and compare the ability of the three grass species as potential phytoremediators in terms of Pb accumulation by plants. The three test plants: vetivergrass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.); cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica L.); and carabaograss (Paspalum conjugatum L.) were grown in individual plastic bags containing soils with 75 mg kg(-1) (37.5 kg ha(-1)) and 150 mg kg(-1) (75 kg ha(-1)) of Pb, respectively. The Pb contents of the test plants and the soil were analyzed before and after experimental treatments using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This study was laid out following a 3 x 2 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design. On the vegetative characteristics of the test plants, vetivergrass registered the highest whole plant dry matter weight (33.85-39.39 Mg ha(-1)). Carabaograss had the lowest herbage mass production of 4.12 Mg ha(-1) and 5.72 Mg ha(-1) from soils added with 75 and 150 mg Pb kg(-1), respectively. Vetivergrass also had the highest percent plant survival which meant it best tolerated the Pb contamination in soils. Vetivergrass registered the highest rate of Pb absorption (10.16 +/- 2.81 mg kg(-1)). This was

  16. Combined Use Of Cs-137 And Be-7 To Assess The Effectiveness Of Soil Conservation For Vetiver Grass Strips In Coffee Crop Lands In The Central Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Dao; Tran Van Hoa; Tran Dinh Khoa; Nguyen Thi Mui; Trinh Cong Tu

    2007-01-01

    The combined use of 137 Cs and 7 Be for assessment of medium- and short-term soil erosion rates for sloping lands with and without soil conservation technologies in the Central Highlands of Vietnam has been carried out. Studies were performed at five 128 m 2 runoff plots and two 0.5 ha coffee plots with the slope gradient of about 25%. Experiments carried out at runoff plots showed that: (i) In the case of low erosion rates (less than 30 t ha -1 y -1 ), soil erosion rates estimated by 7 Be technique using the Profile-Distribution Model were consistent with net soil erosion rates obtained by runoff plots when particle size correction factor P is taken into account; (ii) In the case of high erosion rates (greater than 30 t ha -1 y -1 ), the conversion model overestimated soil erosion rates when P was not allowed for, and underestimated erosion rate when P factor was taken into account. Studies carried out at two 0.5 ha coffee plots showed that: (i) For the plot without soil conservation, soil erosion occurred for all sampling points with medium-term erosion rates ranging between 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 and 35 t ha -1 y -1 (the average erosion rate was 22.7 ± 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 ). The short term soil erosion rate estimated by 7 Be technique was 32.7 ± 6.1 t ha -1 y -1 for this plot; (ii) For the plot with the last seven year presence of Vetiver strips, about 93% of the area suffered from medium term erosion with erosion rates varying from 3 t ha -1 y -1 to 33 t ha -1 y -1 (the mean is 22.2 t ha -1 y -1 ), and medium term deposition occurred for only 7% of the area with the deposition rates ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 t ha -1 y -1 , resulting in the net erosion rate of 20.4 ± 0.6 t ha -1 y -1 . The short term soil erosion rate at this plot estimated by 7 Be technique was 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . By using Vetiver strips as a soil conservation technology, soil erosion was almost controlled and the net erosion rate was reduced from 32.7 t ha -1 y -1 to 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . (author)

  17. Novel Technique to improve the pH of Acidic Barren Soil using Electrokinetic-bioremediation with the application of Vetiver Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Zahin, A. M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Residual acidic slopes which are not covered by vegetation greatly increases the risk of soil erosion. In addition, low soil pH can bring numerous problems such as Al and Fe toxicity, land degradation issues and some problems related to vegetation. In this research, a series of electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio) treatments using Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida with a combination of Vetiver grass were performed in the laboratory. Investigations were conducted for 14 days and included the observation of changes in the soil pH and the mobilization of microorganism cells through an electrical gradient of 50 V/m under low pH. Based on the results obtained, this study has successfully proven that the pH of soil increases after going through electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio). The treatment using Bacillus sphaericus increases the pH from 2.95 up to 4.80, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 4.66. Based on the overall performance, Bacillus sphaericus show the highest number of bacterial cells in acidic soil with a value of 6.6 × 102 cfu/g, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 5.7 × 102 cfu/g. In conclusion, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis show high survivability and is suitable to be used in the remediation of acidic soil.

  18. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye under UV‐A Irradiation Using TiO2‐Vetiver Multifunctional Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Song Thao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and photocatalytic performance of anatase nanoparticles of pure TiO2 and a core–shell structure of TiO2 on calcined vetiver grass leaves have been compared. Samples were fabricated by sol‐gel and heating at 450 °C for 5h.The comparison was based on data for X‐ray diffraction(XRD, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area measurement, pore volume assessment, and methylene blue degradation testing. The results showed that the pure TiO2 consisted of agglomerated equiaxed nanoparticles of individual grain sizes in the range 10–20 nm. In contrast, the TiO2‐vetiver composite exhibited a core–shell structure consisting of a carbonaceous core and TiO2 shell of thickness 10–15nm. These features influenced the photocatalytic performance in such a way that the lower crosssectional area, greater surface area, and higher pore volume of the TiO2 shell increased the number of active sites, reduced the charge carrier diffusion distance, and reduced the recombination rate, thereby improving the photocatalytic activity. This improvement derived from morphological characteristics rather than crystallographic, semiconducting, or optical properties. The improved performance of the TiO2‐vetiver core–shell was unexpected since the X‐ray diffraction data showed that the crystallinity of the TiO2 was lower than that of the pure TiO2. These outcomes are attributed to the reducing effect of the carbon on the TiO2 during heating, thereby facilitating the formation of oxygen vacancies, which enhance charge separation and hence photocatalysis by TiO2.

  19. Performance evaluation of a dual-flow recharge filter for improving groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Manoj P; Senthilvel, S; Mathew, Abraham C

    2014-07-01

    A dual-flow multimedia stormwater filter integrated with a groundwater recharge system was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. The influent stormwater first flows horizontally through the circular layers of planted grass and biofibers. Subsequently, the flow direction changes to a vertical direction so that water moves through layers of pebbles and sand and finally gets recharged to the deep aquifers. The media in the sequence of vegetative medium:biofiber to pebble:sand were filled in nine proportions and tested for the best performing combination. Three grass species, viz., Typha (Typha angustifolia), Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), and St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), were tested as the best performing vegetative medium. The adsorption behavior of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) fiber, which was filled in the middle layer, was determined by a series of column and batch studies.The dual-flow filter showed an increasing trend in hydraulic efficiency with an increase in flowrate. The chemical removal efficiency of the recharge dual-flow filter was found to be very high in case of K+ (81.6%) and Na+ (77.55%). The pH normalizing efficiency and electrical conductivity reduction efficiency were also recorded as high. The average removal percentage of Ca2+ was moderate, while that of Mg2+ was very low. The filter proportions of 1:1 to 1:2 (plant:fiber to pebble:sand) showed a superior performance compared to all other proportions. Based on the estimated annual costs and returns, all the financial viability criteria (internal rate of return, net present value, and benefit-cost ratio) were found to be favorable and affordable to farmers in terms of investing in the developed filtration system.

  20. Plant-Mediated Changes in Soil N-Cycling Genes during Revegetation of Copper Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen limitation represents a major bottleneck during the revegetation of mine tailings. However, controls over key nitrogen-cycling genes in rhizospheric soils under differential vegetation management remain poorly understood. The abundance and transcriptional activity of nitrogen-cycling genes and the enzymatic activity of nitrogen transformation are mediated differentially during revegetation of mine tailings by Imperata cylindrica and Chrysopogon zizanioides plants. Results showed that the highest total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, and NH4+-N contents were found in the rhizosphere of I. cylindrica. The nifH gene abundances differed between I. cylindrica and C. zizanioides, and were higher in I. cylindrica which demonstrated by 3.39-fold higher mRNA transcript abundance of the nifH gene and a 2.15-fold higher nitrogen fixation rate in the rhizosphere. In addition, C. zizanioides exhibited a 4.94-fold higher transcript abundance of the archaeal amoA gene and the highest nitrification rate (1.706 ± 0.293 μg N-NO2- g−1 h−1 in the rhizosphere. In conclusion, I. cylindrica and C. zizanioides stimulated the abundances and activities of nifH gene and archaeal amoA gene, respectively. In addition, I. cylindrica appears to be capable of enhancing nitrogen fixation and exhibited accelerated nitrogen accumulation, which may be particularly useful for the rehabilitation of mine tailings.

  1. Determination of microelement distribution in different components of soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Viet Hung; Maslov, O.D.; Gustova, M.V.; Trinh Thi Thu My; Phung Khac Nam Ho

    2011-01-01

    Leaves, stem, and roots of two shrub types: tea (Camellia sinensis), sweet leaf (Sauropus androgynus) and two herb types: vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.Nash), maize (Zea mays L) and Thucuc soil where the plants grow, were collected to be studied. Contents of 22 elements in the samples were determined by three methods: XRFA (X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis), GAA (Gamma Activation Analysis), and tracking method to study distribution of these elements in plants and soil-plant relationship. The study was carried out at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna. Distribution of the elements in the soil-plant system was studied

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lmboera

    To the best of our knowledge and the literature search, it was revealed that only a ... Reducing power ability was measured by mixing the EEVZ (50-800 µg) in 1 ml of ..... radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective actions of ...

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. ..... H., Sahu, A. & Bora, U. (2008) Indian medicinal herbs as sources of antioxidants. ... analgesic activities of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Journal of Ethnopharmacology ...

  4. Phytoextractor Potential of Cultivated Species in Industrial Area Contaminated by Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Maria de Souza Gomes Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: High growth rate is one of the criteria used for the selection of species to be used in metal phytoextraction programs. This study was carried out to characterize the growth characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., castor bean (Ricinus communis L., corn (Zea mays L, and vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash] grown on a soil contaminated with lead (Pb, with and without pH correction, to improve agronomic practices regarding phytoremediation programs. The experiment was designed as a randomized block with four replications; treatments were arranged in a split-plot arrangement, with the main plot representing the species (sunflower, castor bean, corn, and vetiver, with or without pH correction and soil fertilization, and the split-plot representing harvest periods (60, 90, and 120 days after planting. After variance analysis and mean comparison analysis of the data by the Tukey test (p≤0.05, a significant effect was observed from soil pH correction for vetiver in all of the growth variables evaluated, except for the leaf area index at 120 days after planting (DAP. Castor bean and sunflower plants in soil with high acidity conditions, without pH correction (pH˂4.0, were affected by soil Pb levels. Corn plants benefited from soil pH correction and had improved results for the plant height, diameter, and leaf area variables at 60 and 90 DAP, as well as leaf area index at 60 DAP. There was no increase in these variables between the harvest periods evaluated. Regarding phytoextraction potential, corn and vetiver had the highest Pb translocation to the plant shoots at 90 DAP and were therefore considered the most suitable species for phytoremediation of the area under study. Overall, liming was essential for improving species biomass production for all the species studied in soils with high Pb availability in solution.

  5. Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kede, Maria Luiza F. M.; Correia, Fabio V.; Conceição, Paulo F.; Salles Junior, Sidney F.; Marques, Marcia; Moreira, Josino C.; Pérez, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed) followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)). The treatments applied (in triplicates) were: T1—potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4); T2—reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP) and; T3—a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP); sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1) plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments. PMID:25386955

  6. Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza F. M. Kede

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.. The treatments applied (in triplicates were: T1—potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4; T2—reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP and; T3—a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP; sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1 plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments.

  7. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-29

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  8. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  9. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  10. Fate and distribution of nitrogen in soil and plants irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C Y; Chu, L M

    2011-06-01

    Landfill leachate contains a high concentration of ammoniacal substances which can be a potential supply of N for plants. A bioassay was conducted using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne to evaluate the phytotoxicity of the leachate sample. A soil column experiment was then carried out in a greenhouse to study the effect of leachate on plant growth. Two grasses (Paspalum notatum and Vetiver zizanioides) and two trees (Hibiscus tiliaceus and Litsea glutinosa) were irrigated with leachate at the EC50 levels for 12 weeks. Their growth performance and the distribution of N were examined and compared with columns applied with chemical fertilizer. With the exception of P. notatum, plants receiving leachate and fertilizer grew better than those receiving water alone. The growth of L. glutinosa and V. zizanioides with leachate irrigation did not differ significantly from plants treated with fertilizer. Leachate irrigation significantly increased the levels of NH(x)-N in soil. Although NO(x)-N was below 1 mg NL(-1) in the leachate sample, the soil NO(x)-N content increased by 9-fold after leachate irrigation, possibly as a result of nitrification. Leachate irrigation at EC50 provided an N input of 1920 kg N ha(-1) over the experimental period, during which up to 1050 kg N ha(-1) was retained in the soil and biomass, depending on the type of vegetation. The amount of nutrient added seems to exceed beyond the assimilative capability. Practitioners should be aware of the possible consequence of N saturation when deciding the application rate if leachate irrigation is aimed for water reuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  12. Microbe assisted phyto remediation of oil sludge and role of amendments: a mesocosm study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekar, S; Dhote, M.; Kashyap, S.; Singh, S. K.; Juwarkar, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A mescosom study was evaluated to the influence of amendments such as microbial consortium, plant (Vetiveria zizanioides), bulking agent (wheat husk) and nutrients on remediation of oil sludge over a period of 90 days. The experiment was conducted in a 15 m2 plot which was divided into eight units comprising of soil sludge mixture (1:1) at CSIR-NEERI premises. During the experiment, oil degradation was estimated gravimetrically and poly aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified on GC-MS. Additionally, dehydrogenase activity was also monitored. The treatment integrated with bulking agent, nutrients, consortium and plant resulted in 28-fold increased dehydrogenase activity and complete mineralization of higher poly aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore, 72.8 % total petroleum hydrocarbons degradation was observed in bulked treatment with plant, nutrients and consortium followed by 69.6 and 65.4 % in bioaugmented treatments with and without nutrients, respectively, as compared to control (33.4 %). A lysimeter study was also conducted simultaneously using Vetiver and consortium to monitor groundwater contamination by heavy metals in oil sludge which showed a marked decrease in the concentrations of metals such as lead and cadmium in leachates. This study validates a holistic approach for remediation of oil sludge contaminated soils/sites which is a burning issue since decades by the use of microbe assisted phyto remediation technology which not only solves the problem of oil contamination but also takes care of heavy metal contamination.

  13. Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo: II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1952-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3. The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3. It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf, capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth, capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd. and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes, capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash, seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes.

  14. 2018-03-20T19:34:14Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  15. Uptake Evaluation Of Glass house Grown Grasses In Radio phyto remediation Of Caesium-Contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Nur Humaira' Lau Abdullah; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    A glass house experiment was performed to evaluate the uptake of grasses viz. Napier and Vetiver in radiophytoremediation of caesium-contaminated soil. The glass house radiophytoremediation experiment was designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The grasses were grown in troughs filled with soil mixed with a known specific activity of 134 Cs. Initial Cs activity and activity after different cultivation time intervals of 1, 3, 6 and 9 months were analyzed using gamma spectrometer direct measurement. The results showed the uptake of caesium by Napier and Vetiver after 9 months with the transfer factors (TF) were 4.70 and 6.25, respectively. Meanwhile, the remediation of caesium from contaminated soil at the same time was 95.25 % (Napier) and 95.58 % (Vetiver). Both grasses have been found to accumulate caesium, with Vetiver accumulating higher than Napier. Thus, the present study suggests that Vetiver could be used as a potential plant for radiophytoremediation of caesium. (author)

  16. Desarrollo de un protocolo para la rizofiltración de efluentes contaminados con mercurio mediante la aplicación de filtros vegetales con la especie Vetiver (Vetiveria zizainodes)

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Asprilla, Niza Inés

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Económicas y Administrativas, 2013. Siendo el departamento del Chocó, una región de alta actividad minera para la extracción de oro con mercurio, la contaminación por este metal se debe considerar como una emergencia sanitaria debido a los efectos que puede estar dejando en el medio ambiente y en la salud pública. La presente tesis tiene como objetivo principal fomentar el ...

  17. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  18. Nootkatone is a repellent for Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Maistrello, L; Laine, R A

    2001-03-01

    We examined the behavior of Formosan subterranean termites toward one of the components of vetiver grass oil, the roots of which manufacture insect repellents. We found nootkatone, a sesquiterpene ketone, isolated from vetiver oil is a strong repellent and toxicant to Formosan subterranean termites. The lowest effective concentration tested was 10 micrograms/g substrate. This is the first report of nootkatone being a repellent to insects.

  19. Potential of Azotobacter vinelandii Khsr1 as bio-inoculant | Naz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with the isolation and characterization of Azotobacter vinelandii Khsr1 from roots of the weed, Chrysopogon aucheri, commonly known as golden beard grass indigenous to Khewra salt range, Pakistan and its evaluation as bio-inoculant. The population of the isolate varied from 107 to 108 cfu/g fresh ...

  20. Study of a railway embankment reinforced with jute tassels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Embankment; models (physical); soil reinforcement; jute tassel; slope ... Because of high tensile strength of vetiver grass roots, they act like soil .... All the joints are glued as well as reinforced with steel angles and .... slipping, it is nailed to the top of the embankment by several 25.4 mm iron ... The cables can yield in ten-.

  1. Aktivitas minyak dan serbuk enam spesies tumbuhan terhadap peneluran dan Mortalitas Callosobruchus sp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Dadang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Storage pests remain one of the main problems in storage. The pest attacks occur not only in the field, but also in storage. Control should be done to maintain the quality of storedproducts. The environmentally friendly measures should be implemented to avoid negative impacts to the environment and human being. The objective of this research was to study the mortality and oviposition deterrence caused by powder and oil of six plant species against Callosobruchus sp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Flowers of Eugenia aromatica, roots of Vetiveria zizanioides, leaves of Pogostemon cablin, seeds of Ricinus communis, seeds of Foeniculum vulgare, and stems of Cymbopogon citratus were air-dried and milled to yield powder. Oil of six plant species were purchased from local market. Oviposition deterrent bioassay was conducted by no-choice method for both powder and oil, while mortality bioassay was conducted by topical application and residual methods for plant oil only. Several plant species showed high biological activity to Callosobruchus sp. Powder of E. aromatica and oil of V. zizanioides caused high oviposition deterrence, while oil of V. zizanioides and E. aromatica caused high mortality.

  2. Investigation of TC and TSS Removal Efficiencies at Ahvaz West WTP Effluent Using the Land‒plant Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional (primary and secondary treatment processes are known to remove up to 95–99% of some micro-organisms, they do not provide adequate treatment to make the effluent suitable for direct reuse, mainly due to the presence of high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Obtaining reusable effluents, therefore, requires the use of processes that can be justified both technical and economic grounds. One such indigenous, low cost option is the land-plant process that can be used for advanced wastewater treatment. It is the objective of the present study to determine the efficiency of the local soil in Ahvaz and that of the vetiver plant in reducing the microbial load in the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. A pilot study was thus carried out including three Lysimeters installed in West Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant. Local soil was used in one Lysimeter, local soil with vetiver plant in the second one, and an artificial assortment of soil comprising local soil, silica sand (0.5-1mm, and sand (15-30mm in the third. In addition, the effluent from the secondary settling outlet at the WTP was transferred by pumping at the three filtration rates of 0.2, 0.6, and 1 ml/min into the system with three replications for each rate and samples were collected from both inlet and outlet flows. The average removal efficiencies of Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Total Coliform (TC in the effluent from the three Lysimeters with local soil with vetiver, local soil without vetiver, and artificial soil assortment for the filtration rate of 0.2 ml/min were: 67.75% and 99.7%, 58.33% and 99.6%, and 56.25% and 99.5%, respectively. For a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min, these values were: 53.33% and 98.93%, 48.8 and 98.77%, and 47.68% and 98.64%. Finally, the values obtained for a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min were: 50% and 93.96%, 46.42 and 91.34%, and 44/04% and 88/81%, respectively. The results from the study showed that the

  3. Phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles as antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm agent against the nosocomial pathogen Serratia marcescens: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, D; Ramanathan, S; Arunachalam, K; Jeyaraj, G P; Shunmugiah, K P; Arumugam, V R

    2018-02-12

    Serratia marcescens is an important multidrug-resistant human pathogen. The pathogenicity of S. marcescens mainly depends on the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism, which regulates the virulence factors production and biofilm formation. Hence, targeting QS mechanism in S. marcescens will ultimately pave the way to combat its pathogenicity. Thus, the present study is intended to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent anti-QS and antibiofilm agent against S. marcescens. The AgNPs were synthesized using V. zizanioides aqueous root extract and the physiochemical properties of V. zizanioides-based AgNPs (VzAgNPs) were evaluated using analytical techniques such as ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques. VzAgNPs were found to attenuate the QS-dependent virulence factors, namely prodigiosin, protease, lipase, exopolysaccharide productions and biofilm formation of S. marcescens, without inhibiting its growth. Further, the transcriptomic analysis confirmed the down-regulation of QS-dependent genes, which encode for the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation. The current study confirms VzAgNPs as an ideal anti-QS and antibiofilm agent against S. marcescens. This is the first approach that validates the anti-QS and antibiofilm potential of phytosynthesized VzAgNPs against the nosocomial pathogen, S. marcescens. As VzAgNPs exhibits potent antivirulent activities, it could be used to treat hospital-acquired S. marcescens infections. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf, Origanum vulgare (aerial parts, Paeonia emodi (tubers, and Peganum harmala (seeds was also carried out for the first time.

  5. In situ phytoextraction of copper and cadmium and its biological impacts in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Yang, John; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Zhenqiu

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cost-effective technology for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we evaluated the biomass and accumulation of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) of plant species grown in a contaminated acidic soil treated with limestone. Five species produced biomass in the order: Pennisetum sinese > Elsholtzia splendens > Vetiveria zizanioides > Setaria pumila > Sedum plumbizincicola. Over one growing season, the best accumulators for Cu and Cd were Pennisetum sinese and Sedum plumbizincicola, respectively. Overall, Pennisetum sinese was the best species for Cu and Cd removal when biomass was considered. However, Elsholtzia splendens soil had the highest enzyme activities and microbial populations, while the biological properties in Pennisetum sinese soil were moderately enhanced. Results would provide valuable insights for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  7. Soil management and conservation in the Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus, Surat Thani Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choengthong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze soil properties and to find out a suitable soil conservation method for soil management in Surat Thani campus,Prince of Songkla University.Land in the area was dividedinto plots depending on different land use. Soil samples were collected from each plot and were analyzed for soil properties. The results from soil analysis revealed that soils in Surat Thani campus had pH between 4.53- 7.62. The quantitative levels of soil total N, available P and exchangeable K were low. Also the quantitative levels of Ca, Mg and S were low. Moreover, the quantitative levels of organic matter were low between 4.6-9.9gkg-1. There was no salty effect as the electrical conductivities (EC were low between 6.8 - 26.4 μS/cm. Furthermore, the cation exchange capacities (CEC were low, between 1.65 - 2.78 cmolckg-1 . In conclusion, soil inSurat Thani campus, Prince of Songkla University, had soil nutrients lower than those needed for plant growth and development. Therefore, there is a need for application of fertilizer to obtain good plant growth.Soil conservation experiment was done by studying soil loss from a control plot (no cover crop compared with the ones growing Peuraria phaseoloides , Wedelia trilobata and Vetiveria zizanioides. The results revealed that Peuraria phaseoloides was suitable to grow as cover crop for controlling soil erosion.Peurariacould reduce soil loss up to 87% compared to those with bare soil. Wedelia trilobata(Creeping daisy and Vetiveria zizanioides could reduce soil loss about 55% and 30 % respectively. In order to reduce soilleaching that can be as high as 38 kg from an area of only 8 m2, soil protection method by growing Peuraria phaseoloides, or Weddelia trilobata on sloping and bare land are highly recommended.

  8. Biofertilizers for the revegetation of coal overburden dumps top materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikhil, K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Group

    2001-07-01

    Adding and improving nutrient status of overburden dump top material through biofertilizer for supporting vegetation and for sustainable spoil development, a pot experiment was conducted. In this, two bio-fertilizers namely bactin and phosphin in three doses were applied on overburden dump top material kept in pots growing two grass species. The growths were compared with control on dump and soil both. Results shows that overburden dump amended with bio-fertilizer at lowest dose have significant increase in growth over the control of dump material and soil in vetiver grass but failed to shows the same result in lemon grass. This may be due to different growth behaviour of the grasses. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS REGARDING THE REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED LANDS: CASE STUDY FROM THE PACIFIC ISLAND OF GUAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Golabi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded lands of southern Guam are referred to as BadLands. These are actively eroding areas of very deep, well–drained saprolite derived from tuff and tuff breccia. These badlands are exposed to overland flow, wind and rain causing sever erosion as the result of rapid runoff from the pitted, sloping sites void of vegetation. Through soil removal or sediment transport, erosion also alters the inherent physical and chemical properties of these soils. This alteration resulted in degradation, in turn affecting the environment as well as water quality in the down stream. The on-site damage from erosion is indeed a problem to environmental ecosystem of the island. Sediment lost due to erosion clogs rivers, lakes, and waterways. It reduces the water storage capacity of reservoirs and canals and increases flooding.The challenge facing soil and environmental scientists is to develop conservation and restoration strategies at the farm as well as at the watershed level that address crop production and natural resources protection needs, within a framework of increasing environmental and financial constraints. In our soil conservation program at the College of Natural and Applied Sciences of the University of Guam we have adopted integrated approaches to evaluate a variety of strategies, including the effect of conservation tillage and residue management, crop rotation with leguminous plants (sunnhemp as green manure as well as the use of composted organic wastes as soil amendment for organic matter build up, all for soil rehabilitation and restoration of the badlands in southern Guam. In a companion study we are evaluating the effectiveness of Vetiver technology as a sediment trap to mitigate sediment transport in a typical watershed basin in southern Guam. This paper discusses the methodology as well as up to date data that shows the effect of Vetiver technology on sediment trapping at the watershed level.

  10. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  11. Mixing less palatable grasses with urea, molasses and effective microorganisms and its effect on chemical composition and digestibility in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:- A study was carried out at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad to find out impacts of supplementation of low palatable grasses with urea, molasses and Effective Microorganisms (EM) on chemical composition and digestibility in goats. Heteropogon contortus (HC), Chrysopogon aucheri(CA), sorghum halpense (SH) and Desmostachya bipinnata (DB) were used and the combinations were grass + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea, grass + 4% urea + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea + 1:100 EM, grass + 1:100 EM + 4% molasses, grass +1:100 EM + 4% molasses + 4% urea. Proximate analysis of samples was carried out. Crude protein content of mixtures improved as compared with sole grasses. Digestibility of HC supplemented with urea, molasses and EM in various combinations was also studied in growing goats. The highest digestibility of DM in goats was recorded in HC + 4% urea + 4% molasses treatment (85.51%) followed by HC + 4% urea (78.57%) and HC + 4% urea + 4% molasses + 1:100 EM (78.00%). (author)

  12. Vegetation successfully prevents oxidization of sulfide minerals in mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-07-15

    The oxidization of metal sulfide in tailings causes acid mine drainage. However, it remains unclear whether vegetation prevents the oxidization of metal sulfides. The oxidization characteristics and microbial indices of the tailings in the presence of various plant species were investigated to explore the effects of vegetation on the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. The pH, reducing sulfur, free iron oxides (Fed), chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biological oxygen consumption (BOC) were measured. Key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus spp., Leptospirillum spp. and Thiobacillus spp.) were quantified using real-time PCR. The results indicate that vegetation growing on tailings can effectively prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in tailings. A higher pH and reducing-sulfur content and lower Fed were observed in the 0-30 cm depth interval in the presence of vegetation compared to bare tailings (BT). The COC gradually decreased with depth in all of the soil profiles; specifically, the COC rapidly decreased in the 10-20 cm interval in the presence of vegetation but gradually decreased in the BT profiles. Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanoides (CZ) profiles contained the highest BOC in the 10-20 cm interval. The abundance of key iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the vegetated tailings were significantly lower than in the BT; in particular, IC was associated with the lowest iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial abundance. In conclusion, vegetation successfully prevented the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the tailings, and Imperata cylindrica is the most effective in reducing the number of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and helped to prevent the oxidization of sulfide minerals in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative anthelmintic activity investigation of selected ethno-medicinal weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueblos, Kirstin Rhys S.; Bajalla, Mark; Pacheco, Dixie; Ganot, Sheila; Paig, Daisy; Tapales, Radyn; Lagare, Jeanne; Quimque, Mark Tristan J.

    2017-01-01

    Helminth infections are one of the seriously neglected potent diseases in many parts of the world. The problems of parasitic helminthes becoming resistant to currently available anthelmintic drugs pose a challenge for the search - relying on natural products - for new and better anthelmintics. In this paper, four abundant Philippine weeds: Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. Cyperus brevifolius Rottb., Ruellia tuberosa Linn. and Saccharum spontaneum Linn. were investigated for their anthelmintic activities to establish basis of their folkloric claim. The hexane-soluble and chloroform-soluble extracts were obtained through sequential solvent partitioning of the crude ethanolic extract of the air-dried aerial part of each plant sample. Meanwhile, the decoction was obtained from fresh aerial part of the plant samples. All extracts were then subjected to in vitro anthelmintic screening at different concentration as per method of Ghosh, et al. against African nightcrawler earthworms (Eudrillus euginiae) in which the activity of the extracts was determined by correlation with time. The anthelmintic bioassay results revealed a dose-dependent toxicity relationship. It indicated relatively low anthelmintic activities of the decoction of the four plant samples as compared to their corresponding crude ethanol extracts. Among the crude ethanol extracts, C. brevifolius (CBE) gave fastest time to bring about paralysis and death to the test organisms at all concentrations tested. For the hexane extracts, R. tuberosa (RTH) gave better activity among other plant samples. Lastly, among the chloroform-soluble extracts, both that of C. brevifolius (CBC) and R. tuberosa (RTC) comparably showed strongest anthelmintic activities at all tested concentrations, thus, exhibited best anthelmintic activity that is remarkably comparable to the positive control, Mebendazole at the highest concentration tested. In fact, CBC and RTC showed highest anthelmintic potential compared to all extracts tested in

  14. Screening of salt-tolerance potential of some native forage grasses from the eastern part of Terai-Duar grasslands in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnendu Roy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The salt tolerance of 12 native forage grasses from the eastern part of Terai-Duar grasslands was assessed using a rapid method of leaf disc senescence bioassay. Samples of these grasses were grown in untreated water as well as 100 and 200 mM NaCl solutions for periods of 3, 6 and 9 days. Discs of fresh leaf were then placed in untreated water as well as in 100 and 200 mM NaCl solutions for 96 hours. Quantitative effects were measured as the effects on chlorophyll concentration in leaves in response to exposure to the varying solutions. From these results, the salt sensitivity index (SSI of the individual grasses was determined. The SSI values indicated that Imperata cylindrica, Digitaria ciliaris and Cynodon dactylon were most salt-tolerant of all grasses tested. Further characterization of the grasses was done by observing the changes in 6 biomarkers for salinity tolerance: relative water content, total sugar concentration, proline concentration, electrolyte leakage, membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2 concentration following exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl concentrations for 3, 6 and 9 days. Finally, hierarchical cluster analysis using the software CLUSTER 3.0 was used to represent the inter-relations among the physiological parameters and to group the grasses on the basis of their salinity tolerance. The overall results indicated that Imperata cylindrica, Eragrostis amabilis, Cynodon dactylon and Digitaria ciliaris were potentially salt-tolerant grasses and should be planted on saline areas to verify our results. On the other hand, Axonopus compressus, Chrysopogon aciculatus, Oplismenus burmanni and Thysanolaena latifolia were found to be highly salt-sensitive and would be unsuitable for use in saline areas. 

  15. Radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Tiwari, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    A major feature of all higher eukaryotes is the defined life span of the organism. Radioprotections are substances that protect the cells against Radiation induced damage. Over the past decade interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phytoproducts for use in Cancer preventing strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for controlling the Cancer incidence in many developing countries as well as developed countries. Several experimental evidence has indicated that intake of fruit and vegetables and a number of other dietary items are associated with decreased Cancer incidence. These potential agents either abolish or delay the development of Cancer by interfering with one or more steps in the process of carcinogenesis, such as preventing the activation of carcinogen by increasing detoxification or by blocking the interaction of ultimate carcinogen with cellular macromolecules or suppressing the clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. The potential of using medicinal herbs as Cancer chemo preventive neutraceuticals and functional food is promising. Radioprotective potential of extracts of certain dietary botanicals including Mentha arvensi (field mint), Syzyzium cumini (Jamun), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Aegle marmelos (Bael), Emblica officianalis (Amla), Aloe vera (Gwar patha), Moringa oleifera (Moringa, Horse Radish Tree), Grewia asiatica (Phalsa), Rosemarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ocirnurn sanctum, Phylanthus niruri, Vetiveria zizanioides (vetivergrass), Delbergia sisso oil (Sesame oil) was evaluated. All botanicals tested had shown a very low toxicity. Administration of these botanicals increased the survival of whole body irradiated mice and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness. (author)

  16. Radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Tiwari, Ajay [Department of Zoology, Govt. College, Ajmer (India)

    2012-07-01

    A major feature of all higher eukaryotes is the defined life span of the organism. Radioprotections are substances that protect the cells against Radiation induced damage. Over the past decade interest in evaluating oriental medicinal herbs and edible phytoproducts for use in Cancer preventing strategies is encouraging and emerging as an acceptable approach for controlling the Cancer incidence in many developing countries as well as developed countries. Several experimental evidence has indicated that intake of fruit and vegetables and a number of other dietary items are associated with decreased Cancer incidence. These potential agents either abolish or delay the development of Cancer by interfering with one or more steps in the process of carcinogenesis, such as preventing the activation of carcinogen by increasing detoxification or by blocking the interaction of ultimate carcinogen with cellular macromolecules or suppressing the clonal expansion of neoplastic cells. The potential of using medicinal herbs as Cancer chemo preventive neutraceuticals and functional food is promising. Radioprotective potential of extracts of certain dietary botanicals including Mentha arvensi (field mint), Syzyzium cumini (Jamun), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Aegle marmelos (Bael), Emblica officianalis (Amla), Aloe vera (Gwar patha), Moringa oleifera (Moringa, Horse Radish Tree), Grewia asiatica (Phalsa), Rosemarinus officinalis (Rosemary), Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ocirnurn sanctum, Phylanthus niruri, Vetiveria zizanioides (vetivergrass), Delbergia sisso oil (Sesame oil) was evaluated. All botanicals tested had shown a very low toxicity. Administration of these botanicals increased the survival of whole body irradiated mice and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness. (author)

  17. Sorption of ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from phytoremediation plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng ZENG; Muhammad Tariq RAFIQ; Song-da ZHANG; Ting-qiang LI; Feng-liang ZHAO; Zhen-li HE; He-ping ZHAO; Xiao-e YANG; Hai-long WANG; Jing ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    The study on biochar derived from plant biomass for environmental applications is attracting more and more attention. Twelve sets of biochar were obtained by treating four phytoremediation plants, Salix rosthorni Seemen, Thalia dealbata, Vetiveria zizanioides, and Phragmites sp., sequential y through pyrolysis at 500 °C in a N2 environ-ment, and under different temperatures (500, 600, and 700 °C) in a CO2 environment. The cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of biochar varied with both plant species and pyrolysis temperature. The magnesium (Mg) content of biochar derived from T. dealbata (TC) was obviously higher than that of the other plant biochars. This bi-ochar also had the highest sorption capacity for phosphate and ammonium. In terms of biomass yields, adsorption capacity, and energy cost, T. dealbata biochar produced at 600 °C (TC600) is the most promising sorbent for removing contaminants (N and P) from aqueous solution. Therefore, T. dealbata appears to be the best candidate for phyto-remediation application as its biomass can make a good biochar for environmental cleaning.

  18. Selected medicinal plants used in herbal industries; their toxicity against pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, H.; Ahmad, M.; Abbasi, B.H.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant strains of fungi and bacteria are imposing the need for new drugs. Reliable natural sources with minor side effects are needed to control anti-human pathogenic invaders specially bacteria. Given the demands for natural products that are inherently safe and environmentally compatible, the advancement in antimicrobial potential has provided a better alternative to synthetic resistance antibiotics. In the present investigation such types of medicinal plants were selected for analyses that are used by local herbal practioners for multiple diseases. Thirty three extracts of Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina and Vetiveria zizanioides in chloroform, ethanol and hexane were investigated for their antimicrobial potential. These extracts were tested against eight microorganisms including four gram negative bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, three gram positive bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus and a fungal strain viz., Candida albicans. Majority of the extracts showed marked antimicrobial potential against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  19. Use of Low-Cost Methods of Soil Erosion Control In Kisii District, South Western kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzabi, A.W; Makini, F; Onyango, M; Mureithi, J.G

    1999-01-01

    Kisii District has a topography of undulating hills and is prone to severe soil erosion. The average rainfall is 1900 mm and occurs in biomodal pattern. During a participatory appraisal survey in 1995, farmers indicated that soil erosion in the area had contributed to decline in soil fertility resulting in low crop yields. To address this problem, an on-farm trial was conducted in 1996 at Nyamonyo village to test the effectiveness of four low cost methods of controlling soil erosion. These included maize stover trash line, sweet potatoes,Penicum maximum var. Makarikari grass strip and vetiveria zizanioides (Vertiver) grass strip. A treatment without soil erosion control measure was included. The trial was planted in three farms which acted as replicates. The treatments were planted in runoff plots measuring 4 x 2 m in which had a maize crop were laid down in a randomized complete block design. Surface runoff and eroded soils were collected in 50-l buckets. The experimental site had a slope ranging from 16 to 35%. Preliminary results indicated that maize stover trash line and sweet potato strips were more effective in controlling soil erosion than the grass strips. As the season progressed the grass strips became increasingly more effective in erosion control. The trail is still continuing but results indicate that for short term soil erosion control, maize stover trash lines and sweet potatoes are more effective while Makarikari and Vertiver grass strips are promising as long term soil erosion control measure

  20. The Reclamation of Tailing Area Reclamation in The Mining Area with Forages, is it Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailings are what’s left over from mining. The rock where copper, gold, silver and other minerals found is ground up into fine particles so that the valuable material can be taken out and refined. The solid waste would affect the environment physically and biologically. Characteristics of tailing are high porosity with low water holding capacity, poor organic matter, poor macro and micro nutrients and no microorganism activity. Therefore, it takes time and requires strategy to manage and change them to a more productive area. Many technologies have been applied to rehabilitate tailing for agriculture. The technologies including the use of manure, compost, mulch, biosolid, chemical fertilizer, microorganism (bacteria, mycorhiza and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate selected contaminants in the contaminated soil, sludge, sediment, water (ground, surface, waste water. Phytoremediation encompasses a number of different methods that can lead to contaminant degradation, removal or immobilization. Those methods including phytodegradation/rhizodegradation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization and phytostabilization. The phytoextraction is inexpensive compared with the conventional technology. Some forages have been used for phytoremediation such as Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass, Vetiveria zizonoides (Vetiver grass, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, since they have been known as heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant.

  1. Assessing the potential of brachiaria decumbens as remediation agent for soil contaminated wit oil sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah Norddin; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Hazlina Abdullah; Abdul Razak Ruslan

    2005-01-01

    Bioremediation is a method of treatment of soil or water contaminated with toxic materials, involving the use of living organisms. Oil or petroleum sludge is a waste product of the petroleum refining industry, and is now accumulating at a fast rate at petroleum refinery sites in the country. Common components of oil sludge are mud and sand, containing toxic materials from hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radioactive elements from the seabed. In the present study, the oil sludge samples were obtained from barrels of the materials stored at the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre, MINT. The samples were analysed of their compounds, elemental and radioactive contents. Trials on microbial degradation of the sludge materials were ongoing. This paper discusses the potential of a grass to remediate soils contaminated with petroleum sludge. Remediation of soils contaminated with organic compounds and heavy metals using plants, including grasses, including Vetiver, Lolium and Agrostis have been carried out in many countries. A greenhouse pot trial was conducted to assess the suitability of the pasture grass Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. and its mutant Brachiaria decumbens KLUANG Comel as a remediation agent for oil sludge contaminated soil. Samples of grasses and soils before planting, during growth stage and at end of experiment were analysed for the different toxicity. Although the grasses were promoted for use in pasture, and KLUANG Comel has good potential as an ornamental plant, too, their other potentials, including as phytoremediation agents need to be explored. (Author)

  2. Biochar-based constructed wetlands to treat reverse osmosis rejected concentrates in chronic kidney disease endemic areas in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athapattu, B C L; Thalgaspitiya, T W L R; Yasaratne, U L S; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-12-01

    The objectives were to investigate the potential remedial measures for reverse osmosis (RO) rejected water through constructed wetlands (CWs) with low-cost materials in the media established in chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) prevalent area in Sri Lanka. A pilot-scale surface and subsurface water CWs were established at the Medawachchiya community-based RO water supply unit. Locally available soil, calicut tile and biochar were used in proportions of 81, 16.5 and 2.5% (w/w), respectively, as filter materials in the subsurface. Vetiver grass and Scirpus grossus were selected for subsurface wetland while water lettuce and water hyacinth were chosen for free water surface CWs. Results showed that the CKDu sensitive parameters; total dissolved solids, hardness, total alkalinity and fluoride were reduced considerably (20-85%) and most met desirable levels of stipulated ambient standards. Biochar seemed to play a major role in removing fluoride from the system which may be due to the existing and adsorbed K + , Ca +2 , Mg +2 , etc. on the biochar surface via chemisorption. The least reduction was observed for alkalinity. This study indicated potential purification of aforesaid ions in water which are considerably present in RO rejection. Therefore, the invented bio-geo constructed wetland can be considered as a sustainable, economical and effective option for reducing high concentrations of CKDu sensitive parameters in RO rejected water before discharging into the inland waters.

  3. Odds and Trends: Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Odorants Note on trademarks: Words which we know or have reason to believe constitute registered trademarks (R) are designated as such. However, neither the presence nor absence of such designation should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademark. Note on perfume analysis: The quoted percentages of perfume raw materials in market products are rounded figures. They are often derived from area percentages from the GC (FID) analysis, and are thus subject to analytical error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft; Bajgrowicz; Denis; Fráter

    2000-09-01

    Fragrance chemistry is, together with the closely related area of flavor chemistry, one of the few domains, if not the only one, in which chemists can immediately experience structure-activity relationships. This review presents structure-odor correlations and olfactophore models for the main odor notes of perfumery: "fruity", "marine", "green", "floral", "spicy", "woody", "amber", and "musky". New trendsetters and so-called captive odorants of these notes are introduced, and recent activities and highlights in fragrance chemistry are summarized. The design of odorants, their chemical synthesis, and their use in modern perfumery is discussed. Our selection is guided and illustrated by creative fragrances, and features new odorants which encompassed current trends in perfumery. New odorants for grapefruit and blackcurrant, for galbanum, and leafy top notes are presented. Compounds with fashionable marine, ozonic, and aquatic facets are treated, as well as new odorants for classical lily-of-the-valley, rose, and jasmine accords. Compounds with sweet and spicy tonalities are also discussed, as are the most recent developments for woody notes such as sandalwood and vetiver. We conclude with musky and ambery odorants possessing uncommon or unusual structural features. Some odor trends and effects are illustrated by microencapsulated fragrance samples, and areas where there is need for the development of new synthetic materials and methodologies are pointed out. Thus, chemists are invited to explore fragrance chemistry and participate in the design and synthesis of new odorants. This review gives the latest state of the art of the subject.

  4. Ecological and Bioengineering Studies for Stabilizing the Wad Medani-Sennar Roadside Slope Linking the Gezira and Sennar States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaeb Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of the highway embankment slope's soil along the Wad Medani-Sennar road is a significant issue, as there are many traffic accidents on this road, with an average of 15 to 25 fatalities per annum. It was thus decided to investigate this issue to find a method to protect slope from erosion on this road and to provide new approaches to slope erosion knowledge gap in Sudan. An engineering survey was carried out, followed by geotechnical studies, experimental work and interviews with academic experts regarding native vegetation in the survey area. These include measuring the eroded parts of the road; studying cross- sections of the road; soil experiments to check the strength, compaction and particle size distribution; and a native vegetation survey to check for suitable plants that could be used to control the slope erosion. It was found that an appropriate bio-engineering method to stabilize the slope soil against erosion due to rainfall was to cultivate the grasses Cynodon Dactylon and Vetiver on the slopes. In conclusion, that using native vegetation for eco -protection, was an excellent solution to the problem based on the climate, native vegetation, and type of soil in Sudan and it reduces the accidents.

  5. Investigation of arsenic accumulation and biochemical response of in vitro developed Vetiveria zizanoides plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shraddha; Sounderajan, Suvarna; Kumar, Kiran; Fulzele, D P

    2017-11-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash) is found to be a suitable candidate for the phytoremediation of heavy metals. An investigation of arsenic (As) accumulation, translocation and tolerance was conducted in V. zizanoides plantlets upon exposure to different concentrations of arsenic (10, 50, 100 and 200µM) for 7 and 14 d. V. zizanoides plants were found effective in remediation of As, maximum being at 200µM after 14 d of exposure. The results of TBARS and photosynthetic pigments demonstrated that plants did not experience significant toxicity at all the concentrations of As after 7 days, however an increase in their level was found after 14 d. The up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) in a coordinated and complementary manner enhanced tolerance to plants against arsenic induced oxidative stress. Taken together, the results indicated that in vitro developed plants of V. zizanoides have the potential to remediate and tolerate varying levels of As. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; Zhang, Changkuan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd 2+ /NH 4 + sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH 4 + and Cd 2+ , with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g −1 , respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g −1 ) for Cd 2+ . Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd 2+ sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd 2+ . • NH 4 + and Cd 2+ sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  9. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  10. Effect of root contact on N uptake distribution in intercropped soybean and hedgerow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhonglu; Cai Chongfa; Zhong Cheng; Wang Zhongmin

    2012-01-01

    Below-ground for nutrients and water can be clue to the cause of the reduction of crops yields. Root interaction plays on important role in estimating the effect of below-ground competition. However, little information had been known about these hedgerows-crops interaction in contour hedgerow agroforestry. Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of root contact on N absorption and transfer in purple soil of two hedges-soybean intercropping systems with two different methods of 15 N foliar-feeding and 15 N soil labeling methods, along with root partition, i. e., a sheet barrier treatment, a mesh barrier, and no barrier treatment. Results showed that the growth of Amorpha. fruticosa was suppressed without root barrier, leading to lower biomass and N acquisition than those with mesh and sheet barrier; the biomass and N acquisition of Vertiveria zizanioide and soybean without root barrier were the highest in Vertiver intercropping system. The 15 N abundance is higher in soybean and A. fruticosa with mesh barrier, but 15 N abundance is higher in Vertiver without root barrier, which suggested that the Vertiver is a stronger competitor in Vertiver/soybean intercropping system. N transfer from soybean to hedge species was obvious using 15 N direct labeling methods, which suggested that competition between of A. fruticosa or Vertiver for nitrogen fertilizer was stronger. Interspecific inhibition did exist in A. fruticosa-soybean intercropping, and the growth of A. fruticosa and soybean were suppressed; the complementary nitrogen use did exist in Vertiver-soybean intercropping, and both competition and facilitation occurred in Vertiver-soybean intercropping which enhanced the growth of Vertiver and soybean. (authors)

  11. In vitro comparison of three common essential oils mosquito repellents as inhibitors of the Ross River virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralambondrainy, Miora; Belarbi, Essia; Viranaicken, Wildriss; Baranauskienė, Renata; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Desprès, Philippe; El Kalamouni, Chaker; Sélambarom, Jimmy

    2018-01-01

    Background The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Pelargonium graveolens (PG) and Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ) are commonly used topically to prevent mosquito bites and thus the risk of infection by their vectored pathogens such as arboviruses. However, since mosquito bites are not fully prevented, the effect of these products on the level of viral infection remains unknown. Objectives To evaluate in vitro the essentials oils from Reunion Island against one archetypal arbovirus, the Ross River virus (RRV), and investigate the viral cycle step that was impaired by these oils. Methods The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC×GC-TOF MS techniques. In vitro studies were performed on HEK293T cells to determine their cytotoxicity, their cytoprotective and virucidal capacities on RRV-T48 strain, and the level of their inhibitory effect on the viral replication and residual infectivity prior, during or following viral adsorption using the reporter virus RRV-renLuc. Results Each essential oil was characterized by an accurate quantification of their terpenoid content. PG yielded the least-toxic extract (CC50 > 1000 μg.mL-1). For the RRV-T48 strain, the monoterpene-rich CC and PG essential oils reduced the cytopathic effect but did not display virucidal activity. The time-of-addition assay using the gene reporter RRV-renLuc showed that the CC and PG essential oils significantly reduced viral replication and infectivity when applied prior, during and early after viral adsorption. Overall, no significant effect was observed for the low monoterpene-containing VZ essential oil. Conclusion The inhibitory profiles of the three essential oils suggest the high value of the monoterpene-rich essential oils from CC and PG against RRV infection. Combined with their repellent activity, the antiviral activity of the essential oils of CC and PG may provide a new option to control arboviral infection. PMID:29771946

  12. Rice planted along with accumulators in arsenic amended plots reduced arsenic uptake in grains and shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Ashish; Mehrotra, Sonali; Singh, Nandita

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was designed using phytoremadiation technology to obtain grains of rice safe for consumption. Sixteen plots of size 2 × 2 m were prepared (8 plots were treated with 50 mg kg -1 of sodium arsenate and rest 8 without any treatment). The study was done for two plantations (1st and 2nd plantation). Rice was planted with three accumulators (Phragmites australis, Vetiveria zizanioides and Pteris vitatta) in treated and untreated plot. Arsenic in grains of Actr (R + Pt, R + Ph and R + Vt) for 1st plantation was 0.4, 0.2 and 0.2 mg kg -1 where as in the case of wActr (Ras) it was 3 mg kg -1 . In 2nd plantation the concentration of arsenic in grain of Actr (R + Pt, R + Ph and R + Vt) was 0.1, 0.1 and 0.1 mg kg -1 where as in the case of wActr (Ras) it was 2 mg kg -1 . Significant differences in growth and yield parameters of rice between Actr and wActr in 1st plantation, while for 2nd plantation the activity was reduced in combinations except R + Pt and no significant difference was observed between Actr, Acntr and wActr. The study concluded that combinations of accumulators with crops could be useful for the survival and safe grains in As-contaminated soils but with some amendments in long-term remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening of plant species as ground cover on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venu Babu, P.; Eapen, S.

    2012-01-01

    residual mill tailings apart from containing residual radionuclides do have the capacity to support good plant growth. Several species like Rhynchosia minima, Rhynchosia, Thysanolaena maxima, Mucuna pruriens, Desmanthus virgatus, Desmodium gangeticum, Clitoria tematea, Chrysopogon fulvus and Indigofera trita were found to be quite suitable for planting on mill tailings as ground cover while a few others that registered poor growth and/or biomass perhaps can be grown in combination with other species. On the contrary a few species viz., Bothriochloa pertusa, Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum antidotale and Pennisetum caudatum were found to be unsuitable as they could not survive in mill tailings. A combination of several plant species tested in this study coupled with a few agronomic practices can be tried on mill tailings in Jaduguda as an appropriate vegetative cover. (author)

  14. Analysis of vegetation in an Imperata grassland of Barak valley, Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapati, Ashim Das; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Imperata grassland at Dorgakona, Barak valley, North Eastern India was analyzed for species composition and diversity pattern in relation to traditional management practices. 19 families were in the burnt and unburnt plots of the study site with Poaceae as the most dominant one. 29 species occurred in the burnt plot and 28 in the unburnt plot. Most of the species were common in both the plots. The pattern of frequency diagrams indicated that the vegetation was homogeneous. Imperata cylindrica, a rhizomatous grass was the dominant species based on density (318.75 and 304.18 nos. m(-2)), basal cover (158.22 and 148.34 cm2 m(-2)) and Importance value index (IVI) (132.64 and 138.74) for the burnt and unburnt plots respectively. Borreria pusilla was the co-dominant species constituting Imperata-Borreria assemblage of the studied grassland. It was observed that B. pusilla (162.25 nos. m(-2) and 50.37 nos. m(-2), I. cylindrica (318.75 nos. m(-2) and 304.18 nos. m(-2)) and Setaria glauca (24.70 nos. m(-2) and 16.46 nos. m(-2) were benefited from burning as shown by the values sequentially placed for burnt and unburnt plots. Certain grasses like Chrysopogon aciculatus and Sacciolepis indica were restricted to burnt plot while Oxalis corniculata showed its presence to unburnt plot. Grasses dominated the grassland as revealed by their contribution to the mean percentage cover of 72% in burnt plot and 76% in umburnt plot. The dominance-diversity curves in the study site approaches a log normal series distribution suggesting that the resources are shared by the constituent species. Seasonal pattern in diversity index suggested definite influence of climatic seasonality on species diversity; rainy season was conducive for maximum diversity (1.40 and 1.38 in the burnt and unburnt plots, respectively). Dominance increased with concentration of fewer species (0.0021 in burnt plot and 0.0055 in unbumt plot) in summer and behaves inversely to index of diversity. This study showed

  15. Application Of 137Cs And 7Be To Assess The Effectiveness Of Soil Conservation Technologies In The Central Highlands Of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Son Hai; Tran Dinh Khoa; Nguyen Dao; Nguyen Thi Mui; Tran Van Hoa; Trinh Cong Tu

    2008-01-01

    The combined use of 137 Cs and 7 Be for assessment of medium- and short-term soil erosion rates for sloping lands with and without soil conservation technologies in the Central Highlands of Vietnam has been carried out. For the 2.5 ha mulberry field with the slope gradient of about 15%, where green manure hedgerows have been utilized as a soil conservation measure for 22 years, about 54.6% of the area suffered from erosion with erosion rates varying from 0.6 to 70 t ha -1 y -1 (the average: 31 t ha -1 y -1 ), and deposition occurred for 45.4% of the area with the deposition rates ranging between 0.2 and 74 t ha-1 y-1 (the average: 36 t ha -1 y -1 ). The medium-term erosion rate at this field was 1.2 ± 0.6 t ha -1 y -1 , and short-term erosion rate was 1.5 ± 0.24 t ha -1 y -1 . Soil erosion was almost controlled by the shrubby hedgerows and the net erosion rate was reduced from 28 t ha -1 y -1 to 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 . 137 Cs and 7 Be were also used for assessment of soil erosion rates for two 0.5 ha coffee plots with the slope gradient of about 25%. For the plot without soil conservation, soil erosion occurred for all sampling points with medium-term erosion rates ranging between 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 and 35 t ha -1 y -1 (the average erosion rate was 22.7 ± 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 ). The short term soil erosion rate estimated by 7 Be technique in the year 2005 was 32.7 ± 6.1 t ha -1 y -1 for this plot. For the plot with the last five year presence of Vetiver strips, about 93% of the area suffered from medium term erosion with erosion rates varying from 3 t ha -1 y -1 to 33 t ha -1 y -1 (the mean is 22.2 t ha -1 y -1 ), and medium term deposition occurred for only 7% of the area with the deposition rates ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 t ha -1 y -1 , resulting in the net erosion rate of 20.4 ± 0.6 t ha -1 y -1 . The short term soil erosion rate at this plot estimated by 7 Be technique in the year 2005 was 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . By using Vetiver strips as a soil conservation technology

  16. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  17. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a

  18. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-03-15

    Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus

  19. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  20. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  1. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    foster environmental sustainability or further sustainable alternative erosion control techniques may be applied, such as applying Vetiver Eco-engineering Technology due to its economical soil erosion control and stabilization of steep slopes and the construction of erosion control dams to absorb and break down excess runoff from unusually intense storms in various parts of the watersheds.

  2. An introduction to constructed wetlands (reed beds) sustainable low cost wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    because it is essentially simple, cheap and sustainable. Because they achieve a natural balance, well designed reed bed systems will more or less look after themselves. They do not need much power, they do not need any chemicals, they need very little maintenance, and the water leaving such a system can be very clean - certainly clean enough to pass the National Water Quality Standards. A well designed reed bed system needs both aquatic plants and special water movement. The main plants used is still the Common reed (Pragmatism karaka - Nari), Cattail (Typha australis - Dab) and Vetiver grass (Khus). Almost all these aquatic plants are available in natural wetlands, along rivers, canals, water courses, and water logged areas in Pakistan. The constructed wetlands (Reed Beds) utilize horizontal flow system, vertical flow system or combination of both. The horizontal system includes 'free water surface (FWS)' wetlands and 'vegetated submerged bed (VSB)' wetlands. The vertical system invariably uses VSB system. The required land area depends on the wastewater flow. However, in the rural setting, the horizontal system requires about 1.0 square meter / person (or population equivalent in case of an industry) and the vertical system even less than that. A working reed bed system can be designed as a public area like a park with water cascades, bridges, shallow pools with fish, and small islands for birds. There is no smell. no flies. no noise, no chemicals. and no machines. The only regular maintenance work is harvesting the reeds once a year and occasional weeding (without poisons) There is potential for the combination of reed beds with a methane process in which the bulk of sludge is removed by settlement and fed to a methane digester to produce energy, and the supernatant is then cleaned with reed beds. This may becomes a practical solution for systems in urban areas. In flat areas like large towns can be split up into segments, each served by a separate reed bed system