WorldWideScience

Sample records for vetiver chrysopogon zizanioides

  1. Peran Rumput Vetiver (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) Dalam Fitoremediasi Pencemaran Perairan Sungai

    OpenAIRE

    Komarawidjaja, Wage; Garno, Yudhi Soetrisno

    2016-01-01

    Dalam rangka memperbaiki kualitas perairan Sungai, vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) telah ditanampada kawasan bantaran Sungai CIkapundung selama 63 hari. Dua wadah dialiri dengan sumber air yangberbeda, yaitu air sungai dan air tanah (sumur). Produksi biomassa diukur setiap 20 harian sekali,dengan fokus pengukuran pada pertumbuhan tunas dan akar vetiver. Secara umum, pertumbuhan tunasdan akar vetiver yang ditanam pada wadah yang dialiri air sungai tumbuh lebih baik (panjang) daripadavetiver ...

  2. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent using vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wuta, M; Mvumi, B.M; Mapanda, F; Mudhiriza, T

    2015-01-01

    .... A study was conducted in Harare, Zimbabwe, to assess the potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides, in removing N, P, Zn, Mn and Ni loads in sewage effluent from primary clarification...

  3. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of <1 for all the metals. This study revealed the defense mechanisms employed by Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase.

  4. Molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, R S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Pereira, A A; Bianchini, F G; Lima, R N; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alves, P B; Blank, A F

    2015-08-14

    Due to the economic interests in vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, molecular and chemical studies are essential to generate information for its sustainable exploitation. The aim of this study was to undertake a molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver accessions of the active germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. The molecular characteristics of the accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, with a total of 14 primer combinations that generated 442 loci, allowing us to observe that these accessions have similar genomes. The vetiver accessions were divided into three distinct groups, where accession UFS-VET005 was the most differentiated and accession UFS-VET004 had the lowest essential oil content (0.70%). The content of the chemical constituents of the essential oils was observed to vary, with a predominance of khusimol, which ranged from 18.97 to 25.02%. It was possible to divide the vetiver accessions into two groups based on chemical composition, and these groups do not correlate with the molecular grouping. Therefore, it is necessary to perform molecular and chemical analyses to characterize vetiver accessions.

  5. Genetic diversity of Vetiver clones (Chrysopogon zizanioides and Chrysopogon nigritana) available in South Africa based on sequencing analyses and anatomical structure / Vickey Diedericks

    OpenAIRE

    Diedericks, Vickey

    2014-01-01

    Vetiver grass or Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (1960) is a sterile grass which can regenerate vegetatively from clumps of the rootstock. This, as well as its vigorous and deep root system and flood tolerance makes it an ideal candidate for the use in soil remediation and erosion control. In South Africa, Hydromulch (Pty) Ltd. is part of the landscape, soil reclamation and erosion control industry. The company uses vetiver grass on a wide scale and has accumulated a collecti...

  6. Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the kinetics of removaL Tetracycline was detected in the root as well as shoot tissues, confirming uptake and root-to-shoot translocation. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry analysis of plant tissue samples suggest presence of metabolites of TC in both root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater.

  7. Symbiotic role of Glomus mosseae in phytoextraction of lead in vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Barber, Summer; Patel, Mandakini; Das, Padmini

    2010-05-15

    Lead (Pb) has limited solubility in the soil environment owing to complexation with various soil components. Although total soil Pb concentrations may be high at a given site, the fraction of soluble Pb that plants can extract is very small, which is the major limiting factor for Pb phytoremediation. The symbiotic effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae was examined on growth and phytoextraction of lead (Pb) by vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)]. A hydroponic study, Phase I (0, 1, 2, and 4mM Pb) was conducted followed by an incubation pot study, Phase II (0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg kg(-1) Pb) where vetiver plants were colonized with G. mosseae. The results obtained indicate that plants colonized by the AM fungi not only exhibit better growth (increase in plant biomass), but also significantly increase Pb uptake in root and higher translocation to the shoot at all given treatments. Moreover, plants colonized with AM fungi had higher chlorophyll content and reduced levels of low molecular weight thiols, indicating the ability to better tolerate metal-induced stress. Results from this study indicate that vetiver plants in association with AM fungi can be used for improved phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soil. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The possible role of hydroxylation in the detoxification of atrazine in mature vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides Nash) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcacci, Sylvie; Raventon, Muriel; Ravanel, Patrick; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The resistance mechanism of vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) to atrazine was investigated to evaluate its potential for phytoremediation of environment contaminated with the herbicide. Plants known to metabolise atrazine rely on hydroxylation mediated by benzoxazinones, conjugation catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases and dealkylation probably mediated by cytochromes P450. All three possibilities were explored in mature vetiver grown in hydroponics during this research project. Here we report on the chemical role of benzoxazinones in the transformation of atrazine. Fresh vetiver roots and leaves were cut to extract and study their content in benzoxazinones known to hydroxylate atrazine, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and their mono- and di-glucosylated forms. Identification of benzoxazinones was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and comparison of retention factors (Rf) and UV spectra with standards: although some products exhibited the same Rf as standards, UV spectra were different. Furthermore, in vitro hydroxylation of atrazine could not be detected in the presence of vetiver extracts. Finally, vetiver organs exposed to [14C]-atrazine did not produce any significant amount of hydroxylated products, such as hydroxyatrazine (HATR), hydroxy-deethylatrazine (HDEA), and hydroxy-deisopropylatrazine (HDIA). Altogether, these metabolic features suggest that hydroxylation was not a major metabolic pathway of atrazine in vetiver.

  9. Genetic diversity of vetiver isolates (Chrysopogon zizanioides/nigritanus) available in South Africa based on ITS, ndhF and rbcL sequencing analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, S.; Diedericks, V.; Conradie, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty) is sterile and only regenerates vegetatively from clumps of the rootstock. Together with its vigorous and deep root system this makes it ideal for use in soil remediation and erosion control. In South Africa, Hydromulch (Pty) Ltd is part of the landscape, soil reclamation and erosion control industry. The company uses vetiver grass on awide scale and has compiled a collection of isolates to serve as possible germ lines for indus...

  10. Identification of Biochemical Pathways Associated with Lead Tolerance and Detoxification in Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Nash (Vetiver) by Metabolic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidatala, Venkataramana R; Li, Kefeng; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is a major urban pollutant, due to deteriorating lead-based paint in houses built before 1978. Phytoremediation is an inexpensive and effective technique for remediation of Pb-contaminated homes. Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), a noninvasive, fast-growing grass with high biomass, can tolerate and accumulate large quantities of Pb in its tissues. Lead is known to induce phytochelatins and antioxidative enzymes in vetiver; however, the overall impact of Pb stress on metabolic pathways of vetiver is unknown. In the current study, vetiver plants were treated with different concentrations of Pb in a hydroponic setup. Metabolites were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS/MS. Multivariate analysis of metabolites in both root and shoot tissue showed tremendous induction in key metabolic pathways including sugar metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and an increase in production of osmoprotectants, such as betaine and polyols, and metal-chelating organic acids. The data obtained provide a comprehensive insight into the overall stress response mechanisms in vetiver.

  11. Uptake of 2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine by Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) from Hydroponic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S X; Li, Y M; Zheng, Y; Hua, Y; Datta, R; Dan, Y M; Lv, P; Sarkar, D

    2016-04-01

    2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine (prometryn) poses a risk to aquatic environments in several countries, including China, where its use is widespread, particularly due to its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) was tested for its potential for phytoremediation of prometryn. Vetiver grass was grown in hydroponic media in a greenhouse, in the presence of prometryn, with appropriate controls. Plant uptake and removal of prometryn from the media were monitored for a period of 67 days. The results showed that the removal of the prometryn in the media was expedited by vetiver grass. The removal half-life (t1/2) was shortened by 11.5 days. Prometryn removal followed first-order kinetics (Ct = 1.8070e(-0.0601t)). This study demonstrated the potential of vetiver grass for the phytoremediation for prometryn.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the growth and extraction of trace elements by Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) in a substrate containing coal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edenilson; Londoño, Diana Marcela Morales; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Giachini, Admir José; Rossi, Márcio José; Stoffel, Shantau Camargo Gomes; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2017-02-01

    Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a fast-growing, high biomass producing plant employed for environmental rehabilitation. The study evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and trace element phytoextracting capabilities of vetiver in a substrate containing coalmine wastes in Southern Brazil. AMF included Acaulospora colombiana, Acaulospora morrowiae, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita, and Rhizophagus clarus. Among those, A. colombiana, G. margarita, and R. clarus promoted higher growth. AMF stimulated average increments in the accumulated P of 82% (roots), 194% (shoots first harvest-90 days) and 300% (shoots second harvest-165 days) and affected the phytoextraction of trace elements by vetiver, with larger concentrations in the roots. Plants inoculated with A. colombiana, A. morrowiae, and A. scrobiculata, in addition to the control, presented the highest levels of Cu and Zn in the roots. Overall, G. margarita stimulated the highest production of biomass, and, therefore, showed the most significant levels of trace elements in the plants. This work shows the benefits of certain AMF (especially A. morrowiae, G. margarita, and R. clarus) for the production of biomass and P uptake by vetiver, demonstrating the potential of those species for the rehabilitation of coal-mine-degraded soils.

  13. Tetracycline uptake and metabolism by vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Nash).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Aparupa; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Das, Padmini; Panja, Saumik; Parikh, Chinmayi; Ramanathan, Dilrukshi; Bagley, Susan; Datta, Rupali

    2016-12-01

    Environmental contamination by antibiotics not only perturbs the ecological balance but also poses a risk to human health by promoting the development of multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study focuses on identifying the biochemical pathways associated with tetracycline (TC) transformation/degradation in vetiver grass that has the potential to be used as a biological remediation system in TC-contaminated water sources. A hydroponic experimental setup was used with four initial TC concentrations (0, 5, 35, 75 ppm), and TC uptake was monitored over a 30-day period. Results show that TC transformation in the media occurred during the first 5 days, where a decrease in the parent compound and an increase in the concentration of the isomers such as epitetracycline (ETC) and anhyrotetracycline (ATC) occurred, and TC disappeared in 20 days in tanks with vetiver grass. However, the isomers ETC and ATC remained in the control tanks for the duration of the trial. Transformation products of TC in plant tissue were analyzed by using ultra HPLC high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometery (HRMS/MS), which indicates amide hydrolysis of TC in vetiver roots. Metabolic profiling revealed that glyoxylate metabolism, TCA cycle, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, tryptophan metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism were impacted in vetiver root by TC treatment.

  14. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the bacterial community and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from different genotypes of Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (vetiver) rhizospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Juliana Mendes; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Seldin, Lucy

    2009-08-01

    Molecular approaches [PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] were used to determine whether three different vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) genotypes, commercially used in Brazil and considered economically important over the world, select specific bacterial populations to coexist in their rhizospheres. DGGE profiles revealed that the predominant rhizospheric bacterial community hardly varies regarding the vetiver genotype. Moreover, using traditional cultivation methods, bacterial strains were isolated from the different rhizospheres. Colonies presenting different morphologies (83) were selected for determining their potential for plant growth promotion. More than half of the strains tested (57.8%) were amplified by PCR using nifH-based primers, specific for the enzyme nitrogenase reductase. The production of siderophores was observed in 88% of the strains, while the production of antimicrobial substances was detected in only 14.5% of the isolates when Micrococcus sp. was used as the indicator strain. Production of indole-3-acetic acid and the solubilization of phosphate were observed in 55.4% and 59% of the isolates, respectively. In total, 44 strains (53%) presented at least three characteristics of plant growth promotion and were submitted to amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Twenty-four genetic groups were formed at 100% similarity and one representative of each group was selected for their identification by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. They were affiliated with the genera Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Chryseobacterium, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Dyella, Burkholderia, or Pseudomonas. These strains can be considered of great importance as possible biofertilizers in vetiver.

  16. A preliminary study to design a floating treatment wetland for remediating acid mine drainage-impacted water using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskila, Jeffrey D; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Feuerstein, Kailey A; Datta, Rupali

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is extremely acidic, sulfate-rich effluent from abandoned or active mine sites that also contain elevated levels of heavy metals. Untreated AMD can contaminate surface and groundwater and pose severe ecological risk. Both active and passive methods have been developed for AMD treatment consisting of abiotic and biological techniques. Abiotic techniques are expensive and can create large amounts of secondary wastes. Passive biological treatment mainly consists of aerobic or anaerobic constructed wetlands. While aerobic wetlands are economical, they are not effective if the pH of the AMD is < 5. Anaerobic wetlands use organic-rich substrates to provide carbon source to iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The efficiency of these systems declines overtime and requires continuous maintenance. Our objective is to develop an alternative, low-cost, and sustainable floating wetland treatment (FWT) system for AMD for the abandoned Tab-Simco coal mining site in Illinois using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Tab-Simco AMD is highly acidic, with mean pH value of 2.64, and contains high levels of sulfate and metals. A greenhouse study was performed for a 30-day period in order to screen and optimize the necessary parameters to design a FWT system. Water quality and plant growth parameters were continuously monitored. Results show significant SO42- removal, resulting in increased pH, particularly at higher planting densities. Vetiver also helped in metal removal; high amounts of Fe, Zn, and Cu were removed, with relatively lower amounts of Pb, Al, and Ni. Iron plaque formation on the root was observed, which increased metal stabilization in root and lowered root to shoot metal translocation. Vetiver was tolerant of AMD, showing minimal change in biomass and plant growth. Results obtained are encouraging, and a large scale mesocosm study is now in progress, as the next step to develop the vetiver-based system for AMD treatment.

  17. Study of the spatial distribution of mercury in roots of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) by micro-pixe spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Cristina; Wang, Yaodong; Doronila, Augustine; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Siegele, Rainer; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-01-01

    Localization of Hg in root tissues of vetivergrass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated by micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry to gain a better understanding of Hg uptake and its translocation to the aerial plant parts. Tillers of C. zizanioides were grown in a hydroponic culture for 3 weeks under controlled conditions and then exposed to Hg for 10 days with or without the addition of the chelators (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. These treatments were used to study the effects of these chelators on localization of Hg in the root tissues to allow better understanding of Hg uptake during its assisted-phytoextraction. Qualitative elemental micro-PIXE analysis revealed that Hg was mainly localized in the root epidermis and exodermis, tissues containing suberin in all Hg treatments. Hg at trace levels was localized in the vascular bundle when plants were treated with a mercury solution only. However, higher Hg concentrations were found when the solution also contained (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. This finding is consistent with the observed increase in Hg translocation to the aerial parts of the plants in the case of chemically induced Hg phytoextraction.

  18. Effect of calcium on growth performance and essential oil of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) grown on lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of calcium on growth, survival, essential oil yield and chemical compositions of vetiver grass grown on lead contaminated soils. Calcium inform of CaCO3 (0, 2000, 4000, 6000 mg Ca kg(-1)) was added to river sand soils containing 4000 mg Pb kg(-1) dry soil. Results showed that, in the absence of calcium treatment, no plants survived after 2 weeks of cultivation, while the rest grew well to the end of the experimental period (42 weeks). Calcium treatments generally resulted in a slight decrease in biomass. Interestingly, an increase in calcium over 2000 mg kg(-1) did not result in a decrease in accumulation of lead in vetiver roots and shoots. The levels of lead in roots and shoots under calcium treatments were around 2000 and 90 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. The addition of CaCO3 did not improve vetiver essential oil yield and chemical composition compared to the control. A level of applied CaCO3 about half of the lead concentration in soils was sufficient to improve vetiver growth and survival, and accumulate high concentrations of lead in the roots. This finding can be applied for re-vegetation of lead contaminated soils using vetiver.

  19. Greenhouse study on the phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides L., in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Quispe, Mario A; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this greenhouse study was to assess the capacity of vetiver grass to accumulate arsenic from pesticide-contaminated soils of varying physico-chemical properties. Results indicate that vetiver is capable of tolerating moderate levels of arsenic up to 225 mg/kg. Plant growth and arsenic removal efficiency was strongly influenced by soil properties. Arsenic removal was highest (10.6%) in Millhopper soil contaminated with 45 mg/kg arsenic, which decreased to 4.5 and 0.6% at 225 and 450 mg/kg, respectively. High biomass, widespread root system and environmental tolerance make this plant an attractive choice for the remediation of soils contaminated with moderate levels of arsenic.

  20. Plant regeneration from callus culture of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somporn Prasertsongskun

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to establish cell suspension culture of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash from Surat Thani germplasm source and efficient plant regeneration from callus derived from such cultures. Cell suspension cultures were established from calli derived from inflorescence of vetiver. Optimum cell proliferation occurred in liquid N6 medium supplemented with 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 10 mM proline. The cell suspension formed the highest small colonies when plated on solid MS medium containing 0.45 μM 2,4-D. After subsequent transfer to regeneration medium (MS free medium 65% of plantlets were obtained.

  1. Características anatômicas da raiz de Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty submetida a esgoto sanitário

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Filho, Felipe João

    2014-01-01

    O capim vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty) é uma planta de origem asiática utilizada para produção de perfumes (a partir de um óleo extraído de suas raízes), controle de erosão, recuperação de áreas degradadas, artesanato, fitorremediação, alimentação de animais e tratamento de esgoto em regiões onde falta saneamento básico. O presente trabalho avaliou a morfologia e anatomia da raiz de C. zizanioides submetida ao esgoto, com o intuito de, confirmar a hipótese de al...

  2. Drought and salt stress in Chrysopogon zizanioides leads to common and specific transcriptomic responses and may affect essential oil composition and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja George

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses affect crop productivity worldwide. Understanding molecular mechanisms of plant abiotic stress tolerance is important for developing stress tolerant crop plants for sustaining crop productivity in future. Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver is a perennial C4 grass reported to be tolerant to water, salinity and submergence stress. Here, we subjected C. zizanioides seedlings to salt and drought stress and carried out whole transcriptome profiling of leaf and root tissues. Assessing the global transcriptome changes under drought and salt stress resulted in the identification of several genes contributing to stress response in this species. Overall, more transcriptomic changes were observed in leaf tissue compared to root tissue. The response to either stress manifested primarily as upregulation of gene expression in both leaf and root. The study identified stress responsive genes commonly and differently regulated under stress/tissue conditions. Several DEGs in our data were identified as enzymes involved in biosynthesis of essential oil components. The differential expression of these genes under drought and salt stress may affect the vetiver essential oil composition under these stresses. Similarly, several genes involved in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphin were found to be differentially expressing in our data. Our data may facilitate further molecular studies on stress tolerance of C. zizanioides. The DEGs from our results are potential candidates for understanding and engineering abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

  3. Study of Chrysopogon Zizanioides ability to decontaminate irrigation water in Southwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea Grajera, F. A.

    2009-04-01

    Conventional agriculture is characterized by the increasing use of agrochemicals to maintain and improve soil fertility. One of the main problems arising from this practise is the generation of leachates, which contain a high concentration of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and other contaminating components, causing soil and water pollution. This is a common problem in irrigated areas such as Las Vegas Bajas del Guadiana (Extremadura, Spain). Different techniques are being developed and used to control leachate generation, however, these practises happen to be very expensive. In this situation, the emergence of alternative technologies such as phytoremediation, based on the ability of some plants to absorb and accumulate high concentrations of pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and radiactive components, is being explored to restore the degraded lands and it seems very feasible, economical and environment-friendly. The Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a perennial grass originally from India, widely known for its ability to retain soil and prevent erosion. Recently, the new use of this grass for phytoremediation has stimulated research in this area. It produces up to two meter high plant with a strong dense and mainly vertical root system with emerging secondary roots which form a dense and strong network that grows horizontally and vertically to depths greater than 5 meters, useful in soil erosion control. It is vegetatively propagated and is non-invasive, resistant to pests and diseases and widely used worldwide for soil and moisture conservation and soil restoration. This study, carried out in Badajoz, in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, focuses in the use of Vetiver in the area. Its adaptation to climatic and soil conditions was tested for three years. Bunches of selected species were first grown in pots and later planted in experimental plots exposed to the weather conditions in the area. When adaptation to edaphic and climatic

  4. Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle M. Lima; Quintans-Júnior,Lucindo J.; Thomazzi, Sara M; Almeida,Emyle M. S. A.; Mônica S. Melo; Mairim R. Serafini; Cavalcanti,Sócrates C.H.; Daniel P. Gelain; Santos,João Paulo A.; Blank,Arie F.; Alves,Péricles B.; Oliveira Neta,Paulina M.; Lima,Julianeli T.; Rocha,Ricardo F.; José Claúdio F. Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, Poaceae, is a plant widely used in northeast Brazil in folk medicine for the treatment of various pathological conditions, including inflammatory pain. The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of C. zizanioides essential oil (EO) in rodents. EO was further characterized by GC/MS. The major components of EO were identified as khusimol (19.57%), E-isovalencenol (13.24%), α-vetivone (5.25%), β-vetivone (4.87%) a...

  5. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam KD; Annamalai SK

    2013-01-01

    Kantha D Arunachalam, Sathesh Kumar Annamalai Center for Environmental Nuclear Research, Directorate of Research, SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various pla...

  6. Erosion and Soil Contamination Control Using Coconut Flakes And Plantation Of Centella Asiatica And Chrysopogon Zizanioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Rasyikin; Che Omar, Rohayu; Nor Zuliana Baharuddin, Intan; Zulkarnain, M. S.; Hanafiah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Land degradation in Malaysia due to water erosion and water logging cause of loss of organic matter, biodiversity and slope instability but also land are contaminated with heavy metals. Various alternative such as physical remediation are use but it not showing the sustainability in term of environmental sustainable. Due to that, erosion and soil contamination control using coconut flakes and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides are use as alternative approach for aid of sophisticated green technology known as phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Soil from cabonaceous phyllite located near to Equine Park, Sri Kembangan are use for monitoring the effect of phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control. Five laboratory scale prototypes were designed to monitor the effect of different proportion of coconut flakes i.e. 10%, 25%, 50% & 100% and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides to reduce the top soil from eroding and reduce the soil contamination. Prototype have been observe started from first week and ends after 12 weeks. Centella asiatica planted on 10% coconut flakes with 90% soil and Chrysopogon zizanioides planted on 25% coconut flakes with 75% soil are selected proportion to be used as phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control.

  7. Assisted phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil from a mined site with Typha latifolia and Chrysopogon zizanioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, Alexander Kofi; Akoto, Ruth

    2017-10-12

    Chemically assisted phytoremediation is fast gaining attention as a biotechnology to accelerate heavy metal removal from contaminated substrates, but how different chemical amendments affect the process remains an important research question. Here, bioaccumulation factor (BAF), translocation factor (TF), removal efficiency (RE) and uptake of Hg, As, Pb, Cu and Zn by cattail (Typha latifolia) and vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) were quantified in a potted experiment to determine the effects of amendments on the phytoremediation success. Baseline concentrations of heavy metals within the studied mined site were determined. The experiment involved three soil treatments (each comprising 16 samples amended with 0.05mol/L ethylene di-aminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 3g of aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3], and unamended control) transplanted with equal numbers of vetiver and cattail. Growth performance (height) of plant species was monitored every two weeks. Sixteen weeks after transplanting, heavy metal levels in plant and soil samples were quantified following standard protocols, and the biomass and root length measured for each plant species. Results indicated strong negative impact of mining activities on heavy metal levels of soil in the study area. Soil amendment considerably enhanced the BAF, TF, RE and uptake but the effect varied with plant species and heavy metal in question. The amendment also stimulated strong positive correlation between RE and BAF, TF and metal uptake, and generally did not show any negative effects on plant growth performance. In general, soil amendment aided the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in the plant species studied, and could be explored for cleaning up contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative to conventional extraction of vetiver oil: Microwave hydrodistillation of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. S.; Altway, A.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the extraction of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides) has been carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation. In the extraction of vetiver oil using microwave hydrodistillation method is studied the effect of microwave power, feed to solvent (F/S) ratio and extraction time on the yield of vetiver oil. Besides, in this study can be seen that microwave hydrodistillation method offers important advantages over hydrodistillation, such as shorter extraction time (3 h vs. 24 h for hydrodistillation); better yields (0.49% vs. 0.46% for hydrodistillation); and environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing hydrodistillation than that required for extraction using microwave hydrodistillation). Based on the analysis using GC-MS can be seen 19 components on vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation. In addition, GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation method were β-Gurjunene (30.12%), α-Vetivone (20.12%), 4-(1-cyclohexenyl)-2-trimethylsilymethyl-1-buten-3-yne (13.52%) and δ-Selinene (7.27%).

  9. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20-50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications.

  10. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. PMID:23861583

  11. Tofu wastewater treatment using vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides) and zeliac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroja, Romi; Effendi, Hefni; Hariyadi, Sigid

    2018-03-01

    Tofu production is a domestic industry, that most of it has no appropriate wastewater treatment facilities. Wastewater of tofu contains high organic matter which can decrease the water quality. This study aimed to analyze capability of Vetiveria zizanioides, L and zeliac in treating tofu wastewater industry. Zeliac is a new adsorbent, which consists of zeolite, activated carbon, limestone, rice husk ash and cement. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze the data, using central composite design with two factors, i.e., time (3, 9, and 15 days) and waste concentration (20, 40, and 60%). The optimum treatment occurred at the time of 15 days and 38.41% of tofu wastewater concentration decreasing up to 76% of COD, 71.78% of BOD, and 75.28% of TSS.

  12. Salt tolerance of a wild ecotype of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Gou; Liu, Jin-Xiang; Yao, Mei-Ling; Ma, Qi-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is widely used in more than 120 countries for land management (e.g. rehabilitation of saline lands). A wild ecotype of vetiver grass was found in southern China in the 1950s, but little is known about its adaptability to saline stress. For the purpose of understanding its tolerance to salinity as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, in a greenhouse with natural lighting, seedlings were grown in culture solutions and subjected to a range of NaCl concentrations for 18 days. Compared to no NaCl treatment, 200 mM NaCl significantly reduced leaf water potential, leaf water content, leaf elongation rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and plant relative growth rate and increased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, but the parameters showed only slight reduction at 150 mM NaCl. In addition, salinity caused an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves. Moreover, increasing NaCl levels significantly increased Na+ but decreased K+ concentrations in both roots and leaves. The leaves had higher K+ concentrations at all NaCl levels, but lower Na+ concentrations compared to the roots, thereby maintaining higher K+/Na+ ratio in leaves. Our results showed that the salinity threshold of this wild vetiver grass is about 100 mM NaCl, i.e. highly tolerant to salt stress. This wild vetiver grass has a high ability to exclude Na+ and retain K+ in its leaves, which is a critical strategy for salt tolerance.

  13. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em sistemas alagados construídos, com Chrysopogon zizanioides e Polygonum punctatum cultivadas em leito de argila expandida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton de Freitas Souza Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO No presente estudo avaliou-se a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, nitrogênio total (NT e fósforo total (PT da água residuária de suinocultura (ARS em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs de escoamento horizontal subsuperficial, além da contribuição das espécies vegetais cultivadas: Polygonum punctatum (erva-de-bicho e Chrysopogon zizanioides (capim-vetiver. Foram implantados três SACs, utilizando-se argila expandida como meio suporte, sendo um cultivado com P. punctatum (SACE, outro cultivado com C. zizanioides (SACV e um mantido como controle, sem cultivo (SACC. Para um tempo de retenção hidráulica nominal (τ de 3,2 dias, observou-se remoção de DBO, NT e PT, ao longo do período experimental, com eficiências médias de 85, 38 e 51% (SACC, 89, 48 e 69% (SACE e 81, 36 e 45% (SACV, respectivamente. O melhor desempenho foi observado no SACE. Foram obtidas, em termos de matéria seca, produtividades de 2,79 e 1,91 g m-2 d-1 e remoções de NT de 1,54 e 1,01% e de PT de 0,81 e 1,19%, da carga aplicada, para a erva-de-bicho e o capim-vetiver, respectivamente.

  14. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em sistemas alagados construídos, com Chrysopogon zizanioides e Polygonum punctatum cultivadas em leito de argila expandida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton de Freitas Souza Ramos

    Full Text Available RESUMO No presente estudo avaliou-se a remoção de demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, nitrogênio total (NT e fósforo total (PT da água residuária de suinocultura (ARS em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs de escoamento horizontal subsuperficial, além da contribuição das espécies vegetais cultivadas: Polygonum punctatum (erva-de-bicho e Chrysopogon zizanioides (capim-vetiver. Foram implantados três SACs, utilizando-se argila expandida como meio suporte, sendo um cultivado com P. punctatum (SACE, outro cultivado com C. zizanioides (SACV e um mantido como controle, sem cultivo (SACC. Para um tempo de retenção hidráulica nominal (τ de 3,2 dias, observou-se remoção de DBO, NT e PT, ao longo do período experimental, com eficiências médias de 85, 38 e 51% (SACC, 89, 48 e 69% (SACE e 81, 36 e 45% (SACV, respectivamente. O melhor desempenho foi observado no SACE. Foram obtidas, em termos de matéria seca, produtividades de 2,79 e 1,91 g m-2 d-1 e remoções de NT de 1,54 e 1,01% e de PT de 0,81 e 1,19%, da carga aplicada, para a erva-de-bicho e o capim-vetiver, respectivamente.

  15. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andra, Syam S., E-mail: syam.andra@gmail.co [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Datta, Rupali [Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ (United States); Saminathan, Sumathi K.M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mullens, Conor P.; Bach, Stephan B.H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PC{sub n}, metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PC{sub n}, and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg {sup -1} EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC{sub 1}) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC{sub 1}-Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass. - Chelated lead in conjunction with phytochelatins synthesis and complexation reduces stress in the lead tolerant vetiver grass.

  16. Agronomic and economic evaluation of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) as means for phytoremediation of diesel polluted soils in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, Nativ; Tsion, Itai; Shamir, Shiri Zemah; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Shachter, Alona; Haim, Abraham

    2018-01-29

    Soil pollution in Israel, due to diesel contamination, is a major concern, with gas stations, factories and refineries being the main polluters (>60%). Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is a perennial grass belonging to the Poaceae family, and is recognized world-wide for its potential as a plant with phytoremediation traits to contaminated soils. It is demonstrated here to decrease diesel contamination in field and court-yard trials. Chemical soil analysis indicated up to a 79% decrease (P diesel pollution of contaminated soil planted with Vetiver; and at high soil contamination levels of 10 L/m2, a significant (P diesel and planted with Vetiver, weeds' biomass recovered to non-polluted levels following 8 to 9 months of Vetiver treatment. An economic evaluation conducted based on the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) principles, utilizing the Net Present Value (NPV) compared phytoremediation to other currently used decontamination procedures. The economic comparison showed that phytoremediation cleanup costs are lower and more beneficial to society at large, primarily from an ecosystem services perspective. Combining the results of the agronomic examination with the economic valuation, this research pointed out that phytoremediation with Vetiver has a non-negligible potential, making it a good solution for cleansing diesel from soils on a state-wide scale in Israel and worthy of further research and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Saminathan, Sumathi K M; Mullens, Conor P; Bach, Stephan B H

    2009-07-01

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PCn, metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PCn, and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg (-1) EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg(-1) dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC1) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC(1)-Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass.

  18. Performance of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hasan Sharifah Nur Munirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tolerance towards metal uptake, there is a need to evaluate the performance of vetiver grass for metal removal to reduce water impurity. This study was aimed to evaluate contaminant removal by vetiver grass at varying root length and plant density and determine the metal uptake in vetiver plant biomass. Pollutant uptake of vetiver grass was conducted in laboratory experiment and heavy metal analysis was done using acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Findings indicated that the removal of heavy metal was decreased in seven days of the experiment where iron shows the highest percentage (96%; 0.42 ppm of removal due to iron is highly required for growth of vetiver grass. Removal rate of heavy metals in water by vetiver grass is ranked in the order of Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu. Results also demonstrated greater removal of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn at greater root length and higher density of vetiver grass because it increased the surface area for metal absorption by plant root into vetiver plant from contaminated water. However, findings indicated that accumulation of heavy metals in plant biomass was higher in vetiver shoot than in root due to metal translocation from root to the shoot. Therefore, the findings have shown effective performance of vetiver grass for metal removal in the phytoremediation of contaminated water.

  19. Phytoremediation of palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Rezania, Shahabaldin

    2017-05-04

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used to solve the problems because of their reliable, robust, and salient characteristics in capturing the nonlinear relationships between variables in complex systems. In this study, ANN was applied for modeling of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and biodegradable organic matter (BOD) removal from palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) by vetiver system. The independent variable, including POMSE concentration, vetiver slips density, and removal time, has been considered as input parameters to optimize the network, while the removal percentage of COD and BOD were selected as output. To determine the number of hidden layer nodes, the root mean squared error of testing set was minimized, and the topologies of the algorithms were compared by coefficient of determination and absolute average deviation. The comparison indicated that the quick propagation (QP) algorithm had minimum root mean squared error and absolute average deviation, and maximum coefficient of determination. The importance values of the variables was included vetiver slips density with 42.41%, time with 29.8%, and the POMSE concentration with 27.79%, which showed none of them, is negligible. Results show that the ANN has great potential ability in prediction of COD and BOD removal from POMSE with residual standard error (RSE) of less than 0.45%.

  20. Effect of Organic Manures on the Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Chromite-Asbestos Mine Waste: A Pot Scale Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The abandoned chromite-asbestos mines are located in the Roro hills, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, where mining operation ceased in 1983, and since then these mines are causing environmental pollution. The present study was planned to phytoremediate these metalloid and metal contaminated mine waste by using two aromatic grasses, Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides by applying different proportions of amendments (chicken manure, farmyard manure and garden soil). Mine waste has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and organic carbon with higher concentration of total metals (Cr and Ni) as compared to soil. Application of manures resulted significant improvements of mine waste characteristics and plant growth, reduction in the availability of total extractable toxic metals (Cr, Ni) and increase in Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in the substrate. The maximum growth and biomass production for C. citratus and C. zizanioides were found in T-IV combination comprising of mine waste (90%), chicken manure (2.5%), farmyard manure (2.5%) and garden soil (5%). Addition of T-IV combination also resulted in low Cr and Ni accumulation in roots and reduction in translocation to shoots. Study indicates that C. citratus and C. zizanioides can be used for phytostabilization of abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste with amendments.

  1. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  2. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakrabarty, Debasis; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chauhan, Abhishek Singh; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Lavania, Umesh Chandra; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    .... Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B...

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty

    OpenAIRE

    Debasis Chakrabarty; Puneet Singh Chauhan; Abhishek Singh Chauhan; Yuvraj Indoliya; Umesh Chandra Lavania; Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal

    2015-01-01

    Vetiver, a perennial C4 grass, has long been known for its multifarious uses in perfumery, medicine and environmental protection. Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B. South Indian type with more number of thin and hairy roots that produce inferior quality of dextrorotatory oil. The two morphotypes were targeted for transcriptome ...

  4. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  5. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Debasis; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chauhan, Abhishek Singh; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Lavania, Umesh Chandra; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-12-18

    Vetiver, a perennial C4 grass, has long been known for its multifarious uses in perfumery, medicine and environmental protection. Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B. South Indian type with more number of thin and hairy roots that produce inferior quality of dextrorotatory oil. The two morphotypes were targeted for transcriptome analysis to understand the contribution of genetic background on oil quality and root morphology. Sample A showed enhanced activity of flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis related genes, i.e. ERF, MYB, bHLH, bZIP and WRKY. Interestingly, expression analysis revealed that the genes involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway were up regulated in Sample A. Moreover, some of the genes involved in mevalonate pathway of sesquiterpene biosynthesis were unique to Sample A. Our results also demonstrated several transcripts involved in root development and hormonal regulation being up regulated in Sample A. To validate gene expression results of RNA-seq data, 20 transcripts were validated by qRT-PCR experiment. The present study provided an important start point for further discovery of genes related to root oil quality in different ecotypes of vetiver.

  6. Contribuição para o estudo da destilação do vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash A contribution of the study of vetiver roots distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro Côrte Brilho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram executadas experiências preliminares de destilação das raízes do vetiver, abrangendo alguns tratamentos prévios do material e, por outro lado, ensaiando-se processos para se melhorar a separação do seu óleo essencial. Usou-se, por exemplo, material seco e, também, raízes submetidas a uma maceração prévia em água; empregou-se, nos dois sistemas, o material inteiro e o picado, adotando-se a picagem grossa, a média e a fina. Os resultados obtidos não proporcionam conclusões definitivas e devem ser interpretados, simplesmente, como uma contribuição para que sejam oferecidas melhores condições no desenvolvimento dos futuros trabalhos experimentais nesse setor. A primeira indicação é aquela que aponta a picagem fina das raizes e a sua maceração em água, como o preparo mais adequado. Tal medida traz maior facilidade na liberação da essência e, como fator de importância, um acréscimo na capacidade de carga do alambique, de até 37 por cento. Quanto à destilação, os estudos subseqüentes deverão abranger as questões relativas à duração do processo e à pressão e temperatura do vapor, buscando-se a solução dos problemas que dependem dêsses fatôres. O aquecimento externo, ou indireto, não apresentou diferenças sensíveis. O estudo da condensação patenteou a conveniência, para melhorar a separação, da manutenção da temperatura do condensado, entre 50 e 65ºC. No que diz respeito à decantação do óleo, no vaso separador, bons resultados foram obtidos com a instalação de um filtro retentor, de tecido fino.Because of the high boiling point of its chief volatile constituents, and their high viscosity, the distillation of vetiver roots is beset with considerable difficulties, particularly in regard to the separation of the oil from the distillation water. Its high peculiar viscosity ant the troublesome emoulsion which may occur make oil separation rather complex. Distillation is usually carried out

  7. EFFICIENCY OF SIMPLE SUPER PHOSPHATE IN THE VETIVER GRASS DEVELOPMENT SUBJECTED TO SOIL BIOENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENISSON NEPONUCENO DE ARAÚJO FILHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. has been evaluated under differ-ent levels of phosphorus on slopes of the right-side bank of the San Francisco River, in the municipality of Am-paro do São Francisco, SE. Techniques of soil bioengineering were used, characterized by the combination of vegetated riprap with stakes, seedlings of vetiver grass and sediment retainers. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five doses (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 g pit-1 of simple superphosphate and five replicates. The growth of vetiver seedlings were observed in periods of 30, 60, 90, e 180 days, carrying out the following pa-rameters: number of roots, external root surface, root density, root length, root length density, root and shoot dry weight, root and shoot fresh weight, and shoot length, at each evaluation period. The phosphorus doses and periods of morphological development interacted in all variables of plant biomass mentioned above. Higher superphosphate doses than 9.0 g pit-1 did not offer advantages in terms of cost-benefit for the production of vetiver seedings.

  8. Cultivation of vetiver in saline tailings contaminated with arsenic under phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. de O. P. Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The processing of gold ores exploited in Paracatu, MG, generates tailings that are challenging for revegetation, mainly because of the high content of arsenic and salinity. Aiming at the revegetation of the area of disposal of these tailings, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of phosphorus doses on vetiver plants (Chrysopogon zizanioides and on the planting substrate, which consisted of tailings from the processing of ore named B1, exploited in Paracatu, with water restriction. Vetiver was grown for four months in the substrate under doses of 0, 140, 280, 560 and 1280 mg kg-1 of P2O5. Increasing doses of phosphorus improved the chemical characteristics of the substrate. However, the highest dose (1280 mg kg-1 P2O5 resulted in higher toxicity of arsenic for the plants. Under the evaluated conditions, the dose of 560 mg kg-1 of P2O5 is the most suitable for the fertilization of vetiver and, therefore, also for the revegetation of the substrate. Vetiver survives under low availability of water in the tailings.

  9. Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead-contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: a glasshouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkittikhun, P; Chaiyarat, R; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

    2007-01-01

    Bo Ngam lead mine soils contain high concentrations of lead (up 1% total Pb) and low amounts of organic matter and major nutrients (N, P, K). A glasshouse study was conducted to compare growth performance, metal tolerance and metal uptake by two grasses, Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O. Kuntze and four ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (three from Thailand: Surat Thani, Songkhla and Kamphaeng Phet, and one from Sri Lanka) and to study the effects of pig manure (20% and 40% w/w) and inorganic fertilizer (75 and 150 mg kg(-1)) amendments to this lead mine soil. The results showed that both T. maxima and V. zizanioides (Surat Thani and Songkhla) could tolerate high Pb concentrations in soil (10750 mg kg(-1)) and had very good growth performance. Application of pig manure increased electrical conductivity (EC) and reduced DTPA-extractable Pb concentration in the soils. Pig manure application improved the growth of vetiver, especially at 20%, application dosage. Vetiver had the highest biomass. T. maxima could not tolerate high EC values. The uptake by roots and transport of Pb to shoots of both species was reduced when soils were amended with pig manure. Application of inorganic fertilizer did not improve growth of vetiver but did improve that of T. maxima. Fertilizer application did not have any great influence on the Pb uptake in vetiver while T. maxima took up more Pb as a result of the fertilizer enhancing its biomass yield. Both species transported low Pb concentrations to shoots (8.3-179 mg kg(-1)) and accumulated higher concentrations in roots (107-911 mg kg(-1)). In summary, both species may be species well suited for phytostabilization in tropical lead mine areas.

  10. Biofiltro con cascarilla de arroz y pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del INPEC – Yopal, Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Katheryne Higuera Infante

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación se evaluó un biofiltro a escala laboratorio para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del Inpec de Yopal, Casanare, cuya finalidad era lograr un efluente de calidad óptima para reúso del agua en riego agrícola. Se contemplaron tres fases, la primera caracterización y análisis de los parámetros microbiológicos como fisicoquímicos del efluente. La segunda fase diseño y construcción del sistema a escala laboratorio del humedal artificial, se construyó en vidrio, usando cascarilla de arroz, intercalada con grava, se sembró pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides y se inundó el sistema para que funcionará con flujo subsuperficial, el tiempo de retención hidráulico TRH fue de 3.4 días. La desinfección con cloro se diseñó a partir de una prueba de demanda de cloro. La tercera fase consistió en la operación del sistema a flujo continuo, el seguimiento se realizó a través de 4 muestreos con frecuencia semanal, en dos de estos muestreos se incluyó medición de DBO5, coliformes totales y fecales y conductividad.  Los resultados mostraron que la cascarilla de arroz como sustrato funciona bien, las plantas crecieron permanentemente, ayudando a disminuir la carga orgánica. Como conclusión la cascarilla puede ser un sustituto total o parcial de otros sustratos de biofiltros o humedales de flujo subsuperficial, al ser menos costosa y estar disponible especialmente en la región de la Orinoquía. Sin embargo, su uso debe complementarse con un proceso de reoxigenación del agua, ya que su condición anaerobia es un aspecto negativo para los cuerpos de agua receptores de vertimientos.

  11. Modeling BOD and COD removal from Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent in floating wetland by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Sairi, Nor Asrina

    2016-10-01

    While the oil palm industry has been recognized for its contribution towards economic growth and rapid development, it has also contributed to environmental pollution due to the production of huge quantities of by-products from the oil extraction process. A phytoremediation technique (floating Vetiver system) was used to treat Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent (POMSE). A batch study using 40 L treatment tanks was carried out under different conditions and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the treatment process. A three factor central composite design (CCD) was used to predict the experimental variables (POMSE concentration, Vetiver plant density and time). An extraordinary decrease in organic matter as measured by BOD and COD (96% and 94% respectively) was recorded during the experimental duration of 4 weeks using a density of 30 Vetiver plants. The best and lowest final BOD of 2 mg/L was obtained when using 15 Vetiver plants after 13 days for low concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 50 mg/L). The next best result of BOD at 32 mg/L was obtained when using 30 Vetiver plants after 24 days for medium concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 175 mg/L). These results confirmed the validity of the model, and the experimental value was determined to be quite close to the predicted value, implying that the empirical model derived from RSM experimental design can be used to adequately describe the relationship between the independent variables and response. The study showed that the Vetiver system is an effective method of treating POMSE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Propagação e conservação in vitro de vetiver In vitro propagation and conservation of vetiver grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana C Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides é um capim perene com características físico-químicas e agronômicas importantes que o torna uma espécie destaque. De suas raízes é extraído um óleo essencial utilizado amplamente na produção de perfumes e devido à sua baixa volatilidade, como fixador de odor. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo de propagação e de conservação in vitro de vetiver. Para o ensaio de multiplicação in vitro testaram-se combinações dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA. Na aclimatização foram testados substratos contendo pó de coco e/ou vermiculita suplementado com calcário, fertilizante NPK (3-12-6 e concentrações dos sais do meio MS. Nos ensaios de conservação in vitro foram avaliadas as temperaturas de 18 e 25°C, reguladores osmóticos (sacarose, manitol e sorbitol, o inibidor de crescimento ABA e diferentes concentrações dos sais MS. Verificou-se que a micropropagação de vetiver UFS-VET003 é promovida em meio MS líquido acrescido de 3,33 mg L-1 de BAP, sendo a etapa de enraizamento das brotações proporcionada em meio MS básico, também líquido. Para aclimatização recomenda-se o substrato PBC. A conservação in vitro é possível em meio MS semissólido com 25% dos sais MS e temperatura de 18°C por um período de 270 dias.Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides is a perennial grass which presents physicochemical and agronomic characteristics that highlights the importance of this species. From the roots of vetiver grass essential oil is extracted which is widely used for perfume production, and because of its low volatility it is used as fragrance fixer. We developed a protocol for in vitro propagation and conservation of vetiver grass. For the in vitro multiplication assay, combinations of the growth regulators BAP and NAA were tested. For acclimatization, substrates containing coconut coir and/or vermiculite, supplemented with limestone, NPK (3-12-6 fertilizer and the

  13. Phytoremediation of Gold Mine Tailings Amended with Iron-Coated and Uncoated Rice Husk Ash by Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash)

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, F. S.; Samsuri, A. W.; Karam, D. S.; A. Z. Aris

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of rice husk ash (RHA) and iron-coated rice husk ash (Fe-RHA) on phytoavailability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to vetiver grass grown in gold mine tailings amended with either RHA or Fe-RHA at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (w/w). The results showed that the RHA amended tailings recorded higher concentration of As in the shoot and the root and higher concentration of Cr and Mn in the root compared to the untreated tailings which was used as a con...

  14. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carmen; Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Moliner, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoremediation of contaminated mine soils requires the use of fast-growing, deep-rooted, high-biomass, and metal-tolerant plants with the application of soil amendments that promote metal uptake by plants. A pot experiment was performed to evaluate the combined use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) and humic acid for phytoremediation of Cu and Zn in mine soils. Vetiver plants were grown in soil samples collected from two mine sites of Spain mixed with a commercial humic acid derived from leonardite at doses of 0, 2, 10, and 20 g kg(-1). Plant metal concentrations and biomass were measured and metal bioavailability in soils was determined by a low molecular weight organic acid extraction. Results showed that humic acid addition decreased organic acid-extractable metals in soil. Although this extraction method is used to estimate bioavailability of metals, it was not a good estimator under these conditions due to competition with the strong chelators in the added humic acid. High doses of humic acid also promoted root growth and increased Cu concentrations in plants due to formation of soluble metal-organic complexes, which enhanced removal of this metal from soil and its accumulation in roots. Although humic acid was not able to improve Zn uptake, it managed to reduce translocation of Zn and Cu to aerial parts of plants. Vetiver resulted unsuitable for phytoextraction, but our study showed that the combined use of this species with humic acid at 10-20 g kg(-1) could be an effective strategy for phytostabilization of mine soils.

  15. Phytoremediation of Gold Mine Tailings Amended with Iron-Coated and Uncoated Rice Husk Ash by Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn. Nash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the effects of rice husk ash (RHA and iron-coated rice husk ash (Fe-RHA on phytoavailability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to vetiver grass grown in gold mine tailings amended with either RHA or Fe-RHA at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (w/w. The results showed that the RHA amended tailings recorded higher concentration of As in the shoot and the root and higher concentration of Cr and Mn in the root compared to the untreated tailings which was used as a control. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC and bioconcentration factor (BCF values of the vetiver grass for As and Zn increased with RHA application rate but the biological transfer coefficient (BTC values of As and Zn were decreased. In Fe-RHA amended samples, As concentration in the shoot and root concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher compared to the control. The Fe-RHA treated samples had lower BAC and BTC values for As and Zn than the control. However, the BCF values for those elements were higher than the control. The concentration of Pb was not detected in any of the samples.

  16. Toxicity and growth inhibition potential of vetiver, cinnamon, and lavender essential oils and their blends against larvae of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem F; Ali, Ali M; Abouelella, Galal A; Marawan, Marawan A; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Abbas, Rao Z; Vaz, Nelissa P; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-02-08

    Myiasis induced by the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata, represents a public health problem widely distributed throughout the world. L. sericata larval stages feed on both humans and animals. L. sericata adults and larvae can play a role in spreading agents of mycobacterial infections. It is critical to establish new and safe alternative methods of controlling L. sericata. The insecticidal effectiveness and growth inhibition potential of three commercially available essential oils (EOs), vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), as well as their blends, were tested against the second (L2) and third (L3) larval stages of L. sericata. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil was used as a carrier and tested on L2 and L3 larvae. To the best of our knowledge, all applied essential oils, except lavender, and oil blends were tested against L. sericata for the first time. All applied oils did not repel L2 from the treated liver but adversely affected their development. Contact treatments on L. sericata L3 indicated that vetiver and cinnamon oils significantly affected treated larvae. Total mortality rates were 93.33 and 95.56%, respectively. Furthermore, oil blends tested through contact assays killed larvae when used at higher concentrations; adult emergence was eliminated post-treatment with doses >30% for oil blend 1 and >10% for oil blend 2. Overall, cinnamon and vetiver oils (5%) were selected as reliable and cheap biopesticides for controlling larvae of L. sericata. The tested oils are inexpensive and represent new promising botanical insecticides in the fight against blowflies causing myiasis. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Avaliação do desenvolvimento e a eficiência do capim vetiver (chrysopogon zizanioides) em sistemas híbridos de alagados construídos

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Santos, Larissa [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Reproduzir processos naturais é um desafio necessário quando se deseja que os resultados de um experimento sejam o mais próximo do real. Tratando-se do tratamento de águas residuárias, a utilização de sistemas de alagados construídos apresenta-se como melhor maneira encontrada para a introdução de tecnologias de otimização de processos. Construídos em forma de tanques, esses sistemas são formados por leitos impermeabilizados com mantas geotextil. Para fins experimentais foram criados 6 tanque...

  18. Modification of sleep-waking and electroencephalogram induced by vetiver essential oil inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Cheaha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously, efficacy of essential oil application has been considered as non evidence based. In this study, we performed scientific research of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides essential oil inhalation. The results confirmed its beneficial properties with quantitative data of sleep-waking and EEG profiles. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 72-78

  19. Tolerance and accumulation of lead in Vetiveria zizanioides and its effect on oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkittikhun, P; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

    2010-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate lead tolerance and accumulation in vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanioides (L.), grown in hydroponics and a pot study and to examine the effect of lead on vetiver oil production. Elevated concentrations of lead decreased the length of shoots and roots of plants. However, vetiver grown in highly contaminated soils showed no apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. Lead concentrations in the shoots and roots of vetiver plants grown in hydroponics were up to 144 and 19530 mg kg(-1) and those grown in soil were 38 and 629 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lead had an effect on vetiver oil production and composition by stimulating oil yield and the number of its constituents. Oil yield ranged from 0.4-1.3%; the highest yields were found in plants grown in nutrient solution with 100 mg Pb l(-1) for 5 weeks (1.29%) and 7 weeks (1.22%). The number of total constituents of vetiver oil also varied between 47-143 compounds when lead was presentin the growth medium. The highest number (143) was found in plants grown in soil spiked with 1000 mg Pb kg(-1). The predominant compound was khusimol (10.7-18.1%) followed by (E)-isovalencenol (10.3-15.6%). Our results indicated that lead could increase the oil production of vetiver.

  20. Performance evaluation ofChrysopogon zizanoidesunder urban conditions of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Majda Khalil; Bhat, Narayana Ramachandra; Jacob, Sheena; Al-Burais, Meali

    2018-02-01

    Plant physiological and morphological attributes should be critically evaluated for selecting any species for landscaping projects. The selection of a species should be based on the evaluation of its adaptability, noninvasiveness, growth potential, and performance under the prevailing local arid conditions for their aesthetic looks, soil stabilization, and afforestation values. Chrysopogon zizanoides (Vetiver), is suitable for Kuwait because it can withstand fluctuating temperatures ranging from -14 to 55 °C with unique physical and physiological characteristics. Despite the successful growth performance of Vetiver in landscaping projects mostly in several tropical countries, it has not been utilized and evaluated in the Arabian Gulf region. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the performance of selected ten cultivars of Vetiver (ODV-1, 8, 9, 13, 17, 21, 23, Silent Valley, Urlikal, and Pannimedu) in the deficient soil and environmental conditions of Kuwait in urban landscape at minimal maintenance. It is suggested that based on visual greenery effect and overall growth performance cultivars, Pannimedu, Silent Valley, ODV-13, ODV-8 and ODV-9 can be considered for landscaping projects in Kuwait. To obtain the superior crown volume (which considers height and canopy) cultivar Pannimedu is suggested and to get a bushy growth (considering the number of tillers) cultivar ODV-13 and ODV-8 is found to be suitable.

  1. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g{sup -1}), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media.

  2. Absorption Reduction Capacity with Chromium (Cr and Cadmium (Cd Contaminants of Vetiver Phytoremediation Process on Compost Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Zubair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the large of reduction capacity of chromium metals and cadmium in the soil compost media and absorption capacity of chrome and cadmium in phytoremediation process of vetiver; to compare the reduction-absorption capacities of chromium and cadmium metals in phytoremediation process of vetiver (Vetivera zizanioides. The study was carried out for 2 months with a range of sampling every 7 days, and then analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Contaminants used as artificial contaminants containing heavy metals chromium (Cr and cadmium (Cd. This study is an experimental research includes two variables. First, the variations of Cr concentrations used were 400 ppm, 600 ppm and 800 ppm and Cd concentrations used were 40 ppm, 60 ppm, 800 ppm. Secondly, the variations of total plant are 3, 6, and 9 plant. The period of observation is made every week. Planting media used is compost soil with compost and clay composition of 20%, 30% and 40%. The results of study showed that there are a significant relationship between the reduction capacity of Cr and Cd of compost soil and the absorption capacity of Cr and Cd for vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides. The higher of Cr and Cd decreases in soil followed by increased levels of Cr and Cd in vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides. The capacity of Cr reduction varies between 57% - 86% and Cd 36% - 64% where as the absorption capacity of vetiver on Cr between 38% - 75% and Cd between 34%-74%. The capacity of reduction-absorption of Cr is relatively higher than Cd in phytoremediation process of vetiver.

  3. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  4. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L{sup -1} for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ({approx}1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media.

  5. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  6. Comparison of Pretreatment Methods on Vetiver Leaves for Efficient Processes of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Neurospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Dewi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material for bioethanol production. Neurospora sp. can be used to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol because of its ability to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, lignin content, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity of cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass can inhibit cellulosic-biomass digestion by Neurospora sp, so that a suitable pretreatment method of lignocellulosic biomass is needed. The focus of this research was to investigate the suitable pretreatment method for vetiver leaves (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used as a raw material producing bioethanol in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Neurospora sp.. Vetiver plants obtained from Garut are deliberately cultivated to produce essential oils extracted from the roots of this plant. Since the vetiver leaves do not contain oil, some of harvested leaves are usually used for crafts and cattle feed, and the rest are burned. This study intended to look at other potential of vetiver leaves as a source of renewable energy. Pretreatments of the vetiver leaves were conducted using hot water, dilute acid, alkaline & dilute acid, and alkaline peroxide, in which each method was accompanied by thermal treatment. The results showed that the alkaline peroxide treatment is a suitable for vetiver leaves as indicated by the increase of cellulose content up to 65.1%, while the contents of hot water soluble, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash are 8.7%, 18.3%, 6.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Using this pretreatment method, the vetiver leaves can be converted into bioethanol by SSF process using Neurospora sp. with a concentration of bioethanol of 6.7 g/L operated at room temperature.

  7. Isolation and culture of suspension protoplasts of vetiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somporn Prasertsongskun

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, protoplasts were isolated from cell suspension derived from inflorescence of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash Surat Thani germplasm. The optimum condition for protoplast isolation was established by using 2% cellulase Onozuka R10, 2% macerozyme R10, 0.5% pectinase in 0.4 M mannitol and 7 mM CaCl2.2H2O at pH 5.8 and incubated for 10 hours in the dark on the rotary shaker at 50 rpm. Maximum protoplast yields were 8.4 × 104 protoplasts/ml PCV. Division of protoplasts was observed only in liquid medium. The first cell division was observed after 3 days of culture initiation, and the average division was 5.0% in the N6 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l BA (Benzyladenine. An optimal density for culture division was 1 × 105 protoplasts/ml.

  8. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, S; Frister, T; Alemdar, S; Li, Z; Scheper, T; Beutel, S

    2015-03-20

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L(-1) were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni(2+)-IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg(2+) containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC-MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis-Menten model, kinetic parameters of KM = 1.111 μM (±0.113), vmax = 0.3245 μM min(-1) (±0.0035), kcat = 2.95 min(-1), as well as a catalytic efficiency kcat/KM = 4.43 × 10(4) M(-1)s(-1) were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SUMO-fusion, purification, and characterization of a (+)-zizaene synthase from Chrysopogon zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, S.; Frister, T.; Alemdar, S.; Li, Z.; Scheper, T.; Beutel, S., E-mail: beutel@iftc.uni-hannover.de

    2015-03-20

    An uncharacterized plant cDNA coding for a polypeptide presumably having sesquiterpene synthase activity, was expressed in soluble and active form. Two expression strategies were evaluated in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was fused to a highly soluble SUMO domain, in addition to being produced in an unfused form by a cold-shock expression system. Yields up to ∼325 mg/L{sup −1} were achieved in batch cultivations. The 6x-His-tagged enzyme was purified employing an Ni{sup 2+}-IMAC-based procedure. Identity of the protein was established by Western Blot analysis as well as peptide mass fingerprinting. A molecular mass of 64 kDa and an isoelectric point of pI 4.95 were determined by 2D gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the fusion domain was possible by digestion with specific SUMO protease. The synthase was active in Mg{sup 2+} containing buffer and catalyzed the production of (+)-zizaene (syn. khusimene), a precursor of khusimol, from farnesyl diphosphate. Product identity was confirmed by GC–MS and comparison of retention indices. Enzyme kinetics were determined by measuring initial reaction rates for the product, using varying substrate concentrations. By assuming a Michaelis–Menten model, kinetic parameters of K{sub M} = 1.111 μM (±0.113), v{sub max} = 0.3245 μM min{sup −1} (±0.0035), k{sub cat} = 2.95 min{sup −1}, as well as a catalytic efficiency k{sub cat}/K{sub M} = 4.43 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1} s{sup −1} were calculated. Fusion to a SUMO moiety can substantially increase soluble expression levels of certain hard to express terpene synthases in E. coli. The kinetic data determined for the recombinant synthase are comparable to other described plant sesquiterpene synthases and in the typical range of enzymes belonging to the secondary metabolism. This leaves potential for optimizing catalytic parameters through methods like directed evolution. - Highlights: • Uncharacterized (+)-zizaene synthase from C. zizanoides was cloned and expressed. • Fusion to SUMO and cold-shock induction enhanced soluble yields in E. coli. • Ni{sup 2+}-IMAC purification of the SUMO-fused and unfused enzyme. • (+)-Zizaene identified as main cyclization product by GC–MS. • Enzyme kinetic parameters comparable to related sesquiterpene synthases.

  10. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  11. Evaluation of vetiver grass for radiocesium absorption ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualchavee Roongtanakiat

    2017-06-01

    The Surat Thani vetiver plantlets were cultured in 134Cs solution with a concentration of 5 MBq/L for different periods. The results of the radiographic image, PSL signals and the radioactivity levels in the vetiver samples strongly indicated that vetiver could absorb a greater amount of 134Cs when the period of culture was longer. After vetiver culture periods of 3 d, 6 d, 9 d, 12 d, 15 d and 18 d, the activity of 134Cs in the cultured solutions declined to 98.0%, 93.2%, 88.6%, 78.1%, 70.7% and 65.5%, respectively. These values indicated that vetiver could remediate 134Cs in the cultured solution by 2.0%, 6.8%, 11.4%, 21.9%, 29.3% and 34.5% for the respective durations.

  12. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kadarohman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%. The quality of organic and non-organic vetiver oil was analyzed by Indonesian Standard (SNI parameter, pesticide residue test, chemical composition by GC/MS, and the appearance of vetiver root. In general, the result of organic and non-organic vetiver oil has fulfilled the national standard; the quality of organic vetiver oil was better than non-organic one. Physically, the appearance of organic vetiver root was better than non-organic vetiver root; organic vetiver root was denser, more appealing, and did not have any black spots. The pesticide residue of organic vetiver oil was lower than non-organic vetiver oil. Based on SNI test, vetiverol (oxygen compounds in organic vetiver oil was higher than non-organic vetiver oil.

  13. Phytostabilization potential of two ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides in cadmium-contaminated soils: greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusantisampan, Theerawut; Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Saengwilai, Patompong; Pichtel, John; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2016-10-01

    Soil contamination by cadmium (Cd) poses a serious environmental and public health concern. Phytoremediation, i.e., the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, has been proposed for treatment of Cd-contaminated ecosystems. In this study, we demonstrated the potential of Vetiveria zizanioides, commonly known as vetiver, to serve as an effective phytoremediation agent. Two ecotypes, i.e., India and Sri Lanka, were grown in greenhouse pots and in the field. Soils were amended with cow manure, pig manure, bat manure, and an organic fertilizer. Among all amendments, pig manure performed best in both greenhouse and field studies in terms of increasing total V. zizanioides biomass production in both ecotypes. In both greenhouse and in the field, tissue of the Sri Lanka ecotype had higher Cd concentrations than did the India ecotype. In the greenhouse, the presence of Cd did not affect total biomass production or root dry weight. The Sri Lanka ecotype had 2.7 times greater adventitious root numbers and 3.6 times greater Cd accumulation in roots than did the India ecotype. In the field study, the Sri Lanka ecotype offers potential as an excluder species, as it accumulated Cd primarily in roots, with translocation factor values 1 for all experiments except for the pig manure amendment. In addition, the highest Cd concentration in the Sri Lanka ecotype root (71.3 mg kg(-1)) was consistent with highest Cd uptake (10.4 mg plant(-1)) in the cow manure treatment. The India ecotype contained lower root Cd concentrations, and Cd accumulation was slightly higher in shoots compared to roots, with translocation factor (TF) values >1. The India ecotype was therefore not considered as an excluder in the Cd-contaminated soil. With the use of excluder species combined with application of organic amendments, soil contamination by Cd may be treated by alternative remediation methods such as phytostabilization.

  14. LCA of bioethanol and furfural production from vetiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2015-06-01

    In this study a prospective life cycle assessment of biorefinery system from vetiver leaves was carried out to know the environmental benefits of this system over conventional systems considering the geographical context of India. The composition of vetiver leaves from the experimental analysis revealed that vetiver is rich in cellulose (32.6%), hemicellulose (31.5%) and lignin (17.3%) that could be used as a feedstock for biorefinery. The comparative life cycle assessment results show that the carbon dioxide emission and fossil oil depletion could be reduced by 95% and 23% respectively in case of standalone bioethanol system, and 99% and 17% respectively in case of bioethanol and furfural system compared to that of conventional petrol and furfural systems. The sensitivity study indicates that the impact could be further reduced if vetiver biomass is used as a source of energy in biorefinery plant instead to the coal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater in a constructed wetland system using vetiver grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash efficiency in removing nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater in a constructed wetlands treatment system. The experimental unit had twelve treatment modules, filled with layers of substrate. From the bottom to the surface, the following materials were placed: 0.15 m of gravel # 3; 0.10 m of gravel # 1; 0.20 m of washed sand and 0.05 m of gravel # 1. Inside the modules, the wastewater was maintained at 0.05 m or 0.25 m below the substrate surface, resulting in hydraulic retention times of 3.4 days and 1.9 days, respectively. The influent wastewater was captured in the entrance of a facultative pond, and it was applied to the surface of each treatment module, automatically, on a surface application rate of 51 L.m-2.d-1. The sewage percolated vertically in the system, in a sub-surface flow downward until it was captured in a drain pipe at the bottom of the module. The wastewater concentrations of total phosphorus and ammonium were analyzed before and after passing through the treatment modules. Evapotranspiration rates were measured and the efficiencies in removing the contaminant load were calculated. The results were submitted to F and Tukey tests, at 5% of probability. Treatment with the presence of the plant and sewage at 0.05 m from the surface had higher efficiency in the removal of nutrients reaching 90.5% of phosphorus removal and 93.9% for ammonia.

  16. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  17. Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Vetiveria zizanioides on Cu mine tailings amended with chicken manure and manure-soil mixtures: a pot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The Rakha Cu mines are located at East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India and their activities ceased in 2001. The tailings (residue) were permanently stored in tailings ponds that require vegetation to reduce their impact on the environment. A pot scale study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Ex Nees and Vetiveria zizanioides (L) Nash for the reclamation of Cu tailings and to evaluate the effects of chicken manure and soil-manure mixtures on the revegetation of such tailings. Application of manure and soil-manure mixtures resulted in significant increase in pH, EC, OC, CEC and nutritional status of Cu tailings. The environmentally available and DTPA extractable Cu and Ni concentration reduced in amended tailings, while Mn and Zn content increased significantly. Plants grown on amended tailings accumulated lesser Cu and Ni but higher Mn and Zn. Plant biomass increased proportionally to manure and soil-manure mixtures application rates. Lemon grass produced more biomass than vetiver grass in either of the amended tailings. From the pot experiment, it can be suggested that application of chicken manure @ 5% (w/w) and in combination with lemon grass, could be a viable option for reclamation (phytostabilization) of toxic tailings.

  18. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Kadarohman; Ratnaningsih Eko S.; Gebi Dwiyanti; Lela Lailatul K.; Ede Kadarusman; Ahmad Nur F.

    2014-01-01

    Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides) has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%). The quality of organi...

  19. Kajian Rumput Vetiver Sebagai Pengaman Lereng Secara Berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flores is the island in the NTT province, which has a row of volcanoes, with the mountainous topography. Transportation is state road, along the coast with high cliffs on the other side. That often causes problems during the rainy season as several landslides. Various methods are used to overcome this landslide. Studies on vetiver grass as slope protection done to secure the slopes on a sustainable basis. First, an evaluation done for the slope construction along the slope safety from Nangaroro to Aegela, which are using vetiver grass as a safety slopes in addition to other security structures. It is also done for the same job of the road from Ende to Nangaroro and Ende-Detusoko. This study covers the technical aspects, ecological, construction and sustainability of the infrastructure that has been built. Furthermore, it is done the literature study to find more appropriate method, environmentally friendly and sustainable in securing these slopes problematic. From the literature studies and the field survey done, it can be concluded and recommended several models of eco-friendly structural design of vetiver grass and geotextile for slope protection, which is based on technical-meet standard strength, ecologically-friendly environment, locally-developed local wisdom, so it is easy to construct.

  20. Unravelling the scent of vetiver: identification of character-impact compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Emilie; Baldovini, Nicolas; Brevard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Vetiver oil is a highly esteemed basic ingredient of modern perfumery, but the nature of the constituents that really impart its typical and most sought woody-earthy scent has remained controversial. Indeed, vetiver oil is considered as one of the most complex essential oils, being mostly composed of several hundreds of sesquiterpene derivatives with a large structural diversity. Its complexity has hindered the direct identification of its odoriferous components. We thus aimed at using a combination of GC×GC/MS and GC-Olfactometry in order to identify most of its odor-impact constituents. The olfactory analysis of vetiver oil and vetiveryl acetate revealed a huge variety of odors in both products. While khusimone has almost unanimously been recognized as the most characteristic vetiver odorant, we have identified several even more important contributors to the typical vetiver character. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Padmini [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.c [Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School Of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg{sup -1}), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg{sup -1}) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  2. Absorção e distribuição de chumbo em plantas devetiver, jureminha e algaroba Absorption and distribution of lead in vetiver, mimosa and mesquite plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do Carmo Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas como agentes remediadores de áreas contaminadas com metais pesados (fitorremediação é uma técnica emergente, sendo necessários estudos sobre tolerância, absorção e distribuição destes elementos em plantas para se obter sucesso em programas dessa natureza. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância, absorção e distribuição de Pb em plantas de vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash], jureminha [Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd] e algaroba [Prosopis juliflora (SW DC], submetidas a doses crescentes do elemento em solução. As espécies foram cultivadas em estufa telada do DSER/CCA/UFPB, Areia-PB, em solução nutritiva que continha doses crescentes de Pb (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1, por 45 dias. O delineamento empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em parcela subdividida, com três repetições. A parcela principal foi representada pelas espécies, enquanto a subparcela foi constituída pelas doses de Pb. Foram constatadas reduções significativas na matéria seca da raiz, parte aérea e planta inteira das três espécies estudadas de acordo com a elevação das doses de Pb. Com base nas doses críticas de toxidez, constatou-se que o vetiver demonstrou maior tolerância à contaminação com Pb que as demais espécies. A raiz apresentou maior sensibilidade à contaminação com Pb nas plantas de vetiver e algaroba, tendo a jureminha apresentado comportamento similar entre os compartimentos da planta. Os teores e conteúdos de Pb nos compartimentos das plantas foram significativamente alterados pela elevação das doses de Pb em solução, tendo sido verificado maior acúmulo deste elemento nas raízes das três espécies estudadas. O vetiver apresentou maiores teores e conteúdos de Pb em todos os compartimentos, evidenciando o seu potencial para programas de fitorremediação de áreas contaminadas com Pb.The use of plants for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated areas is an emerging technology

  3. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.

  4. Anxiolytic and nootropic activity of Vetiveria zizanioides roots in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit M Nirwane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ (family: Poaceae, an aromatic plant commonly known as “Vetiver“ has been used for various ailments. Concerning the various ailments being listed as the traditional uses of VZ, no mention about anxiety and memory was found. Objective: The present study examined the anxiolytic and memory enhancing activity of ethanolic extract of V. zizanioides (EEVZ dried roots in mice. Materials and Methods: Activity of EEVZ was assessed using models of anxiety (elevated plus-maze [EPM], light/dark test, hole board test, marble-burying test and learning and memory (EPM, passive shock avoidance paradigm. Results: EEVZ at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. illustrated significant anxiolytic activity indicated by increase in time spent and number of entries in open arm, time spent in lightened area, number of head poking and number marble buried when compared to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg b.w., a reference standard. The same treatment showed a significant decrease in transfer latency to reach open arm, shock-free zone, and number of mistakes when compared to that of scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg b.w.. EEVZ in all the doses (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. significantly decreased mortality in sodium nitrite (250 mg/kg b.w. induced hypoxia and also significantly increases contraction induced by acetylcholine on rat ileum preparation. Conclusion: The result emanated in the present investigation revealed EEVZ possesses significant anxiolytic and nootropic activity by possibly interplaying with neurotransmitters implicated in anxiety and learning and memory.

  5. Crude oil spilled water treatment with Vetiveria zizanioides in floating wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefni Effendi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floating wetlands on a container (25 L using Vetiveria zizanioides (L Nash was applied to remediate crude oil spill in water for four weeks. Three plants (height 10 cm were inserted in a pot containing rockwool, floated on crude oil spiked water. Treatment included 3 and 6 pot plants with 1% crude oil concentration. Six pot plants during 4 weeks of experiment could reduce the oil content of 91.39%, 84.60% COD, and 84.25% BOD. Meanwhile, 3 pot plants could decrease the oil content of 90.28%, 81.69% COD, and 81.10% BOD. DO at week 4 decreased. The BOD and COD did not show any significant reduction. Plants grew better in crude oil contaminated water. Those were indicated by 47.22% parent and 100% shoots could live until the study end in 1% crude oil spiked water. Meanwhile, in crude oil uncontaminated water, 30.56% parent and 40% shoots were able to live until the study end. Wet plant biomass (5.1070 g in the crude oil contaminated water was greater than the plant biomass (4.8362 g in crude oil uncontaminated water. RGR of V. zizanioides in crude oil contaminated water was 5.10 g/week and 4.83 g/week in uncontaminated water. Keywords: Phytoremediation, Crude oil, Floating wetland, Vetiveria zizanioides

  6. LAHAN BASAH BUATAN SEBAGAI MEDIA PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamaei BERSALINITAS RENDAH (Constructed Wetland for Remediation of Brackish Wastewater from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamaei Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Raharjo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Air limbah budidaya udang berjumlah relatif banyak dan mengandung bahan pencemar yang berpotensi mencemari lingkungan. Di sisi lain, air limbah tersebut dapat diolah dan diresirkulasi dalam sistem budidaya udang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menyelidiki kemampuan sistem lahan basah buatan-aliran air permukaan (LBB-AAP yang ditanami dengan rumput vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides, L dalam menghilangkan pencemar (NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ dan PO43- dari air limbah budidaya udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamaei kondisi mesohaline dan mengevaluasi kinerja sistem tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem LBB-AAP mampu mengeliminasi parameter NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ dan PO43- secara signifikan. Rumput vetiver mampu tumbuh pada kondisi mesohaline dan dapat melakukan remediasi air limbah tersebut. Serapan rumput vetiver dalam sistem LBB-AAP untuk NO3-, NH4+ dan PO43-adalah 28, 63 dan 83 %. Desain konstruksi LBB-AAP tipe Hidroponik menunjukkan kinerja terbaik dalam pengendalian air limbah budidaya udang vaname dibandingkan dengan tipe emergent, kombinasi hidroponik dan emergent. ABSTRACT The amount of wastewater shrimp cultivation is relatively/too much, contains a variety of pollutants and potentially pollute the environment. In other side, The wastewater can be treated and also recirculated in shrimp cultivation systems. The purpose of research is to investigate the ability of flow water surface-constructed wetland system (FWS-CWs that planted vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides, L that removes of pollutants (NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ and PO43- from wastewater vaname shrimp cultivation (Litopenaeus vannamaei on conditions mesohaline and with the aim of evaluating the performance of the system. The results of the research indicate that FWS-CWs able to eliminate the parameters significantly of NO2-, NO3-, NH3, NH4+ and PO43-. Vetiver grass could grow on mesohaline conditions and it can perform remediation of the wastewater. Uptake of

  7. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  8. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negisa Darajeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME, a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST. This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD. In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in high concentration POME, while control sets (without plant only was able to reduce 15% of BOD. The COD reduction was 94% in low concentration POME and 39% in high concentration POME, while control just shows reduction of 12%. Morphologically, maximum root and shoot lengths were 70 cm, the number of tillers and leaves was 344 and 86, and biomass production was 4.1 kg m−2. These results showed that VST was effective in reducing BOD and COD in POME. The treatment in low concentration was superior to the high concentration. Furthermore, biomass of plant can be considered as a promising raw material for biofuel production while high amount of biomass was generated in low concentration of POME.

  9. Utilización de Sustancias Húmicas Comerciales para Optimizar la Fitorremediación de Suelos Mineros Usando Vetiveria (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Roberty) y Verdolaga (Atriplex portulacoides L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Victoriano, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Los suelos de las zonas mineras en España presentan frecuentemente un elevado nivel de contaminación por metales pesados. Tradicionalmente se han utilizado técnicas de descontaminación muy agresivas para el medio edáfico que produce alteraciones de las características del suelo e impiden su recuperación o rehabilitación. La fitorremediación es un conjunto de técnicas más económicas y respetuosas con el medio ambiente que las convencionales donde se utilizan plantas en combinación con determin...

  10. Design of combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, A. D.; Lindu, M.; Yanidar, R.; Faruq, M.

    2018-01-01

    As environmental regulation has become stricter in recent years, there is an increasing concern about the issue of wastewater treatment in urban areas. Senior High School as center of student activity has a potential source to generated domestic wastewater from toilet, bathroom and canteen. Canteen wastewater contains high-organic content that to be treated before discharged. Based on previous research the subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow is an attractive alternative to provide efficient treatment of canteen wastewater. The effluent concentration complied with regulation according to [9]. Due to limited land, addition of preliminary treatment such as the presence of biofilter was found to improve the performance. The aim of this study was to design combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) treating canteen wastewater. Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) is used because from previous research, subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration (SCW-MLF) with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) can be an alternative canteen wastewater treatment that is uncomplicated in technology, low cost in operational and have a beautiful landscape view, besides no odors or insects were presented during the operation.

  11. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  12. Changes in content of free, conjugated and bound polyamines and osmotic adjustment in adaptation of vetiver grass to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Bingjun

    2010-06-01

    Osmotic adjustment and alteration of polyamines (PAs) have been suggested to play roles in plant adaptation to water deficit/drought stress. In this study, the changes in cell intactness, photosynthesis, compatible solutes and PAs [including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) each in free, conjugated and bound forms] were investigated in leaves of vetiver grass exposed to different intensity of water deficit stress and subsequent rewatering. The results showed that, when vetiver grass was exposed to the moderate (20% and 40% PEG-6000 solutions) and severe (60% PEG solution) water deficit for 6days, the plant injury degree (expressed as the parameters of plant growth, cell membrane integrity, water relations and photosynthesis) increased and contents of free and conjugated Put decreased with the rise of PEG concentration. Under the moderate water deficit, the plants could survive by the reduced osmotic potential (psi(s)), increased free and conjugated Spd and Spm in leaves. After subsequent rewatering, the osmotic balance was re-established, most of the above investigated physiological parameters were fully or partly recovered to the control levels. However, it was not the case for the severely-stressed and rewatering plants. It indicates that, vetiver grass can cope well with the moderate water deficit/drought stress by using the strategies of osmotic adjustment and maintenance of total contents of free, conjugated and bound PAs in leaves.

  13. Highly Volatile Constituents of Vetiveria zizanioides Roots Grown under Different Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampan Promsiri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Vetiveria zizanioides Nash (Mae Hae; Thai ecotype planted in three different cultivation systems (normal soil, normal soil with added microbes and semi- hydroponically were extracted using a simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE apparatus. Yields of the essential oils obtained were 0.27, 0.18 and 0.06%, respectively. The separation profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC and solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC×GC analyses of the crude essential oils showed a total of 156 and 48 well-resolved components, respectively. The highly volatile fractions isolated from the three essential oils by SPME were subjected to analysis by GC-MS and 42 compounds were identified in total. Volatile component profiles of the oils obtained by normal soil and semi-hydroponic cultivation were similar, whereas a quantitative difference was noted in some major volatiles when the cultivation system containing microbes was utilized.

  14. Studies on the effects of sida acuta and vetiveria zizanioides against the malarial vector, anopheles stephensi and malarial parasite, plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methanolic extracts of Sida acuta and Vetiveria zizanioides leaves and root were studied for toxicity to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and to the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in mice. The extracts reduced parasitemia levels in mice by 17-69%, depending on extract concentration. Median le...

  15. Application Effect’s Research of Vetiver Eco Blanket in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the ecological disasters in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone, ecological blanket governance model is proposed in this paper, which may provide good early environment for plants’ survival in fluctuation zone, and then play the function of greening and sustainable development to ensure the slopes’ stability. Meanwhile, based on the result of vetiver ecological blanket in Hanyuan experimental zone, we find that three kinds of typical Fluctuating Zone slope’s greening effect is good, which includes the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope, and it gets an average coverage of 90.3 % as well as good strength. Due to the different geological conditions, the ecological blankets’ governance effect differs from slope to slope. Using analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight, we get the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope’s weights are 0.41, 0.17, 0.42, respectively, namely, the dirt piling up slope and the gravel piling up slope have good results overall, followed by the whole lump of rock slope.

  16. UTILIZAÇÃO DO CAPIM VETIVER NA REMOÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES DO ESGOTO SANITÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ernesto Ucker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do capim Vetiver na remoção de nutrientes presentes no esgoto sanitário. O experimento foi realizado na Estação de Pesquisas em Tratamento de Esgotos com Plantas, localizada na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos Samambaia, em Goiânia, GO. A unidade experimental possuiu doze módulos de tratamento, preenchidos com camadas sobrepostas de substrato. Seis módulos foram vegetados com o capim Vetiver e seis módulos permaneceram sem planta. Por um período de 200 dias, coletaram-se amostras do esgoto antes e após o tratamento e analisaram-nas para determinação de nitrogênio amoniacal e fósforo total, e cálculo da eficiência em sua remoção, considerando-se as taxas de evapotranspiração. Os resultados foram submetidos aos testes F e de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. O tratamento com a presença da planta e nível de esgoto H1 apresentou eficiência mais elevada na remoção da carga contaminante, sendo de 90,5% para fósforo total e 93,9% para nitrogênio amoniacal.

  17. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  18. CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS EM DIFERENTES MODELOS DE PLANTIO NA RECUPERAÇÃO DE ÁREA DEGRADADA POR DISPOSIÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Auxiliadora de Resende

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o desenvolvimento silvicultural e a sobrevivência das espécies em diferentes modelos de plantio de mudas para recuperação da área do lixão de Inconfidentes – Sul de Minas Gerais/Brasil, a qual se encontra com deficiência de vegetação, o que proporciona impactos visual e ambiental, com o intuito de indicar diferentes espécies vegetais que possam ser ideais para serem utilizadas na requalificação dos lixões. O experimento foi instalado no delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado com quatro modelos de plantio envolvendo mudas de 11 espécies arbóreas nativas e da gramínea Chrysopogon zizanioides (M1- Leguminosas; M2- Leguminosas + Chrysopogon zizanioides; M3- nativas e M4- Eremanthus erytropappus e Nectandra lanceolata e três repetições. As parcelas de 3 x 5 m de cada tratamento foram compostas por 15 mudas arbóreas, sendo acrescidas em cada modelo de plantio M2 oito mudas da gramínea Vetiver (C. Zizanioides. Foram avaliados ao longo de 20 meses a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule ao nível do solo, a área de copa e a sobrevivência, em intervalos de 30 dias. Os dados do crescimento silvicultural e sobrevivência entre os tratamentos e entre as espécies foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Scott Knott a 5% de probabilidade. A partir da análise dos resultados da recuperação da área do desativado Lixão de Inconfidentes – Sul de Minas Gerais/Brasil, conclui-se que o modelo de plantio M2 e as espécies Bauhinia forficata, Eritrina falcata, Senna multijuga, Schizolobium parahyba e Schinus terebinthifolius são as mais indicadas para recuperação da área.

  19. THE NATURE COMPOSITE OF VETIVER FIBER AND THE WASTE OF POWDER SAWN AS AN SOUND ABSORPTION MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of composites in all fields is engineered materials that many people do to obtain the new alternative materials, one of the materials such as natural vetiver fiber (SAW which is strong and lightweight and powder sawn (SGK, which is waste material. In this research, manufacturing the composite of  SAW and SGK then testing acoustic/absorption power by measuring the absorption coefficient of the sound and the observation of microstructure. The method used in the study is an experiment in the laboratory to make composites based on the ratio of the weight fraction between SAW and SGK from 1: 5, 2: 5, 3: 5, 4: 5 and 5: 5. Having formed the composites, then the specimen has made by an acoustic test that compatible to ASTM E-1050-98 standard with B & K 4206 Small Tube Set test instrument. Furthermore, to determine the composition of fibers in the composites, there do the micro observation. From the results of the show the composites produced the sound absorption ability for the low frequency (1000 Hz with an absorption coefficient (α of 0.25 occurred in comparative fraction of 2: 5 (SAW20, SGK50. While at high frequency (5000 Hz has a value of coefficient (α of 0.41 occurred in the ratio of 1: 5 (SAW10, SGK50. The number of composition number fiber influence the composite tensile strength and micro observations occurred in the composition ratio of 5: 5 its highest strength.

  20. Novel Technique to improve the pH of Acidic Barren Soil using Electrokinetic-bioremediation with the application of Vetiver Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Zahin, A. M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Residual acidic slopes which are not covered by vegetation greatly increases the risk of soil erosion. In addition, low soil pH can bring numerous problems such as Al and Fe toxicity, land degradation issues and some problems related to vegetation. In this research, a series of electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio) treatments using Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida with a combination of Vetiver grass were performed in the laboratory. Investigations were conducted for 14 days and included the observation of changes in the soil pH and the mobilization of microorganism cells through an electrical gradient of 50 V/m under low pH. Based on the results obtained, this study has successfully proven that the pH of soil increases after going through electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio). The treatment using Bacillus sphaericus increases the pH from 2.95 up to 4.80, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 4.66. Based on the overall performance, Bacillus sphaericus show the highest number of bacterial cells in acidic soil with a value of 6.6 × 102 cfu/g, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 5.7 × 102 cfu/g. In conclusion, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis show high survivability and is suitable to be used in the remediation of acidic soil.

  1. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye under UV‐A Irradiation Using TiO2‐Vetiver Multifunctional Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Song Thao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and photocatalytic performance of anatase nanoparticles of pure TiO2 and a core–shell structure of TiO2 on calcined vetiver grass leaves have been compared. Samples were fabricated by sol‐gel and heating at 450 °C for 5h.The comparison was based on data for X‐ray diffraction(XRD, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area measurement, pore volume assessment, and methylene blue degradation testing. The results showed that the pure TiO2 consisted of agglomerated equiaxed nanoparticles of individual grain sizes in the range 10–20 nm. In contrast, the TiO2‐vetiver composite exhibited a core–shell structure consisting of a carbonaceous core and TiO2 shell of thickness 10–15nm. These features influenced the photocatalytic performance in such a way that the lower crosssectional area, greater surface area, and higher pore volume of the TiO2 shell increased the number of active sites, reduced the charge carrier diffusion distance, and reduced the recombination rate, thereby improving the photocatalytic activity. This improvement derived from morphological characteristics rather than crystallographic, semiconducting, or optical properties. The improved performance of the TiO2‐vetiver core–shell was unexpected since the X‐ray diffraction data showed that the crystallinity of the TiO2 was lower than that of the pure TiO2. These outcomes are attributed to the reducing effect of the carbon on the TiO2 during heating, thereby facilitating the formation of oxygen vacancies, which enhance charge separation and hence photocatalysis by TiO2.

  2. Performance evaluation of a dual-flow recharge filter for improving groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Manoj P; Senthilvel, S; Mathew, Abraham C

    2014-07-01

    A dual-flow multimedia stormwater filter integrated with a groundwater recharge system was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. The influent stormwater first flows horizontally through the circular layers of planted grass and biofibers. Subsequently, the flow direction changes to a vertical direction so that water moves through layers of pebbles and sand and finally gets recharged to the deep aquifers. The media in the sequence of vegetative medium:biofiber to pebble:sand were filled in nine proportions and tested for the best performing combination. Three grass species, viz., Typha (Typha angustifolia), Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), and St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), were tested as the best performing vegetative medium. The adsorption behavior of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) fiber, which was filled in the middle layer, was determined by a series of column and batch studies.The dual-flow filter showed an increasing trend in hydraulic efficiency with an increase in flowrate. The chemical removal efficiency of the recharge dual-flow filter was found to be very high in case of K+ (81.6%) and Na+ (77.55%). The pH normalizing efficiency and electrical conductivity reduction efficiency were also recorded as high. The average removal percentage of Ca2+ was moderate, while that of Mg2+ was very low. The filter proportions of 1:1 to 1:2 (plant:fiber to pebble:sand) showed a superior performance compared to all other proportions. Based on the estimated annual costs and returns, all the financial viability criteria (internal rate of return, net present value, and benefit-cost ratio) were found to be favorable and affordable to farmers in terms of investing in the developed filtration system.

  3. Plant-Mediated Changes in Soil N-Cycling Genes during Revegetation of Copper Mine Tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Li; Zhongjun Jia; Qingye Sun; Jianhua Cheng; Yang Yang; Jing Zhan; Dan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen limitation represents a major bottleneck during the revegetation of mine tailings. However, controls over key nitrogen-cycling genes in rhizospheric soils under differential vegetation management remain poorly understood. The abundance and transcriptional activity of nitrogen-cycling genes and the enzymatic activity of nitrogen transformation are mediated differentially during revegetation of mine tailings by Imperata cylindrica and Chrysopogon zizanioides plants. Results showed that...

  4. Evaluation of enhanced soil washing process and phytoremediation with maize oil, carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin, and vetiver grass for the recovery of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from a pesticide factory site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Liu, Zongtang; Ni, Ni; Chen, Yinwen; Gu, Chengang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2014-08-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in a mixed contaminated site. Elevated temperature (60 °C) combined with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 50 mL L(-1) maize oil and 45 g L(-1) carboxylmethyl-β-cyclodextrin were effective in extracting pollutants from the soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total OCPs, mirex, endosulfans, chlordanes, Cd, and Pb were approximately 94.7%, 87.2%, 98.5%, 92.3%, 91.6%, and 87.3%, respectively. Cultivation of vetiver grass and addition of nutrients for 3 months further degraded 34.7% of the residual total OCPs and partially restored the microbiological functions of the soil. This result was indicated by the significant increase in the number, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p pollutants in the remediated soil was at an acceptable level. The proposed combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cells experience an oxidative stress which contributes in a various clinical disorders such as cancer, heart diseases, neurogenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson`s disease, autoimmune disease, stroke, arthritis, ischemia, reperfusion injury, acute hypertension, haemorrhagic shock, emphysema, cirrhosis, ...

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lmboera

    anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin ...

  7. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth.

  8. Phytoextractor Potential of Cultivated Species in Industrial Area Contaminated by Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Maria de Souza Gomes Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: High growth rate is one of the criteria used for the selection of species to be used in metal phytoextraction programs. This study was carried out to characterize the growth characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., castor bean (Ricinus communis L., corn (Zea mays L, and vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash] grown on a soil contaminated with lead (Pb, with and without pH correction, to improve agronomic practices regarding phytoremediation programs. The experiment was designed as a randomized block with four replications; treatments were arranged in a split-plot arrangement, with the main plot representing the species (sunflower, castor bean, corn, and vetiver, with or without pH correction and soil fertilization, and the split-plot representing harvest periods (60, 90, and 120 days after planting. After variance analysis and mean comparison analysis of the data by the Tukey test (p≤0.05, a significant effect was observed from soil pH correction for vetiver in all of the growth variables evaluated, except for the leaf area index at 120 days after planting (DAP. Castor bean and sunflower plants in soil with high acidity conditions, without pH correction (pH˂4.0, were affected by soil Pb levels. Corn plants benefited from soil pH correction and had improved results for the plant height, diameter, and leaf area variables at 60 and 90 DAP, as well as leaf area index at 60 DAP. There was no increase in these variables between the harvest periods evaluated. Regarding phytoextraction potential, corn and vetiver had the highest Pb translocation to the plant shoots at 90 DAP and were therefore considered the most suitable species for phytoremediation of the area under study. Overall, liming was essential for improving species biomass production for all the species studied in soils with high Pb availability in solution.

  9. Evaluation of Mobility, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Pb and Cd in Contaminated Soil Using TCLP, BCR and Earthworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza F. M. Kede

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the reduction of mobility, availability and toxicity found in soil contaminated with lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from Santo Amaro Municipality, Bahia, Brazil using two combined methods, commonly tested separately according to the literature: metal mobilization with phosphates and phytoextraction. The strategy applied was the treatment with two sources of phosphates (separately and mixed followed by phytoremediation with vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.. The treatments applied (in triplicates were: T1—potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4; T2—reactive natural phosphate fertilizer (NRP and; T3—a mixture 1:1 of KH2PO4 and NRP. After this step, untreated and treated soils were planted with vetiver grass. The extraction procedures and assays applied to contaminated soil before and after the treatments included metal mobility test (TCLP; sequential extraction with BCR method; toxicity assays with Eisenia andrei. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF for Pb and Cd were estimated in all cases. All treatments with phosphates followed by phytoremediation reduced the mobility and availability of Pb and Cd, being KH2PO4 (T1 plus phytoremediation the most effective one. Soil toxicity however, remained high after all treatments.

  10. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  11. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  12. Suitability of multipurpose trees, shrubs and grasses to rehabilitate gullies in the sub-humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talema, Ayalew; Muys, Bart; Poesen, Jean; Padro, Roc; Dibaba, Hirko; Diels, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation plays a vital role for sustainable rehabilitation of degraded lands. However, the selection of suitable and effective plant species remains a long-lasting challenge in most parts of the sub-humid tropics. To address this challenge 18 multipurpose plant species (6 trees, 3 shrubs and 9 grasses), preselected from the regional species pool in Southwest Ethiopia were planted in severely degraded gullies and monitored from July 2011 to June 2014. The experiment had a split-plot design with farmyard manure (FYM) application, as main plot and plant species as sub-plot factors repeated in three blocks. The study revealed that grasses were the most successful to rehabilitate the gully within the monitoring period, compared to trees and shrubs. The survival rate of the four most successful grass species, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Pennisetum macrourum, Pennisetum polystachion and Pennisetum purpureum ranged from 61 to 90% with FYM application and from 20 to 85% without FYM, while most of the well-known indigenous and exotic trees and shrubs failed to survive. For the grass Pennisetum purpureum, shoot height, shoot and root dry biomass increased by 300%, 342% and 578% respectively due to FYM application, with a remarkably higher response to FYM compared to all the other studied species. The overall results demonstrate that severely degraded lands can be effectively restored by using early successional species such as locally adapted and selected grasses before the plantation of trees and shrubs.

  13. Effects of inorganic nitrogen forms on growth, morphology, nitrogen uptake capacity and nutrient allocation of four tropical aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia cucullata, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyperus involucratus and Vetiveria zizanioides)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2012-01-01

    plant species and seemed to be correlated to growth rate. All species had a high NO3− uptake rate when supplied with only NO3−. It seems that the NO3− transporters in the plasma membrane of the root cells and nitrate reductase activity were induced by external NO3−. Tissue mineral contents varied...... with species and tissue, but differences between treatments were generally small. We conclude, that the free-floating S. cucullata and I. aquatica are good candidate species for use in constructed wetland systems to remove N from polluted water. The rooted emergent plants can be used in subsurface flow...

  14. Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo: II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1952-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3. The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3. It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf, capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth, capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd. and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes, capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash, seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes.

  15. Effect of Gliricidia sepium supplementation on intake, digestibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine each of West African Dwarf Sheep and West African Dwarf Goats were used to evaluate the effect of Gliricidia sepium supplementation on the intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of vetiver grass. The dry matter intake was observed to be higher when fed vetiver grass with varied levels of Gliricidia sepium than ...

  16. Logah et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    mation practices in Ghana and draw implications for ecological sustainability. Using semi- ... The communities' participation in the reclama- ..... The system of strips of vetiver grass (Vetiveria .... their ratings on the level of satisfaction of the.

  17. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  18. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... tial of vetiver grass in removing nutrient and heavy metal loads from wastewater ... retention using the methods of water analysis described by. Sauter and ..... forming an immobilised microbial biomass on supporting surfaces ...

  19. Potential of Azotobacter vinelandii Khsr1 as bio-inoculant | Naz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with the isolation and characterization of Azotobacter vinelandii Khsr1 from roots of the weed, Chrysopogon aucheri, commonly known as golden beard grass indigenous to Khewra salt range, Pakistan and its evaluation as bio-inoculant. The population of the isolate varied from 107 to 108 cfu/g fresh ...

  20. Removing heavy metals from Isfahan composting leachate by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshoodeh, Reza; Alavi, Nadali; Soltani Mohammadi, Amir; Ghanavati, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Composting facility leachate usually contains high concentrations of pollutants including heavy metals that are seriously harmful to the environment and public health. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals removal from Isfahan composting facility (ICF) leachate by a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCWs) system. Two horizontal systems were constructed, one planted with vetiver and the other without plant as a control. They both operated at a flow rate of 24 L/day with a 5-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The average removal efficiencies for Cr (53 %), Cd (40 %), Ni (35 %), Pb (30 %), Zn (35 %), and Cu (40 %) in vetiver constructed wetland were significantly higher than those of the control (P < 0.05). Accumulations of heavy metals in roots were higher than shoots. Cd and Zn showed the highest and the lowest bioconcentration factor (BCF), respectively. Vetiver tolerates the extreme condition in leachate including high total dissolved solids.

  1. Green technology for keeping soil-water-nutrient fluxes on cultivated steep land and climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effiom Oku

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of vetiver as a green technology can address African farmers’ ecological problems through protecting farmlands on steep lands. In addition, it offers the opportunity to integrate smallholders into the green economy as it sequesters carbon, keep water and nutrient fluxes within the system, sustain high crop yield with climate change adaptation potentials. This is particularly important as more slopes are converted to agricultural lands due to increase in population density and poverty. Thus, the study investigated the optimal strip width for increases in soil productivity and farmers’ preferences for space. The study planted maize and cassava in between vetiver field structures (VFS installed on the contour at 5, 15 , 25 m apart and compared it with Farmers’ Practice (FP on a 45 % slope and quantified the amount of soil displaced, water and plant nutrient losses and crop yields. Vetiver installed at 5 m surface interval spacing significantly enhanced carbon sequestration indicating potentials for GHGs mitigation and reduced N, P, Ca, Mg, Na and K losses when compared with FP. Vetiver allowed only 7 % rainfall lost as against 29 % on FP this demonstrates the climate change adaptation potentials of vetiver. Soil displaced under FP was 68 times higher than the soil loss tolerance limit of 12 t ha-1 yr-1 whereas under VFS at 5, 15 and 25 m it was 2½, 13 and 12 times higher. Maize grain yield were 35, 23 and 24 % higher on the VFS field at 5, 15 and 25 m respectively when compared to FP. The corresponding values for cassava fresh tuber were 43, 32 and 29 % higher. Unlike other technologies, vetiver grass contributes to the livelihood of the farmers by providing raw material for house thatching, handicrafts and fodder for livestock during lean seasons.

  2. Control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental design used was randomized complete block. Data collected were analysed using F-test and significant means were separated using Least Significant Difference. The powdered plant materials showed no significant toxicity against F1 progeny but V. zizanioides significantly (P 0.01) repelled S. zeamais, ...

  3. Impact of Metals on Secondary Metabolites Production and Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    applications.18 In this study, to elucidate the mechanism employed by vetiver grass to adapt and tolerate metal-induced stress, the effect of metal toxicity on the production of phenolic compounds, structural and ultrastructural changes caused by accumulation of toxic metals were investigated. 2. Materials and Methods. 2.1.

  4. Environ: E00735 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00735 Vetiver oil Essential oil Zizanol, Vetiselinenol, Cyclocopacamphenol, beta-...Eudesmol [CPD:C09664], beta-Vetivone [CPD:C09745], alpha-Vetivone [CPD:C09744], Elemol, 10-epi-gamma-Eudesmol Vet...iveria zizanoides [TAX:167337] ... Poaceae Vetiveria zizanoides root Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Zizanol CAS: 8016-96-4

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwadukwe, P O. Vol 17 (2007) - Articles On-farm evaluation of the effect of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) hedgerow on the soil loss and yields of the components of Yam/Maize/Cassava intercropping system in Southeast Nigeria. Abstract · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  6. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science - Vol 17 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-farm evaluation of the effect of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) hedgerow on the soil loss and yields of the components of Yam/Maize/Cassava intercropping system in Southeast Nigeria. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P O Nwadukwe, A Udealor, 43-46 ...

  7. Influences of plant type on bacterial and archaeal communities in constructed wetland treating polluted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yi, Hao; Chen, Sili; Zhang, Zhengke; Cui, Kai; Bing, Yongxin; Zhuo, Qiongfang; Li, Bingxin; Xie, Shuguang; Guo, Qingwei

    2016-10-01

    Both bacteria and archaeal communities can play important roles in biogeochemical processes in constructed wetland (CW) system. However, the influence of plant type on microbial community in surface water CW remains unclear. The present study investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in five surface water CW systems with different plant species. The abundance, richness, and diversity of both bacterial and archaeal communities considerably differed in these five CW systems. Compared with the other three CW systems, the CW systems planted with Vetiveria zizanioides or Juncus effusus L. showed much higher bacterial abundance but lower archaeal abundance. Bacteria outnumbered archaea in each CW system. Moreover, the CW systems planted with V. zizanioides or J. effusus L. had relatively lower archaeal but higher bacterial richness and diversity. In each CW system, bacterial community displayed much higher richness and diversity than archaeal community. In addition, a remarkable difference of both bacterial and archaeal community structures was observed in the five studied CW systems. Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial group (accounting for 33-60 %). Thaumarchaeota organisms (57 %) predominated in archaeal communities in CW systems planted with V. zizanioides or J. effusus L., while Woesearchaeota (23 or 24 %) and Euryarchaeota (23 or 15 %) were the major archaeal groups in CW systems planted with Cyperus papyrus or Canna indica L. Archaeal community in CW planted with Typha orientalis Presl was mainly composed of unclassified archaea. Therefore, plant type exerted a considerable influence on microbial community in surface water CW system.

  8. Aktivitas minyak dan serbuk enam spesies tumbuhan terhadap peneluran dan Mortalitas Callosobruchus sp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Dadang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Storage pests remain one of the main problems in storage. The pest attacks occur not only in the field, but also in storage. Control should be done to maintain the quality of storedproducts. The environmentally friendly measures should be implemented to avoid negative impacts to the environment and human being. The objective of this research was to study the mortality and oviposition deterrence caused by powder and oil of six plant species against Callosobruchus sp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Flowers of Eugenia aromatica, roots of Vetiveria zizanioides, leaves of Pogostemon cablin, seeds of Ricinus communis, seeds of Foeniculum vulgare, and stems of Cymbopogon citratus were air-dried and milled to yield powder. Oil of six plant species were purchased from local market. Oviposition deterrent bioassay was conducted by no-choice method for both powder and oil, while mortality bioassay was conducted by topical application and residual methods for plant oil only. Several plant species showed high biological activity to Callosobruchus sp. Powder of E. aromatica and oil of V. zizanioides caused high oviposition deterrence, while oil of V. zizanioides and E. aromatica caused high mortality.

  9. A comparative study on the potential of oxygen release by roots of selected wetland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fang; Shen, Gen-xiang; Li, Xue-lian; Li, Huai-zheng; Hu, Hong; Ni, Wu-zhong

    The capacity of root oxygen release by selected wetland plants pre-grown under both nutrient solution and artificial wastewater conditions were determined. The results indicated that the significant differences of root oxygen release by the tested wetland plants existed, and the biochemical process was the main source of root oxygen release as oxygen released by Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash roots through biochemical process was contributed to 77% and 74% of total root oxygen release under nutrient solution conditions and artificial wastewater conditions, respectively, and that was 72% and 71% of total root oxygen release for Cyperus alternifolius L. It was found that the formation of root plaque with iron oxide was a function of root oxygen release as iron oxide concentration in root plaque was positively correlated to the potential of oxygen released by wetland plant roots with the regression coefficients as 0.874 *( p nutrient solution conditions and 0.944 **( p wastewater conditions, which could be regarded as an important mechanism of wetland plants being tolerant to anoxia during wastewater treatment. It was suggested that the potential of root oxygen release could be used as a parameter for selecting wetland plants that can increase oxygen supply to soil or substrate of constructed wetlands and enhance nutrient transformation and removal, and V. zizanioides L. Nash with the highest potential of root oxygen release and higher tolerance to wastewater could be recommended to establish vegetated wetlands for treating nutrient-rich wastewater such as domestic wastewater.

  10. [Effects of plant hedgerow on population dynamics of wheat aphid and its natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Qing; Lin, Chao-Wen; Liu, Zhang-Yong; Li, Chuan-Ren; Chen, Yi-Bing; Ma, Tao; Wang, Qi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Cai, Qing-Nian

    2011-12-01

    This paper studied the effects of planting different kinds of plant hedgerow (Amorpha fruticosa, Vetiveria zizanioides, Eulaliopsis binata, and Medicago sativa) on the population dynamics of wheat aphid and its natural enemies in the hillside wheat fields in Ziyang City of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. On the 20 degrees hillside, A. fruticosa hedgerow inhibited the occurrence of wheat aphid in the wheat field significantly, and the parasitoid densities were equal to or significantly lower than those in the wheat field with V. zizanioides hedgerow. On the 12 degrees hillside, M. sativa and E. binata hedgerows delayed the peak time of wheat aphid occurrence, and E. binata hedgerow suppressed the wheat aphid population density significantly. In the wheat field with M. sativa hedgerow, the parasitoid densities were significantly higher than those with no hedgerow. An equal or significantly higher ladybird density was observed in the field with M. sativa hedgerow. The olfactory responses showed that E. binata volatiles had repellent effect on both Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi, but attracted a spider species of oxyopidae. M. sativa volatiles attracted S. avenae, whereas neither M. sativa nor E. binata volatiles caused obvious behavior response of ladybird adults. Therefore, planting A. fruticosa and E. binata as the hedgerows in hillside wheat fields could not only prevent the soil erosion from seasonal rainfall, but also benefit the control of pest insects.

  11. Enzyme and root activities in surface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling; Wang, Yu-Bin; Zhao, Li-Na; Chen, Zhang-He

    2009-07-01

    Sixteen small-scale wetlands planted with four plant species were constructed for domestic wastewater purification. The objective of this study was to determine the correlations between contaminant removal and soil enzyme activity, root activity, and growth in the constructed wetlands. The results indicated that correlations between contaminant removal efficiency and enzyme activity varied depending on the contaminants. The removal efficiency of NH4+ was significantly correlated with both urease and protease activity in all wetlands, and the removal of total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus was significantly correlated with phosphatase activity in most wetlands, while the removal of total nitrogen, NO3(-) , and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was significantly correlated with enzyme activity only in a few instances. Correlations between soil enzyme activity and root activity varied among species. Activities of all enzymes were significantly correlated with root activity in Vetiveria zizanioides and Phragmites australis wetlands, but not in Hymenocallis littoralis wetlands. Significant correlations between enzyme activity and root biomass and between enzyme activity and root growth were found mainly in Cyperus flabelliformis wetlands. Root activity was significantly correlated with removal efficiencies of all contaminants except NO3(-) and COD in V. zizanioides wetlands. Enzyme activities and root activity showed single-peak seasonal patterns. Activities of phosphatase, urease, and cellulase were significantly higher in the top layer of the substrate than in the deeper layers, and there were generally no significant differences between the deeper layers (deeper than 15 cm).

  12. Penghambatan aktivitas peneluran kumbang kacang hijau Callosobruchus Chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae oleh extrak sepuluh spesies tumbuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Dadang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition Deterrence of Bean Weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L.(Coleoptera: Bruchidae Treated with Ten Plant Extracts. Pest and Diseases attack agricultural products not only in the field but also in storehouse. Their attack causes decreasing both quantity and quality of stored materials. One of important stored product insect pests is Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Till now the effective strategy to control this insect pest is chemical control by using synthetic insecticides. The improper use synthetic insecticides causes some undesirable effects, so alternative strategist should be searched to controls insect pests in storehouse. One of the alternatives is by using plant materials as insect pests control agent. The aim of this study was to find out the oviposition deterrence of C. chinensis treated with ten plant which were extracted with methanol, hexane and ether. Oviposition deterrence was evaluated by choice and no-choice methods at 1,3 and 5% of extract concentration. Extract of Acorus calamus (methanol, A.calamus (hexane, A. calamus (ether, Illicium verum (ether, Pogostemon calbin (hexane, P. cablin (ether, Vetiveria zizanioides (hexane, and V. zizanioides (ether were able to deter ovipostion activity of C. chinensis by more than 90% of deterrence. Further study should be conducted to isolate and identify the active compound and to make botanical insecticide formulation for practical use as a commercial product.

  13. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. © 2014 IUMS.

  14. Composting plant leachate treatment by a pilot-scale, three-stage, horizontal flow constructed wetland in central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshoodeh, Reza; Alavi, Nadali; Paydary, Pooya

    2017-10-01

    Handling and treatment of composting leachate is difficult and poses major burdens on composting facilities. The main goal of this study was to evaluate usage of a three-stage, constructed wetland to treat leachate produced in Isfahan composting facility. A pilot-scale, three-stage, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland, planted with vetiver with a flow rate of 24 L/day and a 15-day hydraulic retention time, was used. Removal of organic matter, ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen, suspended solids, and several heavy metals from Isfahan composting facility leachate was monitored over a 3-month period. Constructed wetland system was capable of efficiently removing BOD5 (87.3%), COD (74.5%), ammonia (91.5%), nitrate (87.9%), total nitrogen (87.8%), total suspended solids (85.5%), and heavy metals (ranging from 70 to 90%) from the composting leachate. High contaminant removal efficiencies were achieved, but effluent still failed to meet Iranian standards for treated wastewater. This study shows that although a three-stage horizontal flow constructed wetland planted with vetiver cannot be used alone to treat Isfahan composting facility leachate, but it has the potential to be used as a leachate pre-treatment step, along with another complementary method.

  15. Fractional analysis of arsenic in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands with different length to depth ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhakant, C; Koottatep, T; Satayavivad, J

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic (As) removal in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CW) planting with vetiver grasses was experimented by comparing between two different configurations; (i) deep-bed units (dpCW) with length to depth (L:D) ratio=2 and (ii) shallow-bed units (shCW) with L:D ratio=8; operating at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 9, and 12 days. The tracer study of CW units revealed that no effect of L:D ratio on dispersion number could be determined, but affecting to the effective volume ratio. Based on the data obtained from the pilot-scale experiments of CW units for 117 days, it is apparent that the dpCW could achieve relatively high As removals (52.9%, 59.2%, and 72.1% at HRT of 6, 9, and 12 days, respectively). Analysis of As mass balance showed that only 0.2-0.4% of As input was uptaken by vetiver grasses whereas the major portion was retained in the CW media (38.9-77.6%). Forms of the retained As was determined by sequential fractionation which could indicate As complexation with iron and manganese on the media surface of 31-38% and As trapping into the media of 42-52% of the total. No obvious difference of As fractions in bed of between dpCW and shCW units was observable.

  16. [Effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xing; He, Bing-Hui; Mei, Xue-Mei; Liang, Yan-Ling; Xiong, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Taking bare land as the control, this paper studied the effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area. For the test six planting modes, the soil permeability was in the order of Eriobotrya japonica > Citrus limon > Vetiveria zizanioides hedgerows +corn >Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows + corn> Hemerocallis fulva > corn> bare land, and decreased with increasing depth. The eigenvalues of soil infiltration were in the order of initial infiltration rate> average infiltration rate> stable infiltration rate. The soil permeability had significant positive linear correlations with soil total porosity, non-capillary porosity, initial moisture content, water holding capacity, and organic matter content, and significant negative linear correlation with soil bulk density. The common empirical infiltration model could well fit the soil moisture infiltration processes under the six planting modes, while the Kostiakov equation could not.

  17. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf, Origanum vulgare (aerial parts, Paeonia emodi (tubers, and Peganum harmala (seeds was also carried out for the first time.

  18. Biofertilizers for the revegetation of coal overburden dumps top materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikhil, K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Group

    2001-07-01

    Adding and improving nutrient status of overburden dump top material through biofertilizer for supporting vegetation and for sustainable spoil development, a pot experiment was conducted. In this, two bio-fertilizers namely bactin and phosphin in three doses were applied on overburden dump top material kept in pots growing two grass species. The growths were compared with control on dump and soil both. Results shows that overburden dump amended with bio-fertilizer at lowest dose have significant increase in growth over the control of dump material and soil in vetiver grass but failed to shows the same result in lemon grass. This may be due to different growth behaviour of the grasses. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  20. CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS REGARDING THE REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED LANDS: CASE STUDY FROM THE PACIFIC ISLAND OF GUAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Golabi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded lands of southern Guam are referred to as BadLands. These are actively eroding areas of very deep, well–drained saprolite derived from tuff and tuff breccia. These badlands are exposed to overland flow, wind and rain causing sever erosion as the result of rapid runoff from the pitted, sloping sites void of vegetation. Through soil removal or sediment transport, erosion also alters the inherent physical and chemical properties of these soils. This alteration resulted in degradation, in turn affecting the environment as well as water quality in the down stream. The on-site damage from erosion is indeed a problem to environmental ecosystem of the island. Sediment lost due to erosion clogs rivers, lakes, and waterways. It reduces the water storage capacity of reservoirs and canals and increases flooding.The challenge facing soil and environmental scientists is to develop conservation and restoration strategies at the farm as well as at the watershed level that address crop production and natural resources protection needs, within a framework of increasing environmental and financial constraints. In our soil conservation program at the College of Natural and Applied Sciences of the University of Guam we have adopted integrated approaches to evaluate a variety of strategies, including the effect of conservation tillage and residue management, crop rotation with leguminous plants (sunnhemp as green manure as well as the use of composted organic wastes as soil amendment for organic matter build up, all for soil rehabilitation and restoration of the badlands in southern Guam. In a companion study we are evaluating the effectiveness of Vetiver technology as a sediment trap to mitigate sediment transport in a typical watershed basin in southern Guam. This paper discusses the methodology as well as up to date data that shows the effect of Vetiver technology on sediment trapping at the watershed level.

  1. Contact and fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oils against B- and Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chae, Song-Hwa; Youn, Hee-Sung; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-09-01

    The contact + fumigant toxicity of 92 plant essential oils and control efficacy of 18 experimental spray formulations containing nine selected essential oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and six commercial insecticides to females from B- and Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci were evaluated using vapour-phase mortality and spray bioassays. Garlic and oregano (LC50 , 0.15 mL cm(-3) ) were the most toxic oils against B- and Q-biotype females. Strong fumigant toxicity to both biotype females was also obtained from catnip, cinnamon bark, clove bud, clove leaf, davana, savory and vetiver Haiti oils (LC50 , 0.17-0.48 mL cm(-3) ). The 0.5% sprays of these oils (except for thyme red oil) resulted in 90-100% mortality against both biotype females. Only garlic applied as 0.1% spray provided 100% mortality. Spinosad 100 g L(-1) suspension concentrate (SC) treatment resulted in 92 and 95% mortality against both biotype females, whereas acetamiprid 80 g L(-1) wettable powder (WP), imidacloprid 80 g L(-1) SC, thiamethoxam 100 g L(-1) water-dispersible granule (WDG) and pyridaben 200 g L(-1) WP treatments resulted in 89-100% mortality against B-biotype females only. In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment, the essential oils described, particularly garlic, cinnamon bark and vetiver Haiti, merit further study as potential insecticides for the control of B. tabaci populations as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISASI KITOSAN BERTAUT SILANG GLUTARALDEHIDA SEBAGAI ADSORBEN PEMURNIAN MINYAK AKAR WANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fathurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Synthesis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan (chitosan-GA has been done and characterized by using FTIR and TGA. Adsorption of Fe(III ion by glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan (chitosan-GA has been studied by using batch method. The objectives of this research are to know optimum adsorption condition of Fe(III ion by chitosan-GA, then study influence of Cu(II ion to adsorption of Fe(III ion and its application to vetiver oil. Optimum conditions are finding out by response surface Box Behnken method. Percent adsorption value of Fe(III ion by Chitosan-GA (DD = 78% is about 91,8439% in optimum conditions : weight adsorbent 0,75 gram, temperature 25oC, time contact 360 minutes. Percent adsorption of Fe(III ion was decreased from 91,9521% to 79,724% because the existence of Cu(II ion. The color of vetiver oil was changed from dark to reddish brown.Abstrak: Kitosan bertaut silang glutaraldehida (kitosan-GA disintesis dan dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan FTIR dan TGA. Adsorpsi ion Fe(III oleh kitosan-GA telah dipelajari dengan menggunakan metoda Batch. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi optimum dari adsorpsi ion Fe(III oleh kitosan-GA, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan mempelajari pengaruh ion Cu (II terhadap adsorpsi Fe(III dan aplikasinya pada minyak akar wangi. Optimasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode respon permukaan desain Box Behnken. Serpih kitosan-GA dengan derajat deasetilisasi 78% mempunyai persen adsorpsi terhadap ion Fe(III sebesar 91,9521% pada kondisi optimum: bobot adsorben 0,75 gram, suhu 25oC, dan waktu kotak 360 menit. Persen adsorpsi ion Fe(III yang awalnya 91,9521% mengalami penurunan menjadi 79,7244% akibat adanya ion Cu(II. Minyak akar wangi yang awalnya berwarna gelap kemudian berubah menjadi cokelat kemerahan.

  3. Aciculatin induces p53-dependent apoptosis via MDM2 depletion in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yu Lai

    Full Text Available Aciculatin, a natural compound extracted from the medicinal herb Chrysopogon aciculatus, shows potent anti-cancer potency. This study is the first to prove that aciculatin induces cell death in human cancer cells and HCT116 mouse xenografts due to G1 arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The primary reason for cell cycle arrest and cell death was p53 accumulation followed by increased p21 level, dephosphorylation of Rb protein, PUMA expression, and induction of apoptotic signals such as cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. We demonstrated that p53 allele-null (-/- (p53-KO HCT116 cells were more resistant to aciculatin than cells with wild-type p53 (+/+. The same result was achieved by knocking down p53 with siRNA in p53 wild-type cells, indicating that p53 plays a crucial role in aciculatin-induced apoptosis. Although DNA damage is the most common event leading to p53 activation, we found only weak evidence of DNA damage after aciculatin treatment. Interestingly, the aciculatin-induced downregulation of MDM2, an important negative regulator of p53, contributed to p53 accumulation. The anti-cancer activity and importance of p53 after aciculatin treatment were also confirmed in the HCT116 xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that aciculatin treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inhibition of MDM2 expression, thereby inducing p53 accumulation without significant DNA damage and genome toxicity.

  4. Native plants for erosion control in urban river slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Alvarado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and structural erosion of soils is produced by the loss of the vegetal cover and the action of rain on unprotected surfaces. Raindrop impact, transport and sediment deposition leads to landslides and slope instability and soil loss. In Costa Rica, water bodies have been negatively impacted by urban development and both water resources and soils have become more vulnerable. This is the case of the Pirro river micro watershed where riverbed vegetation has been replaced by constructions producing erosion problems in its slopes. In order to evaluate how native plants favor sediment control and prevent this sediment from been deposited in the river, eight experimental plots were installed. Four treatments were established: A (Costus pulverulentus Presl, B (Heliconia tortuosa (Griggs Standl., C (Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash and D (control. Sediments were collected weekly during the rainy and transitional seasons. A clear relation between rainfall intensity and sediment production was determined, particularly for intensities higher than 50 mm h-1. Significant differences were also determined between the treatments and the efficiency order was B >A > C >D, with the native plants being the most efficient in terms of sediment control. The use of native plants is recommended for the management and rehabilitation of slopes near urban rivers due to their ecological value and their capability for sediment control.

  5. [Effects of constructed wetlands on treating with nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater from hoggery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xind; Luo, Shiming

    2002-06-01

    Using plant species Vetiveria zizanioides (VCWS) and Cyperus alternifolius (CCWS) respectively, two constructed wetlands (CWS) with size of 1.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.8 m were established. The purifying function and its change pattern among different seasons, influent concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of CWS on nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater from a hoggery was studied throughout four seasons in the year. The results showed that the effects of HRT and wastewater concentration on the removal rate of NH3-N and S-PO4(3-) were obvious in both VCWS and CCWS. High removal rates of NH3-N and S-PO4(3-) were obtained in CCWS and VCWS in spring. Significant removal of TN in wastewater existed in CCWS and VCWS in autumn, while significant removal of TP in wastewater existed only in VCWS. The removal of TP or S-PO4(3-) against the HRT in CWS followed exponential function. The rates of P removal in winter and summer changed with the influent concentrations. Under the same HRT, the change of S-PO4(3-) concentrations in outflow against the influent concentration followed a linear relationship.

  6. Comparative anthelmintic activity investigation of selected ethno-medicinal weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueblos, Kirstin Rhys S.; Bajalla, Mark; Pacheco, Dixie; Ganot, Sheila; Paig, Daisy; Tapales, Radyn; Lagare, Jeanne; Quimque, Mark Tristan J.

    2017-01-01

    Helminth infections are one of the seriously neglected potent diseases in many parts of the world. The problems of parasitic helminthes becoming resistant to currently available anthelmintic drugs pose a challenge for the search - relying on natural products - for new and better anthelmintics. In this paper, four abundant Philippine weeds: Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. Cyperus brevifolius Rottb., Ruellia tuberosa Linn. and Saccharum spontaneum Linn. were investigated for their anthelmintic activities to establish basis of their folkloric claim. The hexane-soluble and chloroform-soluble extracts were obtained through sequential solvent partitioning of the crude ethanolic extract of the air-dried aerial part of each plant sample. Meanwhile, the decoction was obtained from fresh aerial part of the plant samples. All extracts were then subjected to in vitro anthelmintic screening at different concentration as per method of Ghosh, et al. against African nightcrawler earthworms (Eudrillus euginiae) in which the activity of the extracts was determined by correlation with time. The anthelmintic bioassay results revealed a dose-dependent toxicity relationship. It indicated relatively low anthelmintic activities of the decoction of the four plant samples as compared to their corresponding crude ethanol extracts. Among the crude ethanol extracts, C. brevifolius (CBE) gave fastest time to bring about paralysis and death to the test organisms at all concentrations tested. For the hexane extracts, R. tuberosa (RTH) gave better activity among other plant samples. Lastly, among the chloroform-soluble extracts, both that of C. brevifolius (CBC) and R. tuberosa (RTC) comparably showed strongest anthelmintic activities at all tested concentrations, thus, exhibited best anthelmintic activity that is remarkably comparable to the positive control, Mebendazole at the highest concentration tested. In fact, CBC and RTC showed highest anthelmintic potential compared to all extracts tested in

  7. Germination Responses of Several Poaceae Members towards Differential Storage Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna R. PANCHAL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over biodiversity loss and increasing biological invasion have forced interest on assessment of the effects on native plant species diversity in grassland community. To observe different patterns of grass emergence (dormancy/germination in the warm tropical grasslands of India, time span of a seed from the seedling stage to a mature plant becomes very crucial for the community development. In the present study seed germination response of six dominant species of the selected study area were tested to record the various effects of dry storage conditions on seed germinability. The species selected were Apluda mutica L., Cenchrus ciliaris L., Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng. Chiov., Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk. Stapf., Heteropogon contortus (L. P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult. and Themeda triandra (R. Br. Stapf. For this purpose, seed collection at mature seed stage, seed processing and dry seed storage were followed by the germination test system. Obtained results are exhibited in the form of different responses such as, species response patterns towards capacity for immediate germination, responses to dormancy, dry storage and temperature fluctuation. The extent of the requirement in breakage of primary dormancy was highly correlated with the timing of seed maturity, precursors of seed dormancy and seed viability. In present screening out of the six studied species Apluda mutica, Cenchrus ciliaris and Dichanthium annulatum showed dependable germination pattern to fluctuating temperature. The correlation between viability and germination suggests that the germination of Apluda mutica, Cenchrus ciliaris and Themeda triandra are linearly dependent on the viability that the seeds of these species have. As these species showed less influence with the relative fluctuating environment, they can be stored for longer period and frequently can be use for community regeneration in pasture development.

  8. Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, Habtamu T.; Madakadze, I. C.; Angassa, A.; Hassen, A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species’ preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists’ claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists’ experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (prangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (prangeland forage species for sustainable animal production. PMID

  9. Biochar-based constructed wetlands to treat reverse osmosis rejected concentrates in chronic kidney disease endemic areas in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athapattu, B C L; Thalgaspitiya, T W L R; Yasaratne, U L S; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-12-01

    The objectives were to investigate the potential remedial measures for reverse osmosis (RO) rejected water through constructed wetlands (CWs) with low-cost materials in the media established in chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) prevalent area in Sri Lanka. A pilot-scale surface and subsurface water CWs were established at the Medawachchiya community-based RO water supply unit. Locally available soil, calicut tile and biochar were used in proportions of 81, 16.5 and 2.5% (w/w), respectively, as filter materials in the subsurface. Vetiver grass and Scirpus grossus were selected for subsurface wetland while water lettuce and water hyacinth were chosen for free water surface CWs. Results showed that the CKDu sensitive parameters; total dissolved solids, hardness, total alkalinity and fluoride were reduced considerably (20-85%) and most met desirable levels of stipulated ambient standards. Biochar seemed to play a major role in removing fluoride from the system which may be due to the existing and adsorbed K + , Ca +2 , Mg +2 , etc. on the biochar surface via chemisorption. The least reduction was observed for alkalinity. This study indicated potential purification of aforesaid ions in water which are considerably present in RO rejection. Therefore, the invented bio-geo constructed wetland can be considered as a sustainable, economical and effective option for reducing high concentrations of CKDu sensitive parameters in RO rejected water before discharging into the inland waters.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The Reclamation of Tailing Area Reclamation in The Mining Area with Forages, is it Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailings are what’s left over from mining. The rock where copper, gold, silver and other minerals found is ground up into fine particles so that the valuable material can be taken out and refined. The solid waste would affect the environment physically and biologically. Characteristics of tailing are high porosity with low water holding capacity, poor organic matter, poor macro and micro nutrients and no microorganism activity. Therefore, it takes time and requires strategy to manage and change them to a more productive area. Many technologies have been applied to rehabilitate tailing for agriculture. The technologies including the use of manure, compost, mulch, biosolid, chemical fertilizer, microorganism (bacteria, mycorhiza and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate selected contaminants in the contaminated soil, sludge, sediment, water (ground, surface, waste water. Phytoremediation encompasses a number of different methods that can lead to contaminant degradation, removal or immobilization. Those methods including phytodegradation/rhizodegradation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization and phytostabilization. The phytoextraction is inexpensive compared with the conventional technology. Some forages have been used for phytoremediation such as Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass, Vetiveria zizonoides (Vetiver grass, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, since they have been known as heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant.

  12. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Effects of stabilization treatment on migration and transformation of heavy metals in mineral waste residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Pan, Wei-Bin; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Che, Rong; Ou, Ying-Juan; Lei, Guo-Jian; Zhou, Ding

    2014-04-01

    Different forms of heavy metals in soil will produce different environmental effects, and will directly influence the toxicity, migration and bioavailability of heavy metals. This study used lime, fly ash, dried sludge, peanut shells as stabilizers in the treatment of heavy metals in mineral waste residues. Morphological analyses of heavy metal, leaching experiments, potted plant experiments were carried out to analyze the migration and transformation of heavy metals. The results showed that after adding stabilizers, the pH of the acidic mineral waste residues increased to more than neutral, and the organic matter content increased significantly. The main existing forms of As, Pb, and Zn in the mineral waste residues were the residual. The contents of exchangeable and organic matter-bound As decreased by 65.6% and 87.7% respectively after adding fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells. Adding lime, fly ash and peanut shells promoted the transformation of As from the Fe-Mn oxide-bound to the carbonate-bound, and adding lime and fly ash promoted the transformation of Pb and Zn from the exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxide-bound, organic matter-bound to the residual. After the early stage of the stabilization treatment, the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate had varying degrees of decline, and adding peanut shells could reduce the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate further. Among them, the content of As decreased most significantly after treatment with fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells, with a decline of 57.4%. After treatment with lime, fly ash and peanut shells, the content of Zn decreased most significantly, by 24.9%. The addition of stabilizers was advantageous to the germination and growth of plants. The combination of fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shell produced the best effect, and the Vetiveria zizanioides germination rate reached 76% in the treated wasted mineral residues.

  14. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  15. Nutritive Value of Grasses in Semi-arid Rangelands of Ethiopia: Local Experience Based Herbage Preference Evaluation versus Laboratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu T. Keba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species’ preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF and ash content to verify pastoralists’ claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV and dry matter digestibility (DMD were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists’ experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05 variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5% content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8 and Aristida adoensis (9.8% during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV

  16. Aciculatin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression via suppressing NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK activation pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Chih

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development. Inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 have been suggested to connect with various inflammatory diseases. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aciculatin (8-((2R,4S,5S,6R-tetrahydro-4,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yl-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one, one of main components of Chrysopogon aciculatis, by examining its effects on the expression and activity of iNOS and COX-2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophages. Methods We used nitrate and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 assays to examine inhibitory effect of aciculatin on nitric oxide (NO and PGE2 levels in LPS-activated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and further investigated the mechanisms of aciculatin suppressed LPS-mediated iNOS/COX-2 expression by western blot, RT-PCR, reporter gene assay and confocal microscope analysis. Results Aciculatin remarkably decreased the LPS (1 μg/mL-induced mRNA and protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 as well as their downstream products, NO and PGE2 respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner (1-10 μM. Such inhibition was found, via immunoblot analyses, reporter gene assays, and confocal microscope observations that aciculatin not only acts through significant suppression of LPS-induced NF-κB activation, an effect highly correlated with its inhibitory effect on LPS-induced IκB kinase (IKK activation, IκB degradation, NF-κB phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding of NF-κB to the κB motif of the iNOS and COX-2 promoters, but also suppressed phosphorylation of JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that aciculatin exerts potent anti-inflammatory activity through its dual inhibitory effects on iNOS and COX-2 by regulating NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK pathways.

  17. A Review On Dump Slope Stabilization By Revegetation With Reference To Indigenous Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The waste sub-grade ROM and Fines dumps are characterized by high rock fragment contents low moisture retention capacity higher bulk density low nutrients lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Use of suitable revegetation programme that require the selection of right type of plants to be used vis--vis the site condition and characteristics can enhance the long term stability both mechanical and ecological of dumps waste sub-grade ROM and fines through providing vegetative cover to control soil erosion amp gully formation consolidation of dump top amp side surfaces binding the loose particles through intricate roof system etc. This paper overviews the roles of Revegetation programme that can be used where vegetation is considered to be the long term answer to slope protection and erosion control. Various revegetation processes like Coir matting Lemmon Grass Vetiver Grass and Indigenous plant etc. may find a wide range of usage in Iron ore mines for dump stabilization.Miyawaki method of plantation is more effective than the conventional method of plantation. This will lead to co-existence of plants and as a matter of fact each plant draws from the other vital nutrients and they grow to become strong and healthy. The Miyawaki Plantation technique aim at Survival at fittest the area undergone such plantation have an ecology of their own. The Indigenous Plant has good binding capacity and helps to control soil erosion as well as improve the dump stability. Indigenous plant species like as Shorea robusta Sal CROTON ROXBURGHII Dal-bergia Sisoo SHISHAM KARANJ Azadirachta NEEM etc. The growth of indigenous plants is depending upon the soil quality as well as the organic matter of the dump material. The leaf debris plays important role for improving the organic matter of dump material for successfully implementation of revegetation programme.

  18. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  19. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-03-15

    Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus

  20. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  1. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  2. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    foster environmental sustainability or further sustainable alternative erosion control techniques may be applied, such as applying Vetiver Eco-engineering Technology due to its economical soil erosion control and stabilization of steep slopes and the construction of erosion control dams to absorb and break down excess runoff from unusually intense storms in various parts of the watersheds.