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Sample records for vetiver buffer strip

  1. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  2. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of season, vegetation, and buffer width

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of vegetative buffer strips (VBS) for reducing herbicide transport in runoff may be affected by season, plant species composition, and buffer width. A plot-scale study was conducted from 2007-2012 on an eroded claypan soil with the objectives of: 1) assessing the effects of season ...

  3. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of buffer width, vegetation, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  4. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  5. Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2013-04-01

    When soil nitrate levels are inadequate, plants suffer nitrogen deficiency but when the levels are excessive, nitrates (NO3-N) can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The experimental site, a 10 m wide and 80 m long area at the bottom of a vineyard was selected in Sicily. The soil between vine rows and upslope of the buffer strip (seeded with Lolium perenne) and non-buffer strips (control) was managed conventionally and with one of two cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. L. perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. V. sativa cover crop management contribute with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduce the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip.

  6. Effects of grazing management and buffer strips on metal runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter may pose a threat to aquatic systems. Buffer strips have been added to fields to reduce nutrients and solids runoff. However, scant information exists on the effects of buffer strips combined with grazing management strategies on metal runoff f...

  7. Experiences gained from implementing mandatory buffer strips in Denmark: how can we enhance their ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Baatrup-Pedersen, Annette

    The Danish Parliament adopted in June 2012 a Buffer Strip Act that required 10 m mandatory buffer strips (BSs) to be established along all watercourses and lakes with a surface area greater than 100 m2 from 1st September 2012. The main reasons for deploying BSs was to reduce nitrate-N leaching an...

  8. Classification of Orthophotos to Identify Vegetative Buffer Strips to Update Existing Land Use Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative buffer strips (VBS) including grass buffer, forested buffer (FBS), among others, are important best management practices implemented in agricultural areas to control the movement of potential agricultural contaminants into water bodies. The importance of VBS has led the Natural Resource C...

  9. Reduced nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water under a non-fertilised grass buffer strip.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.L.; Heinen, M.; Clevering, O.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the suitability of a buffer strip to reduce nitrate concentrations in the upper groundwater was tested for a sandy arable soil in The Netherlands during two consecutive leaching seasons. The bufferstrip was a 3.5 m wide unfertilised grass strip adjacent to a ditch on an arable field.

  10. Mechanistic modeling & effectiveness of buffer strips for pesticide regulatory frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) have been used as an effective conservation practice in agricultural areas for controlling and mitigate the effect of sediment, nutrients and pesticides loads into water bodies. In addition to the agricultural sector, another important use of VFS for controlling plague...

  11. Potential Efficiency of Riparian Vegetated Buffer Strips in Intercepting Soluble Compounds in the Presence of Subsurface Preferential Flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Edith Allaire

    Full Text Available Buffer strips have been widely recognized as to promote infiltration, deposition and sorption of contaminants for protecting surface water against agricultural contamination. However, such strips do not intercept all contaminants, particularly soluble ones. Although preferential flow (PF has been suggested as one factor among several decreasing the efficiency of buffer strips, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. This project examines buffer strip efficiency at intercepting solutes when subsurface PF occurs. Two soluble sorbed tracers, FD&C Blue #1 and rhodamine WT, were applied on an agricultural sandy loam soil to evaluate the ability of a naturally vegetated buffer strip to intercept soluble contaminants. Rhodamine was applied about 15 m from the creek, while the Blue was applied 15 m to 165 m from the creek. Tracer concentration was measured over a two-year period in both the creek and the buffer strip through soil and water samples. Although the tracers traveled via different pathways, they both quickly moved toward the creek, passing beneath the buffer strip through the soil matrix. Our results demonstrate that the risk of water contamination by soluble contaminants is high in such systems, even when a well-vegetated buffer strip is used. The design of buffer strips should be modified to account for underground bypass, either by using plants that have deep, fine roots that do not favour PF or by adding a filter extending deep underground that can be regularly changed.

  12. Effects of Grazing Management and Buffer Strips on Metal Runoff from Pastures Fertilized with Poultry Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, C; Moore, P A; Pote, D H; Martin, J W; DeLaune, P B

    2017-03-01

    Metal runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter may pose a threat to aquatic systems. Buffer strips located adjacent to fields may reduce nutrients and solids in runoff. However, scant information exists on the long-term effects of buffer strips combined with grazing management on metal runoff from pastures. The objective of this study was to assess the 12-yr impact of grazing management and buffer strips on metal runoff from pastures receiving poultry litter. The research was conducted using 15 watersheds (25 m wide and 57 m long) with five treatments: hayed (H), continuously grazed (CG), rotationally grazed (R), rotationally grazed with a buffer strip (RB), and rotationally grazed with a fenced riparian buffer strip (RBR). Poultry litter was applied annually in spring at 5.6 Mg ha. Runoff samples were collected after every rainfall event. Aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations were strongly and positively correlated with total suspended solids, indicating soil erosion was the primary source. Soluble Al and Fe were not related to total Al and Fe. However, there was a strong positive correlation between soluble and total copper (Cu) concentrations. The majority of total Cu and zinc was in water-soluble form. The CG treatment had the highest metal concentrations and loads of all treatments. The RBR and H treatments resulted in lower concentrations of total Al, Cu, Fe, potassium, manganese, and total organic carbon in the runoff. Rotational grazing with a fenced riparian buffer and converting pastures to hayfields appear to be effective management systems for decreasing concentrations and loads of metals in surface runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Effectiveness of unfertilized buffer strips for reducing nitrogen loads from agricultural lowland to surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noij, I.G.A.M.; Heinen, M.; Heesmans, H.I.M.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Groenendijk, P.

    2012-01-01

    Unfertilized buffer strips (BS) are widely accepted to reduce nitrogen (N) loads from agricultural land to surface water. However, the relative reduction of N load or concentration (BS effectiveness, BSE), varies with management and local conditions, especially hydrogeology. We present novel

  14. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  15. Impact of cornstalk buffer strip on hillslope soil erosion and its hydrodynamic understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erosion is still a serious concern on the Loess Plateau despite extensive soil conservation measures. Cornstalk buffer strip is not well utilized on the Loess Plateau, and there is little information on the hydrodynamic understanding of this soil erosion control practice. A simulated rainfall e...

  16. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  17. Potential for N pollution swapping from riparian buffer strips and an instream wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Boukelia, Willena Esther

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse agricultural pollution is a major contributor to poor water quality in many parts of the world. Consequently agri-environment policy promotes the use of riparian buffer strips and/or denitrifying wetlands to intercept and remove diffuse NO3--N pollution. However, these methods have the potential to cause ‘pollution swapping’: the exchange of one form of pollution as a result of measures implemented to reduce another. Thus the benefits of intercepting NO3--N could be ...

  18. Research on the design of a buffer strip for nonpoint source pollution control in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2015-12-01

    Following the implementation of the Three Gorges Dam Project, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has become a serious problem in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). An urgent need exists to build buffer strips along the TGR to improve water quality. However, to design the optimal buffer strip for NPS pollution control is challenging because of spatial variations in topography, hydrology, slope and drainage patterns in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). This research focus on (1) plan the placement of buffer strip in the TGRA for water quality benefits using terrain analysis. (2) estimate suitable widths of buffer strip for different objectives of water quality protection to reflect regional variations in physical conditions. Terrain analysis can provide assessments for placement of conservation practices. There are some ineffective areas where the performance of conservation practices is minimal at watershed scale. The results showed that with increased conservation objectives, greater widths are required to ensure NPS pollutant removal and improvements in water quality. The widths of the modelling buffer vary significantly in spatial with variation in pollutant concentration, slope and soil conditions. It is necessary to install buffer strip along the tributary streams for NPS pollution control and water quality protection at the watershed scale.

  19. Establishment of a Riparian Buffer Strip for Alleviating Lake Eutrophication in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M.; Naka, K.; Wu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian buffer strips are a growing conservation practice to control and mitigate non-point source pollution in Asia. China has seen rapid population growth and economic development in the last fifty years, coupled with a rapid increase in environmental pollution. Freshwater ecosystems have been particularly affected. Lake Tai, China's 3rd largest freshwater lake by volume, has seen a severe reduction in water quality since economic reforms began in the 1970s. Thus, significant interest for establishing riparian buffer strips in agricultural watersheds and freshwater systems within China is warranted. Eight 50 m x 20 m plots adjacent to a rice-phragmites farm were cleared within the Lake Tai basin region in Jiangsu Province, China. Seven plots were planted with either a Poplar hybrid, Cypress hybrid or a combination of both at varying densities, while the control and final plot allowed only for local vegetation to grow naturally. Soil, tree and groundwater samples were collected from all plots and analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. At this time in the study, results have been analyzed only for nitrogen concentrations using the ANOVA procedure. Results for both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are currently being analyzed.

  20. Experiences gained from implementing mandatory buffer strips in Denmark: how can we enhance their ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Hille, Sandra; Rubæk, Gitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Gertz, Flemming; Jensen, Henning; Feuerback, Peter; Strand, John; Stutter, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The Danish Parliament adopted in June 2012 a Buffer Strip Act that required 10 m mandatory buffer strips (BSs) to be established along all watercourses and lakes with a surface area greater than 100 m2 from 1st September 2012. The main reasons for deploying BSs was to reduce nitrate-N leaching and phosphorus (P) loss via surface runoff from adjoining fields from the approximately 50,000 ha of BSs as no farming activities were allowed in the BS concerning use of fertilizer, spreading of manure, spraying with pesticides, etc. Reductions in nutrient losses to watercourses are needed for minimizing the eutrophication effects in lakes and coastal waters. Buffer strips are among the most well studied and frequently adapted mitigation measure for reducing sediment and P losses to surface waters via surface runoff. It has, however, been questioned if BSs can also reduce N losses. The international literature gives an overwhelming support to their functioning for reduction in sediment and especially particulate P losses. However, their functioning for dissolved P and nitrogen is more questionable when comparing studies from the international literature. In Denmark, many farmers were against the introduction of BSs as a general mitigation measure for several reasons. The most used argument in the public debate was that BSs in general are not very efficient for reducing N and P losses to surface waters which was originally the argument behind the BS Act from the Ministries of Environment and Food and Agriculture. A desk study had been made prior to the adaptation of the law that showed 10 m BSs to be able to reduce the N loading with 40-50 kg N ha-1 of BS and 0.04-0.4 kg P ha-1 BS. The total reduction from the BSs established in Denmark in 2012 would then amount to 2,000-2,500 tonnes N and 2-20 tonnes P. The intense public debate in Denmark made the Parliament to adopt a new BS law in June 2014 to be implemented in August 2014 that reduced the total areas with mandatory BSs

  1. Evaluating non-equilibrum herbicides transport in undisturbed grassed buffer strips soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Cordon, M J; Yra, A; Pot, V; Benoit, P

    2003-01-01

    Possible contamination of water resources by applied pesticides (including insecticides and herbicides) is a problem currently. Grassed buffer strips have been considered to limit pesticide transfer to surface waters by reducing run-off and erosion. As reduction of run-off mainly involves infiltration in the grassed strip soils, possibility of groundwater contamination by rapid transfer of pesticides via the numerous root channels and macropores presents in grassed soils can not be excluded so far. The beneficial impact of high pesticide retention in the superficial horizons of these soils, related to their high organic matter content, could therefore be strongly reduced by the occurrence of preferential flows. Displacement studies on leaching of bromide (water tracer) and two herbicides, metribuzin (weakly adsorbed) and isoproturon (moderately adsorbed) were conducted in two undisturbed soil columns (length 30 cm, diameter 14 cm) collected from La Jaillière (Loire Atlantique, France) under non saturated conditions. The infiltration fluxes, delivered through a rainfall simulator, were 1.5 and 3 mm/h for one of the columns and 0.6, 1.5 and 3 mm/h for the second column. We obtained asymmetrical shapes of the breakthrough curves, with early breakthrough and increased tailing, qualitatively indicating the presence of preferential flow and confirming the risk of pesticide vertical transport through grassed strips superficial soil horizons. The results showed that leaching of both herbicides increased with the intensity of rainfall applied. This could be explained by a decrease of herbicides sorption due to a lower residence time in the soil.

  2. Effectiveness of buffer strips without added fertilizer to reduce phosphorus loads from flat fields to surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noij, I.G.A.M.; Heinen, M.; Heesmans, H.I.M.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Groenendijk, P.

    2013-01-01

    Buffer strips with no added fertilizers are a mitigation measure to reduce P loads from agricultural land to surface water. However, the experimental evidence on their effectiveness (BSE) has been from sloping locations with shallow flow and surface runoff. The aim of this experimental study was to

  3. Buffering the buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Sue Hilton

    1998-01-01

    Riparian buffer strips are a widely accepted tool for helping to sustain aquatic ecosystems and to protect downstream resources and values in forested areas, but controversy persists over how wide a buffer strip is necessary. The physical integrity of stream channels is expected to be sustained if the characteristics and rates of tree fall along buffered reaches are...

  4. A design aid for sizing filter strips using buffer area ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.G. Dosskey; M.J. Helmers; D.E. Eisenhauer

    2011-01-01

    Nonuniform field runoff can reduce the effectiveness of filter strips that are a uniform size along a field margin. Effectiveness can be improved by placing more filter strip where the runoff load is greater and less where the load is smaller. A modeling analysis was conducted of the relationship between pollutant trapping efficiency and the ratio of filter strip area...

  5. Buffer strip width and agricultural pesticide contamination in Danish lowland streams: Implications for stream and riparian management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    According to the European Water Framework Directive, member states are obliged to ensure that all surface water bodies achieve at least good ecological status and to identify major anthropogenic stressors. Non-point source contamination of agricultural pesticides is widely acknowledged as one...... emphasise the importance of considering buffer strips as risk mitigation tools in terms of non-point source pesticide contamination. We furthermore apply our results for discussing the minimum dimensions that vegetated buffer strips should have in order to sufficiently protect stream ecosystems from...... of the most important anthropogenic stressors in stream ecosystems.We surveyed the occurrence of 31 pesticides and evaluated their potential toxicity for benthic macroinvertebrates using Toxic Units (TU) in 14 Danish 1st-and 2nd-order streams in bed sediments and stream water during storm flow and base flow...

  6. Biomass and volume yield after 6 years in multiclonal hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Julien [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gagnon, Daniel [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada); Truax, Benoit; Lambert, France [Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper the potential of five hybrid poplar clones (Populus spp.) to provide biomass and wood volume in the riparian zone is assessed in four agroecosystems of southern Quebec (Canada). For all variables measured, significant Site effects were detected. Survival, biomass yield and volume yield were highest at the Bromptonville site. After 6 years of growth, total aboveground biomass production (stems + branches + leaves) reached 112.8 tDM/ha and total leafless biomass production (stems + branches) reached 101.1 tDM/ha at this site, while stem wood volume attained 237.5 m{sup 3}/ha. Yields as low as 14.2 tDM/ha for total biomass and 24.8 m{sup 3}/ha for total stem volume were also observed at the Magog site. Highest yields were obtained on the most fertile sites, particularly in terms of NO{sub 3} supply rate. Mean stem volume per tree was highly correlated with NO{sub 3} supply rate in soils (R{sup 2} = 0.58, p < 0.001). Clone effects were also detected for most of the variables measured. Total aboveground biomass and total stem volume production were high for clone 3729 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) (73.1 tDM/ha and 134.2 m{sup 3}/ha), although not statistically different from clone 915311 (P. maximowiczii x P. balsamifera). However, mean whole-tree biomass (including leaves) was significantly higher for clone 3729 (38.8 kgDM/tree). Multifunctional agroforestry systems such as hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips are among the most sustainable ways to produce a high amount of biomass and wood in a short time period, while contributing to alleviate environmental problems such as agricultural non-point source pollution. (author)

  7. Effects of AN Alfalfa (medicago Sativa) Buffer Strip on Leached δ15NNITRATE Values: Implications for Management of Hydrologic N Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Smith, J. L.; Evans, R. D.; Harlow, B.

    2011-12-01

    Buffer strips are commonly used to decrease agricultural runoff with the objective of limiting sediment and agrochemicals fluxes to surface waters. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an alfalfa buffer strip on the magnitude and source(s) of leached nitrate from a dryland agricultural field. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm has inferred two sources of nitrate in tile drain discharge, a high-discharge-season (January through May) synthetic fertilizer source, and a low-discharge-season (June through December) soil organic nitrogen source. This study examines how a change in management strategy and crop species alters the low discharge season nitrate source. In the spring of 2006 an alfalfa buffer strip approximately 20 m wide was planted running approximately north-south in the lowland portion of a 12 ha tile-drained field bordering a ditch that drains into Missouri Flat Creek. Three-year (2003 through 2005) average NO3--N flux prior to the planting of the alfalfa buffer strip was ~0.40 kg ha-1 year-1. After planting, the three-year (2006 through 2008) average NO3--N flux was ~0.38 kg ha-1 year-1. The lack of evident buffer-strip influence on the fluxes may be due in part to the large variation in precipitation amounts and timing that control water flows through the system. Three-year average δ15Nnitrate values for the tile drain pre and post planting of the alfalfa buffer strip were 6.9 ± 1.1 % and 4.2 ± 0.9 % respectively. We hypothesize that the significant difference indicates that the alfalfa strip affects the source of leached nitrate. Before planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the interpreted source of nitrate was mineralization of soil organic nitrogen from non-N2 fixing crops (spring and summer wheat varieties). After planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the source of nitrate was interpreted to be a mixture of mineralized soil organic nitrogen from N2 fixing alfalfa and non-N2 fixing crops. Further work is needed to test

  8. Release of dissolved phosphorus from riparian vegetated buffer strips: a field assessment of mechanisms and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruau, Gerard; Gu, Sen; Petitjean, Patrice; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-odoux, Chantal; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetated buffer strips (RVBS) have been promoted worldwide as a tool to reduce diffused phosphorus (P) emission from agriculture lands, mainly through their ability to retain particulate P. However, RVBSs are zones of periodic water table fluctuations, which may stimulate the transformation and release of particulate P into mobile dissolved P species. In this study, we evaluated how soil characteristics (P content and P speciation), groundwater dynamics and biogeochemical processes interact together to trigger these transformations and releases, by monitoring over three years molybdate reactive dissolved P (MRDP) and total dissolved P (TDP) concentrations in soil solutions from two RVBSs set in a small agricultural catchment located in Western France, as well as in the stream immediately close of these two RVBSs and at the catchment outlet. Two main mechanisms were evidenced that released dissolved P in the studied RVBSs, each under the control of groundwater dynamics, namely soil rewetting during water table rise after dry periods, and reductive dissolution of soil Fe-(hydr)oxides during prolonged soil water saturation. However, both mechanisms were shown to be strongly temporarily and spatially variable, being dependent on the local topographic slope and the amount and frequency of rainfall. In fact, the third monitored year which was characterized by numerous dry episodes during the winter season resulted in the almost total inhibition of the reductive dissolution release process in the steeper of the two monitored RVBSs. Comparison of sites also revealed strong differences in the size of the mobile P pools as well as in the speciation of the released P, which correlated with differences in the status and speciation of P in soils. Finally, P concentration fluctuations and P speciation variations similar to those observed in RVBS soils were observed in the stream both immediately close to the RVBSs and at the outlet of the catchment, demonstrating the

  9. Distributed Modeling of soil erosion and deposition affected by buffer strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    was surveyed during the runoff season. In addition, organic carbon and phosphorous contents as well as bulk density were determined in soils of eroding and depositional sites. General buffer zone properties were recorded. Here we present results from scenario analyses comparing measured sediment deposition...... and discharge to streams with predictions obtained with the distributed soil erosion and deposition model WaTEM and assess the potential of using such tool to assist with the planning of buffer zones in landscapes....

  10. What can we expect from Vegetated Buffer Strips as long-term measure to control TP emissions to surface waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molló Manonelles, Oriol; Hepp, Gerold; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The use of Vegetated Buffer Strips (VBS) as a Best Management Practice to control Phosphorus transfer from field runoff to surface waters has grown considerably backed up by environmental protection programs. However, there are contradicting scientific data regarding the performance of VBS to control TP emissions to surface waters. In this meta-study, we analyze the data from relevant up to date experimental studies to 1) identify key design parameters of VBS and 2) assess the long-term performance under real field conditions. A multivariate analysis of a total of 103 data points form 20 selected experimental studies has been performed to assess %TP retention capacity. Preliminary results point out that a) as expected the spatial extent (VBS-width) determines the VBS performance with increasing retention potential of more than 90 % at 25 m width. However, b) the temporal scale has a significant oppositional influence on VBS function, dropping from 90% TP retention in single-events to 30% retention on multi-annual experiments. A possible explanation for this phenomenon seems to be buffer saturation. Moreover, c) the type of experiments significantly impacts buffer performance, with real fields performing poorly compared to experimental field plots. Hydraulic shortcuts and field-connectivity might be behind this difference. These aspects need to be further researched.

  11. Effectiveness of the cross-compliance standard 5.2 'buffer strips' on protecting freshwater against diffuse nitrogen pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gumiero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sette Fasce Tampone, realizzate secondo le indicazioni tecniche contenute nello standard di condizionalità 5.2, in diversi ambiti e contesti climatici, sono state monitorate per un periodo biennale, al fine di quantificare la loro efficienza nella rimozione di azoto inorganico disciolto. Tale azoto è costituito per lo più da molecole di azoto nitrico che vengono veicolate principalmente tramite deflussi sub-superficiali da zone soggette a diverse pratiche colturali verso i corpi idrici superficiali adiacenti. Ad eccezione di due casi: i siti di Lodi e Metaponto, in tutti i sistemi monitorati è stata confermata la presenza di deflussi trasversali ai sistemi tampone, permanenti o temporanei, in grado di veicolare inquinanti e con portate variabili fra 919 e 8.590 m3/anno per 100 m lineari di FT. Le differenze di portata sono imputabili principalmente alla diversa superficie dei bacini agricoli afferenti ai sistemi tampone, che nei casi analizzati occupano superfici variabili fra il 3,6 ed il 33,3% del bacino agricolo. Sulla base dei bilanci di massa è emerso che dai campi coltivati giungono ai sistemi tampone percentuali variabili fra l’1,6 ed il 29,4% dell’azoto inorganico applicato. Ad eccezione dei sistemi in cui i maggiori deflussi non hanno alcuna interazione con la rizosfera (deflussi profondi oppure non attraversano la Fascia Tampone, in tutti gli altri siti si registra un effetto di riduzione dell’azoto fra entrata ed uscita, con percentuali variabili fra il 33 ed il 62 %. Percentuali di abbattimento non elevate sono giustificate dallo scarso grado di maturazione dei siti monitorati, in molti casi recentemente convertiti a Fascia Tampone. Ancora una volta si conferma l’estrema eterogeneità delle risposte di questi sistemi ed il ruolo prioritario delle forzanti idrologiche nel determinarne l’efficacia.Seven buffer strips (BS adjacent to fresh water bodies, realized according to the technical data contained in the standard 5

  12. Vegetated buffer strips can lead to increased release of phosphorus to waters: a biogeochemical assessment of the mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutter, Marc I; Langan, Simon J; Lumsdon, David G

    2009-03-15

    Establishing vegetated buffer strips (VBS) between cropland and watercourses is currently promoted as a principal control of diffuse pollution transport. However, we lackthe mechanistic understanding to evaluate P retention in VBS and predict risks of P transport to aquatic ecosystems. We observed that VBS establishment led to enhanced rates of soil P cycling, increasing soil P solubility and the potential amount leached to watercourses. Soil in VBS, relative to adjacentfields, had increased inorganic P solubility indices, dissolved organic P, phosphatase enzyme activity, microbial diversity, and biomass P. Small relative increases in the pool of soil P rendered labile had disproportionate effects on the P available for leaching. We propose a mechanism whereby the establishment of VBS on previous agricultural land causes a diversifying plant-microbial system which can access previous immobilized soil P from past fertilization or trapped sediment P. Laboratory experiments suggested that sediment-P inputs to VBS were insufficient alone to increase P solubility without biological cycling. Results showthat VBS management may require strategies, for example, harvesting vegetation, to offset biochemical processes that can increase the susceptibility of VBS soil P to move to adjoining streams.

  13. Peran Rumput Vetiver (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) Dalam Fitoremediasi Pencemaran Perairan Sungai

    OpenAIRE

    Komarawidjaja, Wage; Garno, Yudhi Soetrisno

    2016-01-01

    Dalam rangka memperbaiki kualitas perairan Sungai, vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) telah ditanampada kawasan bantaran Sungai CIkapundung selama 63 hari. Dua wadah dialiri dengan sumber air yangberbeda, yaitu air sungai dan air tanah (sumur). Produksi biomassa diukur setiap 20 harian sekali,dengan fokus pengukuran pada pertumbuhan tunas dan akar vetiver. Secara umum, pertumbuhan tunasdan akar vetiver yang ditanam pada wadah yang dialiri air sungai tumbuh lebih baik (panjang) daripadavetiver ...

  14. AgBufferBuilder: A geographic information system (GIS) tool for precision design and performance assessment of filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. G. Dosskey; S. Neelakantan; T. G. Mueller; T. Kellerman; M. J. Helmers; E. Rienzi

    2015-01-01

    Spatially nonuniform runoif reduces the water qua1iry perfortnance of constant- width filter strips. A geographic inlormation system (Gls)-based tool was developed and tested that ernploys terrain analysis to account lor spatially nonuniform runoffand produce more ellbctive filter strip designs.The computer program,AgBufTerBuilder, runs with ATcGIS versions 10.0 and 10...

  15. Evaluation of vetiver grass for radiocesium absorption ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualchavee Roongtanakiat

    2017-06-01

    The Surat Thani vetiver plantlets were cultured in 134Cs solution with a concentration of 5 MBq/L for different periods. The results of the radiographic image, PSL signals and the radioactivity levels in the vetiver samples strongly indicated that vetiver could absorb a greater amount of 134Cs when the period of culture was longer. After vetiver culture periods of 3 d, 6 d, 9 d, 12 d, 15 d and 18 d, the activity of 134Cs in the cultured solutions declined to 98.0%, 93.2%, 88.6%, 78.1%, 70.7% and 65.5%, respectively. These values indicated that vetiver could remediate 134Cs in the cultured solution by 2.0%, 6.8%, 11.4%, 21.9%, 29.3% and 34.5% for the respective durations.

  16. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kadarohman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%. The quality of organic and non-organic vetiver oil was analyzed by Indonesian Standard (SNI parameter, pesticide residue test, chemical composition by GC/MS, and the appearance of vetiver root. In general, the result of organic and non-organic vetiver oil has fulfilled the national standard; the quality of organic vetiver oil was better than non-organic one. Physically, the appearance of organic vetiver root was better than non-organic vetiver root; organic vetiver root was denser, more appealing, and did not have any black spots. The pesticide residue of organic vetiver oil was lower than non-organic vetiver oil. Based on SNI test, vetiverol (oxygen compounds in organic vetiver oil was higher than non-organic vetiver oil.

  17. Effects of native perennial vegetation buffer strips on dissolved organic carbon in surface runoff from an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomorra E. Smith; Randall K. Kolka; Xiaobo Zhou; Matthew J. Helmers; Richard M. Cruse; Mark D. Tomer

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed's carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially...

  18. LCA of bioethanol and furfural production from vetiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2015-06-01

    In this study a prospective life cycle assessment of biorefinery system from vetiver leaves was carried out to know the environmental benefits of this system over conventional systems considering the geographical context of India. The composition of vetiver leaves from the experimental analysis revealed that vetiver is rich in cellulose (32.6%), hemicellulose (31.5%) and lignin (17.3%) that could be used as a feedstock for biorefinery. The comparative life cycle assessment results show that the carbon dioxide emission and fossil oil depletion could be reduced by 95% and 23% respectively in case of standalone bioethanol system, and 99% and 17% respectively in case of bioethanol and furfural system compared to that of conventional petrol and furfural systems. The sensitivity study indicates that the impact could be further reduced if vetiver biomass is used as a source of energy in biorefinery plant instead to the coal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative to conventional extraction of vetiver oil: Microwave hydrodistillation of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. S.; Altway, A.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the extraction of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides) has been carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation. In the extraction of vetiver oil using microwave hydrodistillation method is studied the effect of microwave power, feed to solvent (F/S) ratio and extraction time on the yield of vetiver oil. Besides, in this study can be seen that microwave hydrodistillation method offers important advantages over hydrodistillation, such as shorter extraction time (3 h vs. 24 h for hydrodistillation); better yields (0.49% vs. 0.46% for hydrodistillation); and environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing hydrodistillation than that required for extraction using microwave hydrodistillation). Based on the analysis using GC-MS can be seen 19 components on vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation. In addition, GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation method were β-Gurjunene (30.12%), α-Vetivone (20.12%), 4-(1-cyclohexenyl)-2-trimethylsilymethyl-1-buten-3-yne (13.52%) and δ-Selinene (7.27%).

  20. Testing of a reactive transport processes module for a coupled (groundwater/surface water) physically based model on a vegetative buffer strip (Beaujolais, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatel, L.; Lauvernet, C.; Carluer, N.; Paniconi, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC), which aims to achieve a good ecological and chemical status for all natural aquatic environments, tools to help understand and quantify pesticide transfers in agricultural watersheds are necessary. Models which are physically based and spatially distributed can be particularly useful for representing in detail processes and interactions between the soil surface and subsurface and thus to evaluate the management of landscape elements remediation. The present study aims to test and validate a recently added reactive transport to the coupled surface water/groundwater model CATHY, in order to represent pesticide transfers. Contaminant reactions implemented in CATHY for this study are linear adsorption and degradation (first order kinetics). The advection part of the model is solved according to the finite volume method and reactions are computed on volumes using a sequential non-iterative approach. The CATHY model has been tested on laboratory data and with a Morris sensitivity analysis and is applied now in real field conditions, on a vegetative buffer strip monitored by Irstea in a vineyard catchment (Beaujolais, France). The site is instrumented with lysimeters, flow and solute concentration measurement devices. This test represents a complex step into the model validation, initial and boundary conditions are not fully controlled, and field parameters measurement are not fully known.

  1. Plant regeneration from callus culture of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somporn Prasertsongskun

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to establish cell suspension culture of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash from Surat Thani germplasm source and efficient plant regeneration from callus derived from such cultures. Cell suspension cultures were established from calli derived from inflorescence of vetiver. Optimum cell proliferation occurred in liquid N6 medium supplemented with 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 10 mM proline. The cell suspension formed the highest small colonies when plated on solid MS medium containing 0.45 μM 2,4-D. After subsequent transfer to regeneration medium (MS free medium 65% of plantlets were obtained.

  2. Performance of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hasan Sharifah Nur Munirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tolerance towards metal uptake, there is a need to evaluate the performance of vetiver grass for metal removal to reduce water impurity. This study was aimed to evaluate contaminant removal by vetiver grass at varying root length and plant density and determine the metal uptake in vetiver plant biomass. Pollutant uptake of vetiver grass was conducted in laboratory experiment and heavy metal analysis was done using acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Findings indicated that the removal of heavy metal was decreased in seven days of the experiment where iron shows the highest percentage (96%; 0.42 ppm of removal due to iron is highly required for growth of vetiver grass. Removal rate of heavy metals in water by vetiver grass is ranked in the order of Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu. Results also demonstrated greater removal of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn at greater root length and higher density of vetiver grass because it increased the surface area for metal absorption by plant root into vetiver plant from contaminated water. However, findings indicated that accumulation of heavy metals in plant biomass was higher in vetiver shoot than in root due to metal translocation from root to the shoot. Therefore, the findings have shown effective performance of vetiver grass for metal removal in the phytoremediation of contaminated water.

  3. Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the kinetics of removaL Tetracycline was detected in the root as well as shoot tissues, confirming uptake and root-to-shoot translocation. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry analysis of plant tissue samples suggest presence of metabolites of TC in both root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater.

  4. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  5. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Kadarohman; Ratnaningsih Eko S.; Gebi Dwiyanti; Lela Lailatul K.; Ede Kadarusman; Ahmad Nur F.

    2014-01-01

    Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides) has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%). The quality of organi...

  6. Kajian Rumput Vetiver Sebagai Pengaman Lereng Secara Berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flores is the island in the NTT province, which has a row of volcanoes, with the mountainous topography. Transportation is state road, along the coast with high cliffs on the other side. That often causes problems during the rainy season as several landslides. Various methods are used to overcome this landslide. Studies on vetiver grass as slope protection done to secure the slopes on a sustainable basis. First, an evaluation done for the slope construction along the slope safety from Nangaroro to Aegela, which are using vetiver grass as a safety slopes in addition to other security structures. It is also done for the same job of the road from Ende to Nangaroro and Ende-Detusoko. This study covers the technical aspects, ecological, construction and sustainability of the infrastructure that has been built. Furthermore, it is done the literature study to find more appropriate method, environmentally friendly and sustainable in securing these slopes problematic. From the literature studies and the field survey done, it can be concluded and recommended several models of eco-friendly structural design of vetiver grass and geotextile for slope protection, which is based on technical-meet standard strength, ecologically-friendly environment, locally-developed local wisdom, so it is easy to construct.

  7. Unravelling the scent of vetiver: identification of character-impact compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Emilie; Baldovini, Nicolas; Brevard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Vetiver oil is a highly esteemed basic ingredient of modern perfumery, but the nature of the constituents that really impart its typical and most sought woody-earthy scent has remained controversial. Indeed, vetiver oil is considered as one of the most complex essential oils, being mostly composed of several hundreds of sesquiterpene derivatives with a large structural diversity. Its complexity has hindered the direct identification of its odoriferous components. We thus aimed at using a combination of GC×GC/MS and GC-Olfactometry in order to identify most of its odor-impact constituents. The olfactory analysis of vetiver oil and vetiveryl acetate revealed a huge variety of odors in both products. While khusimone has almost unanimously been recognized as the most characteristic vetiver odorant, we have identified several even more important contributors to the typical vetiver character. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Padmini [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.c [Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School Of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg{sup -1}), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg{sup -1}) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  9. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.

  10. Buffer$--An Economic Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Bentrup

    2007-01-01

    Buffer$ is an economic spreadsheet tool for analyzing the cost-benefits of conservation buffers by resource professionals. Conservation buffers are linear strips of vegetation managed for multiple landowner and societal objectives. The Microsoft Excel based spreadsheet can calculate potential income derived from a buffer, including income from cost-share/incentive...

  11. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  12. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross compliance standards Rational management of set aside, Grass strips to control soil erosion and Vegetation buffers along watercourses on surface animal diversity and biological quality of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biaggini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscape simplification and loss of natural and semi-natural habitats are the major causes of biodiversity decrease in agricultural landscapes. In order to mitigate the effects of intensive agricultural management the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies in Italy has included the agronomic measures Rational management of set aside, Grass strips to control soil erosion and Vegetation buffers along watercourses in the decree on cross compliance. In this paper we review the results of a field research performed in Central Italy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the above mentioned GAEC standards for animal diversity enhancement. Using different animal groups as indicators, superficial Arthropod fauna and Herpetofauna, we found striking differences in the biodiversity levels of areas characterized by the application or by the lack of GAEC standards, with the latter being characterized by a significatively impoverished fauna. In particular, the set aside area and the buffer of riparian vegetation resulted of primary importance to allow higher biodiversity levels. Also the analysis of the biological quality of the soil, as assessed through the QBS-ar index based on edaphic micro-Arthropod fauna, indicated a higher quality of semi-natural habitats with respect to arable lands.

  13. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of <1 for all the metals. This study revealed the defense mechanisms employed by Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase.

  14. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  15. Molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, R S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Pereira, A A; Bianchini, F G; Lima, R N; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alves, P B; Blank, A F

    2015-08-14

    Due to the economic interests in vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, molecular and chemical studies are essential to generate information for its sustainable exploitation. The aim of this study was to undertake a molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver accessions of the active germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. The molecular characteristics of the accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, with a total of 14 primer combinations that generated 442 loci, allowing us to observe that these accessions have similar genomes. The vetiver accessions were divided into three distinct groups, where accession UFS-VET005 was the most differentiated and accession UFS-VET004 had the lowest essential oil content (0.70%). The content of the chemical constituents of the essential oils was observed to vary, with a predominance of khusimol, which ranged from 18.97 to 25.02%. It was possible to divide the vetiver accessions into two groups based on chemical composition, and these groups do not correlate with the molecular grouping. Therefore, it is necessary to perform molecular and chemical analyses to characterize vetiver accessions.

  16. Isolation and culture of suspension protoplasts of vetiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somporn Prasertsongskun

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, protoplasts were isolated from cell suspension derived from inflorescence of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash Surat Thani germplasm. The optimum condition for protoplast isolation was established by using 2% cellulase Onozuka R10, 2% macerozyme R10, 0.5% pectinase in 0.4 M mannitol and 7 mM CaCl2.2H2O at pH 5.8 and incubated for 10 hours in the dark on the rotary shaker at 50 rpm. Maximum protoplast yields were 8.4 × 104 protoplasts/ml PCV. Division of protoplasts was observed only in liquid medium. The first cell division was observed after 3 days of culture initiation, and the average division was 5.0% in the N6 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l BA (Benzyladenine. An optimal density for culture division was 1 × 105 protoplasts/ml.

  17. How effective are slurry storage, cover or catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking or break-up of compacted layers, and buffer strips as on-farm mitigation measures for delivering an improved water environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Nicola P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agriculture has intensified over the last 50 years resulting in increased usage of fertilizers and agrochemicals, changes in cropping practices, land drainage and increased stocking rates. In Europe, this has resulted in declines in the quality of soils and waters due to increased run off and water pollution. Fifty percent of nitrates in European rivers are derived from agricultural sources in the UK this value is as high as 70%, where agriculture also contributes to approximately 28% of phosphates and 76% of sediments recorded in rivers. Catchments dominated by agricultural land use have increased levels of pesticides and bacterial pathogens. European member states have a policy commitment to tackle water pollution through the Water Framework Directive. An analysis of the effectiveness of water pollution mitigation measures should enable decision makers and delivery agencies to better facilitate catchment planning. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of slurry storage, cover/catch crops, woodland creation, controlled trafficking/break-up of compacted layers and buffer strips, as on farm mitigation measures, for delivering an improved water environment. Methods The systematic review will consist of a searchable systematic map database for all the named interventions. Where possible, quantitative analysis will be used to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Electronic databases, the internet, and organisational websites will be searched, and stakeholders will be contacted for studies that investigate the impact of the on-farm mitigation measures on water quality. All studies found will be assessed for suitability for inclusion in the next stage. Inclusion criteria will be based on subject, intervention, comparator and outcome. The details of included studies will be incorporated into the systematic map database, and studies scored for effectiveness of intervention and study design. Where

  18. Modification of sleep-waking and electroencephalogram induced by vetiver essential oil inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Cheaha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously, efficacy of essential oil application has been considered as non evidence based. In this study, we performed scientific research of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides essential oil inhalation. The results confirmed its beneficial properties with quantitative data of sleep-waking and EEG profiles. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 72-78

  19. Tetracycline uptake and metabolism by vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Nash).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Aparupa; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Das, Padmini; Panja, Saumik; Parikh, Chinmayi; Ramanathan, Dilrukshi; Bagley, Susan; Datta, Rupali

    2016-12-01

    Environmental contamination by antibiotics not only perturbs the ecological balance but also poses a risk to human health by promoting the development of multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study focuses on identifying the biochemical pathways associated with tetracycline (TC) transformation/degradation in vetiver grass that has the potential to be used as a biological remediation system in TC-contaminated water sources. A hydroponic experimental setup was used with four initial TC concentrations (0, 5, 35, 75 ppm), and TC uptake was monitored over a 30-day period. Results show that TC transformation in the media occurred during the first 5 days, where a decrease in the parent compound and an increase in the concentration of the isomers such as epitetracycline (ETC) and anhyrotetracycline (ATC) occurred, and TC disappeared in 20 days in tanks with vetiver grass. However, the isomers ETC and ATC remained in the control tanks for the duration of the trial. Transformation products of TC in plant tissue were analyzed by using ultra HPLC high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometery (HRMS/MS), which indicates amide hydrolysis of TC in vetiver roots. Metabolic profiling revealed that glyoxylate metabolism, TCA cycle, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, tryptophan metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism were impacted in vetiver root by TC treatment.

  20. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L{sup -1} for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ({approx}1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media.

  1. EFFICIENCY OF SIMPLE SUPER PHOSPHATE IN THE VETIVER GRASS DEVELOPMENT SUBJECTED TO SOIL BIOENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENISSON NEPONUCENO DE ARAÚJO FILHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. has been evaluated under differ-ent levels of phosphorus on slopes of the right-side bank of the San Francisco River, in the municipality of Am-paro do São Francisco, SE. Techniques of soil bioengineering were used, characterized by the combination of vegetated riprap with stakes, seedlings of vetiver grass and sediment retainers. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five doses (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 g pit-1 of simple superphosphate and five replicates. The growth of vetiver seedlings were observed in periods of 30, 60, 90, e 180 days, carrying out the following pa-rameters: number of roots, external root surface, root density, root length, root length density, root and shoot dry weight, root and shoot fresh weight, and shoot length, at each evaluation period. The phosphorus doses and periods of morphological development interacted in all variables of plant biomass mentioned above. Higher superphosphate doses than 9.0 g pit-1 did not offer advantages in terms of cost-benefit for the production of vetiver seedings.

  2. Cultivation of vetiver in saline tailings contaminated with arsenic under phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. de O. P. Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The processing of gold ores exploited in Paracatu, MG, generates tailings that are challenging for revegetation, mainly because of the high content of arsenic and salinity. Aiming at the revegetation of the area of disposal of these tailings, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of phosphorus doses on vetiver plants (Chrysopogon zizanioides and on the planting substrate, which consisted of tailings from the processing of ore named B1, exploited in Paracatu, with water restriction. Vetiver was grown for four months in the substrate under doses of 0, 140, 280, 560 and 1280 mg kg-1 of P2O5. Increasing doses of phosphorus improved the chemical characteristics of the substrate. However, the highest dose (1280 mg kg-1 P2O5 resulted in higher toxicity of arsenic for the plants. Under the evaluated conditions, the dose of 560 mg kg-1 of P2O5 is the most suitable for the fertilization of vetiver and, therefore, also for the revegetation of the substrate. Vetiver survives under low availability of water in the tailings.

  3. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  4. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent using vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wuta, M; Mvumi, B.M; Mapanda, F; Mudhiriza, T

    2015-01-01

    .... A study was conducted in Harare, Zimbabwe, to assess the potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides, in removing N, P, Zn, Mn and Ni loads in sewage effluent from primary clarification...

  5. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakrabarty, Debasis; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chauhan, Abhishek Singh; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Lavania, Umesh Chandra; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    .... Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B...

  6. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andra, Syam S., E-mail: syam.andra@gmail.co [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Datta, Rupali [Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ (United States); Saminathan, Sumathi K.M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mullens, Conor P.; Bach, Stephan B.H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PC{sub n}, metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PC{sub n}, and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg {sup -1} EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC{sub 1}) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC{sub 1}-Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass. - Chelated lead in conjunction with phytochelatins synthesis and complexation reduces stress in the lead tolerant vetiver grass.

  7. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty

    OpenAIRE

    Debasis Chakrabarty; Puneet Singh Chauhan; Abhishek Singh Chauhan; Yuvraj Indoliya; Umesh Chandra Lavania; Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal

    2015-01-01

    Vetiver, a perennial C4 grass, has long been known for its multifarious uses in perfumery, medicine and environmental protection. Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B. South Indian type with more number of thin and hairy roots that produce inferior quality of dextrorotatory oil. The two morphotypes were targeted for transcriptome ...

  8. The possible role of hydroxylation in the detoxification of atrazine in mature vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides Nash) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcacci, Sylvie; Raventon, Muriel; Ravanel, Patrick; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The resistance mechanism of vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) to atrazine was investigated to evaluate its potential for phytoremediation of environment contaminated with the herbicide. Plants known to metabolise atrazine rely on hydroxylation mediated by benzoxazinones, conjugation catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases and dealkylation probably mediated by cytochromes P450. All three possibilities were explored in mature vetiver grown in hydroponics during this research project. Here we report on the chemical role of benzoxazinones in the transformation of atrazine. Fresh vetiver roots and leaves were cut to extract and study their content in benzoxazinones known to hydroxylate atrazine, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and their mono- and di-glucosylated forms. Identification of benzoxazinones was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and comparison of retention factors (Rf) and UV spectra with standards: although some products exhibited the same Rf as standards, UV spectra were different. Furthermore, in vitro hydroxylation of atrazine could not be detected in the presence of vetiver extracts. Finally, vetiver organs exposed to [14C]-atrazine did not produce any significant amount of hydroxylated products, such as hydroxyatrazine (HATR), hydroxy-deethylatrazine (HDEA), and hydroxy-deisopropylatrazine (HDIA). Altogether, these metabolic features suggest that hydroxylation was not a major metabolic pathway of atrazine in vetiver.

  9. Propagação e conservação in vitro de vetiver In vitro propagation and conservation of vetiver grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana C Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides é um capim perene com características físico-químicas e agronômicas importantes que o torna uma espécie destaque. De suas raízes é extraído um óleo essencial utilizado amplamente na produção de perfumes e devido à sua baixa volatilidade, como fixador de odor. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo de propagação e de conservação in vitro de vetiver. Para o ensaio de multiplicação in vitro testaram-se combinações dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA. Na aclimatização foram testados substratos contendo pó de coco e/ou vermiculita suplementado com calcário, fertilizante NPK (3-12-6 e concentrações dos sais do meio MS. Nos ensaios de conservação in vitro foram avaliadas as temperaturas de 18 e 25°C, reguladores osmóticos (sacarose, manitol e sorbitol, o inibidor de crescimento ABA e diferentes concentrações dos sais MS. Verificou-se que a micropropagação de vetiver UFS-VET003 é promovida em meio MS líquido acrescido de 3,33 mg L-1 de BAP, sendo a etapa de enraizamento das brotações proporcionada em meio MS básico, também líquido. Para aclimatização recomenda-se o substrato PBC. A conservação in vitro é possível em meio MS semissólido com 25% dos sais MS e temperatura de 18°C por um período de 270 dias.Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides is a perennial grass which presents physicochemical and agronomic characteristics that highlights the importance of this species. From the roots of vetiver grass essential oil is extracted which is widely used for perfume production, and because of its low volatility it is used as fragrance fixer. We developed a protocol for in vitro propagation and conservation of vetiver grass. For the in vitro multiplication assay, combinations of the growth regulators BAP and NAA were tested. For acclimatization, substrates containing coconut coir and/or vermiculite, supplemented with limestone, NPK (3-12-6 fertilizer and the

  10. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Saminathan, Sumathi K M; Mullens, Conor P; Bach, Stephan B H

    2009-07-01

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PCn, metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PCn, and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg (-1) EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg(-1) dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC1) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC(1)-Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass.

  11. Comparison of Pretreatment Methods on Vetiver Leaves for Efficient Processes of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Neurospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Dewi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material for bioethanol production. Neurospora sp. can be used to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol because of its ability to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, lignin content, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity of cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass can inhibit cellulosic-biomass digestion by Neurospora sp, so that a suitable pretreatment method of lignocellulosic biomass is needed. The focus of this research was to investigate the suitable pretreatment method for vetiver leaves (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used as a raw material producing bioethanol in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Neurospora sp.. Vetiver plants obtained from Garut are deliberately cultivated to produce essential oils extracted from the roots of this plant. Since the vetiver leaves do not contain oil, some of harvested leaves are usually used for crafts and cattle feed, and the rest are burned. This study intended to look at other potential of vetiver leaves as a source of renewable energy. Pretreatments of the vetiver leaves were conducted using hot water, dilute acid, alkaline & dilute acid, and alkaline peroxide, in which each method was accompanied by thermal treatment. The results showed that the alkaline peroxide treatment is a suitable for vetiver leaves as indicated by the increase of cellulose content up to 65.1%, while the contents of hot water soluble, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash are 8.7%, 18.3%, 6.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Using this pretreatment method, the vetiver leaves can be converted into bioethanol by SSF process using Neurospora sp. with a concentration of bioethanol of 6.7 g/L operated at room temperature.

  12. Salt tolerance of a wild ecotype of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Gou; Liu, Jin-Xiang; Yao, Mei-Ling; Ma, Qi-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is widely used in more than 120 countries for land management (e.g. rehabilitation of saline lands). A wild ecotype of vetiver grass was found in southern China in the 1950s, but little is known about its adaptability to saline stress. For the purpose of understanding its tolerance to salinity as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, in a greenhouse with natural lighting, seedlings were grown in culture solutions and subjected to a range of NaCl concentrations for 18 days. Compared to no NaCl treatment, 200 mM NaCl significantly reduced leaf water potential, leaf water content, leaf elongation rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and plant relative growth rate and increased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, but the parameters showed only slight reduction at 150 mM NaCl. In addition, salinity caused an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves. Moreover, increasing NaCl levels significantly increased Na+ but decreased K+ concentrations in both roots and leaves. The leaves had higher K+ concentrations at all NaCl levels, but lower Na+ concentrations compared to the roots, thereby maintaining higher K+/Na+ ratio in leaves. Our results showed that the salinity threshold of this wild vetiver grass is about 100 mM NaCl, i.e. highly tolerant to salt stress. This wild vetiver grass has a high ability to exclude Na+ and retain K+ in its leaves, which is a critical strategy for salt tolerance.

  13. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  14. Symbiotic role of Glomus mosseae in phytoextraction of lead in vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Barber, Summer; Patel, Mandakini; Das, Padmini

    2010-05-15

    Lead (Pb) has limited solubility in the soil environment owing to complexation with various soil components. Although total soil Pb concentrations may be high at a given site, the fraction of soluble Pb that plants can extract is very small, which is the major limiting factor for Pb phytoremediation. The symbiotic effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae was examined on growth and phytoextraction of lead (Pb) by vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)]. A hydroponic study, Phase I (0, 1, 2, and 4mM Pb) was conducted followed by an incubation pot study, Phase II (0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg kg(-1) Pb) where vetiver plants were colonized with G. mosseae. The results obtained indicate that plants colonized by the AM fungi not only exhibit better growth (increase in plant biomass), but also significantly increase Pb uptake in root and higher translocation to the shoot at all given treatments. Moreover, plants colonized with AM fungi had higher chlorophyll content and reduced levels of low molecular weight thiols, indicating the ability to better tolerate metal-induced stress. Results from this study indicate that vetiver plants in association with AM fungi can be used for improved phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soil. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negisa Darajeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME, a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST. This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD. In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in high concentration POME, while control sets (without plant only was able to reduce 15% of BOD. The COD reduction was 94% in low concentration POME and 39% in high concentration POME, while control just shows reduction of 12%. Morphologically, maximum root and shoot lengths were 70 cm, the number of tillers and leaves was 344 and 86, and biomass production was 4.1 kg m−2. These results showed that VST was effective in reducing BOD and COD in POME. The treatment in low concentration was superior to the high concentration. Furthermore, biomass of plant can be considered as a promising raw material for biofuel production while high amount of biomass was generated in low concentration of POME.

  16. Comparative analysis of CRT Buffer, GC saliva check buffer tests and laboratory titration to evaluate saliva buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldupa, Ilze; Brinkmane, Anda; Mihailova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of two commercial strip tests and laboratory titration to detect saliva buffer capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sixty-four patients were examined. Stimulated saliva was collected and buffer capacity was determined with two different chair-side strip tests in addition to immediate transportation to the laboratory to check the buffering ability by titrating with 0.005 M HCl and measuring pH by digital pH/Ion meter, used as a gold standart. The correlation were analyzed using the Spearman Rank Correlation Test, Cohen's Kappa coefficient and Pearson's Correlation test, p buffer capacity was found in 23.4% of cases, medium in 62.5%, and low in 14.1%. The Spearman Rank Correlation coefficient between the titration method and CRT Buffer test was 0.685 and the GC Saliva Check Buffer was 0.837. The Kappa coefficient for the CRT Buffer test was 0.508, while the coefficient for the GC Saliva Check Buffer was 0.752. The Pearson Correlation for the GC Saliva Check was 0.675. The difference is found in the buffer capacity at initial pH and at pH value 3. CONCLUSIONS. Both colorimetric tests correlate with the acid titration method in laboratory and are usable for saliva buffer capacity detection in dental offices. Buffer capacity detected in laboratory at different pH values can provide more information regarding caries risk.

  17. Effect of calcium on growth performance and essential oil of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) grown on lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of calcium on growth, survival, essential oil yield and chemical compositions of vetiver grass grown on lead contaminated soils. Calcium inform of CaCO3 (0, 2000, 4000, 6000 mg Ca kg(-1)) was added to river sand soils containing 4000 mg Pb kg(-1) dry soil. Results showed that, in the absence of calcium treatment, no plants survived after 2 weeks of cultivation, while the rest grew well to the end of the experimental period (42 weeks). Calcium treatments generally resulted in a slight decrease in biomass. Interestingly, an increase in calcium over 2000 mg kg(-1) did not result in a decrease in accumulation of lead in vetiver roots and shoots. The levels of lead in roots and shoots under calcium treatments were around 2000 and 90 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. The addition of CaCO3 did not improve vetiver essential oil yield and chemical composition compared to the control. A level of applied CaCO3 about half of the lead concentration in soils was sufficient to improve vetiver growth and survival, and accumulate high concentrations of lead in the roots. This finding can be applied for re-vegetation of lead contaminated soils using vetiver.

  18. Identification of Biochemical Pathways Associated with Lead Tolerance and Detoxification in Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Nash (Vetiver) by Metabolic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidatala, Venkataramana R; Li, Kefeng; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is a major urban pollutant, due to deteriorating lead-based paint in houses built before 1978. Phytoremediation is an inexpensive and effective technique for remediation of Pb-contaminated homes. Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), a noninvasive, fast-growing grass with high biomass, can tolerate and accumulate large quantities of Pb in its tissues. Lead is known to induce phytochelatins and antioxidative enzymes in vetiver; however, the overall impact of Pb stress on metabolic pathways of vetiver is unknown. In the current study, vetiver plants were treated with different concentrations of Pb in a hydroponic setup. Metabolites were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS/MS. Multivariate analysis of metabolites in both root and shoot tissue showed tremendous induction in key metabolic pathways including sugar metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and an increase in production of osmoprotectants, such as betaine and polyols, and metal-chelating organic acids. The data obtained provide a comprehensive insight into the overall stress response mechanisms in vetiver.

  19. Agronomic and economic evaluation of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) as means for phytoremediation of diesel polluted soils in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, Nativ; Tsion, Itai; Shamir, Shiri Zemah; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Shachter, Alona; Haim, Abraham

    2018-01-29

    Soil pollution in Israel, due to diesel contamination, is a major concern, with gas stations, factories and refineries being the main polluters (>60%). Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is a perennial grass belonging to the Poaceae family, and is recognized world-wide for its potential as a plant with phytoremediation traits to contaminated soils. It is demonstrated here to decrease diesel contamination in field and court-yard trials. Chemical soil analysis indicated up to a 79% decrease (P diesel pollution of contaminated soil planted with Vetiver; and at high soil contamination levels of 10 L/m2, a significant (P diesel and planted with Vetiver, weeds' biomass recovered to non-polluted levels following 8 to 9 months of Vetiver treatment. An economic evaluation conducted based on the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) principles, utilizing the Net Present Value (NPV) compared phytoremediation to other currently used decontamination procedures. The economic comparison showed that phytoremediation cleanup costs are lower and more beneficial to society at large, primarily from an ecosystem services perspective. Combining the results of the agronomic examination with the economic valuation, this research pointed out that phytoremediation with Vetiver has a non-negligible potential, making it a good solution for cleansing diesel from soils on a state-wide scale in Israel and worthy of further research and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comparison of Buffer Strip and Non-Buffer Strip Joint Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

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  1. Absorption Reduction Capacity with Chromium (Cr and Cadmium (Cd Contaminants of Vetiver Phytoremediation Process on Compost Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Zubair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the large of reduction capacity of chromium metals and cadmium in the soil compost media and absorption capacity of chrome and cadmium in phytoremediation process of vetiver; to compare the reduction-absorption capacities of chromium and cadmium metals in phytoremediation process of vetiver (Vetivera zizanioides. The study was carried out for 2 months with a range of sampling every 7 days, and then analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Contaminants used as artificial contaminants containing heavy metals chromium (Cr and cadmium (Cd. This study is an experimental research includes two variables. First, the variations of Cr concentrations used were 400 ppm, 600 ppm and 800 ppm and Cd concentrations used were 40 ppm, 60 ppm, 800 ppm. Secondly, the variations of total plant are 3, 6, and 9 plant. The period of observation is made every week. Planting media used is compost soil with compost and clay composition of 20%, 30% and 40%. The results of study showed that there are a significant relationship between the reduction capacity of Cr and Cd of compost soil and the absorption capacity of Cr and Cd for vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides. The higher of Cr and Cd decreases in soil followed by increased levels of Cr and Cd in vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides. The capacity of Cr reduction varies between 57% - 86% and Cd 36% - 64% where as the absorption capacity of vetiver on Cr between 38% - 75% and Cd between 34%-74%. The capacity of reduction-absorption of Cr is relatively higher than Cd in phytoremediation process of vetiver.

  2. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carmen; Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Moliner, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoremediation of contaminated mine soils requires the use of fast-growing, deep-rooted, high-biomass, and metal-tolerant plants with the application of soil amendments that promote metal uptake by plants. A pot experiment was performed to evaluate the combined use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) and humic acid for phytoremediation of Cu and Zn in mine soils. Vetiver plants were grown in soil samples collected from two mine sites of Spain mixed with a commercial humic acid derived from leonardite at doses of 0, 2, 10, and 20 g kg(-1). Plant metal concentrations and biomass were measured and metal bioavailability in soils was determined by a low molecular weight organic acid extraction. Results showed that humic acid addition decreased organic acid-extractable metals in soil. Although this extraction method is used to estimate bioavailability of metals, it was not a good estimator under these conditions due to competition with the strong chelators in the added humic acid. High doses of humic acid also promoted root growth and increased Cu concentrations in plants due to formation of soluble metal-organic complexes, which enhanced removal of this metal from soil and its accumulation in roots. Although humic acid was not able to improve Zn uptake, it managed to reduce translocation of Zn and Cu to aerial parts of plants. Vetiver resulted unsuitable for phytoextraction, but our study showed that the combined use of this species with humic acid at 10-20 g kg(-1) could be an effective strategy for phytostabilization of mine soils.

  3. Uptake of 2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine by Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) from Hydroponic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S X; Li, Y M; Zheng, Y; Hua, Y; Datta, R; Dan, Y M; Lv, P; Sarkar, D

    2016-04-01

    2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine (prometryn) poses a risk to aquatic environments in several countries, including China, where its use is widespread, particularly due to its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) was tested for its potential for phytoremediation of prometryn. Vetiver grass was grown in hydroponic media in a greenhouse, in the presence of prometryn, with appropriate controls. Plant uptake and removal of prometryn from the media were monitored for a period of 67 days. The results showed that the removal of the prometryn in the media was expedited by vetiver grass. The removal half-life (t1/2) was shortened by 11.5 days. Prometryn removal followed first-order kinetics (Ct = 1.8070e(-0.0601t)). This study demonstrated the potential of vetiver grass for the phytoremediation for prometryn.

  4. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  5. Genetic diversity of Vetiver clones (Chrysopogon zizanioides and Chrysopogon nigritana) available in South Africa based on sequencing analyses and anatomical structure / Vickey Diedericks

    OpenAIRE

    Diedericks, Vickey

    2014-01-01

    Vetiver grass or Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (1960) is a sterile grass which can regenerate vegetatively from clumps of the rootstock. This, as well as its vigorous and deep root system and flood tolerance makes it an ideal candidate for the use in soil remediation and erosion control. In South Africa, Hydromulch (Pty) Ltd. is part of the landscape, soil reclamation and erosion control industry. The company uses vetiver grass on a wide scale and has accumulated a collecti...

  6. Genetic diversity of vetiver isolates (Chrysopogon zizanioides/nigritanus) available in South Africa based on ITS, ndhF and rbcL sequencing analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, S.; Diedericks, V.; Conradie, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty) is sterile and only regenerates vegetatively from clumps of the rootstock. Together with its vigorous and deep root system this makes it ideal for use in soil remediation and erosion control. In South Africa, Hydromulch (Pty) Ltd is part of the landscape, soil reclamation and erosion control industry. The company uses vetiver grass on awide scale and has compiled a collection of isolates to serve as possible germ lines for indus...

  7. Contribuição para o estudo da destilação do vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash A contribution of the study of vetiver roots distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro Côrte Brilho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram executadas experiências preliminares de destilação das raízes do vetiver, abrangendo alguns tratamentos prévios do material e, por outro lado, ensaiando-se processos para se melhorar a separação do seu óleo essencial. Usou-se, por exemplo, material seco e, também, raízes submetidas a uma maceração prévia em água; empregou-se, nos dois sistemas, o material inteiro e o picado, adotando-se a picagem grossa, a média e a fina. Os resultados obtidos não proporcionam conclusões definitivas e devem ser interpretados, simplesmente, como uma contribuição para que sejam oferecidas melhores condições no desenvolvimento dos futuros trabalhos experimentais nesse setor. A primeira indicação é aquela que aponta a picagem fina das raizes e a sua maceração em água, como o preparo mais adequado. Tal medida traz maior facilidade na liberação da essência e, como fator de importância, um acréscimo na capacidade de carga do alambique, de até 37 por cento. Quanto à destilação, os estudos subseqüentes deverão abranger as questões relativas à duração do processo e à pressão e temperatura do vapor, buscando-se a solução dos problemas que dependem dêsses fatôres. O aquecimento externo, ou indireto, não apresentou diferenças sensíveis. O estudo da condensação patenteou a conveniência, para melhorar a separação, da manutenção da temperatura do condensado, entre 50 e 65ºC. No que diz respeito à decantação do óleo, no vaso separador, bons resultados foram obtidos com a instalação de um filtro retentor, de tecido fino.Because of the high boiling point of its chief volatile constituents, and their high viscosity, the distillation of vetiver roots is beset with considerable difficulties, particularly in regard to the separation of the oil from the distillation water. Its high peculiar viscosity ant the troublesome emoulsion which may occur make oil separation rather complex. Distillation is usually carried out

  8. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  9. Kinetic buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Puglisi, Antonio

    2015-01-12

    This paper proposes a new type of molecular device that is able to act as an inverse proton sponge to slowly decrease the pH inside a reaction vessel. This makes the automatic monitoring of the concentration of pH-sensitive systems possible. The device is a composite formed of an alkyl chloride, which kinetically produces acidity, and a buffer that thermodynamically modulates the variation in pH value. Profiles of pH versus time (pH-t plots) have been generated under various experimental conditions by computer simulation, and the device has been tested by carrying out automatic spectrophotometric titrations, without using an autoburette. To underline the wide variety of possible applications, this new system has been used to realize and monitor HCl uptake by a di-copper(II) bistren complex in a single run, in a completely automatic experiment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Greenhouse study on the phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides L., in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Quispe, Mario A; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this greenhouse study was to assess the capacity of vetiver grass to accumulate arsenic from pesticide-contaminated soils of varying physico-chemical properties. Results indicate that vetiver is capable of tolerating moderate levels of arsenic up to 225 mg/kg. Plant growth and arsenic removal efficiency was strongly influenced by soil properties. Arsenic removal was highest (10.6%) in Millhopper soil contaminated with 45 mg/kg arsenic, which decreased to 4.5 and 0.6% at 225 and 450 mg/kg, respectively. High biomass, widespread root system and environmental tolerance make this plant an attractive choice for the remediation of soils contaminated with moderate levels of arsenic.

  11. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Debasis; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chauhan, Abhishek Singh; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Lavania, Umesh Chandra; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-12-18

    Vetiver, a perennial C4 grass, has long been known for its multifarious uses in perfumery, medicine and environmental protection. Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B. South Indian type with more number of thin and hairy roots that produce inferior quality of dextrorotatory oil. The two morphotypes were targeted for transcriptome analysis to understand the contribution of genetic background on oil quality and root morphology. Sample A showed enhanced activity of flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis related genes, i.e. ERF, MYB, bHLH, bZIP and WRKY. Interestingly, expression analysis revealed that the genes involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway were up regulated in Sample A. Moreover, some of the genes involved in mevalonate pathway of sesquiterpene biosynthesis were unique to Sample A. Our results also demonstrated several transcripts involved in root development and hormonal regulation being up regulated in Sample A. To validate gene expression results of RNA-seq data, 20 transcripts were validated by qRT-PCR experiment. The present study provided an important start point for further discovery of genes related to root oil quality in different ecotypes of vetiver.

  12. Changes in content of free, conjugated and bound polyamines and osmotic adjustment in adaptation of vetiver grass to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Bingjun

    2010-06-01

    Osmotic adjustment and alteration of polyamines (PAs) have been suggested to play roles in plant adaptation to water deficit/drought stress. In this study, the changes in cell intactness, photosynthesis, compatible solutes and PAs [including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) each in free, conjugated and bound forms] were investigated in leaves of vetiver grass exposed to different intensity of water deficit stress and subsequent rewatering. The results showed that, when vetiver grass was exposed to the moderate (20% and 40% PEG-6000 solutions) and severe (60% PEG solution) water deficit for 6days, the plant injury degree (expressed as the parameters of plant growth, cell membrane integrity, water relations and photosynthesis) increased and contents of free and conjugated Put decreased with the rise of PEG concentration. Under the moderate water deficit, the plants could survive by the reduced osmotic potential (psi(s)), increased free and conjugated Spd and Spm in leaves. After subsequent rewatering, the osmotic balance was re-established, most of the above investigated physiological parameters were fully or partly recovered to the control levels. However, it was not the case for the severely-stressed and rewatering plants. It indicates that, vetiver grass can cope well with the moderate water deficit/drought stress by using the strategies of osmotic adjustment and maintenance of total contents of free, conjugated and bound PAs in leaves.

  13. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  14. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I-ship...... code available at the department. It will be structured as a general preprocessor mainly to determine the hydrodynamic mass and damping. A strip processor including three different theories: A linear frequency domain strip theory, a quadratic strip theory and a nonlinear time domain strip theory....... At last a postprocessor will be included with facilities for statistical calculations and for plots and prints of the results.The project is divided into 7 tasks where the third is to be completed.This report has two aims. To give an introduction to the project of developing a strip theory module...

  15. Application Effect’s Research of Vetiver Eco Blanket in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the ecological disasters in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone, ecological blanket governance model is proposed in this paper, which may provide good early environment for plants’ survival in fluctuation zone, and then play the function of greening and sustainable development to ensure the slopes’ stability. Meanwhile, based on the result of vetiver ecological blanket in Hanyuan experimental zone, we find that three kinds of typical Fluctuating Zone slope’s greening effect is good, which includes the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope, and it gets an average coverage of 90.3 % as well as good strength. Due to the different geological conditions, the ecological blankets’ governance effect differs from slope to slope. Using analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight, we get the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope’s weights are 0.41, 0.17, 0.42, respectively, namely, the dirt piling up slope and the gravel piling up slope have good results overall, followed by the whole lump of rock slope.

  16. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    Buffer strips on agricultural land have been shown to protect surface water quality by reducing erosion and diffuse pollution. They can also play a key role in nature conservation and flood risk mitigation as well as in the design of bioenergy landscapes resilient to changes in climate, environme......Buffer strips on agricultural land have been shown to protect surface water quality by reducing erosion and diffuse pollution. They can also play a key role in nature conservation and flood risk mitigation as well as in the design of bioenergy landscapes resilient to changes in climate...... or pasture land. Root architecture of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants differs between species and is important for the extent of hydrological changes after establishment. Riparian buffers retain 30-99% of nitrate N and 20-100% of phosphorous from runoff and shallow groundwater. Buffers are also highly...

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the growth and extraction of trace elements by Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) in a substrate containing coal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edenilson; Londoño, Diana Marcela Morales; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Giachini, Admir José; Rossi, Márcio José; Stoffel, Shantau Camargo Gomes; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2017-02-01

    Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a fast-growing, high biomass producing plant employed for environmental rehabilitation. The study evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and trace element phytoextracting capabilities of vetiver in a substrate containing coalmine wastes in Southern Brazil. AMF included Acaulospora colombiana, Acaulospora morrowiae, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita, and Rhizophagus clarus. Among those, A. colombiana, G. margarita, and R. clarus promoted higher growth. AMF stimulated average increments in the accumulated P of 82% (roots), 194% (shoots first harvest-90 days) and 300% (shoots second harvest-165 days) and affected the phytoextraction of trace elements by vetiver, with larger concentrations in the roots. Plants inoculated with A. colombiana, A. morrowiae, and A. scrobiculata, in addition to the control, presented the highest levels of Cu and Zn in the roots. Overall, G. margarita stimulated the highest production of biomass, and, therefore, showed the most significant levels of trace elements in the plants. This work shows the benefits of certain AMF (especially A. morrowiae, G. margarita, and R. clarus) for the production of biomass and P uptake by vetiver, demonstrating the potential of those species for the rehabilitation of coal-mine-degraded soils.

  18. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  19. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  20. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater in a constructed wetland system using vetiver grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash efficiency in removing nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater in a constructed wetlands treatment system. The experimental unit had twelve treatment modules, filled with layers of substrate. From the bottom to the surface, the following materials were placed: 0.15 m of gravel # 3; 0.10 m of gravel # 1; 0.20 m of washed sand and 0.05 m of gravel # 1. Inside the modules, the wastewater was maintained at 0.05 m or 0.25 m below the substrate surface, resulting in hydraulic retention times of 3.4 days and 1.9 days, respectively. The influent wastewater was captured in the entrance of a facultative pond, and it was applied to the surface of each treatment module, automatically, on a surface application rate of 51 L.m-2.d-1. The sewage percolated vertically in the system, in a sub-surface flow downward until it was captured in a drain pipe at the bottom of the module. The wastewater concentrations of total phosphorus and ammonium were analyzed before and after passing through the treatment modules. Evapotranspiration rates were measured and the efficiencies in removing the contaminant load were calculated. The results were submitted to F and Tukey tests, at 5% of probability. Treatment with the presence of the plant and sewage at 0.05 m from the surface had higher efficiency in the removal of nutrients reaching 90.5% of phosphorus removal and 93.9% for ammonia.

  1. UTILIZAÇÃO DO CAPIM VETIVER NA REMOÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES DO ESGOTO SANITÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ernesto Ucker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do capim Vetiver na remoção de nutrientes presentes no esgoto sanitário. O experimento foi realizado na Estação de Pesquisas em Tratamento de Esgotos com Plantas, localizada na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos Samambaia, em Goiânia, GO. A unidade experimental possuiu doze módulos de tratamento, preenchidos com camadas sobrepostas de substrato. Seis módulos foram vegetados com o capim Vetiver e seis módulos permaneceram sem planta. Por um período de 200 dias, coletaram-se amostras do esgoto antes e após o tratamento e analisaram-nas para determinação de nitrogênio amoniacal e fósforo total, e cálculo da eficiência em sua remoção, considerando-se as taxas de evapotranspiração. Os resultados foram submetidos aos testes F e de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. O tratamento com a presença da planta e nível de esgoto H1 apresentou eficiência mais elevada na remoção da carga contaminante, sendo de 90,5% para fósforo total e 93,9% para nitrogênio amoniacal.

  2. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  3. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  4. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  5. A preliminary study to design a floating treatment wetland for remediating acid mine drainage-impacted water using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskila, Jeffrey D; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Feuerstein, Kailey A; Datta, Rupali

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is extremely acidic, sulfate-rich effluent from abandoned or active mine sites that also contain elevated levels of heavy metals. Untreated AMD can contaminate surface and groundwater and pose severe ecological risk. Both active and passive methods have been developed for AMD treatment consisting of abiotic and biological techniques. Abiotic techniques are expensive and can create large amounts of secondary wastes. Passive biological treatment mainly consists of aerobic or anaerobic constructed wetlands. While aerobic wetlands are economical, they are not effective if the pH of the AMD is < 5. Anaerobic wetlands use organic-rich substrates to provide carbon source to iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The efficiency of these systems declines overtime and requires continuous maintenance. Our objective is to develop an alternative, low-cost, and sustainable floating wetland treatment (FWT) system for AMD for the abandoned Tab-Simco coal mining site in Illinois using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Tab-Simco AMD is highly acidic, with mean pH value of 2.64, and contains high levels of sulfate and metals. A greenhouse study was performed for a 30-day period in order to screen and optimize the necessary parameters to design a FWT system. Water quality and plant growth parameters were continuously monitored. Results show significant SO42- removal, resulting in increased pH, particularly at higher planting densities. Vetiver also helped in metal removal; high amounts of Fe, Zn, and Cu were removed, with relatively lower amounts of Pb, Al, and Ni. Iron plaque formation on the root was observed, which increased metal stabilization in root and lowered root to shoot metal translocation. Vetiver was tolerant of AMD, showing minimal change in biomass and plant growth. Results obtained are encouraging, and a large scale mesocosm study is now in progress, as the next step to develop the vetiver-based system for AMD treatment.

  6. Comparison of the bacterial community and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from different genotypes of Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (vetiver) rhizospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Juliana Mendes; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Seldin, Lucy

    2009-08-01

    Molecular approaches [PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] were used to determine whether three different vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) genotypes, commercially used in Brazil and considered economically important over the world, select specific bacterial populations to coexist in their rhizospheres. DGGE profiles revealed that the predominant rhizospheric bacterial community hardly varies regarding the vetiver genotype. Moreover, using traditional cultivation methods, bacterial strains were isolated from the different rhizospheres. Colonies presenting different morphologies (83) were selected for determining their potential for plant growth promotion. More than half of the strains tested (57.8%) were amplified by PCR using nifH-based primers, specific for the enzyme nitrogenase reductase. The production of siderophores was observed in 88% of the strains, while the production of antimicrobial substances was detected in only 14.5% of the isolates when Micrococcus sp. was used as the indicator strain. Production of indole-3-acetic acid and the solubilization of phosphate were observed in 55.4% and 59% of the isolates, respectively. In total, 44 strains (53%) presented at least three characteristics of plant growth promotion and were submitted to amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Twenty-four genetic groups were formed at 100% similarity and one representative of each group was selected for their identification by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. They were affiliated with the genera Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Chryseobacterium, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Dyella, Burkholderia, or Pseudomonas. These strains can be considered of great importance as possible biofertilizers in vetiver.

  7. Stripping Foil Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lanaia, D

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a recent study carried out using the REX-ISOLDE Linac beam and stripping foils installed in the last diagnostic box (DB5) before the bending magnet. The aim of the campaign was to measure the effect of stripping foils on the beam energy and energy spread, and validate the type of foils to be used as beam purification devices to remove contamination in A/q in the new superconducting linac that will be installed in the next years for the upgrade in intensity and energy of ISOLDE facility, HIE – ISOLDE project. Different foils and beam energies were used for the test. Some simulations with SRIM 2012 were done in order to compare experimental data with simulated one. The full data can be found in: G:\\Departments\\AB\\Projects\\REX\\Linac\\Stripping.

  8. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...

  9. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  10. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  11. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  12. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  13. THE NATURE COMPOSITE OF VETIVER FIBER AND THE WASTE OF POWDER SAWN AS AN SOUND ABSORPTION MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of composites in all fields is engineered materials that many people do to obtain the new alternative materials, one of the materials such as natural vetiver fiber (SAW which is strong and lightweight and powder sawn (SGK, which is waste material. In this research, manufacturing the composite of  SAW and SGK then testing acoustic/absorption power by measuring the absorption coefficient of the sound and the observation of microstructure. The method used in the study is an experiment in the laboratory to make composites based on the ratio of the weight fraction between SAW and SGK from 1: 5, 2: 5, 3: 5, 4: 5 and 5: 5. Having formed the composites, then the specimen has made by an acoustic test that compatible to ASTM E-1050-98 standard with B & K 4206 Small Tube Set test instrument. Furthermore, to determine the composition of fibers in the composites, there do the micro observation. From the results of the show the composites produced the sound absorption ability for the low frequency (1000 Hz with an absorption coefficient (α of 0.25 occurred in comparative fraction of 2: 5 (SAW20, SGK50. While at high frequency (5000 Hz has a value of coefficient (α of 0.41 occurred in the ratio of 1: 5 (SAW10, SGK50. The number of composition number fiber influence the composite tensile strength and micro observations occurred in the composition ratio of 5: 5 its highest strength.

  14. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  15. Toxicity and growth inhibition potential of vetiver, cinnamon, and lavender essential oils and their blends against larvae of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem F; Ali, Ali M; Abouelella, Galal A; Marawan, Marawan A; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Abbas, Rao Z; Vaz, Nelissa P; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-02-08

    Myiasis induced by the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata, represents a public health problem widely distributed throughout the world. L. sericata larval stages feed on both humans and animals. L. sericata adults and larvae can play a role in spreading agents of mycobacterial infections. It is critical to establish new and safe alternative methods of controlling L. sericata. The insecticidal effectiveness and growth inhibition potential of three commercially available essential oils (EOs), vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), as well as their blends, were tested against the second (L2) and third (L3) larval stages of L. sericata. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil was used as a carrier and tested on L2 and L3 larvae. To the best of our knowledge, all applied essential oils, except lavender, and oil blends were tested against L. sericata for the first time. All applied oils did not repel L2 from the treated liver but adversely affected their development. Contact treatments on L. sericata L3 indicated that vetiver and cinnamon oils significantly affected treated larvae. Total mortality rates were 93.33 and 95.56%, respectively. Furthermore, oil blends tested through contact assays killed larvae when used at higher concentrations; adult emergence was eliminated post-treatment with doses >30% for oil blend 1 and >10% for oil blend 2. Overall, cinnamon and vetiver oils (5%) were selected as reliable and cheap biopesticides for controlling larvae of L. sericata. The tested oils are inexpensive and represent new promising botanical insecticides in the fight against blowflies causing myiasis. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Phytoremediation of Gold Mine Tailings Amended with Iron-Coated and Uncoated Rice Husk Ash by Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash)

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, F. S.; Samsuri, A. W.; Karam, D. S.; A. Z. Aris

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of rice husk ash (RHA) and iron-coated rice husk ash (Fe-RHA) on phytoavailability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to vetiver grass grown in gold mine tailings amended with either RHA or Fe-RHA at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (w/w). The results showed that the RHA amended tailings recorded higher concentration of As in the shoot and the root and higher concentration of Cr and Mn in the root compared to the untreated tailings which was used as a con...

  17. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  18. Determination of palladium by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, M. [Institute of Chemistry, Univ. of St. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje (Yugoslavia); Pihlar, B. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-04-01

    Adsorptive accumulation of the Pd(II) complex with dimethylglyoxime was evaluated for stripping voltammetry with respect to different parameters. The sensitivity of the method and the linearity between the peak current and the concentration of Pd(II) depends on the ionic strength, the electrode area, the preconcentration time, the transport rate to the electrode, and the potential scan rate. The most appropriate medium was 0.1 mol/L acetate buffer between pH 3.5 and 4. Using 2 min of preconcentration at a 2.6 mm{sup 2} electrode and the differential pulse mode, a detection limit of 0.05 {mu}g/L Pd was achieved for liquid samples and 50 ng/g for solid samples. Different aqueous and solid samples were analysed and the recovery from biological and inorganic materials investigated. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-07-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  20. Creep in buffer clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Adey, R. [Computational Mechanics BEASY, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-01

    The study involved characterization of the microstructural arrangement and molecular forcefields in the buffer clay for getting a basis for selecting suitable creep models. It is concluded that the number of particles and wide range of the particle bond spectrum require that stochastical mechanics and thermodynamics will be considered and they are basic to the creep model proposed for predicting creep settlement of the canisters. The influence of the stress level on creep strain of MX-80 clay is not well known but for the buffer creep is approximately proportional to stress. Theoretical considerations suggest a moderate impact for temperatures up to 90 deg C and this is supported by model experiments. It is believed that the assumption of strain being proportional to temperature is conservative. The general performance of the stochastic model can be illustrated in principle by use of visco-elastic rheological models implying a time-related increase in viscosity. The shear-induced creep settlement under constant volume conditions calculated by using the proposed creep model is on the order of 1 mm in ten thousand years and up to a couple of millimeters in one million years. It is much smaller than the consolidation settlement, which is believed to be on the order of 10 mm. The general conclusion is that creep settlement of the canisters is very small and of no significance to the integrity of the buffer itself or of the canisters.

  1. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  2. Simplified and quantitative saliva buffer capacity test using a hand-held pH meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitasako, Yuichi; Moritsuka, Michiyo; Foxton, Richard M; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji; Nomura, Satoshi

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate and compare saliva buffer capacity using a hand-held pH meter and a commercial buffer strip in patients at risk of caries. To obtain stimulated saliva, 109 patients were given a paraffin wax to chew for 5 minutes. After reading the pH value of 0.5 ml of tested saliva using a portable hand-held pH meter (B-212), 10 microl of 0.1N HCl was titrated into the obtained saliva up to a total titration of 160 microl, and then the pH value read each time. The commercial buffer strip (CRT) was also evaluated. The correlation in ranking results (high, medium, low) between the B-212 pH meter and CRT buffer were statistically analyzed by the Bartlett's test (P buffer capacity were 50%, 17% and 33% respectively for the B-212 pH meter, and 56%, 17% and 27% respectively for the CRT. For the CRT buffer, 23 out of 109 cases showed inconclusive color change under the colorimetric test. There was significant correlation between ranking buffer capacity measured by the B-212 pH meter and the CRT buffer (P < 0.001).

  3. Relationships between soil physicochemical, microbiological properties, and nutrient release in buffer soils compared to field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutter, Marc I; Richards, Samia

    2012-01-01

    The retention of nutrients in narrow, vegetated riparian buffer strips (VBS) is uncertain and underlying processes are poorly understood. Evidence suggests that buffer soils are poor at retaining dissolved nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), necessitating management actions if P retention is not to be compromised. We sampled 19 buffer strips and adjacent arable field soils. Differences in nutrient retention between buffer and field soils were determined using a combined assay for release of dissolved P, N, and C forms and particulate P. We then explored these differences in relation to changes in soil bulk density (BD), moisture, organic matter by loss on ignition (OM), and altered microbial diversity using molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism [TRFLP]). Buffer soils had significantly greater soil OM (89% of sites), moisture content (95%), and water-soluble nutrient concentrations for dissolved organic C (80%), dissolved organic N (80%), dissolved organic P (55%), and soluble reactive P (70%). Buffer soils had consistently smaller bulk densities than field soils. Soil fine particle release was generally greater for field than buffer soils. Significantly smaller soil bulk density in buffer soils than in adjacent fields indicated increased porosity and infiltration in buffers. Bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities showed altered diversity between the buffer and field soils, with significant relationships with soil BD, moisture, OM, and increased solubility of buffer nutrients. Current soil conditions in VBS appear to be leading to potentially enhanced nutrient leaching via increasing solubility of C, N, and P. Manipulating soil microbial conditions (by management of soil moisture, vegetation type, and cover) may provide options for increasing the buffer storage for key nutrients such as P without increasing leaching to adjacent streams. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and

  4. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytoremediation of Gold Mine Tailings Amended with Iron-Coated and Uncoated Rice Husk Ash by Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn. Nash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the effects of rice husk ash (RHA and iron-coated rice husk ash (Fe-RHA on phytoavailability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to vetiver grass grown in gold mine tailings amended with either RHA or Fe-RHA at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (w/w. The results showed that the RHA amended tailings recorded higher concentration of As in the shoot and the root and higher concentration of Cr and Mn in the root compared to the untreated tailings which was used as a control. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC and bioconcentration factor (BCF values of the vetiver grass for As and Zn increased with RHA application rate but the biological transfer coefficient (BTC values of As and Zn were decreased. In Fe-RHA amended samples, As concentration in the shoot and root concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher compared to the control. The Fe-RHA treated samples had lower BAC and BTC values for As and Zn than the control. However, the BCF values for those elements were higher than the control. The concentration of Pb was not detected in any of the samples.

  6. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  7. Introduction of biological agents into vegetative buffer to enhance rhizodegradation of atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introducing atrazine (ATR) degraders into riparian vegetative buffer strips (VBS) can be a promising bioremediation approach to accelerate the degradation of ATR and its degradation products deposited into VBS by surface runoff. A growth chamber study was conducted to investigated the synergistic ef...

  8. Implementation of Contour Vegetative Buffers for Mitigating of Atrazine in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of vegetative buffer strips (VBS) in intercepting herbicides from surface runoff is well established. However, effect of VBS on fate of the atrazine in ground water has not been widely studied. An established, well calibrated paired watershed consisting of 1) a corn-soybean/tree-grass ...

  9. Aptasensors Based on Stripping Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Qi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aptasensors based on stripping voltammetry exhibit several advantages, such as high sensitivity and multi-target detection from stripping voltammetric technology, and high selectivity from the specific binding of apamers with targets. This review comprehensively discusses the recent accomplishments in signal amplification strategies based on nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles, semiconductor nanoparticles, and nanocomposite materials, which are detected by stripping voltammetry after suitable dissolution. Focus will be put in discussing multiple amplification strategies that are widely applied in aptasensors for small biomolecules, proteins, disease markers, and cancer cells.

  10. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric methods for determination of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Aşangil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anodic behavior of aripiprazole (ARP was studied using electrochemical methods. Charge transfer, diffusion and surface coverage coefficients of adsorbed molecules and the number of electrons transferred in electrode mechanisms were calculated for quasi-reversible and adsorption-controlled electrochemical oxidation of ARP at 1.15 V versus Ag/AgCl at pH 4.0 in Britton–Robinson buffer (BR on glassy carbon electrode. Voltammetric methods for direct determination of ARP in pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples were developed. Linearity range is found as from 11.4 μM (5.11 mg/L to 157 μM (70.41 mg/L without stripping mode and it is found as from 0.221 μM (0.10 mg/L to 13.6 μM (6.10 mg/L with stripping mode. Limit of detection (LOD was found to be 0.11 μM (0.05 mg/L in stripping voltammetry. Methods were successfully applied to assay the drug in tablets, human serum and human urine with good recoveries between 95.0% and 104.6% with relative standard deviation less than 10%. Keywords: Adsorptive stripping voltammetry, Aripiprazole, Electrochemical behavior, Human serum and urine, Pharmaceuticals

  11. ATLAS Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the LHC at CERN around 2020 by about an order of magnitude (SLHC). The ATLAS experiment will require a new particle tracking system for SLHC operation in order to cope with the increase in background events by about one order of magnitude at the higher luminosity. , an all silicon detector with enhanced radiation hardness is being designed. A massive R&D programme, involving many particles physics groups and several leadings manufacturers of silicon detectors for particle physics, is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In this framework new sensor materials like p-type silicon and the 3D technology are investigated. In parallel, the SCT commissioning experience has taught us to look into alternative module concepts, in which higher levels of integration are combined with the modularity of the SCT approach. We will report on the status of the R&D projects on radiation hard silicon strip detectors for particle physics, link...

  12. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  13. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. The Lazy Z-Buffer

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Steve

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new perspective on a fundamental algorithm of three-dimensional computer graphics, namely z-buffering. An implementation of the z-buffer method in a lazy functional language behaves in a quite different manner to the traditional imperative counterpart. The main result of this paper is to show that the lazy z-buffer is a scan-line method. The effective difference between scan-line methods and z-buffers is one of order of evaluation. A hybrid algorithm with properties com...

  15. Magnetic stripping studies for SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.

  16. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M. Bailey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma, LL/2 (murine lung and HCT116 (human colon tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast and PC3M (human prostate tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells. Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit.

  17. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kate M; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather H; Ribeiro, Maria C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using fractional order method to generalize strengthening generating operator buffer operator and weakening buffer operator

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, L.; Liu, S.; Yang, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Traditional integer order buffer operator is extended to fractional order buffer operator, the corresponding relationship between the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator is revealed. Fractional order buffer operator not only can generalize the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator, but also realize tiny adjustment of buffer effect. The effectiveness of GM(1,1) with the fractional order buffer operator is validated by six cases.

  19. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryn, John N [Naperville, IL; Daniels, Edward J [Orland Park, IL; Krumdick, Greg K [Crete, IL

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  20. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  1. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  2. Buttock Lifting with Polypropylene Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballivian Rico, José; Esteche, Atilio; Hanke, Carlos José Ramírez; Ribeiro, Ricardo Cavalcanti

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of gluteal suspension with polypropylene strips. Ninety healthy female patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years (mean, 26 years), who wished to remodel their buttocks from December 2004 to February 2013 were studied retrospectively. All 90 patients were treated with 2 strips of polypropylene on each buttock using the following procedures: 27 (30 %) patients were suspended with polypropylene strips; 63 (70 %) patients were treated with tumescent liposuction in the sacral "V", lower back, supragluteal regions, and flanks to improve buttocks contour (aspirated volume of fat from 350 to 800 cc); 16 (18 %) patients underwent fat grafting in the subcutaneous and intramuscular layers (up to 300 cc in each buttock to increase volume); 5 (6 %) patients received implants to increase volume; and 4 (4.4 %) patients underwent removal and relocation of intramuscular gluteal implants to improve esthetics. Over an 8-year period, 90 female patients underwent gluteal suspension surgeries. Good esthetic results without complications were obtained in 75 of 90 (84 %) cases. Complications occurred in 15 of 90 (16.6 %) patients, including strip removal due to postoperative pain in 1 (1.1 %) patient, and seroma in both subgluteal sulci in 3 (3.3 %) patients. The results of this study performed in 90 patients over 8 years showed that the suspension with polypropylene strips performed as a single procedure or in combination with other cosmetic methods helps to enhance and lift ptosed gluteal and paragluteal areas. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  3. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  4. Buffer gas acquisition and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture of CO2. Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO2 freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193 K and 10 kPa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph. The end result was data necessary to design a system that could separate CO2, N2, and Ar. .

  5. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  6. Strip-slot direct mode coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyunghun; Kim, Sangsik; Wirth, Justin; Teng, Min; Xuan, Yi; Niu, Ben; Qi, Minghao

    2016-03-21

    We present a direct strip-slot waveguide mode coupler without any auxiliary structures. Contrary to popular belief, an apparent mode mismatch between strip and slot waveguide does not deteriorate conversion efficiency. Separated electric and magnetic field distributions in a slot waveguide lead to highly efficient modal coupling in the direct strip-slot coupler and result in high conversion efficiency. Accurate experimental characterization shows that the direct strip-slot waveguide mode coupler is capable of up to 96% conversion efficiency with a broad bandwidth. Being simplest and of high efficiency, the direct strip-slot waveguide mode coupler can encourage potential applications of slot waveguides.

  7. Thermophysical tests of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of buffer materials were measured for putting in order thermodynamic constants to be used in the near-field thermal analysis. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured as functions of the water content and temperature to deduce the specific heat. The thermal conductivity and specific heat varied significantly as the water content changed. Obtained values of the specific heat agreed well the expected values calculated based on the constituents of the buffer material. Temperature dependence of the thermodynamic constants was found small below 90degC. From the findings, the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the buffer material were formulated as functions of the water content. Thermodynamic study of powdery bentonite was carried out as well with a purpose of use for filling apertures in the artificial barrier. (H. Baba)

  8. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  9. Chloroform stripping from waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, N.; Darakchiev, R.; Semkov, K. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-01-01

    The problem treated in this paper is the purification of waste industrial waters from chloroform. An industrial installation with a stripping column is designed, and the results of its study and industrial tests are presented. It is shown that, in a column with 6400 mm total height of the used packing (Holpack), the chloroform concentration in the waste water decreases 150,000 times, approaching that of drinking water.

  10. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  11. Novel Technique to improve the pH of Acidic Barren Soil using Electrokinetic-bioremediation with the application of Vetiver Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Zahin, A. M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Residual acidic slopes which are not covered by vegetation greatly increases the risk of soil erosion. In addition, low soil pH can bring numerous problems such as Al and Fe toxicity, land degradation issues and some problems related to vegetation. In this research, a series of electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio) treatments using Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida with a combination of Vetiver grass were performed in the laboratory. Investigations were conducted for 14 days and included the observation of changes in the soil pH and the mobilization of microorganism cells through an electrical gradient of 50 V/m under low pH. Based on the results obtained, this study has successfully proven that the pH of soil increases after going through electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio). The treatment using Bacillus sphaericus increases the pH from 2.95 up to 4.80, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 4.66. Based on the overall performance, Bacillus sphaericus show the highest number of bacterial cells in acidic soil with a value of 6.6 × 102 cfu/g, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 5.7 × 102 cfu/g. In conclusion, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis show high survivability and is suitable to be used in the remediation of acidic soil.

  12. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye under UV‐A Irradiation Using TiO2‐Vetiver Multifunctional Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Song Thao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and photocatalytic performance of anatase nanoparticles of pure TiO2 and a core–shell structure of TiO2 on calcined vetiver grass leaves have been compared. Samples were fabricated by sol‐gel and heating at 450 °C for 5h.The comparison was based on data for X‐ray diffraction(XRD, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area measurement, pore volume assessment, and methylene blue degradation testing. The results showed that the pure TiO2 consisted of agglomerated equiaxed nanoparticles of individual grain sizes in the range 10–20 nm. In contrast, the TiO2‐vetiver composite exhibited a core–shell structure consisting of a carbonaceous core and TiO2 shell of thickness 10–15nm. These features influenced the photocatalytic performance in such a way that the lower crosssectional area, greater surface area, and higher pore volume of the TiO2 shell increased the number of active sites, reduced the charge carrier diffusion distance, and reduced the recombination rate, thereby improving the photocatalytic activity. This improvement derived from morphological characteristics rather than crystallographic, semiconducting, or optical properties. The improved performance of the TiO2‐vetiver core–shell was unexpected since the X‐ray diffraction data showed that the crystallinity of the TiO2 was lower than that of the pure TiO2. These outcomes are attributed to the reducing effect of the carbon on the TiO2 during heating, thereby facilitating the formation of oxygen vacancies, which enhance charge separation and hence photocatalysis by TiO2.

  13. What are we hiding behind the visual buffer strip?: forest aesthetics reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hull; David P. Robertson; Gregory J. Buhyoff; Angelina Kendra

    2000-01-01

    The forestry profession has no offical policy on forest aesthetics: Neither foresters nor the public have clear guidelines as to what a socially acceptable, actively managed forest should lookl ike. Hints of an impplicit policy can be found in the Society of American Foresters (SAF) position statements on timber harvesting and in various recommendations for best...

  14. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  15. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  16. Buffer substitution in malaria rapid diagnostic tests causes false-positive results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Ende Jef

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are kits that generally include 20 to 25 test strips or cassettes, but only a single buffer vial. In field settings, laboratory staff occasionally uses saline, distilled water (liquids for parenteral drugs dilution or tap water as substitutes for the RDT kit's buffer to compensate for the loss of a diluent bottle. The present study assessed the effect of buffer substitution on the RDT results. Methods Twenty-seven RDT brands were run with EDTA-blood samples of five malaria-free subjects, who were negative for rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Saline, distilled water and tap water were used as substitute liquids. RDTs were also run with distilled water, without adding blood. Results were compared to those obtained with the RDT kit's buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Results Only eight cassettes (in four RDT brands showed no control line and were considered invalid. Visible test lines occurred for at least one malaria-free sample and one of the substitutes in 20/27 (74% RDT brands (saline: n = 16; distilled water: n = 17; and tap water: n = 20, and in 15 RDTs which were run with distilled water only. They occurred for all Plasmodium antigens and RDT formats (two-, three- and four-band RDTs. Clearance of the background of the strip was excellent except for saline. The aspects (colour, intensity and crispness of the control and the false-positive test lines were similar to those obtained with the RDT kits' buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Conclusion Replacement of the RDT kit's dedicated buffer by saline, distilled water and tap water can cause false-positive test results.

  17. Role of Buffers in Protein Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbacnik, Teddy J; Holcomb, Ryan E; Katayama, Derrick S; Murphy, Brian M; Payne, Robert W; Coccaro, Richard C; Evans, Gabriel J; Matsuura, James E; Henry, Charles S; Manning, Mark Cornell

    2017-03-01

    Buffers comprise an integral component of protein formulations. Not only do they function to regulate shifts in pH, they also can stabilize proteins by a variety of mechanisms. The ability of buffers to stabilize therapeutic proteins whether in liquid formulations, frozen solutions, or the solid state is highlighted in this review. Addition of buffers can result in increased conformational stability of proteins, whether by ligand binding or by an excluded solute mechanism. In addition, they can alter the colloidal stability of proteins and modulate interfacial damage. Buffers can also lead to destabilization of proteins, and the stability of buffers themselves is presented. Furthermore, the potential safety and toxicity issues of buffers are discussed, with a special emphasis on the influence of buffers on the perceived pain upon injection. Finally, the interaction of buffers with other excipients is examined. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  19. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  20. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    -dimensional knapsack. In this article, we answer this question in negative by proving that it is NP-hard to approximate strip packing within a factor better than 12/11, even when restricted to polynomially bounded input data. In particular, this shows that the strip packing problem admits no quasi-polynomial time...

  1. Absorção e distribuição de chumbo em plantas devetiver, jureminha e algaroba Absorption and distribution of lead in vetiver, mimosa and mesquite plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do Carmo Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas como agentes remediadores de áreas contaminadas com metais pesados (fitorremediação é uma técnica emergente, sendo necessários estudos sobre tolerância, absorção e distribuição destes elementos em plantas para se obter sucesso em programas dessa natureza. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância, absorção e distribuição de Pb em plantas de vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash], jureminha [Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd] e algaroba [Prosopis juliflora (SW DC], submetidas a doses crescentes do elemento em solução. As espécies foram cultivadas em estufa telada do DSER/CCA/UFPB, Areia-PB, em solução nutritiva que continha doses crescentes de Pb (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1, por 45 dias. O delineamento empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em parcela subdividida, com três repetições. A parcela principal foi representada pelas espécies, enquanto a subparcela foi constituída pelas doses de Pb. Foram constatadas reduções significativas na matéria seca da raiz, parte aérea e planta inteira das três espécies estudadas de acordo com a elevação das doses de Pb. Com base nas doses críticas de toxidez, constatou-se que o vetiver demonstrou maior tolerância à contaminação com Pb que as demais espécies. A raiz apresentou maior sensibilidade à contaminação com Pb nas plantas de vetiver e algaroba, tendo a jureminha apresentado comportamento similar entre os compartimentos da planta. Os teores e conteúdos de Pb nos compartimentos das plantas foram significativamente alterados pela elevação das doses de Pb em solução, tendo sido verificado maior acúmulo deste elemento nas raízes das três espécies estudadas. O vetiver apresentou maiores teores e conteúdos de Pb em todos os compartimentos, evidenciando o seu potencial para programas de fitorremediação de áreas contaminadas com Pb.The use of plants for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated areas is an emerging technology

  2. Buffer capacity of humic acid: thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertusatti, Jonas; Prado, Alexandre G S

    2007-10-15

    Commercial humic acid was dialyzed and characterized by infrared, UV/vis spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectrometry, thermogravimetry, and elemental analysis. The dialyzed humic acid was titrated with HNO(3) and NaOH in order to obtain the buffer capacity value (beta). The humic acid presented buffer behavior by base and acid addition, and moreover, an excellent buffer capacity by addition of NaOH. Humic acid showed buffer action between pH 5.5 and 8.0, and a maximum buffer capacity at pH 6.0. The same study was followed calorimetrically to determinate the enthalpy of interaction between H(+)/OH(-) and buffer, which resulted in a maximum enthalpy of -38.49 kJ mol(-1) at pH 6.0. This value suggests that the buffer activity is based on chemisorption of proton and hydroxyl.

  3. A THEORETICAL DISCUSSION OF THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF BUFFER STOCKS AND BUFFER FUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Phil

    1988-01-01

    It has been established that the absence of risk markets justifies market intervention in principle. The form of intervention that has been discussed most widely in the literature is the buffer stock. This paper points out that other forms of intervention, specifically buffer funds, are likely to perform better. The analysis shows that buffer funds are likely to outperform buffer stocks because they address market failure more directly. A sub-theme developed in this paper is that since buffer...

  4. Enhancement of thermal performance in KRS buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Lee, Yang; Koo, J. E

    2007-03-15

    The Korean Reference disposal System consists of the engineered barrier and natural barrier. The main components of the engineered barrier are the canister and buffer. KAERI has developed the buffer for the repository. So far Korean domestic Ca-bentonite was selected as buffer material and the properties of it were characterized. In this report the design requirements of the buffer are fixed based on the characteristics of Korean Ca-bentonite, and the conceptual design of the buffer for KRS is carried out by determining the thickness and shape of the buffer. The thickness of 0.5 m buffer is determined from the mass transfer equation, which gives the less radionuclide release rates from the borehole to the rock. The shape of the buffer is disk and ring. The dry density is 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The thickness of the buffer above the canister is 2.5 m and the that of the buffer below the canister is 0.5 m. The disposal system should meet the requirement that the maximum temperature at the interface between the buffer and the canister keeps below 100 .deg.. A 3-dimensional finite element program is used for the thermal analysis around the buffer. The results shows that the current conceptual design of the buffer meets the requirement. Another major role of the buffer is to protect the canister and the spent fuels from the exterior impact. The rock movement around the buffer is introduced to assess the buffer performance. Two cases of rock movement are assessed, and the results show that the buffer mitigates sufficiently the impact from the 10 cm movement of rock. Finally, the resaturation time is estimated through mathematical modeling. ABAQUS program is used for the analysis, and the resaturation time is estimated to be around 10 to 30 years. The enhancement of thermal performance of the disposal system is directly related to the economics of the HLW disposal. The way to enhance the thermal performance is suggested from the results of experiment and design. The thermal

  5. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  6. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saryati Saryati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The direct determination of some metals impurity in uranium by using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV method at a hanging mercury drop electrode and in a carbonate buffer media was developed. It was found that the carbonate buffer show the strongest affinity for uranium and gives the best separation between the DPASV peaks of heavy metals impurities. The carbonate concentration markedly affects the oxidation and reduction the major and the minor constituents of the uranium samples. In 0.1 M carbonate buffer solution pH 10, copper, bismuth, thalium, lead, cadmium, zinc, could be determined without the removal of the uranium matrix. Recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD of this method was in the range of 174% - 85.2% for recovery and 36.8% - 1.2% for RSD. The larger error of analytical result was obtained for Zn at low concentration. In general, the analytic results error and RSD decreased with increasing metals concentration.   Keywords: heavy metal determination, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, uranium

  8. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  9. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  10. Development of nanogold-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of ochratoxin A in buffer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jihea; Kim, Giyoung; Lee, Sangdae

    2013-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), classified as a possible human renal carcinogen (group 2B), is a potent toxin as to cause the nephropathy. Many methods have been proposed and reviewed for OTA determination in food and agricultural products. However, current analytical procedures of mycotoxin are based on the time-delayed analysis. To reduce the contamination of OTA during distribution and storage of food and feeds, a rapid and easy-to-use detection method is required. The strip assay is an easy and fast detection method that is very reliable and cheap in production. The purpose of this study was to improve the sensitivity of strip sensor by simplifying the manufacturing steps and detection reading. Feasibility of strip assay detection of OTA was determined by color appearance of test line that was produced by the binding between OTA-BSA conjugates and gold antibody particles. However, in this study, strip assays were improved the efficacy of detection by conjugating with nanoparticles and OTA-BSA conjugates, instead of antibody. By different optimization steps in strip manufacturing and the application of the label on the strips, an increase in sensitivity and applicability was accomplished. The method uses a low cost test device consisting of a conjugation pad, membrane, sample pad, and absorbent pad. OTA-BSA and their conjugates with colloidal gold nanoparticles were prepared. The detection was based on the competition of OTA in a sample and an OTA-BSA on the colloidal particle surfaces for the binding to antibody of OTA immobilized on a membrane. It allows direct analysis of sample containing 10% methanol in phosphate buffered saline. The limit of detection obtained was 10 ng/ml for OTA. The cross reactivity of OTA strip assays with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was examined. When 10, 100 ng/ml of AFB1 was tested, non-specific binding was not observed in the test strip.

  11. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  12. Systemic Risk, Bank's Capital Buffer, and Leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Buddi

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures individual bank's impact on banking systemic risk and examines the effect of individual bank's capital buffer and leverage to bank's systemic risk impact in Indonesia during 2010-2014. Using Merton's distance-to-default to measure systemic risk, the study shows a significant negative relationship between bank's capital buffer and systemic risk. High capital buffer tends to lowering bank's impact on systemic risk. Bank's leverage level also influences its contribution to sy...

  13. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  14. Apparatus with conductive strip for dust removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.; Van de Vorle-Houben, E.J.J.; De Haar, J.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides a gas purification system, for instance for agricultural application comprising a corona discharge system, the corona discharge system comprising a counter electrode, a conductive strip with a longitudinal edge comprising tooth structures, wherein the tooth structures have

  15. Prevention of Stripping under Chip Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Eighteen chip-sealed roadways in eight cities and counties in Minnesota were evaluated both in the field (for condition surveys and density tests) and in the laboratory (for permeability, stripping, tensile-strength ratio, asphalt film thickness, and...

  16. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stripping system. 157.128 Section... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2...

  17. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  18. Automated Laser Paint Stripping (ALPS) update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovoi, Paul

    1993-03-01

    To date, the DoD has played a major role in funding a number of paint stripping programs. Some technologies have proven less effective than contemplated. Others are still in the validation phase. Paint stripping is one of the hottest issues being addressed by the finishing industry since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated that chemical stripping using methylene chloride/phenolic type strippers be stopped. The DoD and commercial aircraft companies are hard-pressed to find an alternative. Automated laser paint stripping has been identified as a technique for removing coatings from aircraft surfaces. International Technical Associates (InTA) was awarded a Navy contract for an automated laser paint stripping system (ALPS) that will remove paint from metallic and composite substrates. For the program, which will validate laser paint stripping, InTA will design, build, test, and install a system for fighter-sized aircraft at both the Norfolk and North Island (San Diego) Aviation Depots.

  19. Biofiltro con cascarilla de arroz y pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del INPEC – Yopal, Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Katheryne Higuera Infante

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación se evaluó un biofiltro a escala laboratorio para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del Inpec de Yopal, Casanare, cuya finalidad era lograr un efluente de calidad óptima para reúso del agua en riego agrícola. Se contemplaron tres fases, la primera caracterización y análisis de los parámetros microbiológicos como fisicoquímicos del efluente. La segunda fase diseño y construcción del sistema a escala laboratorio del humedal artificial, se construyó en vidrio, usando cascarilla de arroz, intercalada con grava, se sembró pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides y se inundó el sistema para que funcionará con flujo subsuperficial, el tiempo de retención hidráulico TRH fue de 3.4 días. La desinfección con cloro se diseñó a partir de una prueba de demanda de cloro. La tercera fase consistió en la operación del sistema a flujo continuo, el seguimiento se realizó a través de 4 muestreos con frecuencia semanal, en dos de estos muestreos se incluyó medición de DBO5, coliformes totales y fecales y conductividad.  Los resultados mostraron que la cascarilla de arroz como sustrato funciona bien, las plantas crecieron permanentemente, ayudando a disminuir la carga orgánica. Como conclusión la cascarilla puede ser un sustituto total o parcial de otros sustratos de biofiltros o humedales de flujo subsuperficial, al ser menos costosa y estar disponible especialmente en la región de la Orinoquía. Sin embargo, su uso debe complementarse con un proceso de reoxigenación del agua, ya que su condición anaerobia es un aspecto negativo para los cuerpos de agua receptores de vertimientos.

  20. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  1. Anodic stripping voltammetry of nickel ions and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyarofah, N. R. R.; Gunlazuardi, J.; Einaga, Y.; Ivandini, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of nickel ions in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) have been investigated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The deposition potential at 0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 300 s in 0.1 M PBS pH 3 was found as the optimum condition. The condition was applied for the determination of nickel contained in nickel hydroxide nanoparticles. A linear calibration curve can be achieved of Ni(OH)2-NPs in the concentration range of x to x mM with an estimated limit of detection (LOD) of 5.73 × 10-6 mol/L.

  2. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent...

  3. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  4. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 μl) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO(-) 3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO(-) 3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO(-) 3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  5. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  6. Optimization of protein buffer cocktails using Thermofluor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Linda; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Geerlof, Arie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Weiss, Manfred S

    2013-02-01

    The stability and homogeneity of a protein sample is strongly influenced by the composition of the buffer that the protein is in. A quick and easy approach to identify a buffer composition which increases the stability and possibly the conformational homogeneity of a protein sample is the fluorescence-based thermal-shift assay (Thermofluor). Here, a novel 96-condition screen for Thermofluor experiments is presented which consists of buffer and additive parts. The buffer screen comprises 23 different buffers and the additive screen includes small-molecule additives such as salts and nucleotide analogues. The utilization of small-molecule components which increase the thermal stability of a protein sample frequently results in a protein preparation of higher quality and quantity and ultimately also increases the chances of the protein crystallizing.

  7. Buffer sizing for multi-hop networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-28

    A cumulative buffer may be defined for an interference domain in a wireless mesh network and distributed among nodes in the network to maintain or improve capacity utilization of network resources in the interference domain without increasing packet queuing delay times. When an interference domain having communications links sharing resources in a network is identified, a cumulative buffer size is calculated. The cumulative buffer may be distributed among buffers in each node of the interference domain according to a simple division or according to a cost function taking into account a distance of the communications link from the source and destination. The network may be monitored and the cumulative buffer size recalculated and redistributed when the network conditions change.

  8. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  9. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certain stripped bonds as market discount bonds—(1) In general. By publication in the Internal Revenue... loans that are stripped bonds are to be treated as market discount bonds under section 1278. Thus, any purchaser of such a bond is to account for any discount on the bond as market discount rather than original...

  10. Anodic stripping voltammetry of silver nanoparticles: aggregation leads to incomplete stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloake, Samantha J; Toh, Her Shuang; Lee, Patricia T; Salter, Chris; Johnston, Colin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    The influence of nanoparticle aggregation on anodic stripping voltammetry is reported. Dopamine-capped silver nanoparticles were chosen as a model system, and melamine was used to induce aggregation in the nanoparticles. Through the anodic stripping of the silver nanoparticles that were aggregated to different extents, it was found that the peak area of the oxidative signal corresponding to the stripping of silver to silver(I) ions decreases with increasing aggregation. Aggregation causes incomplete stripping of the silver nanoparticles. Two possible mechanisms of 'partial oxidation' and 'inactivation' of the nanoparticles are proposed to account for this finding. Aggregation effects must be considered when anodic stripping voltammetry is used for nanoparticle detection and quantification. Hence, drop casting, which is known to lead to aggregation, is not encouraged for preparing electrodes for analytical purposes.

  11. COMBINATIONS OF BUFFER-STOCKS AND BUFFER-FUNDS FOR WOOL PRICE STABILISATION IN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Brian; Piggott, Roley R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a preliminary analysis is presented of a combined buffer-fund and buffer-stock as an alternative to a pure buffer-fund or a pure buffer stock for stabilising wool prices. The alternatives analysed are designed so that each provides the same prices to producers as did the Reserve Price Scheme over the period of analysis. Least-cost combinations of policy instruments are derived. The results show that there is considerable potential for cost savings to be made by combining buffer-...

  12. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first {approx}1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last {approx}600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day {approx}1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day {approx}1,500 to day {approx}1

  13. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  14. Mastering interproximal stripping: with innovations in slenderization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram; Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-05-01

    Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy Bolton ratio. Proximal stripping is carried out using of metallic abrasive strip, safe sided carborundum disk, or with long thin tapered fissure burs with air rotor. The use of rotary cutting instrument can harm the pulp by exposure of mechanical vibration and heat generation (in some cases). Whereas, the large diameter of the disk obstructs vision of the working area. Also fracturing away a portion is a common problem with disk. Tapered fissure burs cut the tooth structure as the width of bur or overcutting may occur of the tooth structure due to high speed. The use of metallic abrasive strip is the safest procedure amongst the above. The strip can be placed in the anterior region without any difficulty but using it in the posterior region is difficult as, it is difficult to hold it with fingers while stripping the posterior teeth. To avoid this inconvenience here with a simple and economical way of fabricating strip holder from routine lab material is presented. Proper management of space in the primary and mixed dentitions can prevent unnecessary loss in arch length. Diagnosing and treating space problems requires an understanding of the etiology of crowding and the development of the dentition to render treatment for the mild, moderate and severe crowding cases. Most crowding problems with less than 4.5 mm can be resolved through preservation of the leeway space, regaining space or limited expansion in the late mixed dentition. In cases with 5 to 9 mm of crowding, some can be

  15. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  16. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  17. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  18. Stripping of titanium from TBP-decanol phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X. H.

    2017-01-01

    The stripping of titanium from TBP-decanol phase with hydrochloric acid has been investigated. The results showed that the stripping rate of titanium increased with decreased hydrochloric acid concentration in the aqueous phase, decreased organic and aqueous phase ratio and increased stripping temperature. Extracted titanium was easy to strip and 0.5 mol/L hydrochloric acid was suitable stripping agent. The kinetics of the stripping process was fast, since the equilibrium was reached in 10 minutes. The extraction and stripping isotherms showed that through extraction and stripping titanium (IV) was separated and enriched as about five fold. The simulated extraction and stripping of titanium (IV) in leaching solution of blast furnace slag were proceeded.

  19. Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

  20. African American college women's suicide buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Michelle S; Range, Lillian M

    2003-01-01

    African American women have lower suicide rates than other women and men in the United States They may possess suicide buffers including social support, religiosity, negative attitudes regarding suicide acceptability, and African American culture. To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious problem-solving style. The identification of these factors may help in the assessment, prevention, and intervention of suicide for African American women and other women and men.

  1. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimelius, Hans (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pusch, Roland (Geodevelopment International AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The research and development of the design and construction of the SKB's repository for final disposal of spent reactor fuel is conducted along several paths ('lines'). Issues concerning the bedrock are dealt with in the 'rock line' and those related to buffer and backfill in deposition holes and tunnels are considered in the 'buffer line' and 'backfill line', respectively. These lines also deal with sub-activities that are coupled to several other lines. One of them includes development of techniques for protecting buffer blocks from moisture and water in the installation phase. Techniques and methods for placement and removal of the 'buffer protection sheet' are dealt with in the 'buffer line'. The removal is, however, considered as being part of the backfilling sequence. Since the performance of the sheet is of fundamental importance to the placement and function of the buffer it deserves particular attention. Thus, the removal of the rubber sheet that serves to protect the buffer blocks in the installation phase may be difficult and can cause significant problems that may require retrieval of already placed canister, buffer and backfill. These matters are in focus in the present report. Arrangements for protecting already placed buffer blocks from moist air and water have been tested in earlier large-scale experiments, i.e. the Prototype Repository project at Aespoe but the experience from them has called for more effective protection of the clay blocks as described in the present report. Focus is on the construction of foundation components at the bottom of the deposition holes required for establishing a tight seal between rock and buffer blocks, and on the protection sheet and arrangements for limiting water pressure on it. Special attention is paid to the drainage of the space between rock and protection sheet that is necessary for avoiding failure of the sheet and to systems for achieving

  2. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  3. Disposable copper-based electrochemical sensor for anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xing; Kang, Wenjing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2014-05-20

    In this work, we report the first copper-based point-of-care sensor for electrochemical measurements demonstrated by zinc determination in blood serum. Heavy metals require careful monitoring, yet current methods are too complex for a point-of-care system. Electrochemistry offers a simple approach to metal detection on the microscale, but traditional carbon, gold (Au), or platinum (Pt) electrodes are difficult or expensive to microfabricate, preventing widespread use. Our sensor features a new low-cost electrode material, copper, which offers simple fabrication and compatibility with microfabrication and PCB processing, while maintaining competitive performance in electrochemical detection. Anodic stripping voltammetry of zinc using our new copper-based sensors exhibited a 140 nM (9.0 ppb) limit of detection (calculated) and sensitivity greater than 1 μA/μM in the acetate buffer. The sensor was also able to determine zinc in a bovine serum extract, and the results were verified with independent sensor measurements. These results demonstrate the advantageous qualities of this lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for clinical applications, which include a small sample volume (μL scale), reduced cost, short response time, and high accuracy at low concentrations of analyte.

  4. Wokker. Notes on a Surrealist comic strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sabin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the creation and development of a British comic strip, Wokker (1971-1999, and its connections with the surrealist movement. Although the strip is remarkable for its content and formalist properties, it remains obscure both because of its publishing circumstances, and because it does not fit easily into a history of comics. Rather it can be argued that its conceptual roots can be traced to the artistic ferment that happened in Paris in the 1920s (with Breton as a key reference point, and that it represents a very English, and late-flowering, example of the surrealist idea.

  5. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...... is to analyse why the asset-stripping schemes occurred in a mature market economy with a strong corporate governance system and a low level of corruption. Design/methodology/approach – The research is conducted as a longitudinal single case study based on documentary research. Findings – The Danish case...

  6. IS POLARIS LEAVING THE CEPHEID INSTABILITY STRIP?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Although Polaris is generally regarded as an overtone pulsator that may soon switch to pulsation in the fundamental mode, it is argued that the variable is actually crossing the instability strip for the first time and is in the process of leaving the instability strip altogether. The luminosity of Polaris inferred from its optical F3 V companion, as well as from A, F, and G-type stars lying within a few degrees of it and populating a group main sequence coincident with that for Polaris B...

  7. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    and complicate measurements on free-standing films. A model of the potential profile in a free-standing strip is derived. It is found that the active length (the length with a given potential change) of the polymer will scale as square root (d sigma /i/sub d/). (d is the thickness, sigma the conductivity...... of the film, and i/sub d/ the diffusion limited current density for oxygen reduction). The active length is typically of the order of millimeters. The model is compared with measurements on a strip of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonate...

  8. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  9. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  10. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Xx showed that pain perception was similar between formulations containing phenol and benzyl alcohol, whereas m-cresol was associated with more painful injections than benzyl alcohol. Furthermore, patients reported more pain following injection of a citrate-buffered solution than after a histidine...... administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate...... been observed following subcutaneous administration of phenol (7.5 mg/ml), m-cresol (3-4 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (9 mg/ml). No general toxicity reactions were observed after subcutaneous administration of these agents. Clinical evaluation of the preservatives and buffers used in Norditropin Simple...

  11. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact...... of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  12. Calculating Buffer Zones: A Guide for Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer zones provide distance between the application block (i.e., edge of the treated field) and bystanders, in order to control pesticide exposure risk from soil fumigants. Distance requirements may be reduced by credits such as tarps.

  13. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective...... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....

  14. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...... to the used analysis method and therefore great care has to be taken when comparing results of different experiments. This paper discusses this issue and will come with a recommendation of a simple and consistent way to present the moisture buffer capacity of the materials in contact with the indoor air...

  15. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Puffs are localized Ca(2 +) signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca(2 +) from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca(2 +) provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca(2 +) signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca(2 +) channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca(2 +) buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff.

  16. A wooded riparian strip set up for nitrogen removal can affect the water flux microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Md. Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero river flow for the reduction of nutrient input into Venice Lagoon. Specific objectives were pursued to determine seasonal fluctuations of the microbial populations from the input water to a drainage ditch, conveying back the flux into the river after passing through the soil of the wooded riparian strip. The bacterial communities were determined by combined approaches involving cultivation, microscopic methods and DNA based techniques to determine both culturable and total microbial community in water. The results indicate that the size of the bacterial population, including the culturable fraction, increases from the river to the drainage ditch especially on the warm season. The multiple approach here adopted enabled also to demonstrate that the special condition created in the buffer strip supports the development and the metabolism of the microbial community. The nature of the bacterial population, in terms of phylotypes distribution, was investigated by 16S rDNA analysis indicating that the most represented genera belong to Gamma-proteobacteria, which is known to include an exceeding number of important pathogens. In spring, the effect of the buffer strip seems to significantly reduce such a sub-population. The changes observed for the total bacterial community composition become much evident in summer, as revealed by both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis cluster analysis and by the diversity index calculation. The hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation resulted in a condition suitable for the containment of undesired microbiota (mainly during the spring season while continuing to support denitrification activity (especially throughout the summer as verified by the total nitrogen

  17. Finite element modeling of corneal strip extensometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available symmetric conicoid [19]: (x xo) 2+(y yo) 2+(1+Q)(z zo) 2 2R(z zo) 2 = 0; (2) c SACAM 2012 25 Top view Isometric view Initial corneal curvature z y x x y z Fig. 3: Finite element model of the vertical corneal strip, including the orthogonal...

  18. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 6. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of Chromium (VI) using synthesized gold nanoparticles modified screen-printed electrode. Salamatu Aliyu Tukur Nor Azah Yusof Reza Hajian. Regular Articles Volume 127 Issue 6 June 2015 pp ...

  19. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  20. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  1. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  2. KRITIK SOSIAL DALAM KOMIK STRIP PAK BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Novriansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to do interpret the marking which flange social criticism and know laboring ideology in story of Comic Strip Pak Bei. Research based on theory of structural semiotic according to Ferdinand De Saussure. Using analysis of Syntagmatic as first level of meaning to the text network and also picture, and analysis of Paradigmatic as second level of meaning or implicit meaning (connota-tion, myth, ideology Analysis done to six Comic choice edition of Strip Pak Bei period of November 2004 - Februari 2005 which tend to flange social criticism. At band of syntagmatic, result of research indicate that story theme lifted from social problems that happened in major society. The fact clear progressively when connected by Intertextual with information and texts which have preexisted. At band of Paradigmatic, social criticism tend to emerge dimly, is not transparent. Because of Comic Strip Pak Bei expand in the middle of Java cultural domination that developing myth of criticize as action menacing compatibility and orderliness of society. Story of Comic Strip Pak Bei also confirm dominant ideology in Java society culture, namely ideology of Patriarkhi and Feudalism which still go into effect until now. This prove ideology idea according to Louis Althusser which not again opposition between class, but have been owned and practiced by all social class.

  3. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  4. Polymer Inclusion Membranes with Strip Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsien Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the permeation of indium ions through a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM, prepared with cellulose triacetate (CTA as the base polymer, tris(2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP as the plasticizer and di-(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA as the extractant. With 5 M HCl aqueous solution as the strip solution, we observed an initial indium permeability of 2.4 × 10−4 m/min. However, the permeability decreases with time, dropping to about 3.4 × 10−5 m/min after 200 min of operation. Evidence was obtained showing that hydrolysis of CTA occurred, causing a dramatic decrease in the feed pH (protons transported from strip to feed solutions and a loss of extractant and plasticizer from the membrane, and then leading to the loss of indium permeability. To alleviate the problem of hydrolysis, we proposed an operation scheme called polymer inclusion membranes with strip dispersion: dispersing the strip solution in extractant-containing oil and then bringing the dispersion to contact with the polymer membrane. Since the strong acid was dispersed in oil, the membrane did not directly contact the strong acid at all times, and membrane hydrolysis was thus alleviated and the loss of indium permeability was effectively prevented. With the proposed scheme, a stable indium permeability of 2.5 × 10−4 m/min was obtained during the whole time period of the permeation experiment.

  5. FDA Warns Diabetics Against Use of Secondhand Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166767.html FDA Warns Diabetics Against Use of Secondhand Test Strips ... stored to give accurate results," according to the FDA. "If you buy pre-owned strips, it is ...

  6. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  7. Dry stripping as a surface treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Ilkka

    1992-03-01

    High environmental and safety standards as well as use of new paint and substrate materials have created the need for developing stripping methods to substitute chemical and mechanical methods and on the other hand for expanding the applicability of blasting as a surface treatment. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) (alternatively Dry Stripping System (DSS)) is an emerging technology first used in aircraft maintenance for paint stripping. Traditionally this task is performed by brushing and grinding or by using chemical solvents. With plastic media it is possible to remove thick paints with high adhesion without damaging the substrate and even layer by layer. If suitable type of plastic media, blasting pressure low enough, media concentration high enough and on the other right blasting time, blasting distance and blasting angle are chosen, the effectiveness of PMB can be varied to a large extent. In regard to the hardness of media plastic particles are situated between some organic materials and shots used in sand blasting. Therefore composite materials can be treated without damaging the substrate or thin metal plates without causing any deformations. The principle of plastic media blasting equipment is similar to traditional blasting equipment. Nevertheless the properties of plastic media are different to harder particles used in shot peening resulting in higher demands for filtration, ventilation and recycling systems. In addition the facilities have to contain proper recovery equipment, because plastic media can be reused, even 20 times. In recycling systems plastic media is cleaned, too large and too small particles are removed, hard and magnetic particles are removed from reusable media and dust is separated from media. In addition to paint stripping PMB can successfully be used for cleaning of surfaces from contamination and to some extent for polishing, grinding and roughening. Paint stripping has been the main application so far, but there may be many other

  8. Review on Vertical Twin-Roll Strip Casting: A Key Technology for Quality Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadev Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays near-net-shape casting technology is an important area of research in the iron and steel industry. Among different kinds of near-net-shape casting process, twin-roll casting process has received much attention among researchers. Twin-roll casting (TRC has been the subject of extensive research, not only to develop the technology but also to achieve an understanding of microstructural evolution and to produce quality strips. The main issues concerning the design and operation of twin-roll casters are metal-mold heat transfer, metal delivery system, and their possible effects on the solid shell formation and characteristics of the strips. The present review gives an idea about the process aspect, modeling, and quality issues in vertical twin-roll strip casting process and helps to improve the design of twin-roll strip caster.

  9. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  10. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bender, Michael; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60 MHz/cm2. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48 cm × 50 cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120 GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50 μm at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below 5° are observed. Systematic deviations of this μTPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas under intense background irradiation of the whole active area with 20 MeV protons at a rate of 550 kHz. The spatial resolution for muons is not distorted by space charge effects. A 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is investigated in highly ionizing proton and carbon ion beams at particle rates between 2 MHz and 2 GHz. Stable operation up to the highest rates is observed, spatial resolution, detection efficiencies, the multi-hit and high-rate capability are discussed.

  11. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, H.; /Illinois U., Urbana; Swain, S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

  12. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  14. Determination of carmine food dye (E120) in foodstuffs by stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ahmad H; Alshammery, Hamed M; Abdalla, Mohamed A; Alghamdi, Ali F

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of the food colorant agent carmine (E120) was studied by square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SW-AdSV) at the hanging mercury drop electrode. It was observed that carmine gave a sensitive stripping voltammetric peak at -350 mV in pH 3 acetate buffer. The cyclic voltammetric technique was also used to characterize the electrochemical reduction process of carmine. The adsorptive voltammetric signal was evaluated with respect to various experimental conditions, and the optimized values were supporting electrolyte, acetate buffer; buffer acidity, pH 3; dye concentration, 3 x 10(-7) M; accumulation time, 150 s; accumulation potential, -0.2 V; scan rate, 300 mV/s; pulse amplitude, 185 mV; SW frequency, 20 Hz; working electrode area, 0.6 mm2; and convection rate, 2600 rpm. The SW-AdSV peak currents depended linearly on the concentration of carmine from 5 x 10(-8) to 1.25 x 10(-7) mol/L (r = 0.99). A detection limit of 1.43 x 10(-9) mol/L with an RSD of 2.2% and a mean recovery of 97.9% were obtained. Possible interferences by several substances usually present in food products such as food additive dyes (E102, E100, E123, E127, and E129), artificial sweeteners, preservatives, and antioxidants were also evaluated. The proposed electrochemical procedure was successfully applied to the determination of carmine food dye in spiked commercially available ice cream and soft drinks.

  15. A design aid for determining width of filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.G. Dosskey; M.J. Helmers; D.E. Eisenhauer

    2008-01-01

    watershed planners need a tool for determining width of filter strips that is accurate enough for developing cost-effective site designs and easy enough to use for making quick determinations on a large number and variety of sites.This study employed the process-based Vegetative Filter Strip Model to evaluate the relationship between filter strip width and trapping...

  16. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to indicate...

  17. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  18. Scientific Applications Performance Evaluation on Burst Buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Markomanolis, George S.

    2017-10-19

    Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays additional layers, the latest being the usage of SSD-based storage as a Burst Buffer for I/O acceleration. We present an in-depth analysis on how to use Burst Buffer for specific cases and how the internal MPI I/O aggregators operate according to the options that the user provides during his job submission. We analyze the performance of a range of I/O intensive scientific applications, at various scales on a large installation of Lustre parallel file system compared to an SSD-based Burst Buffer. Our results show a performance improvement over Lustre when using Burst Buffer. Moreover, we show results from a data hierarchy library which indicate that the standard I/O approaches are not enough to get the expected performance from this technology. The performance gain on the total execution time of the studied applications is between 1.16 and 3 times compared to Lustre. One of the test cases achieved an impressive I/O throughput of 900 GB/s on Burst Buffer.

  19. The use of 0.01M phosphate buffered saline as detection buffer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of 0.01M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as detection buffer for Alere Determine® HIV rapid test. This study was carried out at Bugando School of Medicine in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 300 whole blood specimens; 150 HIV positive specimens from patients attending Care and ...

  20. Zinc Detection in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry on Microfabricated Bismuth Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothimuthu, Preetha; Wilson, Robert A; Herren, Josi; Pei, Xing; Kang, Wenjing; Daniels, Rodney; Wong, Hector; Beyette, Fred; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) homeostasis is required for a functional immune system. Critically ill patients often exhibit decreased Zn serum concentrations and could potentially benefit from Zn supplementation as a therapeutic strategy. However, the conventional approaches to monitoring Zn are time consuming and costly. This work reports on detection of Zn by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on bismuth electrodes in a microfabricated electrochemical cell. The working potential window of the electrodeposited bismuth film electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, while square wave ASV was used for measuring Zn in acetate buffer and blood serum. Conditions critical to sensing, such as preconcentration potential, preconcentration time, and buffer pH, were optimized for Zn detection. The sensor was successfully calibrated with pH 6 acetate buffer in the physiologically-relevant range of 5 μM to 50μM Zn and exhibited well-defined and highly repeatable peaks. The sensor was used to demonstrate measurement of Zn in blood serum digested in HCl. The results of this work show that Zn detection in serum is possible with smaller sample volumes (μL vs. μL) and faster turnaround time (hours vs. days) as compared with the conventional spectroscopic methods.

  1. Labview virtual instruments for calcium buffer calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Frederick B; Pollack, Gerald H

    2003-01-01

    Labview VIs based upon the calculator programs of Fabiato and Fabiato (J. Physiol. Paris 75 (1979) 463) are presented. The VIs comprise the necessary computations for the accurate preparation of multiple-metal buffers, for the back-calculation of buffer composition given known free metal concentrations and stability constants used, for the determination of free concentrations from a given buffer composition, and for the determination of apparent stability constants from absolute constants. As implemented, the VIs can concurrently account for up to three divalent metals, two monovalent metals and four ligands thereof, and the modular design of the VIs facilitates further extension of their capacity. As Labview VIs are inherently graphical, these VIs may serve as useful templates for those wishing to adapt this software to other platforms.

  2. Nonlinear spelling in graphemic buffer deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a case of nonlinear spelling and its implications for theories of the graphemic buffer. C.T.J., an individual with an acquired deficit of the graphemic buffer, often wrote the letters of his responses in a nonlinear temporal order when writing to dictation. The spatial ordering of the letters was maintained: Letters in the later positions of the words were written towards the right side of the response, even when written before letters in earlier positions. This unusual phenomenon has been briefly reported in three prior cases but this study provides the most detailed analysis of the phenomenon to date. We specifically contend that the decoupling of the temporal and spatial aspects of spelling is difficult to reconcile with competitive queuing accounts of the graphemic buffer.

  3. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage...... metaphor lets the user adjust volume and panning by positioning tracks relative to a virtual listening position. In this study test participants are given the task to adjust volume and panning of one channel (in mixes consisting of three channels) in order to replicate a series of simple pre-rendered mixes....... They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance...

  4. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A; Zheng, Jiaming

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino [Formula: see text] is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark [Formula: see text] is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic [Formula: see text] cold dark matter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark [Formula: see text] NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the [Formula: see text] may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper.

  5. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  6. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  7. Gauze strip tourniquet for nail surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All nail surgical procedures require the use of a tourniquet. The nail bed, being a very vascular structure, needs to be exsanguinated at the start and then a tourniquet needs to be tied at the base. A number of tourniquets have been described, including a Foley′s catheter, a Penrose drain, a rubber strip or a rubber band. The present article explains the use of the easily available, improvised, gauze strip tourniquet. This does not require much special preparation, is easily autoclavable, perfect for single use and can achieve exsanguination as well as tightening as a single step. This technique does not require much learning and is easily reproducible in almost all surgical setups.

  8. Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

  9. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T [Albuquerque, NM; Payne, Jason A [Albuquerque, NM; Ottesen, Cory W [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  10. Mastering Interproximal Stripping: With Innovations in Slenderization

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram; Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy ...

  11. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  12. LASSA: Large Area Silicon Strip Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, B.; Desouza, R. T.; Yanez, R.; Church, J.; Gelbke, C. K.; Liu, T.; Lynch, W. G.; Moehlenkamp, T.; Tan, T.; Tsang, M. B.; Wagner, A.; Charity, R. J.; Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.

    1998-04-01

    An IU-MSU-WU collaboration is designing and building a new array for detecting isotopically resolved intermediate mass fragments (IMF: 3<=Z<=10) and light charged particles (LCP: Z<=2) with good spatial resolution and low energy thresholds. The first element of each telescope consists of a 5 cm x 5 cm 65 μ m passivated silicon detector. This thin silicon detector is backed by a 500 μ m detector of the same area. These silicon detectors are mounted in a compact geometry which minimizes dead area. To allow detection of LCP, the silicon detectors are backed by 6 cm thick CsI(Tl) crystals with photodiode readout. The 65 μ m silicon has 16 strips on its front surface while the 500 μ m has 16 strips on the front surface with an additional 16 strips oriented orthogonally on the back surface which allows two dimensional position information for both IMFs and LCPs. The array has nine telescopes in a 3x3 arrangement to optimize the measurement of small angle IMF-IMF coincidences in heavy-ion induced multifragmention reactions. Design details, efficiency calculations, and early prototype results will be presented.

  13. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  14. Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the electro-reduction behaviour and determination of ciprofloxacin using a hanging mercury drop electrode. Methods: Cyclic voltammograms of ciprofloxacin recorded in Britton – Robinson buffers pH 2 – 5 exhibit a single irreversible cathodic peak. The dependence of the peak current and peak ...

  15. Defining Steamside Management Zones or Riparian Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Williams; Donald J. Lipscomb; Christopher J. Post

    2004-01-01

    Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been highly successful in protecting water quality throughout the Southeast. Numerous studies have found them to be effective in protecting water quality. Despite being mostly voluntary, compliance is generally about 90 percent across the region. Streamside Management Zones (SMZs) or riparian buffers are specified for...

  16. Zelfzorg als buffer voor burn-out

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Caroline; Dewaele, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Burn-out komt vaak voor bij hulpverleners. Door hun eigenheid durven ze niet snel hulp vragen. In geen enkele missietekst van een organisatie staat dat de organisatie zelfzorg bij hulpverleners als kerntaak opneemt. Zelfzorg is de beste buffer tegen burn-out.

  17. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  18. Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, L F; Gottman, J M

    1997-06-01

    Examined several protective mechanisms that may reduce deleterious correlates of marital conflict and marital dissolution in young children. One set of potential buffers focused on parent-child interaction: parental warmth, parental scaffolding/praise, and inhibition of parental rejection. As a second set of potential buffers, each parent was interviewed about their "meta-emotion philosophy"--that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and their attitudes and responses to their children's anger and sadness. The third set of potential buffers concerned intraindividual characteristics of the child, including the child's intelligence and regulatory physiology (basal vagal tone and vagal suppression). Fifty-six families with a preschool child were studied at two time points: when the children were 5 years old (Time 1) and again when the children were 8 years old (Time 2). At Time 1, naturalistic observations of marital and parent-child interaction were conducted and assessment of child regulatory physiology was obtained through measures of basal vagal tone and suppression of vagal tone. Parents were also interviewed individually about their feelings about their own and their children's emotions, and children's intelligence was assessed. At Time 2, assessment of child outcomes were obtained, including observations of peer interaction, mother ratings of behavior problems and mother and teacher ratings of peer aggression, mother ratings of child physical illness, and measures of achievement. Results indicated that all Time 1 buffering factors protected children in face of marital conflict and dissolution.

  19. Front propagation in the bromate-sulfite-ferrocyanide-aluminum (III) system: Autocatalytic front in a buffer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Klara; Leda, Marcin; Vanag, Vladimir K.; Epstein, Irving R.

    2010-06-01

    We study the propagation of pH fronts in a narrow, pseudo-one-dimensional strip of gel containing bromate, sulfite, ferrocyanide and aluminum ions. The front propagation speed v decreases with [ Al 3+] as 1/v=1/v0+c[Al], where c is a constant. We determine the diffusion coefficients of protons and ferricyanide ions and find that Al(OH) 3 loaded in agarose or acrylamide gels binds protons reversibly, thereby slowing the propagating fronts without significantly affecting the diffusion of ferricyanide ions. We present a model that qualitatively reproduces the experimental behavior, and we suggest some general principles governing autocatalytic fronts in buffered systems.

  20. Evaluation of enhanced soil washing process and phytoremediation with maize oil, carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin, and vetiver grass for the recovery of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from a pesticide factory site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Liu, Zongtang; Ni, Ni; Chen, Yinwen; Gu, Chengang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2014-08-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in a mixed contaminated site. Elevated temperature (60 °C) combined with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 50 mL L(-1) maize oil and 45 g L(-1) carboxylmethyl-β-cyclodextrin were effective in extracting pollutants from the soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total OCPs, mirex, endosulfans, chlordanes, Cd, and Pb were approximately 94.7%, 87.2%, 98.5%, 92.3%, 91.6%, and 87.3%, respectively. Cultivation of vetiver grass and addition of nutrients for 3 months further degraded 34.7% of the residual total OCPs and partially restored the microbiological functions of the soil. This result was indicated by the significant increase in the number, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p pollutants in the remediated soil was at an acceptable level. The proposed combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Buffer strip width and agricultural pesticide contamination in Danish lowland streams: Implications for stream and riparian management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

    . According to the WFD, member states are obliged to obtain good ecosystem quality in natural surface waters in 2015. Mitigating the risk of non-point source contamination by agricultural pesticides is therefore an essential management task in river basins. Recently, the SPEAR index was introduced for German...... the most important environmental parameters governing the occurrence of agricultural pesticides in Danish streams. We measured the concentration of 23 selected agricultural pesticides in 15 Danish 1st and 2nd order streams. Water samples (storm flow) and sediment samples (bed sediment) were collected...... to the SPEAR index and estimate a minimum BSW required to mitigate effects of pesticide contamination in lowland streams in rural areas....

  2. The Effect of Deceleration Strips upon Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Jie-Fang

    We propose a new single-lane cellular automaton model to study the effect of deceleration strips upon traffic flow. By performing numerical simulations under the periodic boundary condition, we find that the deceleration strips could be considered as the headstream of traffic jams and they are apt to cause the small scale traffic jam. The maximum flow is decreased evidently when there are some deceleration strips on the road. But the increase of the number of deceleration strips only influences the maximum flow slightly. Furthermore, if the vehicle density is high enough, the influence of deceleration strips could be ignored. Therefore, the disadvantage of the deceleration strips may be ignored in city traffic because of the high density.

  3. A mercury free electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb (II) ions using poly zincon film modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, S.; Devendiran, M.; Narayanan, S. Sriman

    2017-11-01

    With an aim of developing a mercury-free electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb (II) ions, a poly zincon film (PZF) modified electrode is reported here. The PZF on the electrode surface has been obtained by electropolymerisation of zincon. PZF present on the electrode surface has been used for preconcentrating Pb (II) ions through complexation. The electrochemical determination of the above metal ion has been carried out by reducing the preconcentrated Pb (II) at -1.0 V followed by anodic stripping in acetate buffer of pH 6 and measuring the stripping current at -0.64 V. The PZF and Pb preconcentrated PZF modified electrodes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The factors influencing the determination of Pb (II) ions such as the nature of medium/background electrolyte, pH, preconcentration time and electrode regeneration have been studied in detail. Under optimum conditions, a linear relation for the stripping current with Pb (II) ions in the solution has been observed in the range from 3.45 to 136.3 μg L-1 with a detection limit of 0.98 μg L-1. The regeneration of the modified electrode after each experiment has been achieved by simply immersing the electrode in 0.1 M EDTA solution for 2 min and washing thoroughly in de-ionised water. PZF modified electrode has shown a promising and sensitive platform for the anodic stripping determination of Pb (II) ions and the regeneration of the electrode has been found to be easy for subsequent uses. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of Pb (II) ions in ground water and tap water samples.

  4. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Buffer-Dependent Variations of Size and Morphology in Biological Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Rahin; Oh, Sangjin; Baba, Rina; Zhou, Hongjian; Hwang, Sungu; Lee, Jaebeom; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-02-01

    The demand for biologically compatible and stable noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in recent years due to their inert nature and unique optical properties. In this article, we present 11 different synthetic methods for obtaining gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) through the use of common biological buffers. The results demonstrate that the sizes, shapes, and monodispersity of the NPs could be varied depending on the type of buffer used, as these buffers acted as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer in each synthesis. Theoretical simulations and electrochemical experiments were performed to understand the buffer-dependent variations of size and morphology exhibited by these Au NPs, which revealed that surface interactions and the electrostatic energy on the (111) surface of Au were the determining factors. The long-term stability of the synthesized NPs in buffer solution was also investigated. Most NPs synthesized using buffers showed a uniquely wide range of pH stability and excellent cell viability without the need for further modifications.

  5. Estimation of Heavy Metals in Multivitamin Tablets by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rohit Raj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV was applied for the simultaneous determination of zinc and copper in multivitamin tablet (supradyn and centrum. Determination of the metals was made in ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5 with a scan rate of 0.01 V/s by Hanging Mercury Dropping Electrode (HMDE.The solution was stirred during electrolysis at -1.3 V for 300 s in the potential range of -1.3 to + 0.1 V. Concentrations of zinc and copper in supradyn drug sample were found to be 1.80 and 2.9 mg/tablet and for centrum drug sample were found to be 4.6 and 0.94 mg/tablet respectively.

  6. Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nickel and cobalt in high purity aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palrecha, M.M. [Analytical Chemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1995-04-01

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of nickel and cobalt in pure aluminium has been described using differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPASV) by adsorptive accumulation of the dimethyl glyoxime (DMG) complex on the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). As supporting electrolyte 0.1 mol/l ammonia buffer, pH 9.0, containing ammonium citrate and 5 x 10{sup -4} mol/l DMG has been used. The determination limit obtained has been as low as 0.5 {mu}g/g for Ni and 0.2 {mu}g/g for Co (using about 100 mg sample) with a relative standard deviation of 13% and 22%, respectively. (orig.)

  7. The CMS Si-strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at LHC features the largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) ever build. This device is immersed in a 4T magnetic field and, in conjunction with a Pixel system, it allows the momentum of the charged particles to be measured and the heavy-flavour final states to be tagged despite the hostile radiation environment. The impact of operating conditions and physics requirements on the SST layout and design choices is discussed and the expected performances are reviewed. The SST collaboration is now facing the production of the ~15000 modules and their assembly into the SST substructures. A status is given.

  8. Moving Strip Technique of Electoron Beam Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    松島, 紀志夫; 若狭, 弘之; 小栗,宣博; 北山, 卓一; 中桐, 義忠; 三上,泰隆; 橋本,啓二; 平木, 祥夫; 青野,要

    1984-01-01

    The fieldsize in electron beam therapy is determined by the cone size. In cases of skin metastasis of a malignant tumor and so on, which need a large field size and whose area is much larger than the size of the cone, a large field size is usually produced by dividing the portals. However, the dose distribution at the border of the field becomes unequal, and hot and cold dose areas are produced according to the distance between portals. We tried the strip field technique in a large field alon...

  9. Indication and Technical Application of Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiadis A.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interproximal enamel reduction is a technique used for creating space in cases of mild or moderate crowding. There are several indications and contraindications determined by the tooth shape and the percentage of the caries index. The instruments used for the technique are diamond-coated metal strips, diamond discs and burs, each with advantages and disadvantages. Another way of interdental enamel reduction is using chemical products such as orthophosphoric acid. There are opposite impacts on the enamel surface and the periodontal tissues, based on the literature review.

  10. [Homogeneous dose distribution in the moving-strip technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiecchio, A; Torrengo, S; Barboni, G; Giordana, C; Malinverni, G

    1983-03-01

    The moving-strip technique employing a 60Co beam, is used in radiotherapy for whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian tumours and lymphomas. With this technique the spread of received dose from single strip, around an average value, is very high. Our paper suggest a computerized method for a more homogeneous dose distribution in central strips and a lower dose in out-side tissues.

  11. Space Vehicle Heat Shield Having Edgewise Strips of Ablative Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Poteet, Carl C. (Inventor); Bouslog, Stan A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A heat shield for a space vehicle comprises a plurality of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) blocks secured to a surface of the space vehicle and arranged in a pattern with gaps therebetween. The heat shield further comprises a plurality of PICA strips disposed in the gaps between the PICA blocks. The PICA strips are mounted edgewise, such that the structural orientation of the PICA strips is substantially perpendicular to the structural orientation of the PICA blocks.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMATION STRIPS WHILE STRETCHING OF CYLINDRICAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vasilevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation strips have been experimentally revealed and described while stretching of cylindrical samples by means of computer thermography. It has been established that temperature of shift strip surface grows smoothly up to the stage of crack origin in material defect. Sharp growth of surface temperature occurs when tensile stresses reach tensile strength. Change in surface temperature occurs wavy after destruction (while cooling the sample. Processes of material destruction origin and development  characterize temperature changes in deformation strips.

  13. Determination of trace Se(IV) by anodic stripping voltammetry following double deposition and stripping steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochab, Mateusz; Gęca, Iwona; Korolczuk, Mieczyslaw

    2017-04-01

    A procedure of Se(IV) determination by anodic stripping voltammetry using two deposition and stripping steps at gold electrodes was proposed. A well-defined stripping peak of selenium was obtained at potential 0.9 V. The optimization of parameters influencing the selenium peak current including both deposition and stripping steps was performed. A linear relationship was observed between the Se(IV) peak current and its concentration in the range from 5×10(-9) to 1×10(-7)mol L(-1). The limit of detection was found to be 8.5×10(-10)mol L(-1). Repeatability of the method determined as RSD % for Se(IV) concentration of 5×10(-8)mol L(-1) was 4.3% (n=7). The proposed procedure was used for Se(IV) determination in certified reference material and natural water samples and acceptable results and recoveries were obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  15. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates on the mit......Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... viability and visualize the resulting landscape changes. For the Danish NEU landscape, a detailed plan of implementation options is presented, taking into account catchment morphology and hydrology, land use and drainage, access conditions, land ownership structure and land owner profiles. Different...

  16. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  17. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  18. MONITORING OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT THROUGH BUFFER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Arti Bhan*1 & Prof. Ashish P. Waghmare2

    2017-01-01

    Critical Chain Project Management is an effective method over Critical Path Method (CPM) for scheduling and monitoring the progress of a project. CPM leads to ineffective scheduling due to overestimation of duration and increases the overall project duration. The task estimates in CPM are based on guess work whereas CCPM reduces the duration of task to 50% to that of its original duration as uses the remaining 50% duration as buffer to protect the activity against delays. Also the availabilit...

  19. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M.; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. PMID:26231212

  20. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, M.; Itavaara, M.

    2012-07-01

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  1. Determination of lead by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry using an electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fuqiang; Dou, Junfeng; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Kedong; Wang, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    A novel electrochemical assay for lead (Pb(2+)) detection was developed in this study, involving the use of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). The sensor was used with selected supporting electrolytes in conjunction with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) to study the redox characteristics of lead. Good response currents were obtained using a supporting electrolyte comprising acetate buffer pH 5.0 with 0.5 mol L(-1) NH4Cl. Without a deposition process, the anodic peaks for higher lead concentrations (ranging from 0.7 to 10 mg L(-1)) were sharp and symmetrical on the bare electrode surface. Optimal ASV conditions were obtained with a well-defined stripping peak for 200 μL deposition solution volumes, a deposition potential of -1.2 V for Ag/AgCl, and a deposition time of either 300 or 400 s. Under optimal conditions, a calibration curve ranging from 6.25 to 500 μg L(-1) was obtained for lead determination. Furthermore, the performance of a Hg-free sensor for Pb(2+) determination was compared with that of a Hg-coated electrode, and the detection limits were approximately 0.9 - 1.5 μg L(-1).

  2. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  3. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  4. Towards Optimal Buffer Size in Wi-Fi Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad J.

    2016-01-19

    Buffer sizing is an important network configuration parameter that impacts the quality of data traffic. Falling memory cost and the fallacy that ‘more is better’ lead to over provisioning network devices with large buffers. Over-buffering or the so called ‘bufferbloat’ phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delay in today’s networks. On the other hand, under-buffering results in frequent packet loss and subsequent under-utilization of network resources. The buffer sizing problem has been studied extensively for wired networks. However, there is little work addressing the unique challenges of wireless environment. In this dissertation, we discuss buffer sizing challenges in wireless networks, classify the state-of-the-art solutions, and propose two novel buffer sizing schemes. The first scheme targets buffer sizing in wireless multi-hop networks where the radio spectral resource is shared among a set of con- tending nodes. Hence, it sizes the buffer collectively and distributes it over a set of interfering devices. The second buffer sizing scheme is designed to cope up with recent Wi-Fi enhancements. It adapts the buffer size based on measured link characteristics and network load. Also, it enforces limits on the buffer size to maximize frame aggregation benefits. Both mechanisms are evaluated using simulation as well as testbed implementation over half-duplex and full-duplex wireless networks. Experimental evaluation shows that our proposal reduces latency by an order of magnitude.

  5. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wormhole switching is that the buffer depth can be set as small as possible. Each port has an input channel as well as an output channel. Buffers are present at all input channels to store the data temporarily at the time of congestion. There is no need of buffers at the output channel since it is enabled by a hand shaking ...

  6. Managing Multiuser Database Buffers Using Data Mining Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Lu, H.J.

    In this paper, we propose a data-mining-based approach to public buffer management for a multiuser database system, where database buffers are organized into two areas – public and private. While the private buffer areas contain pages to be updated by particular users, the public

  7. Heed the head: buffer benefits along headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Deanna (Dede) Olson

    2015-01-01

    Since the Northwest Forest Plan implemented riparian buffers along non-fish bearing streams in 1994, there have been questions about how wide those buffers need to be to protect aquatic and riparian resources from upland forest management activities. The Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study of western Oregon, also initiated in 1994, examines the effects of...

  8. Effective Allocation of Database Buffers by Mining Users' Access Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Li, Q; Leung, H.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of database buffer management has extensively been studied for nearly three decades. In this paper, we explore the use of newly emerging data mining technology to tackle the traditional buffer management issue. In particular, we address the buffer size setting problem for distributed

  9. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  10. Concentrated flow paths in riparian buffer zones of southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Pankau; J.E. Schoonover; K.W.J. Willard; P.J. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Riparian buffers in agricultural landscapes should be designed to trap pollutants in overland flow by slowing, filtering, and infiltrating surface runoff entering the buffer via sheet flow. However, observational evidence suggests that concentrated flow is prevalent from agricultural fields. Over time sediment can accumulate in riparian buffers forming berms that...

  11. The buffer capacity and buffer systems of human whole saliva measured without loss of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardow, A; Moe, D; Nyvad, B; Nauntofte, B

    2000-01-01

    The buffer capacity of unstimulated (UWS) and stimulated (SWS) whole-mouth saliva involves three major buffer systems. The aim was to determine the buffer capacity of UWS and SWS at specific pH in the interval from pH 7.5 down to pH 3.0. The contribution of each of the buffer systems was also determined under conditions resembling those in the mouth. UWS and SWS were collected from 20 healthy volunteers; the saliva was collected under paraffin oil in order to avoid loss of CO2. The buffer capacity of UWS and SWS in samples with and without bicarbonate (HCO3-) and CO2 were measured at various pH by acid titration in a closed system at 36 C. The mean concentrations of the buffer systems in UWS (mean flow rate 0.55 ml/min) were 4.4 mmol/l HCO3-, 4.5 mmol/l phosphate (of which 1.3 mmol/l was present in the form of HPO4(2-)), 1876 microg/ml protein; the saliva pH was 6.8 and the P(CO2) 29.3 mmHg. The corresponding mean concentrations in SWS (mean flow rate 1.66 ml/min) were 9.7 mmol/l HCO3-, 3.8 mmol/l phosphate (of which 1.9 mmol/l was present in the form of HPO4(2-)), 1955 microg/ml protein; pH 7.2 and P(CO2) 25.7 mmHg, The highest buffer capacity of UWS and SWS was 6.0 and 8.5 mmol H+ /(1 saliva*pH unit) at pH 6.25, respectively. At saliva pH in the range from pH 7 down to pH 5, the following had significant impact on buffer capacity: the HCO3- concentration (p buffer capacity (p < 0.01).

  12. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  13. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available induced during roll compaction of titanium strips were measured for strips of different densities. The different densities were achieved by rolling two different particle size (100 and 325 mesh) titanium powders varying the roll gap (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mm...

  14. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Slotved, H.-C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy ...

  15. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for the Determination of Trace Cr(VI) with Graphite/Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer Composite Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Trisna K; Jin, Jiye; Zein, Rahmiana; Munaf, Edison

    2017-01-01

    A square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) for the determination of trace amounts of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) at a graphite/styrene-acrylonitrile (Graphite-SAN) copolymer composite electrode is described. This method involves a preconcentration step whereby the trace Cr(VI) was cathodically reduced to Cr(III) on an electrode surface in an acetate buffer (pH 5), followed by an anodic stripping technique with a square-wave voltammetric mode. It has been shown that the analytical sensitivity is significantly improved at the Graphite-SAN copolymer composite electrode in comparison with the conventional glassy carbon electrode, due to the strong interaction between Cr(III) and the nitrile end group of the SAN copolymer. The SWASV response was characterized with respect to the pH, deposition potential, possible interferences, etc. Under the optimal conditions, the stripping peak height linearly increased with the concentration of Cr(VI) in a range from 0 to 150 ng mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and a detection limit of 4.2 ng mL(-1) was achieved based on signal-to-noise ratio of about 3. The Graphite-SAN composite electrode exhibited some interesting advantages, such as high mechanical rigid, easy surface renewable, higher sensitivity and better peak resolution in comparison with the results at conventional glassy carbon electrodes. They have been applied to the determination of Cr(VI) in real water samples with satisfactory recoveries.

  16. k(+)-buffer: An Efficient, Memory-Friendly and Dynamic k-buffer Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Andreas-Alexandros; Papaioannou, Georgios; Fudos, Ioannis

    2015-06-01

    Depth-sorted fragment determination is fundamental for a host of image-based techniques which simulates complex rendering effects. It is also a challenging task in terms of time and space required when rasterizing scenes with high depth complexity. When low graphics memory requirements are of utmost importance, k-buffer can objectively be considered as the most preferred framework which advantageously ensures the correct depth order on a subset of all generated fragments. Although various alternatives have been introduced to partially or completely alleviate the noticeable quality artifacts produced by the initial k-buffer algorithm in the expense of memory increase or performance downgrade, appropriate tools to automatically and dynamically compute the most suitable value of k are still missing. To this end, we introduce k(+)-buffer, a fast framework that accurately simulates the behavior of k-buffer in a single rendering pass. Two memory-bounded data structures: (i) the max-array and (ii) the max-heap are developed on the GPU to concurrently maintain the k-foremost fragments per pixel by exploring pixel synchronization and fragment culling. Memory-friendly strategies are further introduced to dynamically (a) lessen the wasteful memory allocation of individual pixels with low depth complexity frequencies, (b) minimize the allocated size of k-buffer according to different application goals and hardware limitations via a straightforward depth histogram analysis and (c) manage local GPU cache with a fixed-memory depth-sorting mechanism. Finally, an extensive experimental evaluation is provided demonstrating the advantages of our work over all prior k-buffer variants in terms of memory usage, performance cost and image quality.

  17. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  18. Strip specimen tests for pipeline materials and girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, William C. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Strip specimen testing of pipeline materials has been widely applied as a method of getting data relevant to the performance of pipelines under axial direction loading. Comparisons of strip specimen against smaller standard tests (round tensile bar, fracture toughness specimens, polished round bars) and against full-scale or large-scale testing will be explored. Data from early-generation pipe welds from the 1920's to the 1940's to the most recent materials for offshore reeled pipe will be used for examples. Strip samples can provide full thickness information to take account of varying material properties or imperfection distribution through the thickness. Strip samples can also accommodate measurement of effects of the original surface finish or weld surface shape. Strip samples have more design flexibility than standard tests, but must be designed to limit stress concentrations and effects of local bending. (author)

  19. Cataract surgery after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Chaurasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of endothelial dysfunction in phakic patients is sometimes a dilemma for corneal surgeons. Phakic patients with visually significant cataract and endothelial dysfunction are preferably managed by performing combined cataract surgery with endothelial keratoplasty. However, combined surgery may be deferred in eyes with early incipient cataract, younger age and where anterior chamber is poorly visualized. As cataract formation may be accelerated after endothelial keratoplasty, these eyes may need cataract surgery subsequently. Surgical intervention in eyes with endothelial keratoplasty is of concern as this may affect the graft adversely and threaten graft survival. In this report, we describe the intraoperative surgical details and postoperative clinical course of a patient who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK.

  20. Continuous fermentation and stripping of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F; Kurantz, M J; Goldberg, N; Craig, J C

    1995-01-01

    Recycling the contents of a continuous fermentor through a stripping column is proposed as a means of reducing product inhibition and lowering the cost of fuel ethanol production. A 2-L fermentor and 10-cm packed column were continuously operated for 150 days without contamination. Some fouling of the packing with attached yeast cells was observed which partially blocked the column. Cell yield was lower than in a simple continuous fermentor. Complete conversion of 200 g/L glucose feed and 90% conversion of 600 g/L glucose feed were achieved. Data were analyzed by computerized process simulation. Cost analysis indicated that, with heat recovery to reduce heating and cooling costs, the continuous fermentor/stripper is possibly a lower-cost alternative to conventional fermentation and distillation.

  1. Robotic dry stripping of airframes - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Robert A.; Wittenberg, Art M.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a program for the development of a dust-free closed-cycle robotic system for dry stripping of airframes, designed to insure dust-free work environment and reduce plastic-media loss, the contamination risk, and the media inventory requirement. Phase I of the program involved building a prototype of the proposed robotic arm and its dust enclosure to prove basic automation concepts, showing reasonable paint removal rate from a curved surface, and establishing that the process is dust-free and recovers plastic media in a closed-cycle fashion. This paper contains calculations on the effect of different blasting parameters in order to determine optimum values required for the completion of Phase I. Also presented is the progress achieved by the Phase II of the program, which is to prove the total concept by building the complete system and demonstrating its capability.

  2. Radiation hard strip detectors on oxygenated silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Moser, H G; Richter, R H

    2002-01-01

    Recent results of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration suggest the usage of oxygen enriched silicon for sensors operated in the harsh radiation environment of future high luminosity experiments. To investigate if the anticipated beneficial properties are still present after full processing of the wafers, strip detectors for the innermost ring of the ATLAS forward region have been fabricated on oxygen enriched silicon by CiS, Germany. These sensors, together with sensors on standard and thin substrates, have been exposed to 3.10/sup 14/ 24 Ge V/c protons/cm/sup 2/ at the CERN PS. We are presenting here the comparison between the sensors based on the CV measurements and the investigation of the charge collection efficiency obtained with a /sup 90/Sr source and the analogue readout chip SCT128A. (13 refs).

  3. Oral strip technology: overview and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, R P; Puthli, S P

    2009-10-15

    Over the recent past, many of the research groups are focusing their research on this technology. Amongst the plethora of avenues explored for rapid drug releasing products, Oral Strip Technology (OST) is gaining much attention. The advantages of OST are the administration to pediatric and geriatric patient population where the difficulty of swallowing larger oral dosage forms is eliminated. This technology has been used for local action, rapid release products and for buccoadhesive systems that are retained for longer period in the oral cavity to release drug in controlled fashion. OST offers an alternate platform for molecules that undergo first pass metabolism and for delivery of peptides. The review article is an overview of OST encompassing materials used in OST, critical manufacturing aspects, applications, commercial technologies and future business prospects of this technology.

  4. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016......)]. The first effect is the nonlinear power saturation of the plasmonic mode, and the second effect is the spectral broadening of the plasmonic mode. Both nonlinear plasmonic effects can be used for practical applications and their appropriate model will be important for further developments in communication...

  5. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  7. Review on Vertical Twin-Roll Strip Casting: A Key Technology for Quality Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Seshadev Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays near-net-shape casting technology is an important area of research in the iron and steel industry. Among different kinds of near-net-shape casting process, twin-roll casting process has received much attention among researchers. Twin-roll casting (TRC) has been the subject of extensive research, not only to develop the technology but also to achieve an understanding of microstructural evolution and to produce quality strips. The main issues concerning the design and operation of twin...

  8. MISKONSEPSI SISWA PADA MATERI LARUTAN BUFFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widy Ika Parastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffer solution is one high school chemistry material found misconceptions on student understanding. Misconceptions identification method by giving some quetion with same type. Misconceptions identified from recurring student answers incorrectly. The study population was the students of class XI IPA at SMAN 1 Malang academic year 2015/2016 with a research subject in class XI MIA 7 number of 32 students. The results obtained by analysis of four kinds of misconceptions. The cause of the misconception is (1 a weak prior knowledge; (2 problems of symbols and mathematical formulas; (3 difficulty understanding the context of the material; (4 problems in generalize. Larutan buffer merupakan salah satu materi kimia SMA yang ditemukan miskonsepsi pada pemahaman siswa. Metode identifikasi miskonsepsi dengan memberikan beberapa soal yang setipe. Miskonsepsi teridentifikasi dari jawaban salah yang berulang siswa. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas XI IPA SMA Negeri 1 Malang Tahun ajaran 2015/2016 dengan subjek penelitian kelas XI MIA 7 sejumlah 32 siswa. Hasil analisis diperoleh  empat macam miskonsepsi. Penyebab miskonsepsi adalah (1 pengetahuan awal yang lemah; (2 permasalahan simbol dan rumus matematika; (3 kesulitan memahami konteks materi; (4 permasalahan dalam menggeneralisasikan masalah.

  9. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  10. Buffered Versus Non-Buffered Lidocaine With Epinephrine for Mandibular Nerve Block: Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phero, James A; Nelson, Blake; Davis, Bobby; Dunlop, Natalie; Phillips, Ceib; Reside, Glenn; Tikunov, Andrew P; White, Raymond P

    2017-04-01

    Outcomes for peak blood levels were assessed for buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine compared with non-buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. In this institutional review board-approved prospective, randomized, double-blinded, crossover trial, the clinical impact of buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (Anutra Medical, Research Triangle Park, Cary, NC) was compared with the non-buffered drug. Venous blood samples for lidocaine were obtained 30 minutes after a mandibular nerve block with 80 mg of the buffered or unbuffered drug. Two weeks later, the same subjects were tested with the alternate drug combinations. Subjects also reported on pain on injection with a 10-point Likert-type scale and time to lower lip numbness. The explanatory variable was the drug formulation. Outcome variables were subjects' peak blood lidocaine levels, subjective responses to pain on injection, and time to lower lip numbness. Serum lidocaine levels were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were performed using Proc TTEST (SAS 9.3; SAS Institute, Cary, NC), with the crossover option for a 2-period crossover design, to analyze the normally distributed outcome for pain. For non-normally distributed outcomes of blood lidocaine levels and time to lower lip numbness, an assessment of treatment difference was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests with Proc NPAR1WAY (SAS 9.3). Statistical significance was set at a P value less than .05 for all outcomes. Forty-eight percent of subjects were women, half were Caucasian, 22% were African American, and 13% were Asian. Median age was 21 years (interquartile range [IQR], 20-22 yr), and median body weight was 147 lb (IQR, 130-170 lb). Median blood levels (44 blood samples) at 30 minutes were 1.19 μg/L per kilogram of body weight. Mean blood level differences of lidocaine for each patient were significantly lower after nerve block with the buffered drug compared with the

  11. Buffer Sizing in 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for TCP flows in 802.11-based Wireless Mesh Networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. The problem is complicated by the time-varying capacity of the wireless channel as well as the random access mechanism of 802.11 MAC protocol. While arbitrarily large buffers can maintain high network utilization, this results in large queueing delays. Such delays may affect TCP stability characteristics, and also increase queueing delays for other flows (including real-time flows) sharing the buffer. In this paper we propose sizing link buffers collectively for a set of nodes within mutual interference range called the \\'collision domain\\'. We aim to provide a buffer just large enough to saturate the available capacity of the bottleneck collision domain that limits the carrying capacity of the network. This neighborhood buffer is distributed over multiple nodes that constitute the network bottleneck; a transmission by any of these nodes fully utilizes the available spectral resource for the duration of the transmission. We show that sizing routing buffers collectively for this bottleneck allows us to have small buffers (as low as 2 - 3 packets) at individual nodes without any significant loss in network utilization. We propose heuristics to determine these buffer sizes in WMNs. Our results show that we can reduce the end-to-end delays by 6× to 10× at the cost of losing roughly 5% of the network capacity achievable with large buffers.

  12. The water crisis in the gaza strip: prospects for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinthal, E; Vengosh, A; Marei, A; Kloppmann, W

    2005-01-01

    Israel and the Palestinian Authority share the southern Mediterranean coastal aquifer. Long-term overexploitation in the Gaza Strip has resulted in a decreasing water table, accompanied by the degradation of its water quality. Due to high levels of salinity and nitrate and boron pollution, most of the ground water is inadequate for both domestic and agricultural consumption. The rapid rate of population growth in the Gaza Strip and dependence upon ground water as a single water source present a serious challenge for future political stability and economic development. Here, we integrate the results of geochemical studies and numerical modeling to postulate different management scenarios for joint management between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The chemical and isotopic data show that most of the salinity phenomena in the Gaza Strip are derived from the natural flow of saline ground water from Israel toward the Gaza Strip. As a result, the southern coastal aquifer does not resemble a classic "upstream-downstream" dispute because Israel's pumping of the saline ground water reduces the salinization rates of ground water in the Gaza Strip. Simulation of different pumping scenarios using a monolayer, hydrodynamic, two-dimensional model (MARTHE) confirms the hypothesis that increasing pumping along the Gaza Strip border combined with a moderate reduction of pumping within the Gaza Strip would improve ground water quality within the Gaza Strip. We find that pumping the saline ground water for a source of reverse-osmosis desalination and then supplying the desalinated water to the Gaza Strip should be an essential component of a future joint management strategy between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

  13. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  14. A preference test for sweet taste that uses edible strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y; Stull, Judith C; Abarintos, Ray A; Khan, Neiladri K; Park, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performances of keystone geometry micro-strip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Chiari, M; Tonetto, F; Travaglini, L

    2002-01-01

    The performances of micro-strip gas chamber detectors with CF sub 4 counting gas have been tested with a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am alpha source. The behaviour of the gain as a function of gas pressure, the dependence of the energy resolution on gas pressure and anode voltage, and the gain variation along the strip length due to the keystone geometry of the micro-strip pads are reported. An empirical response function to describe such a position dependence of the gain is proposed.

  16. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  17. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for detection of As (III) by Chitosan-Fe(OH)3 modified glassy carbon electrode: A new approach towards speciation of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suparna; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2016-09-01

    An efficient electrochemical sensor for As(III) was developed based on adsorption of arsenic on a specially modified electrodes at some applied potential and subsequent i) stripping at a fixed potential by anodic stripping voltammetry ii) analysis by generating surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The working glassy carbon electrode was modified by Chitosan-Fe(OH)3 composite and a reducing agent L-cysteine. The composite enhanced adsorption of As(III) and subsequent reduction to As(O) moieties and measurement by anodic stripping. The surface property of modified electrode was characterized by SEM, AFM, FTIR, XPS and electrochemistry was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) was also employed to investigate the As(III) binding capability of polymer matrix. Several optimum voltammetric parameters e.g supporting electrolyte; 0.1M acetate buffer (pH 5.2) deposition potential, -0.9V; deposition time, 100s were established for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). A linear correlation was obtained in the range of 2-100ppb for ASV (R(2) 0.974) with limit of detection 0.072ppb. A variety of common coexistent ions such as Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd in water samples showed no interferences on the As (III) determination. The method was applied successfully to real samples collected from arsenic affected areas of West Bengal, India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  19. Huge capacity optical packet switching and buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinada, Satoshi; Furukawa, Hideaki; Wada, Naoya

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate 2.56 Tbit/s/port dual-polarization DWDM/DQPSK variable-length optical packet (20 Gbit/s × 64 wavelengths × 2 polarizations) switching and buffering by using a 2×2 optical packet switch (OPS) system. The optical data plane of the OPS system was constructed of multi-connected electro-optical switches and fiber delay lines. The accumulated polarization dependent loss of each optical path in the data plane was less than 5 dB. This low-polarization-dependence OPS system enabled us to handle DWDM/DQPSK optical packets (1.28 Tbit/s/port) with time-varying polarization after transmission through 100 km fiber in the field. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Surface Treatments of Nb by Buffered Electropolishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Andy T. [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Manus, Robert L. [JLAb; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Williams, J. S. [JLAB; Eozénou, F. [CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette; Jin, S. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lin, L. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Lu, X.Y. [PKU/IHIP, Beijing; Mammosser, John D. [JLAB; Wang, E. [BNL

    2009-11-01

    Buffered electropolishing (BEP) is a Nb surface treatment technique developed at Jefferson Lab1. Experimental results obtained from flat Nb samples show2-4 that BEP can produce a surface finish much smoother than that produced by the conventional electropolishing (EP), while Nb removal rate can be as high as 4.67 μm/min. This new technique has been applied to the treatments of Nb SRF single cell cavity employing a vertical polishing system5 constructed at JLab as well as a horizontal polishing system at CEA Saclay. Preliminary results show that the accelerating gradient can reach 32 MV/m for a large grain cavity and 26.7 MV/m for a regular grain cavity. In this presentation, the latest progresses from the international collaboration between Peking University, CEA Saclay, and JLab on BEP will be summarized.

  1. Developing suitable buffers to capture transport cycling behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christiansen, Lars Breum

    2014-01-01

    The association between neighborhood built environment and cycling has received considerable attention in health literature over the last two decades, but different neighborhood definitions have been used and it is unclear which one is most appropriate. Administrative or fixed residential spatial...... units (e.g., home-buffer-based neighborhoods) are not necessarily representative for environmental exposure. An increased understanding of appropriate neighborhoods is needed. GPS cycling tracks from 78 participants for 7 days form the basis for the development and testing of different neighborhood...... buffers for transport cycling. The percentage of GPS points per square meter was used as indicator of the effectiveness of a series of different buffer types, including home-based network buffers, shortest route to city center buffers, and city center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers. The results show...

  2. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  3. Refractive surgery after Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jessica; Chuck, Roy S

    2012-07-01

    Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) has become a preferred surgical correction for endothelial dysfunction. Patient dissatisfaction secondary to refractive error is emerging as a significant complaint after anatomically successful DSEK. This article reviews refractive surgeries after DSEK to address this problem. There are various surgical options available to treat refractive compromise following DSEK. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a well tolerated option to restore visual acuity after DSEK in cases with significant lens opacities. Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) can otherwise successfully correct simple refractive errors. Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) may be employed in cases wherein visually significant subepithelial fibrosis and scarring become evident after DSEK. To obtain maximum visual rehabilitation, patients undergoing DSEK may require further refractive surgeries. Cataract extraction, LASIK, PRK, PTK, and various combination procedures have been shown to optimize corneal clarity and visual acuity in patients who previously had successful DSEK with subsequent refractive errors. Technological advancements and continued research are necessary to perfect optimal timing and outcomes of these secondary refractive surgeries.

  4. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available    HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq. Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee, affecting the results within (0.1-58% variation for the most cases.        The simulated results show that about 4% of paraffin (C10 & C11 presents at the top stream, which may cause a problem in the LAB production plant. The major variations were noticed for the total top vapor flow rate with bottom temperature and with feed composition. The column profiles maintain fairly constants from tray 5 to tray 18. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with HYSYS because the results correspond with the real plant operation data.

  5. The ALICE silicon strip detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijer, P

    2000-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The detector consists essentially of two main components: the central part, composed of detectors mainly devoted to the study of hadronic signals and dielectrons, and the forward muon spectrometer devoted to the study of quarkonia behaviour in dense matter. The central part, which covers +-45 deg. (|eta|<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. Outside of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), there are a cylindrical TPC and a large area PID array of time-of-flight (TOF) counters. In addition, there are two small-area single-arm detectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (Photon Spectrometer, PHOS) and an array of RICH counters optimized for high-momentum inclusive particle identification (HMPID). This article describes the silicon strip detector system used in the outer layers o...

  6. Curious Case of a Stripped Elliptical Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    MUSE fields of view (1 1 for each square) are superimposed on a pseudo-color image of the elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670. The blue blobs lie in the opposite direction to the galactic center. [Sheen et al. 2017]An elliptical galaxy in the cluster Abell 2670 has been discovered with some unexpected features. What conditions led to this galaxys unusual morphology?Unexpected JellyfishWe often see galaxies that have been disrupted or reshaped due to their motion within a cluster but these are usually late-type galaxies like our own. Such gas-rich galaxies are distorted by ram pressure as they fall into the cluster center, growing long tails of stripped gas and young stars that earn them the name jellyfish galaxies.But early-type, elliptical galaxies have long since used up or cleared out most of their gas, and they correspondingly form very few new stars. Its therefore unsurprising that theyve never before been spotted to have jellyfish-like features.Panels a and b show zoomed-in observations of some of the star-forming blobs with tadpole-like morphology. Panel c shows a schematic illustration of how ram-pressure stripping causes this shape. [Adapted from Sheen et al. 2017]New deep observations of an elliptical galaxy in the cluster Abell 2670, however, have revealed some unexpected structures for an early-type galaxy. Led by Yun-Kyeong Sheen (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute), a team of scientists now reports on the optical and spectroscopic observations of this galaxy, made with the MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile.Tadpole BlobsThese observations reveal a number of features, including starbursts at the galactic center, 80-parsec-long tails of ionized gas, disturbed halo features, and several blue star-forming blobs with tadpole-like morphology in the surrounding region. The blobs have stellar tails that point in the direction of motion of the galaxy (toward the cluster center) and streams of ionized gas that point in the opposite

  7. A study on manufacturing and construction method of buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka [Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amemiya, Kiyoshi [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    As an engineered barrier system in the geological disposal of high-level waste, multibarrier system is considered. Multibarrier system consists of the vitrified waste, the overpack and the buffer. Bentonite is one of the potential material as the buffer because of its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. In order to evaluate the functions of buffer, a lot of experiments has been conducted. The evaluations of these functions are based on the assumption that the buffer is emplaced or constructed in the disposal tunnel (or disposal pit) properly. Therefore, it is necessary to study on the manufacturing / construction method of buffer. As the manufacturing / construction technology of the buffer, the block installation method and in-situ compaction method, etc, are being investigated. The block installation method is to emplace the buffer blocks manufactured in advance at the ground facility, and construction processes of the block installation method at the underground will be simplified compared with the in-situ compaction method. On the other hand, the in-situ compaction method is to introduce the buffer material with specified water content into the disposal tunnel and to make the buffer with high density at the site using a compaction machine. In regard to the in-situ compaction method, it is necessary to investigate the optimum finished thickness of one layer because it is impossible to construct the buffer at one time. This report describes the results of compaction property test and the summary of the past investigation results in connection with the manufacturing / construction method. Then this report shows the construction method that will be feasible in the actual disposal site. (J.P.N.)

  8. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  9. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  10. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  11. Feasibility and energetic evaluation of air stripping for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläfle, Sandra; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2017-05-01

    Stripping of mashes with air as stripping gas and low ethanol contents between 3 and 5wt% was investigated in terms of its suitability for continuous bioethanol production. Experiments in a Blenke cascade system were carried out and the results were compared with values obtained from theoretical vapour-liquid-equilibrium calculations. The whole stripping process was energetically evaluated by a simulation in ChemCAD and compared to conventional distillation. Therefore several parameters such as temperature, air volume flow and initial ethanol load of the mash were varied. Air stripping was found to be a suitable separation method for bioethanol from mashes with low concentrations. However, energetic aspects have to be considered, when developing a new process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Children by Reagent Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Farahmand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dipstick tests (leukocyte esterase and nitrite in diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP in cirrhotic patients. Forty six children with ascites hospitalized between 2009 and 2010 in Children Medical Center were enrolled in this study. Reagent strip assays for leukocyte esterase and nitrite were performed on ascetic fluid and the results were compared to manual cell counting and ascitic fluid culture. SBP was defined as having a polymorphonuclear ascites count of ≥ 250/mm3. Twenty children were female and twenty six were male with mean age of 3±3.9 years. The sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the leukocyte esterase reagent strips were all 100%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the nitrite reagent strip test were 100%, 97%, 90% and 100% respectively. Leukocyte esterase reagent strips may provide a rapid, bedside diagnostic test for the diagnosis of SBP.

  13. Slow-plasmon resonant nano-strip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Beermann, Jonas; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Resonant scattering by gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counterpropagating slow surface plasmon polaritons SPPs is analyzed, including the quasistatic limit of ultrasmall antennas, and experimentally demonstrated. The phase of slow SPP reflection by strip ends is found...

  14. H^{-} charge-exchange injection without hazardous stripping foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Yamane

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme of H^{-} charge-exchange injection without stripping foils is proposed. It is composed of a neutralizer of the H^{-} beam using Lorentz stripping, the colliding system of a high power laser and the H^{0} beam to excite H^{0} atoms to the 3P state using the Rabi oscillation, and a magnet to strip the H^{0}(3P to a proton beam by Lorentz stripping. The necessary laser wavelength, laser power, magnetic-field gradient, and maximum magnetic field are estimated for a beam energy from 1.0 to 3.0 GeV. The result shows that such a scheme is sufficiently feasible for H^{-} beams with an energy discussed here.

  15. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  16. BUFFER SIZING FOR THE CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geekie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Methods for sizing project and feeding buffers for critical chain project management are investigated. Experiments indicate that – in the absence of bias, and for certain classes of bias – buffer consumption is independent of the mean duration of a chain. Generally the popular method – a buffer size equal to 50% of the longest path leading to it – gives rise to excessively large buffers. Buffers sized according to the square root of the sum of squares perform well in the absence of bias, but with bias present the performance is unacceptably poor. A new approach to buffer sizing is proposed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Metodes vir groottebepaling van projek- en saamvloeibuffers vir kritieke-ketting projekbestuur word ondersoek. Eksperimente dui daarop dat – in die afwesigheid van onewewigtigheid, en vir sekere tipes onewewigtigheid – bufferverbruik onafhanklik is van die gemiddelde lengte van ’n ketting. Oor die algemeen veroorsaak die metode van buffergrootte – gelyk aan 50% van die langste pad wat tot die buffer lei – onnodige groot buffers. Buffers bepaal met die metode van die vierkantswortel van die som van kwadrate, vaar goed in die afwesigheid van onewewigtigheid, maar vaar onaanvaarbaar swak wanneer onewewigtigheid teenwoordig is. ’n Nuwe metode vir die bepaling van buffergrootte word voorgestel.

  17. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  18. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  19. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement.

  20. China Topsoil Stripping Suitability Evaluation Based on Soil Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yan; Wang, YuePeng; Liu, Xing; Luo, Dan; Liu, Hongman

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of topsoil stripping reuse is to provide a good cultivation platform for agricultural site conditions, namely increasing soil thickness and improving soil fertility levels. Based on soil type, using the thickness of the soil and organic matter content as criteria, the natural suitability of stripped topsoil from different regions were evaluated. The evaluation results were divided into five levels: Most suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, less suitable...

  1. A Stratified Flow Fine Structure near a Horizontally Moving Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakov, Roman N.; Chashechkin, Yuli D.

    Flow field pattern produced by a strip of arbitrary width moving with constant velocity along a horizontal plane in exponentially stratified fluid is calculated analytically in linear approximation. Constructed solution describes upstream transient and attached waves, and a boundary layer. Numerically visualized flow pattern is consistent with Schlieren observations. Drag on the strip is calculated and compared with well-known results following from conventional boundary layer theory. Due to action of edges singularities an inducing torque lift force is formed.

  2. How to Safely Use Glucose Meters and Test Strips for Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The FDA is aware that some sellers are marketing pre-owned or secondhand test strips to consumers. These are unused test strips previously owned by someone else. These pre-owned strips may be sold at lower prices when ... see sellers marketing cheap test strips online. It is technically legal ...

  3. The development of drift-strip detectors based on CdZnTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gostilo, V.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan

    2002-01-01

    The design and technological development of a CdZnTe drift strip detector is described. The device is based on a monocrystal of dimensions 10 x 10 x 3 mm(3) and has a pitch of 200 mum and a strip width of 100 mum. The strip length is 9.5 mm. The distribution of the leakage currents of the strips...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1286-2 - Stripped inflation-indexed debt instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stripped inflation-indexed debt instruments. 1....1286-2 Stripped inflation-indexed debt instruments. Stripped inflation-indexed debt instruments. If a Treasury Inflation-Indexed Security is stripped under the Department of the Treasury's Separate Trading of...

  5. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  6. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide formation and changes in color of fried potato strips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 40 g...... and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...... a reduction of acrylamide formation of 33%, 21% and 27% at 150, 170 and 190 T, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Potato strips blanched at 50 T for 80 min had the lowest acrylamide content when compared against strips blanched at different conditions and fried at the same temperature...

  7. [Complications after Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Gustavo Souza; Oliveira, Grazielly Martins Peixoto de; Tognon, Taise; Pereira, Nicolas Cesário; Sousa, Luciene Barbosa de

    2013-10-01

    To describe the complication rate and type of intraoperative and postoperative complications of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). Retrospective medical records review of patients who underwent DSEK between 2008 and 2010 at the Sorocaba Ophthalmological Hospital. The study was descriptive, using a quantitative approach. One hundred nineteen eyes of 118 patients were evaluated. According to the diagnoses, most patients were diagnosed with Fuchs' dystrophy (60 eyes, 50.4%), followed by patients with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy in 55 eyes (46.2%). The most common procedure performed was DSEK alone, performed in 65 eyes (54.6%), followed by the DSEK associated to phacoemulsification (PHACO-DSEK) in 47 eyes (39.5%) and DSEK associated to other surgeries (7 eyes, 5.9%). Eight patients were excluded from the study due to insufficient information in the surgical record. In relation to the intra-operative complications, isolated cases of pupillary block, irregular manual dissection of button, inverted implantation of the button, button-holing and posterior capsule rupture were noticed. Among the documented early postoperative complications, button detachment was observed in 21.5% of the DSEK alone group; 34.0% in PHACO-DSEK group and 57.1% when DSEK was held jointly with other surgical techniques. Regarding to late complications, interface haze was observed in 16.9%, 8.5% and 14.2%, and glaucoma was observed in 4.6%, 2.1% and 14.2% in DSEK, PHACO-DSEK and DSEK associated to other techniques, respectively. Post rejection graft failure was observed in 15.3% and 12.7% of the eyes after DSEK and. PHACO-DSEK, respectively. Endothelial corneal transplant accomplished in this sample showed a high rate of complications when compared to the conventional penetrating keratoplasty. The most frequent complications were related to detachment of the button and graft failure.

  8. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes

  9. Disposable nucleic acid biosensors based on gold nanoparticle probes and lateral flow strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xun; Ma, Yunqing; Zhang, Aiguo; Zhang, Lurong; Zeng, Lingwen; Liu, Guodong

    2009-02-15

    In this article, we describe a disposable nucleic acid biosensor (DNAB) for low-cost and sensitive detection of nucleic acid samples in 15 min. Combining the unique optical properties of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP) and the high efficiency of chromatographic separation, sandwich-type DNA hybridization reactions were realized on the lateral flow strips, which avoid multiple incubation, separation, and washing steps in the conventional nucleic acid biosensors. The captured Au-NP probes on the test zone and control zone of the biosensor produced the characteristic red bands, enabling visual detection of nucleic acid samples without instrumentation. The quantitative detection was performed by reading the intensities of the produced red bands with a portable strip reader. The parameters (e.g., the concentration of reporter probe, the size of Au-NP, the amount of Au-NP-DNA probe, lateral flow membranes, and the concentration of running buffer) that govern the sensitivity and reproducibility of the sensor were optimized. The response of the optimized device is highly linear over the range of 1-100 nM target DNA, and the limit of detection is estimated to be 0.5 nM in association with a 15 min assay time. The sensitivity of the biosensor was further enhanced by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-Au-NP dual labels which ensure a quite low detection limit of 50 pM. The DNAB has been applied for the detection of human genomic DNA directly with a detection limit of 2.5 microg/mL (1.25 fM) by adopting well-designed DNA probes. The new nucleic acid biosensor thus provides a rapid, sensitive, low cost, and quantitative tool for the detection of nucleic acid samples. It shows great promise for in-field and point-of-care diagnosis of genetic diseases and detection of infectious agents or warning against biowarfare agents.

  10. Towards a point-of-care strip test to diagnose sickle cell anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan Bond

    Full Text Available A rapid test to identify patients with sickle cell disease could have important benefits in low-resource settings. Sickle cell anemia (SCA affects about 300,000 newborns each year, the majority of whom are born in sub-Saharan Africa. Low-cost therapies are available to treat SCA, but most countries in sub-Saharan Africa lack robust neonatal screening programs needed to identify patients in need of treatment. To address this need, we developed and evaluated a competitive lateral flow assay that identifies patients with SCA (genotype HbSS in 15 minutes using undiluted whole blood. A small volume of blood (0.5 μL- 3 μL is mixed with antibody-coated blue latex beads in a tube and applied to the strip. Strips are then placed in a well of running buffer and allowed to run for 10 minutes. Laboratory evaluation with samples containing different proportions of hemoglobin A (HbA and hemoglobin S (HbS indicated that the test should enable identification of SCA patients but not persons with sickle cell trait (SCT. We evaluated the test using 41 samples from individuals with SCA, SCT, and normal blood. With visual inspection or quantitative analysis, we found a 98% accuracy when differentiating SCA from normal and SCT samples as a group (90% sensitivity and 100% specificity for identifying SCA. This work demonstrates important steps towards making a lateral flow test for hemoglobinopathies more appropriate for point-of-care use; further work is needed before the test is appropriate for clinical use.

  11. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  12. Simultaneous determination of textile dyes by Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.16595

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Brizola Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (ACSV - differential pulse proved to be an efficient method in the separation and quantification of two reactive textile dyes, Procion Yellow (PY and Procion Red (PR, each containing two azo groups as chromophores and two monochlorotriazine reactive groups, at nanomolar level. The linearity of the method obtained for each reactive dye was 30.15 – 633.15 nmol L-1 for PY in B-R buffer pH 8.0, and 62.56 – 982.291 nmol L-1 for PR in B-R buffer pH 8.0, using preconcentration at -0.1 V during 60 s.   

  13. Buffers Affect the Bending Rigidity of Model Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvrais, H.; Duelund, L.; Ipsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning...

  14. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  15. Reduction of buffering requirements: Another advantage of cooperative transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Yet another advent of cooperative transmission is exposed in this letter. It is shown that cooperation lends itself to the reduction of buffer sizes of wireless sensor nodes. It is less likely to find the channel busy when cooperative transmission is employed in the network. Otherwise, in the lack of cooperation, the probability of build up of packet queues in transmission buffers increases.

  16. Arise, amphibians: stream buffers affect more than fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Buffers along streams cover a tremendous proportion of the land base in the forested systems of the western Pacific Northwest. These buffers were designated primarily to conserve and restore habitat for salmon and trout, but conservation of habitat for a number of other organisms also has been implicit in their design. Recent research evaluated the importance of...

  17. Molecular Buffers Permit Sensitivity Tuning and Inversion of Riboswitch Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Genee, Hans Jasper; Jensen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    transcription factor, while interacting DNA-binding domains mediate the transduction of signal and form an interacting molecular buffer. The molecular buffer system enables modular signal inversion through integration with repressor modules. Further, tuning of input sensitivity was achieved through perturbation...

  18. The Effect of Double Buffer Management in Packet Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of file downloads between the HTTP server and clients are also varied to follow the behavior of data. The buf(er ... to accommodate. Keywords: buffer, traffic analysis, packet, HTTP, server, clients, byte, double buffer. ... Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), each node serves as a host as well as a router and uses consequently ...

  19. Challenges of Buffer Zone Management in Cross River National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological buffer zones are very crucial in minimizing the impact of land use practices close to protected areas, though there is no consensus surrounding their objectives, ... These developments might be adduced to the low level of awareness of Park laws and buffer zone management policies by these communities.

  20. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  1. Placement of riparian forest buffers to improve water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Tomer; Michael G. Dosskey; Michael R. Burkart; David E. James; Matthew J. Helmers; Dean E. Eisenhauer

    2005-01-01

    Riparian forest buffers can improve stream water quality, provided they intercept and remove contaminants from surface runoff and/or shallow groundwater. Soils, topography, hydrology, and surficial geology detemine the capability of forest buffers to intercept and treat these flows. This paper describes landscape analysis techniques for identifying and mapping...

  2. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  3. A multipurpose switched reluctance motor with a series commutation buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Vasil'ev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power-supply circuit for a multipurpose switched reluctance motor with a series commutation buffer is presented. It is shown that a series buffer improves output characteristics of multipurpose switched reluctance motors under supply from a single-phase circuit and also lifts necessity of switching capacitors according to the motor power supply modes.

  4. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  5. Sampling phase lock loop (PLL) with low power clock buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Bahai, A.; Bohsali, M.; Djabbari, A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Socci, G.

    2012-01-01

    A sampling phase locked loop (PLL) circuit includes a pull-up/down buffer configured to convert an oscillator reference clock into a square wave sampling control signal input to a sampling phase detector. The buffer circuit is configured to reduce power by controlling the switching of the pull-up

  6. Sampling phase lock loop (PLL) with low power clock buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Bahai, A.; Bohsali, M.; Djabbari, A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Socci, G.

    2013-01-01

    A sampling phase locked loop (PLL) circuit includes a pull-up/down buffer configured to convert an oscillator reference clock into a square wave sampling control signal input to a sampling phase detector. The buffer circuit is configured to reduce power by controlling the switching of the pull-up

  7. Evaluation on elution feature of bentonite buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hirohisa; Kanno, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro

    1997-09-01

    In order to evaluate long term physical stability of artificial barrier in land disposal of high level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to know quantitatively elution behavior of buffering materials from disposal road (or cavity) to circumferential rock crack. When elution of the buffer material occurs on large scale, amount of bentonite in the disposal road (or cavity) reduces and reduction of various functions expected to the buffer materials is presumed. According to specification examples of road transverse arrangement and disposal vertical arrangement systems, evaluation on elution amount of the buffer materials at disposal environment was conducted. Opening width of rock crack in the disposal environment was supposed to be 0.5 mm. As a result, obtained mass elution ratios of the buffer materials due to extrusion phenomenon were 0.04 to 0.2% after 10,000 year and 2 to 12% after 1,000,000 years. (G.K.)

  8. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    that are harmful such as growth of house dust mites, surface condensation and mould growth. Therefore a series of experiments has been carried out in a full scale test facility to determine the moisture buffer effect of interior walls of cellular concrete and plaster board constructions. For the cellular concrete...... of the changes of moisture content in specimens of the wall composites exposed to the same environment. It was found that the finishes had a big impact on the buffer performance of the underlying materials. Even though the untreated cellular concrete had a very high buffer capacity, the effect was strongly......, the buffer performance is investigated first for the untreated material, then after adding rendering on the surfaces, and finally with latex paint. Similarly for the walls of plasterboard construction, the buffer effects are investigated first for the insulation (cellulose or mineral wool), then after adding...

  9. Model-driven engineering of supramolecular buffering by multivalency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Tim F E; Teunissen, Abraham J P; de Greef, Tom F A; Meijer, E W

    2017-12-05

    A supramolecular system in which the concentration of a molecule is buffered over several orders of magnitude is presented. Molecular buffering is achieved as a result of competition in a ring-chain equilibrium of multivalent ureidopyrimidinone monomers and a monovalent naphthyridine molecule which acts as an end-capper. While we previously only considered divalent ureidopyrimidinone monomers we now present a model-driven engineering approach to improve molecular buffering using multivalent ring-chain systems. Our theoretical models reveal an odd-even effect where even-valent molecules show superior buffering capabilities. Furthermore, we predict that supramolecular buffering can be significantly improved using a tetravalent instead of a divalent molecule, since the tetravalent molecule can form two intramolecular rings with different "stabilities" due to statistical effects. Our model predictions are validated against experimental 1H NMR data, demonstrating that model-driven engineering has considerable potential in supramolecular chemistry. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Thin film photovoltaic devices with a minimally conductive buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James

    2016-11-15

    A thin film photovoltaic device (100) with a tunable, minimally conductive buffer (128) layer is provided. The photovoltaic device (100) may include a back contact (150), a transparent front contact stack (120), and an absorber (140) positioned between the front contact stack (120) and the back contact (150). The front contact stack (120) may include a low resistivity transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (124) and a buffer layer (128) that is proximate to the absorber layer (140). The photovoltaic device (100) may also include a window layer (130) between the buffer layer (128) and the absorber (140). In some cases, the buffer layer (128) is minimally conductive, with its resistivity being tunable, and the buffer layer (128) may be formed as an alloy from a host oxide and a high-permittivity oxide. The high-permittivity oxide may further be chosen to have a bandgap greater than the host oxide.

  11. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Cernohous, Bob R [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-11

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  12. Visualization of Buffer Capacity with 3-D "Topo" Surfaces: Buffer Ridges, Equivalence Point Canyons and Dilution Ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul

    2016-01-01

    BufCap TOPOS is free software that generates 3-D topographical surfaces ("topos") for acid-base equilibrium studies. It portrays pH and buffer capacity behavior during titration and dilution procedures. Topo surfaces are created by plotting computed pH and buffer capacity values above a composition grid with volume of NaOH as the x axis…

  13. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-04-01

    Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50-65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect of temperature (55-65 °C) and exposure to gas-liquid and liquid-heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other stabilizing substances in fiber beer. However, at extreme conditions with high temperature (65 °C) and ethanol content (7.5 % w/v), PEG had no enzyme stabilizing effect. The novel distillation setup proved to be useful for maintaining enzyme activity during ethanol extraction.

  14. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric determination of berberine using nano-Na-montmorillonite clay modifiedcarbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive method was presented to electrochemical determination of berberine based on the nano-Na-montmorillonite (nano-Na-MMT clay modified carbon paste electrode. The electrochemical oxidation and adsorption behavior of berberine was studied at the proposed electrodeby linear sweep voltammetry in acetate buffer (0.2 M, pH 5.6. A differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric procedure has been developed fordetermination of the drug. A good linear relationship between the oxidation peak current magnitude and the concentration of berberine was observed in the range from 1.0 to 18.0 µgmL-1with detection limit of 0.07 µgmL-1and quantitation limit of0.24 µgmL-1. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of berberine in pharmaceutical tablets.

  15. Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we report on the development of a lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor that uses an evaporated bismuth electrode to detect zinc using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The microscale electrochemical cell consists of a bismuth working electrode, an integrated silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and a gold auxiliary electrode. The sensor demonstrated linear response in 0.1 M acetate buffer at pH 6 with zinc concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 30 μM and a calculated detection limit of 60 nM. The sensor was also able to successfully detect zinc in a bovine serum extract and the results were verified with independent AAS measurements. These results demonstrate the advantageous qualities of this lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for clinical applications, which include a small sample volume (μL scale), reduced cost, short response time and high accuracy at low concentrations of analyte.

  16. Perceived family social support buffers against the effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent depression, aggression, and severe violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support-from family members, friends, and school personnel-on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009-2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on depression, aggression, and severe violence during 2009-2010. Findings are consistent with a human-ecological perspective exposure to political violence and encourage the employment of family-based preventive interventions in afflicted areas. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Reducing herbicides and veterinary antibiotics losses from agroecosystems using vegetative buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ho; Lerch, Robert N; Goyne, Keith W; Garrett, Harold E

    2011-01-01

    Multiple species vegetative buffer strips (VBSs) have been recommended as a cost-effective approach to mitigate agrochemical transport in surface runoff derived from agronomic operations, while at the same time offering a broader range of long-term ecological and environmental benefits. However, the effect of VBS designs and species composition on reducing herbicide and veterinary antibiotic transport has not been well documented. An experiment consisting of three VBS designs and one continuous cultivated fallow control replicated in triplicate was conducted to assess effectiveness in reducing herbicide and antibiotic transport for claypan soils. The three VBS designs include (i) tall fescue, (ii) tall fescue with a switchgrass hedge barrier, and (iii) native vegetation (largely eastern gamagrass). Rainfall simulation was used to create uniform antecedent soil moisture content in the plots and to generate runoff. Our results suggested that all VBS significantly reduced the transport of dissolved and sediment-bound atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate in surface runoff by 58 to 72%. Four to 8 m of any tested VBS reduced dissolved sulfamethazine transport in the surface runoff by more than 70%. The tall fescue VBS was overall most effective at reducing dissolved tylosin and enrofloxacin transport in the runoff (>75%). The developed exponential regression models can be used to predict expected field-scale results and provide design criteria for effective field implementation of grass buffers. Our study has demonstrated that an optimized VBS design may achieve desired agrochemical reductions and minimize acreage removed from crop production. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  18. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code{sub B}right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code{sub B}right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  19. An indicator to map diffuse chemical river pollution considering buffer capacity of riparian vegetation--a pan-European case study on pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Christof J; Pistocchi, Alberto; Marinov, Dimitar; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Sala, Serenella

    2014-06-15

    Vegetated riparian areas alongside streams are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling chemical loads from diffuse agricultural sources entering water bodies. Based on a recently compiled European map of riparian zones and a simplified soil chemical balance model, we propose a new indicator at a continental scale. QuBES (Qualitative indicator of Buffered Emissions to Streams) allows a qualitative assessment of European rivers exposed to pesticide input. The indicator consists of normalised pesticide loads to streams computed through a simplified steady-state fate model that distinguishes various chemical groups according to physico-chemical behaviour (solubility and persistence). The retention of pollutants in the buffer zone is modelled according to buffer width and sorption properties. While the indicator may be applied for the study of a generic emission pattern and for a chemical of generic properties, we demonstrate it to the case of agricultural emissions of pesticides. Due to missing geo-spatial data of pesticide emissions, a total pesticide emission scenario is assumed. The QuBES indicator is easy to calculate and requires far less input data and parameterisation than typical chemical-specific models. At the same time, it allows mapping of (i) riparian buffer permeability, (ii) chemical runoff from soils, and (iii) the buffered load of chemicals to the stream network. When the purpose of modelling is limited to identifying chemical pollution patterns and understanding the relative importance of emissions and natural attenuation in soils and stream buffer strips, the indicator may be suggested as a screening level, cost-effective alternative to spatially distributed models of higher complexity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. STRIPPED ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES AS PROBES OF ICM PHYSICS. I. TAILS, WAKES, AND FLOW PATTERNS IN AND AROUND STRIPPED ELLIPTICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roediger, E. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-4, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching, D-85741 (Germany); Kokotanekova, R., E-mail: eroediger@hs.uni-hamburg.de [AstroMundus Master Programme, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25/8, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-06-10

    Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.

  1. Nanozyme-strip for rapid local diagnosis of Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Demin; Fan, Kelong; Zhang, Dexi; Tan, Shuguang; Liang, Mifang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianlin; Zhang, Panhe; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P; Gao, George Fu; Yan, Xiyun

    2015-12-15

    Ebola continues to rage in West Africa. In the absence of an approved vaccine or treatment, the priority in controlling this epidemic is to promptly identify and isolate infected individuals. To this end, a rapid, highly sensitive, and easy-to-use test for Ebola diagnosis is urgently needed. Here, by using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) as a nanozyme probe, we developed a MNP-based immunochromatographic strip (Nanozyme-strip), which detects the glycoprotein of Ebola virus (EBOV) as low as 1 ng/mL, which is 100-fold more sensitive than the standard strip method. The sensitivity of the Nanozyme-strip for EBOV detection and diagnostic accuracy for New Bunyavirus clinical samples is comparable with ELISA, but is much faster (within 30 min) and simpler (without need of specialist facilities). The results demonstrate that the Nanozyme-strip test can rapidly and sensitively detect EBOV, providing a valuable simple screening tool for diagnosis of infection in Ebola-stricken areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Resisitve strip Micromegas detectors behave discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as smaller detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100\\,kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolutions well below 100\\,$\\mu$m have been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3\\,m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1\\,m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Facility (CRF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. Segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6\\,mm x 95\\,mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by 11 95\\,mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips.\\\\ This allows for mapping of homogenity in pulse height and efficiency, deter...

  3. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors are discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 $\\mu$m has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm x 93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, d...

  4. Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, B.; Griest, W.

    1993-10-31

    Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

  5. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  6. Tris buffer modulates polydopamine growth, aggregation, and paramagnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Vecchia, Nicola Fyodor; Luchini, Alessandra; Napolitano, Alessandra; D'Errico, Gerardino; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Szekely, Noemi; d'Ischia, Marco; Paduano, Luigi

    2014-08-19

    Despite the growing technological interest of polydopamine (dopamine melanin)-based coatings for a broad variety of applications, the factors governing particle size, shape, and electronic properties of this bioinspired multifunctional material have remained little understood. Herein, we report a detailed characterization of polydopamine growth, particle morphology, and paramagnetic properties as a function of dopamine concentration and nature of the buffer (pH 8.5). Dynamic Light Scattering data revealed an increase in the hydrodynamic radii (Rh) of melanin particles with increasing dopamine concentration in all buffers examined, especially in phosphate buffer. Conversely, a marked inhibition of particle growth was apparent in Tris buffer, with Rh remaining as low as polydopamine samples prepared in Tris buffer, denoting more homogeneous paramagnetic centers with respect to similar samples obtained in phosphate and bicarbonate buffers. Overall, these results disclose Tris buffer as an efficient modulator of polydopamine buildup and properties for the rational control and fine-tuning of melanin aggregate size, morphology, and free radical behavior.

  7. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Montanaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2. All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates.

  8. Accelerating Science with the NERSC Burst Buffer Early User Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhimji, Wahid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Debbie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romanus, Melissa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Paul, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ovsyannikov, Andrey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Friesen, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bryson, Matt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Correa, Joaquin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lockwood, Glenn K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsulaia, Vakho [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Farrell, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gursoy, Doga [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Daley, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beckner, Vince [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Van Straalen, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wright, Nicholas J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prabhat, none [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    NVRAM-based Burst Buffers are an important part of the emerging HPC storage landscape. The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory recently installed one of the first Burst Buffer systems as part of its new Cori supercomputer, collaborating with Cray on the development of the DataWarp software. NERSC has a diverse user base comprised of over 6500 users in 700 different projects spanning a wide variety of scientific computing applications. The use-cases of the Burst Buffer at NERSC are therefore also considerable and diverse. We describe here performance measurements and lessons learned from the Burst Buffer Early User Program at NERSC, which selected a number of research projects to gain early access to the Burst Buffer and exercise its capability to enable new scientific advancements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a Burst Buffer has been stressed at scale by diverse, real user workloads and therefore these lessons will be of considerable benefit to shaping the developing use of Burst Buffers at HPC centers.

  9. Gilliam County Riparian Buffers; 2003-2004 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coiner, Josh (Gilliam Soil and Water Conservation District, Condon, OR)

    2004-06-01

    Interest appears to be at an all-time high for riparian conservation programs in Gilliam County. With the recently added Herbaceous Buffer and the already established CREP program interest is booming. However, more and more people are turning towards the herbaceous buffer because of expense. The riparian forest buffer is becoming too expensive. Even with the excellent cost share and incentives landowners are having trouble with Farm Service Agency's payment limitation. Because of this payment limitation landowners are not receiving their full rental and incentive payments, usually in year one. This has cooled the installation of riparian forest buffers and peaked interest in the CP-29 (Herbaceous Buffer for Wildlife). Either way, riparian lands are being enhanced and water quality is being improved. Year three should be very similar to the accomplishments of year 2. There has already been several projects proposed that may or may not be approved during year 3. I am currently working on three projects that are all over 2.5 miles long on each side and total anywhere from 60 to 250 acres in size. Along with these three projects there at least seven small projects being proposed. Four of those projects are riparian forest buffers and the remaining are herbaceous buffers.

  10. In situ bismuth-film electrode for square-wave anodic stripping voltammetric determination of tin in biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frena, Morgana; Campestrini, Iolana; Braga, Otoniel C. de [Grupo de Estudos de Processos Eletroquimicos e Eletroanaliticos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica - CFM, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Spinelli, Almir, E-mail: spin@qmc.ufsc.b [Grupo de Estudos de Processos Eletroquimicos e Eletroanaliticos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica - CFM, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} A bismuth-film electrode for tin determination. {yields} The sensor showed excellent performance. {yields} High levels of tin were found in biodiesel samples. - Abstract: A bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) was applied in square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in order to determine Sn (IV) in biodiesel samples. In situ simultaneous deposition of tin and bismuth at -1.2 V for 90 s was carried out in a supporting electrolyte containing 0.1 mol L{sup -1} acetate buffer (pH 4.5) and 1.73 mmol L{sup -1} caffeic acid as the complexing agent. A single well-defined anodic stripping peak was observed at -0.58 V for the oxidation of Sn to Sn (II), which was used as the analytical signal. The calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range of 0.17-7.83 {mu}mol L{sup -1} with the detection limit being 0.14 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (r = 0.9990). Repeatability and reproducibility for the measurement of the current peak were characterized by relative standard deviations of 3.6% and 4.1%, respectively, for a 5.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} Sn (IV) solution (n = 10). The method was validated by comparing the results obtained with those provided by application of the atomic absorption spectroscopy technique.

  11. Zinc (Zn Analysis in Milk by Microwave Oven Digestion and Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohineesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk is very important component of human diet. The presence of over limit of heavy metal in milk may create significant health problems. In the present study, the direct determination of Zinc (Zn heavy metal in milk samples of different brands was carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping Voltammetric technique at Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE. Milk samples were processed by microwave oven digestion using HP/VHP Vessels and TFM Liners and nitric acid (HNO3.Determination of Zn was made in acetate buffer (pH 4.6 with a sweep rate (scan rate of 59.5 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50mV by HMDE by standard addition method. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at -1150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl for 90 seconds and the potential was scanned from -1150V to +100V (vs. Ag/AgCl. The zinc ions were deposited by reduction at -1150 mV on HMDE. The stripping current arising from the oxidation of metal was correlated with the concentration the metal in the sample. .As a result the minimum level of Zn observed in the milk sample of different brands was determined as 2.28 mgL−1.

  12. Development of Rapid Immune-gold Strip Kit for On-Site Diagnosis of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, user-friendly and simple immune-chromatographic dipstick kit named ‘rapid immune-gold strip’ (RIGS kit was developed in a novel single strip format to detect on-site detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV. Immunoglobulin G (IgG from polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against TSWV was purified through protein- A affinity chromatography and then the purified TSWV-IgG was conjugated to colloidal gold nano-particles which served as a test line on nitrocellulose membrane. Protein A that non-specifically binds to TSWV antibody was used as a control line on the same strip. The diagnosis process with the TSWV-RIGS involves simply grinding the suspect plant sample in a bag that contains the extraction buffer and inserting the strip the bag. Results can be seen in 2-5 minutes. The flow of the complexes of gold particles coated with TSWV-IgG and a crude sap from TSWV-infected pepper, tobacco and tomato plants resulted in intensive color formed on the test lines proportional to the concentrations of TSWV. The RIGS-TSWV kit did not show any cross-reactions against other tomato-infecting viruses unrelated to TSWV. These results indicate that the TSWV-RIGS kit is highly sensitive and is not required for laboratory training and experience prior to testing. The TSWV-RIGS kit is suitable for on-site detection of suspect TSWV-infected plants as well as for laboratory diagnosis.

  13. Electrochemical Stripping to Recover Nitrogen from Source-Separated Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpeh, William A; Barazesh, James M; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nelson, Kara L

    2018-01-19

    Recovering nitrogen from separately collected urine can potentially reduce costs and energy of wastewater nitrogen removal and fertilizer production. Through benchtop experiments, we demonstrate the recovery of nitrogen from urine as ammonium sulfate using electrochemical stripping, a combination of electrodialysis and membrane stripping. Nitrogen was selectively recovered with 93% efficiency in batch experiments with real urine and required 30.6 MJ kg N-1 in continuous-flow experiments (slightly less than conventional ammonia stripping). The effects of solution chemistry on nitrogen flux, electrolytic reactions, and reactions with electro-generated oxidants were evaluated using synthetic urine solutions. Fates of urine-relevant trace organic contaminants, including electrochemical oxidation and reaction with electro-generated chlorine, were investigated with a suite of common pharmaceuticals. Trace organics (fertilizer product. This novel approach holds promise for selective recovery of nitrogen from concentrated liquid waste streams such as source-separated urine.

  14. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  15. Thermoviscoelastic dynamic response for a composite material thin narrow strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Hong Liang; Qi, Li-Li; Liu, Hai-Bo [Hunan University, Changsha (China)

    2015-02-15

    Based on von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships and classical thin plate theory, a list of nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations for a viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip under thermal and mechanic loads are deduced. According to the material constitutive relationship and the relaxation modulus in the form of the Prony series, combing with the Newmark method and the Newton-cotes integration method, a new numerical algorithm for direct solving the whole problem in the time domain is established. By applying this numerical algorithm, the viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip as the research subject is analyzed systematically, and its rich dynamical behaviors are revealed comprehensively. To verify the accuracy of the present work, a comparison is made with previously published results. Finally, the viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip under harmonic excitation load and impact load are discussed in detail, and many valuable thermoviscoelastic dynamic characteristics are revealed.

  16. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Elgammal, Sherif; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dobur, Didar; Dutta, Suchandra; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kartashov, Dmitry; Kraan, Aafke; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Lungu, George-Adrian; Magazzu, Guido; Mammini, Paolo; Mariani, Filippo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Petragnani, Giulio; Profeti, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Domenico; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Sarkar, Subir; Sentenac, Daniel; Serban, Alin Titus; Slav, Adrian; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tolaini, Sergio; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vos, Marcel; Zaccarelli, Luciano; Avanzini, Carlo; Basti, Andrea; Benucci, Leonardo; Bocci, Andrea; Cazzola, Ugo; Fiori, Francesco; Linari, Stefano; Massa, Maurizio; Messineo, Alberto; Segneri, Gabriele; Tonelli, Guido; Azzurri, Paolo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Calzolari, Federico; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Ligabue, Franco; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Rizzi, Andrea; Yang, Zong-Chang; Benotto, Franco; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Migliore, Ernesto; Romero, Alessandra; Abbaneo, Duccio; Abbas, M; Ahmed, Ijaz; Akhtar, I; Albert, Eric; Bloch, Christoph; Breuker, Horst; Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  17. Using pad‐stripped acausally filtered strong‐motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Sisi, Aida Azari; Akkar, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    Most strong‐motion data processing involves acausal low‐cut filtering, which requires the addition of sometimes lengthy zero pads to the data. These padded sections are commonly removed by organizations supplying data, but this can lead to incompatibilities in measures of ground motion derived in the usual way from the padded and the pad‐stripped data. One way around this is to use the correct initial conditions in the pad‐stripped time series when computing displacements, velocities, and linear oscillator response. Another way of ensuring compatibility is to use postprocessing of the pad‐stripped acceleration time series. Using 4071 horizontal and vertical acceleration time series from the Turkish strong‐motion database, we show that the procedures used by two organizations—ITACA (ITalian ACcelerometric Archive) and PEER NGA (Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center–Next Generation Attenuation)—lead to little bias and distortion of derived seismic‐intensity measures.

  18. Anisotropic magnetoresistance of a one-dimensional superconducting niobium strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jiong; Xiao, Zhili; Imre, Alexandra; Yu, Suhong; Patel, Umesh; Ocola, Leo; Divan, Ralu; Koshelev, Alexei; Pearson, John; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2009-03-01

    We investigated confinement effects on the resistive anisotropy of a superconducting niobium strip with a rectangular cross-section. When the strip's transverse dimensions are comparable to the superconducting coherence length, we find the angle dependent magentoresistances at a fixed temperature can be scaled as R(θ, H) = R(H /Hcθ) where Hcθ = Hc0 (cos^2θ+γ-2sin^2θ)-1/2 is the angular dependent critical field, γ = w/d is the width to thickness ratio of the strip, and Hc0 is the out-plane critical field at θ = 0 . Our results can be understood in terms of the anisotropic diamagnetic energy of a one-dimensional superconductor in a magnetic field.

  19. Lean buffering in serial production lines with Bernoulli machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean buffering is the smallest buffer capacity necessary to ensure the desired production rate of a manufacturing system. In this paper, analytical methods for selecting lean buffering in serial production lines are developed under the assumption that the machines obey the Bernoulli reliability model. Both closed-form expressions and recursive approaches are investigated. The cases of identical and nonidentical machines are analyzed. Results obtained can be useful for production line designers and production managers to maintain the required production rate with the smallest possible inventories.

  20. Job Shop Scheduling Focusing on Role of Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Rei; Kusumi, Tetsuya; Yoo, Jae-Kyu; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    A scheduling problem is formulated in order to consistently manage each manufacturing resource, including machine tools, assembly robots, AGV, storehouses, material shelves, and so on. The manufacturing resources are classified into three types: producer, location, and mover. This paper focuses especially on the role of the buffer, and the differences among these types are analyzed. A unified scheduling formulation is derived from the analytical results based on the resource’s roles. Scheduling procedures based on dispatching rules are also proposed in order to numerically evaluate job shop-type production having finite buffer capacity. The influences of the capacity of bottle-necked production devices and the buffer on productivity are discussed.

  1. Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S.; DeCarlo, Francesco; Song, Joshua J.

    1998-05-22

    The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized from pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

  2. Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S.; De Carlo, Francesco; Song, Joshua J.

    2004-01-27

    The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized form pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

  3. Enhanced adhesion for LIGA microfabrication by using a buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S. (San Jose, CA); De Carlo, Francesco (Darien, IL); Song, Joshua J. (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement on the LIGA microfabrication process wherein a buffer layer is applied to the upper or working surface of a substrate prior to the placement of a resist onto the surface of the substrate. The buffer layer is made from an inert low-Z material (low atomic weight), a material that absorbs secondary X-rays emissions from the substrate that are generated from the substrate upon exposure to a primary X-rays source. Suitable materials for the buffer layer include polyamides and polyimide. The preferred polyimide is synthesized form pyromellitic anhydride and oxydianiline (PMDA-ODA).

  4. On Buffer-Aided Multiple-Access Relay Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Rongkuan; Popovski, Petar; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This letter treats uplink scenario where M user equipments (UEs) send to a base station (BS), possibly via a common relay station (RS) that is equipped with a buffer. This is a multiple-access relay channel aided by a buffer. We devise a protocol in which the transmission mode is selected...... adaptively, using the buffer at the RS in order to maximize the average system throughput. We consider the general case in which the RS and the BS can have limits on the maximal number of transmitters that can be received over the multiple access channel. In each slot, there are three type possible actions...

  5. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  6. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  7. A visual strip sensor for determination of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A., E-mail: sanjuktaak301@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Thakur, Neha; Parab, Harshala J.; Pandey, Shailaja P. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shinde, Rakesh N.; Pandey, Ashok K. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • A visual strip sensor for on-site detection of iron has been developed and made. • The sensor is easy to synthesize, portable and recyclable with shelf life >1 year. • Visual detection limit for iron using the present sensor is 50 ng mL{sup −1}. • Visual strip sensor was applied to ground water and fruit juices. - Abstract: A visual strip has been developed for sensing iron in different aqueous samples like natural water and fruit juices. The sensor has been synthesized by UV-radiation induced graft polymerization of acrylamide monomer in microporous poly(propylene) base. For physical immobilization of iron selective reagent, the in situ polymerization of acrylamide has been carried out in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline. The loaded strip on interaction with Fe(II) in aqueous solution turned into orange red color and the intensity of the color was found to be directly proportional to the amount of Fe(II) in the aqueous sample. The minimal sensor response with naked eye was found for 50 ng mL{sup −1} of Fe in 15 min of interaction. However, as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} Fe could be quantified using a spectrophotometer. The detection limit calculated using the 3s/S criteria, where ‘s’ is the standard deviation of the absorbance of blank reagent loaded strip and ‘S’ is the slope of the linear calibration plot, was 1.0 ng mL{sup −1}. The strip was applied to measure Fe in a variety of samples such as ground water and fruit juices.

  8. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  9. Determination of Selenium in infant formula by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Oveisi MR

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenium as a nonmetallic chemical element has received high attention of biologists because of its dual role as an essential trace nutrient and a toxic element. This interest has created a need for reliable analytical methods for determination of selenium. In this investigation determination of selenium by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry and the influence of various parameters such as deposition potentials, deposition time. Cu concentration pH, etc. on selenium peak in voltammogram are described. Determination of selenium was accomplished in mixture of acetic acid, hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride buffer (pH=1 with a scan rate of 60 mv/s and a pulse height of 100 my by hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE as working electrode. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at - 350 mv (vs SCE for 30 s and the potential was scanned between - 350 mv and - 800 mv. The determination limit of the method was 0.005 mg/kg for the sample. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0-30 μg/L (R2=0.996, p<0.001. Repeatability of the method at concentrations of 30 and 0.5 μg/L were 2.5 and 10.5% respectively.

  10. Upgrades to the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Morse, David Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cathode strip chambers (CSCs) are used to detect muons in theend cap region of the CMS detector. The chambers are arrangedin rings in four planes on each end of the detector. The innerrings of CSCs in each station have the highest flux ofparticles and this presents challenges to efficient readout atthe luminosity, latency, and trigger rate foreseen at theHL-LHC.The existing front end electronics in Stations 2, 3, and 4 arebased on switched capacitor arrays with limited bufferingcapability. Queuing models have shown that significantsaturation of the buffers would occur for the luminosity, Level1 trigger rates, and required Level 1 latency for running atthe HL-LHC. In addition, the expected output rate of data isexpected to exceed the 1 Gbps bandwidth of the optical linksthat carry data to the back end, resulting in loss of eventsynchronization.The upgrade of the inner ring of CSCs addresses these problemsby replacing some types of electronics boards in these ringswith upgraded boards. In particular, the existi...

  11. A plane mirror experiment inspired by a comic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio Prados Ribeiro, Jair

    2016-01-01

    A comic strip about a plane mirror was used in a high school optics test, and it was perceived that a large portion of the students believed that the mirror should be larger than the object so the virtual image could be entirely visible. Inspired on the comic strip, an experimental demonstration with flat mirrors was developed, in order to readdress this topic learning. Students were encouraged to create their own investigation of the phenomenon with a simple instrumental apparatus and also suggest different experimental approaches.

  12. Study of stripping fetal membranes to prevent postterm pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niroomanesh Sh

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research is a quasi-experimental prospective study to determine usefulness of stripping the fetal memberanes at term for preventing of postterm pregnancy. 212 pregnant women with firm gestational dates entered the study, 112 underwent stripping of the membranes and 100 controls did not. The difference between the number of patients who advanced beyond term (>290 days was statistically significant between groups (P<0.01. The mode of delivery and neonatal APGAR score were similar in both groups.

  13. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  14. Determination of sub-micromolar amounts of sulfide by standard free anodic stripping voltammetry and anodic stripping voltammetric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, T V; Borisova, N S; Zakharchuk, N F

    2009-10-27

    A novel electrochemical methods namely standard free anodic stripping voltammetry and anodic stripping voltammetric titration are proposed for determination of dissolved sulfide concentration. 2Ag(+) + S(2-) --> Ag(2)S reaction is used to provide the information. The anodic stripping voltammetric response of unreacted silver-ions at the glassy carbon electrode is used as analytical signal. Results reliability and accuracy are confirmed by analysis of model solutions, spiked natural and tap waters and recovery study, with a recovery of 100 +/- 5% (n=7) obtained. The approaches show the detection limit (3sigma(blank)) of 2-5x10(-10) mol L(-1) and the relative standard deviation of 2-5% for repeated measurements.

  15. Logah et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    mation practices in Ghana and draw implications for ecological sustainability. Using semi- ... The communities' participation in the reclama- ..... The system of strips of vetiver grass (Vetiveria .... their ratings on the level of satisfaction of the.

  16. Transient response of a thermal buffer: A study for ISABELLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, W. J.

    The design and transient response of a buffer for use during cooldown of ISABELLE is discussed. Introduction of an insensitive thermal mass of the inlet of a sextant ahead of the first semiconducting magnets is considered.

  17. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  19. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  2. Effects of Different Buffers on the Construction of Aptamer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quan; Dai, Zhao; Wu, Wenjing; Zhu, Haijia; Ji, Luyu

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of different buffers, PBS and TBE, on the construction of an aptamer sensor (apt sensor) for ATP was investigated. The apt sensor was based on fluorescence energy resonance transfer (FRET), when the energy donor was 5'-carboxyfluorescein (5'-FAM) and the energy receptor was Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. Both the donor and acceptor were conjugated with complementary and single stranded DNA (ssDNA). The fluorescent changes of the sensors were measured to investigate the influence of different buffers during the whole preparation and detection process. The results indicated that when the AuNPs and ssDNA (Au-DNA1) were conjugated in PBS buffer, the corresponding apt sensors would obtain a better detection ability of ATP than in TBE buffer.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  4. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  6. Analysis of Buffer Arrangements in Low and High Dimensional Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alzeidi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual channels have been introduced to enhance the performance of wormhole-switched networks. They are formed by arranging the buffer space dedicated to a given physical channel into multiple parallel buffers that share the physical bandwidth on a demand driven time-multiplexed manner. The question to be answered is: given a fixed amount of finite buffer what is the optimal way to arrange it into virtual channels. There have been few studies attempting to address this issue, however, these studies have so far resorted to simulation experiments and focused on deterministic routing algorithms. In this paper we use analytical performance models to investigate the optimal arrangement of the available buffer space into multiple virtual channels when adaptive routing is used in wormhole-switched k-ary ncubes.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  13. EnviroAtlas - New Haven, CT - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  15. The influence of tooth brushing time over saliva buffering capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Mulyanti; Hetty Anggrawati

    2014-01-01

    Saliva gives a considerable influence against the growth of dental caries as a natural defense against caries. the things very important about saliva are its flow rate and buffering capacity. the decrease in saliva flow rate might cause food retention that furthermore would turn into dental plaques, meanwhile it’s buffering capacity will play a considerable role in maintaining the saliva’s pH and remineralization process of the teeth. One of the mechanisms which are considered to be effective...

  16. irradiation on the optical and electrical properties of buffer solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure and aluminum doped (0.001 wt %Al) CdS thin films were deposited on microscope glass slides using buffer solution growth technique based on CdSO4 as the cadmium source, thiourea as the sulphur source, and (NH4)2 SO4 as a buffer. The effects of gamma radiation on the optical and electrical properties of the ...

  17. The buffer/container experiment design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, N.A.; Wan, A.W.L.; Roach, P.J

    1998-03-01

    The Buffer/Container Experiment was a full-scale in situ experiment, installed at a depth of 240 m in granitic rock at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The experiment was designed to examine the performance of a compacted sand-bentonite buffer material under the influences of elevated temperature and in situ moisture conditions. Buffer material was compacted in situ into a 5-m-deep, 1.24-m-diameter borehole drilled into the floor of an excavation. A 2.3-m long heater, representative of a nuclear fuel waste container, was placed within the buffer, and instrumentation was installed to monitor changes in buffer moisture conditions, temperature and stress. The experiment was sealed at the top of the borehole and restrained against vertical displacement. Instrumentation in the rock monitored pore pressures, temperatures and rock displacement. The heater was operated at a constant power of 1200 W, which provided a heater skin temperature of approximately 85 degrees C. Experiment construction and installation required two years, followed by two and a half years of heater operation and two years of monitoring the rock conditions during cooling. The construction phase of the experiment included the design, construction and testing of a segmental heater and controller, geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock, excavation of the experiment room, drilling of the emplacement borehole using high pressure water, mixing and in situ compaction of buffer material, installation of instrumentation in the rock, buffer and on the heater, and the construction of concrete curb and steel vertical restraint system at the top of emplacement borehole. Upon completion of the experiment, decommissioning sampling equipment was designed and constructed and sampling methods were developed which allowed approximately 2000 samples of buffer material to be taken over a 12-day period. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of experiment

  18. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John G

    2014-04-10

    Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF) test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655) are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD) of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300-600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection.

  19. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655 are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300–600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection.

  20. Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for backlogged TCP flows in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. Unlike wired networks where a single link buffer feeds a bottleneck link, the radio spectral resource in a mesh network is shared among a set of contending mesh routers. We account for this by formulating the buffer size problem as sizing a collective buffer distributed over a set of interfering nodes. In this paper we propose mechanisms for sizing and distributing this collective buffer among the mesh nodes constituting the network bottleneck. Our mechanism factors in the network topology and wireless link rates, improving on pre-set buffer allocations that cannot optimally work across the range of configurations achievable with 802.11 radios. We evaluate our mechanisms using simulations as well as experiments on a testbed. Our results show that we can reduce the RTT of a flow by 6× or more, at the cost of less than 10% drop in end-to-end flow throughput.

  1. Receiver buffer requirement for video streaming over TCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Ammar, Mostafa H.

    2006-01-01

    TCP is one of the most widely used transport protocols for video streaming. However, the rate variability of TCP makes it difficult to provide good video quality. To accommodate the variability, video streaming applications require receiver-side buffering. In current practice, however, there are no systematic guidelines for the provisioning of the receiver buffer, and smooth playout is insured through over-provisioning. In this work, we are interested in memory-constrained applications where it is important to determine the right size of receiver buffer in order to insure a prescribed video quality. To that end, we characterize video streaming over TCP in a systematic and quantitative manner. We first model a video streaming system analytically and derive an expression of receiver buffer requirement based on the model. Our analysis shows that the receiver buffer requirement is determined by the network characteristics and desired video quality. Experimental results validate our model and demonstrate that the receiver buffer requirement achieves desired video quality.

  2. Design, production and initial state of the buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Lennart; Gunnarsson, David; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Jonsson, Esther

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the buffer for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the buffer shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference design of the buffer and verifies the conformity of the reference design to the design premises. It also describes the production of the buffer, from excavation and delivery of buffer material to installation in the deposition hole. Finally, the initial state of the buffer and its conformity to the reference design and design premises is presented

  3. Diazinon and permethrin mitigation across a grass-wetland buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Locke, M A; Lizotte, R E; Testa, S; Cooper, C M

    2014-11-01

    Vegetated buffers of different designs are often used as edge-of-field treatment practices to remove pesticides that may be entrained in agricultural runoff. However, buffer system efficacy in pesticide runoff mitigation varies widely due to a multitude of factors including, but not limited to, pesticide chemistry, vegetation composition, and hydrology. Two experimental systems, a control (no vegetation) and a grass-wetland buffer system, were evaluated for their ability to retain diazinon and permethrin associated with a simulated storm runoff. The two systems were equally inefficient at retaining diazinon (mean 9.6 % retention for control and buffer). Grass-wetland buffers retained 83 % and 85 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively, while the control only retained 39 % and 44 % of cis- and trans-permethrin masses, respectively. Half-distances (the distance required to decrease pesticide concentration by one-half) for both permethrin isomers were 26 %-30 % shorter in grass buffers (22-23 m) than in the control (32 m). The current study demonstrates treatment efficacy was a function of pesticide properties with the more strongly sorbing permethrin retained to a greater degree. The study also demonstrates challenges in remediating multiple pesticides with a single management practice. By using suites of management practices, especially those employing vegetation, better mitigation of pesticide impacts may be accomplished.

  4. Sensitivity analysis and metamodeling of a toolchain of models to help sizing vetetative filter strips in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvernet, Claire; Noll, Dorothea; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Carluer, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    In Europe, environmental agencies do the finding a significant presence of contaminants in surface water, which is partly due to pesticide applications. Vegetative filter strips (VFS), often located along rivers, are a common tool among other buffer zones to reduce non point source pollution of water by reducing surface runoff. However, they need to be adapted to the agro-pedo-climatic conditions, both in terms of position and size, in order to be efficient. This is one of the roles of TOPPS-PROWADIS project which involves European experts and stakeholders to develop and recommend Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce pesticide transfer by drift or runoff in several European countries. In this context, Irstea developed a guide accompanying the use of different tools, which allows designing VFS by simulating their efficiency to limit transfers. It needs the user to define both a scenario of incoming surface runoff and the buffer zone characteristics. First, the contributive zone (surface, length, slope) is derived from the topography by a GIS tool, HydroDem. ; 2nd, the runoff hydrograph coming in the buffer zone is generated from a rainfall hyetogram typical of the area, using Curve Number theory, taking into account soil characteristics. The VFS's optimal width is then deduced for a given desired efficiency (for example 70% of runoff reduction), by using VFSMOD model, which simulates water, suspended matters (and pesticides) transfer inside a vegetative filter strip. Results also indicate if this kind of buffer zone is relevant in that situation (if too high, another type of buffer zone may be more relevant, for example constructed wetland). This method assumes that the user supplies quite a lot of field knowledge and data, which are not always easily available. In order to fill in the lack of real data, a set of virtual scenarios was tested, which is supposed to cover a large range of agro-pedo-climatic conditions in Europe, considering both the upslope

  5. Experience with the silicon strip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the ALICE Inner Track- ing System (ITS), connecting the TPC with the inner layers of the ITS. The SSD consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules, 95 μm pitch, distributed in two cylindrical bar- rels, whose radii are

  6. Stable incremental deformation of a strip to high strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, A.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Huetink, Han

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of combined stretching and bending on the achieved strain in incremental sheet forming ISF. A simple two dimensional model of strip undergoing stretching and travelling three point bending in cyclic form is used. The numerical model presents the effect of the ratio of

  7. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings on August 12-17, 2012, this presentation reports on laboratory tests of 20 currently available advanced power strip products, which reduce wasteful electricity use of miscellaneous electric loads in buildings.

  8. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  9. Comparative study of blood smears microscopy and rapid test strips ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate two of the currently available assay methods, specimen from 200 patients admitted on provisional diagnosis of malaria were screened in this study and compared with the smear microscopy method. Our results showed a statistical significant difference (p< 0.05) between the two rapid strip methods of ACON and ...

  10. Magnetic stray fields of periodically arranged Co-Crmicro strips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Lintelo, J.G.T.; te Lintelo, J.G.T.

    Research was carried out on magnetic stray fields of Co-Cr micro strips. This investigation was motivated by the search for increasing bit density and miniaturisation in magnetic data storage and magnetic sensor devices. In these devices the magnetisation is patterned, i.e. by writing bits or

  11. TE Scattering from a Dielectric Coated Conducting Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    along the edges of the slab and along the conductor, and integrand evaluations at the comers of the slab and edges of the strip. B.] Impedance Matriz ...178 io Appendix B. D 1 Bessel Funcions of Order Zero and One Abramowitz & Stegun (17 369-370) present the following small-argument polynomial approx

  12. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  13. Upconversion fluorescent strip sensor for rapid determination of Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Yihua; Yang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Xin; Xiao, Jingfan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-03-01

    Here, we report a simple and ultrasensitive upconversion fluorescent strip sensor based on NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles (NPs) and the lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA). Carboxyl-modified β-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs were successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal approach, upon further coupling with monoclonal antibody, the resultant UCNPs-antibody conjugates probes were used in LFIA and served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent reporters. V. anguillarum was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of this strip sensor. The limit of the detection for the fluorescent strip was determined as 102 CFU mL-1, which is 100 times lower than those displayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while the time needed for the detection was only 15 min. Furthermore, no cross-reaction with other eight pathogens was found, indicating the good specificity of the strip. This developed LFIA would offer the potential as a useful tool for the quantification of pathogens analysis in the future.

  14. On linear waveguides of square and triangular lattice strips: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basant Lal Sharma

    An analysis of the linear waves in infinitely-long square and triangular lattice strips of identical particles with .... with a small snapshot of the mode shape across the waveguide 'cross-section' and (d) a 'tube' of square and triangular lattice waveguides ...... [58] Mason J C and Handscomb D C 2003 Chebyshev polyno- mials.

  15. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 10 September 2008; revised 27 August 2009; accepted 17 December. 2009. Abstract. Vibration characteristics of an elastic plate in the shape of an infinite strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. The homo- geneous, isotropic, elastic plate is infinite in the x-direction and the sides ...

  16. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibration characteristics of an elastic plate in the shape of an infinite strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. The homogeneous, isotropic, elastic plate is infinite in the -direction and the sides are simply supported. The size of the force is changed in proportion to the displacement measured at ...

  17. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique.

  18. Impact of radiation on breakdown performance of Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, A; Chatterji, S; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, E K; Srivastava-Ajay, K

    2002-01-01

    The very intense radiation environment of high luminosity future colliding beam experiments, like Large Hadron Collider (LHC etc.) makes radiation hardness the most urgent demand for Si detectors. The radiation hardness of Si strip detectors especially developed for LHC experiment was investigated with respect to ionizing and nonionizing radiation using computer simulations. (10 refs).

  19. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeldt, J.; Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph.; Magallanes, L.; Müller, R.; Parodi, K.; Schlüter, T.; Voss, B.; Zibell, A.

    2017-02-01

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm2 with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X0. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF4 gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  20. Radiation damage measurements on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    At DSRI, in collaboration with the cyclotron facility at Copenhagen University Hospital, we have performed a study of radiation effects exposing a 2.7 mm thick CZT drift strip detector to 30 MeV protons. The detector characteristics were evaluated after exposure to a number of fluences in the ran...

  1. Urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, J; Korvuo, A; Kenkimäki, P; Tikanoja, S; Haapiainen, R; Kivilaakso, E; Stenman, U H

    1996-03-16

    A simple, rapid test is specific and sensitive enough to distinguish, in patients with clinically suspected acute pancreatitis, those whose abdominal pain is indeed of pancreatic origin has proved elusive. In two consecutive series of surgical patients in a teaching hospital, whose acute abdominal pain turned out to be due to acute pancreatitis (n-57) or extrapancreatic in origin (n=40), we studied urinary trypsinogen-2 in two ways. A test strip, incorporating monoclonal antibodies to two epitopes on trypsinogen-2, recorded a blue line when concentrations exceeded 50 microgram/L; we also measured trypsinogen-2 concentrations in the laboratory. In the patients with acute pancreatitis the test strip was positive in 52 and negative in five, whereas in the 40 extrapancreatic controls there were four false positives. In a further set of 57 orthopaedic controls, one urine was strip-test positive. Concentrations of urinary trypsinogen-2 and the test-strip results were in good agreement and in only three of the 154 patients were the two approaches discrepant, at the 50 microgram/L cut-off. These findings, in patients whose acute abdominal pain was known to be pancreatic in origin or not, are encouraging but need to be confirmed in a consecutive series of patients in whom the diagnosis of pancreatitis is in doubt.

  2. Strip transect sampling and analysis for avian habitat studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

    1980-01-01

    Censusing procedures that detect effects of habitat treatment on birds are outlined. We suggest that only relative values of bird species diversity, equitability, abundance, and species richness need be obtained. We also suggest that 4, 250-m strip transects per treatment and 8-10 trips over each transect are adequate. Aspects of sampling design that affect within-...

  3. Modelling of vegetative filter strips in catchment scale erosion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RANKINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of vegetative filter strips to reduce erosion was assessed by simulation modelling in two catchments located in different parts of Finland. The areas of high erosion risk were identified by a Geographical Information System (GIS combining digital spatial data of soil type, land use and field slopes. The efficiency of vegetative filter strips (VFS was assessed by the ICECREAM model, a derivative of the CREAMS model which has been modified and adapted for Finnish conditions. The simulation runs were performed without the filter strips and with strips of 1 m, 3 m and 15 m width. Four soil types and two crops (spring barley, winter wheat were studied. The model assessments for fields without VFS showed that the amount of erosion is clearly dominated by slope gradient. The soil texture had a greater impact on erosion than the crop. The impact of the VFS on erosion reduction was highly variable. These model results were scaled up by combining them to the digital spatial data. The simulated efficiency of the VFS in erosion control in the whole catchment varied from 50 to 89%. A GIS-based erosion risk map of the other study catchment and an identification carried out by manual study using topographical paper maps were evaluated and validated by ground truthing. Both methods were able to identify major erosion risk areas, i.e areas where VFS are particularly necessary. A combination of the GIS and the field method gives the best outcome.

  4. On linear waveguides of square and triangular lattice strips: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analysis of the linear waves in infinitely-long square and triangular lattice strips of identical particles with nearest neighbour interactions for all combinations of fixed and free boundary conditions, as well as the periodic boundary, is presented. Expressions for the dispersion relations and the associated normal modes in ...

  5. Intraocular pressure after descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Mourits, Maarten P.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the incidence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). Retrospective case series. From the start of the technique in our hospital in 2003 until the middle of 2010, 73 eyes underwent DSEK, of which 66 (90.5 %) had a clear graft 1 year

  6. Evaluation of Questionnaire, Reagent Strip and Egg Count as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal study covering 55 months evaluated the three diagnostic tools used for confirmation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among 1151 consented primary school pupils in 13 communities of Edo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire, reagent strip method and parasitological examination were employed.

  7. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  8. Strip tillage for single and twin-row peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil degradation and rising production costs have prompted grower interest in conservation tillage with high residue cover crops for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objective was to evaluate single and twin-row peanut production across three different strip tillage implements with and without a c...

  9. Magnetic stray fields of periodically arranged Co-Crmicro strips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Lintelo, J.G.T.; te Lintelo, J.G.T.

    1993-01-01

    Research was carried out on magnetic stray fields of Co-Cr micro strips. This investigation was motivated by the search for increasing bit density and miniaturisation in magnetic data storage and magnetic sensor devices. In these devices the magnetisation is patterned, i.e. by writing bits or

  10. Temperature sensitivity of the oxygenation reaction of stripped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "'mne hody of water. This study exumines the oxygen affinities of haemoglobin solutions. stripped hy gel flitruton chromatography, of two. Orange River fishes. L C(f/Jell ds and C. gariepifHH,

  11. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  12. Young tourists visiting strip clubs and paying for sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    it for the first time. Among the men who attended strip clubs, 32% reported having done it for the first time. Stripclub patronage and paying for sex were both associated with higher levels of drinking, use of Viagra, and with having done the same thing before the holiday. Paying for sex was uniquely associated...

  13. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  14. A new lateral flow strip assay (LFSA) using a pair of aptamers for the detection of Vaspin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Raston, Nurul Hanun; Nguyen, Van-Thuan; Gu, Man Bock

    2017-07-15

    A new lateral flow strip assay (LFSA) using a pair of aptamers has been designed and successfully developed using a pair of aptamers-functionalized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). This new LFSA biosensor system utilizes a cognate aptamer duo binding to vaspin, a target protein, at the two different binding sites, and exhibited a sensitive and highly selective response to vaspin. A sandwich-type format in LFSA was developed based on biotin-labeled primary V1 aptamer immobilized on streptavidin coated membrane as a capturing probe and secondary V49 aptamer conjugated with AuNPs as a signaling probe. Using this LFSA, vaspin could be visibly observed within the detectable concentrations of vaspin up to 5nM in both buffer and serum conditions. The sensitivity of this LFSA developed in this study was ranged from 0.137 to 25nM in buffer and from 0.105 to 25nM in spiked human serum, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) of this LFSA was found to be 0.137nM and 0.105nM in buffer and spiked human serum condition, respectively. Therefore, this study has shown successful development of a simple yet effective LFSA for vaspin detection, and this development is not only limited to this target, but also other targets with a pair of aptamers available, without any special and laborious instrumentations. This system will be particularly useful as a screening tool for rapid on-site detection of any targets with a pair of aptamers generated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D.

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  16. Pros and cons of flowers strips for farmers. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyttenbroeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. To counteract environmental problems due to agricultural intensification, European farmers can apply agri-environmental schemes in their fields. Flower strips are one example of these schemes, with the aim of supporting biodiversity, leading to an increase in "useful" species groups such as pollinators for crop pollination and natural enemies for pest control. However, to our knowledge, a complete appraisal of the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, does not yet exist. It is proposed that better and more complete information could increase the adoption and implementation of such agri-environmental schemes. Objectives. This study aims 1 to assess the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, and 2 to highlight the knowledge gaps that exist in the scientific literature, for the different types of pros and cons. Method. We listed the different components of the appraisal of pros and cons and conducted a systematic screening of the scientific literature on flower strips and these components. Results. The largest part of the 31 selected studies was concerning agronomical and ecological processes, such as pollination and animal pest control. Most of them indicated positive effects of flower strips. For many components of the appraisal, mostly economic and social ones, few or no studies were found. Conclusions. While a positive balance of pros and cons, from a farmer's point of view, came from our literature screening, large research gaps still remain and more research is required, especially in the economic and social components of the evaluation.

  17. The Evaluation of Saliva Flow Rate, pH, Buffer Capacity, Microbiological Content and Indice of Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth in Behçet’s Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Vildan; Yıldız, Mehmet; Erdem, Teoman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several lines of evidence indicate that oral microbial flora play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Behçet disease. Saliva flow rate, buffer capacity and microorganism content are very important in the maintenance of oral health. Aims: We aimed to evaluate saliva flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli content along with the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index in Behçet’s patients. Study Design: Case-control study Methods: Forty patients with active Behçet disease [female:male (F/M) 21/19, mean age 31.05±11.08 years] and forty healthy persons (F/M 21/19, mean age 31.03±9.14 years) were included in the study. The oral region was first examined, and the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index was calculated for each person. Stimulated saliva was collected and divided into two separate millimetric tubes to calculate the buffer capacity of the saliva, determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli levels and measure the pH of the saliva. A Caries Risk Test buffer strip was used to calculate the buffer capacity. Caries Risk Test bacterial kit was used to determine Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli levels. A pH meter was used to measure the pH of the saliva. Results: The mean saliva pH of the patients was higher than the controls (7.76±0.51, 7.18±0.46, respectively) (pbuffer capacity (p>0.05). Conclusion: We think that the maintenance of oral health by effective, regular tooth brushing, regular dental check-ups and dental treatment for Behçet patients is very important for the prevention and therapy of Behçet disease. PMID:25207102

  18. The Evaluation of Saliva Flow Rate, pH, Buffer Capacity, Microbiological Content and Indice of Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth in Behçet's Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Vildan; Yıldız, Mehmet; Erdem, Teoman

    2013-06-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that oral microbial flora play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Behçet disease. Saliva flow rate, buffer capacity and microorganism content are very important in the maintenance of oral health. We aimed to evaluate saliva flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli content along with the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index in Behçet's patients. Case-control study. Forty patients with active Behçet disease [female:male (F/M) 21/19, mean age 31.05±11.08 years] and forty healthy persons (F/M 21/19, mean age 31.03±9.14 years) were included in the study. The oral region was first examined, and the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index was calculated for each person. Stimulated saliva was collected and divided into two separate millimetric tubes to calculate the buffer capacity of the saliva, determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli levels and measure the pH of the saliva. A Caries Risk Test buffer strip was used to calculate the buffer capacity. Caries Risk Test bacterial kit was used to determine Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli levels. A pH meter was used to measure the pH of the saliva. The mean saliva pH of the patients was higher than the controls (7.76±0.51, 7.18±0.46, respectively) (p0.05). We think that the maintenance of oral health by effective, regular tooth brushing, regular dental check-ups and dental treatment for Behçet patients is very important for the prevention and therapy of Behçet disease.

  19. The Evaluation of Saliva Flow Rate, pH, Buffer Capacity, Microbiological Content and Indice of Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth in Behçet"s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan Erdem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several lines of evidence indicate that oral microbial flora play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Behçet disease. Saliva flow rate, buffer capacity and microorganism content are very important in the maintenance of oral health. Aims: We aimed to evaluate saliva flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli content along with the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index in Behçet’s patients. Study Design: Case-control study Methods: Forty patients with active Behçet disease [female:male (F/M 21/19, mean age 31.05±11.08 years] and forty healthy persons (F/M 21/19, mean age 31.03±9.14 years were included in the study. The oral region was first examined, and the decayed, missing, and filled tooth index was calculated for each person. Stimulated saliva was collected and divided into two separate millimetric tubes to calculate the buffer capacity of the saliva, determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli levels and measure the pH of the saliva. A Caries Risk Test buffer strip was used to calculate the buffer capacity. Caries Risk Test bacterial kit was used to determine Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli levels. A pH meter was used to measure the pH of the saliva. Results: The mean saliva pH of the patients was higher than the controls (7.76±0.51, 7.18±0.46, respectively (p0.05. Conclusion: We think that the maintenance of oral health by effective, regular tooth brushing, regular dental check-ups and dental treatment for Behçet patients is very important for the prevention and therapy of Behçet disease.

  20. Assessing multiregion avian benefits from strategically targeted agricultural buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristine O; Burger, L Wes; Riffell, Sam; Smith, Mark D

    2014-08-01

    Mounting evidence of wildlife population gains from targeted conservation practices has prompted the need to develop and evaluate practices that are integrated into production agriculture systems and targeted toward specific habitat objectives. However, effectiveness of targeted conservation actions across broader landscapes is poorly understood. We evaluated multiregion, multispecies avian densities on row-crop fields with native grass field margins (i.e., buffers) as part of the first U.S. agricultural conservation practice designed to support habitat and population recovery objectives of a national wildlife conservation initiative. We coordinated breeding season point transect surveys for 6 grassland bird species on 1151 row-crop fields with and without native grass buffers (9-37 m) in 14 U.S. states (10 ecoregions) from 2006 to 2011. In most regions, breeding season densities of 5 of 6 targeted bird species were greater in the 500-m surrounding survey points centered on fields with native grass buffers than in landscapes without buffers. Relative effect sizes were greatest for Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), Dickcissel (Spiza americana), and Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla) in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and Eastern Tallgrass Prairie regions. Other species (e.g., Eastern Meadowlark [Sturnella magna], Grasshopper Sparrow [Ammodramus savannarum]) exhibited inconsistent relative effect sizes. Bird densities on fields with and without buffers were greatest in the Central Mixed-grass Prairie region. Our results suggest that strategic use of conservation buffers in regions with the greatest potential for relative density increases in target species will elicit greater range-wide population response than diffuse, uninformed, and broadly distributed implementation of buffers. We recommend integrating multiple conservation practices in broader agricultural landscapes to maximize conservation effectiveness for a larger suite of species. © 2014 Society for

  1. Functional importance of stripping in NFκB signaling revealed by a stripping-impaired IκBα mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Holly E; Wismer, Kevin; Vargas, Jesse D; Suryawanshi, Gajendra W; Kern, Nadja; Kroon, Gerard; Dyson, H Jane; Hoffmann, Alexander; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-21

    Stress-response transcription factors such as NFκB turn on hundreds of genes and must have a mechanism for rapid cessation of transcriptional activation. We recently showed that the inhibitor of NFκB signaling, IκBα, dramatically accelerates the dissociation of NFκB from transcription sites, a process we have called "stripping." To test the role of the IκBα C-terminal PEST (rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine residues) sequence in NFκB stripping, a mutant IκBα was generated in which five acidic PEST residues were mutated to their neutral analogs. This IκBα(5xPEST) mutant was impaired in stripping NFκB from DNA and formed a more stable intermediate ternary complex than that formed from IκBα(WT) because DNA dissociated more slowly. NMR and amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry showed that the IκBα(5xPEST) appears to be "caught in the act of stripping" because it is not yet completely in the folded and NFκB-bound state. When the mutant was introduced into cells, the rate of postinduction IκBα-mediated export of NFκB from the nucleus decreased markedly.

  2. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  3. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  4. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The...

  5. 76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... U.S.C.1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip... revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and revocation of...

  6. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan...

  7. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and antidumping duty orders on stainless... on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and/or the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel...

  8. Effect of Strip Mining on Water Quality in Small Streams in Eastern Kentucky, 1967-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Dyer; Willie R. Curtis

    1977-01-01

    Eight years of streamflow data are analyzed to show the effects of strip mining on chemical quality of water in six first-order streams in Breathitt County, Kentucky. All these watersheds were unmined in August, 1967, but five have since been strip mined. The accumulated data from this case history study indicate that strip mining causes large increases in the...

  9. Flexible Faraday Cage with a Twist: Surface Charge on a Mobius Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Once an intriguing topological novelty known only to mathematicians, the Mobius strip has become a source of fascination and inspiration to the layperson and artist alike. Principal among its features are the two strange properties that the Mobius strip is a surface with only one side and one edge. A Mobius strip is readily formed by taking a long…

  10. Flow and transport through a damaged buffer - exploration of the impact of a cemented and an eroded buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The compacted bentonite buffer that surrounds the canister with spent fuel is designed not to allow water to flow through it in any appreciable quantities. Should the buffer be severely damaged water could flow to the canister and bring with it corrosive agent such as sulphide. This could speed up the rate of copper corrosion. Should the canister have a damage or be corroded so that the spent fuel inside the canister comes in contact with the water radionuclides could dissolve in the water and be carried away. Two modes of canister damage and their consequences for solute transport are explored in this report. In one case the buffer can potentially be eroded by the water seeping in the fractures in the surrounding rock and attain a high hydraulic conductivity allowing water to flow through it, at least locally. In another case it is conjectured that the buffer is cemented and becomes brittle. Then a crack could conceivably form in the cemented buffer allowing water to flow through it directly to the canister surface. Both cases are hypothetical although in the erosion case the erosion rate could possibly be quantified. The cases studied are to be seen as exploratory calculations for 'what if' cases. Some worst case assumptions have been used to explore bounding scenarios. Thus for the erosion case it is assumed that the hydraulic conductivity is so high that the buffer exerts negligible resistance to water flow. This implies that all the water that can flow through the fractures intersecting the deposition hole can reach the canister. Similarly for the cemented buffer case it is assumed that the crack in the buffer directly connects the rock fracture to the canister surface. For these circumstances it is found that the flowrate that can enter the deposition hole will be approximately two times as large as the water flow that would pass a projected area equal to that of the deposition hole. Thus if the flux in the rock some distance from the deposition

  11. Addition of urea and thiourea to electrophoresis sample buffer improves efficiency of protein extraction from TCA/acetone-treated smooth muscle tissues for phos-tag SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Kosuke; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Miyazu, Motoi; Takai, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorylation analysis by using phos-tag technique has been reported to be suitable for highly sensitive quantification of smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain (LC 20 ) phosphorylation. However, there is another factor that will affect the sensitivity of phosphorylation analysis, that is, protein extraction. Here, we optimized the conditions for total protein extraction out of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-fixed tissues. Standard SDS sample buffer extracted less LC 20 , actin and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) from TCA/acetone treated ciliary muscle strips. On the other hand, sample buffer containing urea and thiourea in addition to lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) or SDS extracted those proteins more efficiently, and thus increased the detection sensitivity up to 4-5 fold. Phos-tag SDS-PAGE separated dephosphorylated and phosphorylated LC 20 s extracted in LDS/urea/thiourea sample buffer to the same extent as those in standard SDS buffer. We have concluded that LDS (or SDS) /urea/thiourea sample buffer is suitable for highly sensitive phosphorylation analysis in smooth muscle, especially when it is treated with TCA/acetone. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Aleksandra B.; Glišić Slavica S.

    2009-01-01

    In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In th...

  13. Measurement of radon concentration in super-Kamiokande's buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Tasaka, S.; Takeuchi, Y.; Wendell, R. A.; Matsubara, M.; Nakahata, M.

    2017-09-01

    To precisely measure radon concentrations in purified air supplied to the Super-Kamiokande detector as a buffer gas, we have developed a highly sensitive radon detector with an intrinsic background as low as 0.33 ± 0.07 mBq /m3 . In this article, we discuss the construction and calibration of this detector as well as results of its application to the measurement and monitoring of the buffer gas layer above Super-Kamiokande. In March 2013, the chilled activated charcoal system used to remove radon in the input buffer gas was upgraded. After this improvement, a dramatic reduction in the radon concentration of the supply gas down to 0.08 ± 0.07 mBq /m3 . Additionally, the Rn concentration of the in-situ buffer gas has been measured 28.8 ± 1.7 mBq /m3 using the new radon detector. Based on these measurements we have determined that the dominant source of Rn in the buffer gas arises from contamination from the Super-Kamiokande tank itself.

  14. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers.

  15. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  16. [Buffer capacity of aquifer media polluted by landfill leachate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Zhao, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Ying-Ying

    2009-02-15

    A column filled with fine sand was constructed to investigate pH buffering capacity and redox buffering capacity of aquifer media. Experimental results indicated that calcium carbonate played a significant role in pH buffering; with the aggravating of landfill leachate pollution, the pH buffering capacity of calcium carbonate was increased; it increased from background value, which was 1.62 x pH(-1) mmol/kg, to 41.3 x pH(-1) mmol/kg. With the aggravating of landfill leachate pollution, the oxidation capacity (OXC) of aquifer media was decreased, and the reduction capacity (RDC) was increased. In unpolluted aquifer media, Fe3+ was the main component of OXC, and accounted for about 70.5% of OXC; TOC was the main component of RDC, and accounted for about 98.7% of RDC. Species of the minerals was related to the degree of pollution; large fraction of amorphous Fe3+ and part of crystalline Fe3+ were reduced near the pollution source, and the reduced product was mainly precipitated as FeCO3 and FeS. Deposit of produced Fe2+ led to ion-exchangeable Fe2+ content increased from 0.5% of uncontaminated aquifer media to 3%. Therefore, Fe3+ may act as a very significant redox buffer in aquifer.

  17. Can Parenting Microprotections Buffer Against Adolescents' Experiences of Racial Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M; James, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Previous research highlights the importance and pervasiveness of racial discrimination for minority youth in the United States. Adolescents may experience either personal or group race-based discrimination. While past research found both forms of discrimination are harmful to well-being it is unknown whether parental microprotections, which may buffer against the negative effects of discrimination, protect against both forms of discrimination. Informed by ecological frameworks the present study examined whether parent microprotections (parental warmth/acceptance, cultural socialization, preparation for bias) buffered the effects of personal and group discrimination on adolescents' depressive symptoms. Participants were African American early adolescents (N = 129; 58% female) and their parents (90% mothers). Adolescents attended a Midwestern, Title 1, urban, public middle school and completed surveys in their homerooms and parents completed paper-pencil surveys at home, online or surveys via telephone. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to test whether adolescents' personal and group discrimination at school were related to their reports of depressive symptoms and evaluate whether parent microprotections buffered these associations. Results showed that parental microprotections moderated the effects of personal discrimination on depressive symptoms but did not buffer the effects of group discrimination. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing between personal and group discrimination. Further, additional protective factors need to be identified and tested to better understand parental actions that potentially buffer the negative effects of discrimination.

  18. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  19. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m{sup 3} or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m{sup 3}. Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes.

  20. A Modular, Scalable, Extensible, and Transparent Optical Packet Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Benjamin A.; Shacham, Assaf; Bergman, Keren

    2007-04-01

    We introduce a novel optical packet switching buffer architecture that is composed of multiple building-block modules, allowing for a large degree of scalability. The buffer supports independent and simultaneous read and write processes without packet rejection or misordering and can be considered a fully functional packet buffer. It can easily be programmed to support two prioritization schemes: first-in first-out (FIFO) and last-in first-out (LIFO). Because the system leverages semiconductor optical amplifiers as switching elements, wideband packets can be routed transparently. The operation of the system is discussed with illustrative packet sequences, which are then verified on an actual implementation composed of conventional fiber-optic componentry.