WorldWideScience

Sample records for veterinary medical diagnostic

  1. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  2. Occupational exposure of medical staff due to diagnostic X-ray examinations in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergel, E.; Feige, S.; Haeusler, U.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)

  3. Occupational exposure of medical staff due to diagnostic X-ray examinations in veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergel, E.; Feige, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Haeusler, U. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)

  4. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  5. A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

    2014-12-01

    There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.

  6. American Veterinary Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free client handout to share with them. Compounding Veterinary Compounding FDA has withdrawn its draft guidance for ... new guidance, the AVMA is working to ensure veterinary access and animal health are protected. NEWS & ALERTS ...

  7. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  9. Quality systems in veterinary diagnostics laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Branco, Freitas Maia L M

    2007-01-01

    Quality assurance of services provided by veterinary diagnostics laboratories is a fundamental element promoted by international animal health organizations to establish trust, confidence and transparency needed for the trade of animals and their products at domestic and international levels. It requires, among other things, trained personnel, consistent and rigorous methodology, choice of suitable methods as well as appropriate calibration and traceability procedures. An important part of laboratory quality management is addressed by ISO/IEC 17025, which aims to facilitate cooperation among laboratories and their associated parties by assuring the generation of credible and consistent information derived from analytical results. Currently, according to OIE recommendation, veterinary diagnostics laboratories are only subject to voluntary compliance with standard ISO/IEC 17025; however, it is proposed here that OIE reference laboratories and collaboration centres strongly consider its adoption.

  10. Farm animal practitioners' views on their use and expectations of veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P A; Epperson, W B

    2013-05-11

    Diagnostic sampling of farm animals by private veterinary practitioners can be an important contributing factor towards the discovery of emerging and exotic diseases. This focus group study of farm animal practitioners in Northern Ireland investigated their use and expectations of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, and elicited their opinions on the role of the private practitioner in veterinary surveillance and the protection of rural public health. The veterinarians were enthusiastic users of diagnostic laboratories, and regarded their own role in surveillance as pivotal. They attached great importance to their veterinary public health duties, and called for more collaboration with their medical general practitioner counterparts. The findings of this research can be used to guide future development of veterinary diagnostic services; provide further insights into the mechanics of scanning surveillance; and measure progress towards a 'One Health' approach between veterinarians and physicians in one geographical region of the UK.

  11. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, L Y; Marenda, M; Crabb, H; Stevenson, M A; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Browning, G F

    2018-04-01

    The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing. A cross-sectional study of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting procedures by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories was conducted in 2017 using an online questionnaire. All 18 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia completed the questionnaire. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion was the method predominantly used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and was used to evaluate 86% of all isolates, although two different protocols were used across the 18 laboratories (CLSI 15/18, CDS 3/18). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were never reported by 61% of laboratories. Common isolates were consistently reported on across all species, except for gram-negative isolates in pigs, for which there was some variation in the approach to reporting. There was considerable diversity in the panels of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing on common isolates and no consistency was apparent between laboratories for any bacterial species. We recommend that nationally agreed and consistent antimicrobial panels for routine susceptibility testing should be developed and a uniform set of guidelines should be adopted by veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... plant and plant product export certification program operations, contact Mr. William E. Thomas, Director...; Birds or poultry, including zoo birds or poultry, receiving nonstandard housing, care, or handling to... diseases of livestock and poultry within the United States. Veterinary diagnostics is the work performed in...

  14. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-02-01

    The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time for validated AST methods has remained unchanged for many years. Beyond scientific and technological constraints, AST methods are not harmonized and clinical breakpoints for some antimicrobial drugs are either missing or inadequate. Small laboratories, including in-clinic laboratories, are usually not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues. Setting general standards for veterinary clinical microbiology, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and the development of new, validated and rapid diagnostic methods, especially for AST, are among the missions of ESGVM. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. Conclusions and clinical importance ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues......Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...

  16. A Theoretical Framework for Human and Veterinary Medical Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…

  17. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology : present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the

  18. Comparing Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen

    Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, pambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.

  19. 76 FR 54193 - Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...] Fiscal Year 2012 Veterinary Import/Export, Diagnostic Services, and Export Certification for Plants and.... SUMMARY: This notice pertains to user fees charged for Veterinary Services animal quarantine and other..., organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export certification of plants...

  20. Guidelines for zoo and aquarium veterinary medical programs and veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug

    2011-03-01

    These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.

  1. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  2. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  3. The role of veterinary medical librarians in teaching information literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.

  4. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, ...

  5. 9 CFR 130.14 - User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for FADDL veterinary..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.14 User fees for FADDL veterinary diagnostics. (a... 167.00 Rabbit antiserum, any agent 1 mL 179.00 185.00 190.00 196.00 (b) Veterinary diagnostics tests...

  6. A look into the Medical and Veterinary Entomology crystal ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, F; Cameron, M M; Colwell, D D; Otranto, D

    2014-08-01

    Medical and Veterinary Entomology (MVE) represents a leading periodical in its field and covers many aspects of the biology and control of insects, ticks, mites and other arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. Since the first issue of the journal, researchers working in both developed and developing countries have published in MVE, with direct impact on current knowledge in the field. An increasing number of articles dealing with the epidemiology and transmission of vector-borne pathogens have been published in MVE, reflecting rapid changes in vector distribution, pathogen transmission and host-arthropod interactions. This article represents a gaze into the crystal ball in which we identify areas of increasing interest, discuss the main changes that have occurred in the epidemiology of parasitic arthropods since the first issue of MVE, and predict the principal scientific topics that might arise in the next 25 years for scientists working in medical and veterinary entomology. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Economic impact of university veterinary diagnostic laboratories: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lee L; Hayes, Dermot J; Holtkamp, Derald J; Swenson, David A

    2018-03-01

    Veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) play a significant role in the prevention and mitigation of endemic animal diseases and serve an important role in surveillance of, and the response to, outbreaks of transboundary and emerging animal diseases. They also allow for business continuity in livestock operations and help improve human health. Despite these critical societal roles, there is no academic literature on the economic impact of VDLs. We present a case study on the economic impact of the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISUVDL). We use economic contribution analysis coupled with a stakeholder survey to estimate the impact. Results suggest that the ISUVDL is responsible for $2,162.46 million in direct output, $2,832.45 million in total output, $1,158.19 million in total value added, and $31.79 million in state taxes in normal years. In an animal health emergency this increases to $8,446.21 million in direct output, $11,063.06 million in total output, $4,523.70 million in total value added, and $124.15 million in state taxes. The ISUVDL receives $4 million annually as a direct state government appropriation for operating purposes. The $31.79 million in state taxes in normal years and the $124.15 million in state taxes in an animal health emergency equates to a 795% and 3104% return on investment, respectively. Estimates of the economic impact of the ISUVDL provide information to scientists, administrators, and policymakers regarding the efficacy and return on investment of VDLs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reflections on the future of veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Keith W

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project

  9. 9 CFR 130.19 - User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials provided at NVSL (excluding FADDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for other veterinary... User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials provided at NVSL (excluding FADDL). (a) User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials available from NVSL (excluding FADDL...

  10. 9 CFR 130.17 - User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for other veterinary... FEES USER FEES § 130.17 User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites. (a) User fees for veterinary diagnostics tests performed at the...

  11. Biologics industry challenges for developing diagnostic tests for the National Veterinary Stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardham, J M; Lamichhane, C M

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary diagnostic products generated ~$3 billion US dollars in global sales in 2010. This industry is poised to undergo tremendous changes in the next decade as technological advances move diagnostic products from the traditional laboratory-based and handheld immunologic assays towards highly technical, point of care devices with increased sensitivity, specificity, and complexity. Despite these opportunities for advancing diagnostic products, the industry continues to face numerous challenges in developing diagnostic products for emerging and foreign animal diseases. Because of the need to deliver a return on the investment, research and development dollars continue to be focused on infectious diseases that have a negative impact on current domestic herd health, production systems, or companion animal health. Overcoming the administrative, legal, fiscal, and technological barriers to provide veterinary diagnostic products for the National Veterinary Stockpile will reduce the threat of natural or intentional spread of foreign diseases and increase the security of the food supply in the US.

  12. Animal poisoning - veterinary-medical and criminal-legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from approved or planned poisoning with agricultural purpose, an increase in the number of cases of intentional animal poisoning (primarily referring to cats and dogs has been detected in Serbia, and it is suspected that their number is significantly larger than the one shown by the official statistics data. Under the conditions prescribed by the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia, such activities may represent the crime of killing and torture of animals, but also the crime of causing a general danger. It would be impossible to conduct the procedure of discovering and proving these criminal offences and the responsibility of their perpetrators without findings and opinion of forensic veterinary-medicine experts. They play an important role when it comes to site inspection, crime scene processing, collecting the samples from the crime scene, processing of samples and autopsy and exhumation of a potentially poisoned animal body. Just like other evidence in criminal procedure, findings and opinion of experts of veterinary medicine are estimated in accordance with the principle of free assessment of evidence. However, due to the specificity of such cases of killing and torture of animals, their impact on court’s decision on the existence of criminal offence and perpetrator’s liability is crucial. In this paper, the authors discuss the scope of animal poisoning in Serbia, particularly in Belgrade, analyze possible criminal - legal consequences of these illegal activities and point out to a significant role that experts of veterinary medical profession have in discovering and proving such cases and the liability of their perpetrators.

  13. Education in nuclear physics, medical physics and radiation protection in medicine and veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.; Andric, S.

    2001-01-01

    Education in Nuclear Physics, Medical Physics and Radiation Protection in medicine and veterinary medicine studies on Belgrade University is an integral part of the curriculum, incorporated in different courses of graduate and post-graduate studies. During graduate studies students get basic elements of Nuclear Physics through Physics and/or Biophysics courses in the 1 st year, while basic knowledge in Medical Physics and Radiation Protection is implemented in the courses of Radiology, Physical Therapy, Radiation Hygiene, Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Therapy in the 4 th or 5 th year. Postgraduate studies offer MSc degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy, while courses in Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Instrumentation, Radiation Protection and Radiology are core or optional. On the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine graduated students may continue their professional education and obtain specialization degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy or Radiation Protection. On the Faculty of Medicine there are specialization degrees in Medical Nuclear Physics. Still, a closer analysis reveals a number of problems both from methodological and cognitive point of view. They are related mostly to graduate students ability to apply their knowledge in practise and with the qualifications of the educators, as those engaged in graduate studies lack basic knowledge in biological and medical sciences, while those engaged in post graduate studies mostly lack basic education in physics. Therefore, a reformed curricula resulting from much closer collaboration among educators, universities and professional societies at the national level should be considered. (author)

  14. 9 CFR 130.18 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site (excluding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site (excluding FADDL). 130.18 Section 130.18 Animals and... § 130.18 User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site...

  15. 9 CFR 130.15 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification tests performed at NVSL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or other authorized site. 130.15... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.15 User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification...

  16. 9 CFR 130.16 - User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites. 130.16 Section 130.16 Animals... USER FEES § 130.16 User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding...

  17. Influence of a veterinary curriculum on the approaches and study skills of veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Ilkiw, Jan E; Boudreaux, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate first-, second-, third-, and fourth-year veterinary medical students' approaches to studying and learning as well as the factors within the curriculum that may influence these approaches. A questionnaire consisting of the short version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) was completed by 405 students, and it included questions relating to conceptions about learning, approaches to studying, and preferences for different types of courses and teaching. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha analysis, and log-linear analysis were performed on the data. Deep, strategic, and surface learning approaches emerged. There were a few differences between our findings and those presented in previous studies in terms of the correlation of the subscale monitoring effectiveness, which showed loading with both the deep and strategic learning approaches. In addition, the subscale alertness to assessment demands showed correlation with the surface learning approach. The perception of high workloads, the use of previous test files as a method for studying, and examinations that are based only on material provided in lecture notes were positively associated with the surface learning approach. Focusing on improving specific teaching and assessment methods that enhance deep learning is anticipated to enhance students' positive learning experience. These teaching methods include instructors who encourage students to be critical thinkers, the integration of course material in other disciplines, courses that encourage thinking and reading about the learning material, and books and articles that challenge students while providing explanations beyond lecture material.

  18. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal : diagnostic approach to epilepsy in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farqhuar, Robyn; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Packer, Rowena M A; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Ned; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Batlle, Martí Pumarola; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient

  19. A qualitative study to explore communication skills in veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L

    2014-10-11

    To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.

  20. Imaging systems for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestel, E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides physicians and clinical physicists with detailed information on today's imaging modalities and assists them in selecting the optimal system for each clinical application. Physicists, engineers and computer specialists engaged in research and development and sales departments will also find this book to be of considerable use. It may also be employed at universities, training centers and in technical seminars. The physiological and physical fundamentals are explained in part 1. The technical solutions contained in part 2 illustrate the numerous possibilities available in X-ray diagnostics, computed tomography, nuclear medical diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography and biomagnetic diagnostics. (orig.)

  1. Milestone Educational Planning Initiatives in Veterinary Medical Education: Progress and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth A; Reimann, Jessica; Greenhill, Lisa M; Dewey, Cate E

    2017-11-29

    Three milestone educational planning initiatives engaged the veterinary medical profession in the United States and Canada between 1987 and 2011, namely the Pew National Veterinary Education Program, the Foresight Project, and the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. In a quantitative study, we investigated the impact of these initiatives on veterinary medical education through a survey of academic leaders (deans, previous deans, and associate deans for academics from veterinary medical schools that are members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges) to assess their perspectives on the initiatives and eight recommendations that were common to all three initiatives. Two of the recommendations have in effect been implemented: enable students to elect in-depth instruction and experience within a practice theme or discipline area (tracking), and increase the number of graduating veterinarians. For three of the recommendations, awareness of the issues has increased but substantial progress has not been made: promote diversity in the veterinary profession, develop a plan to reduce student debt, and develop a North American strategic plan. Lastly, three recommendations have not been accomplished: emphasize use of information more than fact recall, share educational resources to enable a cost-effective education, and standardize core admissions requirements. The educational planning initiatives did provide collaborative opportunities to discuss and determine what needs to change within veterinary medical education. Future initiatives should explore how to avoid and overcome obstacles to successful implementation.

  2. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete

    2003-01-01

    A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries...... reported as vancomycin resistant. Ten laboratories identified the Enterococcus spp. to species level. All five Enterococcus faecium and 10 Enterococcus faecalis selected from the strain collection at the Danish Veterinary Institute were correctly identified by all laboratories, whereas some problems were...

  3. Guideline development and impact assessment for registration of medical, dental and veterinary x-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.; Harrison, D.; Moore, W.

    1996-01-01

    Under the NSW Radiation Control Act 1990, radiation apparatus used for diagnostic medical, dental and veterinary purposes will be required to become registered. The inspection required prior to registration will be conducted by a Consulting Radiation Expert who has been accredited by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) as being competent in the field of quality assurance assessment of radiation apparatus used for diagnostic medical, dental and veterinary purposes. When regulating any activity in NSW, there is a requirement to undertake a regulatory impact statement of the proposed regulation. In addition, the introduction of any accompanying guideline requires a cost-benefit analysis. Costs may include enforcement, administrative and compliance activities. The calculation of benefit relies heavily on the improvement in apparatus performance (and hence dose reduction) that can be obtained with the introduction of a mandatory practice such as apparatus registration. This paper discusses the development of the registration guideline for NSW, including a summary of the public comments received. It further discusses the methodology and data used for the accompanying cost-benefit analysis. Information in this paper is presented in three parts: EPA field survey, cost analysis, and benefit analysis. For NSW it was estimated that the introduction of registration of these apparatus, over a two year period, would result in early replacement and repair costs (present values) to the medical industry of between $5.7 and $11.0 million, with an additional $2.5 million in EPA enforcement costs. The introduction of the proposed system of registration is expected to result in an estimated savings in quantifiable health detriment costs to NSW of between $11.8 and $17.7 million, and reduce the risk of radiation induced mortality. (authors)

  4. Outcome of a one-week intensive training workshop for veterinary diagnostic laboratory workers in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Julie A; Tornquist, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    There is a huge unmet need for veterinary diagnostic laboratory services in developing nations such as Liberia. One way of bridging the service gap is for visiting experts to provide veterinary laboratory training to technicians in a central location in a short-course format. An intensive 1-week training workshop was organized for 18 student and faculty participants from the College of Agriculture and Integrated Development Studies (CAIDS) at Cuttington University in rural central Liberia. The training was designed and delivered by the non-governmental organization Veterinarians Without Borders US and funded through a Farmer-to-Farmer grant provided by the United States Agency for International Development. Although at the start of training none of the students had any veterinary laboratory experience, by the end of the course over 80% of the students were able to discuss appropriate care and use of a microscope and name at least three important components of laboratory record keeping; over 60% were able to describe how to make and stain a blood smear and how to perform a passive fecal flotation; and over 30% were able to describe what a packed cell volume is and how it is measured and name at least three criteria for classifying bacteria. The intensive training workshop greatly improved the knowledge of trainees about veterinary diagnostic laboratory techniques. The training provided initial skills to students and faculty who are awaiting the arrival of additional grant-funded laboratory equipment to continue their training.

  5. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H

    2003-10-01

    Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.

  6. Survey of animal shelter managers regarding shelter veterinary medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman-Jones, B E; Hurley, K F; Kass, P H

    2016-04-01

    Veterinary services are increasingly used in animal shelters, and shelter medicine is an emerging veterinary specialty. However, little is known about working relationships between animal shelters and veterinarians. The aims of this survey were to characterize working relationships that shelter personnel have and want with veterinarians, identify opinions that shelter managers have regarding the veterinarians they work with, and determine areas for relationship growth between veterinarians and shelter managers. An electronic survey was distributed to 1373 managers of North American animal shelters; 536 (39.0%) responded. Almost all shelters had some veterinary relationship, and most had regular relationships with veterinarians. The proportion of shelters that used local clinics (73.9%) was significantly higher than the proportion that retained on-site paid veterinarians (48.5%). The proportion of respondents who did not have but wanted a paid on-site veterinarian (42%) was significantly higher than the proportion of respondents who did not use local clinics but wanted to (7.9%). These data suggest shelter managers valued veterinary relationships, and wished to expand on-site veterinary services. Almost all shelters in this study provided some veterinary care, and all respondents identified at least one common infectious disease, which, for most, had a substantial negative impact on shelter successes. Respondents indicated that the most important roles and greatest expertise of veterinarians were related to surgery, diagnosis and treatment of individual animals. Education of both veterinarians and shelter managers may help ensure that shelters benefit from the full range of services veterinarians can provide, including expertise in disease prevention and animal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Veterinary decision making in relation to metritis - a qualitative approach to understand the background for variation and bias in veterinary medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enevoldsen Carsten

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of analyses based on veterinary records of animal disease may be prone to variation and bias, because data collection for these registers relies on different observers in different settings as well as different treatment criteria. Understanding the human influence on data collection and the decisions related to this process may help veterinary and agricultural scientists motivate observers (veterinarians and farmers to work more systematically, which may improve data quality. This study investigates qualitative relations between two types of records: 1 'diagnostic data' as recordings of metritis scores and 2 'intervention data' as recordings of medical treatment for metritis and the potential influence on quality of the data. Methods The study is based on observations in veterinary dairy practice combined with semi-structured research interviews of veterinarians working within a herd health concept where metritis diagnosis was described in detail. The observations and interviews were analysed by qualitative research methods to describe differences in the veterinarians' perceptions of metritis diagnosis (scores and their own decisions related to diagnosis, treatment, and recording. Results The analysis demonstrates how data quality can be affected during the diagnostic procedures, as interaction occurs between diagnostics and decisions about medical treatments. Important findings were when scores lacked consistency within and between observers (variation and when scores were adjusted to the treatment decision already made by the veterinarian (bias. The study further demonstrates that veterinarians made their decisions at 3 different levels of focus (cow, farm, population. Data quality was influenced by the veterinarians' perceptions of collection procedures, decision making and their different motivations to collect data systematically. Conclusion Both variation and bias were introduced into the data because of

  8. Veterinary medical school libraries in the United States and Canada 1977/78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K S; Coffee, E G

    1982-01-01

    Data on seven aspects of veterinary medical school libraries are presented and discussed: demographic data on the schools of veterinary medicine the libraries support, number of bound volumes held and number of serial titles received, audiovisual materials, staffing levels and salaries, materials budgets, physical size, and access to computerized bibliographic data bases. The great variability, especially in collection size, is stressed and attributed to such factors as size and programs of the veterinary school, age of the school and library, geographic location, accessibility of other libraries, administrative structure, and exchange programs. PMID:7059713

  9. C-Peptides for diagnostics and therapy: a veterinary medicine point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. Rosenfield

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Empirical studies proved that C-peptides are performing numerous intrinsic biological roles, and serve as a marker for pancreatic performance analysis. Since the last decade, C-peptide assays for differential diagnosis in veterinary diabetic patients are becoming more available, but still only for a very limited number of species. Studies on C-peptide as a diagnostic tool, therapy for associated complications, or as replacement therapies for C-peptide deficiency still showed not to be a common practice in veterinary medicine. This review was conducted to determine the potential importance of C-peptide in Veterinary Medicine, relevant in the diagnosis of diabetes and for other metabolic processes, as well as its proposed therapeutic benefits. Numerous articles were identified that reported positive results in their experimental studies, whether C-peptide as a biomarker for pancreatic performance in dogs, cats, and horses, as a non-invasive method to monitor nutritional status in primates, or to investigate its potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes-related illnesses.

  10. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors.

  11. Developments in Veterinary Medical Education : Intentions, perceptions, learning processes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, A.D.C.

    2008-01-01

    The past decennia, veterinary medical education worldwide has gone through some rapid and major developments. Motivation for these developments were, among others, the explosion of (bio) medical knowledge, the related problem of curriculum overload and the mismatch between university and the

  12. Safety of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breyer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Large numbers of people (both sick and healthy) are routinely exposed to ultrasound waves. We shall discuss wave parameters and scanner properties that are relevant to the safety aspect. This includes central pulse frequency, pulse length, intensity (ISPTA and others), focusing, pulse repetition frequency, pulse pressure, etc. Since the transmitted ultrasound power has steadily been increasing during the last two decades, the problems are becoming more serious with time. Doppler methods have gained importance and 'popularity, which additionally increases ultrasound power requirements since the reflectivity of red blood cells is so small that the backscattered pressure is about 100 times less than that from soft tissue structures in the body. Main mechanisms that can potentially present hazard are heating and cavitation. The basic parameter used to assess thermal hazard is ISPTA and the optimal predictor of cavitation hazard is the peak rarefractional pressure. The hazard of heating-up can be summarized in saying that temperatures up to 38.5 o C are safe, while temperatures above 41 o C are definitely not. Care must be taken to stay within the safe zone. However, there does not exist a confirmed report of any type of hazardous effects on humans using intensities presently applied in diagnostic ultrasound scanners. Taking this into account, various international bodies have put limits to the application of ultrasound, which is best summarized in the FDA (USA) regulation that diagnostic apparatus may have an output of maximally 720 mW/cm 2 (derated) provided thermal and mechanical properties are indicated (onscreen) by properly defined Thermal Indices (TI) and Mechanical Index (MI). These aspects shall be discussed in some detail. We shall give the rules for the operator to apply ultrasound with minimal hazard. The general conclusion is that diagnostic ultrasound, as presently known, may be used whenever a qualified expert expects essential medical benefit for the

  13. Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will

  14. A Decade of Counseling Services in One College of Veterinary Medicine: Veterinary Medical Students' Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R

    Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.

  15. Comparison of the Perceived Quality of Life between Medical and Veterinary Students in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbafinejad, Yasser; Danesh, Hossein; Imanizade, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Medical and veterinary professional programs are demanding and may have an impact on a student's quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to compare the perceived QOL of these two groups. In this study, we used the SF-36 questionnaire in which higher scores mean a better perceived QOL. Only the students in the internship phase of their program were selected so that we could compare the two groups in a similar way. In total, 308 valid questionnaires were gathered. Apart from age and body mass index (BMI), the two groups were demographically similar. The scores of five domains (physical activity limitation due to health problems, usual role limitation due to emotional problems, vitality, general mental health, and general health perception) and also the total score were statistically higher in medical students. Only the score of one domain (social activity limitation due to physical or emotional problems) was statistically higher in veterinary students. BMI, physical activity limitation due to health problems, and vitality lost their significance after binomial logistic regression. We found that, in general, veterinary students have lower scores for the perceived QOL with social function being the only exception. It can be assumed that in medical students, interaction with human patients may have a negative impact in the score of this domain. Even though medical students have shown lower perceived QOL than the general population in previous studies, veterinary students appear to have slightly lower perceived QOL than medical students.

  16. Faculty perspectives regarding the importance and place of nontechnical competencies in veterinary medical education at five North American colleges of veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady

    2010-07-01

    To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.

  17. Nucleic acid probes as a diagnostic method for tick-borne hemoparasites of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, J V; Buening, G M

    1995-03-01

    An increased number of articles on the use of nucleic acid-based hybridization techniques for diagnostic purposes have been recently published. This article reviews nucleic acid-based hybridization as an assay to detect hemoparasite infections of economic relevance in veterinary medicine. By using recombinant DNA techniques, selected clones containing inserts of Anaplasma, Babesia, Cowdria or Theileria genomic DNA sequences have been obtained, and they are now available to be utilized as specific, highly sensitive DNA or RNA probes to detect the presence of the hemoparasite DNA in an infected animal. Either in an isotopic or non-isotopic detection system, probes have allowed scientists to test for--originally in samples collected from experimentally infected animals and later in samples collected in the field--the presence of hemoparasites during the prepatent, patent, convalescent, and chronic periods of the infection in the host. Nucleic acid probes have given researchers the opportunity to carry out genomic analysis of parasite DNA to differentiate hemoparasite species and to identify genetically distinct populations among and within isolates, strains and clonal populations. Prevalence of parasite infection in the tick vector can now be accomplished more specifically with the nucleic acid probes. Lately, with the advent of the polymerase chain reaction technique, small numbers of hemoparasites can be positively identified in the vertebrate host and tick vector. These techniques can be used to assess the veterinary epidemiological situation in a particular geographical region for the planning of control measures.

  18. USDA-ARS extension activities in medical, veterinary and urban entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Program 104 conducts research on veterinary, medical, and urban entomology. The goal of this program is to develop more effective methods of preventing or suppressing insects, ticks, and mites that affect animal and human well-being....

  19. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition... for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition (Guidelines). The NIH is seeking input from the public on... updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition must be submitted electronically at...

  20. Program review of the USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) has a history that starts in 1932 in Orlando to develop methods to control mosquitoes, including malaria vectors under conditions simulating those of the south Pacific jungles, and other insects affecting man and animals...

  1. Ethno-medical and veterinary uses of Tephrosia vogelii hook. F.: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All parts of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. (Fabaceae) is used in tropical Africa for numerous ethno-medical and traditional veterinary practices. The leaf is ichthyotoxic and has been used as insecticide, rodenticide and anthelminthic. It has also been used as abortifacient and to induce menses. The leaf macerate is purgative and ...

  2. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  3. Intelligent systems in technical and medical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Korbicz, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    For many years technical and medical diagnostics has been the area of intensive scientific research. It covers well-established topics as well as emerging developments in control engineering, artificial intelligence, applied mathematics, pattern recognition and statistics. At the same time, a growing number of applications of different fault diagnosis methods, especially in electrical, mechanical, chemical and medical engineering, is being observed. This monograph contains a collection of 44 carefully selected papers contributed by experts in technical and medical diagnostics, and constitutes

  4. Application of fatty acids as rumen-resistant coating on veterinary medical products for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalsrud, N.-I.; Ore, S.; Velle, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention consists of the coating of veterinary medical products with a fatty acid insoluble in the gastric juices of the rumen. This will allow administration to ruminants of medical preparations whose contents should first be absorbed in the small intestine, and which are decomposed in, or are hostile to, the stomach. An example is quoted in which steroids labelled with tritium were administered to two ox calves. The distribution in blood plasma, urine and gastric juice was measured. (JIW)

  5. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  6. Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Egmond, van H.J.; Deckers, E.R.; Herbes, R.; Hooglught, J.; Olde Heuvel, E.; Jong, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary

  7. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI

  8. Trends in gender, employment, salary, and debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffo, Carla; Kelly, Alan M; Ferguson, James

    2008-09-15

    To characterize trends in gender, employment, starting salaries, and educational debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges from 1988 to 2007. Meta-analysis. Sample Population-Veterinary medical graduates from 26 or 27 of 27 US veterinary schools and colleges from 1988 through 2007. Data were obtained from surveys published in the JAVMA. A chi2 test for trend was used to analyze trends in choices of employment and educational indebtedness for the veterinary graduate populations over time. The greatest changes in employment occurred in predominantly large animal practice, which attracted 10.7% of new graduates in 1989 but only 2.2% in 2007, and in advanced study, which attracted 15.2% of new graduates in 1989 and 36.8% in 2007. In 2007, 75% of graduates were women, but this gender shift was not associated with the decline in the percentage of graduates entering rural practice. From 1989 through 2007, starting salaries in private practice increased at a rate of 4.60%/y. During the same period, educational debt increased at an annual rate of 7.36%, or 60% higher than the rate of increases for starting salaries. As a result, debt at graduation increased from 1.1 times the starting salary in 1989 to 2.0 times the starting salary in 2007. Veterinary students are now more in debt than they have ever been. This trend together with a substantial increase in the rate of interest charged for government-backed education loans create conditions for new graduates that appear unsustainable.

  9. Advances in medical diagnostic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Khin Wee; Mohamad Salim, Maheza Irna; Ong, Sang-Bing; Utama, Nugraha Priya; Myint, Yin Mon; Mohd Noor, Norliza; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the most recent findings and knowledge in advanced diagnostics technology, covering a wide spectrum including brain activity analysis, breast and lung cancer detection, echocardiography, computer aided skeletal assessment to mitochondrial biology imaging at the cellular level. The authors explored magneto acoustic approaches and tissue elasticity imaging for the purpose of breast cancer detection. Perspectives in fetal echocardiography from an image processing angle are included. Diagnostic imaging in the field of mitochondrial diseases as well as the use of Computer-Aided System (CAD) are also discussed in the book. This book will be useful for students, lecturers or professional researchers in the field of biomedical sciences and image processing.

  10. Evaluation of medical and veterinary students' attitudes toward a one health interprofessional curricular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Jenna Nicole; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Conrad, Patricia A; Brown, Lauren; Wilkes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates whether medical and veterinary students' attitudes toward "One Health" and interprofessional education changed after participating in a joint small group learning exercise focused on risk factors associated with zoonotic disease. A survey was distributed to third-year medical students (n = 98) and second-year veterinary students (n = 140), each with a 95% response rate. Overall, 92% of veterinary students and 73% of medical students agreed or strongly agreed that "One Health" was relevant to their desired specialty. Students from both schools largely agreed that interprofessional education should be a goal of the curriculum for their school, and that interprofessional approaches strengthen their overall education. Students reported increased confidence in their communication skills and improved ability to contribute to One Health collaborative teams. This educational intervention, built around a patient case, focused on a variety of learning objectives including skills (such as communication), knowledge (of zoonotic toxoplasmosis) and attitudes (toward collaborative learning and practice). By sparking an interest in One Health during their early professional education, we sought to encourage a new generation of physicians and veterinarians to adopt a more collaborative spirit to their clinical practice, which will ultimately benefit human, animal and environmental health.

  11. Assessment of incidental learning of medical terminology in a veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, A Jerald; Hardin, Laura; Robertson, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether students in a veterinary curriculum at Mississippi State University would gain an understanding of medical terminology, as they matriculate through their courses, comparable to that obtained during a focused medical terminology unit of study. Evaluation of students' incidental learning related to medical terminology during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 academic years indicated that 88.7% and 81.9% of students, respectively, scored above 70% on a medical terminology exam by the end of the first year of the curriculum. For the 2004/2005 academic, 67.6% increased their percentage of correct answers above 70% from the first medical terminology exam to the third. For the 2005/2006 academic year, 61.1% of students increased their score above 70% from the first to the third exam. Our data indicate that students can achieve comprehension of medical terminology in the absence of a formal terminology course.

  12. Quantifying Novice and Expert Differences in Visual Diagnostic Reasoning in Veterinary Pathology Using Eye-Tracking Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone L; Wagg, Catherine R; Priest, Heather; Fernandez, Nicole J

    2018-01-18

    Visual diagnostic reasoning is the cognitive process by which pathologists reach a diagnosis based on visual stimuli (cytologic, histopathologic, or gross imagery). Currently, there is little to no literature examining visual reasoning in veterinary pathology. The objective of the study was to use eye tracking to establish baseline quantitative and qualitative differences between the visual reasoning processes of novice and expert veterinary pathologists viewing cytology specimens. Novice and expert participants were each shown 10 cytology images and asked to formulate a diagnosis while wearing eye-tracking equipment (10 slides) and while concurrently verbalizing their thought processes using the think-aloud protocol (5 slides). Compared to novices, experts demonstrated significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (preasoning and script-inductive knowledge structures with system 2 (analytic) reasoning to verify their diagnosis.

  13. Veterinary applications of ionising radiation HERCA Task Force on Veterinary Applications. Main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medical applications of ionising radiation' and conclusions of the TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Berlamont, Jolien; Michalczak, Herbert; Balogh, Lajos; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-11-01

    In the fall of 2012, the subject of radiation protection in veterinary medicine was raised during the meeting of the HERCA Board. Issues with regard to this subject had been brought to the attention of HERCA by the European College of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging (ECVDI). In October 2012, the Board decided to charge a small Task Force (TF) to further explore the issues in this field. This TF drew up a questionnaire which looked at the general radiation protection regulatory requirements in veterinary medicine applications of ionizing radiation. The results of this study showed large differences in the requirements applicable in the HERCA member countries. The TF also noticed the increasing use of more complex imaging procedures and of different radio-therapeutic modalities, which may imply greater risks of exposure of humans to ionising radiation. These results were presented during the HERCA Board meeting in Berlin, Germany and on which the Board decided to establish a Working Group on veterinary applications of ionising radiations (WG Vet). The main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medicine applications of ionising radiation' is attached in Appendix

  14. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  15. BIOANALYTICAL STANDARDIZING FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Galkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO 13485 “Medical devices. Quality management system. Regulatory requirements”, and DSTU ISO/IEC 17025 “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories”. Similar requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine which are used for drug standardization can not be directly applied to the medical devises for in vitro diagnostics due to a number of features, namely, the serological diagnosis products pre-designed to determine the unknown concentration of a particular analyte in a biological material, the diagnostic kits has to include the control samples (internal standard systems that need to be calibrated. It was determined following parameters of bioanalytical standardization and validation characterization for of qualitative (semi quantitative test-kits for serological diagnosis: precision (convergence, intralaboratory precision and reproducibility, diagnostic and analytical specificity, diagnostic sensitivity. It’s necessary to inspect additional parameters for quantitative test-kits such as accuracy (precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity and range.

  16. BIOANALYTICAL STANDARDIZING FOR SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yu. Galkin; A. G. Komar; A. A. Grigorenko

    2015-01-01

    In article we analyzed national and international regulations concerning the quality and safety of medical devices for in vitro diagnostics. We discussed the possibility of a partial application of the recommendations of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine to this type of product. The main guiding regulatory documents establishing requirements for quality and safety tools for the serological diagnosis products are The technical regulation on medical devices for the diagnosis in vitro, DSTU ISO...

  17. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  18. Diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes additional advice to national or local authorities and the clinical community on the application of diagnostic reference levels as a practical tool to manage radiation doses to patients in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. A survey was made of the various approaches that have been taken by authoritative bodies to establish diagnostic reference levels for medical imaging tasks. There are a variety of ways to implement the idea of diagnostic reference levels, depending on the medical imaging task of interest, the national or local state of practice and the national or local preferences for technical implementation. The existing International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidance is reviewed, the survey information is summarized, a set of unifying principles is espoused and a statement of additional advice that has been proposed to ICRP Committee 3 is presented. The proposed advice would meet a need for a unifying set of principles to provide a framework for diagnostic reference levels but would allow flexibility in their selection and use. While some illustrative examples are given, the proposed advice does not specify the specific quantities to be used, the numerical values to be set for the quantities or the technical details of how national or local authorities should implement diagnostic reference levels. (author)

  19. The Impact of a Group Communication Course on Veterinary Medical Students' Perceptions of Communication Competence and Communication Apprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedrowicz, April A

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of a group communication course on veterinary medical students' perceptions of communication competence and communication anxiety. Students enrolled in the Group Communication in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and the Communicative Competence Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the semester. Results show that first-year veterinary students' self-perceptions of communication competence increased and their self-reported levels of communication apprehension decreased across multiple contexts from Time 1 to Time 2. This research provides support for experiential communication training fostering skill development and confidence.

  20. From theory to practice: integrating instructional technology into veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; Herman, Cheryl; Miesner, Matt; Renter, David; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    Technology has changed the landscape of teaching and learning. The integration of instructional technology into teaching for meaningful learning is an issue for all educators to consider. In this article, we introduce educational theories including constructivism, information-processing theory, and dual-coding theory, along with the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. We also discuss five practical instructional strategies and the relationship of these strategies to the educational theories. From theory to practice, the purpose of the article is to share our application of educational theory and practice to work toward more innovative teaching in veterinary medical education.

  1. Raising awareness of the hidden curriculum in veterinary medical education: a review and call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L

    2014-01-01

    The hidden curriculum is characterized by information that is tacitly conveyed to and among students about the cultural and moral environment in which they find themselves. Although the hidden curriculum is often defined as a distinct entity, tacit information is conveyed to students throughout all aspects of formal and informal curricula. This unconsciously communicated knowledge has been identified across a wide spectrum of educational environments and is known to have lasting and powerful impacts, both positive and negative. Recently, medical education research on the hidden curriculum of becoming a doctor has come to the forefront as institutions struggle with inconsistencies between formal and hidden curricula that hinder the practice of patient-centered medicine. Similarly, the complex ethical questions that arise during the practice and teaching of veterinary medicine have the potential to cause disagreement between what the institution sets out to teach and what is actually learned. However, the hidden curriculum remains largely unexplored for this field. Because the hidden curriculum is retained effectively by students, elucidating its underlying messages can be a key component of program refinement. A review of recent literature about the hidden curriculum in a variety of fields, including medical education, will be used to explore potential hidden curricula in veterinary medicine and draw attention to the need for further investigation.

  2. Nano structures for Medical Diagnostics Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellah, M.; Iqbal, S.M.; Bellah, M.; Iqbal, S.M.; Christensen, S.M.; Iqbal, S.M.; Iqbal, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano technology is the art of manipulating materials on atomic or molecular scales especially to build nano scale structures and devices. The field is expanding quickly, and a lot of work is ongoing in the design, characterization, synthesis, and application of materials, structures, devices, and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale. In the last few years, much work has been focused on the use of nano structures toward problems of biology and medicine. In this paper, we focus on the application of various nano structures and nano devices in clinical diagnostics and detection of important biological molecules. The discussion starts by introducing some basic techniques of micro-/nano scale fabrication that have enabled reproducible production of nano structures. The prospects, benefits, and limitations of using these novel techniques in the fields of bio detection and medical diagnostics are then discussed. Finally, the challenges of mass production and acceptance of nano technology by the medical community are considered.

  3. Dog and Cat Exposures to Hazardous Substances Reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009–2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Ora...

  4. The roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals to achieve ONE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Pal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.

  5. A Novel Approach to Simulation-Based Education for Veterinary Medical Communication Training Over Eight Consecutive Pre-Clinical Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E

    Experiential learning through the use of standardized patients (SPs) is the primary way by which human medical schools teach clinical communication. The profession of veterinary medicine has followed suit in response to new graduates' and their employers' concerns that veterinary interpersonal skills are weak and unsatisfactory. As a result, standardized clients (SCs) are increasingly relied upon as invaluable teaching tools within veterinary curricula to advance relationship-centered care in the context of a clinical scenario. However, there is little to no uniformity in the approach that various colleges of veterinary medicine take when designing simulation-based education (SBE). A further complication is that programs with pre-conceived curricula must now make room for training in clinical communication. Curricular time constraints challenge veterinary colleges to individually decide how best to utilize SCs in what time is available. Because it is a new program, Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) has had the flexibility and the freedom to prioritize an innovative approach to SBE. The author discusses the SBE that is currently underway at MWU CVM, which incorporates 27 standardized client encounters over eight consecutive pre-clinical quarters. Prior to entering clinical rotations, MWU CVM students are exposed to a variety of simulation formats, species, clients, settings, presenting complaints, and communication tasks. These represent key learning opportunities for students to practice clinical communication, develop self-awareness, and strategize their approach to future clinical experiences.

  6. Efficiency of the Clinical Veterinary Diagnostic Practices and Drug Choices for Infectious Diseases in Livestock in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, S. U.; Islam, A.

    2017-01-01

    ) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using...... competency of these veterinarians needs to be improved and access to laboratory diagnostic facilities could help veterinarians to improve the diagnostics and outcomes. The rational use of antibiotics by veterinarians in animals must be ensured....... validation process for PPR (kappa: 0.25) and FMD (kappa 0.36) indicated a poor performance of the presumptive diagnoses. Most of the animals (93%) were treated with antibiotics. Our findings indicate that veterinarians can detect animals not infected with FMD or PPR but miss the true cases. The clinical...

  7. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  8. Microbial Communities in North American Ixodid Ticks of Veterinary and Medical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Varela-Stokes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in microbial communities, or microbiota, of blood-feeding arthropods such as ticks (order Parasitiformes, suborder Ixodida is increasing. Studies on tick microorganisms historically emphasized pathogens of high medical or veterinary importance. Current techniques allow for simultaneous detection of pathogens of interest, non-pathogenic symbionts, like Coxiella-LE and Francisella-LE, and microorganisms of unknown pathogenic potential. While each generation of ticks begins with a maternally acquired repertoire of microorganisms, microhabitats off and on vertebrate hosts can alter the microbiome during the life cycle. Further, blood-feeding may allow for horizontal exchange of various pathogenic microbiota that may or may not also be capable of vertical transmission. Thus, the tick microbiome may be in constant flux. The geographical spread of tick vector populations has resulted in a broader appreciation of tick-borne diseases and tick-associated microorganisms. Over the last decade, next-generation sequencing technology targeting the 16S rRNA gene led to documented snapshots of bacterial communities among life stages of laboratory and field-collected ticks, ticks in various feeding states, and tick tissues. Characterizing tick bacterial communities at population and individual tissue levels may lead to identification of markers for pathogen maintenance, and thus, indicators of disease “potential” rather than disease state. Defining the role of microbiota within the tick may lead to novel control measures targeting tick-bacterial interactions. Here, we review our current understanding of microbial communities for some vectors in the family Ixodidae (hard ticks in North America, and interpret published findings for audiences in veterinary and medical fields with an appreciation of tick-borne disease.

  9. Promoting professional behaviour in undergraduate medical, dental and veterinary curricula in the Netherlands: evaluation of a joint effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, S.J.; Gorter, R.C.; van Mook, W.N.K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: From 2002 onwards, a nationwide working group of representatives from all medical (8), dental (3) and veterinary medicine (1) schools collaborated in order to develop and implement recommendations for teaching and assessing professional behaviour. Aim: The aim of this article is to

  10. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A

    2017-04-01

    In April 2016, the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventative Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin (GHUP)) together with other scientific medical societies, German and Austrian medical societies, physician unions and experts has provided an AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies) guideline 'Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure'. This guideline shall help physicians to advise and treat patients exposed indoors to mold. Indoor mold growth is a potential health risk, even without a quantitative and/or causal association between the occurrence of individual mold species and health effects. Apart from the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and the mycoses caused by mold, there is only sufficient evidence for the following associations between moisture/mold damages and different health effects: Allergic respiratory diseases, asthma (manifestation, progression, exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, exogenous allergic alveolitis and respiratory tract infections/bronchitis. In comparison to other environmental allergens, the sensitizing potential of molds is estimated to be low. Recent studies show a prevalence of sensitization of 3-10% in the total population of Europe. The evidence for associations to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression, exacerbation) is classified as limited or suspected. Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association is given for COPD, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis, and cancer. The risk of infections from indoor molds is low for healthy individuals. Only molds that are capable to form toxins can cause intoxications. The environmental and growth conditions and especially the substrate determine whether toxin formation occurs, but indoor air concentrations are always very low. In the case of indoor moisture/mold damages, everyone can be affected by odor effects and

  11. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  12. Ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance: drug resistance and the need for alternative control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Despite multiple attempts at eradication, many ectoparasites of humans and domestic livestock remain a persistent problem in the modern world. For many years, a range of pesticide drugs including organophosphates, organochlorides and synthetic pyrethroids provided effective control of these parasites; but intensive use of these drugs has led to the evolution of resistance in many target species. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of current control methods and discuss potential alternatives for the long term sustainable control of ectoparasites. Important medical ectoparasites such as scabies mites, head lice and bed bugs present a significant public health problem, and so adequate control methods are essential. Ectoparasites of domestic livestock and farmed fish (for example sheep scab mites, poultry mites and sea lice) are also of concern given the increasing strain on the world's food supply. These parasites have become resistant to several classes of pesticide, making control very difficult. Recently, an increasing amount of research has focussed on alternative control methods such as insect growth regulators, biological control using essential oils or fungi, as well as vaccine development against some ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance. Drug resistance is prevalent in all of the ectoparasites discussed in this review. A wide variety of alternative control methods have been identified, however further research is necessary in order for these to be used to successfully control ectoparasitic diseases in the future. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  14. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Enhancing human-animal relationships through veterinary medical instruction in animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Caroline Brunsman

    2008-01-01

    Instruction in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and animal-assisted activities (AAAs) teaches veterinary medical students to confidently and assertively maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of this union of animals and people. Instruction in AAT/AAA also addresses requirements by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education that accredited schools/colleges of veterinary medicine include in their standard curriculum the topics of the human-animal bond, behavior, and the contributions of the veterinarian to the overall public and professional health care teams. Entry-level veterinarians should be prepared to: (1) assure that animals who provide AAT/AAA are healthy enough to visit nursing homes, hospitals, or other institutions; (2) promote behavior testing that selects animals who will feel safe, comfortable, and connected; (3) advise facilities regarding infection control and ways to provide a safe environment where the animals, their handlers, and the people being visited will not be injured or become ill; and (4) advocate for their patients and show compassion for their clients when animals are determined to be inappropriate participants in AAT/AAA programs. This article presents AAT/AAA terminology, ways in which veterinarians can advocate for AAT/AAA, the advantages of being involved in AAT/AAA, a model AAT/AAA practicum from Tuskegee University's School of Veterinary Medicine (TUSVM), and examples of co-curricular activities in AAT/AAA by TUSVM's student volunteers.

  16. Experiences with the implementation of a national teaching qualification in university medical centres and veterinary medicine in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Willemina M Ineke; Zanting, Anneke

    2015-02-01

    In 2008, a compulsory national basic teaching qualification was introduced for all university teachers in the Netherlands. At that time all eight University Medical Centres (UMCs) and the only Faculty of Veterinary Medicine had adopted or were setting up teacher development programmes. This study explores how these programmes relate to each other and to the basic teaching qualification. To gather information on teacher development programmes in the UMCs and the Veterinary Medicine Faculty an online survey was filled out by teacher development representatives from each of them. The programmes had main features in common (e.g. competency based and portfolio assessment), but differed somewhat in contents according to the local situation. Importantly, they had all been formally accepted as equivalent to the basic teaching qualification. We consider the freedom to tailor the qualifications to the medical context as well as to the local situation of the UMCs and the Veterinary Medicine Faculty one of the major success factors and the well-established collaboration between teacher development representatives of the UMCs and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine as another. Challenges for the future include embedding the teacher development programmes in the institutional organizations and maintaining and further developing the programmes and the competencies of the qualified teachers, e.g. in a senior qualification.

  17. Virtual Microscopy: A Useful Tool for Meeting Evolving Challenges in the Veterinary Medical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential…

  18. [Ecological studies on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary relevance existing in La Coca farm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Sarmiento, Lin; Vázquez Perera, Antonio A; Quesada Martínez, Maritza; Sánchez Noda, Jorge; Hevia Jiménez, Yosvania; Fuentes Leyva, Joaquín; Ramos Pérez, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    ecological studies were carried out on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance with emphasis on Fasciola hepatica intermediary hosts species. to determine the relative abundance of populations and the possible use of some species as biological control agents against F. hepatica intermediary hosts. a total of 13 freshwater bodies were sampled during March and November, 2008 using Capture by effort unit method to capture the mollusks thirteen mollusk species (12 gastropods and 1 bivalve) were found after sampling. The relative abundance of species varied in different types of habitat. The intermediary host species of fascioliasis were dominant in two sites. Fossaria cubensis was dominant in Canal de la Entrada despite the presence of Melanoides tuberculata. The specie Pseudosuccinea columella was more abundant in Los Mangos. In La Presa del Matadero y Las Palmas despite the presence of these species, the prevailing ones were Physa acuta and some planorbids. the sites where intermediary hosts of Fasciola hepatica predominated were identified through data on the distribution and relative abundance. In some sites Melanoides tuberculata was present and acted as a biological control agent but it did not in others. Therefore, an evaluation on using a different thiarid would be useful to control these species.

  19. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jason Crellin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS’ arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient’s coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended.

  20. Providing an information prescription in veterinary medical clinics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Gould, Lauren; Viera, Ann R; Hellyer, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    The study assesses the impact on client behavior and attitudes toward receiving an information prescription as part of a veterinary office visit. A random sample of veterinary clinics from a Western US metropolitan area was asked to distribute an information prescription in addition to their customary veterinary services. All clients, regardless of the reason for their visit, were presented with an information prescription: a handout that included the uniform resource locator (URL) to a general veterinary medicine website and several tips to help their clients make more informed choices about where to seek pet health information online. Nearly 40% of clients who reported that they remembered receiving the information prescription accessed the website at least once. Of the clients who reported accessing the suggested website, 86.3% reported finding it "very helpful" or "somewhat helpful." Nearly all the clients (87.9%) reported feeling the information on the site helped them make better decisions for their pets. Most clients reported that it helped them talk to their veterinarians (89.9%) and added to the information they received during their veterinary visits (83.5%). Clients appreciate and utilize veterinary prescriptions, suggesting that this is a tool that both veterinarians and librarians can use to improve animal health and client relations. The value placed on reliable Internet information by veterinary clients suggests several opportunities for librarians to become more proactive in partnering with veterinarians to facilitate the education of pet owners.

  1. Application of native agarose gel electrophoresis of serum proteins in veterinary diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jania Bartosz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic techniques, used to separate mixtures of electrically charged particles, are widely used in science. One of these techniques, native protein electrophoresis in an agarose gel, is applied in human and veterinary medicine. Changes in the proportions of individual protein fractions correspond to significant changes in the physiology of the body. Although the pattern obtained by electrophoretic separation rarely indicates a specific disease, it provides valuable information for the differential diagnosis. Decades of research on the types of patterns obtained in the case of particular diseases have led to the accumulation of substantial knowledge. The paper presents the available information on this topic. Serum protein electrophoresis is recommended in cases of increased levels of total protein in order to reveal the nature of the process. The basic information which can be obtained from electrophoretic separation includes the immune status of the organism. Both increased antigenic stimulation and immunodeficiency are clearly visible in electropherograms. Moreover, the level of heterogeneity of the corresponding protein fractions can help to distinguish between infectious diseases and cancer - multiple myeloma - the latter producing a homogeneous immunoglobulin fraction. Analysis of other protein fractions helps to detect or confirm an ongoing inflammatory process and provides information regarding liver function. Even when the concentration of total protein is within the reference range, this analysis can be recommended as a basic laboratory test.

  2. Assessment of burnout in veterinary medical students using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educational Survey: a survey during two semesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen A; Ilkiw, Jan E

    2014-11-28

    Burnout among veterinary students can result from known stressors in the absence of a support system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator Survey (MBI-ES) to assess burnout in veterinary students and evaluate the factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. The MBI-ES was administered to first (Class of 2016) and second year (Class of 2015) veterinary medical students during the 2012-2013 academic year in the fall and spring semesters. Factor analysis and test reliability for the survey were determined. Mean scores for the subscales determining burnout namely emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and lack of personal accomplishment (PA) were calculated for both classes in the 2 semesters. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate other factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. A non-probability sampling method was implemented consisting of a voluntary sample of 170 and 123 students in the fall and spring semesters, respectively. Scores for EE, DP and PA were not different between the 2 classes within the same semester. Mean ± SD scores for EE, DP and PA for the fall semester were 22.9 ± 9.6, 5.0 ± 4.8 and 32.3 ± 6.7, respectively. Mean ± SD scores for EE, DP and PA the spring semester were 27.8 ± 10.7, 6.5 ± 6.1and 31.7 ± 6.8, respectively. The EE score was higher in spring compared to fall while DP and PA scores were not different between the 2 semesters. Living arrangements specifically as to whether or not a student lived with another veterinary medical students was the only variable significantly associated with the MBI-ES scores. Students in this study had moderate levels of burnout based on the MBI-ES scores. The MBI-ES was an acceptable instrument for assessing burnout in veterinary medical students. The EE scores were higher in the spring semester as compared to the fall semester. Thus students in the first and second years of veterinary school under the current curriculum

  3. .* Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ..... environment as reported by (Olabode et al., 2009; Okwor and Eze, 2011;Jwander et al., 2013b). Farmers who had the same complaints of. Marek's disease from the same source of.

  4. The O3-Vet project: integration of a standard nomenclature of clinical terms in a veterinary electronic medical record for veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, M; Campagnoli, A; Reyes, M; Rojas, V

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the hospital information system of the Chilean University Hospital, the Veterinary Medicine School of Universidad de Chile made a research cooperation with Università San Raffaele Roma to develop and test a new release of the O3-Vet software application. O3-Vet was selected by the Chilean University mainly for two reasons: (1) it uses human medicine standardized technologies such as "Health Level 7" (HL7) and "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise" (IHE), which allow a good level of data sharing and hospital management; (2) it is open source, which means it can be adapted to specific hospital needs. In the new release, a subset of diagnostic terms was added from the "Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms" (SNOMED CT), selected by the "American Animal Hospital Association" (AAHA) to standardize the filing of clinical data and its retrieval. Results from a limited survey of veterinarians of the University (n=9) show that the new release improved the management of the Chilean University Hospital and the ability to retrieve useful clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Veterinary homeopathy: systematic review of medical conditions studied by randomised trials controlled by other than placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathie, Robert T; Clausen, Jürgen

    2015-09-15

    No systematic review has previously been carried out on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of veterinary homeopathy in which the control group was an intervention other than placebo (OTP). For eligible peer-reviewed RCTs, the objectives of this study were to assess the risk of bias (RoB) and to quantify the effect size of homeopathic intervention compared with an active comparator or with no treatment. Our systematic review approach complied fully with the PRISMA 2009 Checklist. Cochrane methods were applied to assess RoB and to derive effect size using standard meta-analysis methods. Based on a thorough and systematic literature search, the following key attributes of the published research were distinguished: individualised homeopathy (n = 1 RCT)/non-individualised homeopathy (n = 19); treatment (n = 14)/prophylaxis (n = 6); active controls (n = 18)/untreated controls (n = 2). The trials were highly diverse, representing 12 different medical conditions in 6 different species. No trial had sufficiently low RoB to be judged as reliable evidence: 16 of the 20 RCTs had high RoB; the remaining four had uncertain RoB in several domains of assessment. For three trials with uncertain RoB and without overt vested interest, it was inconclusive whether homeopathy combined with conventional intervention was more or was less effective than conventional intervention alone for modulation of immune response in calves, or in the prophylaxis of cattle tick or of diarrhoea in piglets. Due to the poor reliability of their data, OTP-controlled trials do not currently provide useful insight into the effectiveness of homeopathy in animals.

  6. Fluorescence spectroscopy for medical and environmental diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Jonas.

    1993-09-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for diagnostics in medical and environmental applications. The many aspects of fluorescence emission are utilized to enhance the accuracy of the diagnosis. A fluorescence detection system, based on nitrogen laser or dye laser excitation and optical multichannel detection, was constructed, and fluorescence spectra from human malignant tumours of various origins, were recorded. Tumour demarcation was observed using exogenous chromophores, as well as the endogenous tissue fluorescence. In particular, δ-amino levulinic acid was found to provide very good tumour demarcation. A multi-colour imaging system capable of simultaneous recording of four fluorescence images at selected wavelengths, was developed. Examples of processed images, based on the four sub-images, are shown for malignant tumours. In addition, data from photodynamic treatment of human malignant tumours are presented. Autofluorescence spectra from excised pieces of human atherosclerotic aorta and atherosclerotic coronary segment were found to be different from those of non-diseased vessels. Furthermore, fluorescence decay curves from atherosclerotic samples were found to differ from those of non-diseased samples. It is concluded that both spectral and temporal information should be utilized to enhance the demarcation. Methods for obtaining fluorescence data free from interference from blood, with applications to in vivo laser angioplasty of atherosclerosis, are discussed. The optical multichannel system and the multi-colour imaging system were integrated with a remote sensing system, originally used for environmental measurements, to obtain fluorescence spectra as well as fluorescence images of plants at a distance of up to 100 m. The fluorescence data from plants subject to environmental stress or senescent plants were found to differ from those obtained from healthy vegetation. 359 refs

  7. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, COPPE (Brazil); Mauricia, C. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil); Barroso, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operatorserefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  8. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R.; Mauricia, C.; Barroso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operators, therefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  9. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  10. Microscope use in clinical veterinary practice and potential implications for veterinary school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Also, the advantage of ... antibodies. The major disadvantage of the polyclonal ... advantage of a monoclonal antibody over .... department in the veterinary school was obtained from the ..... methodology for both routine diagnostic and research ...

  12. Diagnostic information management system for the evaluation of medical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Toshiaki; Torizuka, Kanji; Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Hirakawa, Akina

    1985-04-01

    A practical, small and low-cost diagnostic information management system has been developed for a comparative study of various medical imaging procedures, including ordinary radiography, X-ray computed tomography, emission computed tomography, and so forth. The purpose of the system is to effectively manage the original image data files and diagnostic descriptions during the various imaging procedures. A diagnostic description of each imaging procedure for each patient is made on a hand-sort punched-card with line-drawings and ordinary medical terminology and then coded and computerized using Index for Roentgen Diagnoses (American College of Radiology). A database management software (DB Master) on a personal computer (Apple II) is used for searching for patients' records on hand-sort punched-cards and finally original medical images. Discussed are realistic use of medical images and an effective form of diagnostic descriptions.

  13. Diagnostic information management system for the evaluation of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, Toshiaki; Torizuka, Kanji; Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Hirakawa, Akina.

    1985-01-01

    A practical, small and low-cost diagnostic information management system has been developed for a comparative study of various medical imaging procedures, including ordinary radiography, X-ray computed tomography, emission computed tomography, and so forth. The purpose of the system is to effectively manage the original image data files and diagnostic descriptions during the various imaging procedures. A diagnostic description of each imaging procedure for each patient is made on a hand-sort punched-card with line-drawings and ordinary medical terminology and then coded and computerized using Index for Roentgen Diagnoses (American College of Radiology). A database management software (DB Master) on a personal computer (Apple II) is used for searching for patients' records on hand-sort punched-cards and finally original medical images. Discussed are realistic use of medical images and an effective form of diagnostic descriptions. (author)

  14. Methodology for quantitative evaluation of diagnostic medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic medical imaging procedures using the Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC analysis. The development of new tests for the statistical significance of apparent differences between ROC curves is discussed

  15. The future of medical diagnostics: Review paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.K. Jerjes (Waseem K.); T. Upile (Tahwinder); B.J. Wong (Brian J.); C.S. Betz (Christian S.); H.J.C.M. Sterenborg (Dick); M.J.H. Witjes (Max); K. Svanberg (Katarina); R. van Veen (Robert); M.A. Biel (Merrill A.); A.K. El-Naggar (Adel K.); C.A. Mosse (Charles A.); M. Olivo (Malini); R. Richards-Kortum (Rebecca); D.J. Robinson (Dominic); P.J. Rosen (Peter J.); A.G. Yodh (Arjun G.); C. Kendall (Catherine); J.F. Ilgner (Justus F.); A. Amelink (Arjen); V. Bagnato (Vanderlei); H. Barr (Hugh); L. Bolotine (Lina); I. Bigio (Irving); Z. Chen (Zhiyi); L.P. Choo-Smith; A.K. D'Cruz (Anil K.); A. Gillenwater (Ann); A. Leunig (Andreas); A.J. MacRobert (Alexander J.); G. McKenzie (Gordon); A. Sandison (Ann); K.C. Soo (Khee Chee); H. Stepp (Herbert); J.R.N. Stone; I.B. Tan (I. Bing); B.C. Wilson (Brian C.); H. Wolfsen (Herbert); C. Hopper (Colin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile histopathology of excised tissue remains the gold standard for diagnosis, several new, non-invasive diagnostic techniques are being developed. They rely on physical and biochemical changes that precede and mirror malignant change within tissue. The basic principle involves simple

  16. The future of medical diagnostics : review paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerjes, Waseem K.; Upile, Tahwinder; Wong, Brian J.; Betz, Christian S.; Sterenborg, Henricus J.; Witjes, Max J.; Berg, Kristian; van Veen, Robert; Biel, Merrill A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Mosse, Charles A.; Olivo, Malini; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Robinson, Dominic J.; Rosen, Jennifer; Yodh, Arjun G.; Kendall, Catherine; Ilgner, Justus F.; Amelink, Arjen; Bagnato, Vanderlei; Barr, Hugh; Bolotine, Lina; Bigio, Irving; Chen, Zhongping; Choo-Smith, Lin-Ping; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Gillenwater, Ann; Leunig, Andreas; MacRobert, Alexander J.; McKenzie, Gordon; Sandison, Ann; Soo, Khee C.; Stepp, Herbert; Stone, Nicholas; Svanberg, Katarina; Tan, I. Bing; Wilson, Brian C.; Wolfsen, Herbert; Hopper, Colin

    2011-01-01

    While histopathology of excised tissue remains the gold standard for diagnosis, several new, non-invasive diagnostic techniques are being developed. They rely on physical and biochemical changes that precede and mirror malignant change within tissue. The basic principle involves simple optical

  17. The future of medical diagnostics: review paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerjes, Waseem K.; Upile, Tahwinder; Wong, Brian J.; Betz, Christian S.; Sterenborg, Henricus J.; Witjes, Max J.; Berg, Kristian; van Veen, Robert; Biel, Merrill A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Mosse, Charles A.; Olivo, Malini; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Robinson, Dominic J.; Rosen, Jennifer; Yodh, Arjun G.; Kendall, Catherine; Ilgner, Justus F.; Amelink, Arjen; Bagnato, Vanderlei; Barr, Hugh; Bolotine, Lina; Bigio, Irving; Chen, Zhongping; Choo-Smith, Lin-Ping; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Gillenwater, Ann; Leunig, Andreas; MacRobert, Alexander J.; McKenzie, Gordon; Sandison, Ann; Soo, Khee C.; Stepp, Herbert; Stone, Nicholas; Svanberg, Katarina; Tan, I. Bing; Wilson, Brian C.; Wolfsen, Herbert; Hopper, Colin

    2011-01-01

    While histopathology of excised tissue remains the gold standard for diagnosis, several new, non-invasive diagnostic techniques are being developed. They rely on physical and biochemical changes that precede and mirror malignant change within tissue. The basic principle involves simple optical

  18. Handheld Diagnostic Device Delivers Quick Medical Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To monitor astronauts' health remotely, Glenn Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Cambridge, Massachusetts-based DNA Medical Institute, which developed a device capable of analyzing blood cell counts and a variety of medical biomarkers. The technology will prove especially useful in rural areas without easy access to labs.

  19. Diagnostic imaging in undergraduate medical education: an expanding role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiologists have been involved in anatomy instruction for medical students for decades. However, recent technical advances in radiology, such as multiplanar imaging, 'virtual endoscopy', functional and molecular imaging, and spectroscopy, offer new ways in which to use imaging for teaching basic sciences to medical students. The broad dissemination of picture archiving and communications systems is making such images readily available to medical schools, providing new opportunities for the incorporation of diagnostic imaging into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Current reforms in the medical curriculum and the establishment of new medical schools in the UK further underline the prospects for an expanding role for imaging in medical education. This article reviews the methods by which diagnostic imaging can be used to support the learning of anatomy and other basic sciences

  20. Ordering of diagnostic information in encoded medical images. Accuracy progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przelaskowski, A.; Jóźwiak, R.; Krzyżewski, T.; Wróblewska, A.

    2008-03-01

    A concept of diagnostic accuracy progression for embedded coding of medical images was presented. Implementation of JPEG2000 encoder with a modified PCRD optimization algorithm was realized and initially verified as a tool for accurate medical image streaming. Mean square error as a distortion measure was replaced by other numerical measures to revise quality progression according to diagnostic importance of successively encoded image information. A faster increment of image diagnostic importance during reconstruction of initial packets of code stream was reached. Modified Jasper code was initially tested on a set of mammograms containing clusters of microcalcifications and malignant masses, and other radiograms. Teleradiologic applications were considered as the first area of interests.

  1. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  2. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  3. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities

  4. The future of medical diagnostics: review paper

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jerjes, Waseem K

    2011-08-23

    Abstract While histopathology of excised tissue remains the gold standard for diagnosis, several new, non-invasive diagnostic techniques are being developed. They rely on physical and biochemical changes that precede and mirror malignant change within tissue. The basic principle involves simple optical techniques of tissue interrogation. Their accuracy, expressed as sensitivity and specificity, are reported in a number of studies suggests that they have a potential for cost effective, real-time, in situ diagnosis. We review the Third Scientific Meeting of the Head and Neck Optical Diagnostics Society held in Congress Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria on the 11th May 2011. For the first time the HNODS Annual Scientific Meeting was held in association with the International Photodynamic Association (IPA) and the European Platform for Photodynamic Medicine (EPPM). The aim was to enhance the interdisciplinary aspects of optical diagnostics and other photodynamic applications. The meeting included 2 sections: oral communication sessions running in parallel to the IPA programme and poster presentation sessions combined with the IPA and EPPM posters sessions.

  5. Sherlock Holmes's Methods of Deductive Reasoning Applied to Medical Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1985-01-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics. PMID:3887762

  6. Sherlock Holmes' methods of deductive reasoning applied to medical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L

    1985-03-01

    Having patterned the character of Sherlock Holmes after one of his professors, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, himself a physician, incorporated many of the didactic qualities of the 19th century medical diagnostician into the character of Holmes. In this paper I explore Holmes's techniques of deductive reasoning and their basis in 19th and 20th century medical diagnostics.

  7. Nuclear medical diagnostic with ventricular aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litter, H.

    1987-01-01

    In the diagnostic of ventricular aneurysms myocardial scintigraphy and above all radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) have special importance. Because of the non-invasive method and the as a result safe and easy use even with stress studies, RNV can provide a very valuable aid with aneurysm patients in early diagnosis, evaluation of the operability and as well as in the prognosis. It must be noted, however, that the differentiation of multivascular diseases and sometimes ventricular aneurysms can be difficult and the inclusion of an angiocardiograph as a radiological invasive examination procedure seems fitting. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Amphetamine poisoning in a dog: case report, literature review and veterinary medical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Sousa, Marlos G; Gerardi, Daniel G; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2003-12-01

    Amphetamine abuse in human beings has increased, resulting in many reports of toxicity and death. In the US over 4 million people have abused amphetamines at least once, thus small animals are exposed to increased accidental poisoning risk. This report describes an acute amphetamine poisoning in a dog due to ingestion of 15 mg/kg fenproporex, leading to typical signs of catecholamines release and effects in different organ systems. Similar clinical and laboratory findings observed in human beings are reviewed and physiopathogenic mechanisms discussed, as well as the therapeutic approaches available in veterinary medicine.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bovine Salmonella enterica isolates submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J R; Sethi, A K; Aulik, N A; Poulsen, K P

    2017-02-01

    Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr. Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained from the laboratory information management system at WVDL. Data from accessions were limited to bovine samples submitted to the WVDL between January 2006 and June 2015 and those that had both a definitive serotype and complete results for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 4,976 isolates were identified. Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin was the most prevalent serotype identified among bovine samples submitted to the WVDL, accounting for a total of 1,153 isolates (23% of total isolates) over the study period. Along with Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Cerro (795, 16%), Newport (720, 14%), Montevideo (421, 8%), Kentucky (419, 8%), and Typhimurium (202, 4%) comprised the top 6 most commonly isolated serotypes during that time. Overall, resistance of bovine Salmonella isolates in the study population remained stable, although decreases in resistance were noted for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole during the study period. All isolates remained susceptible to enrofloxacin. These data show that antimicrobial susceptibility for bovine Salmonella has changed in the population served by WVDL in the past 10 yr. This information is important for understanding Salmonella disease ecology in

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson Engels, S.

    1989-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence as a tool for tissue diagnostics is discussed. Both spectrally and time-resolved fluorescence signals are studied to optimize the demarcation of diseased lesions from normal tissue. The presentation is focused on two fields of application: the identification of malignant tumours and atherosclerotic plaques. Tissue autofluorescence as well as fluorescence from administered drugs have been utilized in diseased tissue diagnosis. The fluorescence criterion for tissue diagnosis is, as far as possible, chosen to be independent of unknown fluorescence parameters, which are not correlated to the type of tissue investigated. Both a dependence on biological parameters, such as light absorption in blood, and instrumental characteristics, such as excitation pulse fluctuations and detection geometry, can be minimized. Several chemical compounds have been studied in animal experiments after intraveneous injection to verify their capacity as malignant tumour marking drugs under laser excitation and fluorescence detection. Another objective of these studies was to improve our understanding of the mechanism and chemistry behind the retention of the various drugs in tissue. The properties of a chemical which maximize its selective retention in tumours are discussed. In order to utilize this diagnostic modality, three different clinically adapted sets of instrumentation have been developed and are presented. Two of the systems are nitrogen-laser-based fluorosensors; one is a point-monitoring system with full spectral resolution and the other one is an imaging system with up to four simultaneously recorded images in different spectral bands. The third system is a low-cost point-monitoring mercury-lamp-based fluoroscence emission as well as reflection characteristics of tissue. (author)

  11. Evaluation of doses from radiodiagnostic procedures performed in veterinary medicine and assessing of the doses of secondary radiation in the medical staff and animal owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, Glauco Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal in veterinary radiography is to produce radiographs of diagnostic quality on the first attempt. This goal serves three purposes: (1) to decrease radiation exposure to the patient and veterinary personnel; (2) to decrease the cost of the study for the client; and (3) to produce diagnostic data for rapid interpretation and treatment of the patient. This work aimed to determine the doses in dogs submitted to chest and abdomen X rays using the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. The radiation doses were assessed using thermoluminescent dosimeters of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO 4 :Dy) and lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti). The obtained results indicate that is extremely important the assessment of radiation doses involved in veterinary diagnostic radiology procedures, to evaluate the delivered doses to the animals, to be used as a parameter in the individual monitoring of pet's owners, who assist the animal positioning, and to protect occupationally exposed workers at the Veterinary Radiology Clinics. (author)

  12. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  13. Informing web-based communication curricula in veterinary education: a systematic review of web-based methods used for teaching and assessing clinical communication in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Toews, Lorraine; Violato, Claudio; Coe, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a post-test comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive,though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses.Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.

  14. Medical diagnostic laboratories provisioning of services in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahi Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diagnostic services have a very important role to play in medical decision-making, which have an impact on the nation′s health status. The understanding of Indian diagnostic services provisioning has certain literature gaps. Aims: This study focused on understanding the functioning of provision of diagnostic services by Indian diagnostic laboratories. Materials and Methods: Exploratory field visits and literature review were used as tools to understand the Indian health system. Results: Indian diagnostic laboratory can be classified into various categories based on the type of services provided and governance. The difference in their financing, resources, quality assurance of services and patient access to services was found in these different laboratories. Conclusions: It was concluded from the study that patient′s access to laboratory services is affected by the functioning of laboratories in terms of governance, financing, resources, quality assurance of services and patient services.

  15. The FAO/IAEA External Quality Assurance Programme (EQAP) and movement towards a generic veterinary diagnostic testing laboratory accreditation scheme. Report of an FAO/IAEA consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    FAO/IAEA support in the area of animal health is focused on enhancing the ability of regional reference laboratories and national veterinary authorities in developing countries to diagnose livestock diseases of major importance using nuclear and related technologies, and to help monitor the effectiveness of national and regional intervention strategies. This is done through provision of advice to the veterinary authorities concerning the development of appropriate sampling or research strategies coupled with FAO/IAEA-led collaborative development, adaptation, standardization, evaluation, and provision of quality-controlled enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and the components necessary for diagnostic application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Additional features of FAO/IAEA animal health support include provision of relevant laboratory equipment, training of counterpart scientists and technicians in the use of the equipment and standardized assays, and coordination of quality assurance (QA) programmes to monitor the proficiency of the assayists and help evaluate the impact of improved diagnostic capabilities. The current FAO/IAEA External Quality Assurance Programme (EQAP) for Animal Disease Diagnosis began as an effort to monitor the efficacy of mass vaccination programmes as part of the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC). Proficiency test panels, composed of 40 'unknown' serum samples, were sent to participating laboratories yearly to measure their abilities with ELISA in distinguishing between samples that were positive or negative for rinderpest antibodies. From this beginning, the EQAP has grown into an effort to measure general and specific components of FAO/IAEA counterparts' QA systems and provide assurance to outside observers that the use of FAO/IAEA diagnostic ELISA's are within established control limits and the test results and diagnostic interpretations are reliable. A major objective of the current EQAP is to

  16. The Use of Nanomaterials and Microfluidics in Medical Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Sun, Yi

    2018-01-01

    and manipulation of materials, systems, and devices at the nanometer scale. The development of nanomaterials and nano-devices can be classified into two general approaches. The top down approach deals exclusively with developing nanostructures through machining, templating and lithographic techniques and refers...... nanotechnology followed by a brief summary of bottom-up approaches to developing nanomaterials and their use in medical diagnostics. Then a discussion on the top-down approach will focus on nano-devices, methods for fabrication and the applications of these devices in medical diagnostics. The chapter will go...

  17. External dose estimation of the human associated with companion animals under veterinary nuclear medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Hanawa, Asumi; Suzuki, Kanan

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Well often used radionuclides ( 18 F and 99 mTc) were employed for evaluating the external radiation exposures of veterinarians, animal owners, and the public. The human external radiation exposure from radiation sources in phantom likened to animal was considered by comparing the results of computer simulation and the actually measured exposure. The computer simulation was performed by using macro program of Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). In this simulation calculation process, radiation absorption and buildup were taken into consideration with the gamma ray emitted from radioactive materials in the body of the animal. Both corresponded well though the simulation result tended to be overvalued from the actual measurement value. Therefore, it is thought that this system can be applied to the estimation of human's external exposure. When the calculation was done on the condition that the radioactive substance exists only in internal organs (heart, liver, kidneys, and bladder), the unequal distribution of the dose rate was found near the animal body. External radiation exposure estimation to the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public was performed under consideration of the actual working condition, the distance from the source, and the time of exposure. In the calculation, the radiation dose of the animal owner and the public did not exceed the dose limit (5 mSv/yr for the animal owner, and 1 mSv/yr for the general public: International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990) in the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. The calculation condition used in this study was actually more excessive. So the authors consider these exposures would cause no significant issue by starting the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Moreover, since injected radiopharmaceutical is excreted out of the body actually, the

  18. Diagnostic Medical Imaging in Pediatric Patients and Subsequent Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, David J; Jhawar, Sachin; Kostis, John B; Goyal, Sharad

    2017-11-01

    The use of diagnostic medical imaging is becoming increasingly more commonplace in the pediatric setting. However, many medical imaging modalities expose pediatric patients to ionizing radiation, which has been shown to increase the risk of cancer development in later life. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the available data regarding the risk of cancer development following exposure to ionizing radiation from diagnostic medical imaging. Attention is paid to modalities such as computed tomography scans and fluoroscopic procedures that can expose children to radiation doses orders of magnitude higher than standard diagnostic x-rays. Ongoing studies that seek to more precisely determine the relationship of diagnostic medical radiation in children and subsequent cancer development are discussed, as well as modern strategies to better quantify this risk. Finally, as cardiovascular imaging and intervention contribute substantially to medical radiation exposure, we discuss strategies to enhance radiation safety in these areas. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Interview with Medical Diagnostics Scientist Bernhard Weigl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Medical diagnostics help us evaluate a range of disorders, such as cancer and infectious diseases. In the United States and other developed countries, doctors have access to advanced equipment and laboratories that provide reliable diagnoses. As a result, when we are sick, we feel confident that we will get the treatment we need. Unfortunately,…

  20. An audit of diagnostic tests performed in medical microbiology, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical audit is an important tool for reviewing and improving the quality of service in clinical laboratories. This is a three year audit of diagnostic test carried out in Medical Microbiology and Immunology laboratories of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The objectives were to document and ...

  1. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)

  2. Osseous Metastase of Occult Paraganglioma: A Diagnostic Medical Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi TA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnostic errors have a natural complexity. Medical diagnoses make up a large proportion of all medical errors and cause much suffering and harm. Compared to other types of error, diagnostic errors receive little attention-a major factor in continuity of unacceptable rates of diagnostic error. Case: A 55-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of bone pain which has been started a month ago and increased gradually in the upper right thigh. Following the emergency evaluation she was sent home with pain medication. On the second visit, a femur neck fracture was seen in the x-ray. She underwent hemiarthroplasty and was discharged. Over several weeks she was reevaluated by many Physicians, because of her worsening pain .In the third visit after the surgery, her x-ray showed bone destruction and following bone biopsy, malignant paraganglioma was diagnosed. Discussion and solution: In all cases in which patient comes to us with skeletal pain, getting a comprehensive history and a full physical examination are prior to lab tests and x-rays. Bone metastasis which can develop severe pain and pathological fractures, is common in patients with malignant paraganglioma. Effective steps for diagnostic error prevention are: Considering the diagnostic error in the normal range of quality assurance surveillance and review, identifying the elements leading to diagnostic errors and getting feedback on the diagnoses Physicians make, in order to improve their skills. Conclusion: It is an every health system priority to identify, analyze, and prevent diagnostic errors in order to improve patient safety

  3. System theory in medical diagnostic devices: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baura, Gail D

    2006-01-01

    Medical diagnostics refers to testing conducted either in vitro or in vivo to provide critical health care information for risk assessment, early diagnosis, treatment, or disease management. Typical in vivo diagnostic tests include the computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, and blood pressure screening. Typical in vitro diagnostic tests include cholesterol, Papanicolaou smear, and conventional glucose monitoring tests. Historically, devices associated with both types of diagnostics have used heuristic curve fitting during signal analysis. However, since the early 1990s, a few enterprising engineers and physicians have used system theory to improve their core processing for feature detection and system identification. Current applications include automated Pap smear screening for detection of cervical cancer and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Future applications, such as disease prediction before symptom onset and drug treatment customization, have been catalyzed by the Human Genome Project.

  4. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  5. Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…

  6. Mosquito and Fly Surveillance and Control Research at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology: Solving Operational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mosquito and Fly Research Unit of the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology located in Gainesville Florida is the largest Federal laboratory devoted to specifically solving operational mosquito and fly surveillance and control challenges in the U.S. and internationa...

  7. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Teach Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy Using a Tru-Cut Needle for Veterinary and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Setin, Raíza; Fortes Cirimbelli, Carolina; Mazeto Ercolin, Anna Carolina; Pires, Sâmara Turbay; Disselli, Tamiris; Ferrarini Nunes Soares Hage, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of artisanal simulators to teach veterinary and medical students the ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy using a tru-cut needle. The artisanal simulators consisted of bovine liver between two layers of commercially available grape gelatin. Students were paired, with one doing the biopsy and…

  8. Medical and veterinary doctors, social scientists and agricultural researchers meet to carry forward the fight against cysticercosis, a neglected and fatal disease of the poor : to the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fifth general assembly meeting on cysticercosis/taeniosis was held at the Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo, Mozambique, from 11-13 October 2007. The meeting was organised by the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA in cooperation with the Medical and Veterinary Faculties of Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique and the WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark with support from DBL - Centre for Health Research and Development, Denmark, and the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Local support in Maputo was provided by Nestle, Medis Farmaceutica, Mcel and the Golden Travel Agency.

  9. Clinically Prepared Veterinary Students: Enhancing Veterinary Student Hands-on Experiences and Supporting Hospital Caseload Using Shelter Medicine Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Shivley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, however veterinary students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant, routine surgical and diagnostic skills to be clinically prepared after graduation. Exposure to a referral-only, or primarily referral caseload, does not always provide veterinary students with the routine hands-on experiences and competencies expected by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Australian Veterinary Boards Council, or prospective employers. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess how a shelter medicine program can fill the companion animal caseload gap and create the necessary hands-on experiences considered essential in the veterinary curriculum. Pedagogical frameworks, course curriculum and design, student experiences, and student assessments were described for three core curricular areas (surgery, medical days, population medicine of the Shelter Medicine Program at Mississippi State University. The shelter surgery experience provided a high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter environment where fourth-year students averaged 65 sterilization surgeries in two weeks and demonstrated a quantifiable decrease in surgical time. The shelter surgery experience added on average 9,000 small animal cases per year to the overall hospital caseload. Shelter medical days, where students provide veterinary care during on-site shelter visits, created opportunities for third-year students to directly interact with shelter animals by performing physical examinations and diagnostic testing, and to gain experience in developing treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. The shelter medical days experience averaged over 700 small animal cases per year and over 1,500 diagnostic procedures. Finally, students participated in 15 onsite shelter consultations where they obtained a working knowledge

  10. Clinically Prepared Veterinary Students: Enhancing Veterinary Student Hands-on Experiences and Supporting Hospital Caseload Using Shelter Medicine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivley, Jacob M; Brookshire, Wilson C; Bushby, Philip A; Woodruff, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, however veterinary students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant, routine surgical and diagnostic skills to be clinically prepared after graduation. Exposure to a referral-only, or primarily referral caseload, does not always provide veterinary students with the routine hands-on experiences and competencies expected by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Australian Veterinary Boards Council, or prospective employers. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess how a shelter medicine program can fill the companion animal caseload gap and create the necessary hands-on experiences considered essential in the veterinary curriculum. Pedagogical frameworks, course curriculum and design, student experiences, and student assessments were described for three core curricular areas (surgery, medical days, population medicine) of the Shelter Medicine Program at Mississippi State University. The shelter surgery experience provided a high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter environment where fourth-year students averaged 65 sterilization surgeries in two weeks and demonstrated a quantifiable decrease in surgical time. The shelter surgery experience added on average 9,000 small animal cases per year to the overall hospital caseload. Shelter medical days, where students provide veterinary care during on-site shelter visits, created opportunities for third-year students to directly interact with shelter animals by performing physical examinations and diagnostic testing, and to gain experience in developing treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. The shelter medical days experience averaged over 700 small animal cases per year and over 1,500 diagnostic procedures. Finally, students participated in 15 onsite shelter consultations where they obtained a working knowledge of biosecurity at a

  11. Exploring the use of tablet PCs in veterinary medical education: opportunity or obstacle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; van der Merwe, Deon

    2014-01-01

    A tablet PC is a laptop computer with a touch screen and a digital pen or stylus that can be used for handwritten notes and drawings. The use of tablet PCs has been investigated in many disciplines such as engineering, mathematics, science, and education. The purpose of this article is to explore student and faculty attitudes toward and experiences with tablet PCs 6 years after the implementation of a tablet PC program in the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at Kansas State University (K-State). This study reports that the use of tablet PCs has enhanced students' learning experiences through learner-interface interaction, learner-content interaction, learner-instructor interaction, and learner-learner interaction. This study also identifies digital distraction as the major negative experience with tablet PCs during class time. The tablet PC program provides CVM faculty the potential to pursue technology integration strategies that support expected learning outcomes and provides students the potential to develop self-monitoring and self-discipline skills that support learning with digital technologies.

  12. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  13. Awareness of "predatory" open-access journals among prospective veterinary and medical authors attending scientific writing workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authors face many choices when selecting a journal for publication. Prospective authors, especially trainees, may be unaware of predatory online journals or how to differentiate them from legitimate journals. In this study we assessed awareness of open-access and predatory journals among prospective authors attending scientific writing workshops; our long-term goal was to inform educational goals for the workshops. We surveyed participants of writing workshops at veterinary and medical schools and an international conference over a 1-year period. The survey included 14 statements for respondents to indicate agreement level on a Likert-like scale and four questions on awareness of resources about predatory journals; respondents also defined predatory journal. A total of 145 participants completed the survey: 106 (73.1% from veterinary schools and 86 (59.3% graduate students or residents. Fewer faculty (vs trainees agreed that open access was an important factor in deciding where to publish; faculty and postdoctoral researchers were more likely to expect to pay more to publish in an open-access journal. Most respondents (120/145, 82.7% agreed/strongly agreed that the decision to accept a manuscript should not be influenced by publication charges, but 50% (56/112 indicated they didn’t know how publishing costs were supported. Of the 142 respondents who answered, 33 (23.0% indicated awareness of the term predatory journal; 34 (23.9% were aware of the Directory of Open Access Journals; 24 (16.9% were aware of the Science sting article about predatory journals; and 7 (4.8% were aware of Beall’s list. Most (93/144, 64.5% definitions of predatory journals described poor but not predatory journal practices, and some respondents misunderstood the term completely. Mentors should help novice authors to be aware of predatory journals and to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate open-access journals, thus selecting the best journal for their

  14. Awareness of "Predatory" Open-Access Journals among Prospective Veterinary and Medical Authors Attending Scientific Writing Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M; Young, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Authors face many choices when selecting a journal for publication. Prospective authors, especially trainees, may be unaware of "predatory" online journals or how to differentiate them from legitimate journals. In this study, we assessed awareness of open-access and predatory journals among prospective authors attending scientific writing workshops; our long-term goal was to inform educational goals for the workshops. We surveyed participants of writing workshops at veterinary and medical schools and an international conference over a 1-year period. The survey included 14 statements for respondents to indicate agreement level on a Likert-like scale and four questions on awareness of resources about predatory journals; respondents also defined "predatory journal." A total of 145 participants completed the survey: 106 (73.1%) from veterinary schools and 86 (59.3%) graduate students or residents. Fewer faculty (vs trainees) agreed that open access was an important factor in deciding where to publish; faculty and postdoctoral researchers were more likely to expect to pay more to publish in an open-access journal. Most respondents (120/145, 82.7%) agreed/strongly agreed that the decision to accept a manuscript should not be influenced by publication charges, but 50% (56/112) indicated that they "didn't know" how publishing costs were supported. Of the 142 respondents who answered, 33 (23.0%) indicated awareness of the term "predatory journal"; 34 (23.9%) were aware of the Directory of Open Access Journals; 24 (16.9%) were aware of the Science "sting" article about predatory journals; and 7 (4.8%) were aware of Beall's list. Most (93/144, 64.5%) definitions of predatory journals described poor but not predatory journal practices, and some respondents misunderstood the term completely. Mentors should help novice authors to be aware of predatory journals and to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate open-access journals, thus selecting the best journal for their

  15. The evaluation of diagnostic medical exposures in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Klener, V.; Heribanova, A.; Husak, V.; Masopust, J.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys were performed in the Czech Republic to evaluate diagnostic medical exposures. The results are presented in 4 tables: (i) burden from the use of radiopharmaceuticals (examination, radiopharmaceutical, no. of procedures, average administered activity, conversion factor, collective effective dose); (ii) use of radiopharmaceuticals at nuclear medicine departments (type of examination, type of radiopharmaceutical, no. of departments, average administered activity); (iii) reference levels of administered activity specified for some diagnostic procedures for the adult patient (examination, radionuclide, chemical form, administered activity); and (iv) X-ray examinations (examination, annual no. of procedures, effective dose, age distribution, sex distribution). (P.A.)

  16. The study of practices in planed diagnostic medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Irina-Anca; Perju, Nicoleta Ana-Maria; Cobzeanu, Camelia

    2011-01-01

    The exposure of population to ionizing radiations in medical diagnostic purposes represents a planed exposure procedure, medically justified, having a direct impact on patient health state. A justification of exposure, with a result that can confirm a clinical diagnostic, implies further important steps in treatment decisions. Optimization in patients radiological protection is the result of observing the reference levels recommendations, which maintains a reasonable individual exposure to ionizing radiation in medical purpose. In this paper we investigated the justification of 4189 exposures of patients who underwent planed diagnostic medical investigation over 36 months in a radiological unit. The most frequent investigation concerned the spinal column in 38.3% of total exposures-mainly at lumbar level (63.0% and 24.1%, respectively of total number of exposures), followed by limb bones (20.6%) and thorax (26.9%). Justification of practices included: rheumatic pains in 45.8% of exposures followed by traumatic injuries (20.6%), pleural and pulmonary pathology (19.3%), malignant processes (12.3%), ear-nose-throat investigations (1.1%) and car accidents (0.9%). The females over 40 years old were the group with the highest number of medical exposures, with 54.5% of total practices. This study revealed that the number of medical exposures justification is almost equal with non-justified examinations, confirming a not so good correlation between clinical diagnostic and the required radiological investigation. The percentages of justified versus non-justified practices indicated by specialist physicians and general practitioners were slightly equal - 59.3% vs. 40.7%, 56.9% vs. 43.1%, respectively. The analysis of data concluded that either specialist/general physicians must evaluate more rigorously the patients and all clinical signs in order to reduce as reasonable as possible the non-justified medical exposures to ionizing radiations, and thus to avoid financial and

  17. Veterinary vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, P P

    1999-11-01

    Veterinary vaccinology is a very interesting and rapidly developing field. In fact veterinary vaccines are not only used for the prevention of infectious diseases in the animal health sector, but also help to solve problems of public health, to reduce detrimental environmental impact of the use of some veterinary drugs and prevent the emergence of resistance of micro-organisms or parasites. After a short introduction, this paper will deal with the use of vaccines for animal health and welfare, including new developments in the veterinary field such as marker vaccines and vectored vaccines, the special case of equine influenza-inactivated vaccines and the use of veterinary vaccines in public health. The conclusions will analyse the reasons as to why develop veterinary vaccines and the obstacles to their development.

  18. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Computational Diagnostic: A Novel Approach to View Medical Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, K. K. (Ketan Kirtiraj); Börner, K. (Katy)

    2007-01-01

    A transition from traditional paper-based medical records to electronic health record is largely underway. The use of electronic records offers tremendous potential to personalize patient diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we discuss a computational diagnostic tool that uses digital medical records to help doctors gain better insight about a patient's medical condition. The paper details different interactive features of the tool which offer potential to practice evidence-based medicine and advance patient diagnosis practices. The healthcare industry is a constantly evolving domain. Research from this domain is often translated into better understanding of different medical conditions. This new knowledge often contributes towards improved diagnosis and treatment solutions for patients. But the healthcare industry lags behind to seek immediate benefits of the new knowledge as it still adheres to the traditional paper-based approach to keep track of medical records. However recently we notice a drive that promotes a transition towards electronic health record (EHR). An EHR stores patient medical records in digital format and offers potential to replace the paper health records. Earlier attempts of an EHR replicated the paper layout on the screen, representation of medical history of a patient in a graphical time-series format, interactive visualization with 2D/3D generated images from an imaging device. But an EHR can be much more than just an 'electronic view' of the paper record or a collection of images from an imaging device. In this paper, we present an EHR called 'Computational Diagnostic Tool', that provides a novel computational approach to look at patient medical data. The developed EHR system is knowledge driven and acts as clinical decision support tool. The EHR tool provides two visual views of the medical data. Dynamic interaction with data is supported to help doctors practice evidence-based decisions and make judicious

  20. Medical pluralism and livestock health: ethnomedical and biomedical veterinary knowledge among East African agropastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudell, Mark A; Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Call, Douglas R

    2017-01-21

    Human and animal health are deeply intertwined in livestock dependent areas. Livestock health contributes to food security and can influence human health through the transmission of zoonotic diseases. In low-income countries diagnosis and treatment of livestock diseases is often carried out by household members who draw upon both ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) and contemporary veterinary biomedicine (VB). Expertise in these knowledge bases, along with their coexistence, informs treatment and thus ultimately impacts animal and human health. The aim of the current study was to determine how socio-cultural and ecological differences within and between two livestock-keeping populations, the Maasai of northern Tanzania and Koore of southwest Ethiopia, impact expertise in EVM and VB and coexistence of the two knowledge bases. An ethnoveterinary research project was conducted to examine dimensions of EVM and VB knowledge among the Maasai (N = 142 households) and the Koore (N = 100). Cultural consensus methods were used to quantify expertise and the level of agreement on EVM and VB knowledge. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model patterns of expertise and consensus across groups and to examine associations between knowledge and demographic/sociocultural attributes. Maasai and Koore informants displayed high consensus on EVM but only the Koore displayed consensus on VB knowledge. EVM expertise in the Koore varied across gender, herd size, and level of VB expertise. EVM expertise was highest in the Maasai but was only associated with age. The only factor associated with VB expertise was EVM expertise in the Koore. Variation in consensus and the correlates of expertise across the Maassi and the Koore are likely related to differences in the cultural transmission of EVM and VB knowledge. Transmission dynamics are established by the integration of livestock within the socioecological systems of the Maasai and Koore and culture historical experiences with

  1. Email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Barbara; Atherton, Helen; Sawmynaden, Prescilla; Car, Josip

    2012-08-15

    As medical care becomes more complex and the ability to test for conditions grows, pressure on healthcare providers to convey increasing volumes of test results to patients is driving investigation of alternative technological solutions for their delivery. This review addresses the use of email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients. To assess the effects of using email for communicating results of diagnostic medical investigations to patients, compared to SMS/ text messaging, telephone communication or usual care, on outcomes, including harms, for health professionals, patients and caregivers, and health services. We searched: the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1950 to January 2010), EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to January 2010), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (1967 to January 2010), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (1982 to February 2010), and ERIC (CSA) (1965 to January 2010). We searched grey literature: theses/dissertation repositories, trials registers and Google Scholar (searched July 2010). We used additional search methods: examining reference lists and contacting authors. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of interventions using email for communicating results of any diagnostic medical investigations to patients, and taking the form of 1) unsecured email 2) secure email or 3) web messaging. All healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers in all settings were considered. Two review authors independently assessed the titles and abstracts of retrieved citations. No studies were identified for inclusion. Consequently, no data collection or analysis was possible. No studies met the inclusion criteria, therefore there are no results to report on the use of email for communicating results of diagnostic medical

  2. [The diagnostic value of medical thoracoscopy for unexplained pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-juan; Mu, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Song; Su, Li-li; Ma, Wei-xia

    2013-05-01

    To explore the endoscopic features of patients with unexplained pleural effusion, and to evaluate the diagnostic value of medical thoracoscopy. A retrospective analysis of 2380 patients with unexplained pleural effusion (1320 males and 1060 females; age 15-94 years) in Shandong Provincial Hospital from 1992 to 2011 were performed .The diagnosis was confirmed by medical thoracoscopy. The endoscopic findings of malignant pleural effusion mostly showed nodules of varying sizes. The nodules could be grape-like, cauliflower-like, fused into masses, or diffused small nodules . The appearance of cancerous nodules was more diversified compared to tuberculous nodules. Tuberculous pleurisy was manifested as diffuse pleural congestion and miliary changes, multiple small gray-white nodules, fibrin deposition and adhesion in the pleural cavity, pleural thickening and loculation . The pathological diagnosis was as follows: pleural metastases in 899 (37.8%), primary pleural mesothelioma in 439 (18.4%), tuberculous pleurisy in 514 (21.6%), non-specific inflammation in 226 (9.5%), empyema in 190 (8.0%), hepatic pleural effusion in 36 (1.5%) and pleural effusion of unknown causes in 76 (3.2%) cases. The diagnostic positive rate of medical thoracoscopy was 96.8%. No serious complications were observed. Medical thoracoscopy is a relatively safe procedure and has an important application value in the diagnosis of unexplained pleural effusion.

  3. Nordic working group for medical x-ray diagnostics: Diagnostic reference levels within xray diagnostics - experiences in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, W.; Groen, P.; Servomaa, A.; Einarsson, G.; Olerud, H.

    2003-01-01

    Medical x-ray diagnostics is one of the few applications of ionising radiation where people are irradiated on purpose. The strategy for radiation protection is also different compared to that in other areas that have the zero-alternative as its ultimate goal, meaning that no human beings at all are exposed in these practices. The focus in x-ray diagnostics concerning radiation protection is justification and optimisation. Optimisation implies that the examination is performed in such a way that the radiation dose is as small as possible without jeopardising the diagnostic security. X- ray diagnostics is a complex method where many technical parameters and methodology factors together are interacting in the determination of radiation dose and image quality. The optimisation process is not a simple and uncomplicated procedure, this difficulty is reflected in many international and national surveys showing a large spread of patient doses for one and the same type of examination. The concept diagnostic reference levels (DRL) has been introduced as a tool for reducing this wide distribution that is obviously indicating a lack of optimisation, and for cutting the highest radiation doses. In this presentation the concept for DRL and the experience gained in the Nordic countries with DRL are described. (orig.)

  4. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for diagnostic radiology. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists based in the clinical setting. However, an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia-Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specializing in diagnostic radiology started in 2007 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experiences of clinical training programmes in Australia and New Zealand, the UK and the USA, and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. This publication follows the approach of the IAEA publication Training Course Series No. 37, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists specializing in Radiation Oncology. This approach to clinical training has been successfully tested

  5. Teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, A

    1994-08-01

    The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.

  6. Tacit knowledge and visual expertise in medical diagnostic reasoning: implications for medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much education--especially at the university level--has been criticized for having primarily dealt with explicit knowledge, i.e. those aspects of mental activities, which are verbal and conscious. Furthermore, research in medical diagnostic reasoning has been criticized for having...... focused on the specialty of intern medicine, while specialties with other skills, i.e. perceptive skills within pathology and radiology, have been ignored. AIMS: To show that the concept of tacit knowledge is important in medical education-at all levels and in medical diagnostic reasoning. METHODS...... such as "non-analytical reasoning" and "dual process of reasoning." CONCLUSION: It is important that educators are trained in how explicit and implicit knowledge is attained and that tacit knowledge is included in educational programmes of all medical specialties....

  7. Perspectives on academic veterinary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S

    2001-09-15

    It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.

  8. Building the pipeline: programs to introduce middle school, high school, medical, and veterinary students to careers in epidemiology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Ralph L; Cordeira, Kelly L; Cohen, Laurence P; Bensyl, Diana M

    2017-11-01

    This report describes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention programs that expose students to epidemiology and public health sciences (EPHS). The Science Ambassador workshop targets middle and high school teachers and promotes teaching EPHS in the classroom. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event is an extracurricular science competition for middle and high school students based on investigations of outbreaks and other public health problems. The Epidemiology Elective Program provides experiential learning activities for veterinary and medical students. As of 2016, 234 teachers from 37 states and territories and three other countries participated in SA workshops. Several are teaching units or entire courses in EPHS. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event exposed approximately 15,000 middle and high school students to EPHS during the 2015-2016 school year. The Epidemiology Elective Program has exposed 1,795 veterinary and medical students to EPHS. Students can master fundamental concepts of EPHS as early as middle school and educators are finding ways to introduce this material into their classrooms. Programs to introduce veterinary and medical students to EPHS can help fill the gap in exposing older students to the field. Professional organizations can assist by making their members aware of these programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  10. A Clinical Pharmacology Course for Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy

    1983-01-01

    A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)

  11. Radiation doses from medical diagnostic procedures in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, J E; Lentle, B C; Vo, C [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    This document sets out to record and analyze the doses incurred in Canada from medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation in a typical year. Excluded are those doses incurred during therapeutic irradiation, since they differ in scale to such a large degree and because they are used almost exclusively in treating cancer. In this we are following a precedent set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) notes that dose limits should not be applied to medical exposures, it also observes that doses in different settings for the same procedure may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, and that there are considerable opportunities for dose reductions in diagnostic radiology. Because these data do not stand in isolation the report also encompasses a review of the relevant literature and some background comment on the evolving technology of the radiological sciences. Because there is a somewhat incomplete perception of the changes taking place in diagnostic methods we have also provided some introductory explanations of the relevant technologies. In addition, there is an analysis of at least some of the limitations on the completeness of the data which are reported here. (author).

  12. Radiation doses from medical diagnostic procedures in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, J.E.; Lentle, B.C.; Vo, C.

    1997-03-01

    This document sets out to record and analyze the doses incurred in Canada from medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation in a typical year. Excluded are those doses incurred during therapeutic irradiation, since they differ in scale to such a large degree and because they are used almost exclusively in treating cancer. In this we are following a precedent set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) notes that dose limits should not be applied to medical exposures, it also observes that doses in different settings for the same procedure may vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, and that there are considerable opportunities for dose reductions in diagnostic radiology. Because these data do not stand in isolation the report also encompasses a review of the relevant literature and some background comment on the evolving technology of the radiological sciences. Because there is a somewhat incomplete perception of the changes taking place in diagnostic methods we have also provided some introductory explanations of the relevant technologies. In addition, there is an analysis of at least some of the limitations on the completeness of the data which are reported here. (author)

  13. How 3D immersive visualization is changing medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Anton H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Originally the only way to look inside the human body without opening it up was by means of two dimensional (2D) images obtained using X-ray equipment. The fact that human anatomy is inherently three dimensional leads to ambiguities in interpretation and problems of occlusion. Three dimensional (3D) imaging modalities such as CT, MRI and 3D ultrasound remove these drawbacks and are now part of routine medical care. While most hospitals 'have gone digital', meaning that the images are no longer printed on film, they are still being viewed on 2D screens. However, this way valuable depth information is lost, and some interactions become unnecessarily complex or even unfeasible. Using a virtual reality (VR) system to present volumetric data means that depth information is presented to the viewer and 3D interaction is made possible. At the Erasmus MC we have developed V-Scope, an immersive volume visualization system for visualizing a variety of (bio-)medical volumetric datasets, ranging from 3D ultrasound, via CT and MRI, to confocal microscopy, OPT and 3D electron-microscopy data. In this talk we will address the advantages of such a system for both medical diagnostics as well as for (bio)medical research.

  14. Medical thoracoscopy: a useful diagnostic tool for undiagnosed pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Prasad, Rajendra; Garg, Rajiv; Verma, S K; Singh, Abhijeet; Husain, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess the role of medical thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Patiens presenting with pleural effusion underwent three pleural aspirations. Patients in whom pleural fluid analysis was inconclusive underwent closed pleural biopsy for diagnostic confirmation. Patients in whom closed pleural biopsy was incolcusive underwent medical thoracoscopy using a rigid thoracoscope with a viewing angle of zero degrees was done under local anaesthesia and sedation with the patient lying in lateral decubitus position with the affected side up. Biopsy specimens from parietal pleura were obtained under direct vision and were sent for histopathological examination. Of the 128 patients with pleural effusion who were studied, pleural fluid examination established the diagnosis in 81 (malignancy 33, tuberculosis 33, pyogenic 14 and fungal 1); 47 patients underwent closed pleural biopsy and a diagnosis was made in 28 patients (malignancy 24, tuberculosis 4). The remaining 19 patients underwent medical thoracoscopy and pleural biopsy and the aetiological diagnosis could be confirmed in 13 of the 19 patients (69%) (adenocarcinoma 10, poorly differentiated carcinoma 2 and mesothelioma 1). Medical thoracoscopy is a useful tool for the diagnosis of pleural diseases. The procedure is safe with minimal complications.

  15. Tacit knowledge and visual expertise in medical diagnostic reasoning: implications for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan

    2008-01-01

    Much education--especially at the university level--has been criticized for having primarily dealt with explicit knowledge, i.e. those aspects of mental activities, which are verbal and conscious. Furthermore, research in medical diagnostic reasoning has been criticized for having focused on the specialty of intern medicine, while specialties with other skills, i.e. perceptive skills within pathology and radiology, have been ignored. To show that the concept of tacit knowledge is important in medical education-at all levels and in medical diagnostic reasoning. Describing how tacit knowledge according to Michael Polany, is experienced and expressed in day-to-day life, it is shown that there is a tacit dimension to all knowledge. Reviewing recent literature on medical diagnostic reasoning, it is shown that tacit knowledge is recognized in connection with concepts such as "non-analytical reasoning" and "dual process of reasoning." It is important that educators are trained in how explicit and implicit knowledge is attained and that tacit knowledge is included in educational programmes of all medical specialties.

  16. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria ..... between L2 and R) anesthetic risks and additional costs were ... prevalent worldwide problem (Toni et al.,. 2013). Paunknis and ... correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than .... Veterinary Medical Association. 207:12.

  17. Are diagnostic criteria for eating disorders markers of medical severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Rebecka; Hardy, Kristina K; Wilson, Jenny L; Lock, James D

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the medical severity of adolescents who had eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) with those who had anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Medical records of 1310 females aged 8 through 19 years and treated for AN, BN, or EDNOS were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with EDNOS were subcategorized into partial AN (pAN) and partial BN (pBN) when they met all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria but 1 for AN or BN, respectively. Primary outcome variables were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, temperature, and QTc interval on electrocardiogram. Additional physiologically significant medical complications were also reviewed. A total of 25.2% of females had AN, 12.4% had BN, and 62.4% had EDNOS. The medical severity of patients with EDNOS was intermediate to that of patients with AN and BN in all primary outcomes. Patients with pAN had significantly higher heart rates, systolic blood pressures, and temperatures than those with AN; patients with pBN did not differ significantly from those with BN in any primary outcome variable; however, patients with pAN and pBN differed significantly from each other in all outcome variables. Patients with pBN and BN had longer QTc intervals and higher rates of additional medical complications reported at presentation than other groups. EDNOS is a medically heterogeneous category with serious physiologic sequelae in children and adolescents. Broadening AN and BN criteria in pediatric patients to include pAN and pBN may prove to be clinically useful.

  18. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  19. 75 FR 31745 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...] Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories... collection associated with the National Veterinary Services Laboratories animal health diagnostic system...: For information on request forms associated with the National Veterinary Services Laboratories animal...

  20. In-phantom spectrometry of medical diagnostic x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansbury, P.S.

    1977-10-01

    A program of measurements was made to determine the spectral fluence distributions at locations of significance in a heterogeneous, hominoid phantom exposed to x rays in a manner simulating medical diagnostic radiology. The measurements were made with a specially constructed NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The detector had a spherically shaped active volume 0.6 cm in diameter. The resolution of this detector was five times worse than that of a more conventional NaI(Tl) spectrometer. Resolution broadening and other distortions were removed from the observed pulse height spectra with a computer-coded, iterative unfolding technique. The performance of the spectrometer and the unfolding scheme was assessed by comparing, in a few cases, the unfolded NaI(Tl) spectra with spectra determined with a high resolution Ge(Li) spectrometer. The measurements were made in a physical model of an idealized representation of an average adult patient

  1. X-ray medical diagnostics and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsenova, T.; Chobanova, N.; Pavlova, A; Bajrakova, A.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical epidemiological study for assessment of X-ray medical diagnosis as a risk factor for thyroid cancer (TC) has been carried out. The data from the investigation of 90 TC cases and 180 controls matched by sex and age are used. The risk assessment is based on the distribution of investigated persons according to thyroid gland irradiation (as an equivalent dose cumulated from the procedures) and the number of different procedures of organs and systems. There is a significantly increased risk for TC from diagnostic lung examinations; fluoroscopy (OR=3.49, 95% CI=1.66±7.39, p=0.0002) and radiography (OR=2.48, 95% CI=1.05±5.86, p=0.02) (author)

  2. In-phantom spectrometry of medical diagnostic x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansbury, P. S.

    1977-10-01

    A program of measurements was made to determine the spectral fluence distributions at locations of significance in a heterogeneous, hominoid phantom exposed to x rays in a manner simulating medical diagnostic radiology. The measurements were made with a specially constructed NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The detector had a spherically shaped active volume 0.6 cm in diameter. The resolution of this detector was five times worse than that of a more conventional NaI(Tl) spectrometer. Resolution broadening and other distortions were removed from the observed pulse height spectra with a computer-coded, iterative unfolding technique. The performance of the spectrometer and the unfolding scheme was assessed by comparing, in a few cases, the unfolded NaI(Tl) spectra with spectra determined with a high resolution Ge(Li) spectrometer. The measurements were made in a physical model of an idealized representation of an average adult patient.

  3. Analysis of errors during medical and computerized diagnostics of spherical lung neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozmogov, A.I.; Petruk, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons for errors in medical and computerized diagnostics of spherical lung neoplasms are studied based on material of 212 case records and clinicoroentgenological data; it should promote improvement of their diagnostics

  4. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, Michel [Faculty of Medicine of Paris, Deputy Director General, Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  5. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  6. The future of novel diagnostics in medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Fernando; Seixas, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Several fungal diseases have become serious threats to human health and life, especially upon the advent of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS epidemics and of other typical immunosuppressive conditions of modern life. Accordingly, the burden posed by these diseases and, concurrently, by intensive therapeutic regimens against these diseases has increased worldwide. Existing and available rapid tests for point-of-care diagnosis of important fungal diseases could enable the limitations of current laboratory methods for detection and identification of medically important fungi to be surpassed, both in low-income countries and for first-line diagnosis (screening) in richer countries. As with conventional diagnostic methods and devices, former immunodiagnostics have been challenged by molecular biology-based platforms, as a way to enhance the sensitivity and shorten the assay time, thus enabling early and more accurate diagnosis. Most of these tests have been developed in-house, without adequate validation and standardization. Another challenge has been the DNA extraction step, which is especially critical when dealing with fungi. In this paper, we have identified three major research trends in this field: (1) the application of newer biorecognition techniques, often applied in analytical chemistry; (2) the development of new materials with improved physico-chemical properties; and (3) novel bioanalytical platforms, allowing fully automated testing. Keeping up to date with the fast technological advances registered in this field, primarily at the proof-of-concept level, is essential for wise assessment of those that are likely to be more cost effective and, as already observed for bacterial and viral pathogens, may provide leverage to the current tepid developmental status of novel and improved diagnostics for medical mycology. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Photoionization sensors for non-invasive medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Khobnya, Kristina; Podenko, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of biomarkers can help to identify the significant number of diseases: lung cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, high levels of stress, psychosomatic disorders etc. To implement continuous monitoring of the state of human health, compact VUV photoionization detector with current-voltage measurement is designed by Saint-Petersburg Mining University Plasma Research Group. This sensor is based on the patented method of stabilization of electric parameters - CES (Collisional Electron Spectroscopy). During the operation at atmospheric pressure VUV photoionization sensor measures the energy of electrons, produced in the ionization with the resonance photons, whose wavelength situated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). A special software was developed to obtain the second-order derivative of the I-U characteristics, taken by the VUV sensor, to construct the energy spectra of the characteristic electrons. VUV photoionization detector has an unique set of parameters: small size (10*10*1 mm), low cost, wide range of recognizable molecules, as well as accuracy, sufficient for using this instrument for the medical purposes. This device can be used for non-invasive medical diagnostics without compromising the quality of life, for control of environment and human life. Work supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology.

  8. Design of portable ultraminiature flow cytometers for medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James F.

    2018-02-01

    Design of portable microfluidic flow/image cytometry devices for measurements in the field (e.g. initial medical diagnostics) requires careful design in terms of power requirements and weight to allow for realistic portability. True portability with high-throughput microfluidic systems also requires sampling systems without the need for sheath hydrodynamic focusing both to avoid the need for sheath fluid and to enable higher volumes of actual sample, rather than sheath/sample combinations. Weight/power requirements dictate use of super-bright LEDs with top-hat excitation beam architectures and very small silicon photodiodes or nanophotonic sensors that can both be powered by small batteries. Signal-to-noise characteristics can be greatly improved by appropriately pulsing the LED excitation sources and sampling and subtracting noise in between excitation pulses. Microfluidic cytometry also requires judicious use of small sample volumes and appropriate statistical sampling by microfluidic cytometry or imaging for adequate statistical significance to permit real-time (typically in less than 15 minutes) initial medical decisions for patients in the field. This is not something conventional cytometry traditionally worries about, but is very important for development of small, portable microfluidic devices with small-volume throughputs. It also provides a more reasonable alternative to conventional tubes of blood when sampling geriatric and newborn patients for whom a conventional peripheral blood draw can be problematical. Instead one or two drops of blood obtained by pin-prick should be able to provide statistically meaningful results for use in making real-time medical decisions without the need for blood fractionation, which is not realistic in the doctor's office or field.

  9. USE OF A NOVEL BOARD GAME IN A CLINICAL ROTATION FOR LEARNING THORACIC DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES IN VETERINARY MEDICAL IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    When confronted with various findings on thoracic radiographs, fourth-year veterinary students often have difficulty generating appropriate lists of differential diagnoses. The purpose of this one-group, pretest, posttest experimental study was to determine if a game could be used as an adjunct teaching method to improve students' understanding of connections between imaging findings and differential diagnoses. A novel board game focusing on differential diagnoses in thoracic radiography was developed. One hundred fourth-year veterinary students took a brief pretest, played the board game, and took a brief posttest as a part of their respective clinical radiology rotations. Pretest results were compared to posttest results using a paired t-test to determine if playing the game impacted student understanding. Students' mean scores on the posttest were significantly higher than mean pretest scores (P game resulted in improved short-term understanding of thoracic differential diagnoses by fourth-year students, and use of the board game on a clinical rotation seems to be a beneficial part of the learning process. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Veterinary radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)

  11. The association between submission counts to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory and the economic and disease challenges of the Ontario swine industry from 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, T; Friendship, R; Pearl, D L; McEwen, B; Ker, A; Dewey, C

    2012-10-01

    An intuitive assumption is to believe that the number of submissions made to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory is dictated by the financial state of the industries using the laboratory. However, no research is available to document how the economics of a food animal industry affects laboratory submissions and therefore disease monitoring and surveillance efforts. The objective of this study was to determine if economic indices associated with the Ontario swine industry can account for the variability seen in these submissions. Retrospective swine submissions made to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario from January 1998 to July 2009 were compiled. The following economic, demographic, and health variables impacting Ontario swine production were selected for analysis: auction price, lean-hog futures, currency exchange rate, price of corn, an outbreak of porcine circovirus type-2 associated diseases (PCVAD), government incentive program, number of farms in province, and average farm size. All independent variables identified by unconditional associations to have a significance of P≤0.2 with the outcome of monthly submission count were included in a multivariable negative binomial model. A final model was identified by a backwards elimination procedure. A total of 30,432 swine submissions were recorded. The mean frequency of monthly submissions over 139 months was 212.9 (SD=56.0). After controlling for farm size, the number of pigs in Ontario, higher submission counts were associated with a weaker CAD$ versus US$, higher auction prices, and a PCVAD outbreak (Pvolatility and disease outbreaks in the Ontario swine industry drive submissions to the laboratory. In conclusion, lab submissions are a useful source of animal health data for disease surveillance; however, surveillance activities should also monitor the economics of the industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Medical radiation exposure and usage for diagnostic radiology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Rassiah, Premavathy; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Wang, Hwee-Beng; Shariff Hambali, Ahmad; Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany; Sivalingam, S.

    2001-01-01

    A national dose survey of routine X-ray examinations in Malaysia (a Level II country) from 1993 to 1995 had established baseline data for seven common types of x-ray examinations. A total of 12 randomly selected public hospitals and 867 patients were included in this survey. Survey results are generally comparable with those reported in the UK, USA and IAEA. The findings support the importance of the ongoing national quality assurance programme to ensure doses are kept to a level consistent with optimum image quality. The data was useful in the formulation of national guidance levels as recommended by the IAEA. The medical radiation exposure and usage for diagnostic radiology (1990-1994) enabled a comparison to be made for the first time with the UNSCEAR 2000 Report. In 1994, the number of physicians, radiologists, x-ray units and x-ray examinations per 1000 population was 0.45, 0.005, 0.065 and 183, respectively; 3.6 million x-ray examinations were performed; the annual effective dose per capita was 0.05 mSv and collective dose was 1000 person-Sv. Chest examinations contributed 63% of the total. Almost all examinations experienced increasing frequency except for barium studies, cholecystography, and intravenous urography (-23%, -36%, -51%). Notable increases were observed in computed tomography (161%), cardiac procedures (190%), and mammography (240%). (author)

  13. Diagnostic image quality of mammograms in German outpatient medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfandzelter, R.; Wuelfing, U.; Boedeker, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A total of 79 115 mammograms from statutory health insurance (SHI) physicians within German outpatient care were evaluated with respect to the diagnostic image quality. Materials and Methods: Mammograms were randomly selected between 2006 and 2008 by the regional Associations of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians and submitted to regional boards of experts for external evaluation. The mammogram quality was evaluated using a 3-point scale (adequate, borderline, failure) and documented using a nationally standardized protocol. Results: 87.6 % of the mammograms were classified as adequate, 11.0 % as borderline and 1.4 % as failure. Mediolateral oblique mammograms (mlo) had worse ratings than craniocaudal mammograms (cc). Main reasons for classifying the mammograms as borderline or failure were 'inframammary fold not adequately visualized' (mlo), 'pectoral muscle not in the correct angle or not to the level with the nipple' (mlo), 'the nipple not in profile' (mlo, cc) and 'breast not completely or not adequately visualized' (cc). Conclusion: The results show a good overall quality of mammograms in German outpatient medical care. Failures can be associated predominantly with incorrect positioning of the breast. More precisely defined quality criteria using objective measures are recommended, especially for craniocaudal mammograms (cc). (orig.)

  14. Janis Huston Audin, MSc, DVM,1950-2009. Dynamic editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association and strong One Health advocate dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kaplan, DVM

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Dr Janis H. Audin (MSc Illinois 1975, DVM Illinois 1979, a champion of progressive veterinary medical journalism and ‘One Health’ died on 22 April 2009 following a long, courageous and difficult battle with pancreatic cancer. The world has lost a truly significant One Health leader and advocate. Under her guidance, the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA implemented a ‘one-health wonders’ column that recognised and highlighted prominent One Health individuals among the medical and veterinary medical professions in the United States. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA has lost a dedicated and gifted editor-in-chief.Dr Audin joined the editorial staff of the AVMA in 1985, as an assistant editor and was promoted to associate editor in 1989 and editor in 1994. She became the editor-in-chief of both the JAVMA and the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 1995. Prior to that, Dr Audin practised as an associate veterinarian in Calumet City, Illinois, for four years.During her tenure, Dr Audin was noted for implementing procedural and technological changes in the journal to reduce costs, improve timeliness of publications and promote readership interest and awareness. New features in the News section introduced under her leadership have made the journals more practical and public health-relevant. For instance, Dr Audin fostered the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS ‘Inspection Insights’ - a public health-oriented food safety monthly column related to meat, poultry and egg products - from 1996 through 1998. She also increased international manuscript submissions.On 23 March 2009 AVMA Executive Vice President Dr W. Ron DeHaven named Dr Audin as editor-in-chief emeritus of the Publications Division. Wisely, it also meant that Dr Audin could continue contributing to the staff effort to ensure the high quality of the AVMA scientific journals

  15. Cancer among medical diagnostic x-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.X.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Li, B.X.; Zhang, J.Y.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Cancer incidence among 27,011 diagnostic x-ray workers was compared to that of 25,782 other medical specialists employed between 1950 and 1980 in China. X-ray workers had a 50% higher risk of developing cancer than the other specialists [relative risk (RR) = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.3-1.7]. Leukemia was strongly linked to radiation work (RR = 3.5, n = 30). Cancers of the breast (RR = 1.4, n = 11), thyroid (RR = 2.1, n = 7), and skin (RR = 1.5, n = 6) were increased among x-ray workers employed for 10 or more years. High risks of cancers of the esophagus (RR = 3.5, n = 15) and liver (RR = 2.4, n = 48) were not consistent with a radiation effect since risk did not vary by duration of employment. This finding suggested that some differences might exist between groups of hospital workers in social class, alcohol intake, dietary habits, and other risk factors. No excess lung cancer (RR = 0.9, n = 22) or multiple myeloma (n = 0) was observed. Significant excesses of leukemia and cancers of the breast and thyroid occurred among x-ray workers first employed prior to 1960 when radiation exposures in China were high. In fact, it was not uncommon for employees to be given time off from x-ray work because their wbc count was severely depressed. These data indicated that repeated exposure to x-rays over many years can increase the risk of leukemia and several other tumors but apparently not that of lung cancer

  16. Study of the Levels of Human-Human and Human-Animal Empathy in Veterinary Medical Students from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Amor, Javiera; Luna-Fernández, Daniela; Tadich, Tamara

    Social relationships are based on our ability to put ourselves in the place of others, and from there to react appropriately and logically. This empathic ability can be extended to other species, based on the human ability to develop techniques to understand and communicate with animals. In education, the benefits of training professionals with ethical and empathic tools are known. Gender, diet, past experiences, and other factors can modify a person's levels of empathy toward humans and animals, and a relationship exists between both types of empathy. The aims of this study were to investigate some determinants of the level of empathy and to gain insight into the possible correlation between human-animal and human-human empathy. For this, the Animal Empathy Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index by Davis were applied through an electronic survey system to freshmen and final-year students (n=452) from five schools of veterinary medicine in Chile. The correlation between the empathy scores of both instruments and their association with individual factors were studied using Spearman's correlation, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results suggest that both instruments correlate significantly, and that gender, year of study, diet, and area of interest have a significant association with the score for empathy toward animals. This research shows that individual characteristics and changes that occur during veterinary training can affect students' attitudes toward animals.

  17. Improving Dairy Organizational Communication from the Veterinarian's Perspective: Results of a Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A; Sischo, William M; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D; Pereira, Richard V; Warnick, Lorin D; Davis, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary-client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a "communication audit." The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training.

  18. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Molecular diagnostics: the changing culture of medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullman, Susan; Lucey, Brigid; Sleator, Roy D

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic molecular biology is arguably the fastest growing area in current laboratory-based medicine. Growth of the so called 'omics' technologies has, over the last decade, led to a gradual migration away from the 'one test, one pathogen' paradigm, toward multiplex approaches to infectious disease diagnosis, which have led to significant improvements in clinical diagnostics and ultimately improved patient care.

  20. Veterinary School Applicants: Financial Literacy and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.

  1. Needlestick injuries in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C

    2008-08-01

    Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.

  2. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    ¹Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ABU Zaria, Nigeria, ²Department of. Veterinary Physiology ... dogs, AGRs have a highly sensitive sense of smell. The rats ..... Gonadal Axis and thyroid Activity in. Male rats.

  3. Veterinary and human medicine: learning from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Laura

    2016-03-26

    A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.

  5. Survey of the prevalence and methodology of quality assurance for B-mode ultrasound image quality among veterinary sonographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheit, Larry P; Heng, Hock Gan; Lim, Chee Kin; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    Image quality in B-mode ultrasound is important as it reflects the diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic information provided during clinical scanning. Quality assurance programs for B-mode ultrasound systems/components are comprised of initial quality acceptance testing and subsequent regularly scheduled quality control testing. The importance of quality assurance programs for B-mode ultrasound image quality using ultrasound phantoms is well documented in the human medical and medical physics literature. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional, survey study was to determine the prevalence and methodology of quality acceptance testing and quality control testing of image quality for ultrasound system/components among veterinary sonographers. An online electronic survey was sent to 1497 members of veterinary imaging organizations: the American College of Veterinary Radiology, the Veterinary Ultrasound Society, and the European Association of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging, and a total of 167 responses were received. The results showed that the percentages of veterinary sonographers performing quality acceptance testing and quality control testing are 42% (64/151; 95% confidence interval 34-52%) and 26% (40/156: 95% confidence interval 19-33%) respectively. Of the respondents who claimed to have quality acceptance testing or quality control testing of image quality in place for their ultrasound system/components, 0% have performed quality acceptance testing or quality control testing correctly (quality acceptance testing 95% confidence interval: 0-6%, quality control testing 95% confidence interval: 0-11%). Further education and guidelines are recommended for veterinary sonographers in the area of quality acceptance testing and quality control testing for B-mode ultrasound equipment/components. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Exploring the Case for a Global Alliance for Medical Diagnostics Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Mugambi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the private and public sectors have increased investments in medical diagnostics for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Despite these investments, numerous barriers prevent the adoption of existing diagnostics and discourage the development and introduction of new diagnostics in LMICs. In the late 1990s, the global vaccine community had similar challenges, as vaccine coverage rates stagnated and the introduction of new vaccines was viewed as a distraction to delivering existing vaccines. To address these challenges, the international community came together and formed the Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI. Sixteen years after the formation of GAVI, we see evidence of a healthier global vaccine landscape. We discuss how GAVI’s four guiding principles (product, health systems strengthening, financing and market shaping might apply to the advancement of medical diagnostics in LMICs. We present arguments for the international community and existing organizations to establish a Global Alliance for Medical Diagnostics Initiative (GAMDI.

  7. Molecular diagnostics in medical microbiology: yesterday, today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex

    2003-10-01

    Clinical microbiology is clearly on the move, and various new diagnostic technologies have been introduced into laboratory practice over the past few decades. However, Henri D Isenberg recently stated that molecular biology techniques promised to revolutionise the diagnosis of infectious disease, but that, to date, this promise is still in its infancy. Molecular diagnostics have now surpassed these early stages and have definitely reached puberty. Currently, a second generation of automated molecular approaches is already within the microbiologists' reach. Quantitative amplification tests in combination with genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related methodologies will pave the way to further enhancement of innovative microbial detection and identification.

  8. Medical X-ray techniques in diagnostic radiography. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaats, G.J. van der; Vijlbrief, P.

    1980-01-01

    A step by step account is given of every aspect of the technical factors involved in the production of X-ray images. Chapter titles include, methods of image formation and laws of projection, sharpness and unsharpness, contrast, perceptibility of detail in the radiographic image-image quality, properties of fluoroscopic screens, radiographic films, intensifying screens and cassettes, image intensification and X-ray television, processing technique, fluoroscopy and radiographic technique in general, special radiographic techniques, radiographic examinations using contrast media, exposure and exposure tables and automatic density control, diagnostic X-ray apparatus, and diagnostic stands and accessories. (C.F.)

  9. Statistical physics of medical diagnostics: Study of a probabilistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaghi, Alireza; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl

    2018-03-01

    We study a diagnostic strategy which is based on the anticipation of the diagnostic process by simulation of the dynamical process starting from the initial findings. We show that such a strategy could result in more accurate diagnoses compared to a strategy that is solely based on the direct implications of the initial observations. We demonstrate this by employing the mean-field approximation of statistical physics to compute the posterior disease probabilities for a given subset of observed signs (symptoms) in a probabilistic model of signs and diseases. A Monte Carlo optimization algorithm is then used to maximize an objective function of the sequence of observations, which favors the more decisive observations resulting in more polarized disease probabilities. We see how the observed signs change the nature of the macroscopic (Gibbs) states of the sign and disease probability distributions. The structure of these macroscopic states in the configuration space of the variables affects the quality of any approximate inference algorithm (so the diagnostic performance) which tries to estimate the sign-disease marginal probabilities. In particular, we find that the simulation (or extrapolation) of the diagnostic process is helpful when the disease landscape is not trivial and the system undergoes a phase transition to an ordered phase.

  10. Diagnostic Error in Medical Education: Where Wrongs Can Make Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines diagnostic error from an educational perspective. Rather than addressing the question of how educators in the health professions can help learners avoid error, however, the literature reviewed leads to the conclusion that educators should be working to induce error in learners, leading them to short term pain for long term…

  11. The design of diagnostic medical facilities using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This Code, setting out the general principles of radiological protection as applied to diagnostic radiation facilities in hospitals and clinics, is intended as a guide to architects and to works departments concerned with their design and construction, and with the modification of existing units

  12. Statistical physics of medical diagnostics: Study of a probabilistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaghi, Alireza; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl

    2018-03-01

    We study a diagnostic strategy which is based on the anticipation of the diagnostic process by simulation of the dynamical process starting from the initial findings. We show that such a strategy could result in more accurate diagnoses compared to a strategy that is solely based on the direct implications of the initial observations. We demonstrate this by employing the mean-field approximation of statistical physics to compute the posterior disease probabilities for a given subset of observed signs (symptoms) in a probabilistic model of signs and diseases. A Monte Carlo optimization algorithm is then used to maximize an objective function of the sequence of observations, which favors the more decisive observations resulting in more polarized disease probabilities. We see how the observed signs change the nature of the macroscopic (Gibbs) states of the sign and disease probability distributions. The structure of these macroscopic states in the configuration space of the variables affects the quality of any approximate inference algorithm (so the diagnostic performance) which tries to estimate the sign-disease marginal probabilities. In particular, we find that the simulation (or extrapolation) of the diagnostic process is helpful when the disease landscape is not trivial and the system undergoes a phase transition to an ordered phase.

  13. Diagnostic utility of medical thoracoscopy in peripheral parenchymal pulmonary lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hatata

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Among patients with peripheral parenchymal pulmonary lesions remaining undiagnosed after usual initial investigation and even transthoracic needle biopsies, thoracoscopy done under local anaesthesia is a rapid, safe, and well-tolerated procedure with an excellent diagnostic yield that is equivalent to that of thoracotomy.

  14. Review of Safety of Diagnostic Ultrasound in Medical Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, there is a dearth of scientific literature about the safety of ultrasound as a diagnostic modality. Because of its low cost, real-time image display and lack of evidence of bio-effects, ultrasound is a fast growing imaging modality. The impact of ultrasound in the care of women and children is most obvious. Information ...

  15. Cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and pilot of Case Manager: a virtual-patient experience for veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Julie K; Johnson, Susan E; Allen, L Clare V; Brilmyer, Cheryl; Griffiths, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand in veterinary education to engage students, teach and reinforce clinical reasoning, and provide access anytime/anywhere to quality learning opportunities. In addition, accrediting bodies are asking for more concrete documentation of essential clinical-skills outcomes. Unfortunately, during the clinical year in a referral hospital setting, students are at the mercy of chance regarding the types of cases they will encounter and the opportunities they will have to participate. Patient- and case-simulation technology is becoming more popular as a way to achieve these objectives in human and veterinary medical education. Many of the current options available to the veterinary medical education community to develop virtual-patient cases are too time-consuming, cost prohibitive, or difficult for the instructor or learner to use. In response, we developed a learning tool, Case Manager, which is low-cost and user-friendly. Case Manager was designed to meet the demands of veterinary education by providing students with an opportunity to cultivate clinical reasoning skills and allowing for real-time student feedback. We launched a pilot test with 37 senior veterinary medical students as part of their Small Animal Internal Medicine clinical rotation. Students reported that Case Manager increased their engagement with the material, improved diagnostic and problem-solving skills, and broadened their exposure to a variety of cases. In addition, students felt that Case Manager was superior to a more traditional, less interactive case presentation format.

  17. Medical diagnostics with mobile devices: Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, L; Long, K D; Wan, Y; Yu, H; Cunningham, B T

    2016-01-01

    We review the recent development of mobile detection instruments used for medical diagnostics, and consider the relative advantages of approaches that utilize the internal sensing capabilities of commercially available mobile communication devices (such as smartphones and tablet computers) compared to those that utilize a custom external sensor module. In this review, we focus specifically upon mobile medical diagnostic platforms that are being developed to serve the need in global health, personalized medicine, and point-of-care diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial consumption on Austrian dairy farms: an observational study of udder disease treatments based on veterinary medication records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Clair L; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Schleicher, Corina; Fuchs, Klemens; Egger-Danner, Christa; Mayerhofer, Martin; Schobesberger, Hermann; Köfer, Josef; Obritzhauser, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling). Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4%) were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6%) were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDD vet /cow/year), based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDD vet ). Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDD vet /cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDD vet /cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDD vet /cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs), according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median number of DDD vet /cow/year for

  19. Antimicrobial consumption on Austrian dairy farms: an observational study of udder disease treatments based on veterinary medication records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair L. Firth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Methods Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4% were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6% were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDDvet/cow/year, based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDDvet. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Results Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDDvet/cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDDvet/cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDDvet/cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs, according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median

  20. Diagnostic outcome of patients referred to psychiatry with medically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of patients have disabling medically unexplained symptoms. (MUS), many of whom have ... dyspepsia, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome) in particular, have been ..... An Epidemiological Study in Seven Specialities. J Psychosom Res.

  1. Veterinary Technician Program Director Leadership Style and Program Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda-Francis, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…

  2. Undergraduates\\' view of the veterinary profession: A study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the veterinary profession: A study of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ... the university, however only 33.7% believed that they obtain veterinary services ... of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. ... that veterinarians, pharmacists and physicians can work together in the Food ...

  3. Advanced signal processing theory and implementation for sonar, radar, and non-invasive medical diagnostic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stergiopoulos, Stergios

    2009-01-01

    Integrates topics of signal processing from sonar, radar, and medical system technologies by identifying their concept similarities. This book covers non-invasive medical diagnostic system applications, including intracranial ultrasound, a technology that attempts to address non-invasive detection on brain injuries and stroke.

  4. Course of radiological protection and safety in the medical diagnostic with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez A, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The obtention of images of human body to the medical diagnostic is one of the more old and generalized applications for X-ray. Therefore the design and performance of equipment and installations as well as the operation procedures must be oriented toward safety with the purpose to guarantee this radiological practice will bring a net positive benefit to the society. Given that in Mexico only exists the standardization related to source and equipment generators of ionizing radiation in the industrial area and medical therapy, but not so to the medical diagnostic area it is the purpose of this work to present those standards related with this application branch. Also it is presented the preparation of a manual for the course named Formation of teachers in radiological protection and safety in the X-ray medical diagnostic in 1997 which was imparted at ININ. (Author)

  5. Topical aspects of nuclear medical diagnostics in dermatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrenberg, O.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnostic value of soft tissue and bone scintigraphy in various dermatological diseases is discussed. We received new knowledge about frequency, dimension and validity of psoriatic osteoarthropathia by using scintigraphic methods. Bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than clinical and radiological investigation and there is an earlier detection of arthropathy in psoriasis. Whole body scintigraphy using bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals has proven to be a sensitive diagnostic tool in the detection of bone and joint involvement in collagen diseases. These methods can also be of great value in the evaluation and clinical management of diseases with possible generalized or multiple bone lesions (e. g. syphilis; dermatomyositis; sarcoidosis; malignant melanoma). Since the discovery of hybridoma technique for the production of monoclonal antibodies it became apparent that this new class of immunoglobulins may represent a new useful tool in the diagnosis and in the therapy of malignant diseases. In this paper we discuss the application of murine and human monoclonal antibodies in experimental and clinical oncology. (orig.) [de

  6. Medical Student Assessment of Videotape for Teaching in Diagnostic Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J. R.; McLachlan, M. S. F.

    1976-01-01

    A series of six recordings that describe some aspects of the radiology of the chest, using only radiographs, were viewed by a small group of final year medical students. Their scores for factual questions immediately afterwards were compared with their attitudes to the learning experience; higher scores correlated with positive attitudes. (LBH)

  7. MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS BY MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL LIQUID DRIED PATTERNS AS A PROBLEM OF BIOINFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vladimirovich Lebedev-Stepanov, Dr.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: It is important to develop the high-precision computerized methods for medical rapid diagnostic which is generalizing the unique clinical experience obtained in the past decade as specialized solutions for diagnostic problems of control of specific diseases and, potentially, for a wide health monitoring of virtually healthy population, identify the reserves of human health and take the actions to prevent of these reserves depletion. In this work we present one of the new directions in bioinformatics, i.e. medical diagnostics by automated expert system on basis of morphology analysis of digital image of biological liquid dried pattern. Results: Proposed method is combination of bioinformatics and biochemistry approaches for obtaining diagnostic information from a morphological analysis of standardized dried patterns of biological liquid sessile drop. We have carried out own research in collaboration with medical diagnostic centers and formed the electronic database for recognition the following types of diseases: candidiasis; neoplasms; diabetes mellitus; diseases of the circulatory system; cerebrovascular disease; diseases of the digestive system; diseases of the genitourinary system; infectious diseases; factors relevant to the work; factors associated with environmental pollution; factors related to lifestyle. The laboratory setup for diagnostics of the human body in pathology states is developed. The diagnostic results are considered. Availability: Access to testing the software can be obtained on request to the contact email below.

  8. Health Technology Assessment for Molecular Diagnostics: Practices, Challenges, and Recommendations from the Medical Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Susan; Polisena, Julie; S Spinner, Daryl; Postulka, Anne; Y Lu, Christine; Tiwana, Simrandeep K; Faulkner, Eric; Poulios, Nick; Zah, Vladimir; Longacre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessments (HTAs) are increasingly used to inform coverage, access, and utilization of medical technologies including molecular diagnostics (MDx). Although MDx are used to screen patients and inform disease management and treatment decisions, there is no uniform approach to their evaluation by HTA organizations. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group reviewed diagnostic-specific HTA programs and identified elements representing common and best practices. MDx-specific HTA programs in Europe, Australia, and North America were characterized by methodology, evaluation framework, and impact. Published MDx HTAs were reviewed, and five representative case studies of test evaluations were developed: United Kingdom (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's Diagnostics Assessment Programme, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase mutation), United States (Palmetto's Molecular Diagnostic Services Program, OncotypeDx prostate cancer test), Germany (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare, human papillomavirus testing), Australia (Medical Services Advisory Committee, anaplastic lymphoma kinase testing for non-small cell lung cancer), and Canada (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Rapid Response: Non-invasive Prenatal Testing). Overall, the few HTA programs that have MDx-specific methods do not provide clear parameters of acceptability related to clinical and analytic performance, clinical utility, and economic impact. The case studies highlight similarities and differences in evaluation approaches across HTAs in the performance metrics used (analytic and clinical validity, clinical utility), evidence requirements, and how value is measured. Not all HTAs are directly linked to reimbursement outcomes. To improve MDx HTAs, organizations should provide greater transparency, better communication and collaboration between industry and HTA

  9. Inspections in veterinary medicine 2005; Veterinaerinspektioner 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Helene

    2006-11-15

    In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.

  10. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  11. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.

  12. Differential diagnostic value of procalcitonin in surgical and medical patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clec'h, Christophe; Fosse, Jean-Philippe; Karoubi, Philippe; Vincent, Francois; Chouahi, Imad; Hamza, Lilia; Cupa, Michel; Cohen, Yves

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether different diagnostic and prognostic cutoff values of procalcitonin should be considered in surgical and in medical patients with septic shock. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of the Avicenne teaching hospital, France. All patients with septic shock or noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome within 48 hrs after admission. None. Patients were allocated to one of the following groups: group 1 (surgical patients with septic shock), group 2 (surgical patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome), group 3 (medical patients with septic shock), and group 4 (medical patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome). Procalcitonin at study entry was compared between group 1 and group 2 and between group 3 and group 4 to determine the diagnostic cutoff value in surgical and in medical patients, respectively. Procalcitonin was compared between survivors and nonsurvivors from group 1 and group 3 to determine its prognostic cutoff value. One hundred forty-three patients were included: 31 in group 1, 36 in group 2, 36 in group 3, and 40 in group 4. Median procalcitonin levels (ng/mL [interquartile range]) were higher in group 1 than in group 3 (34.00 [7.10-76.00] vs. 8.40 [3.63-24.70], p = .01). In surgical patients, the best diagnostic cutoff value was 9.70 ng/mL, with 91.7% sensitivity and 74.2% specificity. In medical patients, the best diagnostic cutoff value was 1.00 ng/mL, with 80% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Procalcitonin was a reliable early prognostic marker in medical but not in surgical patients with septic shock. A cutoff value of 6.00 ng/mL had 76% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity for separating survivors from nonsurvivors. The diagnostic cutoff value of procalcitonin was higher in surgical than in medical patients. Early procalcitonin was of prognostic interest in medical patients.

  13. A review of analytical procedures for the simultaneous determination of medically important veterinary antibiotics in environmental water: Sample preparation, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chansik; Ryu, Hong-Duck; Chung, Eu Gene; Kim, Yongseok; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2018-07-01

    Medically important (MI) antibiotics are defined by the United States Food and Drug Administration as drugs containing certain active antimicrobial ingredients that are used for the treatment of human diseases or enteric pathogens causing food-borne diseases. The presence of MI antibiotic residues in environmental water is a major concern for both aquatic ecosystems and public health, particularly because of their potential to contribute to the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. In this article, we present a review of global trends in the sales of veterinary MI antibiotics and the analytical methodologies used for the simultaneous determination of antibiotic residues in environmental water. According to recently published government reports, sales volumes have increased steadily, despite many countries having adopted strategies for reducing the consumption of antibiotics. Global attention needs to be directed urgently at establishing new management strategies for reducing the use of MI antimicrobial products in the livestock industry. The development of standardized analytical methods for the detection of multiple residues is required to monitor and understand the fate of antibiotics in the environment. Simultaneous analyses of antibiotics have mostly been conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment step. Currently, on-line SPE protocols are used for the rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotics in water samples. On-line detection protocols must be established for the monitoring and screening of unknown metabolites and transformation products of antibiotics in environmental water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. WIN EPISCOPE 2.0: improved epidemiological software for veterinary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrusfield, M.; Ortega, C.; Blas, de I.; Noordhuizen, J.P.; Frankena, K.

    2001-01-01

    Recent changes in veterinary medicine have required quantitative epidemiological techniques for designing field surveys, identifying risk factors for multifactorial diseases, and assessing diagnostic tests. Several relevant techniques are brought together in the package of veterinary epidemiological

  15. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... One of these mutations led to an amino acid exchange at position 544 ... organs such as comb, wattle, brain, heart, .... congestion in various tissues and edema of.

  16. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    and Aji, T. G.. 1. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ... limited nervous, muscle and skeletal systems development ... samples. Colloid area/volume and perimeter: This ..... BANKS, W. J., (1993): Applied Veterinary.

  17. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. ... dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Rabies vaccination status among occupationally exposed humans in Nigeria ...

  18. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3Veterinary. Teaching ... salivation, cornea opacity, haematuria and convulsion were observed in 20, 8, 2, 4, 1 and 3 of the patients ... intravenous fluid administration either for.

  19. Mamma diagnostics for MTRA (medical-radiological personnel)/RT (radiologists); Mammadiagnostik fuer MTRA/RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-07-01

    The text book on mamma diagnostics for MTRA (medical-radiological personnel)/RT (radiologists) covers the following issues: Anatomy, development and physiology of mammary glands; tumor development an breast cancer risk; pathology, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography: physical-technical fundamentals; mammography: analogue technique; mammography: digital technique; mammography: quality assurance; mammography: legal questions and radiation protection; mammography: new developments; mammography: setting technique; mammography: use and appraisal; mamma-sonography: technique and methodology; mamma-sonography: assignment and appraisal, mamma-NMR: technique and methodology; mamma-NMR: assignment and appraisal lymph node diagnostics; mamma interventions; biopsy; mamma interventions: marking examination concepts; therapeutic concepts; hygienic concepts; communication and interaction.

  20. National variation of ADHD diagnostic prevalence and medication use: health care providers and education policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Levine, Peter; Stone, Susan; Brown, Timothy T; Modrek, Sepideh

    2009-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic prevalence and medication use vary across U.S. census regions, but little is known about state-level variation. The purpose of this study was to estimate this variation across states and examine whether a state's health care provider characteristics and education policies are associated with this variation. Logistic regression models were estimated with 69,505 children aged four to 17 from the state-stratified and nationally representative 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnostic prevalence was higher in the South (odds ratio [OR]=1.42, p<.001) than in the West; among children with ADHD diagnoses, medication use was higher in the South (OR=1.60, p<.01) and the Midwest (OR=1.53, p<.01) versus the West. On these measures, several states differed from the U.S. averages, including some states that, on the basis of the regional patterns found above, would not be expected to differ: Michigan had a high diagnostic prevalence; Vermont, South Dakota, and Nebraska had low diagnostic prevalences; and Connecticut, New Jersey, and Kentucky had low medication rates. Both diagnosis and medication status were associated with the number, age, and type of physicians within a state, particularly pediatricians. However, state education policies were not significantly associated with either diagnostic prevalence or medication rates. To better understand the association between a state's health care provider characteristics and both diagnostic prevalence and medication use, it may be fruitful to examine the content of provider continuing education programs, including the recommendations of major health professional organization guidelines to treat ADHD.

  1. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzeminski, M.; Lass, P.; Teodorczyk, J.; Krajka, J.

    2004-01-01

    The veterinary use of radionuclide techniques dates back to the mid-sixties, but its more extensive use dates back to the past two decades. Veterinary nuclear medicine is focused mainly on four major issues: bone scintigraphy - with the majority of applications in horses, veterinary endocrinology - dealing mainly with the problems of hyperthyreosis in cats and hyperthyreosis in dogs, portosystemic shunts in small animals and veterinary oncology, however, most radionuclide techniques applied to humans can be applied to most animals. (author)

  2. The analysis of distribution of the chromosome aberration breakpoints from medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Li Jin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the distribution of the chromosome aberration breakpoints from medical diagnostic x-ray workers. Methods: The breakpoints of lymphocyte chromosomes are analyzed using G-banding. Results: There are 146 breakpoints among 3545 metaphase in 37 cases of X-ray workers. There are statistically significant differences between observed values and expected values (χ 2 =42.82, df=23, P 0.05). Conclusion: The chromosome aberration breakpoints of medical diagnostic X-ray workers are non-random. The observed values of breakpoint numbers are higher than those of the expected values in 7 and 14 chromosomes (P<0.05)

  3. Teaching Critical Thinking in Graduate Medical Education: Lessons Learned in Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Benjamin; Heilbrun, Marta E

    2017-01-01

    The 2014 Institute of Medicine report, Graduate Medical Education that Meets the Nation's Health Needs , challenged the current graduate medical training process and encouraged new opportunities to redefine the fundamental skills and abilities of the physician workforce. This workforce should be skilled in critically evaluating the current systems to improve care delivery and health. To meet these goals, current challenges, motivations, and educational models at the medical school and graduate medical education levels related to formal training in nonclinical aspects of medicine, especially critical thinking, are reviewed. Our diagnostic radiology training program is presented as a "case study" to frame the review.

  4. Efficient medical image access in diagnostic environments with limited resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Venson

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A medical application running outside the workstation environment has to deal with several constraints, such as reduced available memory and low network bandwidth. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to optimize the data flow for fast image transfer and visualization on mobile devices and remote stationary devices. Methods We use a combination of client- and server-side procedures to reduce the amount of information transferred by the application. Our approach was implemented on top of a commercial PACS and evaluated through user experiments with specialists in typical diagnosis tasks. The quality of the system outcome was measured in relation to the accumulated amount of network data transference and the amount of memory used in the host device. Besides, the system's quality of use (usability was measured through participants’ feedback. Results Contrarily to previous approaches, ours keeps the application within the memory constraints, minimizing data transferring whenever possible, allowing the application to run on a variety of devices. Moreover, it does that without sacrificing the user experience. Experimental data point that over 90% of the users did not notice any delays or degraded image quality, and when they did, they did not impact on the clinical decisions. Conclusion The combined activities and orchestration of our methods allow the image viewer to run on resource-constrained environments, such as those with low network bandwidth or little available memory. These results demonstrate the ability to explore the use of mobile devices as a support tool in the medical workflow.

  5. Radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

  6. Johannes Ludwig Janson, professor of veterinary medicine in Tokyo in 1880-1902 - contribution to German-Japanese medical relations, part IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Among the German pioneers of Western medicine in Japan (8, 12) during the Meiji period (1868-1912), veterinary officer Johannes Ludwig Janson (1849-1914) was one of the most important figures. He arrived in Tokyo in October 1880 and taught at the Veterinary School in Komaba. During his tenure, the school in Komaba was integrated into the School of Agriculture of the Imperial University of Tokyo. Numerous of his graduates occupied high public offices. Among his publications, those about domestic animals and veterinary medicine in Japan deserve special attention. He married a Japanese girl and continued teaching in Komaba until 1902. He found his last resting place in Kagoshima, the native place of his wife. To this day, the Japanese consider Janson the founder of modern veterinary medicine in their country.

  7. Photoionization sensor CES for non-invasive medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Khobnya, Kristina; Podenko, Sofia

    2016-10-01

    Method CES (collisional electron spectroscopy), patented in Russia, the USA, Japan, China, Germany and Britain, allows to analyze the gaseous mixtures using electron spectroscopy under high pressures up to atmospheric without using vacuum. The design of VUV photoionization detector was developed based on this method. Such detector is used as a portable gas analyzer for continuous personal bio-medical monitoring. This detector measures energy of electrons produced in ionization with resonance photons, whose wavelength situated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). Nowadays, micro plasma source of such photons on resonant line of Kr with energy of 10,6 eV is developed. Only impurities are ionized and detected by the VUV-emission, meanwhile the main components of air stay neutral that reduces background signal and increases the sensibility along with accuracy. The experimental facilities with VUV photoionization sensors CES are constructed with the overall sizes about 10*10*1 mm. The watt consumption may comprise less than 1W. Increase of electrometer amplifier's sensibility and more high-aperture construction are used today to increase the sensibility of CES-detectors. The wide range of detectable molecules and high sensitivity allow the development of portable device, which can become the base of the future preventive medicine. Work supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology.

  8. Medical Diagnostic Breath Analysis by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Joseph S.; Metsälä, Markus; Halonen, Lauri

    2009-06-01

    Certain medical conditions give rise to the presence of chemicals in the bloodstream. These chemicals - known as biomarkers - may also be present in low concentrations in human breath. Cavity ring down spectroscopy possesses the requisite selectivity and sensitivity to detect such biomarkers in the congested spectrum of a breath sample. The ulcer-causing bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is a prolific producer of the enzyme urease, which catalyses the breakdown of urea ((NH_2)_2CO) in the stomach as follows: (NH_2)_2CO + H_2O ⟶ CO_2 + 2NH_3 Currently, breath tests seeking altered carbon-isotope ratios in exhaled CO_2 after the ingestion of ^{13}C- or ^{14}C-labeled urea are used to diagnose H. pylori infection. We present recent results from an ongoing collaboration with Tampere Area University Hospital. The study involves 100 patients (both infected and uninfected) and concerns the possible correlation between the bacterial infection and breath ammonia. D. Y. Graham, P. D. Klein, D. J. Evans, Jr, D. G. Evans, L. C. Alpert, A. R. Opekun, T. W. Boutton, Lancet 1(8543), 1174-7 March 1987.

  9. Exposure criteria for medical diagnostic ultrasound: 1, Criteria based on thermal mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A previous report (NCRP, 1983) contains a comprehensive review of biological effects and mechanisms of action of ultrasound and an analysis of their implications for medical ultrasound. This Report presents background material for a scientifically-based approach to safety assessment of ultrasound. It is intended to help the medical community take advantage of new developments, while maintaining the excellent safety record which now exists for diagnostic ultrasound

  10. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  11. X-ray diagnostics, X-ray therapy, diagnostics and therapy with radioactive materials in free medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the documents of the Kassenaerztliche Vereinigung Niederbayerns in Straubing, the work of the established general practicioners in the fields of X-ray and nuclear medicine was investigated for the 1st quarter of 1971, and the X-ray diagnostic services rendered were evaluated according to age and sex. 2/3 of all doctors participating in a health insurance plan in Lower Bavaria are general practitioners; all other fields are represented less often than in Munich. The values for the whole Federal Republic are in between. Internal specialists, radiologists, and urologists together carry out 85.7% of the ten examinations which contribute most to the total gonadal dose. An application of the data on the 1st quarter to the annual value is only possible by allowing for an error of 13.1%. All in all, 6% more X-ray services are administered to men than to women. For both sexes, the genetically most important group of 15-34 resp. 15-39 years of age is highly represented, although young men receive X-ray diagnostics more frequently. X-ray therapy makes up only about 0.5% of all services. Nuclear medical diagnostics is employed to the same extent by radiologists and internal specialists, while therapy with radioactive substances is almost exclusively provided by radiologists. Relative to the population density, radioactive substances are more often used in Lower Bavaria than in West Berlin. (orig.) [de

  12. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.

    2005-01-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  13. Effects of job stress on hypertension among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhigang; Wang Jixian; Zhao Yongcheng; Zhang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between job stress and hypertension among medical diagnostic x-ray workers in China. Methods: A total of 264 confirmed cases of hypertension were selected among medical diagnostic X-ray workers from 10 provinces and cities. A case-control study with 1:2 matched pair was conducted. Job stress was defined according to Siegrist effort-reward imbalance model. Results: High imbalance ,high overcommitment and severe work environment were associated with enhanced hypertension risk significantly. The OR was 1.848 (P=0.018), 2.058 (P=0.000) and 1.797 (P=0.008) for imbalance, overcommitment and severe work environment, respectively. After controlling other risk factors, the relation still remained significant. Conclusion: The main work-related risk factors causing hypertension among diagnostic X-ray workers are effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and severe work environment. (authors)

  14. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  15. Value of multi-criteria decision analysis in early assessment of medical diagnostic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hummel, J. Marjan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multicriteria decision analytic (MCDA) techniques are a powerful tool in evaluating health care interventions where multiple, often competing, factors need to be considered. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is one such technique. We have applied AHP to evaluate medical diagnostic

  16. CSIR research, development and innovation initiatives for the medical device and diagnostic industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vilakazi, Busisiwe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is focused on development and innovation initiatives in the medical device and diagnostic industry. It is presented by Dr Busisiwe Vilakasi at The 6th CSIR Conference: Ideas that work for industrial development, 5-6 October 2017...

  17. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical image computing for computer-supported diagnostics and therapy. Advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handels, H; Ehrhardt, J

    2009-01-01

    Medical image computing has become one of the most challenging fields in medical informatics. In image-based diagnostics of the future software assistance will become more and more important, and image analysis systems integrating advanced image computing methods are needed to extract quantitative image parameters to characterize the state and changes of image structures of interest (e.g. tumors, organs, vessels, bones etc.) in a reproducible and objective way. Furthermore, in the field of software-assisted and navigated surgery medical image computing methods play a key role and have opened up new perspectives for patient treatment. However, further developments are needed to increase the grade of automation, accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, the systems developed have to be integrated into the clinical workflow. For the development of advanced image computing systems methods of different scientific fields have to be adapted and used in combination. The principal methodologies in medical image computing are the following: image segmentation, image registration, image analysis for quantification and computer assisted image interpretation, modeling and simulation as well as visualization and virtual reality. Especially, model-based image computing techniques open up new perspectives for prediction of organ changes and risk analysis of patients and will gain importance in diagnostic and therapy of the future. From a methodical point of view the authors identify the following future trends and perspectives in medical image computing: development of optimized application-specific systems and integration into the clinical workflow, enhanced computational models for image analysis and virtual reality training systems, integration of different image computing methods, further integration of multimodal image data and biosignals and advanced methods for 4D medical image computing. The development of image analysis systems for diagnostic support or

  19. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-10-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).

  20. SMS-Based Medical Diagnostic Telemetry Data Transmission Protocol for Medical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Ben; Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    People with special medical monitoring needs can, these days, be sent home and remotely monitored through the use of data logging medical sensors and a transmission base-station. While this can improve quality of life by allowing the patient to spend most of their time at home, most current technologies rely on hardwired landline technology or expensive mobile data transmissions to transmit data to a medical facility. The aim of this paper is to investigate and develop an approach to increase...

  1. SMS-Based Medical Diagnostic Telemetry Data Transmission Protocol for Medical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ben; Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    People with special medical monitoring needs can, these days, be sent home and remotely monitored through the use of data logging medical sensors and a transmission base-station. While this can improve quality of life by allowing the patient to spend most of their time at home, most current technologies rely on hardwired landline technology or expensive mobile data transmissions to transmit data to a medical facility. The aim of this paper is to investigate and develop an approach to increase the freedom of a monitored patient and decrease costs by utilising mobile technologies and SMS messaging to transmit data from patient to medico. To this end, we evaluated the capabilities of SMS and propose a generic communications protocol which can work within the constraints of the SMS format, but provide the necessary redundancy and robustness to be used for the transmission of non-critical medical telemetry from data logging medical sensors. PMID:22163845

  2. SMS-Based Medical Diagnostic Telemetry Data Transmission Protocol for Medical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hoon Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available People with special medical monitoring needs can, these days, be sent home and remotely monitored through the use of data logging medical sensors and a transmission base-station. While this can improve quality of life by allowing the patient to spend most of their time at home, most current technologies rely on hardwired landline technology or expensive mobile data transmissions to transmit data to a medical facility. The aim of this paper is to investigate and develop an approach to increase the freedom of a monitored patient and decrease costs by utilising mobile technologies and SMS messaging to transmit data from patient to medico. To this end, we evaluated the capabilities of SMS and propose a generic communications protocol which can work within the constraints of the SMS format, but provide the necessary redundancy and robustness to be used for the transmission of non-critical medical telemetry from data logging medical sensors.

  3. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  4. Children's exposure to diagnostic medical radiation and cancer risk: epidemiologic and dosimetric considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linet, Martha S.; Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kim, Kwang pyo [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kyung Hee University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children's postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies. Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, CT, and fluoroscopically guided procedures. (orig.)

  5. Children's exposure to diagnostic medical radiation and cancer risk: epidemiologic and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, Martha S.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Kim, Kwang pyo

    2009-01-01

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children's postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies. Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, CT, and fluoroscopically guided procedures. (orig.)

  6. Biomedical visual data analysis to build an intelligent diagnostic decision support system in medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Kaya; Niranjan, Mahesan; Tunca, Yusuf; Osvank, Erhan; Azim, Tayyaba

    2014-10-01

    In general, medical geneticists aim to pre-diagnose underlying syndromes based on facial features before performing cytological or molecular analyses where a genotype-phenotype interrelation is possible. However, determining correct genotype-phenotype interrelationships among many syndromes is tedious and labor-intensive, especially for extremely rare syndromes. Thus, a computer-aided system for pre-diagnosis can facilitate effective and efficient decision support, particularly when few similar cases are available, or in remote rural districts where diagnostic knowledge of syndromes is not readily available. The proposed methodology, visual diagnostic decision support system (visual diagnostic DSS), employs machine learning (ML) algorithms and digital image processing techniques in a hybrid approach for automated diagnosis in medical genetics. This approach uses facial features in reference images of disorders to identify visual genotype-phenotype interrelationships. Our statistical method describes facial image data as principal component features and diagnoses syndromes using these features. The proposed system was trained using a real dataset of previously published face images of subjects with syndromes, which provided accurate diagnostic information. The method was tested using a leave-one-out cross-validation scheme with 15 different syndromes, each of comprised 5-9 cases, i.e., 92 cases in total. An accuracy rate of 83% was achieved using this automated diagnosis technique, which was statistically significant (pbenefits of using hybrid image processing and ML-based computer-aided diagnostics for identifying facial phenotypes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A European network for food-borne parasites (Euro-FBP: meeting report on ‘Analytical methods for food-borne parasites in human and veterinary diagnostics and in food matrices’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klotz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food-borne parasites (FBPs are a neglected topic in food safety, partly due to a lack of awareness of their importance for public health, especially as symptoms tend not to develop immediately after exposure. In addition, methodological difficulties with both diagnosis in infected patients and detection in food matrices result in under-detection and therefore the potential for underestimation of their burden on our societies. This, in consequence, leads to lower prioritization for basic research, e.g. for development new and more advanced detection methods for different food matrices and diagnostic samples, and thus a vicious circle of neglect and lack of progress is propagated. The COST Action FA1408, A European Network for Foodborne Parasites (Euro-FBP aims to combat the impact of FBP on public health by facilitating the multidisciplinary cooperation and partnership between groups of researchers and between researchers and stakeholders. The COST Action TD1302, the European Network for cysticercosis/taeniosis, CYSTINET, has a specific focus on Taenia solium and T. saginata, two neglected FBPs, and aims to advance knowledge and understanding of these zoonotic disease complexes via collaborations in a multidisciplinary scientific network. This report summarizes the results of a meeting within the Euro-FBP consortium entitled ‘Analytical methods for food-borne parasites in human and veterinary diagnostics and in food matrices’ and of the joined Euro-FBP and CYSTINET meeting.

  8. Guidelines for establishing quality systems in veterinary diagnostic testing laboratories. Report of a Joint FAO/IAEA consultants meeting/workshop. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to assist veterinary testing laboratories to develop and implement a quality system based on the OIE Standard 'Management and Technical Requirements for Laboratories Conducting Tests for Infectious Animal Diseases'. The introduction to the OIE Standard states: This document describes the OIE Standard for management and technical competence that serves as the basis for accreditation of laboratories that conduct tests for infectious animal diseases, especially those laboratories involved in testing for international trade. It contains the specific requirements unique to laboratories conducting tests for infectious animal diseases. These specific requirements represent an interpretation of the generally stated requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:1999, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (as outlined in Annex B of ISO/IEC 17025). Accreditation bodies that recognize the competence of such testing laboratories may use this Standard as the basis for their accreditation. This report gives an example-oriented overview of the structure and contents of critical documents and procedures such as Quality Manual (QM), Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), etc. inherent to a quality system and describes the different stages in the implementation of the OIE Standard. For that reason it can be used as a practical guide for the production of necessary documents but also as a help to determine the status of a laboratory during its journey towards establishing a QS

  9. The diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever at Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Rapeephan R; de Jong, Hanna K; Wijedoru, Lalith; Fukushima, Masako; Ghose, Aniruddha; Samad, Rasheda; Hossain, Mohammed Amir; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Faiz, Mohammed Abul; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of three rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for typhoid fever in febrile hospitalised patients in Bangladesh. Febrile adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, were investigated with Bact/Alert(®) blood cultures and real-time PCR to detect Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyphi A and assays for Rickettsia, leptospirosis and dengue fever. Acute serum samples were examined with the LifeAssay (LA) Test-it™ Typhoid IgM lateral flow assay detecting IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O antigen, CTKBiotech Onsite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo Rapid-test cassette lateral flow assay detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi O and H antigens and SD Bioline line assay for IgG and IgM antibodies against S. Typhi proteins. In 300 malaria smear-negative febrile patients [median (IQR) age of 13.5 (5-31) years], 34 (11.3%) had confirmed typhoid fever: 19 positive by blood culture for S. Typhi (three blood PCR positive) and 15 blood culture negative but PCR positive for S. Typhi in blood. The respective sensitivity and specificity of the three RDTs in patients using a composite reference standard of blood culture and/or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever were 59% and 61% for LifeAssay, 59% and 74% for the CTK IgM and/or IgG, and 24% and 96% for the SD Bioline RDT IgM and/or IgG. The LifeAssay RDT had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 91% when modified with a positive cut-off of ≥2+ and analysed using a Bayesian latent class model. These typhoid RDTs demonstrated moderate diagnostic accuracies, and better tests are needed. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  11. 78 FR 1824 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...; National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Surveillance Program Documents... associated with National Veterinary Services Laboratories diagnostic support for the bovine spongiform..., Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3511. For copies of more...

  12. Cone beam computed tomography in veterinary dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal

  13. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana; Pascoal, Ana; Lanca, Isabel; Matela, Nuno; Sousa, Patrick; Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui; Simaozinho, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of ≈ 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications

  14. Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances.

  15. Radiation protection in medical diagnostic radiology in the city of Sobral, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, F.L.; Paschoal, C.M.M.; Ferreira, F.C.L.; Alcantara, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability to radiation protection of four diagnostic radiology medical services in the city of Sobral-CE, Northeast of Brazil, and to analyze results of the literature for the cities of Rio Branco-AC, North of Brazil, and Rio de Janeiro-RJ, South-east of Brazil. In Sobral-CE, it was performed interviews and direct observations with reference to Brazilian law, the National Ordinance No.453/1998 of the Ministry of Health that regulates the operation of medical and odontological diagnostic radiology services. The results show the occurrence of many items in disagreement with the standard. The technical and operational infractions have basically due to unfamiliarity with the legislation, the lack of investment in training and/or professional development courses. (authors)

  16. A flexible mobile-device biosensing instrumentation platform for point-of-care medical diagnostics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem

    2014-01-01

    helping to address this challenge. Specifically, Lab-on-Chip (LoC) devices have a key role to play in the advent of Point-of-Care (PoC) medical applications, driving a shift of the medical diagnostics paradigm and the transition from a centralized, technical, high-throughput biological sample analysis...... programmable electrical readout from LoCs potentially comprehending varied transducers addressing different targeted biological markers. A smart-phone/tablet docking-station embeds the hardware interface necessary for the implementation of a smart-phone digital lock-in amplifier. The platform is tested...

  17. MO-F-204-00: Preparing for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics Exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those unique aspects of the nuclear exam, and how preparing for a second specialty differs from the first. Medical physicists who recently completed each ABR exam portion will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear

  18. MO-F-204-00: Preparing for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics Exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those unique aspects of the nuclear exam, and how preparing for a second specialty differs from the first. Medical physicists who recently completed each ABR exam portion will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear

  19. [The challenges of standardization in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-04-01

    The generalized data concerning the conditions of application of regulations of national standards in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations is presented. The primary information was provided by 14 regions of 6 federal administrative okrugs of Russia. The causes of challenges of application of requirements of standards are presented. They are mostly related with insufficient financial support, lacking of manpower, difficulties with reagents supply, inadequate technical maintenance of devices and absence of support of administration of medical organizations. The recommendations are formulated concerning the necessity of publishing the document of Minzdrav of Russia to determine the need in application of standards in laboratory practice.

  20. Virtual reality aided visualization of fluid flow simulations with application in medical education and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Tijana; Mandic, Vesna; Filipovic, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    Medical education, training and preoperative diagnostics can be drastically improved with advanced technologies, such as virtual reality. The method proposed in this paper enables medical doctors and students to visualize and manipulate three-dimensional models created from CT or MRI scans, and also to analyze the results of fluid flow simulations. Simulation of fluid flow using the finite element method is performed, in order to compute the shear stress on the artery walls. The simulation of motion through the artery is also enabled. The virtual reality system proposed here could shorten the length of training programs and make the education process more effective. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Usage of Virtual Microscopy for the Study of Histology in the Medical, Dental, and Veterinary Undergraduate Programs of a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatumu, Margaret K.; MacMillan, Frances M.; Langton, Philip D.; Headley, P. Max; Harris, Judy R.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the introduction of a virtual microscope (VM) that has allowed preclinical histology teaching to be fashioned to better suit the needs of approximately 900 undergraduate students per year studying medicine, dentistry, or veterinary science at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Features of the VM implementation…

  2. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Tonelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy. Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity—related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming—is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0 and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant than the main effects (each factor separately for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and

  3. Structural shielding of medical X-ray rooms for diagnostic installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitsch, H.

    1979-06-01

    In Part I (RIG 8), the various design procedures for shielding against X-rays are discussed and compared. In particular, this comparison is carried out between the shielding obtained conforming to the Austrian Regulations for Radiation Protection and that obtained from the DIN-standard DIN 6812; this latter includes the various operating conditions of diagnostic installations up to 150 kV. Several examples for particular structural shielding components in medical radiation rooms are given. (author)

  4. Study of results of prophylactic medical examination of personnel of radioisotope diagnostic laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousova, Eh.V.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results of the analysis of frequency of revealed diseases in radiological diagnostic personnel of leningrad medical establishments are given. A close connection between the frequency of revealed diseases and the age is more manifested than between the frequency of revealed diseases and personnel length of service. By the end of occupational activity the frequency of radiological personnel diseases doesn't exceed the similar frequency in population. 3 refs; 2 tabs

  5. The evaluation of the irradiation of medical team in critical X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    A good realized assessment of the irradiation for any exposed group of population serves as the base for the radiation protection measures (emergency radiation preparedness, radiation protection optimization etc.). This is especially important, by the radiation protection point of view, in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques - angiographies. This paper presents the way for the realization of the medical team irradiation assessment, based on originally derived simple equations for the scattered radiation field around patient. (author) 1 fig., 3 figs.

  6. Implementation of Online Veterinary Hospital on Cloud Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Huang, Yao-Min; Chen, Tao-Chieh; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Pet markets involve in great commercial possibilities, which boost thriving development of veterinary hospital businesses. The service tends to intensive competition and diversified channel environment. Information technology is integrated for developing the veterinary hospital cloud service platform. The platform contains not only pet medical services but veterinary hospital management and services. In the study, QR Code andcloud technology are applied to establish the veterinary hospital cloud service platform for pet search by labeling a pet's identification with QR Code. This technology can break the restriction on veterinary hospital inspection in different areas and allows veterinary hospitals receiving the medical records and information through the exclusive QR Code for more effective inspection. As an interactive platform, the veterinary hospital cloud service platform allows pet owners gaining the knowledge of pet diseases and healthcare. Moreover, pet owners can enquire and communicate with veterinarians through the platform. Also, veterinary hospitals can periodically send reminders of relevant points and introduce exclusive marketing information with the platform for promoting the service items and establishing individualized marketing. Consequently, veterinary hospitals can increase the profits by information share and create the best solution in such a competitive veterinary market with industry alliance.

  7. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  8. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.

  9. Retrospective Dose Reconstruction for Medical Diagnostic X Ray Workers in China using Stable Chromosome Aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Liu, P.; Li, J.; Wang, Q.; Tang, S.; Sun, M.; Wang, L.; Aoyama, T.; Sugahara, T.

    1998-01-01

    The chromosome rearrangements in medical diagnostic X ray workers were analysed using the G-banding technique and evaluated collectively in accumulated doses. A total of 9102 metaphase spreads from 84 medical diagnostic X ray workers and 17 controls were scored. The results showed that: (1) the frequencies of translocation, stable chromosome aberration and total aberration in X ray workers were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.05 γ 0.005), unstable chromosome aberrations (including dicentric and acentric aberration) tended upwards; (2) the main aberration in stable aberrations was reciprocal translocation; (3) the stable aberration predominated strikingly in total aberrations. The medical diagnostic X ray workers were divided into three groups according to calendar year of entry. The data showed that the frequencies of translocation, stable aberration and total aberration increased with earlier year of entry, especially in two groups who started working before 1970. According to the equation recommended by Straume et al, linear coefficient (α) in the linear quadratic model provided by Fernandez's experiment, their collective accumulation doses calculated were 0.53, 0.26 and 0.06 Gy for calendar year of entry before 1960, 1960-1969, and after 1970, in X ray workers, respectively. (author)

  10. Biodosimetry for medical diagnostic X-ray workers using stable chromosome aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiquan; Liu Xuping; Li Jin

    1996-01-01

    The stable chromosome aberrations of medical diagnostic X-ray workers were analyzed using G-banding and their accumulative doses were evaluated. The results showed that the frequencies of reciprocal translocation, stable aberration and total aberration among the 4417 metaphase spread from 44 cases of medical diagnostic X-ray workers were distinctly higher than control values (P<0.05∼0.005). The stable aberration predominated strikingly in total aberration and reciprocal translocation was 57% in the stable aberrations. The medical diagnostic X-ray workers were divided into 3 groups according to calendar year of entry. The data showed that the frequencies of total aberration, stable aberration and reciprocal translocation increased with working years, especially in two groups who started working before 1970, there are statistically significant differences between the calendar year of entry before 1960 and 1960∼1969 in X-ray workers and control group. According to the equation recommended by Straume, linear coefficient (α) in linear quadratic model recommended by Schmid and the transformation coefficient by Lucas, the accumulative doses calculated are 0.58, 0.37 and 0.07 Gy for calendar year of entry before 1960, 1960∼1969 and after 1970 in X-ray workers, respectively

  11. Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...

  12. Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...

  13. Open Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...

  14. Moving beyond quality control in diagnostic radiology and the role of the clinically qualified medical physicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, H; Christaki, K; Healy, B; Loreti, G; Poli, G L; Toroi, P; Meghzifene, A

    2017-09-01

    Quality control (QC), according to ISO definitions, represents the most basic level of quality. It is considered to be the snapshot of the performance or the characteristics of a product or service, in order to verify that it complies with the requirements. Although it is usually believed that "the role of medical physicists in Diagnostic Radiology is QC", this, not only limits the contribution of medical physicists, but is also no longer adequate to meet the needs of Diagnostic Radiology in terms of Quality. In order to assure quality practices more organized activities and efforts are required in the modern era of diagnostic radiology. The complete system of QC is just one element of a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) program that aims at ensuring that the requirements of quality of a product or service will consistently be fulfilled. A comprehensive Quality system, starts even before the procurement of any equipment, as the need analysis and the development of specifications are important components under the QA framework. Further expanding this framework of QA, a comprehensive Quality Management System can provide additional benefits to a Diagnostic Radiology service. Harmonized policies and procedures and elements such as mission statement or job descriptions can provide clarity and consistency in the services provided, enhancing the outcome and representing a solid platform for quality improvement. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) promotes this comprehensive quality approach in diagnostic imaging and especially supports the field of comprehensive clinical audits as a tool for quality improvement. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials...... sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification...... of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can...

  16. Visualizing and measuring the temperature field produced by medical diagnostic ultrasound using thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachutka, J; Grec, P; Mornstein, V; Caruana, C J

    2008-01-01

    The heating of tissues by diagnostic ultrasound can pose a significant hazard particularly in the imaging of the unborn child. The demonstration of the temperature field in tissue is therefore an important objective in the teaching of biomedical physics to healthcare professionals. The temperature field in a soft tissue model was made visible and measured using thermography. Temperature data from the images were used to investigate the dependence of temperature increase within the model on ultrasound exposure time and distance from the transducer. The experiment will be used within a multi-professional biomedical physics teaching laboratory for enhancing learning regarding the principles of thermography and the thermal effects of ultrasound to medical and healthcare students and also for demonstrating the quantitative use of thermographic imaging to students of biophysics, medical physics and medical technology

  17. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Diagnostic Radiology (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for diagnostic radiology. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists based in the clinical setting. However, an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia-Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specializing in diagnostic radiology started in 2007 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experiences of clinical training programmes in Australia and New Zealand, the UK and the USA, and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. This publication follows the approach of the IAEA publication Training Course Series No. 37, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists specializing in Radiation Oncology. This approach to clinical training has been successfully tested

  18. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Diagnostic Radiology (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for diagnostic radiology. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists based in the clinical setting. However, an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia-Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specializing in diagnostic radiology started in 2007 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experiences of clinical training programmes in Australia and New Zealand, the UK and the USA, and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. This publication follows the approach of the IAEA publication Training Course Series No. 37, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists specializing in Radiation Oncology. This approach to clinical training has been successfully tested

  19. Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, diagnostic imaging has grown from a state of infancy to a high level of maturity. Many new imaging modalities have been developed. However, modern medical imaging includes not only image production but also image processing, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), image recording and storage, and image transmission, most of which are included in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The content of this paper includes a short review of research and development in medical imaging science and technology, which covers (a) diagnostic imaging in the 1950s, (b) the importance of image quality and diagnostic performance, (c) MTF, Wiener spectrum, NEQ and DQE, (d) ROC analysis, (e) analogue imaging systems, (f) digital imaging systems, (g) image processing, (h) computer-aided diagnosis, (i) PACS, (j) 3D imaging and (k) future directions. Although some of the modalities are already very sophisticated, further improvements will be made in image quality for MRI, ultrasound and molecular imaging. The infrastructure of PACS is likely to be improved further in terms of its reliability, speed and capacity. However, CAD is currently still in its infancy, and is likely to be a subject of research for a long time. (review)

  20. Skin diseases in companion guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): a retrospective study of 293 cases seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California at Davis (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen D; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2016-10-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are popular companion animals with reported skin diseases, but most reports are accessed from textbooks or review articles. To document skin diseases and their prevalence in companion guinea pigs in northern California, USA, and to investigate predilections for the most common conditions over a 25 year period. Two hundred and ninety three guinea pigs from the hospital population met inclusion criteria. A retrospective study was performed by searching computerized medical records seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California from 1 January 1990 to 31 July 2015 using key words relevant to dermatology. Of the 580 guinea pigs seen at the VMTH, 50% (293) had skin disease. Of the 293 cases, 154 (52%) presented for nondermatological reasons. Guinea pigs with skin disease were significantly older than those without skin disease (P = 0.0002); females with skin disease were more likely to have cystic ovaries (P = 0.0203), although these were not always associated with alopecia. Pododermatitis and infestation with Trixacarus caviae or lice were the most common skin diseases. Ivermectin or selamectin was used for ectoparasite treatment. Abscesses unassociated with pododermatitis were the most common nodules. Benign follicular tumours were the most common neoplasm. Despite the frequent mention of dermatophytosis in the veterinary literature, only two cases of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were diagnosed. Cutaneous conditions in companion guinea pigs in the USA are common. Clinicians should include a dermatological examination when examining these rodents regardless of the reason for presentation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Erin E

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.

  2. Factors Associated with Veterinary Clinical Faculty Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Martin

    Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.

  3. Immunohistochemistry in diagnostic veterinary pathology: a critical review Imuno-histoquímica na patologia veterinária diagnóstica: uma revisão crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Sueiro Ruiz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry has become a practical and widely used tool for diagnosis in human pathology since the 70's. However, its application in veterinary diagnostic pathology has not been so common, especially due to the lack of specific antibodies. To overcome this drawback, antibodies which present cross reactivity with human and animal antigens have been applied. The purpose of the present study was to test the cross reactivity of some antibodies intended for the human pathology, which may be used in animal tissues, with the help of antigen retrieval and amplification systems. In the present study it was confirmed that many of the antibodies produced for use in human histopathology might be applied in veterinary pathology. Further studies are needed to increase the list of applicability of these antibodies to different animal species. It must be stressed that in this type of study some variables, such as clone of antibody, dilution, antigen retrieval method, and detection system, have to be evaluated.A técnica de imuno-histoquímica é usada na rotina diagnóstica e na pesquisa em patologia humana desde 1970, porém seu uso na patologia veterinária é relativamente recente, principalmente com objetivo diagnóstico. A maior dificuldade no uso da imuno-histoquímica na patologia veterinária tem sido a falta de anticorpos específicos para os tecidos animais. Na falta de anticorpos específicos para as espécies domésticas, a patologia veterinária freqüentemente faz uso de anticorpos que apresentam reatividade cruzada entre antígenos humanos e animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a reatividade cruzada de diversos anticorpos feitos para uso humano em tecido parafinado de algumas espécies animais, utilizando-se dos novos métodos de recuperação antigênica e amplificação da reação imuno-histoquímica. No presente estudo foi possível confirmar a aplicabilidade de que muitos anticorpos produzidos para diagnóstico imuno

  4. Ethical principles for novel therapies in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, J W

    2016-02-01

    To present insights to aid decision-making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and "translated" into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons. A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication. These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Integrating Nursing Diagnostic Concepts into the Medical Entities Dictionary Using the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jee-In; Cimino, James J.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of the study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a terminology model for defining nursing diagnostic concepts in the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) and (2) to create the additional hierarchical structures required for integration of nursing diagnostic concepts into the MED.

  6. Relativity Screens for Misvalued Medical Services: Impact on Noninvasive Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Silva, Ezequiel; Hawkins, C Matthew

    2017-11-01

    In 2006, the AMA/Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) introduced ongoing relativity screens to identify potentially misvalued medical services for payment adjustments. We assess the impact of these screens upon the valuation of noninvasive diagnostic radiology services. Data regarding relativity screens and relative value unit (RVU) changes were obtained from the 2016 AMA Relativity Assessment Status Report. All global codes in the 2016 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule with associated work RVUs were classified as noninvasive diagnostic radiology services versus remaining services. The frequency of having ever undergone a screen was compared between the two groups. Screened radiology codes were further evaluated regarding the RVU impact of subsequent revaluation. Of noninvasive diagnostic radiology codes, 46.0% (201 of 437) were screened versus 22.2% (1,460 of 6,575) of remaining codes (P < .001). Most common screens for which radiology codes were identified as potentially misvalued were (1) high expenditures (27.5%) and (2) high utilization (25.6%). The modality and body region most likely to be identified in a screen were CT (82.1%) and breast (90.9%), respectively. Among screened radiology codes, work RVUs, practice expense RVUs, and nonfacility total RVUs decreased in 20.3%, 65.9%, and 75.3%, respectively. All screened CT, MRI, brain, and spine codes exhibited decreased total RVUs. Policymakers' ongoing search for potentially misvalued medical services has disproportionately impacted noninvasive diagnostic radiology services, risking the introduction of unintended or artificial shifts in physician practice. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of point-of-care (POC) microfluidic medical diagnostic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James F.

    2018-02-01

    Design of inexpensive and portable hand-held microfluidic flow/image cytometry devices for initial medical diagnostics at the point of initial patient contact by emergency medical personnel in the field requires careful design in terms of power/weight requirements to allow for realistic portability as a hand-held, point-of-care medical diagnostics device. True portability also requires small micro-pumps for high-throughput capability. Weight/power requirements dictate use of super-bright LEDs and very small silicon photodiodes or nanophotonic sensors that can be powered by batteries. Signal-to-noise characteristics can be greatly improved by appropriately pulsing the LED excitation sources and sampling and subtracting noise in between excitation pulses. The requirements for basic computing, imaging, GPS and basic telecommunications can be simultaneously met by use of smartphone technologies, which become part of the overall device. Software for a user-interface system, limited real-time computing, real-time imaging, and offline data analysis can be accomplished through multi-platform software development systems that are well-suited to a variety of currently available cellphone technologies which already contain all of these capabilities. Microfluidic cytometry requires judicious use of small sample volumes and appropriate statistical sampling by microfluidic cytometry or imaging for adequate statistical significance to permit real-time (typically medical decisions for patients at the physician's office or real-time decision making in the field. One or two drops of blood obtained by pin-prick should be able to provide statistically meaningful results for use in making real-time medical decisions without the need for blood fractionation, which is not realistic in the field.

  8. Microarray-Based Gene Expression Analysis for Veterinary Pathologists: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Barbara B; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Matheis, Katja A; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2017-09-01

    High-throughput, genome-wide transcriptome analysis is now commonly used in all fields of life science research and is on the cusp of medical and veterinary diagnostic application. Transcriptomic methods such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing generate enormous amounts of data. The pathogenetic expertise acquired from understanding of general pathology provides veterinary pathologists with a profound background, which is essential in translating transcriptomic data into meaningful biological knowledge, thereby leading to a better understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. The scientific literature concerning high-throughput data-mining techniques usually addresses mathematicians or computer scientists as the target audience. In contrast, the present review provides the reader with a clear and systematic basis from a veterinary pathologist's perspective. Therefore, the aims are (1) to introduce the reader to the necessary methodological background; (2) to introduce the sequential steps commonly performed in a microarray analysis including quality control, annotation, normalization, selection of differentially expressed genes, clustering, gene ontology and pathway analysis, analysis of manually selected genes, and biomarker discovery; and (3) to provide references to publically available and user-friendly software suites. In summary, the data analysis methods presented within this review will enable veterinary pathologists to analyze high-throughput transcriptome data obtained from their own experiments, supplemental data that accompany scientific publications, or public repositories in order to obtain a more in-depth insight into underlying disease mechanisms.

  9. The introduction of compulsory compliance testing of medical diagnostic x-ray equipment in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, M. W.; Jacob, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Performance testing of medical diagnostic X-ray equipment can reveal equipment faults which, while not always clinically detectable, may contribute to reduced image quality and unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff. Routine testing of such equipment is highly desirable to identify such faults and allows them to be rectified. The Radiological council of Western Australia is moving towards requiring compulsory compliance testing of all (new and existing) medical diagnostic X-ray equipment that all new mobile radiographic and new mammographic X-ray equipment be issued with a compliance test certificate as a prerequisite for registration. Workbooks which provide details of the tests required and recommended test methods have been prepared for medical radiographic (mobile and fixed), fluoroscopic and mammographic X-ray equipment. It is intended that future workbooks include details of the tests and methods for dental and computed tomography X-ray units. The workbooks are not limited to the compliance testing of items as specified in the Regulations, but include tests for other items such as film processing, darkrooms and image quality (for fluoroscopic equipment). Many of the workbook tests could be used within a regular quality assurance program for diagnostic X-ray equipment. Persons who conduct such compliance tests will need to be licensed and have all test certificates endorsed by a qualified expert. Suitable training and assessment of compliance testers will be required. Notification of such tests (including non-compliant items and corrective actions taken) will be required by the Radiological Council as a condition of equipment registration. 9 refs

  10. Ethical dilemmas in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues.

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Corresponding author: Email: yahidauad@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348037811882 ... and veterinary medicine as potent anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and .... steroid skeleton, similar to hydrocortisone. ... for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth.

  12. Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Journal are the Research Workers, Veterinary Clinicians, Animal Scientists, Field Officers ... Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in ... Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm, Morogoro- ...

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja; 9National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom,. Nigeria. *Corresponding ... because the poultry industry contributes ..... holidays have been identified as source of transmission ...

  14. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  16. Noncancer death for medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China, 1950-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Weihua; Wang Jixian; Li Benxiao; Zhao Yongcheng; Zhang Jingyuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate occupational radiation exposure effects on human non-cancer diseases. Methods: A cohort study for medical diagnostic X-ray workers and medical workers who never engaged in X-ray work was carried out. Results: The significantly enhanced noncancer deaths for X-ray workers were showed as follows: ischemic heart disease, RR was 1.39 ( P < 0.01 ); cerebrovascular disease, RR = 1.36 ( P < 0.01 ); aplastic anemia, RR = 10.35 (P < 0.01 ); disease of the nervous system, RR = 2.06 (P < 0.01); disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, RR = 3.23 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Long-term occupational X-ray irradiation can enhance the overall risk of deaths, in which, risk for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and aplastic anemia deaths may significantly related to the occupational exposure

  17. The role of radiology in diagnostic error: a medical malpractice claims review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Dana; Stratchko, Lindsay M; DeRoo, Courtney

    2017-09-26

    Just as radiologic studies allow us to see past the surface to the vulnerable and broken parts of the human body, medical malpractice claims help us see past the surface of medical errors to the deeper vulnerabilities and potentially broken aspects of our healthcare delivery system. And just as the insights we gain through radiologic studies provide focus for a treatment plan for healing, so too can the analysis of malpractice claims provide insights to improve the delivery of safe patient care. We review 1325 coded claims where Radiology was the primary service provider to better understand the problems leading to patient harm, and the opportunities most likely to improve diagnostic care in the future.

  18. Role of the medical physicist in quality control in diagnostic x-ray departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.R.

    1973-01-01

    Medical physicists can play a role in education of future radiologists and technologists by teaching quality control needs and techniques. He or she can also provide service to the diagnostic section by establishing a quality control program. Finally, the medical physicist can play an important role in the development of simple and inexpensive techniques for quality control by radiological technologists. The ongoing work at the University of Wisconsin in this area is to provide quality control in measurement of the effective kVcp, the measurement of the effective focal spot size, the performance of the processing equipment, the output in mR/mAs, and the measurement of the half-value-layer and the total filtration. (U.S.)

  19. Lists I and II, nuclear medical diagnostics. As of January 18, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The information booklet presents the guidelines of the Federal Association of Panel Doctors, concerning the minimum equipment required for nuclear medical diagnostics practices (nuclear medical equipment guidelines), in the amended version of May 18, 1981; it also contains the list I (modern commercially available equipment) and the list II (older types of equipment). The devices specified in these lists are products of firms that are members of the ZVEI, and are in compliance with the guidelines of the Panel Doctors' Association. Combinations of older computer equipment/cameras with up-to-date equipment, also come up to the standards given in the guidelines if specifically mentioned therein. The list of manufacturers gives addresses of the manufacturers of the equipment stated in list I and II. An appendix up-dates the information to the date of October 1, 1986. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy- emerging trends in medical diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Sudha

    1997-01-01

    A dramatic acceleration in the application of magnetic resonance techniques in the field of medical sciences has been witnessed over the past decade. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been called the most significant development since the discovery of x-rays. As a method of visualizing cross-sectional anatomy, MRI is without peer. MRI images can now provide in-vivo anatomical details that were earlier available only with invasive procedures. Yet, despite its extraordinary potential, MRI has had limited success, if any, in tissue characterization using the three image parameters T 1 , T 2 and proton density ρ. MR spectroscopy has however bridged this gap to a large extent and opened up the possibility of studying in vivo chemistry. In the present article an attempt has been made to give a brief account of the application of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in medical diagnostics and therapy. The basic principles pertaining to MRI and MRS are also discussed in brief. (author)

  1. Senior medical students' awareness of radiation risks from common diagnostic imaging examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Elena; Mayo, John; Nicolaou, Savvas; Kozoriz, Michael; Chang, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Senior medical students represent future physicians who commonly refer patients for diagnostic imaging studies that may involve ionizing radiation. The radiology curriculum at the University of British Columbia provides students with broad-based knowledge about common imaging examinations. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' awareness of radiation exposures and risks. An anonymous multiple-choice cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students to assess knowledge of radiation from common diagnostic examinations and radiation-related risks following completion of the longitudinal radiology curriculum, carried out over the four years of medical training. Sixty-three of 192 eligible students participated (33% response rate). The majority felt that knowledge of radiation doses of common imaging examinations is somewhat or very important; however, only 12% (N = 8) routinely discuss radiation-related risks with patients. While all respondents recognized children as most sensitive to the effects of radiation, only 24% (N = 15) correctly identified gonads as the most radiation-sensitive tissue. Almost all respondents recognized ultrasound and MRI as radiation free modalities. Respondents who correctly identified the relative dose of common imaging examinations in chest x-ray equivalents varied from 3-77% (N = 2 - 49); the remaining responses were largely underestimates. Finally, 44% (N = 28) correctly identified the excess risk of a fatal cancer from an abdominal CT in an adult, while the remainder underestimated this risk. Medical students acknowledge the importance of radiation-related issues to patient care. While almost all students are familiar with radiation-free modalities, many are not familiar with, and commonly underestimate, the relative doses and risks of common imaging studies. This may expose patients to increasing imaging investigations and exposure to radiation hazards.

  2. Exploring the Veterinary Literature: A Bibliometric Methodology for Identifying Interdisciplinary and Collaborative Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jessica R.; Moberly, Heather K.; Youngen, Gregory K.; Hamel, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary medical research traditionally focuses on animal health and wellness; however, research activities at veterinary colleges extend beyond these traditional areas. In this study, we analyzed eleven years of Web of Knowledge-indexed peer-reviewed articles from researchers at the twenty-eight United States American Veterinary Medical…

  3. Risk factors of coronary heart disease among medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Jixian; Zhao Yongcheng; Li Benxiao; Fan Tiqiang; Zhao Zhigang; Lin Zhidong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China, especially the relationship of CHD with occupational irradiation. Methods: A 1:2 matched case-control study was carried out. The study subjects consisted of 112 pair-matched cases and controls coming from different hospitals in China. Information about occupational and non-occupational risk factors obtained by interviewing every subjects personally. Individual doses were estimated by normalized work load method. SAS 6.12 software conditional Logistic regression method was applied to data analysis. Results: Variables such as family history of CHD (OR=17.298, P = 0.0001), history of hypertension (OR = 6.172, P = 0.0003), overweight (OR = 2.679, P = 0.0150), physical exercises (OR = 0.421, P0.0333), diabetes (OR = 7.823, P = 0.0200), radiation protection condition (OR = 3.992, P 0.0027), and accumulated radiation dose (OR = 1.612, P 0.0454) were included in the last model. Conclusions: For the medical diagnostic X-ray workers, family history of coronary heart disease, history of hypertension, diabetes, etc. are the main risk factors of CHD, and occupational exposure may be a potential risk factor. As for the mechanism, further studies are needed

  4. Cancer risk analysis among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Li Benxiao; Gao Zhiwei; Xu Jun; Zhang Jingyuan; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    1997-01-01

    To provide the evidence and related rules of human malignant tumors produced by prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation. The cancer incidence (1950-1990) among 27011 medical diagnostic X-ray workers was compared with that among 25782 other medical specialists employed between 1950 and 1980 in China by means of O/E system. A significantly elevated risk of cancer was seen among diagnostic x-ray workers (RR = 1.1,95%Cl:1.0-1.2,P <0.05). Significantly elevated risks were seen for leukemia and cancers of skin, female breast, liver and esophagus, the RR being 2.3, 5.0, 1.6, 1.3 and 4.4 respectively. The RR for leukemia was higher for X-ray workers who began employment before 1970 and also for those who were young when employment began. The patterns of risk associated with length of service and with age and calendar year of initial employment suggest that the excesses of leukemia, skin cancer and female breast cancer were due to occupational exposure to X-rays. The ERR and EAR for leukemia and solid cancer were calculated roughly. (author)

  5. Update of diagnostic medical and dental x-ray exposures in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorop, Ioana; Mossang, Daniela; Dadulescu, Elena [Radiation Hygiene Laboratory of Public Health Authority Dolj, 2, Constantin Lecca Street, Craiova (Romania); Iacob, Mihai Radu [University ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' , 11, Carol I Street, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Iacob, Olga [Institute of Public Health, 14, Victor Babes Street, 700465 Iasi (Romania)], E-mail: danamossang@sanpubdj.ro

    2008-12-15

    This national study, the third in the last 15 years, updates the magnitude of medical radiation exposure from conventional x-ray examinations, in order to optimise the radiological protection to the population in a cost-effective manner. Effective doses from diagnostic radiology were estimated for adult and paediatric patients undergoing the 20 most important types of x-ray examination. Data were collected from 179 x-ray departments, selected by their annual workload, throughout the country. Estimates were made using two dosimetric quantities: entrance surface dose, derived from the absorbed dose in air measured by simulation of radiographic examinations, and dose-area product, measured during fluoroscopic examinations performed on adult and paediatric patients. Conversion coefficients to effective dose of the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) have been used in all calculations. The effective dose per patient from all medical x-ray examinations was 0.74 mSv and the resulting annual collective effective dose was 6930 man Sv, with annual effective dose per caput of 0.33 mSv. The current size of population exposure from diagnostic radiology is lower than the previous one by 40%, but could be about 30% higher by taking into account the estimated contribution from computed tomography (CT) procedures.

  6. DXplain: a Web-based diagnostic decision support system for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, S

    1998-01-01

    DXplain is a diagnostic decision support program, with a new World Wide Web interface, designed to help medical students and physicians formulate differential diagnoses based on clinical findings. It covers over 2000 diseases and 5000 clinical manifestations. DXplain suggests possible diagnoses, and provides brief descriptions of every disease in the database. Not all diseases are included, nor does DXplain take into account preexisting conditions or the chronological sequence of clinical manifestations. Despite these limitations, it is a useful educational tool, particularly for problem-based learning (PBL) cases and for students in clinical rotations, as it fills a niche not adequately covered by MEDLINE or medical texts. The system is relatively self-explanatory, requiring little or no end-user training. Medical libraries offering, or planning to offer, their users access to Web-based materials and resources may find this system a valuable addition to their electronic collections. Should it prove popular with the local users, provision of access may also establish or enhance the library's image as a partner in medical education.

  7. Investigation of radiation protection of medical staff performing medical diagnostic examinations by using PET/CT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrzesień, Małgorzata; Napolska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is now one of the most important methods in the diagnosis of cancer diseases. Due to the rapid growth of PET/CT centres in Poland in less than a decade, radiation protection and, consequently, the assessment of worker exposure to ionising radiation, emitted mainly by the isotope 18 F, have become essential issues. The main aim of the study was to analyse the doses received by workers employed in the Medical Diagnostic Centre. The analysis comprises a physicist, three nurses, three physicians, three technicians, as well as two administrative staff employees. High-sensitivity thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were used to measure the doses for medical staff. The personnel was classified into categories, among them employees having direct contact with the ‘source of radiation’— 18 FDG. The TLDs were placed on the fingertips of both hands and they were also attached at the level of eye lenses, thyroid and gonads depending on the assigned category. The highest dose of radiation was observed during the administration of the 18 FDG to the patients. In the case of the physicist, the highest dose was recorded during preparation of the radiopharmaceutical— 18 FDG. The body parts most exposed to ionizing radiation are the fingertips of the thumb, index and middle finger. (paper)

  8. Investigation of radiation protection of medical staff performing medical diagnostic examinations by using PET/CT technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesień, Małgorzata; Napolska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is now one of the most important methods in the diagnosis of cancer diseases. Due to the rapid growth of PET/CT centres in Poland in less than a decade, radiation protection and, consequently, the assessment of worker exposure to ionising radiation, emitted mainly by the isotope (18)F, have become essential issues. The main aim of the study was to analyse the doses received by workers employed in the Medical Diagnostic Centre. The analysis comprises a physicist, three nurses, three physicians, three technicians, as well as two administrative staff employees. High-sensitivity thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were used to measure the doses for medical staff. The personnel was classified into categories, among them employees having direct contact with the 'source of radiation'-(18)FDG. The TLDs were placed on the fingertips of both hands and they were also attached at the level of eye lenses, thyroid and gonads depending on the assigned category. The highest dose of radiation was observed during the administration of the (18)FDG to the patients. In the case of the physicist, the highest dose was recorded during preparation of the radiopharmaceutical-(18)FDG. The body parts most exposed to ionizing radiation are the fingertips of the thumb, index and middle finger.

  9. The Design of Diagnostic Medical Facilities where Ionising Radiation is used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.; O'Reilly, G.; O'Connor, U.; Gallagher, A.; Sheahan, N.; Fennell, S.

    2009-06-01

    The original Code of Practice on The Design of Diagnostic Medical Facilities Using Ionising Radiation was first published by the Nuclear Energy Board in 1988. In the intervening years the 'Blue Book' as it became known has served the medical community well as the sector has expanded and modernised and the late Dr Noel Nowlan, then Chief Executive of the Nuclear Energy Board, deserves much credit for initiating this pioneering contribution to radiation safety in Ireland. There have been significant developments since its publication in terms of the underlying radiation protection legislation, regulatory practice as well as developments in new technologies that have given rise to the need for a revision of the Code. This revised Code is based on a comprehensive draft document produced by the Haughton Institute under contract to the RPII and was finalised following extensive consultations with the relevant stakeholders. The revised Code includes a brief review of the current legislative framework and its specific impact on the management of building projects (Chapters 1 and 2), a presentation of the main types of radiological (Chapter 3) and nuclear medicine (Chapter 4) facilities, a treatment of the technical aspects of shielding calculations (Chapter 5) and a discussion of the practical aspects of implementing shielding solutions in a building context (Chapter 6). The primary purpose of the Code is to assist in the design of diagnostic facilities to the highest radiation protection standards in order to ensure the safety of workers and members of the public and the delivery of a safe service to patients. Diagnostic radiology is a dynamic environment and the Code is intended to be used in consultation with the current literature, an experienced Radiation Protection Advisor and a multidisciplinary project team

  10. Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, A U; Singh, Meghraj; Sunil Kumar, J V K; Kulkarni, Arti; Shirva, V K; Pradhan, A S

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA) audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp), linearity of tube current (mA station) and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model RAD/FLU-9001), dose Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model 6001), ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%), lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%), nonlinearity of mA station (16%) and timer (9%), improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%), faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%), nonavailability of warning light (red light) at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%), and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%). The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body.

  11. Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawane A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp, linearity of tube current (mA station and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM (Model RAD/FLU-9001, dose Test-O-Meter (ToM (Model 6001, ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%, lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%, nonlinearity of mA station (16% and timer (9%, improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%, faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%, nonavailability of warning light (red light at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%, and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%. The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body.

  12. Medical capsule robots: A renaissance for diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapara, Sanyat S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2017-09-10

    The advancements in electronics and the progress in nanotechnology have resulted in path breaking development that will transform the way diagnosis and treatment are carried out currently. This development is Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots travelling inside the body to diagnose and cure disorders. The first marketed capsule robot was a capsule endoscope developed to capture images of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available in the market. They are slightly larger than regular oral capsules, made up of a biocompatible case and have electronic circuitry and mechanisms to capture and transmit images. In addition, robots with diagnostic features such as in vivo body temperature detection and pH monitoring have also been launched in the market. However, a multi-functional unit that will diagnose and cure diseases inside the body has not yet been realized. A remote controlled capsule that will undertake drug delivery and surgical treatment has not been successfully launched in the market. High cost, inadequate power supply, lack of control over drug release, limited space for drug storage on the capsule, inadequate safety and no mechanisms for active locomotion and anchoring have prevented their entry in the market. The capsule robots can revolutionize the current way of diagnosis and treatment. This paper discusses in detail the applications of medical capsule robots in diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment. In diagnostics, detailed analysis has been presented on wireless capsule endoscopes, issues associated with the marketed versions and their corresponding solutions in literature. Moreover, an assessment has been made of the existing state of remote controlled capsules for targeted drug delivery and surgical treatment and their future impact is predicted. Besides the need for multi-functional capsule robots and the areas for further research have also been

  13. Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonawane, A.U.; Singh, Meghraj; Sunil Kumar, J.V.K.; Kulkarni, Arti; Shirva, V.K.; Pradhan, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA) audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp), linearity of tube current (mA station) and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model RAD/FLU-9001), dose Test-O-Meter (ToM) (Model 6001), ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%), lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%), nonlinearity of mA station (16%) and timer (9%), improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%), faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%), nonavailability of warning light (red light) at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%), and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%). The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body. (author)

  14. Evaluation of doses from radiodiagnostic procedures performed in veterinary medicine and assessing of the doses of secondary radiation in the medical staff and animal owners; Avaliacao das doses resultantes de procedimentos radiodiagnosticos realizados em medicina veterinaria e avaliacao das doses secundarias de radiacao espalhada no corpo clinico e nos proprietarios dos animais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziani, Glauco Rogerio

    2012-07-01

    The primary goal in veterinary radiography is to produce radiographs of diagnostic quality on the first attempt. This goal serves three purposes: (1) to decrease radiation exposure to the patient and veterinary personnel; (2) to decrease the cost of the study for the client; and (3) to produce diagnostic data for rapid interpretation and treatment of the patient. This work aimed to determine the doses in dogs submitted to chest and abdomen X rays using the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. The radiation doses were assessed using thermoluminescent dosimeters of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy) and lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti). The obtained results indicate that is extremely important the assessment of radiation doses involved in veterinary diagnostic radiology procedures, to evaluate the delivered doses to the animals, to be used as a parameter in the individual monitoring of pet's owners, who assist the animal positioning, and to protect occupationally exposed workers at the Veterinary Radiology Clinics. (author)

  15. Stochastic risk estimation from medical x-ray diagnostic examinations, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi; Noda, Yutaka; Iwai, Kazuo; Tateno, Y.; Nishizawa, Kanae.

    1981-01-01

    The risks of genetic, leukemia and malignant diseases from medical X-ray diagnostic examinations were estimated using the frequency of radiographic and fluoroscopic exposures per diagnostic examination, child expectancy, leukemia and malignancy significant factors, and using a weighting factor determined on the basis of data concerning the cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki and of a recommendation of International Commission of Radiological Protection. The organ or tissue doses with respect to the stochastic risks were determined with ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the positions of the organs or tissues in a RANDO woman phantom which was exposed to diagnostic X-rays according to technical factors of typical radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations obtained from a nationwide survey. The resultant risks by age-group and type of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination are tabulated in terms of risk level of 10 -6 . In general, the total risk defined as the sum of genetic, leukemia and malignant risks was a high value for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs involving barium meal and barium enema. For example, the total risk for young age-group was 100 to 200 x 10 -6 for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk from the chest radiography was lower value as compared with the risk from the X-ray diagnosis of other organs or tissues. On the contrary, the risk from the chest tomography was comparable to the risk from the diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk decreased with increasing of age for every X-ray diagnostic examination. (author)

  16. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  17. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Tsalatsanis

    Full Text Available Dual Processing Theories (DPT assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive and type 2 (deliberative. Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  18. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2014-01-01

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  19. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Medical Expertise Unit, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mezzarobba, Myriam [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-HOM/SRBE/LEPID, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  20. Cost Benefit Optimization of the Israeli Medical Diagnostic X-Ray Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shlomo, A.; Shlesinger, T.; Shani, G.; Kushilevsky, A.

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. A preliminary survey was carried out during 1997 on 3 major Israeli hospitals in order to assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays (1). The survey has found that the annual collective dose of the Israeli population to x-ray medical imaging procedures (excluding radio-therapy) is about 7,500 Man-Sv. The results of the survey were analyzed in order to. 1. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of the Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 2. Establish a set of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. . Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel. Based on the ICRP-60 linear model risk assessments (2), the extent of the annual risk arising A.om the 7,500 Man-Sv medical x-ray collective dose in Israel has been found to be the potential addition of 567 cancer cases per year, 244 of which to be fatal, and a potential additional birth of 3-4 children with severe genetic damage per year. This assessment take into account the differential risk and the collective dose according to the age distribution in the Israeli exposed population, and excludes patients with chronic diseases

  1. Diagnostic value and safety of medical thoracoscopy in tuberculous pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Li-Li; Wu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Jun; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Differentiating tuberculous pleural effusion from other lymphocytic pleural effusions is often challenging. This retrospective study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of medical thoracoscopy in patients with suspected tuberculous pleural effusion. Between July 2005 and June 2014, patients with pleural effusions of unknown etiologies underwent medical thoracoscopy in our institute after less invasive means of diagnosis had failed. Demographic, radiographic, procedural, and histological data of patients with tuberculous pleural effusion were analyzed. During this 9-year study, 333 of 833 patients with pleural effusion were confirmed to have tuberculous pleurisy. Under thoracoscopy, we observed pleural nodules in 69.4%, pleural adhesion in 66.7%, hyperemia in 60.7%, plaque-like lesions in 6.0%, ulceration in 1.5% of patients with tuberculous pleurisy. Pleural biopsy revealed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the pleural tissue or/and demonstration of caseating granulomas in 330 (99.1%) patients. No serious adverse events were recorded, and the most common minor complication was transient chest pain (43.2%) from the indwelling chest tube. Our data showed that medical thoracoscopy is a simple procedure with high diagnostic yield and excellent safety for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic x-ray in use in federal medical centre, case study Makurdi metropolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoja, R.A.; Fiase, J.O.

    2009-01-01

    Every year more than two thousand patients go for routine medical check-up at the Federal Medical Centre using diagnostic x-rays. This paper is based on a study to determine the entrance surface doses per radiograph of 108 patients that had diagnostic examinations at the Federal Medical Centre Makurdi. The examinations considered in this study are chest x-ray examinations, abdomen, skull and other extremities, for both adults and children. The results show that the mean entrance surface doses of PA chest x-ray for female range between 237-275μGy, for male is between 1183-297μGy, and for children range between 47-237μGy. The AP chest x-ray for female range between 1943-3440μGy, for male is between 1583-3484μGy and for children it ranges between 177-451μGy. The PA examination of the skull for adult female ranged between 117-787μGy, for male it ranged between 117-532μGy and children from 472-948μGy. Also for the AP examination for skull the adult female mean entrance surface doses range from 129-798μGy, for the male it range from 145-178μGy and for children 138-650μGy. The AP abdomen for adult female produces a mean entrance surface doses range between 620-682μGy, for the male is between 105-930μGy, and children it range between 144-398μGy. In the case of extremities AP examination are between the range of 173-468μGy for adult female, 300-595μGy for adult male and between 254-887μGy for the children. In the case of extremities PA examination mean entrance surface doses are between the range of 145-517μGy for adult female, 363-517μGy for adult male and between 130-566μGy for the children. The data shows that the entrance surface doses due to the x-ray examination for adult and children are within the ICRP guidance levels. These guidance levels of dose for diagnostic radiography for a typical adult patient are 10 mGy for AP abdomen, 0.4 mGy PA chest, 7 mGy for AP chest and 5 mGy for PA skull

  3. Radiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)

  4. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  5. Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, R.

    2008-01-01

    A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant ∼50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy -1 (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy -1 ), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. (authors)

  6. THE ROLE AND PLACE OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION AND ROC ANALYSIS IN SOLVING MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Grigoryev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics, equally with  prevention and  treatment, is a basis of medical science and practice. For its history the medicine  has accumulated a great variety  of diagnostic methods for different diseases and  pathologic conditions. Nevertheless, new  tests,  methods and  tools are being  developed and recommended to application nowadays. Such  indicators as sensitivity and  specificity which  are defined on the basis  of fourfold contingency  tables   construction or  ROC-analysis method with  ROC  – curve  modelling (Receiver operating characteristic are used  as the  methods to estimate the  diagnostic capability. Fourfold  table  is used  with  the purpose to estimate the method which confirms or denies the diagnosis, i.e. a quality indicator. ROC-curve, being a graph, allows making the estimation of model  quality by subdivision of two classes  on the  basis  of identifying the  point  of cutting off a continuous or discrete quantitative attribute.The method of logistic regression technique is introduced as a tool to develop some  mathematical-statistical forecasting model  of probability of the event the researcher is interested in if there are two possible variants of the outcome. The method of ROC-analysis is chosen and described in detail as a tool to estimate the  model  quality. The capabilities of the named methods are demonstrated by a real example of creation  and  efficiency estimation (sensitivity and  specificity of a forecasting model  of probability of complication development in the form of pyodermatitis in children with  atopic dermatitis.

  7. Evaluation of dose to tooth enamel from medical diagnostic X-ray examinations at Mayak PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, A., E-mail: wieser@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Vasilenko, E. [Mayak Production Association, 456780 Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Zankl, M.; Greiter, M.; Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sabayev, A.; Knyazev, V.; Zahrov, P. [Mayak Production Association, 456780 Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The nuclear workers of the Mayak Production Association had regular check-ups including medical diagnostic X-ray examinations since start of the production lines in 1948. Doses from diagnostic examinations need to be considered in reconstruction of occupational doses of the workers with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of tooth enamel. The numbers and types of examinations of an individual worker can be assessed from the Mayak PA archives but no information was available on doses delivered to teeth by a single specific examination. Of the twenty one applied examination procedures only three affected the teeth, these being X-ray examinations of teeth, skull and cervical spine. For these three kinds of examinations operational procedures and operating modes of X-ray units were compiled from the archive and photon spectra were obtained from a catalog of spectral data for diagnostic X-rays. Entrance doses in air kerma were calculated using the fluence of photon spectra and absorbed dose in tooth enamel for various tooth positions and exposure geometry was then calculated using dose conversion coefficients obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Doses were calculated for examinations in 1948-2000. Except for examination of the skull, absorbed doses in enamel of incisors were found to be about twice as large as in enamel of molars. In the period before 1970 the largest mean absorbed doses in tooth enamel were due to X-ray examination of teeth, with 64 mGy and 34 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively. In the same period the lowest mean doses were due to X-ray examination of the skull, with 11 mGy and 12 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively. In the period from 1970 to 2000, largest mean doses in enamel were due to X-ray examination of cervical spine, with 23 mGy and 12 mGy calculated for incisors and molars, respectively.

  8. ASIC design of a digital fuzzy system on chip for medical diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Roy, Aniruddha; Saha, Hiranmay

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the ASIC design of a digital fuzzy logic circuit for medical diagnostic applications. The system on chip under consideration uses fuzzifier, memory and defuzzifier for fuzzifying the patient data, storing the membership function values and defuzzifying the membership function values to get the output decision. The proposed circuit uses triangular trapezoidal membership functions for fuzzification patients' data. For minimizing the transistor count, the proposed circuit uses 3T XOR gates and 8T adders for its design. The entire work has been carried out using TSMC 0.35 µm CMOS process. Post layout TSPICE simulation of the whole circuit indicates a delay of 31.27 ns and the average power dissipation of the system on chip is 123.49 mW which indicates a less delay and less power dissipation than the comparable embedded systems reported earlier.

  9. Ionizing radiations used in medical diagnostics as a source of radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, K.; Vasilev, G.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray and radionuclide application in medical diagnosing is the major sources of Bulgarian population exposure to ionizing radiations exceeding the radiation background. The number of X-ray examination on a nationwide scale shows an increase from 1600 thousand annually in 1950 to 10300 thousand in 1980 and decreases to about 4700 thousand annually for the period 1992-1993. The frequency for the above mentioned time intervals varies in the range 0.22 to 1.17 examinations per capita annually and decreases to 0.56. The roentgenoscopy to roentgenography ratio varies from 2.5:1 to 0.9:1 (1975) and increases to 2.0:1 (1993). The number of radioisotope examinations increased from 34 thousand in 1970 to 170 thousand annually in 1985 and decreased to about thousand annually in 1992-1993 with a number of studies per capita varying from 0.004 to 0.020 and decreasing to 0.010. In 1993 the annual collective effective dose due to X-ray diagnostics amounts to about 7000 man-Sv/a which exceeds the radiation background exposure by 76%. Radioisotope diagnostics in the period reviewed accounted for nearly 700 man-Sv/a with an exposure exceeding the radiation background by 7.7%. The major problems relating to patient protection and benefit/risk ratio improvement are discussed. (author)

  10. CAPITAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF THE MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC-CONSULTATIVE CENTERS IN VARNA (absolute indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomira Koeva-Dimitrova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capital structure analysis of medical institutions is related to the assessment of their financial sustainability. The degree of their financial sustainability indicates the extent to which the medical institution is exposed to financial risk. This financial risk is related to the use of foreign capital (debts, loans, etc. and it is defined as the probability of insolvency and possible bankruptcy due to the existence of debts which could not be repaid at some point in the foreseeable future. Objective: To analyze the capital structure of the medical diagnostic-consultative centers in Varna city and on this basis to assess their long-term solvency and existence of financial risk. Materials and Methods: The materials for the study are the published annual financial statements (up to 05. 01. 2016 in the Commercial Register for the period from year 2008 to 2014 of all MDCCs (Medical Diagnostic Consultative centers, registered in Varna - 9 in total. In the study are applied logical-mathematical methods (comparison, grouping, detail, graphical method; financial and accounting analysis (balance sheet analysis; analysis of absolute ratios for financial sustainability. Results: Upon analysis of the capital structure of MDCC's are studied the main absolute indicators characterizing the conditions for financial sustainability and the existence of financial risk regarding the solvency. A table represents the overall assessment of the degree of financial sustainability of the companies according to the type and structure of the fulfilled criteria. It was ascertained that for year 2014, DCC 3, 4, 5 and 8 have met all the conditions and according to them these hospitals have very high financial sustainability. DCC 7 has an average financial sustainability, DCC 1 and 2 are in a financial crisis and DCC 6 and 9 are facing bankruptcy. It must be emphasized that nearly half of the studied health care organizations (DCC 1, 2, 6 and 9 need urgent intervention by

  11. Infrared thermography in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)

  12. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...

  14. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...

  15. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, ... momohasabeh@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348038352906. ... in-contact humans from pig farms and abattoir. ... Momoh et al. 141 and may enhance the distribution of resistance genes into ... treating clinical infections in both man and.

  16. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    xyphoid cartilage to the pelvic area and aquasonic gel applied. The uterus was ... is used in both veterinary and human medicine ... Idris et al. 135 the pelvic region was gently made wet, with ... showing multiple fetuses (blue arrow). Plate IV: ... The beginning of bone formation which appears as hyperechoic structures ...

  17. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.

  18. Clinical Approach to the Standardization of Oriental Medical Diagnostic Pattern Identification in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jung Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, many stroke patients receive oriental medical care, in which pattern-identification plays a major role. Pattern-identification is Oriental Medicine's unique diagnostic system. This study attempted to standardize oriental medical pattern-identification for stroke patients. This was a community-based multicenter study that enrolled stroke patients within 30 days after their ictus. We assessed the patients' general characteristics and symptoms related to pattern-identification. Each patient's pattern was determined when two doctors had the same opinion. To determine which variables affect the pattern-identification, binary logistic regression analysis was used with the backward method. A total of 806 stroke patients were enrolled. Among 480 patients who were identified as having a certain pattern, 100 patients exhibited the Fire Heat Pattern, 210 patients the Phlegm Dampness Pattern, nine patients the Blood Stasis Pattern, 110 patients the Qi Deficiency Pattern, and 51 patients the Yin Deficiency Pattern. After the regression analysis, the predictive logistic equations for the Fire Heat, Phlegm Dampness, Qi Deficiency, and Yin Deficiency patterns were determined. The Blood Stasis Pattern was omitted because the sample size was too small. Predictive logistic equations were suggested for four of the patterns. These criteria would be useful in determining each stroke patient's pattern in clinics. However, further studies with large samples are necessary to validate and confirm these criteria.

  19. Survey of radiation doses and health effects in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhang Liangan; Liu Jinzhong; Zhang Jingyuan

    1984-01-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of radiation doses and health effects in 26983 medical diagnostic X-ray workers in 28 provinces of China were reported. The control group was composed of 25785 non-X-ray medical workers in the same hospitals where the investigated X-ray workers worked. Of the radiological workers surveyed 75.3% received cumulative radiation doses below 50 mGy, only 2.7% received doses greater than 500 mGy, the average cumulative dose being 45.0 mGy. The average length of service was 11 years. The main radiation effects relating to radiation doses were the increase of frequencies of both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were 0.362% and 0.0358% in the irradiated group, and 0.122% and 0.0138% in the control group, respectively. The incidence and mortality rate of leukemias increased significantly in the irradiated group. The incidence and standardized incidence of leukemias were 9.61 . 10 -5 and 9.67 . 10 -5 in the irradiated group and 2.74 . 10 -5 and 2.77 . 10 -5 in the control group. The leukemia mortality rates in the two groups were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.24 . 10 -5 respectively, and the standardized mortality rates were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.27 . 10 -5 respectively. (Author)

  20. Diagnostic value of medical thoracoscopy in malignant pleural effusion induced by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Yan-Bing; Xu, Li-Li; Jin, Mu-Lan; Diao, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2017-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) appears in up to 20% of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of medical thoracoscopy (MT) in the diagnosis of patients with MPE induced by NHL. Between July 2005 and June 2014, 833 patients with pleural effusions of unknown etiology underwent MT in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital (Beijing, China), where diagnostic thoracocentesis or/and blind pleural biopsy had failed to yield an answer. Demographic, radiographic, thoracoscopic, histological and immunophenotyping data of 10 NHL patients with MPE were then retrospectively analyzed. Under medical thoracoscopy, pleural nodules (in n=6 patients), hyperemia (n=5), plaque-like lesions (n=4), pleural thickening (n=3), cellulose (n=3), ulcer (n=2), adhesion (n=2), and scattered hemorrhagic spots (n=1) were observed on the surface of parietal pleura. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of pleural biopsy samples led to a correct diagnosis of B-cell NHL in 7 patients and T-lymphoblastic NHL in 2 patients. Data from the present study demonstrated that pleural biopsy through MT achieved a definite diagnosis of NHL in 9 out of 10 (90%) patients with MPE induced by NHL. Therefore, MT is a useful method for diagnosing MPE induced by NHL.

  1. The literature of veterinary imaging: the analysis of a questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    250 veterinarians, including 143(57.7%) non-radiologists, replied to a questionnaire on current literature of veterinary imaging. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound was considered the best overall journal, being chosen as first choice by 51.6% respondents. It was also judged to have the best photographic reproduction. No book was chosen as first choice by more than 18.4%. Three, Textbook of Diagnostic Radiology, Thrall; Diagnostic Radiology of the Dog & Cat, Kealy and Thoracic Radiography of the Dog & Cat, Suter & Lord, were chosen by 18.4%, 16.8% and 13.2% respondents respectively. Clinically orientated papers and review articles were the preferred contents of journal's. Experience of colleagues and journals were adjudged the best source of information on diagnostic imaging. Differences in results between radiologists and non-radiologists were not great and geographic differences were few. Of the 112 respondents who had published papers on veterinary imaging, 30 (26.4%) were non-radiologists

  2. Modern nuclear medicine methods as a topic of biophysics in veterinary training at UVM in Kosice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanicova, J.; Lohajova, L.

    2004-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionising radiation is very important in all of branches of medicine including veterinary medicine. In veterinary training at University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice (UVM), biophysics is a basic subject and it grants physical basis necessary for understanding subsequent subjects such as veterinary surgery, roentgenology, orthopedics. In view of this, traditional methods of radiology such as fluoroscopy, skiagraphy and tomography are explaining. The appearance and application of the theory so called reconstruction of image and also computers led to qualitatively new solutions via the development of modern methods in radiology. Explaining of physical principles, advantages or disadvantages of these new methods is also important in veterinary training although some of them do not use in veterinary practice yet. Two modern methods of nuclear medicine using in diagnostic (SPECT and PET) are discussed bellow. (authors)

  3. Diagnostic Machine Learning Models for Acute Abdominal Pain: Towards an e-Learning Tool for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumrin, Piyapong; Ryan, Anna; Judd, Terry; Verspoor, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided learning systems (e-learning systems) can help medical students gain more experience with diagnostic reasoning and decision making. Within this context, providing feedback that matches students' needs (i.e. personalised feedback) is both critical and challenging. In this paper, we describe the development of a machine learning model to support medical students' diagnostic decisions. Machine learning models were trained on 208 clinical cases presenting with abdominal pain, to predict five diagnoses. We assessed which of these models are likely to be most effective for use in an e-learning tool that allows students to interact with a virtual patient. The broader goal is to utilise these models to generate personalised feedback based on the specific patient information requested by students and their active diagnostic hypotheses.

  4. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures; Unabsichtliche Strahlenexposition in der Schwangerschaft durch nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  5. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... GENERAL Radiation Protection Recommendations § 1000.50 Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad...

  6. [The Offer of Medical-Diagnostic Self-Tests on German Language Websites: Results of a Systematic Internet Search].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuecuekbalaban, P; Schmidt, S; Muehlan, H

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to provide an overview of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be purchased without a medical prescription on German language websites. From September 2014 to March 2015, a systematic internet research was conducted with the following search terms: self-test, self-diagnosis, home test, home diagnosis, quick test, rapid test. 513 different self-tests for the diagnostics of 52 diverse diseases or health risks were identified, including chronic diseases (e. g. diabetes, chronic disease of the kidneys, liver, and lungs), sexually transmitted diseases (e. g. HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea), infectious diseases (e. g. tuberculosis, malaria, Helicobacter pylori), allergies (e. g. house dust, cats, histamine) and cancer as well as tests for the diagnostics of 12 different psychotropic substances. These were sold by 90 companies in Germany and by other foreign companies. The number of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be bought without a medical prescription on the Internet has increased enormously in the last 10 years. Further studies are needed for the identification of the determinants of the use of self-tests as well as the impact of the application on the experience and behavior of the user. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Medical History of Elderly Patients in the Emergency Setting: Not an Easy Point-of-Care Diagnostic Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Lindner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical histories are a crucially important diagnostic tool. Elderly patients represent a large and increasing group of emergency patients. Due to cognitive deficits, taking a reliable medical history in this patient group can be difficult. We sought to evaluate the medical history-taking in emergency patients above 75 years of age with respect to duration and completeness. Methods. Anonymous data of consecutive patients were recorded. Times for the defined basic medical history-taking were documented, as were the availability of other sources and times to assess these. Results. Data of 104 patients were included in the analysis. In a quarter of patients (25%, n=26 no complete basic medical history could be obtained. In the group of patients where complete data could be gathered, only 16 patients were able to provide all necessary information on their own. Including other sources like relatives or GPs prolonged the time until complete medical history from 7.3 minutes (patient only to 26.4 (+relatives and 56.3 (+GP minutes. Conclusions. Medical histories are important diagnostic tools in the emergency setting and are prolonged in the elderly, especially if additional documentation and third parties need to be involved. New technologies like emergency medical cards might help to improve the availability of important patient data but implementation of these technologies is costly and faces data protection issues.

  8. FEATURES OF THE CHRONIC PAIN SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC TACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    medical tactics for rheumatoid arthritis patients with a chronic pain syndrome in therapeutic practice based on pain strength gradation, assessment of chronic pain syndrome variations, definition of anxiety and depression signs. All this allows to validate consultation of medical specialists and to differentiate treatment. Conclusions. The integrated approach to diagnostics of a chronic pain syndrome for rheumatoid arthritis allows to estimate pain strengths in dynamics of disease development, to reveal existence of pain variations, anxiety and depression. It enables usage of patient maintenance tactics and increases efficiency of treatment in therapeutic practice. 

  9. SU-E-P-01: An Informative Review On the Role of Diagnostic Medical Physicist in the Academic and Private Medical Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The role of physicist in the academic and private hospital environment continues to evolve and expand. This becomes more obvious with the newly revised requirements of the Joint Commission (JC) on imaging modalities and the continued updated requirements of ACR accreditation for medical physics (i.e., starting in June 2014, a physicists test will be needed before US accreditation). We provide an informative review on the role of diagnostic medical physicist and hope that our experience will expedite junior physicists in understanding their role in medical centers, and be ready to more opportunities. Methods: Based on our experience, diagnostic medical physicists in both academic and private medical centers perform several clinical functions. These include providing clinical service and physics support, ensuring that all ionizing radiation devices are tested and operated in compliance with the State and Federal laws, regulations and guidelines. We also discuss the training and education required to ensure that the radiation exposure to patients and staff is as low as reasonably achievable. We review the overlapping roles of medical and health physicist in some institutions. Results: A detailed scheme on the new requirements (effective 7/1/2014) of the JC is provided. In 2015, new standards for fluoroscopy, cone beam CT and the qualifications of staff will be phased in. A summary of new ACR requirements for different modalities is presented. Medical physicist have other duties such as sitting on CT and fluoroscopy committees for protocols design, training of non-radiologists to meet the new fluoroscopy rules, as well as helping with special therapies such as Yittrium 90 cases. Conclusion: Medical physicists in both academic and private hospitals are positioned to be more involved and prominent. Diagnostic physicists need to be more proactive to involve themselves in the day to day activities of the radiology department

  10. SU-E-P-01: An Informative Review On the Role of Diagnostic Medical Physicist in the Academic and Private Medical Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, V [Baylor Health Care System, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhang, J [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The role of physicist in the academic and private hospital environment continues to evolve and expand. This becomes more obvious with the newly revised requirements of the Joint Commission (JC) on imaging modalities and the continued updated requirements of ACR accreditation for medical physics (i.e., starting in June 2014, a physicists test will be needed before US accreditation). We provide an informative review on the role of diagnostic medical physicist and hope that our experience will expedite junior physicists in understanding their role in medical centers, and be ready to more opportunities. Methods: Based on our experience, diagnostic medical physicists in both academic and private medical centers perform several clinical functions. These include providing clinical service and physics support, ensuring that all ionizing radiation devices are tested and operated in compliance with the State and Federal laws, regulations and guidelines. We also discuss the training and education required to ensure that the radiation exposure to patients and staff is as low as reasonably achievable. We review the overlapping roles of medical and health physicist in some institutions. Results: A detailed scheme on the new requirements (effective 7/1/2014) of the JC is provided. In 2015, new standards for fluoroscopy, cone beam CT and the qualifications of staff will be phased in. A summary of new ACR requirements for different modalities is presented. Medical physicist have other duties such as sitting on CT and fluoroscopy committees for protocols design, training of non-radiologists to meet the new fluoroscopy rules, as well as helping with special therapies such as Yittrium 90 cases. Conclusion: Medical physicists in both academic and private hospitals are positioned to be more involved and prominent. Diagnostic physicists need to be more proactive to involve themselves in the day to day activities of the radiology department.

  11. Evaluation of usage of virtual microscopy for the study of histology in the medical, dental, and veterinary undergraduate programs of a UK University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatumu, Margaret K; MacMillan, Frances M; Langton, Philip D; Headley, P Max; Harris, Judy R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the introduction of a virtual microscope (VM) that has allowed preclinical histology teaching to be fashioned to better suit the needs of approximately 900 undergraduate students per year studying medicine, dentistry, or veterinary science at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Features of the VM implementation include: (1) the facility for students and teachers to make annotations on the digital slides; (2) in-house development of VM-based quizzes that are used for both formative and summative assessments; (3) archiving of teaching materials generated each year, enabling students to access their personalized learning resources throughout their programs; and (4) retention of light microscopy capability alongside the VM. Student feedback on the VM is particularly positive about its ease of use, the value of the annotation tool, the quizzes, and the accessibility of all components off-campus. Analysis of login data indicates considerable, although variable, use of the VM by students outside timetabled teaching. The median number of annual logins per student account for every course exceeded the number of timetabled histology classes for that course (1.6–3.5 times). The total number of annual student logins across all cohorts increased from approximately 9,000 in the year 2007–2008 to 22,000 in the year 2010–2011. The implementation of the VM has improved teaching and learning in practical classes within the histology laboratory and facilitated consolidation and revision of material outside the laboratory. Discussion is provided of some novel strategies that capitalize on the benefits of introducing a VM, as well as strategies adopted to overcome some potential challenges.

  12. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice

  13. Veterinary homeopathy: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Vockeroth, W G

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery...

  14. Assessment of medical radiation exposure to patients and ambient doses in several diagnostic radiology departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulieman, A.; Elhadi, T.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M.; Alnaaimi, M.; Alduaij, M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    In many countries diagnostic medical exposures typically account for a very large fraction of the collective effective dose that can be assigned to anthropological sources and activities. This in part flags up the question of whether sufficient steps are being taken in regard to potential dose saving from such medical services. As a first step, one needs to survey doses to compare against those of best practice. The present study has sought evaluation of the radiation protection status and patient doses for certain key radiological procedures in four film-based radiology departments within Sudan. The radiation exposure survey, carried out using a survey meter and quality control test tools, involved a total of 299 patients their examinations being carried out at one or other of these four departments. The entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was determined from exposure settings using DosCal software and an Unfors -Xi-meter. The mean ESAK for x-ray examination of the chest was 0.30±0.1 mGy, for the skull it was 0.96±0.7 mGy, for the abdomen 0.85±0.01 mGy, for spinal procedures 1.30±0.6 mGy and for procedures involving the limbs it was 0.43±0.3 mGy. Ambient dose-rates in the reception area, at the closed door of the x-ray room, recorded instantaneous values of up to 100 μSv/h. In regard to protection, the associated levels were found to be acceptable in three of the four departments, corrective action being required for one department, regular quality control also being recommended.

  15. Recent Advances of Individual BODIPY and BODIPY-Based Functional Materials in Medical Diagnostics and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfin, Yuriy S; Solomonov, Alexey V; Timin, Alexander S; Rumyantsev, Evgeniy V

    2017-01-01

    The group of fluorophores on boron dipyrrin platform (4,4- difluoro-4-bora3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, also known as BODIPY) has attracted much attention in the field of molecular sensorics, including sensing of biomolecules and bioprocesses. Structural diversity of existing BODIPY with ample opportunities of directed modification of compounds makes this class of fluorophores attractive for medical and biological purposes. The recent progress in the design and functionalization of BODIPY allows using them for modification of drug micro- and nanocarriers in order to improve their therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. At the same time, integration of BODIPY into drug carriers provides the possibility of in vitro and in vivo real time imaging of used drug carriers. The high fluorescent intensity and low toxicity of BODIPY granted for conjugation with different biomolecules. The present review focuses on the recent advances for application of individual BODIPY in medical diagnostics, antimicrobial activity, as well as establishing the role of BODIPY in labeling of biomolecules (e.g. proteins, hormones and DNA). Also the review highlights the potential of BODIPY in functionalization of drug micro- and nanocarriers in order to achieve better therapeutic efficiency compared with non-modified materials. The advantages derived from the use of BODIPY for preparation and modification of drug carriers are critically evaluated and potential for future challenges, especially concerning the design of innovative multi-functional BODIPY-based nanocarriers, is discussed in detail using representative examples from literature. Our objective was to show that BODIPY are powerful tools for bioimaging, labeling of biomolecules and construction of new multifunctional drug carriers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Medical Community of Inquiry: A Diagnostic Tool for Learning, Assessment, and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakefet Ackerman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: These days educators are expected to integrate technological tools into classes. Although they acquire relevant skills, they are often reluctant to use these tools. Background:\tWe incorporated online forums for generating a Community of Inquiry (CoI in a faculty development program. Extending the Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK model with Assessment Knowledge and content analysis of forum discourse and reflection after each CoI, we offer the Diagnostic Tool for Learning, Assessment, and Research (DTLAR. Methodology: This study spanned over two cycles of a development program for medical faculty. Contribution: This study demonstrates how the DTLAR supports in-depth examination of the benefits and challenges of using CoIs for learning and teaching. Findings: Before the program, participants had little experience with, and were reluctant to use, CoIs in classes. At the program completion, many were willing to adopt CoIs and appreciated this method’s contribution. Both CoIs discourse and reflections included positive attitudes regarding cognitive and teacher awareness categories. However, negative attitudes regarding affective aspects and time-consuming aspects of CoIs were exposed. Participants who experienced facilitating a CoI gained additional insights into its usefulness. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: The DTLAR allows analyzing adaption of online forums for learning and teaching. Recommendation for Researchers: The DTLAR allows analyzing factors that affect the acceptance of online fo-rums for learning and teaching. Impact on Society\t: While the tool was implemented in the context of medical education, it can be readily applied in other adult learning programs. Future Research: The study includes several design aspects that probably affected the improve-ment and challenges we found. Future research is called for providing guidelines for identifying boundary conditions and potential for further

  17. On Informatics Diagnostics and Informatics Therapeutics - Good Medical Informatics Research Is Needed Here.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    In the era of digitization some new procedures play an increasing role for diagnosis as well as for therapy: informatics diagnostics and informatics therapeutics. Challenges for such procedures are described. It is discussed, when research on such diagnostics and therapeutics can be regarded as good research. Examples are mentioned for informatics diagnostics and informatics therapeutics, which are based on health-enabling technologies.

  18. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  19. Authentication and recovery of medical diagnostic image using dual reversible digital watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhigang; Zeng, Feng; Zhang, Yaoping; Mao, Yimin

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new region-based tampering detection and recovering method that utilizes both reversible digital watermarking and quad-tree decomposition for medical diagnostic image's authentication. Firstly, the quad-tree decomposition is used to divide the original image into blocks with high homogeneity, and then we computer pixels' linear interpolation as each block's recovery feature. Secondly, these recovery features as the first layer watermarking information is embedded by using simple invertible integer transformation. In order to enhance the proposed method's security, the logistic chaotic map is exploited to choose each block's reference pixel. The second layer watermark comprises by the quad-tree information and essential parameters for extraction are embedded by LSB replacement. In the authentication phase, the embedded watermark is extracted and the source image is recovered, and the similar linear interpolation technique is utilized to get each block's feature. Therefore, the tampering detection and localization can be achieved through comparing the extracted feature with the recomputed one, and the extracted feature can be used to recover those tampered regions with high similarity to their original state. Experimental results show that, compared with previous similar existing scheme, the proposed method not only achieves high embedding capacity and good visual quality of marked and restored image, but also has more accuracy for tampering detection.

  20. Radiation genetic effects among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the birth status and offspring's congenital malformations and hereditary diseases of medical diagnostic X-ray workers during 1950-1980 was carried out in 25 provinces of China. The physicians and surgeons in the same hospitals, not exposed to X-rays, were observed as the control group. Analysis was made of the data of 13056 persons and 32348 pregnancies in the irradiated group, and 16925 persons and 41120 pregnancies in the control group. The results show that the main factors which influence the fertility in the irradiated group are much the same as in the control group. The differences of fertility and infertility rate and sex ratio of live births between the two groups are not statistically significant. The spontaneous abortion rate, multiple pregnancy rate and neonatal mortality rate are significantly higher in the irradiated group than those in the control group. The total incidence of 20 kinds of congenital malformations and hereditary diseases among the children of X-ray workers is significantly higher than that among the children of non-X-ray workers (9.19% for the formers and 4.27% for the latters). (Author)

  1. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: diagnostic value of medical thoracoscopy and long-term prognostic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Li; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2018-04-03

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is marked by its difficult diagnosis and poor prognosis. Medical thoracoscopy (MT) is an effective and safe procedure for the diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions and many factors associated with poor prognosis of MPM. We conducted this study to investigate the value of MT for diagnosing of MPM and to identify prognostic factors for MPM patients. From July 2005 through June 2014, a total of 833 patients with undiagnosed pleural effusions underwent MT and pleural biopsies were taken. Clinical data of all patients with MPM were retrospectively analyzed, and those with complete follow-up data were analyzed for prognostic factors. Eventually, MPM was the final diagnosis in 40 patients. Diagnostic efficiency of MT for MPM was 87.5%, since diagnosis of MPM failed to be established in 5 patients during the initial MT. Median survival was 17.1 mo (95% confidence interval: 13.6-20.7 mo). MT findings of pleural adhesion and plaques were adverse prognostic factors for MPM. In addition, old age, male gender, smoking history, histological type, poor staging, no treatment, low total protein level in pleural fluid, and computed tomographic findings such as pulmonary consolidation or infiltration, mediastinal lymphopathy, pulmonary mass or nodules, and pleural nodularity were also poor prognostic factors for MPM. MT is safe with a high positive rate in the diagnosis of MPM, and pleural adhesion and plaques seen under MT may be the adverse prognostic factors for MPM. Multiple clinical characteristics can affect the survival of MPM patients.

  2. The role and importance of veterinary laboratories in the prevention and control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M J

    1998-08-01

    Veterinary laboratories which deal with infectious diseases form three groups according to the tasks for which they are responsible. The first group includes central or national veterinary laboratories, national or international reference laboratories, high-security laboratories, district regional or state veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The major role of these laboratories is to assist national Veterinary Services in diagnosing infectious animal diseases. The second group comprises laboratories that produce veterinary diagnostic kits and those that produce veterinary vaccines. The third group is composed of veterinary research laboratories, which generally concentrate on basic research and do not contribute directly to the diagnosis and control of infectious animal diseases. The author describes the objectives of each of the three groups of laboratories.

  3. Experiential Learning in Primary Care: Impact on Veterinary Students' Communication Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniella; Khosa, Deep; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2017-01-01

    Experiential learning is essential in medical and veterinary student education and can improve students' communication with clients during medical appointments. There is limited research in veterinary education investigating the effectiveness of experiential learning environments to provide an "integrative approach" to teaching. The…

  4. PROLARM: Cancer risk from medical diagnostic exposures is strongly dependent upon patients' prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschner, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Matthias; Dietlein, Markus; Schicha, Harald

    2008-01-01

    when the associated survival is known. Conclusion: Calculations of cancer risk from diagnostic medical exposures must take into account the patient's prognosis. LAR will be significantly lower when patients are severely ill at exposure. (author)

  5. Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Handa, Hiroshi; Abe, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate-an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)-a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed-to a level of 2.0 pg ml -1 . We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer sized 'probe beads

  6. Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Adarsh [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi [Integrated Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Abe, Masanori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate-an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)-a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed-to a level of 2.0 pg ml{sup -1}. We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer

  7. Injuries of deciduous and permanent teeth in children (diagnostic measures, medical tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovenko L.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of 1147 patients’ records from the clinic of the department of surgical dentistry and maxillofacial surgery of childhood of NMU Bogomolets and 944 case histories of patients with traumatic injuries of maxillofacial region in the clinic of the department of pediatric dentistry of SE «Dnepropetrovsk medical academy of Health Ministry of Ukraine» has shown that traumatic damages to teeth make up 18.8% of all injuries in maxillofacial region. It was found that in most cases the cause of injury is fall of a child - 60%, punching on the face - 19%, other causes – 21%. Most often maxillary central incisors are affected - about 70-80%, lateral - 10-20% both in temporary and in shift bite. Lower incisors are injured only in 1-6% of cases. Injuries of the temporary teeth were observed in 30-45% of cases. The aim of the study was to determine the major diagnostic methods and therapeutic measures that have been used in trauma of permanent and temporary teeth in children of different ages. Diagnostic measures included clinical and instrumental studies. Of the additional survey methods of dental trauma in 90% of cases back-side X-ray, in 7-8% – orthopanto­mography, in 1-2% - CT were performed. In dislocations of temporary teeth X-ray examination was carried out only in impacted dislocation. Algorithm of treatment tactics for almost all kinds of temporary teeth dislocations was to remove it, not taking into account the degree of formation of the tooth root and functional ability of the tooth, that involves the development of the indications for their preservation. Most often, for the immobilization of the injured permanent teeth a smooth splin-clamp (85% was used, it is cheap, easy to manufacture, reliable for fixing, individual as for adaptation, but when applied it leads to injury of periodontal tissues, the development of inflammatory processes in them. Alternative methods of fixation were splint systems, splint-caps and

  8. The potential of high resolution melting analysis (hrma) to streamline, facilitate and enrich routine diagnostics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskova, Lenka; Raclavsky, Vladislav

    2011-09-01

    Routine medical microbiology diagnostics relies on conventional cultivation followed by phenotypic techniques for identification of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. This is not only due to tradition and economy but also because it provides pure culture needed for antibiotic susceptibility testing. This review focuses on the potential of High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) of double-stranded DNA for future routine medical microbiology. Search of MEDLINE database for publications showing the advantages of HRMA in routine medical microbiology for identification, strain typing and further characterization of pathogenic bacteria and fungi in particular. The results show increasing numbers of newly-developed and more tailor-made assays in this field. For microbiologists unfamiliar with technical aspects of HRMA, we also provide insight into the technique from the perspective of microbial characterization. We can anticipate that the routine availability of HRMA in medical microbiology laboratories will provide a strong stimulus to this field. This is already envisioned by the growing number of medical microbiology applications published recently. The speed, power, convenience and cost effectiveness of this technology virtually predestine that it will advance genetic characterization of microbes and streamline, facilitate and enrich diagnostics in routine medical microbiology without interfering with the proven advantages of conventional cultivation.

  9. Medical Physics Staffing Needs in Diagnostic Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy: An Activity Based Approach [Endorsed by International Organization for Medical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decades, the rapid technological development of diagnostic and interventional radiology and nuclear medicine has made them major tools of modern medicine. However, at the same time the involved risks, the growing number of procedures and the increasing complexity of the procedures require competent professional staff to ensure safe and effective patient diagnosis, treatment and management. Medical physicists (or clinically qualified medical physicists) have been recognized as vital health professionals with important and clear responsibilities related to quality and safety of applications of ionizing radiation in medicine. This publication describes an algorithm developed to determine the recommended staffing levels for clinical medical physics services in medical imaging and radionuclide therapy, based on current best practice, as described in international guidelines.

  10. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  11. The importance of a border: Medical, veterinary, and wild food ethnobotany of the Hutsuls living on the Romanian and Ukrainian sides of Bukovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea

    2016-06-05

    Recent studies have shown that groups sharing the same or very similar environments, but with diverse cultural backgrounds (e.g. different ethnos and/or religion) have considerably different knowledge of folk (medicinal) plant uses. Yet, it is not clear to what extent various factors (such as culture, economy, isolation, and especially social and political situations) contribute to such differences in the utilization of the same natural resources. This paper addresses the effect of border created in 1940 and subsequent separation of a single ethnic group on changes in their folk use of medicinal and wild food plants. The Hutsuls of Bukovina had been homogenous for centuries, but were separated in 1940 as a result of the formation of state borders between Romania and the former Soviet Union (now Ukraine). The aim of the study is to analyse if the belonging to this different states for 75 years have induced different changes in local plant use within communities that share a common historical legacy and environment. In depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 people in May 2015. Collected data were analysed, and comparisons were made between the data gathered on the two sides of the border for different use categories: medicinal, wild food and veterinary plants, as well as other remedies. Recently collected data were also compared with historical data obtained for the region, medicinal plant folk uses in Romania and medicinal plant uses of The State Pharmacopeia of the Soviet Union. Divergences in current medicinal plant use are much greater than in the use of wild food plants. The majority of the wild food taxa, including those used for making recreational teas, are also used for medicinal purposes and hence contribute to the food-medicine continuum, representing emergency foods in the past and serving as memory markers for possible future food shortages. Compared with the historical data, considerable changes have occurred within specific medicinal

  12. The estimation of radiation effective dose from diagnostic medical procedures in general population of northern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabestani Monfared, A.; Abdi, R.

    2006-01-01

    The risks of low-dose Ionizing radiation from radiology and nuclear medicine are not clearly determined. Effective dose to population is a very important factor in risk estimation. The study aimed to determine the effective dose from diagnostic radiation medicine in a northern province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data about various radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures were collected from all radiology and nuclear medicine departments In Mazandaran Province (population = 2,898,031); and using the standard dosimetry tables, the total dose, dose per examination, and annual effective dose per capita as well as the annual gonadal dose per capita were estimated. Results: 655,730 radiologic examinations in a year's period, lead to 1.45 mSv, 0.33 mSv and 0.31 mGy as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public, and annual average gonadal dose per capita, respectively. The frequency of medical radiologic examinations was 2,262 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. However, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations in the same period was 7074, with 4.37 mSv, 9.6 μSv and 9.8 μGy, as average effective dose per examination, annual average effective dose to member of the public and annual average gonadal dose per caput, respectively. The frequency of nuclear medicine examination was 24 examinations annually per 10,000 members of population. Conclusion: The average effective dose per examination was nearly similar to other studies. However, the average annual effective dose and annual average gonadal dose per capita were less than the similar values in other reports, which could be due to lesser number of radiation medicine examinations in the present study

  13. Estimation of population doses from diagnostic medical examinations in Japan, 1974, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    In fetus exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays for the medical examinations of the mother, the absorbed dose has been estimated on the basis of a 1974 nation wide radiological survey. The results of the survey showed that the number of radiographs per year connected with pregnant women was 0.32 million for chest examination excluding mass surveys. 0.29 million for obstetrical examinations including pelvimetry, and 0.21 million for abdominal and pelvic examinations with a total of 0.82 million. The dose absorbed in the fetus was measured with an ionization chamber placed at the hypothetical center of the fetus in an ''average woman'' Rando phantom in which a maternal body was simulated by adding MixDp materials. ''The collective dose'' to the fetus in the pregnant women receiving a given type of examination was calculated from the number of radiographs per year connected with the pregnant women and the fetal doses. The percapita mean marrow dose (CMD), the leukemia significant dose (LSD) and the genetically significant dose (GSD) for the fetus were determined from the collective dose, taking into account the birth expectancy, the child expectancy, life expectancy and significant factor for the fetus. The collective dose to the fetus was estimated to be 9.3 x 10 4 man rad per year. The resultant values of CMD, LSD and GSD were 0.81 mrad per year, 0.79 mrad per person per year and 1.44 mrad per person per year, respectively. (Evans, J.)

  14. Veterinary Oncology Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among veterinary staff and dogs in private veterinary clinics in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Saito, Mieko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Maetani, Shigeki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    To explore the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medical practices, MRSA carriage was tested among 96 veterinarians (Vets), 70 veterinary technicians (VTs) and 292 dogs with which they had contact at 71 private veterinary clinics (VCs) in Hokkaido, Japan. MRSA isolates were obtained from 22 Vets [22.9%] and 7 VTs [10%]. The prevalence of MRSA among Vets was as high as that found in an academic veterinary hospital in our previous study. In contrast, only two blood donor dogs and one dog with liver disease (1.0%, 3/292) yielded MRSA. All MRSA-positive dogs were reared or treated in different VCs, in each of which at least one veterinary staff member carrying MRSA worked. Sequence types (ST) identified by multilocus sequence typing, spa types, and SCCmec types for canine MRSA isolates (ST5-spa t002-SCCmec II [from two dogs] or ST30-spa t021-SCCmec IV [from a dog]) were concordant with those from veterinary staff members in the same clinics as the MRSA-positive dogs, with which they had potentially had contact. Most MRSA isolates from veterinary staff were the same genotype (SCCmec type II and spa type t002) as a major hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan. The remaining MRSA was the same genotypes as domestic and foreign community-associated MRSA. Measures against MRSA infection should be provided in private VCs. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Brazilian regulation of radiation protection in veterinary medical radiodiagnosis; Regulamentação brasileira da proteção radiológica em radiodiagnóstico médico veterinário

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, E.T.; Pelegrineli, S.Q.; Gomes, A.S., E-mail: etxsaude@gmail.com, E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: alexandregomes.rad@gmail.com [Faculdade Casa Branca (FACAP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Pós-graduação em Proteção Radiológica em Aplicações Médicas

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: Veterinary Radiology is defined as the part of the science that studies the organs and internal structures of the body of veterinary patients with the aid of equipment that emits ionizing radiation to form images. Different techniques are employed, more current and more specific for each situation. Objective: To present the regulatory framework of radiological protection focused on veterinary medicine in Brazil. Methodology: We searched for the public documents for the regulation of radiological protection in veterinary radiology through digital search tools on the Internet and in physical literature that could be used or collaborated for such a search. Results: It was detected the lack of a regulation of radiological protection aimed at the area of veterinary radiology. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate a specific standard that meets, supply and supports the professionals who work with ionizing radiation in the area of veterinary medicine. The professions of veterinarian radiologist and technologist in veterinary radiology are of such complexity that they require higher level for proper exercise. Given the peculiarity of the activities, where there is a need for physical restraint of the patient and other artifices to perform the exam, the professionals are, in the examination room, less than one meter from the primary and secondary beam of radiation. It is hoped that the work will contribute to document the dangerous scenario described and encourage the search for this necessary improvement in such a specialized area.

  18. Advance of the National Program of Radiological Protection and Safety for medical diagnostic with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1999-01-01

    The National Program of Radiological Protection and Safety for medical diagnostic with X-ray (Programa Nacional de Proteccion y Seguridad Radiologica para diagnostico medico con rayos X) was initiated in the General Direction of Environmental Health (Direccion General de Salud Ambiental) in 1995. Task coordinated with different dependences of the Public Sector in collaboration between the Secretary of Health (Secretaria de Salud), the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias) and, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares). The surveillance to the fulfilment of the standardization in matter of Radiological Protection and Safety in the medical diagnostic with X-rays has been obtained for an important advance in the Public sector and it has been arousing interest in the Private sector. (Author)

  19. New possibilities of complex "Thermodyn" application for contactless remote diagnostics in medical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, M. Ye.; Shayko-Shaykovskiy, O. G.; Makhrova, Ye. G.; Kramar, V. M.; Oleksuik, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    We represent here the theoretical justifications, block scheme and experimental sample of a new automated complex "Thermodyn" for remote contactless diagnostics of inflammatory processes of the surfaces and in subcutaneous areas of human body. Also we described here the methods and results of diagnostic measurements, and results of practical applications of this complex.

  20. Optimization of working conditions of medical staff of isotopic diagnostic departments. Optimizatsiya uslovij truda meditsinskogo personala radiodiagnosticheskikh otdelenij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovsyannikov, A S [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Gigieny Truda i Professional' nykh Zabolevanij

    1989-01-01

    The study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics of the work of medical staff of isotopic diagnostic departments during use of {sup 99m}Tc isotope generators. The data on the functional load of physicians and paramedical staff were given along with the description of radiation doses and dose rates at various stages of work. The measures on optimization of labour conditions by means of the appropriate department's design, improvement of the regime of nurses' work and adequate allocation and utilization of medical equipment were developed.

  1. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Piloting interprofessional education interventions with veterinary and veterinary nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.

  3. Computer applications in veterinary medicine | Hassan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. ... Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for veterinary education; ... agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of ...

  4. Biological, epidemiological, sanitary-hygienic, medical and behavioral occupational health risk factors for stock-breeders, veterinaries and workers employed at meat-processing enterprises, contacting brucellar animals and infected meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ereniev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied sanitary-hygienic characteristics of working conditions, charts with results of sanitary-epidemiologic examination performed in a zoogenous nidus, outpatient clinic cards and questionnaires filled in by 202 patients living in Omsk region and suffering from occupational brucellosis. The disease usually prevails among stock-breeders, veterinaries and workers employed at meat-processing enterprises. Our goal was to detect risks of occupational, production-induced and general pathology evolvement. Working conditions which all the examined people had to work in corresponded to hazardous (3.3 or even dangerous (4 category as per occurrence of contacts with infectious agents and parasites (biological risk. Apart from biological factor, a number of workers were under complex exposure to ammonia concentrations (higher than MPC, noise higher than MPL, vibration, cooling microclimate, uncomfortable lighting environment, labor process hardness and intensity. There were several factors causing epidemiologic risks as well. Disinfectants were absent or their quantity was not sufficient; industrial and amenity rooms were not well-organized; there was no central hot water supply or shower rooms, separate rooms for meals, specialized implements for removing abortus and stillborn fetuses and afterbirths, correctly organized burial grounds, or first aid kits. Hygienic health risks were caused by insufficient cleaning agents supply, absence of centralized protecting clothing laundering, and insufficient provision with personal protection means. Occupational health risks resulted from absence of preliminary medical examinations in standard recruitment procedures, irregularity and low quality of periodical medical examinations. Our qualitative assessment of behavioral health risks revealed that a lot of workers tended to have irresponsible medical and hygienic behavior, there were disorders in their work and rest regime (shift work with shifts rotation

  5. Radioiodine therapy in veterinary medicine: treatment of hyperthyroidism in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, P.; Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U.

    1999-01-01

    A nine-year-old cat with symptoms of a distinct hyperthyroidism was presented at the University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen. The clinical symptoms as well as the diagnostic procedures performed at the hospital confirmed the diagnosis. After five weeks of thyreostatic medication a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland was established, followed by a radioiodine therapy with 70.3 MBq 131-iodine. Subsequently, the cat was hospitalized for two days before it could be released in good condition. Six weeks after treatment the former drastically reduced weight of the cat recovered to near normal. Even though the chemical analysis detected a discrete hyperthyroidism, clinical symptoms were no longer prominent. Three months after treatment, the final examination showed a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland without a specific thyroidal medication. The presented case illustrates that radioiodine therapy is a safe and efficient treatment of thyroidal dysfunctions in veterinary medicine. (orig.) [de

  6. Radiation doses to patients in medical diagnostic x-ray examinations in New Zealand: a 1983-84 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, B.D.P.; Poletti, J.L.; Cartwright, P.H.; Le Heron, J.C.

    1993-06-01

    A survey of doses to patients undergoing diagnostic x-ray examinations was performed in 1983-84. Developments since 1983-84 were reviewed and estimates made of the frequency of x-ray examinations, and doses to patients, as at 1992. The collective effective dose from general medical diagnostic radiology in 1983-84 was estimated to have been about 443 μSv per capita per annum. The figure excluded computed tomography which was estimated to have contributed about 5.6 μSv per capita per annum and mammography gave 0.3 μSv per annum. The total per capital effective dose from all medical diag over the whole period from 1983-84 to 1992. The highest dose examinations in 1983-84 were the fluoroscopic procedures barium enema and meal. Over the whole period 1983-84 to 1992 the genetically significant dose (GSD) to the population of New Zealand from medical diagnostic radiology was estimated to have been in the range 200-250 μSv per capita per annum. The two opposing tendencies noted for effective dose, viz, the fall in frequency of some examination types and the rise of Computed tomography, acted also upon this dose index. 43 refs., tabs., figs., ills

  7. An epidemiologic investigation of cancers among medical diagnostic X-ray workers of 1950-1996 in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ningle; Wang Jin; Xu Cuizhen; Hu Lianzhi; Hou Bijun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To research the phenomenon and characteristic of radiation oncogenesis among medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: The cancer incidence data of the fixed cohort from the beginning of 1950 to the end of 1996 were collected. The estimates of relative risk (RR) were calculated by AMFIT in Epicure (Hirosoft International Corp, 1988-1992). Results: During the period of 1950-1996 there were 312 cancers among 215 355 person-years at risk in a cohort of 7701 subjects, including, medical diagnostic X-ray workers and workers of other departments in the same hospitals. The RR adjusted for sex and age for overall cancers was more than 1. The incidence of female breast cancer increased significantly (RR = 3.3, 95%, CI = 1.39 - 8.07), and the relative risks for solid cancer and leukemia were 1.2 and 2.6, respectively. The average age of occurrence of malignant tumors was moved up from 55.0 years in the controls to 51.3 years in the X-ray workers. Conclusions: There is a positive effect of radiation oncogenesis on medical diagnostic X-ray workers, although the sample size is not large enough to make a definite overall conclusion statistically. Further follow-up is needed

  8. Integrating nursing diagnostic concepts into the medical entities dictionary using the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Cimino, James J; Bakken, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of the International Standards Organization (ISO) Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a terminology model for defining nursing diagnostic concepts in the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) and (2) to create the additional hierarchical structures required for integration of nursing diagnostic concepts into the MED. The authors dissected nursing diagnostic terms from two source terminologies (Home Health Care Classification and the Omaha System) into the semantic categories of the ISO model. Consistent with the ISO model, they selected Focus and Judgment as required semantic categories for creating intensional definitions of nursing diagnostic concepts in the MED. Because the MED does not include Focus and Judgment hierarchies, the authors developed them to define the nursing diagnostic concepts. The ISO model was sufficient for dissecting the source terminologies into atomic terms. The authors identified 162 unique focus concepts from the 266 nursing diagnosis terms for inclusion in the Focus hierarchy. For the Judgment hierarchy, the authors precoordinated Judgment and Potentiality instead of using Potentiality as a qualifier of Judgment as in the ISO model. Impairment and Alteration were the most frequently occurring judgments. Nursing care represents a large proportion of health care activities; thus, it is vital that terms used by nurses are integrated into concept-oriented terminologies that provide broad coverage for the domain of health care. This study supports the utility of the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Diagnoses as a facilitator for the integration process.

  9. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.P.

    1989-06-01

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  10. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...

  11. Radiological protection in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi; Kusama, Tomoko.

    1990-01-01

    To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author)

  12. Use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among privately insured adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Esther Y; Cohn, Lisa; Freed, Gary; Rocchini, Albert; Kershaw, David; Ascione, Frank; Clark, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    To compare the use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension. We conducted retrospective cohort analysis of claims data for adolescents and young adults (12-21 years of age) with ≥3 years of insurance coverage (≥11 months/year) in a large private managed care plan during 2003-2009 with diagnosis of primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. We examined their use of antihypertensive medications and identified demographic characteristics and the presence of obesity-related comorbidities. For the subset receiving antihypertensive medications, we examined their diagnostic test use (echocardiograms, renal ultrasounds, and electrocardiograms). The study sample included 1,232 adolescents and young adults; 84% had primary hypertension and 16% had secondary hypertension. The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 2.6%. One quarter (28%) with primary hypertension had one or more antihypertensive medications, whereas 65% with secondary hypertension had one or more antihypertensive medications. Leading prescribers of antihypertensives for subjects with primary hypertension were primary care physicians (80%), whereas antihypertensive medications were equally prescribed by primary care physicians (43%) and sub-specialists (37%) for subjects with secondary hypertension. The predominant hypertension diagnosis among adolescents and young adults is primary hypertension. Antihypertensive medication use was higher among those with secondary hypertension compared with those with primary hypertension. Further study is needed to determine treatment effectiveness and patient outcomes associated with differential treatment patterns used for adolescents and young adults with primary versus secondary hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ANALYSIS OF PROPERTY STRUCTURE OF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CONSULTATIVE CENTERS IN VARNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomira Koeva-Dimitrova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and financial performance of one company depend on the size of its assets and the aptness of the assets� proportion. The aim of this article is urged to make an external analysis of the asset structure of medical diagnostic and consultative centers (DCC in Varna and on this basis to draw conclusions regarding their property structure. Subject of the study is the annual financial statements, published in the Commercial Register, of all 9 in number DCCs that are registered in Varna. The names of DCC's are encoded with numbers from 1 to 9, with numbers from 1 to 7 are 6 DCCs, owned by the Municipality of Varna, one of them is a subsidiary of staterun hospital, with number 8 and 9 are private DCC's. Subject of the study are the assets and their proportion in the studied hospitals. The study covers 7 years - from year 2008 to year 2014. In the study are calculated and compared the indicators for intensity of the property as well as the relative share of the fixed assets obtained as an average value of the relative shares of all nine in number hospitals for the entire studied period. The following important conclusions have been made: 1 The average relative share of fixed assets of Varna DCCs for the period 2008 � 2014 is 56.85%. 2 The proportion of FA calculated only for municipal DCC's (average value is significantly higher - 72.75% compared to the overall average of 56.85%. 3 Private hospitals invest a lot less money in fixed assets than the municipal ones. 4 Since 2013 there is a slight increase of FA share in the private and the state-run DCC, and a slight decrease in the municipal ones (71.93. 5 The creation of an online database comprising of average indicators of the financial and property status of Bulgarian companies is essential and necessary condition for improving their competitiveness by providing reliable, accurate and usable information for comparison.

  14. Stochastic risk estimation from medical x-ray diagnostic examinations, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi; Noda, Yutaka; Iwai, Kazuo; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro

    1981-01-01

    The genetically significant dose (GSD), per Caput mean bone marrow dose (CMD), leukemia significant dose (LSD) and malignancy significant dose (MSD) from medical diagnostic X-ray examinations in Japan were estimated based on a 1979 nationwide survey of randomly sampled hospitals and clinics. The population risk estimates were carried out using the resultant values of GSD, LSD and MSD. In the risk estimates, the significant factors, namely, the relative child expectancy, the leukemia significant factor and the malignancy significant factor, for patients were assumed to be same as those of general population. The risk factors used were 185 x 10 -6 rad -1 for genetic risk of all generations, 20 x 10 -6 rad -1 for fatal leukemia and 165 x 10 -6 rad -1 for fatal malignant diseases, respectively. The resultant annual population doses per person were 15 mrad (0.15 mGy) for GSD, 107 mrad (1.07 mGy) for CMD, 86 mrad (0.86 mGy) for LSD and 43 mrad (0.43 mGy) for MSD, respectively. The present data other than the MSD were compared with the data in 1960, 1969 and 1974. For example, the GSD of 1979 was approximately same as that of 1974, although the annual number of examinations in 1979 increased by about 30 percent as compared with those of 1974. The population risks from X-ray diagnosis were estimated to be 260 persons per year for genetic risk of all generations, 192 person per year for fatal leukemic risk and 825 person per year for malignant risk, respectively, for the whole population in Japan, assuming that the X-ray diagnosis in 1979 will be performed continuously in the future. The average risks per one exposure for X-ray radiography were estimated using the weighted average of the significant factor and the organ or tissue dose with the number of radiographic exposures by age and by type of examination. The average risks per radiographic exposure were 176 x 10 -9 for genetic risk, 285 x 10 -9 for leukemic risk and 1.75 x 10 -6 for malignant risk respectively. (author)

  15. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R; Mejer, Helena

    2018-03-15

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only a few parasites have Danish names. In our veterinary curriculum, zoology has disappeared as a discipline, and parasitology has gradually moved from the third year to the beginning of the second year, which implies that, for example, pathology and pharmacology are "unknown fields". The number of contact hours in veterinary parasitology has been gradually cut to 24 lectures (35 min each) and practical exercises (24 h), including 9 h on coprology. The course is taught and examined jointly with bacteriology and virology in a 8-week course. As a comprehensive course, it has become increasingly difficult to get students to acquire enough active knowledge of the most common parasites and an understanding of the basic principles in relation to, for example, transmission and control. Even though information is readily accessible through books and on-line resources, we still believe that a competent clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical and diagnostic parasitology. The students can also now select a One Health track for six months in which zoonotic parasites are obviously a relevant topic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Comparison of 3MP medical-grade to 1MP office grade LCD monitors in mammographic diagnostic and perceptual performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Aaron; Tan, Shu.; Gledhill, Samuel; Hennessy, Oliver; Lui, Belinda; Lee, Alan; Lemish, Wayne; Styles, Colin; Pun, Emma; Padmanabhan, Meenakshi; Pitman, Alexander G.; Tauro, Paul; Waugh, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Picture archiving and communication systems images designed to be viewed on high-resolution medical-grade monitors are routinely viewed on office-grade monitors on the wards or at home. This study aimed to determine whether a statistically significant difference in diagnostic (cancer detection) and perceptual (microcalcification detection) performance exists between 3MP grade and 1MP office-grade monitors. 3MP Dome medical-grade liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors (Planar, Beaverton, OR, USA) were compared to 1MP Dell office-grade LCD monitors (Dell Inc, Round Rock, TX, USA). Eight radiologists (reader experi ence 8-30 years) read the same set of 100 mammograms (23/100 with proven cancers and 52/100 with microcalcifications) presented in random order on three occasions separated by two time intervals of 12 weeks. Reads 1 and 3 utilised 3MP monitors and formed the baseline read. Read 2 utilised 1MP monitors and constituted the experimental read. Reading conditions were standardised. Readers were aware of which monitors they were using. Mul tivariate logistic regression analysis (to account for reader variability and monitor impact) was performed to assess for statistical significance. At a = 5%, confidence intervals analysis comparing the measured parameters between 1MP to 3MP monitors demonstrated no statistically significant difference in diagnostic and perceptual performance for the reader group. In cancer detection (the diagnostic task), reader accuracy remained high irrespective of monitor type. Regression analysis comparing performance with 1MP against 3MP monitors found P values of 0.693 and 0.324 for diagnostic and perceptual performance, respectively. There were no statistically and clinically significant differences between 3MP and 1MP monitors in mammographic diagnostic and perceptual performance. Comparable performance may be due to compensatory behav iour by readers.

  17. Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J Michael; Astles, Rex; Baszler, Timothy; Chapin, Kimberle; Carey, Roberta; Garcia, Lynne; Gray, Larry; Larone, Davise; Pentella, Michael; Pollock, Anne; Shapiro, Daniel S; Weirich, Elizabeth; Wiedbrauk, Danny

    2012-01-06

    Prevention of injuries and occupational infections in U.S. laboratories has been a concern for many years. CDC and the National Institutes of Health addressed the topic in their publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, now in its 5th edition (BMBL-5). BMBL-5, however, was not designed to address the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories in human and animal medicine. In 2008, CDC convened a Blue Ribbon Panel of laboratory representatives from a variety of agencies, laboratory organizations, and facilities to review laboratory biosafety in diagnostic laboratories. The members of this panel recommended that biosafety guidelines be developed to address the unique operational needs of the diagnostic laboratory community and that they be science based and made available broadly. These guidelines promote a culture of safety and include recommendations that supplement BMBL-5 by addressing the unique needs of the diagnostic laboratory. They are not requirements but recommendations that represent current science and sound judgment that can foster a safe working environment for all laboratorians. Throughout these guidelines, quality laboratory science is reinforced by a common-sense approach to biosafety in day-to-day activities. Because many of the same diagnostic techniques are used in human and animal diagnostic laboratories, the text is presented with this in mind. All functions of the human and animal diagnostic laboratory--microbiology, chemistry, hematology, and pathology with autopsy and necropsy guidance--are addressed. A specific section for veterinary diagnostic laboratories addresses the veterinary issues not shared by other human laboratory departments. Recommendations for all laboratories include use of Class IIA2 biological safety cabinets that are inspected annually; frequent hand washing; use of appropriate disinfectants, including 1:10 dilutions of household bleach; dependence on risk assessments for many activities

  18. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  19. Upgrading the Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory Towards ISO/IEC 17025: Radiation Standards and Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Norhayati Abdullah; Shahrul Azlan Azizan; Siti Sara Deraman; Nor Azlin Azraai; Md Khairusalih Md Zin

    2010-01-01

    Calibration of quality control (QC) test tools used in diagnostic radiology is legally required under the Ministry of Health (MOH) requirement. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency is the national focal point for the calibration of quality control test tools used in diagnostic radiology. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory has measurement traceability to primary standard dosimetry laboratory (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)), thus providing an interface between the primary standard dosimetry laboratory and Malaysian hospitals, clinics and license class H holder. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory facility is comprised of a constant potential x-ray system with a capability of 160 kV tube and a series of reference and working standard ion chambers. The stability of reference and working standard ion chambers was measured using strontium-90. Dosimetric instruments used in diagnostic radiology is calibrated in terms of air kerma to comply with an International Code of Practices of dosimetry for example IAEA's Technical Report Series number 457. The new series of standard radiation qualities was established based on ISO/IEC 61267. The measurement of beam homogeneity was measured using film and ion chamber to define the field size at certain distance and kV output was measured using the spectrometer and non-invasive kVp meter. The uncertainties measurement was determined with expended uncertainties to a level of confidence of approximately 95% (coverage factor k=2). This paper describes the available facility and the effort of the Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory to upgrade the laboratory towards ISO/IEC 17025. (author)

  20. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Diagnostic Radiology (Spanish Edition); Capacitacion clinica de fisicos medicos especialistas en radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for diagnostic radiology. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists based in the clinical setting. However, an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia-Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specializing in diagnostic radiology started in 2007 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experiences of clinical training programmes in Australia and New Zealand, the UK and the USA, and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. This publication follows the approach of the IAEA publication Training Course Series No. 37, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists specializing in Radiation Oncology. This approach to clinical training has been successfully tested

  1. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.

  2. A study of radiological protection for women of reproductive age in diagnostic radiology. Questionnaire for medical radiation technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubone, Chie; Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki

    2005-01-01

    There has been great concern regarding the radiation protection for women of reproductive age when exposed to diagnostic radiation. The 10-day-rule proposed by the ICRP has not been recommended since 1983 because the risk to embryo and fetus within four weeks after menstruation may be small. However, some expects see that incomplete abandon of the 10-day-rule might cause confusion among the medical doctors and patients, and consequently unwarranted abortion happens. This paper surveyed the views of radiation technologies in hospitals and discussed how radiation exposure of women of reproductive age in medicine should be controlled. We found that the views to be 10-day-rule were spilt 50:50 and that radiation technologists do not necessarily think the 10-day-rule should be abandoned. Even the radiation technologists who are supposed to be able to explain to the patients the health risk following diagnostic exposure do not fully understand the risk involved. In conclusion, although a low-dose risk of diagnostic exposure should be sufficiently educated in order to obtain an exact understanding, the 10-day-rule may be useful in order to actually avoid any trouble in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  3. Computer automation in veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H

    1996-05-01

    Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.

  4. Diagnostic radiology physics: A handbook for teachers and students. Endorsed by: American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics, European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital (Cyprus); Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania (United States); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Ng, K. H. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-15

    This publication is written for students and teachers involved in programmes that train medical physicists for work in diagnostic radiology. It provides, in the form of a syllabus, a comprehensive overview of the basic medical physics knowledge required for the practice of modern diagnostic radiology. This makes it particularly useful for graduate students and residents in medical physics programmes. The material presented in the publication has been endorsed by the major international organizations and is the foundation for academic and clinical courses in both diagnostic radiology physics and in emerging areas such as imaging in radiotherapy.

  5. CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS: PRENATAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NOVEL CONCEPTION OF MEDICAL HELP TO NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.F. Isakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current views on basic prenatal diagnostics techniques, as ultrasound, maternal serum biochemical markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, and fetal biologic material (chorionic villus sampling, placenta, amniotic liquid, fetal blood, obtained with invasive techniques (chorion biopsy, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, its' efficacy and possible practical application are given in the article. These new conception announce to consolidate three branches providing maternal and children — welfare should consolidate maternal welfare outpatient clinics, maternal hospital and newborn surgery hospital — into one institute, thus allowing to success work of all stages, to avoid transportation and late surgical treatment, to reduce lethal outcomes following surgical treatment of congenital malformations. Primary results of implementation of this conception are presented in the article.Key words: prenatal diagnostics, newborns, congenital mal formations, prevention and prophylactics, diagnostics.

  6. Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Performance Of A Multimedia Medical Communications System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John G.; Coristine, Marjorie; Goldberg, Morris; Beeton, Carolyn; Belanger, Garry; Tombaugh, Jo W.; Hickey, Nancy M.; Millward, Steven F.; Davis, Michael; Whittingham, David

    1989-05-01

    The central concern of radiologists when evaluating Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS) is the diagnostic performance of digital images compared to the original analog versions of the same images. Considerable work has been done comparing the ROC curves of various types of digital systems to the corresponding analog systems for the detection of specific phantoms or diseases. Although the studies may notify the radiologists that for a specific lesion a digital system may perform as well as the analog system, it tells the radiologists very little about the impact on diagnostic performance of a digital system in the general practice of radiology. We describe in this paper an alternative method for evaluating the diagnostic performance of a digital system and a preliminary experiment we conducted to test the methodology.

  7. Pocket book on setting techniques for medical imaging. X-ray diagnostics, angiography, CT, MRT. 4. rev. and enl. ed.; Taschenatlas Einstelltechnik. Roentgendiagnostik, Angiografie, CT, MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Torsten B.; Reif, Emil [Caritas-Krankenhaus, Dillingen/Saar (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The pocketbook on setting techniques for medical imaging is concerned with the problem to prepare appropriate images for diagnostic purposes using modern high-technology instruments like x-ray diagnostics, angiography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance tomography. The following issues are covered: Head, spinal column, upper extremities, lower extremities, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, intravenous organ examination, angiography, computerized tomography, NMR imaging.

  8. An analysis of cancer death risk among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China, 1950-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongcheng; Wang Jixian; Zhang Wei; Li Benxiao; Fan Tiqiang; Zhang Jingyuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of occupational radiation exposure on cancer death among medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: A cohort study on medical diagnostic X-ray workers and non-X-ray medical workers was carried out and a risk analysis of cancer death between 1950 and 1995 was conducted with the O/E system. Results: A significant enhancement in cancer death risk for X-ray workers was found, especially those engaged in X-ray work in early calendar years. The overall cancer RR was 1.26, (95 % CI: 1.14 - 1.38), for leukemia it was 2.48, (95% CI: 1.68-3.51 ); for esophagus cancer, 3.18, (95% CI: 2.02 -4.77); for liver cancer, 1.54, (95 % CI: 1.27 - 1.86); and for bone cancer, 2.48, (95 % CI: 1.00 - 5.40). In the late calendar year cohort a significant enhancement of cancer death was seen only in esophagus cancer (RR = 4.19, 95 % CI: 1.80 - 8.25) and lung cancer (RR = 1.60, 95% CI:1.10-2.25). Conclusion: Long-term occupational X-ray irradiation can enhance the risk of cancer death when the cumulative dose reached a certain level. The significant enhancement of cancer death for leukemia and some solid cancers may be related to the occupational exposure to X-rays

  9. The study on cytogenetic analysis and dosimetry reconstruction for medical diagnostic X-ray workers using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Sun Yuanming; Wang Zhiquan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the dose of medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: The chromosome aberrations were analyzed by G-banding or FISH in medical diagnostic X-ray workers with different calendar years of entry. Results: The biological doses estimated by the two methods were in agreement with the doses evaluated by physical methods. Conclusion: G-banding and FISH are effective ways to analyse the chromosome translocations

  10. Radiation exposure of the Italian population due to medical diagnostic examinations in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benassai, S.; Curatolo, M.; Dobici, F.; Indovina, P.L.; Pugliani, L.; Salvadori, P.

    1977-01-01

    The genetically significant dose received by the Italian population in 1975 due to the diagnostic X-ray examinations and radiopharmaceuticals was investigated and the results are presented. Concerning the diagnostic X-ray examinations the data were obtained by a representative sample and extrapolated over the whole population with reference to the over-all X-ray film consumption. From the reported data it can be concluded that about 50% of population was subjected to X-ray examinations and the genetically significant dose amounts to about 30 mrem. With reference to diagnostic use of radiopharmaceuticals the number of collected data was so large to be considered as representative of the situation. From the collected data it can be concluded that about 10% of population was subjected to these examinations and that the genetically significant dose is less than 2 mrem. Both for diagnostic X-ray examinations and use of radiopharmaceuticals results are here presented for the distribution of different uses and examinations. The genetically significant dose to which the Italian population was exposed in 1975 can be said to be of the order of 30 mrem. In view of lowering this dose some indications are presented with reference both to the legislative and technical measures

  11. Belief Elicitation to Populate Health Economic Models of Medical Diagnostic Devices in Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haakma, Wieke; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Bojke, Laura; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Bayesian methods can be used to elicit experts’ beliefs about the clinical value of healthcare technologies. This study investigates a belief–elicitation method for estimating diagnostic performance in an early stage of development of photoacoustic mammography (PAM) imaging

  12. Protection of Bulgarian population in medical radiation diagnostic science after 1950. Some basic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, Kr.

    2000-01-01

    The report presents summarized data on frequency and structure of X-ray and nuclear medical examinations carried out in Bulgaria during the period 1950-1995. The effective and the collective effective dose are calculated. Some on the basic problems concerning the protection of Bulgarian population during medical exposure are outlined

  13. The Qualitative-Quantitative Analysis and the Study of Personnel's Awareness of the Management Strategies of the Wastes of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories of Rasht, in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabizadeh R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Waste produced by health and treatment centers (hospitals including medical diagnostic laboratories is one of the sources of municipal waste production. Waste produced by medical diagnostic laboratories due to the existence of pathogens and infectious materials by high importance is one of the environmental issues. This survey has been done on the qualitative-quantitative analytical bases, and the investigation has focused on the management strategies of the waste material of medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht, Iran in 2009. Methods: In this descriptive study, samples were collected from 19 medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht in 3 consecutive days (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday every week, after filling the questionnaire and interviewing with the managers. Then, the samples were separated manually, and divided into 46 different constituents and weighed. Next, the constituents were classified based on characteristics and potentiality of being hazardous.Results: The total amount of annual waste production by the medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht is 25785.143kg. In this study, the share of manufacturing conventional waste (domestic type wastes, especially infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical, and radioactive wastes were 1.16%, 95.34%, 1.42% and 2.08%, respectively. The highest and lowest amount of waste production relates to plastic materials and wood which are 48.37 and 0.43%, respectively. In this study sharp cutting things were calculated to be 10.52%. Furthermore, 84 percent of the managers of the medical diagnostic laboratories had not had enough information of the circulars and instructions on the enforceable management strategies of the medical wastes.Conclusion: Concerning the management of the medical waste production in the medical diagnostic laboratories, it is suggested that the managers and the personnel be trained on the separation, collection, and disinfection techniques and final disposal

  14. Evidence-based medical research on diagnostic criteria and screening technique of vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-wei LIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI is the prodromal syndrome of vascular dementia (VaD and key target for drug treatment. There is controversy over the diagnostic criteria and screening tools of VaMCI, which affects its clinical diagnosis. This paper aims to explore the clinical features, diagnostic criteria and screening technique of VaMCI.  Methods Taking "vascular mild cognitive impairment OR vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" as retrieval terms, search in PubMed database from January 1997 to March 2015 and screen relevant literatures concerning VaMCI. According to Guidance for the Preparation of Neurological Management Guidelines revised by European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS in 2004, evidence grading was performed on literatures. Results A total of 32 literatures in English were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 3 guidelines and consensus and 29 clinical studies. Seven literatures (2 on Level Ⅰ, 5 on Level Ⅱ studied on neuropsychological features in VaMCI patients and found reduced processing speed and executive function impairment were main features. Two literatures reported the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI, including VaMCI criteria published by American Heart Association (AHA/American Stroke Association (ASA in 2011 and "Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Cognitive Disorders" published by International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG in 2014. Fifteen literatures (4 on LevelⅠ, 11 on Level Ⅱ described the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI used in clinical research, from which 6 operational diagnostic items were extracted. Fourteen literatures (4 on Level Ⅰ, 10 on Level Ⅱ described neuropsychological assessment tools for VaMCI screening, and found the 5-minute protocol recommended by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN was being good consistency with other neuropsychological

  15. Evidence assessing the diagnostic performance of medical smartphone apps: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechi, Rahel; Faes, Livia; Bachmann, Lucas M; Thiel, Michael A; Bodmer, Nicolas S; Schmid, Martin K; Job, Oliver; Lienhard, Kenny R

    2017-12-14

    The number of mobile applications addressing health topics is increasing. Whether these apps underwent scientific evaluation is unclear. We comprehensively assessed papers investigating the diagnostic value of available diagnostic health applications using inbuilt smartphone sensors. Systematic Review-MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science inclusive Medical Informatics and Business Source Premier (by citation of reference) were searched from inception until 15 December 2016. Checking of reference lists of review articles and of included articles complemented electronic searches. We included all studies investigating a health application that used inbuilt sensors of a smartphone for diagnosis of disease. The methodological quality of 11 studies used in an exploratory meta-analysis was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool and the reporting quality with the 'STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies' (STARD) statement. Sensitivity and specificity of studies reporting two-by-two tables were calculated and summarised. We screened 3296 references for eligibility. Eleven studies, most of them assessing melanoma screening apps, reported 17 two-by-two tables. Quality assessment revealed high risk of bias in all studies. Included papers studied 1048 subjects (758 with the target conditions and 290 healthy volunteers). Overall, the summary estimate for sensitivity was 0.82 (95 % CI 0.56 to 0.94) and 0.89 (95 %CI 0.70 to 0.97) for specificity. The diagnostic evidence of available health apps on Apple's and Google's app stores is scarce. Consumers and healthcare professionals should be aware of this when using or recommending them. 42016033049. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...

  17. [Differentiation Study of Chinese Medical Syndrome Typing for Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Based on Information of Four Chinese Medical Diagnostic Methods and Brain-gut Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao-meng; Xu, Zhi-wei; Ao, Hai-qing; Shi, Ya-fei; Hu, Hai-yan; Ji, Yun-peng

    2015-10-01

    To establish discriminant functions of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) by studying it from quantitative diagnosis angle, hoping to reduce interference of subjective factors in diagnosing and differentially diagnosing Chinese medical syndromes of IBS-D. A Chinese medical clinical epidemiological survey was carried out in 439 IBS-D patients using Clinical Information Collection Table of IBS. Initial syndromes were obtained by cluster analysis. They were analyzed using step-by-step discrimination by taking information of four Chinese medical diagnostic methods and serum brain-gut peptides (BGP) as variables. Clustering results were Gan stagnation Pi deficiency syndrome (GSPDS), Pi-Wei weakness syndrome (PWWS), Gan stagnation qi stasis syndrome (GSQSS), Pi-Shen yang deficiency syndrome (PSYDS), Pi-Wei damp-heat syndrome (PWDHS), cold-damp disturbing Pi syndrome (CDDPS). Of them, GSPDS was mostly often seen with effective percentage of 34. 2%, while CDDPS was the least often seen with effective percentage of 5.5%. A total of 5 discriminant functions for GSPDS, PWWS, GSQSS, PSYDS, and PWDHS were obtained by step-by-step dis- crimination method. The retrospective misjudgment rate was 4.1% (16/390), while the cross-validation misjudgment rate was 15.4% (60/390). The establishment of discriminant functions is of value in objectively diagnosing and differentially diagnosing Chinese medical syndromes of IBS-D.

  18. The report of medical exposures in diagnostic radiology. Pt. 1. The questionnaire of medical exposure and standard radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Iwasaki, Takanobu; Segawa, Hiroo; Yasuda, Sadatoshi; Kusuhara, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    We had made reports of patient radiation exposure for doctors to judge adaptation of medical radiation rightly. By these reports the doctors can be offered data of exposure dose and somatic effect. First, we sent out questionnaires so that we grasped the doctor's understanding about radiation exposure. Consequently we understood that the doctors had demanded data of exposure dose and somatic effect. Secondly, by the result of questionnaires we made the tables of exposure dose about radiological examination. As a result we have be able to presume exposure dose about high radiation sensitive organization as concrete figures. (author)

  19. Effects of Diagnostic Work-Up on Medical Decision-Making for Canine Urinary Tract Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T M; Bjørnvad, C R; Cordoba, G

    2018-01-01

    dipstick (99%), microscopic examination of urine (80%) and bacterial culture (56%). Fifty-one percent of dogs had urinary tract infection (UTI) based on reference QBC. Appropriate DTT was made for 62% of the dogs, while 36% were over-prescribed and 2% under-prescribed. Inappropriate use of second......-line agents was found in 57% of the UTI cases. Performing microscopy-but not culture-significantly impacted DTT (P = 0.039) while no difference was seen in COT (P = 0.67). The accuracy of in-house microscopy and culture were 64.5 and 77%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Over......-prescription of antibiotics was common among dogs with suspected UTI, regardless of the diagnostic work-up performed. Test inaccuracy under practice conditions and incoherence between diagnostic test results and decision-making both explained inappropriate and unnecessary use of antibiotics....

  20. The future of veterinary communication: Partnership or persuasion? A qualitative investigation of veterinary communication in the pursuit of client behaviour change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Bard

    Full Text Available Client behaviour change is at the heart of veterinary practice, where promoting animal health and welfare is often synonymous with engaging clients in animal management practices. In the medical realm, extensive research points to the link between practitioner communication and patient behavioural outcomes, suggesting that the veterinary industry could benefit from a deeper understanding of veterinarian communication and its effects on client motivation. Whilst extensive studies have quantified language components typical of the veterinary consultation, the literature is lacking in-depth qualitative analysis in this context. The objective of this study was to address this deficit, and offer new critical insight into veterinary communication strategies in the pursuit of client behaviour change. Role-play interactions (n = 15 between UK cattle veterinarians and an actress experienced in medical and veterinary education were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Analysis revealed that, overall, veterinarians tend to communicate in a directive style (minimal eliciting of client opinion, dominating the consultation agenda, prioritising instrumental support, reflecting a paternalistic role in the consultation interaction. Given this finding, recommendations for progress in the veterinary industry are made; namely, the integration of evidence-based medical communication methodologies into clinical training. Use of these types of methodologies may facilitate the adoption of more mutualistic, relationship-centred communication in veterinary practice, supporting core psychological elements of client motivation and resultant behaviour change.

  1. Clinical studies on health conditions of medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liqun

    1984-01-01

    The results of investigations on general health conditions of 2484 medical X-ray workers and 1718 controls were reported. It was shown that the incidences of neurasthenic syndrome, loss of appetite, baldness etc. in X-ray workers were statistically higher than those in controls. Chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis, and paranasal sinusitis also occurred more frequently in the former group. The blood pressure, pulse rate, capillary resistance and past medical history showed no significant difference between these two groups. (Author)

  2. Clinical studies on health conditions of medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liqun, Liu

    1984-10-01

    The results of investigations on general health conditions of 2484 medical X-ray workers and 1718 controls were reported. It was shown that the incidences of neurasthenic syndrome, loss of appetite, baldness etc. in X-ray workers were statistically higher than those in controls. Chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis, and paranasal sinusitis also occurred more frequently in the former group. The blood pressure, pulse rate, capillary resistance and past medical history showed no significant difference between these two groups. (Author).

  3. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been

  4. The Application of Whole Cell-Based Biosensors for Use in Environmental Analysis and in Medical Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Qingyuan; Lawson, Tom; Shan, Suyan; Yan, Lu; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Various whole cell-based biosensors have been reported in the literature for the last 20 years and these reports have shown great potential for their use in the areas of pollution detection in environmental and in biomedical diagnostics. Unlike other reviews of this growing field, this mini-review argues that: (1) the selection of reporter genes and their regulatory proteins are directly linked to the performance of celllular biosensors; (2) broad enhancements in microelectronics and information technologies have also led to improvements in the performance of these sensors; (3) their future potential is most apparent in their use in the areas of medical diagnostics and in environmental monitoring; and (4) currently the most promising work is focused on the better integration of cellular sensors with nano and micro scaled integrated chips. With better integration it may become practical to see these cells used as (5) real-time portable devices for diagnostics at the bedside and for remote environmental toxin detection and this in situ application will make the technology commonplace and thus as unremarkable as other ubiquitous technologies. PMID:28703749

  5. Performance of Physical Examination Skills in Medical Students during Diagnostic Medicine Course in a University Hospital of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S.; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (pexaminations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p = 0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (pexaminations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students. PMID:25329685

  6. A thermal technique for local ultrasound intensity measurement: part 2. Application to exposimetry on a medical diagnostic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, V

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic output measurements on medical ultrasound equipment are usually performed using radiation force balances to determine the output power and using hydrophones to determine pressure and intensity parameters. The local temporal-average ultrasound intensity can be measured alternatively by thermal sensors. The technique was described and prototype sensors were characterized in a preceding paper. Here, the application of such a thermal intensity sensor to the output beam characterization of a typical medical diagnostic device is described. Two transducers, a 7.5 MHz linear array and a 3.5 MHz convex array were investigated in different operating modes. For comparison, hydrophone measurements were also performed. If the spatial averaging effect is taken into account, good agreement is found between both measurement methods. The maximum deviations of the spatial-peak temporal-average intensities I SPTA obtained with the thermal sensor from the corresponding hydrophone-based results were below 12%. The simple thermal technique offers advantages for intensity measurements especially in the case of scanning and combined modes of the diagnostic device, where the synchronization between hydrophone measurements and the complex pulse emission pattern can be difficult

  7. Translating silicon nanowire BioFET sensor-technology to embedded point-of-care medical diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem; Patou, François

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire and nanoribbon biosensors have shown great promise in the detection of biomarkers at very low concentrations. Their high sensitivity makes them ideal candidates for use in early-stage medical diagnostics and further disease monitoring where low amounts of biomarkers need to be de......Silicon nanowire and nanoribbon biosensors have shown great promise in the detection of biomarkers at very low concentrations. Their high sensitivity makes them ideal candidates for use in early-stage medical diagnostics and further disease monitoring where low amounts of biomarkers need...... to be detected. However, in order to translate this technology from the bench to the bedside, a number of key issues need to be taken into consideration: Integrating nanobiosensors-based technology requires to overcome the difficult tradeoff between imperatives for high device reproducibilty and associated...... rising fabrication costs. Also the translation of nano-scale sensor technology into daily-use point-of-care devices requires acknowledgement of the end-user requirements, making device portability and human-interfacing a focus point in device development. Sample handling or purification for instance...

  8. Raman spectroscopy for medical diagnostics--From in-vitro biofluid assays to in-vivo cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kenny; Kendall, Catherine; Stone, Nicholas; Notingher, Ioan

    2015-07-15

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique based on inelastic scattering of light by vibrating molecules and can provide chemical fingerprints of cells, tissues or biofluids. The high chemical specificity, minimal or lack of sample preparation and the ability to use advanced optical technologies in the visible or near-infrared spectral range (lasers, microscopes, fibre-optics) have recently led to an increase in medical diagnostic applications of Raman spectroscopy. The key hypothesis underpinning this field is that molecular changes in cells, tissues or biofluids, that are either the cause or the effect of diseases, can be detected and quantified by Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, multivariate calibration and classification models based on Raman spectra can be developed on large "training" datasets and used subsequently on samples from new patients to obtain quantitative and objective diagnosis. Historically, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been known as a low signal technique requiring relatively long acquisition times. Nevertheless, new strategies have been developed recently to overcome these issues: non-linear optical effects and metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance the Raman signals, optimised fibre-optic Raman probes can be used for real-time in-vivo single-point measurements, while multimodal integration with other optical techniques can guide the Raman measurements to increase the acquisition speed and spatial accuracy of diagnosis. These recent efforts have advanced Raman spectroscopy to the point where the diagnostic accuracy and speed are compatible with clinical use. This paper reviews the main Raman spectroscopy techniques used in medical diagnostics and provides an overview of various applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Asthma-like symptoms, diagnostic tests, and asthma medication use in children and adolescents: a population-based nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Magalhães, Manuel; Sá-Sousa, Ana; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Pité, Helena; Azevedo, Luis Filipe; Azevedo, Maria Inês; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Fonseca, João Almeida

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, current asthma (CA), asthma diagnostic tests, and inhaled medication use in a nationwide pediatric population (Pediatric-specific data from a cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey (INAsma study) in Portugal were analyzed. CA was defined as lifetime asthma and (1) wheezing, (2) waking with breathlessness, or (3) asthma attack in the previous 12 months, and/or (4) taking asthma medication at the time of the interview. In total, 716 children were included. The prevalence of asthma-like symptoms was 39.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 35.7-43.3]. The most common symptoms were waking with cough (30.9%) and wheezing (19.1%). The prevalence of CA was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.6-10.7). Among children with CA, 79.9% and 52.9% reported prior allergy testing and pulmonary function testing (PFT), respectively. Inhaled medication use in the previous 12 months was reported by 67.6% (reliever inhalers, 40.1%; controller inhalers, 41.5%). Those who only used inhaled reliever medications experienced more asthma attacks [odds ratio (OR): 2.69]. Significantly fewer children with CA living in rural areas than those living in urban areas had undergone PFT or used inhaled medication (OR: 0.06 for PFT, 0.20 for medication]. The prevalence of CA in the Portuguese pediatric population was 8.4%. Only half of children with CA had ever undergone PFT; more than half did not use controller inhalers, and those who only used reliever inhalers reported more asthma attacks. These findings suggest that asthma management has been substandard, mainly in rural areas.

  10. University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC): an assessment of its utility for teaching diagnostic imaging in the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Brent; Kalra, Neil; Malin, Greg; Trinder, Krista; Pinelle, David

    2015-01-01

    We have found it very challenging to integrate images from our radiology digital imaging repository into the curriculum of our local medical school. Thus, it has been difficult to convey important knowledge related to viewing and interpreting diagnostic radiology images. We sought to determine if we could create a solution for this problem and evaluate whether students exposed to this solution were able to learn imaging concepts pertinent to medical practice. We developed University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC), a novel interactive web application that enables preclinical medical students to acquire image interpretation skills fundamental to clinical practice. This web application reformats content stored in Medical Imaging Resource Center teaching cases for BlackBoard Learn™, a popular learning management system. We have deployed this solution for 2 successive years in a 1st-year basic sciences medical school course at the College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan. The "courseware" content covers both normal anatomy and common clinical pathologies in five distinct modules. We created two cohorts of learners consisting of an intervention cohort of students who had used USRC for their 1st academic year, whereas the nonintervention cohort was students who had not been exposed to this learning opportunity. To assess the learning experience of the users we designed an online questionnaire and image review quiz delivered to both of the student groups. Comparisons between the groups revealed statistically significant differences in both confidence with image interpretation and the ability to answer knowledge-based questions. Students were satisfied with the overall usability, functions, and capabilities of USRC. USRC is an innovative technology that provides integration between Medical Imaging Resource Center, a teaching solution used in radiology, and a Learning Management System.

  11. Stochastic risk estimation from medical x-ray diagnostic examinations, 2. Risk estimates of individuals from x-ray diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Noda, Y; Iwai, K; Tateno, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Nishizawa, K

    1981-01-01

    The risks of genetic, leukemia and malignant diseases from medical X-ray diagnostic examinations were estimated using the frequency of radiographic and fluoroscopic exposures per diagnostic examination, child expectancy, leukemia and malignancy significant factors, and using a weighting factor determined on the basis of data concerning the cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki and of a recommendation of International Commission of Radiological Protection. The organ or tissue doses with respect to the stochastic risks were determined with ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the positions of the organs or tissues in a RANDO woman phantom which was exposed to diagnostic X-rays according to technical factors of typical radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations obtained from a nationwide survey. The resultant risks by age-group and type of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination are tabulated in terms of risk level of 10/sup -6/. In general, the total risk defined as the sum of genetic, leukemia and malignant risks was a high value for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs involving barium meal and barium enema. For example, the total risk for young age-group was 100 to 200 x 10/sup -6/ for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk from the chest radiography was lower value as compared with the risk from the X-ray diagnosis of other organs or tissues. On the contrary, the risk from the chest tomography was comparable to the risk from the diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk decreased with increasing of age for every X-ray diagnostic examination.

  12. Course of radiological protection and safety in the medical diagnostic with X-rays; Curso de proteccion y seguridad radiologica en el diagnostico medico con rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, C.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The obtention of images of human body to the medical diagnostic is one of the more old and generalized applications for X-ray. Therefore the design and performance of equipment and installations as well as the operation procedures must be oriented toward safety with the purpose to guarantee this radiological practice will bring a net positive benefit to the society. Given that in Mexico only exists the standardization related to source and equipment generators of ionizing radiation in the industrial area and medical therapy, but not so to the medical diagnostic area it is the purpose of this work to present those standards related with this application branch. Also it is presented the preparation of a manual for the course named Formation of teachers in radiological protection and safety in the X-ray medical diagnostic in 1997 which was imparted at ININ. (Author)

  13. Management system of personnel dosimetry based on ISO 9001:2008 for medical diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos E.B.; Gerber Junior, Walmoli; Jahn, Tiago R.; Hahn, Tiago T.; Fontana, Thiago S.; Bolzan, Vagner

    2013-01-01

    MDose is a computer management system of personal dosimetry in diagnostic radiology services physician based on ISO 9001:9008 management system. According to Brazilian law all service radiology should implement a control of personal dosimetry in addition to radiation doses greater than 1.5 mSv/year service should do research of high dose, which is to identify the causes the resulting dose increase professional. This work is based on the use of the PDCA cycle in a JAVA software developed as a management method in the analysis of high doses in order to promote systematic and continuous improvement within the organization of radiological protection of workers

  14. Estimation of the population dose from medical X-ray diagnostic examination in Shandong province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xieming

    1985-01-01

    The exposure doses on the examinated body surface for verious types of X-ray diagnostic examanition in Shandong Province were surveyed. The collective effective dose equivalent in per million population were calculated with the measured results, the ratios of orga absorbed doses to irradiated surface exposure doses and the frequencies of X-ray examination in Shandong Province. The result was 326 man.Sv per million total population in 1980, of which chest fluoroscopies. lumbar spine radiographies and G.I. examination were estimated to be about 78, 9 and 5 precent, respectively

  15. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. PMID:28801498

  16. Radiation exposure of population due to medical diagnostic procedures in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Stavitskij, R.V.; Knizhnikov, V.A.; Barkhudarov, R.M.; Korsunskij, V.N.; Popov, V.I.; Tarasenko, Yu.I.; Postnikov, V.A.; Frolov, N.V.; Sidorin, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of radiation doses to population in the ussr on the basis of the data on frequency of 12 main forms of X-ray examinations and the results of measuring absorbed doses on tissue-kquivalent main's phantom are given. The evaluation of radiation exposure due to radiopharmaceutical preparations is based on consumption of 26 types of compounds in 320 national laboratories and i is performed by the methods developed in the framework of the mird committee (usa). In thhe active bone marrow, lungs mammary, glands thyroid and other organs (stomach, liver, spleen, etc.) the equivalent doses are determined and on their base the effective equivalent doses (eed). The average eed from x ray diagnostic examinations is 1.4 mSv per year (140 mrem per year) of which 55.4% falls on X-ray examination, 26.9% on radiography, 17.7% on mass miniature radiography (fluorography). Radionuclide diagnostics contribution is 3.2x10 -2 mSv per year (3.8 mrem per year). Medicinal radiation exposure approximately doubles the natural background, it is comparable with exposure in premises and essentially exceeds the radiation doses to population from other sources

  17. Regulatory requirements of radiation protection for veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst-Elz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The application of radionuclides for diagnostic and therapy in veterinary medicine requires permission by terms of German radiation protection ordinance. Conditions for granting this licence are described. Preconditions are the requisite qualification of the veterinarian and the structural conditions of radiation protection. It is necessary to consider the possible exposure of the public by radioactive waste and by animals after their discharge from treatment. (orig.)

  18. DICOM Standard Conformance in Veterinary Medicine in Germany: a Survey of Imaging Studies in Referral Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühschwein, Andreas; Klever, Julius; Wilkinson, Tom; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    In 2016, the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the use of veterinary identification DICOM tags had its 10th anniversary. The goal of our study was to survey veterinary DICOM standard conformance in Germany regarding the specific identification tags veterinarians should use in veterinary diagnostic imaging. We hypothesized that most veterinarians in Germany do not follow the guidelines of the DICOM Standards Committee. We analyzed the metadata of 488 imaging studies of referral cases from 115 different veterinary institutions in Germany by computer-aided DICOM header readout. We found that 25 (5.1%) of the imaging studies fully complied with the "veterinary DICOM standard" in this survey. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the consistent and advantageous use of veterinary identification tags have found minimal acceptance amongst German veterinarians. DICOM does not only enable connectivity between machines, DICOM also improves communication between veterinarians by sharing correct and valuable metadata for better patient care. Therefore, we recommend that lecturers, universities, societies, authorities, vendors, and other stakeholders should increase their effort to improve the spread of the veterinary DICOM standard in the veterinary world.

  19. Investigating laparoscopic psychomotor skills in veterinarians and veterinary technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Jessica; Santarossa, Amanda; Mrotz, Victoria; Walker, Meagan; Monaghan, Dominique; Singh, Ameet

    2017-04-01

    To determine the influence of age, year of graduation, and video game experience on baseline laparoscopic psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional. Licensed veterinarians (n = 38) and registered veterinary technicians (VTs) (n = 49). A laparoscopic box trainer was set up at the 2016 Ontario Veterinary Medical Association (OVMA) and the 2016 Ontario Association of Veterinary Technicians (OAVT) conferences held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants volunteered to perform a single repetition of a peg transfer (PT) exercise. Participants were given a short demonstration of the PT task prior to testing. A Spearman's rank correlation (r s ) was used to identify associations between baseline psychomotor skills and self-reported surgical and non-surgical experiences collected via survey. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare PT scores in veterinarians and VTs. A P-value of  .05). Veterinary technicians that frequently used chopsticks scored higher than those without chopstick experience (P = .04). Age and year of graduation correlated inversely, while self-reported VG experience correlated positively with laparoscopic psychomotor skills of veterinarians, when assessed on a simulator. The use of chopsticks may contribute to the acquisition of psychomotor skills in VTs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Review of medical discharge summaries and medical documentation in a metropolitan hospital: impact on diagnostic-related groups and Weighted Inlier Equivalent Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, N; Perera, P; Roberts, A; Nagappan, R

    2013-07-01

    Accurate and comprehensive clinical documentation is crucial for effective ongoing patient care, follow up and to optimise case mix-based funding. Each Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) is assigned a 'weight', leading to Weighted Inlier Equivalent Separation (WIES), a system many public and private hospitals in Australia subscribe to. To identify the top DRG in a general medical inpatient service, the completeness of medical discharge documentation, commonly missed comorbidities and system-related issues and subsequent impact on DRG and WIES allocation. One hundred and fifty completed discharge summaries were randomly selected from the top 10 medical DRG in our health service. From a detailed review of the clinical documentation, principal diagnoses, associated comorbidities and complications, where appropriate, the DRG and WIES were modified. Seventy-two (48%) of the 150 reviewed admissions resulted in a revision of DRG and WIES equivalent to an increase of AUD 142,000. Respiratory-based DRG generated the largest revision of DRG and WIES, while 'Cellulitis' DRG had the largest relative change. Twenty-seven per cent of summaries reviewed necessitated a change in coding with no subsequent change in DRG allocation or WIES. Acute renal failure, anaemia and electrolyte disturbances were the most commonly underrepresented entities in clinical discharge documentation. Seven patients had their WIES downgraded. Comprehensive documentation of principal diagnosis/diagnoses, comorbidities and their complications is imperative to optimal DRG and WIES allocation. Regular meetings between clinical and coding staff improve the quality and timeliness of medical documentation, ensure adequate communication with general practitioners and lead to appropriate funding. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  2. Academic training of radiation protection human resources in the X-ray medical diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.

    2008-12-01

    The current regulation, established by NOM-229-SSA1-2002 standard, T echnical requirements for facilities, health responsibilities, technical specifications for equipment and facilities for radiation protection in medical diagnosis with X-rays, t hat should be credited refresher courses, and training in radiation safety in accordance with current regulations, however, has been observed that the assistance and accreditation of courses is basically to cover administrative and regulatory requirements and therefore does not necessarily cover needs of the patient to radiation protection in the use of old and new technologies. David Brenner and Eric Hall claim that between 1.5 and 2% of all cancers in the USA may be attributable to exposure to X-ray computerized tomography techniques, given the intensive use of these techniques and the patient dose ranges in which incurred. While this is not debatable, if it is, the alternative does not seem to be abandoning the use of computerized tomography, because it gives them undoubted benefits with respect to invasive procedures. Deserves mention concerns the use of computerized tomography in children using scanning protocols designed for adults, in which case it incurs in 5 times higher dose. An additional warning about unwarranted use of computerized tomography is a procedure of this technique in abdomen resulting in an equivalent dose to 298 times that of a mammogram. Additional aspects such as biological effects (including deterministic) of both medical staff and patients of interventional procedures further reinforces the idea that there are education programs in radiation protection. Attention must put in the new generations, including in the curricula of medical residencies in radiology, endoscopy, cardiology and orthopedic, the education (no emerging courses) in radiation protection, radiobiology, radiology physics, and other topics, but previously must have medical physicists in radiology available to train new

  3. 150th anniversary of veterinary education and the veterinary profession in North America: part 2, 1940-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of four to be published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME). These articles are abridged versions of six lectures that make up an elective course on the history of the veterinary profession in North America offered at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine to students in all four years of the program. The course is built in part on a series of biographies and interviews captured in a collection at http://www.vet.cornell.edu/legacy, and complemented by a growing collection of historical and public policy blogs at http://www.veterinarylegacy.blogsite.com. This article describes the development of the veterinary profession from 1940 to 1970, with particular emphasis on World War II, the Land Grant colleges established in the mid- and late 1940s, women in veterinary medicine (1910-1970), and African-Americans (ca. 1890-1945). Though the article is somewhat Cornell-centric because the lectures were presented to Cornell students at their home institution, many events are representative of the broader American experience.

  4. Emotions in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...

  5. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansiime, Catherine; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Guma, Victor; Rwego, Innocent B.; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda. Methods This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method. Results All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process. Conclusions The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such

  6. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  7. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L

    2017-08-12

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Estimation of population doses from diagnostic medical examinations in Japan, 1974. IV. Dose estimation of fetus exposed in utero to diagnostic x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Kumamoto, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1976-07-01

    In fetus exposed in utero to diagnostic x rays for the medical examinations of the mother, the absorbed dose has been estimated on the basis of a 1974 nation wide radiological survey. The results of the survey showed that the number of radiographs per year connected with pregnant women was 0.32 million for chest examination excluding mass surveys. 0.29 million for obstetrical examinations including pelvimetry, and 0.21 million for abdominal and pelvic examinations with a total of 0.82 million. The dose absorbed in the fetus was measured with an ionization chamber placed at the hypothetical center of the fetus in an ''average woman'' Rando phantom in which a maternal body was simulated by adding MixDp materials. ''The collective dose'' to the fetus in the pregnant women receiving a given type of examination was calculated from the number of radiographs per year connected with the pregnant women and the fetal doses. The percapita mean marrow dose (CMD), the leukemia significant dose (LSD) and the genetically significant dose (GSD) for the fetus were determined from the collective dose, taking into account the birth expectancy, the child expectancy, life expectancy and significant factor for the fetus. The collective dose to the fetus was estimated to be 9.3 x 10/sup 4/ man rad per year. The resultant values of CMD, LSD and GSD were 0.81 mrad per year, 0.79 mrad per person per year and 1.44 mrad per person per year, respectively.

  9. Toward First Principle Medical Diagnostics: On the Importance of Disease-Disease and Sign-Sign Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ramezanpour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in medicine and biology is to assign states, e.g., healthy or diseased, to cells, organs or individuals. State assignment or making a diagnosis is often a nontrivial and challenging process and, with the advent of omics technologies, the diagnostic challenge is becoming more and more serious. The challenge lies not only in the increasing number of measured properties and dynamics of the system (e.g., cell or human body but also in the co-evolution of multiple states and overlapping properties, and degeneracy of states. We develop, from first principles, a generic rational framework for state assignment in cell biology and medicine, and demonstrate its applicability with a few simple theoretical case studies from medical diagnostics. We show how disease–related statistical information can be used to build a comprehensive model that includes the relevant dependencies between clinical and laboratory findings (signs and diseases. In particular, we include disease-disease and sign–sign interactions and study how one can infer the probability of a disease in a patient with given signs. We perform comparative analysis with simple benchmark models to check the performances of our models. We find that including interactions can significantly change the statistical importance of the signs and diseases. This first principles approach, as we show, facilitates the early diagnosis of disease by taking interactions into accounts, and enables the construction of consensus diagnostic flow charts. Additionally, we envision that our approach will find applications in systems biology, and in particular, in characterizing the phenome via the metabolome, the proteome, the transcriptome, and the genome.

  10. Towards first principle medical diagnostics: on the importance of disease-disease and sign-sign interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental problem in medicine and biology is to assign states, e.g. healthy or diseased, to cells, organs or individuals. State assignment or making a diagnosis is often a nontrivial and challenging process and, with the advent of omics technologies, the diagnostic challenge is becoming more and more serious. The challenge lies not only in the increasing number of measured properties and dynamics of the system (e.g. cell or human body) but also in the co-evolution of multiple states and overlapping properties, and degeneracy of states. We develop, from first principles, a generic rational framework for state assignment in cell biology and medicine, and demonstrate its applicability with a few simple theoretical case studies from medical diagnostics. We show how disease-related statistical information can be used to build a comprehensive model that includes the relevant dependencies between clinical and laboratory findings (signs) and diseases. In particular, we include disease-disease and sign-sign interactions and study how one can infer the probability of a disease in a patient with given signs. We perform comparative analysis with simple benchmark models to check the performances of our models. We find that including interactions can significantly change the statistical importance of the signs and diseases. This first principles approach, as we show, facilitates the early diagnosis of disease by taking interactions into accounts, and enables the construction of consensus diagnostic flow charts. Additionally, we envision that our approach will find applications in systems biology, and in particular, in characterizing the phenome via the metabolome, the proteome, the transcriptome, and the genome.

  11. The Development Of A Diagnostic Reading Test Of English For The Students Of Medical Faculty, Brawijaya University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Winarni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a diagnostic test of multiple choice reading comprehension as an initial stage in developing teaching materials for medical students learning English. Sample texts were collected from all the departments in the faculty. Selection of relevant texts involved the participation of some subject lecturers. Sixty one items were developed from fifteen texts to be reduced to forty items after pilot testing. Face validity was improved. The main trial was carried out to twenty nine students and item analysis was carried out. The test showed low level of concurrent validity and the internal consistency showed a moderate level of reliability. The low level of concurrent validity was suspected to result from the test being too difficult for the testees as the item analysis had revealed.

  12. Value of diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy for patients with blunt abdominal trauma: A 10-year medical center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Chen, Ying-Da; Chen, Shyr-Chyr

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopy has been used for the diagnosis and treatment for hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. This study evaluated whether diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy can be used as effectively in select patients with blunt abdominal trauma. All hemodynamically stable patients undergoing operations for blunt abdominal trauma over a 10-year period (2006-2015) at a tertiary medical center were included. Patients undergoing laparotomy were categorized as group A. Patients who underwent laparoscopy were categorized as group B. The clinical outcomes of the 2 groups were compared. There were 139 patients in group A and 126 patients in group B. Group A patients were more severely injured (mean injury severity score of 23.3 vs. 18.9, P .05). Laparoscopy is a feasible and safe tool for the diagnosis and treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma who require surgery.

  13. Advanced diagnostic approaches and current medical management of insulinomas and adrenocortical disease in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sue

    2010-09-01

    Endocrine neoplasia is the most common tumor type in domestic ferrets, especially in middle-aged to older ferrets. Islet cell tumors and adrenocortical tumors constitute the major types of endocrine neoplasms. Insulinoma is a tumor that produces and releases excessive amounts of insulin. Evaluation of fasted blood glucose levels provides a quick diagnostic assessment for the detection of insulinomas. Use of glucocorticoids, diazoxide, and diet modification are some of the medical treatment options for insulinomas. Adrenocortical neoplasia in ferrets usually overproduces one or more sex hormones. Sex hormones which can result in progressive alopecia, vulvar swelling in females, and prostagomegaly in males. Abdominal ultrasonography and sex hormone assays can be used to diagnose adrenocortical neoplasms. Drugs such as leuprolide acetate, deslorelin acetate, and the hormone melatonin can be used to treat adrenocortical neoplasms in ferrets when surgery is not an option. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Veterinary medicines in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, A B A; Fogg, L A; Blackwell, P A; Kay, P; Pemberton, E J; Croxford, A

    2004-01-01

    The impact of veterinary medicines on the environment will depend on a number of factors including physicochemical properties, amount used and method of administration, treatment type and dose, animal husbandry practices, manure storage and handling practices, metabolism within the animal, and degradation rates in manure and slurry. Once released to the environment, other factors such as soil type, climate, and ecotoxicity also determine the environmental impact of the compound. The importance of individual routes into the environment for different types of veterinary medicines varies according to the type of treatment and livestock category. Treatments used in aquaculture have a high potential to reach the aquatic environment. The main routes of entry to the terrestrial environment are from the use of veterinary medicines in intensively reared livestock, via the application of slurry and manure to land, and by the use of veterinary medicines in pasture-reared animals where pharmaceutical residues are excreted directly into the environment. Veterinary medicines applied to land via spreading of slurry may also enter the aquatic environment indirectly via surface runoff or leaching to groundwater. It is likely that topical treatments have greater potential to be released to the environment than treatments administered orally or by injection. Inputs from the manufacturing process, companion animal treatments, and disposal are likely to be minimal in comparison. Monitoring studies demonstrate that veterinary medicines do enter the environment, with sheep dip chemicals, antibiotics, sealice treatments, and anthelmintics being measured in soils, groundwater, surface waters, sediment, or biota. Maximum concentrations vary across chemical classes, with very high concentrations being reported for the sheep dip chemicals. The degree to which veterinary medicines may adsorb to particulates varies widely. Partition coefficients (K(d)) range from low (0.61 L kg(-1)) to high

  15. Comparison of the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography and medical computed tomography: implications for clinical diagnostics with guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Marcus; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Orentlicher, Gary; Wahl, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and medical-grade CT in the context of evaluating the diagnostic value and accuracy of fiducial marker localization for reference marker-based guided surgery systems. Cadaver mandibles with attached radiopaque gutta-percha markers, as well as glass balls and composite cylinders of known dimensions, were measured manually with a highly accurate digital caliper. The objects were then scanned using a medical-grade CT scanner (Philips Brilliance 64) and five different CBCT scanners (Sirona Galileos, Morita 3D Accuitomo 80, Vatech PaX-Reve3D, 3M Imtech Iluma, and Planmeca ProMax 3D). The data were then imported into commercially available software, and measurements were made of the scanned markers and objects. CT and CBCT measurements were compared to each other and to the caliper measurements. The difference between the CBCT measurements and the caliper measurements was larger than the difference between the CT measurements and the caliper measurements. Measurements of the cadaver mandible and the geometric reference markers were highly accurate with CT. The average absolute errors of the human mandible measurements were 0.03 mm for CT and 0.23 mm for CBCT. The measurement errors of the geometric objects based on CT ranged between 0.00 and 0.12 mm, compared to an error range between 0.00 and 2.17 mm with the CBCT scanners. CT provided the most accurate images in this study, closely followed by one CBCT of the five tested. Although there were differences in the distance measurements of the hard tissue of the human mandible between CT and CBCT, these differences may not be of clinical significance for most diagnostic purposes. The fiducial marker localization error caused by some CBCT scanners may be a problem for guided surgery systems.

  16. Shift Work and Related Health Problems among Medical and Diagnostic Staff of the General Teaching Hospitals Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sajjadnia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Today, shift work is considered as a necessity in many jobs and for some 24-hour services the use of shift-work is growing. However, shift work can lead to physiological and psycho-social problems for shift workers. This study aimed to determine the effects of shift work on the associated health problems, together with the demographic and job characteristics underlying the problems, among the medical and diagnostic staff of the general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Method:This study was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical one. The study employed a sample of 205 employees from the medical and diagnostic staff using stratified sampling proportional to the size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using the Survey of Shift workers (SOS questionnaire, validity and reliability of which have already been confirmed. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software through ANOVA, Chi-square, Independent-Samples T-Test, as well as Pearson Correlation Coefficient. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that among the demographic and job characteristics studied, the individual, family and social problems had significant associations with work schedules, shift work and job satisfaction. In addition, there were significant associations between musculoskeletal disorders and the satisfaction of shift work; cardiovascular disorders and marital status and occupation; digestive disorders and the work schedules; sleep disorders and the satisfaction of shift work; musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disorders and sleep disorders and age, job experience and shift work experience. And finally, there were significant associations among sleep disorders and age, job experience and the shift work experience. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, demographic characteristics such as age, marital

  17. The preanalytic phase in veterinary clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: maiavanel@yahoo.fr [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.

  19. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: Which differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all

  20. Seasonal microbiological quality of air in veterinary practices in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitkowska, Jolanta; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Sitkowski, Łukasz; Lutnicki, Krzysztof; Adamek, Łukasz; Wilkołek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies focused on the bioaerosols in the areas of industry, agriculture and animal husbandry, concerning both residential and public buildings, have been conducted continuously for many years. The aim of the present work was to determine the concentration and composition of mesophilic bacterial flora in the air of selected medical and veterinary clinics located in the cities and in the countryside. Air sampling was carried out in 2011-2013 in 44 veterinary practices in autumn-winter and spring-summer seasons. The concentration of bacteria ranged from 39 - 5,034 cfu/m(3) , with higher values recorded in offices operating in the cities. In the examined medical and veterinary offices, Gram-positive bacteria comprised the largest group of microorganisms, among which Gram-positive cocci of the genus Staphylococcus prevailed, with the highest average of 1,074.40 cfu/m(3) in urban offices during the autumn season. The smallest group was represented by Gram-negative bacteria, with a concentration of 0.0 - 215 cfu/m(3). In total, 93 kinds/species of bacteria were identified. A 12-month series of studies showed the highest mean concentrations of microorganisms in autumn for offices located in the city, while the lowest in winter for rural centres. The environment of veterinary offices is a habitat of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria, which may pose health problems not only for residents, but also for the animals.

  1. 7 CFR 371.4 - Veterinary Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary Services. 371.4 Section 371.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.4 Veterinary Services. (a) General statement. Veterinary Services (VS) protects and safeguards the Nation's livestock and...

  2. Understanding veterinary leadership in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul

    2018-04-21

    The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  4. African Journals Online: Veterinary Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ... Life Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics & Physics, Earth Sciences ... The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official ...

  5. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication Frequency.

  6. Rapid detection of chromosome rearrangement in medical diagnostic X-ray workers by using fluorescence in situ hybridization and study on dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiquan; Sun Yuanming; Li Jin

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Biological doses were estimated for medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: Chromosome rearrangements in X-ray workers were analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with composite whole chromosome paintings number 4 and number 7. Results: The frequency of translocation in medical diagnostic X-ray workers was much higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The biological doses to individual X-ray workers were calculated by their translocation frequency. The translocation frequencies of both FISH and G-banding were in good agreement. Conclusion: The biological doses to X-ray workers are estimated by FISH first when their dosimetry records are not documented

  7. Application of artificial neural network for medical image recognition and diagnostic decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, N.; Eiho, S.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.; Montner, S.M.; Giger, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    An artificial neural network has been applied for pattern recognition and used as a tool in an expert system. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential usefulness of the neural network approach in medical applications for image recognition and decision making. The authors designed multilayer feedforward neural networks with a back-propagation algorithm for our study. Using first-pass radionuclide ventriculograms, we attempted to identify the right and left ventricles of the heart and the lungs by training the neural network from patterns of time-activity curves. In a preliminary study, the neural network enabled identification of the lungs and heart chambers once the network was trained sufficiently by means of repeated entries of data from the same case

  8. Use of silicon microstrip detectors in medical diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester

    2004-11-01

    This work presents the development and characterization of a single photon counting system based on silicon microstrip detectors, used in High Energy Physics experiments, and on low noise multichannel readout electronics. The thesis evaluates the feasibility of dual energy X-ray imaging with silicon microstrip detectors to be applied on medical diagnosis. Dual energy mammographic and angiographic experimental tests have been performed using the developed counting systems proto types, properly phantoms and quasi-monochromatic X ray beams, obtained on a compact dichromatic source based on a conventional X-ray tube and a mosaic crystal. A Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of the experimental setup for dual X-ray imaging has also been carried out using MCNP-4C transport code. We obtained good agreement between MCNP results and the experimental data. (Author)

  9. ANTISPASMODIC MEDICATION WITH DIRECTIVE EFFECT IN CHILDREN WITH ABDOMINAL PAIN AT THE STAGE OF DIAGNOSTIC SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kozlova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Additional examination is needed for the purpose of detection of its etiology in some patients with abdominal pain, and it takes several days to prove a diagnosis. In most cases this pain is a result of muscle spasm in gastrointestinal tract. The administration of antispasmodic medication with directive effect, particularly, of hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan, is well-grounded. Hyoscine butylbromide is M-cholinergic antagonist, it does not penetrates blood-brain barrier, does not induce common for cholinergic antagonists vascular reactions and decrease of blood pressure. This drug is used in pediatric practice for a long time, it can be used in patients 6 years old anв older, and it has good safety profile. Key words: abdominal pain, hyoscine butylbromide.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:168-170

  10. Evaluation of the distribution of absorbed dose in child phantoms exposed to diagnostic medical x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine, by theoretical calculation and experimental measurement, the absorbed dose distributions in two heterogeneous phantoms representing one-year- and five-year-old children from typical radiographic examinations for those ages. Theoretical work included the modification of an existing internal dose code which used Monte Carlo methods to determine doses within the Snyder-Fisher mathematical phantom. A Ge(Li) detector and a pinhole collimator were used to measure x-ray spectra which served as input (i.e., the source routine) to the modified Monte Carlo codes which were used to calculate organ doses in children. Experimental work included the fabrication of child phantoms to match the existing mathematical models. These phantoms were constructed of molded lucite shells filled with differing materials to simulate lung, skeletal, and soft-tissue regions. The skeleton regions of phantoms offered the opportunity to perform meaningful measurements of absorbed dose to bone marrow and bone. Thirteen to fourteen sites in various bones of the skeleton were chosen for placement of TLDs. These sites represented important regions in which active bone marrow is located. Sixteen typical radiographic examinations were performed representing common pediatric diagnostic procedures. The calculated and measured tissue-air values were compared for a number of organs. For most organs, the results of the calculated absorbed doses agreed with the measured absorbed doses within twice the coefficient of variation of the calculated value. The absorbed dose to specific organs for several selected radiological examinations are given for one-year-old, five-year-old, and adult phantoms. For selected radiological exposures, the risk factors of leukemia, thyroid cancer, and genetic death are estimated for one-year- and five-year-old children

  11. Speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: early diagnostics and effects of medication and brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabenec, L; Mekyska, J; Galaz, Z; Rektorova, Irena

    2017-03-01

    Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) occurs in 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It manifests specifically in the areas of articulation, phonation, prosody, speech fluency, and faciokinesis. We aimed to systematically review papers on HD in PD with a special focus on (1) early PD diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression using acoustic voice and speech analysis, and (2) functional imaging studies exploring neural correlates of HD in PD, and (3) clinical studies using acoustic analysis to evaluate effects of dopaminergic medication and brain stimulation. A systematic literature search of articles written in English before March 2016 was conducted in the Web of Science, PubMed, SpringerLink, and IEEE Xplore databases using and combining specific relevant keywords. Articles were categorized into three groups: (1) articles focused on neural correlates of HD in PD using functional imaging (n = 13); (2) articles dealing with the acoustic analysis of HD in PD (n = 52); and (3) articles concerning specifically dopaminergic and brain stimulation-related effects as assessed by acoustic analysis (n = 31); the groups were then reviewed. We identified 14 combinations of speech tasks and acoustic features that can be recommended for use in describing the main features of HD in PD. While only a few acoustic parameters correlate with limb motor symptoms and can be partially relieved by dopaminergic medication, HD in PD seems to be mainly related to non-dopaminergic deficits and associated particularly with non-motor symptoms. Future studies should combine non-invasive brain stimulation with voice behavior approaches to achieve the best treatment effects by enhancing auditory-motor integration.

  12. Comparison of x-ray cross sections for diagnostic and therapeutic medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, J.M.; Chavez, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to make available an up-to-date source of attenuation coefficient data to the medical physics community, and to compare these data with other more familiar sources. Data files from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (in Livermore, CA) were truncated to match the needs of the medical physics community, and an interpolation routine was written to calculate a continuous set of cross sections spanning energies from 1 keV to 50 MeV. Coefficient data are available for elements Z=1 through Z=100. Values for mass attenuation coefficients, mass-energy-transfer coefficients, and mass-energy absorption coefficients are produced by a single computer subroutine. In addition to total interaction cross sections, the cross sections for the photoelectric, Rayleigh, Compton, pair, and some triplet interactions are also produced by this single program. The coefficients were compared to the 1970 data of Storm and Israel over the energy interval from 1 to 1000 keV; for elements 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80, the average positive difference between the Storm and Israel coefficients and the coefficients reported here are 1.4%, 2.7%, and 2.6%, for the mass attenuation, mass energy-transfer, and mass-energy absorption coefficients, respectively. The 1969 data compilation of mass attenuation coefficients from McMaster et al. were also compared with the newer LLNL data. Over the energy region from 10 keV to 1000 keV, and from elements Z=1 to Z=82 (inclusive), the overall average difference was 1.53% (σ=0.85%). While the overall average difference was small, there was larger variation (>5%) between cross sections for some elements. In addition to coefficient data, other useful data such as the density, atomic weight, K, L 1 , L 2 , L 3 , M, and N edges, and numerous characteristic emission energies are output by the program, depending on a single input variable

  13. Estimation of population doses from diagnostic medical examinations in Japan, 1974. II. Estimation of genetically significant dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Kumamoto, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1976-03-01

    The genetically significant dose from radiographic and fluoroscopic examination in Japan has been estimated based on a 1974 nation wide survey of randomly sampled hospitals and clinics. The gonad dose during x-ray diagnosis was determined with an ionization chamber placed at the positions of ovary and testis in a Rando phantom. The instrumented phantom was irradiated with medical diagnostic x-rays on the basis of the exposure data on the patients selected in the nation wide survey. In the calculation of the genetically significant dose, the child expectancy of the patients that undergo each particular type of examination was assumed to be same as that of the general population. The resultant genetically significant dose was 11.1 and 5.43 mrad per person per year for radiography and fluoroscopy, respectively. These values were compared with those of 1960 and 1969. Though the number of examinations per year shows a yearly increase, the genetically significant dose is gradually on the decrease. This may be due to technical improvements in medical radiological practices.

  14. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  15. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Comparison of x-ray cross sections for diagnostic and therapeutic medical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, J M; Chavez, A E

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to make available an up-to-date source of attenuation coefficient data to the medical physics community, and to compare these data with other more familiar sources. Data files from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (in Livermore, CA) were truncated to match the needs of the medical physics community, and an interpolation routine was written to calculate a continuous set of cross sections spanning energies from 1 keV to 50 MeV. Coefficient data are available for elements Z = 1 through Z = 100. Values for mass attenuation coefficients, mass-energy-transfer coefficients, and mass-energy absorption coefficients are produced by a single computer subroutine. In addition to total interaction cross sections, the cross sections for photoelectric, Rayleigh, Compton, pair, and some triplet interactions are also produced by this single program. The coefficients were compared to the 1970 data of Storm and Israel over the energy interval from 1 to 1000 keV; for elements 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80, the average positive difference between the Storm and Israel coefficients and the coefficients reported here are 1.4%, 2.7%, and 2.6%, for the mass attenuation, mass energy-transfer, and mass-energy absorption coefficients, respectively. The 1969 data compilation of mass attenuation coefficients from McMaster et al. were also compared with the newer LLNL data. Over the energy region from 10 keV to 1000 keV, and from elements Z = 1 to Z = 82 (inclusive), the overall average difference was 1.53% (sigma = 0.85%). While the overall average difference was small, there was larger variation (> 5%) between cross sections for some elements. In addition to coefficient data, other useful data such as the density, atomic weight, K, L1, L2, L3, M, and N edges, and numerous characteristic emission energies are output by the program, depending on a single input variable. The computer source code, written in C, can be accessed and downloaded from

  17. Spontaneous nervous system concussion in dogs: a description of two cases and a review of terminology in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pasquale Giannuzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In human medicine, central nervous system (CNS concussion is defined as a transient neurological dysfunction following a traumatic event, without evidence of structural abnormalities of the affected region on advanced diagnostic imaging. Depending on the anatomical region involved, three forms of concussive syndromes are described: brain concussion, spinal concussion and cerebellar concussion. Although major textbooks of veterinary neurology admit the existence of canine brain concussion, spontaneous cases of this pathological condition have not been reported in small animals so far. This report describes two cases of concussion in dogs: a 9-month-old, intact male, shih-tzu with brain concussion; and a 10-month-old, intact male, poodle with cerebellar concussion. In addition, a brief review of the definition of the term “concussion” in the veterinary medical literature is provided, in comparison to its meaning in the human medical literature. Finally, this paper proposes an appropriate definition of “concussion” in dogs, that may facilitate clinicians in the recognition of such an elusive syndrome.

  18. Principle and engineering implementation of 3D visual representation and indexing of medical diagnostic records (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liehang; Sun, Jianyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ling, Tonghui; Wang, Mingqing; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Due to the generation of a large number of electronic imaging diagnostic records (IDR) year after year in a digital hospital, The IDR has become the main component of medical big data which brings huge values to healthcare services, professionals and administration. But a large volume of IDR presented in a hospital also brings new challenges to healthcare professionals and services as there may be too many IDRs for each patient so that it is difficult for a doctor to review all IDR of each patient in a limited appointed time slot. In this presentation, we presented an innovation method which uses an anatomical 3D structure object visually to represent and index historical medical status of each patient, which is called Visual Patient (VP) in this presentation, based on long term archived electronic IDR in a hospital, so that a doctor can quickly learn the historical medical status of the patient, quickly point and retrieve the IDR he or she interested in a limited appointed time slot. Method: The engineering implementation of VP was to build 3D Visual Representation and Index system called VP system (VPS) including components of natural language processing (NLP) for Chinese, Visual Index Creator (VIC), and 3D Visual Rendering Engine.There were three steps in this implementation: (1) an XML-based electronic anatomic structure of human body for each patient was created and used visually to index the all of abstract information of each IDR for each patient; (2)a number of specific designed IDR parsing processors were developed and used to extract various kinds of abstract information of IDRs retrieved from hospital information systems; (3) a 3D anatomic rendering object was introduced visually to represent and display the content of VIO for each patient. Results: The VPS was implemented in a simulated clinical environment including PACS/RIS to show VP instance to doctors. We setup two evaluation scenario in a hospital radiology department to evaluate whether

  19. Effective doses and standardised risk factors from paediatric diagnostic medical radiation exposures: Information for radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    In the paediatric medical radiation setting, there is no consistency on the radiation risk information conveyed to the consumer (patient/carer). Each communicator may convey different information about the level of risk for the same radiation procedure, leaving the consumer confused and frustrated. There is a need to standardise risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. In this study, paediatric radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examination data have been analysed to provide (i) effective doses and radiation induced cancer risk factors from common radiological and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in standardised formats, (II) awareness of the difficulties that may be encountered in communicating risks to the layperson, and (iii) an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation so that the risk communicator can convey with confidence the risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. Paediatric patient dose data from general radiographic, computed tomography, fluoroscopic and nuclear medicine databases have been analysed in age groups 0 to <5 years, 5 to <10 years, 10 to <15 years and 15 to <18 years to determine standardised risk factors. Mean, minimum and maximum effective doses and the corresponding mean lifetime risks for general radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examinations for different age groups have been calculated. For all examinations, the mean lifetime cancer induction risk is provided in three formats: statistical, fraction and category. Standardised risk factors for different radiological and nuclear medicine examinations and an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation and the difficulties encountered in communicating the risks should facilitate risk communication to the patient/carer.

  20. International programs and veterinary public health in the Americas--success, challenges, and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambulo, Primo

    2008-09-15

    The veterinary public health (VPH) program at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) began in 1949 when an arrangement with the newly founded World Health Organization made PAHO its Regional Office for the Americas to serve as the specialized health agency both for the Organization of American States and the United Nations. It started as a Section of Veterinary Medicine to help eradicate rabies on both sides of the US-Mexico border, and PAHO grew to be the biggest VPH program in the world. By providing a political and technical base, PAHO assisted its member states to organize and develop their national VPH programs and activities, and it provides technical cooperation and works with their national counterparts to solve national and local problems. In the 1980s and 1990s, PAHO concentrated that cooperation on several, specific needs: the elimination of dog-transmitted human rabies, hemispheric eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), regional action planning for food safety, control/eradication of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis, and surveillance and prevention of emerging zoonoses and food-borne diseases. The Pan American centers developed a number of diagnostic antigens and a continental system for the surveillance of FMD and vesicular diseases, using geographic quadrant technology to augment sensitivity, analyze data, and make decisions. Another visible accomplishment is the elimination of hydatidosis in the endemic countries and regions of the southern cone. In addition, the VPH program of PAHO pioneered the mobilization of the private sector to participate in official programs. Nevertheless, privatization of animal and human health services has had a negative effect on human resources and infrastructure by weakening essential epidemiological functions in some countries. Today, there is a need for closer coordination between veterinary medicine and medical services. Practically all potential bioterrorism agents are zoonoses, and it is cost