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Sample records for vestfold hills lakes

  1. Ostracoda from Vestfold Hill lake terraces, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Six species of ostracodes are recorded from two transects of terraces of Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. Two species (@iXesteleberis@@ sp. and @iBradleya dictyon@@) range from Cretaceous to Recent, @iPoseidonamicus aff. P. major@@ ranges from...

  2. Foraminifera from the deep lake terraces, Vestfold hills, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Williams, R.; Kerry, K.R.

    Fourteen species of planktonic and forty-two species of benthonic foraminifera are identified from two transects of terraces near Deep Lake in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. All the planktonic and a few of the benthonic species occur on the western...

  3. Preliminary report on diatoms from the deep lake terraces, Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Kellogg, D.E.; Kellogg, T.B.

    Deep lake (latitudes 68~'22' and 68~'40'S longitudes 77~'49' and 78~'33'E) is one of the two most saline lakes in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. During December 1974, the Antarctic Division of the Australian Department of Science and Technology...

  4. Hydrocarbons in benthic marine algae of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    1987-02-01

    Recently, Antarctic continent has been the center for diverse research activities. This has resulted in a large number of research and supply vessels visiting Antarctica, which may lead to the contamination of Antarctic environment due to unintentional release of petroleum products. It is, therefore, essential to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in water, sediment, flora and fauna of this region which may also serve as a baseline data for future comparison. With this in view, total hydrocarbon concentration in some marine benthic algae collected from the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy.

  5. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Jared R.; Selway, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group in East Antarctica have contrasting Archean to Neoproterozoic geological histories and are believed to be juxtaposed along a suture zone that now lies beneath the Sørsdal Glacier. Exact location and age of this suture zone are unknown, as is its relationship to regional deformation associated with the amalgamation of East Gondwana. To image the suture zone, magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica, mainly along a profile crossing the Sørsdal Glacier and regions inland of the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group islands. Time-frequency analysis of the MT time series yielded three important observations: (1) Wind speeds in excess of ∼8 m/s reduce coherence between electric and magnetic fields due to charged wind-blown particles of ice and snow. (2) Estimation of the MT transfer function is best between 1000 and 1400 UT when ionospheric Hall currents enhance the magnetic source field. (3) Nonplanar source field effects were minimal but detectable and removed from estimation of the MT transfer function. Inversions of MT data in 2-D and 3-D produce similar resistivity models, where structures in the preferred 3-D resistivity model correlate strongly with regional magnetic data. The electrically conductive Rauer Group is separated from the less conductive Vestfold Hills by a resistive zone under the Sørsdal Glacier, which is interpreted to be caused by oxidation during suturing. Though a suture zone has been imaged, no time constrains on suturing can be made from the MT data.

  6. Plankton diversity and aquatic ecology of a freshwater lake (L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Bharti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Larsemann Hills range is an ice-free oasis on the Ingrid Christensen Coast of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, which includes Bharti Island, Fisher Island, McLeod Island, Broknes Peninsula, Stornes Peninsula, and several other islands, promontories, and nunataks. The Larsemann Hills is an ice-free area of approximately 50 km2, located halfway between the Vestfold Hills and the Amery Ice Shelf on the south-eastern coast of Prydz Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. The ice-free area consists of two major peninsulas (Stornes and Broknes, four minor peninsulas, and approximately 130 near shore islands. The Larsemann Hills area contains more than 150 lakes at different Islands and peninsulas. Bharti Island of Larsemann Hills in east Antarctica was selected as a sampling site for the present study. Water sample was collected from a freshwater lake during XXXth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA and analyzed for the physico-chemical parameters, major elements, trace metals and major plankton diversity in surface lake water by following standard methodology. The concentrations of metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were also assessed in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills over east Antarctica. Psychrophillic bacteria were found 71 cfu in lake water, while total bacterial count was found to be 5.4 × 102cfu.

  7. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red Hills...

  8. Fossil Rotifers and the Early Colonization of an Antarctic Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, Kerrie M.; Dartnall, Herbert J. G.; Gibson, John A. E.; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2001-05-01

    Early Holocene sediments from a continental Antarctic lake (Ace Lake, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica) contained abundant fossil rotifers of the genus Notholca. The fossil is similar to specimens of Notholca sp. present in modern-day Ace Lake and other fresh and brackish lakes of the Vestfold Hills. Cyanobacteria and protists (chrysophyte cysts, dinoflagellate cysts, and rhizopod tests) were also recovered from the core samples. These sediments were deposited early in the freshwater phase of Ace Lake, soon after deglaciation of the area. The occurrence of this trophically diverse assemblage of organisms at an early stage in the evolution of the lake suggests either that they were part of an endemic Antarctic flora and fauna which pre-dated the last glacial maximum and survived in glacial refugia or that efficient intercontinental dispersal had occurred.

  9. Lake Aquilla - Habitat Survey Hill County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    the nest, which is typically situated about one meter from the ground (Grzybowski 1995). These shrublands are a product of climate in the arid ...Lake Aquilla, Texas. Plot LA22 was located near N 31.99525° W 97.1425° in a low, poorly drained area that is semi -permanently flooded, only... Climate Center website ERDC/EL TR-17-16 57 (http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/ climate /wetlands.html) or the Web- based, Water-Budget, Interactive

  10.  Marine derived dinoflagellates in Antarctic saline lakes: Community composition and annual dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rengefors, K.; Layborn-Parry, L.; Logares, R.

    2008-01-01

    The saline lakes of the Vestfold Hills in Antarctica offer a remarkable natural laboratory where the adaptation of planktonic protists to a range of evolving physiochemical conditions can be investigated. This study illustrates how an ancestral marine community has undergone radical simplification...... polar dinoflagellate community, and not freshwater species. Polarella glacialis Montresor, Procaccini et Stoecker, a bipolar marine species, was for the first time described in a lake habitat and was an important phototrophic component in the higher salinity lakes. In the brackish lakes, we found a new...

  11. The biodiversity and ecology of Antarctic lakes: models for evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Pearce, David A

    2007-12-29

    Antarctic lakes are characterised by simplified, truncated food webs. The lakes range from freshwater to hypersaline with a continuum of physical and chemical conditions that offer a natural laboratory in which to study evolution. Molecular studies on Antarctic lake communities are still in their infancy, but there is clear evidence from some taxonomic groups, for example the Cyanobacteria, that there is endemicity. Moreover, many of the bacteria have considerable potential as sources of novel biochemicals such as low temperature enzymes and anti-freeze proteins. Among the eukaryotic organisms survival strategies have evolved, among which dependence on mixotrophy in phytoflagellates and some ciliates is common. There is also some evidence of evolution of new species of flagellate in the marine derived saline lakes of the Vestfold Hills. Recent work on viruses in polar lakes demonstrates high abundance and high rates of infection, implying that they may play an important role in genetic exchange in these extreme environments.

  12. Dune-dammed lakes of the Nebraska Sand Hills: Geologic setting and paleoclimatic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loope, D.B.; Swinehart, J.B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Within the western half of this grass-stabilized dunefield, about 1,000 interdune lakes are grouped into two clusters here named the Blue and Birdwood lake basins. In the lake basins, those parts of the valley not filled by dune sand are occupied by modern lakes and Holocene lake sediments. The Blue Creek dam is mounded transverse to flow; spill-over of the lake basin takes place over bedrock on the east side of the dam when lake level is 2 m higher than present. The permeability of dune sand prevents massive overflow, and thereby contributes to the integrity and longevity of the dam. Preserved lake sediments in the basin indicate that Blue Creek was obstructed prior to 13,000 yr BP, probably during glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP). Extensive peats dated at 1,500-1,000 yr BP lie directly on fluvial sand and gravel along the Calamus River, a stream that presently discharges a nearly constant 350 cfs. These sediments indicate blockage of streams also took place when linear dunes were active in the eastern Sand Hills in Late Holocene time. With the onset of an arid episode, dunes forming an interfluves curtail the severity of runoff events. As the regional water table drops, drainages go dry and dunes move uncontested into blocking positions. Although drainages of the eastern Sand Hills appear to have repeatedly broken through sand-blocked channels, the Blue and Birdwood lake basins are still blocked by Late Pleistocene dune dams. The repeated episodes of stream blockage and interbedded lake sediments and dune sands behind the extant dams record several strong fluctuations in Holocene climate. Recently proposed climatic models indicate that the northward flow of warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico is enhanced when the Gulf's surface temperature is low and the Bermuda high is intensified and in a western position. When the Bermuda high moves eastward, the core of the North American continent becomes desiccated.

  13. ANCHOR HILL PIT LAKE IN SITU TREATMENT, GILT EDGE MINE SUPERFUND SITE, S. DAKOTA, USA - A RETROSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Region VII Superfund office and the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP)have been conducting a field scale technology demonstration of an in situ treatment of the Anchor Hill Pit Lake at the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund...

  14. Mechanisms Controlling Variability of Lake Salinity in Dune Environments in a Semi-arid Climate: The Nebraska Sand Hills (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, V. A.; Ong, J. T.; Swinehart, J. B.; Fritz, S. C.; Lenters, J. D.; Schmieder, J. U.; Lane, J. W.; Halihan, T.

    2010-12-01

    Shallow endorheic saline lakes are common in semi-arid environments in North America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. These lakes receive minimal surface runoff and are supported by groundwater seepage. A combination of hydrologic and geologic factors (regional groundwater flow, evaporation, precipitation, lake size, groundwater recharge, and geologic setting) may preclude seepage out of these lakes, even in the presence of ambient regional flow. Solutes from groundwater are captured by these lakes and become enriched over time by evaporation. The importance of understanding lake dynamics in these arid and semi-arid systems is increasing with societal concerns, including water availability and quality, the use of aquatic ecosystems by waterfowl and other biota, and dangers of dust emissions associated with lake desiccation. We consider the salinity of shallow lakes as a useful indicator of hydroclimatic factors operating at centennial and millennial scales. The Nebraska Sand Hills cover 58 000 km2 of the central Great Plains and are the largest dunefield in the Western Hemisphere. The grass-stabilized dunes attain heights up to 130 m and have been modified by soil development and erosion. In an area lakes with surface areas >4 ha and depths lake evaporation exceeds precipitation by 600 mm, according to some estimates. The salinity of natural lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills ranges from fresh (~0.3 g L-1) to hypersaline (>100 g L-1), with pH values as high as ~10. We assess the mechanisms that control lake salinity in a group of lakes with different subsurface flow regimes. Our methods combine aquifer coring, electromagnetic and electrical resistivity tomography geophysics, hydraulic testing, lakebed dating using 14C and optically stimulated luminescence, energy and water balance analysis, and salt crust and dust collection. Our theory and results show that terrain and water-table topography, lithology, and climate control the lake-aquifer solute exchanges. This study

  15. A Water Quality Survey of Nutrient Loadings to Center Hill Lake from the Caney Fork River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    by heterotrophic bacteria and algae, resulting in a reduction of pH. High pH values in the photic zone of Center Hill Lake indicate fairly high...ecological succession of microorganisms: aerobic heterotrophs, denitrifiers, fermentators, sulfate reducers, to methane bacteria " [Stumm and Morgan...input into natural waters can effectively limit the growth of the nitrogen-fixing blue greens, such as Anabaena, Gloeotrichia and Nostoc , etc." 66. The

  16. Benthic marine algae of the inshore water at the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_110.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Mar_Sci_19_110.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Archaeal and bacterial community structures in the anoxic sediment of Antarctic meromictic lake Nurume-Ike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Norio; Sato, Shota; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Imura, Satoshi; Naganuma, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    Prokaryotic community structures in the anoxic sediment of the Antarctic meromictic Lake Nurume-Ike were revealed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clones. The archaeal clones obtained (205 total) consisted of only three phylotypes, and were dominantly affiliated with uncultured euryarchaeotes. Specifically, 93% of the clones were identified as marine benthic group-D archaeal phylotype. In contrast to the limited archaeal diversity, 53 phylotypes were detected within 312 bacterial clones. Major bacterial phylotypes were affiliated with α-Proteobacteria (20% of clones), d-Proteobacteria (9%), Planctmycetales (7%), and Cyanobacteria (7%). A small numbers of clones belonging to γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, Flavobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were also found. A total of 53% of the bacterial clones, consisting of 13 phylotypes, could not be classified into any known group. These results indicated that the bacterial community of Lake Nurume-Ike sediment consisted of numerous phylogenetic groups and had a diversity comparable to the diversity of other Antarctic lakes communities previously reported. Interestingly, however, there were very few phylotypes shared between the communities of lakes Nurume-Ike and five other lakes located in the Vestfold Hills area. This is the first comprehensive study to analyze more than 500 16S rDNA clones for microbial community analysis of an Antarctic lake sediment sample, and the results significantly expand current views of bacterial diversity in Antarctic lakes.

  18. An approach to hydrogeological modeling of a large system of groundwater-fed lakes and wetlands in the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; Rowe, Clinton M.

    2017-11-01

    The feasibility of a hydrogeological modeling approach to simulate several thousand shallow groundwater-fed lakes and wetlands without explicitly considering their connection with groundwater is investigated at the regional scale ( 40,000 km2) through an application in the semi-arid Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), USA. Hydraulic heads are compared to local land-surface elevations from a digital elevation model (DEM) within a geographic information system to assess locations of lakes and wetlands. The water bodies are inferred where hydraulic heads exceed, or are above a certain depth below, the land surface. Numbers of lakes and/or wetlands are determined via image cluster analysis applied to the same 30-m grid as the DEM after interpolating both simulated and estimated heads. The regional water-table map was used for groundwater model calibration, considering MODIS-based net groundwater recharge data. Resulting values of simulated total baseflow to interior streams are within 1% of observed values. Locations, areas, and numbers of simulated lakes and wetlands are compared with Landsat 2005 survey data and with areas of lakes from a 1979-1980 Landsat survey and the National Hydrography Dataset. This simplified process-based modeling approach avoids the need for field-based morphology or water-budget data from individual lakes or wetlands, or determination of lake-groundwater exchanges, yet it reproduces observed lake-wetland characteristics at regional groundwater management scales. A better understanding of the NSH hydrogeology is attained, and the approach shows promise for use in simulations of groundwater-fed lake and wetland characteristics in other large groundwater systems.

  19. Combined use of frequency‐domain electromagnetic and electrical resistivity surveys to delineate the freshwater/saltwater interface near saline lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, John T.; White, Eric A.; Lane, John; Halihan, Todd; Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Butler, Dwain K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of frequency‐domain electromagnetic (FDEM) and electrical resistivity (ER) surveys for rapid and detailed characterization of the direction of lake‐aquifer fluxes and the configuration of salt plumes generated from saline lakes. This methodology was developed and applied at several lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills, Nebraska, in an area with both freshwater and saline lakes hydraulically connected to the freshwater surficial aquifer. The FDEM survey was conducted by mounting the instrument on a fiberglass cart towed by an all‐terrain vehicle. The towed FDEM surveys covered about 25 km per day and served as a reconnaissance method for choosing locations for the more quantitative and detailed ER surveys. Around the saline lakes, areas with high electrical conductivity are consistent with the regional direction of ground‐water flow. Lower electrical conductivity was measured around the freshwater lakes with anomalies correlating to a paleovalley axis inferred from previous studies. The efficacy of this geophysical approach is attributed to: (1) significant contrast in electrical conductivity between freshwater and saltwater, (2) near‐surface location of the freshwater/saltwater interface, (3) minimal cultural interference, and (4) relative homogeneity of the aquifer materials.

  20. Combined use of frequency-domain electromagnetic and electrical resistivity surveys to delineate near-lake groundwater flow in the semi-arid Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, John B.; Lane, John W.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; Halihan, Todd; White, Eric A.

    2010-09-01

    A frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) survey can be used to select locations for the more quantitative and labor-intensive electrical resistivity surveys. The FDEM survey rapidly characterized the groundwater-flow directions and configured the saline plumes caused by evaporation from several groundwater-dominated lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA. The FDEM instrument was mounted on a fiberglass cart and towed by an all-terrain vehicle, covering about 25 km/day. Around the saline lakes, areas with high electrical conductivity are consistent with the regional and local groundwater flow directions. The efficacy of this geophysical approach is attributed to: the high contrast in electrical conductivity between various groundwater zones; the shallow location of the saline zones; minimal cultural interference; and relative homogeneity of the aquifer materials.

  1. An analysis of potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes in the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to assess potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes, located within the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio. The assessment was based on the criterion that water withdrawals should not appreciably affect maintenance of recreation-season pool levels in current use. To facilitate and simplify the assessment, it was assumed that historical lake operations were successful in maintaining seasonal pool levels, and that any discharges from lakes constituted either water that was discharged to prevent exceeding seasonal pool levels or discharges intended to meet minimum in-stream flow targets downstream from the lakes. It further was assumed that the volume of water discharged in excess of the minimum in-stream flow target is available for use without negatively impacting seasonal pool levels or downstream water uses and that all or part of it is subject to withdrawal. Historical daily outflow data for the lakes were used to determine the quantity of water that potentially could be withdrawn and the resulting quantity of water that would flow downstream (referred to as “flow-by”) on a daily basis as a function of all combinations of three hypothetical target minimum flow-by amounts (1, 2, and 3 times current minimum in-stream flow targets) and three pumping capacities (1, 2, and 3 million gallons per day). Using both U.S. Geological Survey streamgage data (where available) and lake-outflow data provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers resulted in analytical periods ranging from 51 calendar years for Charles Mill, Clendening, and Piedmont Lakes to 74 calendar years for Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes. The observed outflow time series and the computed time series of daily flow-by amounts and potential withdrawals were analyzed to compute and report order statistics (95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, 10th, and 5th percentiles) and means for

  2. Diversity and pharmaceutical screening of fungi from benthic mats of Antarctic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunati, Mara; Rojas, Jose Luis; Sponga, Federica; Ciciliato, Ismaela; Losi, Daniele; Göttlich, Elke; de Hoog, Sybren; Genilloud, Olga; Marinelli, Flavia

    2009-03-01

    During the MICROMAT project, the fungal diversity of microbial mats growing in the benthic environment of Antarctic lakes was accessed for the discovery of novel antibiotics and anticancers. In all, 160 filamentous fungi belonging to fifteen different genera and 171 yeasts were isolated from 11 lakes, classified and cultivated in different media and at different temperatures. Filamentous fungi were then screened to discover novel antimicrobial and cytotoxic compounds. A total of 1422 extracts were prepared by solid phase extraction of the culture broths or by biomass solvent extraction. 47 (29%) filamentous fungi showed antimicrobial activity; most of them inhibited the growth of gram-positive Staphyloccus aureus (14%), gram-negative E. coli (10%), and of yeasts Candida albicans (11%) and Cryptococcus neoformans (8%). Less activity was detected against representatives of enterobacteria and filamentous fungi. The most productive in terms of bioactivities were cold-tolerant cosmopolitan hyphomycetes such as Penicillium, Aspergillus, Beauveria and Cladosporium. Two bioactive bis-anthraquinones (rugulosin and skyrin) were identified by LC-MS as the main products in a strain of Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from a saline lake in the Vestfold Hills. LC-MS fractionation of extracts from two diverse species of Aspergillus, that exhibited relatively potent antimicrobial activities, evidenced a chemical novelty that was further investigated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of new antibiotics produced by fungi from benthic microbial mats from Antarctic lakes. It can be concluded that these microbial assemblages represent an extremely rich source for the isolation of new strains producing novel bioactive metabolites with the potential to be developed as drugs.

  3. ‘Literature in focus’: 
from the Land of the Thousand Hills to Lake Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Mathilde Fontanet and Odette Habiyakare. (@Photo Bianco)This book is the result of a meeting of two women. In 1994 Odette lived through the genocide in Rwanda, in which she lost most of her family. She wanted to record her account of the events and asked Mathilde to set them down in writing for her. Odette tells us not only of persecution, terror and atrocities but also of the happy days before the massacres, of the warmth of family life, of celebrations under the stars, of herds of cattle in the hills and of her well-regimented life at boarding school in Kigali, where the girls all wore well-pressed blouses and had names straight out of Balzac. Mathilde listens, reacts and responds with an account of her own contrasting memories of life in Geneva. Whether she is telling us about the non-religious Christmases of her youth, a child’s feelings of humiliation, encounters that have enriched her life or the experience of grieving, she s...

  4. Red Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  5. Hill's equation

    CERN Document Server

    Magnus, Wilhelm

    1979-01-01

    The hundreds of applications of Hill's equation in engineering and physics range from mechanics and astronomy to electric circuits, electric conductivity of metals, and the theory of the cyclotron. New applications are continually being discovered and theoretical advances made since Liapounoff established the equation's fundamental importance for stability problems in 1907. Brief but thorough, this volume offers engineers and mathematicians a complete orientation to the subject.""Hill's equation"" connotes the class of homogeneous, linear, second order differential equations with real, period

  6. Overweight and obesity among 12-year-old children in Vestfold county, Norway: Prevalence and associated lifestyle-, socioeconomic-, hereditary-, and health factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mathillas, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing rapidly worldwide, and this poses as a major health concern. Identifying potential risk factors to which preventive strategies can be implemented is of importance. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity in 12-year-old children in Vestfold county, Norway, and to map associated lifestyle-, socioeconomic-, hereditary- and health factors. Methods: This was c...

  7. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  8. Mafic dykes of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica. An analysis of the emplacement mechanism of tholeiitic dyke swarms and of the role of dyke emplacement during crustal extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Mafic dyke swarms are common in Proterozoic continental crustal terrains. Although it is generally recognized that parallel mafic dyke swarms are formed in extensional tectonic settings and that they accommodate in the order of 10% of extensional strain, the tectonics and geodynamics of dyke

  9. Loess Hills of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage outlines the boundary of the Loess Hills in Iowa at 1:100,000 scale. Criteria applied to the delineation of the Loess Hills included drainage density,...

  10. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Kelly's Slough NWR, Stump Lake NWR, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the easement refuges...

  11. Naval Hill Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Bosman

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a new digital planetarium owned by the University of the Free State and located on Naval Hill, Bloemfontein, in the building formerly occupied by the Lamont-Hussey Observatory of the University of Michigan.

  12. Red Hill Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  13. Lakes Nursing Home, Hill Road, Killaloe, Clare.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mamo, Solomon

    2011-03-16

    Abstract Background Without intensive selection, the majority of bovine oocytes submitted to in vitro embryo production (IVP) fail to develop to the blastocyst stage. This is attributed partly to their maturation status and competences. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Array, global mRNA expression analysis of immature (GV) and in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes was carried out to characterize the transcriptome of bovine oocytes and then use a variety of approaches to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM was real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis. Results 8489 transcripts were detected across the two oocyte groups, of which ~25.0% (2117 transcripts) were differentially expressed (p < 0.001); corresponding to 589 over-expressed and 1528 under-expressed transcripts in the IVM oocytes compared to their immature counterparts. Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of α-amanitin. Subsets of the differentially expressed genes were also validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the gene expression data was classified according to gene ontology and pathway enrichment. Numerous cell cycle linked (CDC2, CDK5, CDK8, HSPA2, MAPK14, TXNL4B), molecular transport (STX5, STX17, SEC22A, SEC22B), and differentiation (NACA) related genes were found to be among the several over-expressed transcripts in GV oocytes compared to the matured counterparts, while ANXA1, PLAU, STC1and LUM were among the over-expressed genes after oocyte maturation. Conclusion Using sequential experiments, we have shown and confirmed transcriptional changes during oocyte maturation. This dataset provides a unique reference resource for studies concerned with the molecular mechanisms controlling oocyte meiotic maturation in cattle, addresses the existing conflicting issue of transcription during meiotic maturation and contributes to the global goal of improving assisted reproductive technology.

  14. Clarks Hill Lake Water Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    sp. N. hungar-ica Chlamydomonas globosa Nnotha ~domonas sp ’f. -p-upula _________ sp Navicula spp. Chior-ococcum spp. NdTshia acicularis...Meridion circulare A. linearis f. curta Navicula bicpitellata A.-ic ’o~e ph a Ia7 N. cryptoepala A. minutissima N. cryptocephala v. veneta Amphora ovalis

  15. Hill, Prof. Archibald Vivian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Hill, Prof. Archibald Vivian Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1922. Date of birth: 26 September 1886. Date of death: 3 June 1977. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the ...

  16. Antigravity Hills are Visual Illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon ...

  17. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  18. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the satelite easement refuges outlines Refuge...

  19. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the satelite easement refuges outlines Refuge...

  20. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake Wetland Management District, Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the satellite...

  1. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the satelite easement refuges outlines Refuge...

  2. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake WMD, Lake Alice NWR, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments...

  3. Devils Lake Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Devil's Lake Wetland Management District, Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge, Sullys Hill National Game Preserve, and the satellite...

  4. A preliminary checklist of the fishes of Yercaud, Shevroy Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eric Ramanujam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of fishes were recorded in Yercaud Lake and the surrounding hill streams during five surveys conducted from May 2011 to August 2012.  Of the 21 species, 19 were recorded in Yercaud Lake, 10 in the stream leading to Kiliyur Falls and six and eight respectively in the Manjakuttai and Puthur hill streams.  One translocated species (Gibelion catla and two exotics (Poecilia reticulata and Oreochromis mossambicus were recorded.  Only one species Cirrhinus cirrhosus is listed as threatened in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

  5. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...; EG10-36-000; EG10-37-000; EG10-38-000] Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm...

  6. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  7. Antigravity hills are visual illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-09-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.

  8. Martha N. Hill: transformational leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, V J

    1998-01-01

    Martha N. Hill, PhD, RN, FAAN, is a world-renowned researcher, educator, and nursing leader. Her election as president of the American Heart Association, effective June 1997, places her in one of the highest regarded positions in the field of cardiology. Despite her success on a national and international level, Dr. Hill has managed to continue to mentor and conduct clinical research with her nursing colleagues and students at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

  9. Mineralogy of the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Cavanagh, P. D.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rocks in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September, 2014, and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three rock samples to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF. The three targets, Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak, contain variable amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene, iron oxides, jarosite, phyllosilicates, and X-ray amorphous material. Hematite was predicted at the base of Mount Sharp from orbital visible/near-IR spectroscopy, and CheMin confirmed this detection. The presence of jarosite throughout Pahrump Hills suggests the sediments experienced acid-sulfate alteration, either in-situ or within the source region of the sediments. This acidic leaching environment is in stark contrast to the environment preserved within the Sheepbed mudstone on the plains of Gale crater. The minerals within Sheepbed, including Fe-saponite, indicate these sediments were deposited in a shallow lake with circumneutral pH that may have been habitable.

  10. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  11. Hill-climbing Higgs inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Kaneta, Kunio; Oda, Kin-ya

    2018-01-01

    We propose a realization of cosmic inflation with the Higgs field when the Higgs potential has degenerate vacua by employing the recently proposed idea of hill-climbing inflation. The resultant inflationary predictions exhibit a sizable deviation from those of the ordinary Higgs inflation.

  12. Multiple Eruptive Phases and Deposits of a Monogenetic Volcano: Tabernacle Hill Volcano, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, A.; Connor, C. B.

    2007-12-01

    Tabernacle Hill volcano, located near the eastern edge of North America's great basin, is one of a group of monogenetic small-volume (0.47 km3) basaltic volcanoes forming a long-lived (~ 1 Ma) north-south trending alignment in Utah's Black Rock Desert. Initial phreatomagmatic eruptions at Tabernacle Hill are reported to have begun 14,320 ± 90 years ago. The initial eruptive phase produced a tuff cone approximately 80 m high (1,511 m a.s.l.) and 1.5 km in diameter with distinct bedding layers. Recent mapping and sampling of Tabernacle Hill's lava and tuff cone deposits has been aimed at better constraining the sequence of events, physical volcanology, rheology, and geochemistry of this eruption. Blocks located on the rim of the tuff cone of mid-crustal and near-surface origin were mapped and analyzed to yield preliminary minimum muzzle velocities of 70-100 m/s. After the initial phreatomagmatic explosions, the eruption style transitioned to a more effusive phase that partially filled the tuff cone with a semi-steady state lava lake 200 m wide and 15 m deep. Eventually, the tuff cone was breached by the impinging lava resulting in large portions of the cone rafting on top of the lava flows away from the vent. Eruption onto the Lake Bonneville lake bed allowed the Tabernacle Hill lava flows to flow radially from the tuff cone and cover an area of 18.1 km2, producing a very uniform high aspect ratio (100:1) flow field. Tabernacle Hill lava flows are pâhoehoe flows with many large phenocrysts of olivine and plagioclase (>1 cm) and have an average thickness of 26.3 m. Subsequent eruptive phases cycled several times between effusive and explosive, producing scoria cones and more lava flows, culminating in an almost complete drainage of the lava lake through large lava tubes and drainback.

  13. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  14. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Salt Lake City Class B surface area and the Hill Air Force Base (AFB) Class D airspace area. This... north and south through the Salt Lake Valley over Interstate 15. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  15. Hydrology of Hunters Lake, Hernando County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The size and shape of Hunters Lake, Florida has been significantly altered by development of the surrounding Spring Hill residential community. The lake is the largest in Hernando County, enlarged by lakeshore excavation and connection to nearby ponds to an area of 360 acres at an average stage of 17.2 ft above sea level. Hunters Lake is naturally a closed lake, but development of Spring Hill has resulted in a surface water outflow from the lake in its southwest corner. Inflow to the lake could occur on the east side during extreme high-water periods. The karst terrain of the Hunters Lake area is internally drained through permeable soils, depressions, and sinkholes, and natural surface drainage is absent. The underlying Floridan aquifer system is unconfined except locally near coastal springs. Flow in the groundwater system is to the west regionally and to the southwest in the immediate area of Hunters Lake. Water level gradients in the groundwater system increase from 1.4 ft/mi east of the lake to about 8 ft/mi southwest of the lake. Hunters Lake is hydraulically connected to the groundwater system, receiving groundwater on the northeast side and losing water to the groundwater system on the southwest side. This close relationship with the groundwater system is demonstrated by graphical and numerical comparison of Hunters Lake stage with water levels in nearby groundwater sites. During 1965-84, the stage of Hunters Lake fluctuated between 12.48 and 20.7 ft above sea level. Because area lakes are all directly affected by groundwater levels, they also show a close relationship with water levels in Hunters Lake. Analysis of water quality data for Hunters Lake indicates that the water of the lake is a soft calcium bicarbonate type with ionic concentrations higher than in water from nearby shallow wells and lower than in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Samples collected in 1981-1983 indicate slightly higher levels of ionic concentration than in 1965

  16. Friis Hills glacial history: an international collaboration to examine Miocene climate in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, A. R. W.; Kowalewski, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Friis Hills, Antarctica (western McMurdo Dry Valleys) contain unique, well-preserved records of Miocene climate. These terrestrial deposits hold geomorphic clues for deciphering the glacial history in a region directly adjacent to the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Stacked till sheets, interbedded with lake sediments and non-glacial deposits, reveal a complex history of ice flow and erosion throughout multiple glacial-interglacial cycles (Lewis and Ashworth, 2015). Fossiliferous beds containing Nothofagus, diatoms, algal cells, pollen, insects, and mosses provide past climatological constraints. The Friis Hills sustained multiple alpine glaciations as well as full ice-sheet development, recording glacial drainage reorganization and evidence of previous ice configurations that possibly overrode the Transantarctic Mountains (Lewis and Ashworth, 2015) exposing only scattered nunataks (i.e. a portion of Friis Hills). Lack of chronological control has previously hindered efforts to link the Friis Hills glacial history with regional context; a tephra deposit at the base of the glacial drifts currently provides a single age constraint within the drift deposits. To build upon previous studies, an international collaboration between the USAP, Antarctic New Zealand, and the Italian Antarctic community proposes to core a paleo-lake in the center of the Friis Hills in November 2016, thereby acquiring one of the oldest continuous sedimentological records within the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Here we report discoveries from this year's fieldwork, and reconstruct paleoenvironment at the periphery of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet for the mid-early Miocene, a critical time when marine isotopic records indicate dramatic ice fluctuations. Ash within the sediment core stratigraphy will provide a more robust chronology for the region, and will also suggest possible outcrop locations of corresponding ash deposits to pursue while in the field. We anticipate that the Friis Hills stratigraphy will

  17. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations....... A characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...... that seems to be well-suited for this type of system and provide some experimental results....

  18. Biology of Hymenosoma orbiculare Desm in Lake Sibaya | Hill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... verskil morfologies van die in riviermondings. Hierdie verskille in teling, biologie en morfologie dui op 'n moontlike spesieverskil tussen die bevolking in die Sibayameer en die in riviermondings. Hierdie aspekte word bespreek in die lig van ander gevalle van toetreding tot varswaterhabitatte onder die Hymenosomatidae.

  19. Water Quality Studies: Richard B. Russell and Clarks Hill Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    oxidizable materials created a demand on dissolved oxygen stores which could not be immediately met by reaeration for several weeks. 17. The recovery to...impoundment. This trend appeared to be related to the inundation of highly labile organic material (i.e., vegeta- tion and detritus) and operational...conditions were evident from bottom to the 10-m depth by Sep- tember. Exchanges of readily oxidizable materials (i.e., iron, manganese, and organic

  20. Archeological Investigations at Big Hill Lake, Southeastern Kansas, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    chert, with the chert content of the formation generally being greater than 50 percent by volume and weight. Limestone and dolomite beds overlying the...whole bones were found. Approximately a third to a half of the bone is charred or calcined as a result of burning. Laboratory analysis revealed that

  1. Management Decisions and the "Dred" Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    An area of public land called the Red Hills was being so abused by the public that it was often called the "Dred" Hills. Some staff work had been accomplished to protect sensitive areas within the 7,200-acre site, but depreciative behavior continued. Primary destructive activities included off-road vehicle use and indiscriminate shooting and dumping. This...

  2. Leslie Pickney Hill's "Toussaint L'Ouverture."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Edward O.

    1987-01-01

    In his 1928 play, the Harlem Renaissance writer Leslie Pickney Hill portrays Toussaint L'Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian slave rebellion, with historical accuracy. Hill's presentation was aimed at rehabilitating black pride, "A worthy literature reared upon authentic records of achievement is the present spiritual need of the race."…

  3. Sullys Hill herd resembles original plains bison

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article is on recent findings on Sullys Hill National Game Preserve that show bison brought there nearly a century ago have remained closer to genetically pure...

  4. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  5. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur cyc...

  6. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  7. The Archaeology of the Bug Hill Site (34Pu-116): Pushmataha County, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    numerous intermittent creeks are to the north. The Wheeler Lee site (34Pu-102) is approximately 800 m east of 34Pu-116. The Dink site (34Pu-114), which...There is little evidence of similar sites (dark midden mounds) other than the Dink site in the project area. Recently, a third possible dark midden mound...Lctino4teBg ilsie(4P-1) -bI 7 The Bug Hill site will be inundated upon completion of the lake, and the Dink site is in the flood pool and will be

  8. Adaptation of generalized Hill inequalities to anisotropic elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hill inequalities. From different type of anisotropic elastic symmetries, numerical examples are given. Constructing bounds on effective eigenvalues provides a deeper understanding about mechanical behavior of anisotropic materials. Generalized Hill inequalities are adapted to all anisotropic elastic symmetries.

  9. Accounting for imperfect detection in Hill numbers for biodiversity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Hill numbers unify biodiversity metrics by combining several into one expression. For example, species richness, Shannon's diversity index and the Gini–Simpson index are a few of the most used diversity measures, and they can be expressed as Hill numbers. Traditionally, Hill numbers have been calculated from relative abundance data, but the expression has been modified to use incidence data as well. We demonstrate an approach for estimating Hill numbers using an occupancy modelling framework that accounts for imperfect detection.

  10. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cline. What we do not often appreciate is the extent of these losses, down to the very last eagle. What occurred on Eagle Hill is no different from what has occurred in some 50% to 90% of Kenya in the same time span. Given that less than 10% of Kenya is effec- tively protected within national parks, reserves and sanctuaries ...

  11. The Kapsiki of the Mandara Hills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van W.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Kapsiki of Cameroon and the Higi of Nigeria are two tribes from the Mandara hills area of central and western Africa. Though they form one coherent group of villages, they are usually considered as two separate ethnic units. The author normally uses the term Kapsiki for both. Based on fieldwork

  12. Andoyer construction for Hill and Delaunay variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Jacques

    2017-08-01

    Andoyer variables are well known for the study of rotational dynamics. These variables were derived by Andoyer through a procedure that can be also used to obtain the Hill variables of the Kepler problem. Andoyer construction can also forecast the Delaunay variables which canonicity is then obtained without the use of a generating function.

  13. Andoyer construction for Hill and Delaunay variables

    OpenAIRE

    Laskar, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Andoyer variables are well known for the study of rotational dynamics. These variables were derived by Andoyer through a procedure that can be also used to obtain the Hill variables of the Kepler problem. Andoyer construction can also forecast the Delaunay variables which canonicity is then obtained without the use of a generating function.

  14. A philosophical analysis of the Hill criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Andersen, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    The epidemiological literature contains an ongoing and diversified discussion of the Hill criteria. This article offers a philosophical analysis of the criteria, showing that the criteria are related to two different views of causality. The authors argue that the criteria of strength, specificity...

  15. Environmental Assessment Proposed Demolition Plan Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Hill AFB Historic Buildings and Structures Reassessment ( Salo E., et al, 2003). The Utah SHPO concurred with the Hill AFB determinations in April...communications made by URS to Utah DEQ Air Quality. September. Salo , Edward, Marsha Prior, and John Ferguson, 2003. Hill AFB Historic Buildings and

  16. Structure, stratigraphy, and origin of Husband Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, T.J.; Sims, M.; Schmidt, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Tornabene, L.L.; Crumpler, L.S.; Cohen, B. A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Blaney, D.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rica, J.W.; Treguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Grant, J. A.; McSween, H.Y.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; de Souza, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The strike and dip of lithologic units imaged in stereo by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills using three-dimensional imaging software shows that measured dips (15-32??) for bedding on the main edifice of the Columbia Hill are steeper than local topography (???8-10??). Outcrops measured on West Spur are conformable in strike with shallower dips (7-15??) than observed on Husband Hill. Dips are consistent with observed strata draping the Columbia Hills. Initial uplift was likely related either to the formation of the Gusev Crater central peak or ring or through mutual interference of overlapping crater rims. Uplift was followed by subsequent draping by a series of impact and volcaniclastic materials that experienced temporally and spatially variable aqueous infiltration, cementation, and alteration episodically during or after deposition. West Spur likely represents a spatially isolated depositional event. Erosion by a variety of processes, including mass wasting, removed tens of meters of materials and formed the Tennessee Valley primarily after deposition. This was followed by eruption of the Adirondack-class plains basalt lava flows which embayed the Columbia Hills. Minor erosion, impact, and aeolian processes have subsequently modified the Columbia Hills. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. The Hill Chart Calculation for Pelton Runner Models using the HydroHillChart - Pelton Module Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Bostan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pelton turbines industrial design is based on the hill chart characteristics obtained by measuring the models. Primary data measurements used to obtain the hill chart can be processed graphically, by hand or by using graphic programs respectively CAD programs; the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software is a specialized tool in achieving the hill chart, using interpolation cubic spline functions. Thereby, based on measurements of several models of Pelton turbines, a computerized library, used to design industrial Pelton turbines can be created. The paper presents the universal characteristics calculated by using the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software for a series of Pelton runners.

  18. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  19. SOILS UNDER BEECH IN THE KODRY HILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ursu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Kodry Hills, small areas of virgin beech forests stands are preserved. These beech groves are developed on specific intrazonal lithomorphic soils. The mineralogical composition of substrate impedes the development of eluvial−illuvial processes and leaching of carbonates typical of the zonal soils that form under broad-leaved forests. The soils under study belong to the group of rendzic soils and can be referred to as marly rendzinas (or pseudorendzinas.

  20. Economic resources of the northern Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, J.D.; Emmons, S.F.; Jaggar, T.A.

    1904-01-01

    The mining district of the Black Hills comprised within the Spearfish and Sturgis quadrangles was surveyed geologically in the summers of 1898 and 1899 under the direction of Mr. S. F. Emmons. The following pages present a brief summary of the geologic features, more especially with reference to ore-bearing formations. These are confined to the Algonkian and Paleozoic strata and their associated eruptives. 

  1. Stratigraphy, age, and depositional setting of the Miocene Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, central Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Shannon R.; Miller, David M.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    New detailed geologic mapping and geochronology of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, 30 km east of Barstow, CA, help to constrain Miocene paleogeography and tectonics of the central Mojave Desert. A northern strand of the Quaternary ENE-striking, sinistral Manix fault divides the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill into two distinct lithologic assemblages. Strata north of the fault consist of: a green rhyolitic tuff, informally named the Shamrock tuff; lacustrine sandstone; partially silicified thin-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone to pebble conglomerate. Strata south of the fault consist of: lacustrine siltstone and sandstone; a rhyolitic tuff dated at 19.1 Ma (U-Pb); rock-avalanche breccia deposits; partially silicified well-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone and conglomerate. Our U-Pb zircon dating of the Shamrock tuff by SHRIMP-RG yields a peak probability age of 18.7 ± 0.1 Ma. Distinctive outcrop characteristics, mineralogy, remanent magnetization, and zircon geochemistry (Th/U) suggest that the Shamrock tuff represents a lacustrine facies of the regionally extensive Peach Spring Tuff (PST). Here we compare zircon age and geochemical analyses from the Shamrock tuff with those of the PST at Stoddard Wash and provide new insight into the age of zircon crystallization in the PST rhyolite. Results of our field studies show that Miocene strata at Harvard Hill mostly accumulated in a lacustrine environment, although depositional environments varied from a relatively deep lake to a very shallow lake or even onshore setting. Rock-avalanche breccias and alluvial deposits near the base of the exposed section indicate proximity to a steep basin margin and detrital studies suggest a southern source for coarse-grained deposits; therefore, we may infer a southern basin-margin setting at Harvard Hill during the early Miocene. Our geochronology demonstrates that deposition of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill extended from before

  2. Soil and landform interplay in the dry valley of Edson Hills, Ellsworth Mountains, continental Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpupo, Caroline; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto Gonçalves Reynaud; Roque, Mariane Batalha; de Faria, André Luiz Lopes; da Rosa, Katia Kellem; Thomazini, André; de Paula, Mayara Daher

    2017-10-01

    The main relief units from the dry valley of Edson Hills, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica (79°49‧12.4″/83°40‧16.1″), were assessed, emphasizing the analysis of soil and landform interplay. Soil morphological, physical, and chemical properties; salinity; surface boulder weathering (frequency and feature); classification; and weathering stages were analyzed. Three distinct landforms summarize the geomorphology of the dry valley of Edson Hills, Ellsworth Mountains: (i) periglacial features like slightly creeping debris-mantled slopes, steep debris-mantled slopes, patterned grounds, and thermokarst; (ii) glacial features like hummocky moraines, lateral moraines (supraglacial), lakes, kettle hole (proglacial), cirques infill (subglacial), horn, and arête (erosional glacial); and (iii) nonglacial features like scree slopes and talus deposits. All these glacial and periglacial features are related to the West Antarctica ice sheet variations. Soils in the dry valley of Edson Hills are pedologically poorly developed. However, the degree of development in soils associated with patterned ground and moraine systems is remarkable. All soils present desert pavement owing to the action of severe aeolian erosion. In addition, soils accumulate salts depending on the local drainage conditions. The most expressive soil classes among the studied soils were Typic Haploturbel and Typic Anhyorthel, especially because of: (i) a general trend of ice-cemented permafrost occurrence in lower portions of the landscape, particularly in the patterned ground area and in the hummocky moraine; and (ii) the presence of dry permafrost in higher positions of the landscape, in relief units such as in debris-mantled slopes and talus deposits. Thus, a close relationship among soil characteristics and landforms were observed in the dry valley of Edson Hills.

  3. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  4. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  5. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  6. White Lake AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  7. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of the isolines.

  8. New type of hill-top inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvinsky, A.O. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University,Lenin Ave. 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institue for Theoretical Physics,University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physcis,Kosygin str. 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov, D.V. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-20

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  9. Avian biogeography of the Taita Hills, Kenya | Brooks | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on our recent fieldwork and historical records, we analyse the distribution and biogeographical affinities of forest birds within the Taita Hills. We find that the Taita Hills avifauna has been influenced as strongly by the Kenyan Highlands as by the Eastern Arc, especially in the high altitude moist forests. However, since ...

  10. The montane forest associated amphibian species of the Taita Hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The group of forested mountains known as the Taita Hills are the northern-most montane blocks of the Eastern Arc Mountains, a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot. They are surrounded by the dry Tsavo plains. Until the present study no comprehensive survey of the amphibian fauna of Taita Hills covering the entire ...

  11. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162 Section 9.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... the heart of the Santa Rosa Land Grant, T.7N., R. 32W, on the Santa Rosa Hills, Calif., Quadrangle U.S...

  12. Service with Style: Corinne Hill--Denton Public Library, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Although a librarian for only eight years, Corinne Hill is already known in Dallas and Denton, TX, for turning dull, little-used branches into vibrant community centers. A stylish woman with a zest for shopping, Hill loves developing new collections and showing them off. She sees no reason why a library should not be as attractive as any good…

  13. 77 FR 8214 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... encourage the collaborative, science-based ecosystem restoration of priority forest landscapes; 7. A letter... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to re-establish the Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board and call for nominations. SUMMARY...

  14. 77 FR 17402 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... mountain pine beetle infestations, travel management, forest monitoring and evaluation, recreation fees... recommendations on Black Hills National Forest recreation fee issues (serving as the RRAC for the Black Hills... needs of the Recreation Enhancement Act of 2005 as a recreation resource advisory board (RRAC) for the...

  15. Chapel Hill COMMUNITY SURVEY ALL QUESTIONS with Geolocation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This is the 2015 Town of Chapel Hill Community Survey.Using a scale of 1 to 5 where 5 means “Very Satisfied” and 1 means “Very Dissatisfied,” residents were asked...

  16. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  17. HydroHillChart – Pelton module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Pelton Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the HydroHillChart - Pelton module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. In addition, the tools offered by the application such as: interface, menu, input data, numerical and graphical results, etc. are described.

  18. DI-TERTIABYBUTYLNITROXIDE, A HILL REAGENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corker, Gerald A.; Klein, Melvin P.; La Font, Didier; Calvin,Melvin.

    1970-01-01

    Di-tertiarybutylnitroxide (DTBN), which they have tried to use as a trapping agent to identify the species giving rise to the photo-induced EPR signals in photosynthetic materials, functions as a Hill reagent with spinach chloroplasts. Evidence is presented which indicates that the reduction of DTBN is affected by photosystem II of the electron transport system of spinach chloroplasts. The reduced form of DTBN, the hydroxylamine, undergoes a photo-oxidation with spinach chloroplasts. Possible explanations of this apparent inconsistency are presented. A product which could be ascribed to a chemical coupling reaction between the nitroxide and the radical species giving rise to the photo-induced EPR signals in spinach chloroplasts was not detected, even using radioactive tracer methods.

  19. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  20. EFFECTS OF THE 1906 EARTHQUAKE ON THE BALD HILL OUTLET SYSTEM, SAN MATEO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampeyan, Earl H.

    1986-01-01

    Following the earthquake of April 18, 1906, it was discovered that a brick forebay and other parts of the reservoir outlet system were in the slip zone of the San Andreas fault. The original outlet through which water was directed to San Francisco consisted of two tunnels joined at the brick forebay; one tunnel extends 2,820 ft to the east under Bald Hill on Buri Buri Ridge, and the other tunnel intersects the lake bottom about 250 ft west of the forebay. In 1897 a second intake was added to the system, also joining the original forebay. During the present study the accessible parts of this original outlet system were examined with the hope of learning how the system had been affected by fault slip in 1906.

  1. Charles Péguy vu par Geoffrey Hill Charles Péguy seen by Geoffrey Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josette Leray

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Geoffrey Hill’s long poem The Mystery of the Charity of Charles Péguy is a meditation on the French poet Charles Péguy, on the values he embodied and their relationship to the world he lived in and to History in general. Hill has a dual approach: he demonstrates a ruthless clarity throwing light on a historical reality that denies the values Péguy advocated, while appreciating Péguy’s spiritual greatness. Hill feels drawn towards his idealism but he acknowledges its dangers and uses an ironic distance to counterbalance it. He investigates the concept of heroism and at the same time that of innocence, an innocence which is aware of tragedy. This celebration of innocence is but short-lived, for the ideal is soon corrupted and appropriated by History, and becomes a dead letter. In the end Péguy will not pass a message and his “Charity” remains a mystery, but his poetry is his legacy. Péguy’s influence on poets and on Hill himself is what Hill’s poem ultimately celebrates.

  2. Quantifying the role of mitigation hills in reducing tsunami runup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Suckale, J.; Lunghino, B.; Giraldo, F.; Hood, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world are being encouraged to plant or restore vegetation along their shores for the purpose of mitigating tsunami damage. A common setup for these projects is to develop 'mitigation hills' - an ensemble of vegetated hills along the coast - instead of one continuous stretch of vegetation. The rationale behind a staggered-hill setup is to give tree roots more space to grow and deepen. From a fluid-dynamical point of view, however, staggered mitigation hills may have significant drawbacks such as diverting the flow into the low-lying areas of the park, which could entail strong currents in the narrow channels between the hills and lead to erosion of the hills from the sides. The goal of this study is to quantify how mitigation hills affect tsunami runup and to provide constraints on the design of mitigation hills that mitigate tsunami damage using numerical simulations. Our computations of tsunami runup are based on the non-linear shallow water equation solved through a fully implicit, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin method. The adaptive computational grid is fitted to the hill topography to capture geometric effects accurately. A new dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible flows is used for stabilization and to capture the obstacle-generated turbulence. We have carefully benchmarked our model in 1D and 2D against classical test cases. The included figure shows an example run of tsunami runup through coastal mitigation hills. In the interest of providing generalizable results, we perform a detailed scaling analysis of our model runs. We find that the protective value of mitigation hills depends sensitively on the non-linearity of the incoming wave and the relative height of the wave to the hills. Our simulations also suggest that the assumed initial condition is consequential and we hence consider a range of incoming waves ranging from a simple soliton to a more realistic N

  3. Cosmogenic evidence for limited local LGM glacial expansion, Denton Hills, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Kurt; Fink, David; Storey, Bryan; De Pascale, Gregory P.; Quigley, Mark; Fujioka, Toshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    The geomorphology of the Denton Hills provides insight into the timing and magnitude of glacial retreats in a region of Antarctica isolated from the influence of the East Antarctic ice sheet. We present 26 Beryllium-10 surface exposure ages from a variety of glacial and lacustrine features in the Garwood and Miers valleys to document the glacial history of the area from 10 to 286 ka. Our data show that the cold-based Miers, Joyce and Garwood glaciers retreated little since their maximum positions at 37.2 ± 6.9 (1σ n = 4), 35.1 ± 1.5 (1σ, n = 3) and 35.6 ± 10.1 (1σ, n = 6) ka respectively. The similar timing of advance of all three glaciers and the lack of a significant glacial expansion during the global LGM suggests a local LGM for the Denton Hills between ca. 26 and 51 ka, with a mean age of 36.0 ± 7.5 (1σ, n = 13) ka. A second cohort of exposure ages provides constraints to the behaviour of Glacial Lake Trowbridge that formerly occupied Miers Valley in the late Pleistocene. These data show active modification of the landscape from ∼20 ka until the withdrawal of ice from the valley mouths, and deposition of Ross Sea Drift, at 10-14 ka.

  4. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  6. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  7. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  8. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  9. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  10. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  11. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Flint Hills NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  12. On the Spectral Singularities and Spectrality of the Hill Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Veliev, O. A.

    2014-01-01

    First we study the spectral singularity at infinity and investigate the connections of the spectral singularities and the spectrality of the Hill operator. Then we consider the spectral expansion when there is not the spectral singularity at infinity.

  13. Preserving genes: Sullys Hill bison gain national prominence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on transferring bison from Sullys Hill National Game Preserve to Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge to help maintain as genetically pure strain...

  14. Generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota. The...

  15. USGS Hill Shade Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hill Shade (or Shaded Relief) is a tile cache base map created from the National Elevation Dataset (NED), a seamless dataset of best available raster elevation...

  16. "Beverly Hills 90210" : kes mida teeb / Tiina Lepiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepiste, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Aaron Spellingu produtseeritud ja 2000. aastal lõpetatud menuseriaalis "Beverly Hills 90210" osalenud näitlejate edaspidisest elust seoses plaaniga teha täispikk mängufilm "10 Year High School Reunion"

  17. Sullys Hill Quarterly Narrative Reports : February 1941 - January 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains quarterly narrative reports for Sullys Hill Game Preserve for February 1941 - January 1942. This reports summarizes activities and...

  18. [Sullys Hill National Game Preserve bison herd raw data, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data from Texas A&M University on the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve federal bison herd. Data includes nuclear introgression markers and nuclear...

  19. Public Computer Usage in Chapel Hill Public Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Data collected November 2014 - May 2016. As of June 2016, this data is no longer collected on a continual basis.This dataset includes frequency and length of use of...

  20. Pesticide evaluation for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge in Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge is an overlay on the Corps of Engineers John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. The Refuge is managed to provide spring...

  1. EAARL Topography-Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of the Sagamore Hill National Historic Site were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  2. Background Contaminants Evaluation of Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge - 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to assess chlordane levels in sediments and fish of Flint Hills NWR. Chlordane is very persistent and highly toxic to aquatic organisms and...

  3. GPS Ice Flow Measurements, Allan Hills, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes includes high-precision GPS measurements of steel poles within the Allan Hills Main Ice Field, Near Western Ice Field, and extending to the...

  4. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  5. SRTM Anaglyph: Haro and Kas Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This three-dimensional view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the

  6. Allan Hills Pleistocene Ice Project (PIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatov, A.; Brook, E.; Campbell, S. W.; Conway, H.; Dunbar, N. W.; Higgins, J. A.; Iverson, N. A.; Kehrl, L. M.; McIntosh, W. C.; Spaulding, N. E.; Yan, Y.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    A major international effort to identify at least 1.5 Ma old ice for paleoclimate reconstructions has successfully resulted in the selection of several potential drill sites in East Antarctica. At this point it is indisputable that the Antarctic ice sheet captures a continuous envinronmental record of the Earth that spans the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT). In addition to traditional ice coring approaches, the oldest ice can also be recovered in Antarctic Blue Ice Areas (BIA). We have already successfully demonstrated that the Allan Hills (AH) BIA captures a regional climate signal and robust record of 1Ma atmosphere that can be studied with a relatively uncomplicated logistical imprint and essentially unlimited sampling volume. The attractiveness of unlimited sampling of known age ice is the basis for the "ice park" concept proposed earlier by our research team. The idea is that, once the age of ice exposed along the flow line at the surface of BIA is mapped, it could be sampled for numerous research projects as needed. Here we propose an intermediate ( 1,150 m deep) ice core drill site, located only 240 km away from McMurdo base that will help to develop a, continuous, high quality regional paleoclimate record that is at least 1Ma old. We will introduce and discuss the glaciological settings, paleoclimate signals and possible limitations and advantages of the 1 Ma AH BIA regional paleoclimate record. The research was funded by NSF Division of Polar Programs.

  7. Stormwater Management Plan for the Arden Hills Army Training Site, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wuthrich, Kelsey K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ziech, Angela M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bowen, Esther E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This stormwater management plan focuses on the cantonment and training areas of the Arden Hills Army Training Site (AHATS). The plan relates the site stormwater to the regulatory framework, and it summarizes best management practices to aide site managers in promoting clean site runoff. It includes documentation for a newly developed, detailed model of stormwater flow retention for the entire AHATS property and adjacent upgradient areas. The model relies on established modeling codes integrated in a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored software tool, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS), and it can be updated with data on changes in land use or with monitoring data.

  8. Waterlogging in an alluvial aquifer near Lake Minnequa, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Patrick J.

    1976-01-01

    The Lake Minnequa area, located immediately south of the Arkansas River near Pueblo, Colo., is mantled with as much as 46 feet (14 meters) of alluvium covering bedrock of Pierre Shale and Niobrara Formation. Surface water enters the area by the Minnequa Canal and the St. Charles Flood Ditch. The water is stored in Lake Minnequa and other reservoirs. Seepage from St. Charles Reservoirs No. 2 and No. 3 is the major source of water to the alluvial aquifer. The depth of the water table ranges from 0 to 40 feet (0 to 12.2 meters). An 0.5-square-mile (1.3-square-kilometer) area immediately south of Lake Minnequa has a water table less than 6 feet (1.8 meters) below land surface. Lake Minnequa is the principal cause of the shallow water table and resulting waterlogged soil. The bedrock hill east of Lake Minnequa and ground-water flow also contribute to the problem. To eliminate the waterlogging problem, the water table would have to be at least 6 feet (1.8 meters) below land surface. Possible alternatives for eliminating the problem include lowering the water level in Lake Minnequa, placing a network of dewatering wells, or constructing a drainage system in the waterlogged area. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... & morphometry - Physical & chemical characteristics - Calcite precipitation & solution in Lake Laacher See - Investigations using sediment traps in Lake Gemundener Maar - Phytoplankton of Lake Weinfelder Maar...

  10. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Potential Tool for Reconstructing Lake Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cunningham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many aquatic ecosystems in Australia are impacted or threatened by salinisation; however, there is a paucity of records detailing the changes in salinity of individual water bodies that extend beyond a few decades. One way to overcome this issue is the use of inference models, which have typically been based on biological proxies. This pilot project investigates the potential for mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS to provide an alternative method of reconstructing past salinity levels in Australian lakes. A small (19 lakes calibration dataset was used to develop a MIRS-based lake water salinity inference model (measured vs. inferred salinity, based on leave-one-out cross-validation, R2 = 0.64. This model and a previously published diatom–salinity model were both used to infer salinity levels in Tower Hill Lake in south-eastern Australia, over the last 60 years. Comparisons between these reconstructions and measured salinity data from Tower Hill Lake indicate that salinities inferred by the MIRS model more closely resembled the measured values than those produced using the diatom model, predominantly in terms of the actual values inferred, but also with regard to the trends observed. This supports the hypothesis that MIRS can provide a valuable new tool for reconstructing lake salinity.

  11. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1987 and 1988. [Fenton Hill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Maes, M.N.; Williams, M.C.

    1991-03-01

    Water-quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface- and ground-water stations at, and in the vicinity of, Fenton Hill (site of the Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project). The site is located on the southwest edge of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains. To determine the chemical quality of water, data were collected in 1987 and 1988 from 13 surface-water stations and 19 ground-water stations. The classification of the water quality is made on the basis of predominated ions and total dissolved solids. There are four classifications of surface water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, calcium and sulfate, and sodium and bicarbonate) and three classifications of ground water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, and sodium and bicarbonate). Variations in the chemical quality of the surface and ground water in 1987 and 1988 are apparent when data are compared with each other and with previous analyses. These variations are not considered significant, as they are in the range of normal seasonal changes. Cumulative production since 1976 from the supply well at Fenton Hill has been about 63 {times} 10{sup 6} gal, with a decline in the water level of the well of about 14 ft, or about 1.4 ft/yr. The aquifer penetrated by the well is still capable of reliable supply to the site for a number of years, based on past production. The quality of water from the well has deteriorated slightly; however, the water quality is in compliance with drinking water standards. The effects of discharge from the storage ponds into an adjacent canyon have been monitored by trace metal analyses of vegetation and soil. The study indicates minimal effects, which will be undetectable in a few years if there are no further releases of effluents into the canyon. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  13. Evidence for self-gravity in a massive Hills Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    The Hills Cloud is a hypothesized disk of icy comets, asteroids and minor planets left over from the formation of the Solar System. Spanning ~250 - 104 AU it is relatively isolated from the gravitational effects of the inner Solar System and outer Galaxy. As the least observable component of the Oort Cloud, predictions for its mass span at least two orders of magnitude, typically ranging from 0.1 - 10 Earth masses. Here we show that self-gravity acting between bodies within the Hills Cloud dramatically changes their orbital distribution (the inclination instability; Madigan & McCourt, 2016). Inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities lower (detaching the bodies from the inner Solar System) and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. We show how the orbits of Sedna and other high perihelion objects can be used to constrain the mass of the Hills cloud.

  14. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  15. A giant dune-dammed lake on the North Platte River, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinehart, J.B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Conservation and Survey Div.); Loope, D.B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The recent work in the Nebraska Sand Hills, just north of the North Platte Valley, has revealed the presence of numerous dune dams--sites where eolian sand has filled Pleistocene paleovalleys and caused the formation of lake basins containing abundant small, interdunal lakes. Although the Platte River is considered the southern margin of the Sand Hills, there is a 1,200 sq km triangular area of large dunes in Lincoln County just south of the South Platte. The authors hypothesize that large dunes migrated southward to fill the North Platte Valley during glacial maximum when both the North and South Platte were dry. As Rocky Mountain snowmelt and Great Plains precipitation increased during deglaciation, a single 65 km-long, 15 km-wide, 50 m-deep lake formed behind the massive dune dam. The tentative chronology suggests that the lake was in existence for at least several thousand years. They have not yet found compelling evidence of catastrophic flooding downstream of the former lake. Evidence of two large Quaternary lakes on the White Nile between Khartoum and Malakal (Sudan) was discovered in the 1960's. Shoreline deposits indicate the lakes were 400--600 km long and up to 50 km wide. Although the lakes have been attributed to repeated blockage of the White Nile by clay-rich Blue Nile deposits, the distribution and age of dune sand near the confluence of these rivers suggest that, as in the Nebraska example, the course of the White Nile was blocked by dunes when the region was desiccated in the Late Pleistocene. Lakes behind permeable dams rise to a level where input equals output. Earthen dams are vulnerable to overtopping and piping. The relatively high permeability of dune sand prevents or delays overtopping, and piping is prevented by the extremely high low hydraulic gradients that typify extant sand dams.

  16. Scientific progress on the Fenton Hill HDR project since 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.; Duchane, D.V.

    1998-02-01

    The modern HDR concept originated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and was first demonstrated at Fenton Hill, NM. Experience gained during the development of the deeper HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill clearly showed that HDR reservoirs are formed by opening pre-existing, but sealed, multiply connected joint sets. Subsequent flow testing indicated that sustained operation of HDR systems under steady state conditions is feasible. The most significant remaining HDR issues are related to economics and locational flexibility. Additional field test sites are needed to advance the understanding of HDR technology so that the vast potential of this resource can be economically realized around the world.

  17. Allan Hills 77005 - A new meteorite type found in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.; Stolper, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A unique 482.5 g meteorite found in Antarctica appears to be related by igneous differentiation to shergottite achondrites, which have close similarities with terrestrial basaltic rocks. Zoned maskelynite with similar compositional ranges and plagioclase of such intermediate compositions as are unknown in other achondrites occur in both shergottites and the Allan Hills meteorite. The degree of silica saturation, however, strongly distinguishes the two meteorite types. It is suggested that the Allan Hills meteorite may represent a cumulate rock formed earlier than the shergottites from the same or a similar parent magma.

  18. The Allan Hills icefield and its relationship to meteorite concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annexstad, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Allan Hills icefield is described by as a limited icefield that has large concentrations of meteorites. The meteorites appear to be concentrated on the lower limb of an ice monocline with other finds scattered throughout the field. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of meteorite concentration, a triangulation chain was established across the icefield. This chain is composed of 20 stations, two of which are on bedrock, and extends westward from the Allan Hills a distance of 15 kilometers. The triangulation chain and its relationship to the meteorite concentrations is shown.

  19. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  20. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  1. 75 FR 63465 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Operating Conditions (SOC) for its Storage Services, proposing substantive revisions to its tariff for administrative efficiency as more fully detailed in the application. Any person desiring to participate in this... Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``eSubscription'' link on the Web site that enables...

  2. The Indian Hill Petroglyph Site, 14EW1, Kanopolis Lake: Development of Alternative Mitigation Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    fresh water and marine shell ornaments and beads, triangular and crescent stone pendants, right-angle perforated stone beads, tubular bone...grinding implements; and shell ornaments. Figurines are included as diagnostic artifacts of the Plains Village by Lehner and Hurt (ibid.: 566-567). The...Spanish documents (ibid.: 80). Some of the early Plains Apache people grew crops of maize, beans, and pumpkins , while others were nomadic bison

  3. Operation and Maintenance of Clarks Hill Lake, Savannah River, Georgia, and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    I I r.0 tic A.-40 04 00 J... 1-4 r- r 0 -4 cc d) D - 9 - W p . 02 -4) -40) Wr .0 0l 0 0 0) a0 a, lid * 0 0 0 r- Q-4 - go - 0 tooo -4 to v ~ I a.. 4 04...Stizostedion canadense Sauger * S. v. vitreum Wal leye B-4 1 I . . - - - CLJ -4 -4 A u -4 0 U L,00~ 4)-4 *)4. 0 c 0 Ai 4 0 0 "a 44 -4 0 4 0 4 -4 J.J

  4. Final Environmental Statement and Supplemental Information for Aquilla Lake, Aquilla Creek, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-13

    ligulatus Shinners Annual Aster Aster texanus Burgess Texas Aster Avena sativa L. Oats Andropogon saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. var. longi- paniculata...Chestnut -sided Warbler C R F,Th Dendroica castanea : Bay-breasted Warbler U R FWd SejuruS autocapillus: Ovenbird R R Wd,F Seiurus nove- boracensis

  5. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  6. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  7. The Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  8. Morphometric and rheological study of lunar domes of Marius Hills ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    70

    Geology of the study area. Marius Hills region is very significant in Oceanus ...... Authors sincerely thank Dr.Raffaelo Lena and Dr.Christain Wöhler, Geologic. Lunar Research Group and Dr. Guneshwar Thangjam of .... 2000 JE 0 01244. 17. Ivanov, B.A., 2001. Mars/Moon cratering rate ratio estimates. Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87 ...

  9. Back to the Future with Patty Smith Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Generations after her passing, Patty Smith Hill (1868-1946) remains a towering figure in the world of early childhood education. Her words continue to offer insight, not only for those who work with young children, but also for those who help to prepare the teachers of young children for the important work they do--for those who both engage in and…

  10. The Birds of Makerere Hill: A Loss of Biodiversity | Pomeroy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Birds of Makerere Hill: A Loss of Biodiversity. Derek Pomeroy. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v48i1.23000 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years | Thomsett | Scopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eagle Hill, the study site of the late Leslie Brown, was first surveyed over 60 years ago in 1948. The demise of its eagle population was near-complete less than 50 years later, but significantly, the majority of these losses occurred in the space of a few years in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, human densities and land use ...

  12. Plants profile of Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan, during. 2010, in order to document vegetation information and indigenous knowledge about plant use. The area has rich vegetation and a high potential for ethnobotanical utilization. Information was collected.

  13. Amphibian diversity in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the first annotated amphibian checklist of Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR). The list comprises of 30 currently known amphibians (28 anurans and two caecilians), which includes 11 families and 15 genera. In addition, individual records per species, distribution in the reserve and brief remarks about the ...

  14. Conflict and development in the hill settlements of Guwahati | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... In this 2016 study on informal hill settlements in Guwahati, researchers with CEPT University's Centre for Urban Equity and the Society for Social Transformation and Environmental Protection shed light on how gaps in planning and governance have fueled conflict. It reveals how land policy, legislation, and ...

  15. Hills for the Head. Art across the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Maltby Sykes, the painter, addressing issues such as his assignment during World War II, being an apprentice to Diego Rivera, and his relationship with George C. Miller. Discusses both the painting and the sketch titled "Hills." Includes activities in geography, visual art, history, and mathematics. (CMK)

  16. 78 FR 73187 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... fire and mountain pine beetle epidemics, travel management, forest monitoring and evaluation...; (3) update and discussion with working group on Motorized Travel on trails in the Black Hills...: The agenda will include time for people to make oral statements of three minutes or less. Individuals...

  17. Indigenous Knowledge in the Management of Nandi Hills Forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates a variety of indigenous practices and considers their impact and implications for forest management in the Nandi Hills Forests of western Kenya. A total of 882 households were sampled initially using qualitative questionnaires. Cconvenience sampling of people who were easy to access, i.e., those ...

  18. Tree species composition, structure and utilisation in Maruzi Hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the tree species composition, vegetation structure and harvesting pattern to guide management of the Maruzi Hills Forest Reserve. Stratified random sampling was used to site six (100 m × 100 m) permanent sample plots in the woodland, bushland and grassland vegetation types identified in the ...

  19. The Hill analysis and co-ion-driven transporter kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan

    Interaction of multiple ligands with a protein or protein complex is a widespread phenomenon that allows for cooperativity. Here, we review the use of the Hill equation, which is commonly used to analyze binding or kinetic data, to analyze the kinetics of ion-coupled transporters and show how the

  20. The hymenopterous pollinators of Himalayan foot hills of Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were undertaken to explore the diversity of hymenopterans pollinators from a diverse agroecosystems of Himalayan foot hills comprising the orchards of pome and stone fruits at different altitudes from 2200 to 3000 m from sea level. Field experiments were conducted on seven commercial fruit orchards at five ...

  1. Indigenous uses of economically important flora of Margallah Hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informal interviews provided data about 245 useful plants of 77 families of 55 trees, 54 shrubs, 105 herbs, 15 climber, 10 grasses and 6 crops recorded from the Margallah Hills National Park, Islamabad. Two hundred and fifteen local/ vernacular names were noted of total plants. The inhabitants of the park have for a long ...

  2. Composition, structure, and dynamics of the Illinois Ozark Hills Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Helmig; James S. Fralish

    2011-01-01

    In the mature oak-hickory ecosystem of the Illinois Ozark Hills, forest community composition, dynamics, and structure were studied to examine the extent of conversion to mesophytic species and eventually predict the broad threshold time of complete conversion. Tree, sapling, and seedling data were collected from 87 plots distributed throughout the region. Data for the...

  3. Key tiger habitats in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot

    2010-01-01

    We describe assumed tiger habitat characteristics and attempt to identify potential tiger habitats in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, North East India. Conserving large forest tracts and protected wildlife habitats provides an opportunity for restoring populations of wide-ranging wildlife such as tigers and elephants. Based on limited field observations coupled...

  4. Atmostpheric simulations of extreme surface heating episodes on simple hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.E. Heilman

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional nonhydrostatic atmospheric model was used to simulate the circulation patterns (wind and vorticity) and turbulence energy fields associated with lines of extreme surface heating on simple two-dimensional hills. Heating-line locations and ambient crossflow conditions were varied to qualitatively determine the impact of terrain geometry on the...

  5. Geology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom-Fendley, Sam; Brady, Aoife E.; Horstwood, Matthew S. A.; Woolley, Alan R.; Mtegha, James; Wall, Frances; Dawes, Will; Gunn, Gus

    2017-10-01

    Songwe Hill, Malawi, is one of the least studied carbonatites but has now become particularly important as it hosts a relatively large rare earth deposit. The results of new mapping, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology indicate that the 0.8 km diameter Songwe Hill is distinct from the other Chilwa Alkaline Province carbonatites in that it intruded the side of the much larger (4 × 6 km) and slightly older (134.6 ± 4.4 Ma) Mauze nepheline syenite and then evolved through three different carbonatite compositions (C1-C3). Early C1 carbonatite is scarce and is composed of medium-coarse-grained calcite carbonatite containing zircons with a U-Pb age of 132.9 ± 6.7 Ma. It is similar to magmatic carbonatite in other carbonatite complexes at Chilwa Island and Tundulu in the Chilwa Alkaline Province and others worldwide. The fine-grained calcite carbonatite (C2) is the most abundant stage at Songwe Hill, followed by a more REE- and Sr-rich ferroan calcite carbonatite (C3). Both stages C2 and C3 display evidence of extensive (carbo)-hydrothermal overprinting that has produced apatite enriched in HREE (age of the large Mauze nepheline syenite suggests it may have acted as a heat source driving a hydrothermal system that has differentiated Songwe Hill from other Chilwa carbonatites.

  6. Adaptation of generalized Hill inequalities to anisotropic elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Generalized Hill Inequalities, Elastic Constants, Anisotropic Elastic Symmetries, ... In literature, Dinçkal and Akgöz (2010) decomposed elastic constant tensor into ...... Science Reports of the Research Institutes Tohoku University A- Physics Chemistry and ... Wright, A., Faraday, C.S.N., White, E.F.T., et al., 1971.

  7. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-02-01

    Feb 1, 1984 ... Salisbury. COCHRANE, K.L. 1978. Seasonal fluctuations in the catches of Lim- nothrissa miodon (Boulenger) in Lake Kariba. Lake Kariba Fish. Res. Inst. Proj. Rept. 29: 1-163 (cyclostyled). DONNELLY, B.G. 1971. The fish population changes on Lake. Kariba between 1960 and 1968. Part I Cichlidae.

  8. 76 FR 16296 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD AGENCY... the S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9, at Snow Hill, MD. The deviation restricts the... least five hours advance notice is given. The S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9 at Snow Hill...

  9. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Pocomoke River, Snow Hill, MD AGENCY... the S12 ] Bridge across the Pocomoke River, mile 29.9, at Snow Hill, MD. The deviation restricts the... hours advance notice is given. The S12 Bridge across Pocomoke River, mile 29.9 at Snow Hill MD, has a...

  10. Teachers Guide to the Shakers at Pleasant Hill. A Resource Unit for Elementary Teachers. Intermediate Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakertown at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, Inc., Harrodsburg.

    The guide provides activities for use with children in grades four through six before and after a field trip to Shakertown at Pleasant Hill. Established as a Shaker community in 1805, Pleasant Hill now has 27 buildings restored and open for public use. The study of Pleasant Hill can be used as an example of rural or village life in nineteenth…

  11. Phosphorus forms in soils of Oban Hills, Akamkpa, Cross River State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oban Hills is located at Akamkpa in the Southern Senatorial District of Cross River, State, Nigeria. Phosphorus (P)-rich soil from the Hills is expected to have an effect on retention and distribution in the highly acidic soils surrounding the area inundated for several years. Phosphorus forms in the soils of the Hills varied with ...

  12. Gold-silver mining districts, alteration zones, and paleolandforms in the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2015-09-25

    The Bodie Hills is a ~40 by ~30 kilometer volcanic field that straddles the California-Nevada state boundary between Mono Lake and the East Walker River. Three precious metal mining districts and nine alteration zones are delineated in Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic and Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks that comprise the volcanic field. Cumulative production from the mining districts, Bodie, Aurora, and Masonic, is 3.4 million ounces of gold and 28 million ounces of silver. Small amounts of mercury were produced from the Potato Peak, Paramount-Bald Peak, and Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zones; a native sulfur resource in the Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zone has been identified by drilling. There are no known mineral resources in the other six alteration zones, Red Wash-East Walker River, East Brawley Peak, Sawtooth Ridge, Aurora Canyon, Four Corners, and Spring Peak. The mining districts and alteration zones formed between 13.4 and 8.1 Ma in predominantly ~15–9 Ma volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. Ages of hydrothermal minerals in the districts and zones are the same as, or somewhat younger than, the ages of volcanic host rocks.

  13. Uplift history of the Villány Hills (SW Hungary) based on paleontological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebe, Krisztina; Pazonyi, Piroska; Gasparik, Mihály; Lajos Szujó, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Villány Hills are the southernmost basement outcrop in Hungary, along the northern margin of the Drava Basin. They comprise part of a Cretaceous nappe in the Tisza structural unit. Data on their young tectonic evolution are scarce, mostly due to the almost complete lack of Cenozoic sediments. Though somewhat debated, indirect data suggest that most of the area was covered by Upper Miocene (Lake Pannon) clastic sediments. Uplift and exhumation of the basement was driven by Late Miocene to post-Miocene basin inversion. A unique opportunity to study the uplift history is offered by paleontological data, by small but numerous terrestrial vertebrate sites, which cover a long time span in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Faunas accumulated in fissure fillings of karstified limestone and thus provide a minimum age for the subaerial exposure (exhumation) of the bedrock at the given site. For some sites it has been proposed that water-linked species in the fauna refer to the existence of an alluvial plain on the clastic cover, in immediate proximity to the bedrock. If true, this would give an exact elevation of the surrounding terrain at the time indicated by the fauna. If exhumation of the basement happened during the time interval covered by the vertebrate faunas, then a relationship is expected to exist between the age and elevation of the the fossil sites, with the youngest faunas lying at lowest elevation. This relationship is expected to be strictly valid primarily in the case of water-linket faunas, but as a trend also for all fossil sites. We collected the age data and ecological requirements of the reliably datable vertebrate faunas and their locations with the possible precision. Then the relationship between the elevation and age was studied and compared to the available geomorphological, sedimentological and tectonic data. The age-elevation distribution of vertebrate faunas did not show the expected relationship. Based on the results, exhumation of the Vill

  14. Some Lake Level Control Alternatives for the Great Salt Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Marvin E.; Christensen, Ronald K.; Riley, J. Paul

    1983-01-01

    Fluctuations of the level of the Great Salt Lake cause large changes in both surface area and shoreline. Developments adjacent to the lake have been damaged by both high and low lake levels; and unless measures are implemented to regulate lake level fluctuations or otherwise to protect these developments, damages will continue. Various possible managment alternatives for mitigating potential damages from lake leve...

  15. Chemistry, mineralogy and origin of the clay-hill nitrate deposits, Amargosa River valley, Death Valley region, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, G.E.; Hosterman, J.W.; St., Amand

    1988-01-01

    The clay-hill nitrate deposits of the Amargosa River valley, California, are caliche-type accumulations of water-soluble saline minerals in clay-rich soils on saline lake beds of Miocene, Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene age. The soils have a maximum thickness of ??? 50 cm, and commonly consist of three layers: (1) an upper 5-10 cm of saline-free soil; (2) an underlying 15-20 cm of rubbly saline soil; and (3) a hard nitrate-rich caliche, 10-20 cm thick, at the bottom of the soil profile. The saline constituents, which make up as much as 50% of the caliche, are chiefly Cl-, NO-3, SO2-4 and Na+. In addition are minor amounts of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, varying, though generally minor, amounts of B2O3 and CO2-3, and trace amounts of I (probably as IO-3), NO-2, CrO2-4 and Mo (probably as MoO2-4). The water-soluble saline materials have an I/Br ratio of ??? 1, which is much higher than nearly all other saline depostis. The principal saline minerals of the caliche are halite (NaCl), nitratite (NaNO3), darapskite (Na3(SO4)(NO3)??H2O), glauberite (Na2Ca(SO4)2), gypsum (CaSO4??2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4). Borax (Na2B4O5(OH)4??8H2O), tincalconite (Na2B4O5(OH)4??3H2O) and trona (Na3(CO3)(HCO3)??2H2O) are abundant locally. The clay-hill nitrate deposits are analogous to the well-known Chilean nitrate deposits, and probably are of similar origin. Whereas the Chilean deposits are in permeable soils of the nearly rainless Atacama Desert, the clay-hill deposits are in relatively impervious clay-rich soils that inhibited leaching by rain water. The annual rainfall in the Death Valley region of ??? 5 cm is sufficient to leach water-soluble minerals from the more permeable soils. The clay-hill deposits contain saline materials from the lake beds beneath the nitrate deposits are well as wind-transported materials from nearby clay-hill soils, playas and salt marshes. The nitrate is probably of organic origin, consisting of atmospheric nitrogen fixed as protein by photoautotrophic blue-green algae

  16. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition - a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak's terrestrial malacofauna.

  17. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition – a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak’s terrestrial malacofauna. PMID:28769723

  18. Salting our freshwater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sarah L.; Burke, Samantha M.; Doubek, Jonathan P.; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E.; Skaff, Nicholas K.; Summers, Jamie C.; Farrell, Kaitlin J.; McCullough, Ian M.; Morales-Williams, Ana M.; Roberts, Derek C.; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C.; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2017-01-01

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L−1), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue. PMID:28396392

  19. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  20. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  1. Prof. Nanopoulos visits Hill Primary School in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    This video is an extract of a reportage broadcasted by SKAI TV in Greece about the visit of Prof. Dimitri Nanopoulos to Hill Primary School, the oldest operating school in Greece. The video describes a breakthrough education programme aimed at introducing big ideas in physics, particle physics and cosmology to K-6 students through a pedagogical approach that promotes inquiry, creativity and hands-on experimentation with the use everyday materials.

  2. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  3. Old Black Hills ponderosa pines tell a story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Bunkers; L. Ronald Johnson; James R. Miller; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1999-01-01

    A single ponderosa pine tree found in the central Black Hills of SouthDakota revealed its age of more than 700 years by its tree rings taken from coring in 1992. The purpose of this study was to examine historic climatic patterns from the 13th century through most of the 20th century as inferred from ring widths of this and other nearby trees. The steep, rocky site...

  4. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  5. Tree Diameter Growth in the Dry Limestone Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1962-01-01

    The dry limestone hill region of southwestern Puerto Rico, because of heavy, shallow soils and scant rainfall is not farmed, and is recognized as an area best suited for the growth of trees. With a mean temperature near 80°F and with rainfall averaging no more than 30 inches anually and much less during dry years, the site is adverse even for tree growth. Studies on...

  6. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  7. ACCOMMODATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND TOURISM FLOWS ON FELEACU HILL (CLUJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA-LIVIA GHEORGHIEȘ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  8. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Moo Yul (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  9. Paleogenetic records of Daphnia pulicaria in two North American lakes reveal the impact of cultural eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Dagmar; Morton, Philip K; Culver, Billy W; Edlund, Mark B; Jeyasingh, Punidan D; Weider, Lawrence J

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary consequences of the green revolution, particularly in wild populations, is an important frontier in contemporary biology. Because human impacts have occurred at varying magnitudes or time periods depending on the study ecosystem, evolutionary histories may vary considerably among populations. Paleogenetics in conjunction with paleolimnology enable us to associate microevolutionary dynamics with detailed information on environmental change. We used this approach to reconstruct changes in the temporal population genetic structure of the keystone zooplankton grazer, Daphnia pulicaria, using dormant eggs extracted from sediments in two Minnesota lakes (South Center, Hill). The extent of agriculture and human population density in the catchment of these lakes has differed markedly since European settlement in the late 19th century and is reflected in their environmental histories reconstructed here. The reconstructed environments of these two lakes differed strongly in terms of environmental stability and their associated patterns of Daphnia population structure. We detected long periods of stability in population structure and environmental conditions in South Center Lake that were followed by a dramatic temporal shift in population genetic structure after the onset of European settlement and industrialized agriculture in its watershed. In particular, we noted a 24.3-fold increase in phosphorus (P) flux between pre-European and modern sediment P accumulation rates (AR) in this lake. In contrast, no such shifts were detected in Hill Lake, where the watershed was not as impacted by European settlement and rates of change were less directional with a much smaller increase in sediment P AR (2.3-fold). We identify direct and indirect effects of eutrophication proxies on genetic structure in these lake populations and demonstrate the power of using this approach in understanding the consequences of anthropogenic environmental change on natural

  10. Lake Mead, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.

  11. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  12. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... : Species composition & seasonal periodicity - Qualitative & quantitative investigations on cladoceran zooplankton of oligotrophic maar lakes - Population dynamics of pelagic copepods in maar lakes - Population dynamics...

  13. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  14. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  15. Evaporation From Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

    2009-05-01

    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  16. AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF MOSQUITO FAUNA WITH VECTO R BIONOMICS IN NILGIRI HILLS, SOUTHERN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan; Hiriyan; Chandrasekaran; Annadurai

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The earlier inventories of the mosquito fauna from Nilgiri hills are compiled and updated the faunal record. Out of 333 species belongi ng to 47 genera documented in India, 119 species of 21 genera are recorded from Nilgiri hills . 19 species of 4 genera having medical importance are being recorded from Nilgiri hills al one out of total 28 species belong to 5 genera recorded in India. Latter on during the course of d engue vector surveillance in between...

  17. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Truck Offload Station, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    necessary to install: footings; foundations; pavements; and buried utilities consisting of water, electricity, telephone/data, and storm drains . Discussions... storm drains convey surface runoff from this area of Hill AFB to Pond 6, a retention pond, and Pond 3, a wet detention pond that discharges to Kay’s... storm drains would the fuel either to Hill AFB Pond 3 or Hill AFB Pond 6 (it could be either - engineering design has not been conducted for the

  18. Evidence for a Noachian-Aged Ephemeral Lake in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S. W.; Niles, P. B.; Alfano, F.; Clarke, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for the Spirit rover because of the likelihood that it contained an ancient lake. Although outcrops rich in Mg-Fe carbonate dubbed Comanche were discovered in the Noachian-aged Columbia Hills, they were inferred to result from volcanic hydrothermal activity. Spirit encountered other mineral and chemical indicators of aqueous activity, but none was recognized as definitive evidence for a former lake in part because none was associated with obvious lacustrine sedimentary deposits. However, water discharge into Martian crater basins like Gusev may have been episodic, producing only small amounts of sediment and shallow ephemeral lakes. Evaporative precipitation from such water bodies has been suggested as a way of producing the Mg- and Fe-rich carbonates found in ALH84001 and carbonates and salts in some nakhlites a hypothesis we examine for the Comanche carbonate.

  19. Lake Superior revisited 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  20. Surface ozone characterization at Larsemann Hills and Maitri, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kaushar; Trivedi, D K; Sahu, S K

    2017-04-15

    Data are analyzed in terms of daily average ozone, its diurnal variation and its relation with meteorological parameters like dry bulb temperature (T), wet bulb temperature (T w ), atmospheric pressure and wind speed based on measurement of these parameters at two Indian Antarctic stations (Larsemann Hills, and Maitri) during 28th Indian Scientific Expedition of Antarctica (ISEA) organized during Antarctic summer of the year 2008-09. The work has been carried out to investigate summer time ozone level and its day-to-day and diurnal variability at these coastal locations and to highlight possible mechanism of ozone production and destruction. The result of the analysis indicates that daily average ozone concentration at Larsemann Hills varied from ~13 and ~20ppb with overall average value of ~16ppb and at Maitri, it varied from ~16 and ~21ppb with overall average value of ~18ppb. Photochemistry is found to partially contribute occasionally to the surface layer ozone at both the stations. Lower concentration of ozone at Maitri during beginning of the observational days may be due to destruction of ozone through activated halogens, whereas higher ozone on latter days may be due to photochemistry and advective transport from east to south-east areas. Ozone concentration during blizzard episodes at both the stations is reduced due to slow photochemical production of ozone, its photochemical removal and removal through deposition of ozone molecules on precipitation particles. Diurnal variation of ozone at Larsemann Hills and Maitri has been found to be absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-01-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus...

  2. Wine Industry Competitiveness: A survey of the Shawnee Hills American Viticultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matthew Rendleman

    2016-06-01

    Shawnee Hill׳s AVA winery owner/operators regard increases in regional tourism, growth in the US wine market continuous innovation, unique services and processes, and flow of information from customers to have the most enhancing effects on their businesses, and that confidence/trust in Illinois state political systems, tax systems, and administrative/bureaucratic regulations were the most constraining factors. Furthermore the Shawnee Hills AVA has growing competition, yet consists of innovative winery owners. It may currently lack external financial support, but with a community focus on product differentiation, the Shawnee Hills AVA has a chance, owners believe, to capture a portion of the growing market for regional products.

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation classification and mapping of Friendship Hill National Historic Site.

  4. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Båstrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with la...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP

  5. Microstructures of glassy alloys: presence of hills, valleys, and veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboki T.A.M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous ribbon surfaces, wheel and free sides are peculiar, but no microstructural description is not yet proposed. Here, we introduce a new description of the two surfaces by analogy with biological organs like a leaf as a network of hills, valleys, and veins. The venation can help understand the transport properties like heat dissipation during ribbon processing and mechanical properties like resilience or tensile strength of the amorphous ribbon. The new microstructure presentation can be useful to describe the crystallization of glassy materials

  6. Iowa Hill Pumped Storage Project Investigations - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David [Sacramento Municipal Unitlity District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This Final Technical Report is a summary of the activities and outcome of the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement DE-EE0005414 with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The Assistance Agreement was created in 2012 to support investigations into the Iowa Hill Pumped-storage Project (Project), a new development that would add an additional 400 MW of capacity to SMUD’s existing 688MW Upper American River Hydroelectric Project (UARP) in the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Sacramento, California.

  7. Land Politics in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamgir, Fariba

    claim-making, actual property practices and authority relations empirically. Studying the local processes of property constitution reveal, there are formal state authorities (Headman, Court), state institution with informal authority (military) and non-state authorities (hill political parties, Bengali...... of land. I argue, within ambivalence of legal and administrative structure at present, disputes are largely evolving through contestation and negotiation among disputants and institutions with informal authority in land control. I argue that there is uncertainty and property in land is not fixed in CHT...

  8. Stream piracy in the Black Hills: A geomorphology lab exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprowski, B.J.; Evenson, E.B.; Epstein, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota exhibits many fine examples of stream piracy that are very suitable for teaching geomorphology lab exercises. This lab goes beyond standard topographic map interpretation by using geologic maps, well logs, gravel provenance and other types of data to teach students about stream piracy. Using a step-by-step method in which the lab exercises ramp up in difficulty, students hone their skills in deductive reasoning and data assimilation. The first exercises deal with the identification of stream piracy at a variety of spatial scales and the lab culminates with an exercise on landscape evolution and drainage rearrangement.

  9. The Battle of Hill 875, Dak To, Vietnam 1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-30

    orwaro ooserver kFO) from the 319tn Artilierv, attached to Charlie Companv pegan cailing in tires on the hill ’U 2/503 Night laager position 18...gunftire. Lieutenant OiLeary was reporting over the radio the first casualties when more shooting brome out in +ront of Charlie Company. The 2nd... Chaplin Watters Knelt beside Captainr ii ev as ne l istened to the radio. nil ev shoor nis nead ano sooke softly to the Chaplain. ’Weve got ri.A s and

  10. Partial skeleton of Theropithecus brumpti (Primates, Cercopithecidae) from the Chemeron Formation of the Tugen Hills, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Christopher C; Goble, Emily D; Kingston, John D; Hill, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Here we describe a complete skull and partial skeleton of a large cercopithecoid monkey (KNM-TH 46700) discovered in the Chemeron Formation of the Tugen Hills at BPRP Site #152 (2.63 Ma). Associated with the skeleton was a mandible of an infant cercopithecoid (KNM-TH 48364), also described here. KNM-TH 46700 represents an aged adult female of Theropithecus brumpti, a successful Pliocene papionin taxon better known from the Omo Shungura Formation in Ethiopia and sites east and west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. While the morphology of male T. brumpti is well-documented, including a partial skeleton with both cranial and postcranial material, the female T. brumpti morphotype is not well-known. This skeleton represents some of the first associated evidence of cranial and postcranial female T. brumpti remains. In addition to the complete skull, postcranial material includes elements of the axial skeleton and lower limb. While aspects of the skeleton conform to those of specimens previously assigned to T. brumpti, other features on the femur and tibia appear to differ from those previously described for this species. It is unclear whether these differences represent general variation within the T. brumpti population, variation between the sexes in T. brumpti, or the incorrect assignment of previous isolated hindlimb specimens. In total, the observable morphological features of the hindlimb suggest that KNM-TH 46700 was a terrestrial quadruped similar to modern savannah baboons (Papio). From the available evidence, it is difficult to assess whether or not KNM-TH 46700 frequently engaged in the specialized squatting and shuffling behavior observed in extant geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  12. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  13. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-01-01

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20535761

  14. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-06-30

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Stars with relativistic speeds in the Hills scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremova, G. N.; Dremov, V. V.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The dynamical capture of a binary system consisting of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and an ordinary star in the gravitational field of a central (more massive) SMBH is considered in the three-body problem in the framework of a modified Hills scenario. The results of numerical simulations predict the existence of objects whose spatial speeds are comparable to the speed of light. The conditions for and constraints imposed on the ejection speeds realized in a classical scenario and the modified Hills scenario are analyzed. The star is modeled using an N-body approach, making it possible to treat it as a structured object, enabling estimation of the probability that the object survives when it is ejected with relativistic speed as a function of the mass of the star, the masses of both SMBHs, and the pericenter distance. It is possible that the modern kinematic classification for stars with anomalously high spatial velocities will be augmented with a new class—stars with relativistic speeds.

  16. Physiography and tectonic setting of the subglacial lake district between Vostok and Belgica subglacial highlands (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, I. E.; Cianfarra, P.; Forieri, A.; Salvini, F.; Zirizotti, A.

    2006-06-01

    We present the interpretation of 11 radio echo-sounding (RES) missions carried out over the Vostok-Dome Concordia region during the Italian Antarctic expeditions in the period 1995-2001. The extension and the density of the radar data in the surveyed area allowed to reconstruct a reliable subglacial morphology and to identify four relevant morphological structures namely: the Aurora trench, the Concordia trench, the Concordia ridge and the South Hills. These structures show evidence compatible with the presence of tectonic features. Morphological considerations indicate their development in Cenozoic time. Hybrid cellular automata (HCA)-based numerical modelling allowed to justify a possible role played by the tectonics of the Aurora and Concordia trench evolution. This was accomplished by matching the bed profiles along opportunely projected sections with the modelled surfaces as derived by the activity of normal faults with variable surfaces within the continental crust. The Vostok-Dome C region is characterized by a large number of subglacial lakes. From the analysis of basal reflected power echo, we identified 14 new lakes and obtained information about their physiography as well as their possible relations with tectonics. We propose a grouping of subglacial lakes on the base of their physiography and geological setting, namely relief lakes, basin lakes and trench lakes. Relief lakes located in the Belgica subglacial highlands and are characterized by sharp and steep symmetric edges, suggesting a maximum water depth of the order of 100 m. Their origin may well relate to localized, positive geothermal flux anomalies. Basin lakes located in the Vincennes subglacial basin and are characterized by wider dimension that allow the development of well-defined, flat ice surface anomalies. Trench lakes characterize the Aurora and Concordia trenches as the possible effect of normal fault activity.

  17. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    Devils Lake basin, a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota, covers about 3,900 square miles of land, the topography of which is morainal and of glacial origin. In this basin lies a chain of waterways, which begins with the Sweetwater group and extends successively through Mauvais Coulee, Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, and East Devils Lake, to Stump Lake. In former years when lake levels were high, Mauvais Coulee drained the Sweetwater group and discharged considerable water into Devils Lake. Converging coulees also transported excess water to Stump Lake. For at least 70 years prior to 1941, Mauvais Coulee flowed only intermittently, and the levels of major lakes in this region gradually declined. Devils Lake, for example, covered an area of about 90,000 acres in 1867 but had shrunk to approximately 6,500 acres by 1941. Plans to restore the recreational appeal of Devils Lake propose the dilution and eventual displacement of the brackish lake water by fresh water that would be diverted from the Missouri River. Freshening of the lake water would permit restocking Devils Lake with fish. Devils and Stump Lake have irregular outlines and numerous windings and have been described as lying in the valley of a preglacial river, the main stem and tributaries of which are partly filled with drift. Prominent morainal hills along the south shore of Devils Lake contrast sharply with level farmland to the north. The mean annual temperature of Devils Lake basin ranges between 36 ? and 42 ? F. Summer temperatures above 100 ? F and winter temperatures below -30 ? Fare not uncommon. The annual precipitation for 77 years at the city of Devils Lake averaged 17.5 inches. Usually, from 75 to 80 percent of the precipitation in the basin falls during the growing season, April to September. From 1867 to 1941 the net fall of the water surface of Devils Lake was about 38 feet. By 1951 the surface had risen fully 14 feet from its lowest altitude, 1,400.9 feet. Since 1951, the level has

  18. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-08-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  19. Five New Records of Terrestrial and Lithophytic Orchids (Orchidaceae) from Penang Hill, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yeu, Nga Shi; Nordin, Farah Alia; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-01-01

    Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.

  20. Field guide to the woody plants of Taita hills, Kenya | Thijs | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This field guide represents a comprehensive treatment of the 184 woody plant species occurring in the Afromontane cloud forests of Taita Hills, Kenya. The first part contains an introduction to the Taita Hills and Eastern Arc Mountains, a list with endemic plant species, the multiple benefits the forests provide, additional ...

  1. Studies on termite hill and lime as partial replacement for cement in plastering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olusola, K.O.; Olanipekun, E.A.; Ata, O.; Olateju, O.T. [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria). Department of Building

    2006-03-15

    This study investigated the compressive strength and water absorption capacity of 50x50x50mm mortar cubes made from mixes containing lime, termite hill and cement and sand. Two mix ratios (1:4 and 1:6) and varying binder replacements of cement with lime or termite hill amounting to 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were used. Test results showed that the compressive strength of the mortar cubes increases with age and decreases with increasing percentage replacement of cement with lime and termite hill. However, for mix ratio 1:6, up to 20% replacement of cement with either lime or termite hill, all the mortar cubes had the same strength; subsequently, the termite hill exhibited a higher compressive strength. For mix ratio 1:4, mortar cubes made from lime/cement and termite hill/cement mixtures had the same strength at 50% replacement. Generally, water absorption is higher in mixtures containing lime (18.10% and 14.20% for mix ratios 1:6 and 1:4, respectively, both at 50% replacement level) than those containing termite hill (16.10% and 13.02% for mix ratios 1:6 and 1:4, respectively, both at 50% replacement level). Termite hills seem to be promising as a suitable, locally available housing material for plastering. (author)

  2. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  3. Conservation assessment for bloodroot in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis L. (Papaveraceae), is a common spring flowering herb in the deciduous forests of eastern North America. It is disjunctly distributed in the northeastern Black Hills of South Dakota. There are 22 known occurrences of bloodroot on Black Hills National Forest in hardwood forests, shrub thickets, and floodplain habitats of limited...

  4. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the sui generis epidemiologic approach to causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies as invalid nonexperimental evidence, which forms the bulk of epidemiologic findings reviewed from Hill's viewpoints. The approaches by Hume and Mill cannot corroborate successful implementations of Hill's viewpoints. Besides Hume and Mill, the epidemiologic literature is clueless about a plausible, pre-1965 philosophical origin of Hill's viewpoints. Thus, Hill's viewpoints may be philosophically novel, sui generis, still waiting to be validated and justified.

  5. Annotated checklist of the plants of the Shimba hills, Kwale district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An annotated checklist of the Shimba Hills in Kwale District is presented. The checklist includes the plants found in the Shimba Hills National Reserve, Mkongani North and West Forest Reserves, Matuga, Mwaluganje Forest Reserve and Elephant Sanctuary, as well as Kaya Chombo, Kaya Teleza, Chitsanze Sacred Grove ...

  6. Identifying changes in tree form for harvested ponderosa pine in the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Williams; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don L. Martinez

    1996-01-01

    Recent underestimates of total volume for timber sales in the Black Hills National Forest prompted analysis of two felled ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) data sets that were collected approximately 10 years apart. Though neither data set collected was a representative sample of the Black Hills, both were similar in terms of diameter at breast height and total...

  7. 75 FR 28302 - American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative... Food and Vending, Spring Hill, Tennessee, was based on the findings that the subject firm did not... the cafeteria services or vending machine services supplied by the workers or acquire from a foreign...

  8. Rare Plants and Animals of the Texas Hill Country: Educator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    Texas Hill Country is a land of fresh water springs, stony hills, and steep canyons and home to many rare plants and animals. Six activities for grades 3-5 and six activities for grades 6-12 are contained in this guide. Elementary activity highlights include using "The Lorax" by Dr. Seuss to stimulate critical thinking about…

  9. A. G. Hill, MBChB, MD, FRACS, Department of Surgery, Africa Inland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... A. G. Hill, MBChB, MD, FRACS, Department of Surgery, Africa Inland Church Kijabe Hospital, P.O. Box 20, Kijabe, Kenya. MAJOR SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS IN A RURAL KENYAN HOSPITAL. A. G. HILL. ABSTRACT. Background: Salivary gland tumours are not well characterised in Africa. The Kijabe.

  10. 76 FR 60815 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills Training Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the Limestone Hills... land within the Limestone Hills Training Area (LHTA) from BLM administration. The LEIS proposes that..., mining, recreation, transportation, utility right-of-ways, and wildlife management. A limestone mine is...

  11. Characteristics of successful puma kill sites of elk in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2017-01-01

    Elk Cervus canadensis nelsoni in the Black Hills, South Dakota, have been declining since 2006 and there is concern by resource managers and hunters that puma Puma concolor predation may be contributing to declining herds. We evaluated characteristics at sites where puma successfully killed elk in the Black Hills of South Dakota. We evaluated characteristics at coarse...

  12. Latin cults through Roman eyes : Myth, memory and cult practice in the Alban hills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of the Latin past in the Roman present, by investigating three large sanctuaries in the Alban hills: that of Diana Nemorensis, Juno Sospita and Jupiter Latiaris. The Alban hills are volcanic highlands southeast of Rome, which are located in the heart of Latium Vetus

  13. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  14. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  15. CESM Lakes Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains monthly aggregates of 2D near-surface fields from the WRF model simulations labeled "default" (using WRF default approach to setting lake...

  16. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  17. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the facts...

  18. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  19. Challenges to the Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past decade we have extensively studied coastal ecosystems in the Great Lakes. Some research efforts have linked coastal receiving systems to conditions in their contributing watersheds; others have focused on developing invasive species detection and monitoring strat...

  20. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake NWR, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  1. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  2. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the ground water and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  4. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  5. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  6. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m2. As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-27

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm.

  8. Hills and valleys: Understanding the under-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind N Naik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue deflation and descent have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of facial aging. In the periorbital area, the upper orbital region is thought to change by descent of the eyebrow, as well as deflation of brow fat. While the understanding of the aging changes in the upper eyelid region are relatively simple, the lower eyelid poses a myriad of aging changes, each demanding a specific management plan. These can be best described in terms of elevations, or 'Hills' and hollows, or 'Valleys'. This article simplifies the understanding of the lower eyelid in the light of anatomical knowledge, and available literature. It forms a basis of easy diagnosis and treatment of the soft tissue changes in the lower eyelid and malar region.

  9. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke; Embree, Patrick; Orchard, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  10. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil P. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  11. SRTM Colored and Shaded Topography: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This shaded topography view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. In this view, the anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the linear feature trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion-resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. These features are simple examples of how shaded topography can provide a direct input to geologic studies.In this image, colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Colors range from green at the lowest elevations, through yellow and red, to purple at the highest elevations. Elevations here range from near sea level to about 300 meters (about 1000 feet). Shading has been added, with illumination from the north (image top).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that

  12. Chemical characterization of a unique chondrite - Allan Hills 85085

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, David C.; Laul, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Allan Hills 85085 is a new and very important addition to the growing list of unique carbonaceous chondrites because of its unique chemical and mineralogical properties. This chemical study provides more precise data on the major, minor, and trace element characteristics of ALH85085. ALH85085 has compositional, petrological, and isotopic affinities to AL Rais and Renazzo, and to Bencubbin-Weatherford. The similarities to Al Rais and Renazzo suggest similar formation locations and thermal processing, possibly in the vicinity of CI chondrites. Petrologic, compositional and isotopic studies indicate that the components that control the abundance of the various refractory and volatile elements were not allowed to equilibrate with the nebula as conditions changed, explaining the inconsistencies in the classification of these meteorites using known taxonomic parameters.

  13. A new kind of primitive chondrite, Allan Hills 85085

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, a chemically and mineralogically unique chondrite whose components have suffered little metamorphism or alteration, is discussed. It is found that ALH 85085 has 4 wt pct chondrules (mean diameter 16 microns), 36 wt pct Fe, Ni, 56 wt pct lithic and mineral silicate fragments, and 2 wt pct trolite. It is suggested that, with the exception of matrix lumps, the components of ALH 85085 formed and accreted in the solar nebula. It is shown that ALH 85085 does not belong to any of the nine chondrite groups and is very different from Kakangari. Similarities between ALH 85085 and Bencubbin and Weatherford suggest that the latter two primitive meteorites may be chondrites with high metal abundances and very large, partly fragmented chondrules.

  14. Morphological variation of Ridged Frogs of the Taita Hills, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossa Ng’endo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparing of morphological character variation within taxa continues to play an important role in improving species inventories. Using morphometrical and non-meristic morphological adult characters, the diversity of the genus Ptychadena in Taita Hills was studied. Comparative material from elsewhere was not used, and therefore species names were only provisionally allocated to the taxa identified. Available names were discussed on the basis of comparisons with morphological data from other regions. The results revealed that female species are larger in size than males. Two species were identified and for each a standardized diagnosis of 32 characters is provided. Comparison of results with morphological data from related studies done elsewhere reveals that certain characters are of critical importance in differentiating the two Ptychadena species. The power of these morphological characters is discussed, especially for the background of rapid and easy identification of Ptychadena species in the field for conservation purposes.

  15. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses of four reservoirs in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive information about the construction of dams or potential downstream hazards in the event of a dam breach is not available for many small reservoirs within the Black Hills National Forest. In 2009, the U.S. Forest Service identified the need for reconnaissance-level dam-breach assessments for four of these reservoirs within the Black Hills National Forest (Iron Creek, Horsethief, Lakota, and Mitchell Lakes) with the potential to flood downstream structures. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses for the four selected reservoirs were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Forest service to estimate the areal extent of downstream inundation. Three high-flow breach scenarios were considered for cases when the dam is in place (overtopped) and when a dam break (failure) occurs: the 100-year recurrence 24-hour precipitation, 500-year recurrence peak flow, and the probable maximum precipitation. Inundation maps were developed that show the estimated extent of downstream floodwaters from simulated scenarios. Simulation results were used to determine the hazard classification of a dam break (high, significant, or low), based primarily on the potential for loss of life or property damage resulting from downstream inundation because of the flood surge.The inflow design floods resulting from the two simulated storm events (100-year 24-hour and probable maximum precipitation) were determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS). The inflow design flood for the 500-year recurrence peak flow was determined by using regional regression equations developed for streamflow-gaging stations with similar watershed characteristics. The step-backwater hydraulic analysis model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), was used to determine water-surface profiles of in-place and dam-break scenarios for the three inflow design floods that were

  16. MODELLING FINE SCALE MOVEMENT CORRIDORS FOR THE TRICARINATE HILL TURTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mondal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata, focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127–175 mm and home range (8000–15000 m2, with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  17. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  18. Coupled Model Simulation of Snowfall Events Over the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong; Hjelmfelt, M. R.; Capehart, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although many long-term simulations of snow accumulation and oblation have been made using stand-alone land surface models and surface models coupled with GCMs, less research has focused on short-term event simulations. Actually, accurate event simulations of snow-related processes are the basis for successful long-term simulation. Three advantages of event simulations of snowfall and snow melting are availability of: (1) intensive observation data from field experiments for validation; (2) more physically-realistic precipitation schemes for use in atmospheric models to simulate snowfall; and (3) a more detailed analysis of the snow melting processes. In addition to the complexities of snow related processes themselves, terrain-induced effects on snowfall/snow melting make simulations of snow events more difficult. Climatological observations indicate that terrain features such as the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming can exert important effects on snow accumulation and snow oblation processes. One of the primary effects is that the orography causes forced uplift of airflow and causes atmospheric waves to form both upwind and downwind of it. Airflow often splits around the obstacle, converging on the lee side. This convergence may lead to precipitation enhancement. It also provides an elevated heat and moisture source that enhances atmospheric instability. During the period of April 5-May 5, 1999, the Upper Missouri River Basin Pilot Project (UMRBPP) made intensive observations on precipitation events occurring in the Black Hills. Two moderate snowfall events were captured during the period. The resulting high temporal and spatial resolution data provides opportunities to investigate terrain effects on snowfall amount, distribution, and melting. Successful simulation of snowfall amount, distribution, and evolution using atmospheric models is important to subsequent modeling of snow melting using snow sub-models in land surface schemes. In this paper, a

  19. CO2 fluid inclusions in Jack Hills zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Gasharova, Biliana; Pidgeon, Robert T.

    2017-08-01

    The discovery of Hadean to Paleoarchean zircons in a metaconglomerate from Jack Hills, Western Australia, has catalyzed intensive study of these zircons and their mineral inclusions, as they represent unique geochemical archives that can be used to unravel the geological evolution of early Earth. Here, we report the occurrence and physical properties of previously undetected CO2 inclusions that were identified in 3.36-3.47 Ga and 3.80-4.13 Ga zircon grains by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Minimum P-T conditions of zircon formation were determined from the highest density of the inclusions, determined from the density-dependence of the Fermi diad splitting in the Raman spectrum and Ti-in-zircon thermometry. For both age periods, the CO2 densities and Ti-in-zircon temperatures correspond to high-grade metamorphic conditions (≥5 to ≥7 kbar/ 670 to 770 °C) that are typical of mid-crustal regional metamorphism throughout Earth's history. In addition, fully enclosed, highly disordered graphitic carbon inclusions were identified in two zircon grains from the older population that also contained CO2 inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy on one of these inclusions revealed that carbon forms a thin amorphous film on the inclusion wall, whereas the rest of the volume was probably occupied by CO2 prior to analysis. This indicates a close relationship between CO2 and the reduced carbon inclusions and, in particular that the carbon precipitated from a CO2-rich fluid, which is inconsistent with the recently proposed biogenic origin of carbon inclusions found in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills.

  20. Surface and Flow Field Measurements on the FAITH Hill Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of experimental tests, using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, were conducted to characterize both surface and off-surface flow characteristics of an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Two separate models were employed: a 6" high, 18" base diameter machined aluminum model that was used for wind tunnel tests and a smaller scale (2" high, 6" base diameter) sintered nylon version that was used in the water channel facility. Wind tunnel and water channel tests were conducted at mean test section speeds of 165 fps (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000) and 0.1 fps (Reynolds Number of 1000), respectively. The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3 for both tests. Qualitative techniques that were employed to characterize the complex flow included surface oil flow visualization for the wind tunnel tests, and dye injection for the water channel tests. Quantitative techniques that were employed to characterize the flow included Cobra Probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction (magnitude and direction). This initial report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, data acquired and describes some details of the dataset that is being constructed for use by other researchers, especially the CFD community. Subsequent reports will discuss the data and their interpretation in more detail

  1. The History of Allan Hills 84001 Revised: Multiple Shock Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1998-01-01

    The geologic history of Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is more complex than previously recognized, with evidence for four or five crater-forming impacts onto Mars. This history of repeated deformation and shock metamorphism appears to weaken some arguments that have been offered for and against the hypothesis of ancient Martian life in ALH 84001. Allan Hills 84001 formed originally from basaltic magma. Its first impact event (I1) is inferred from the deformation (D1) that produced the granular-textured bands ("crush zones") that transect the original igneous fabric. Deformation D1 is characterized by intense shear and may represent excavation or rebound flow of rock beneath a large impact crater. An intense thermal metamorphism followed D1 and may be related to it. The next impact (I2) produced fractures, (Fr2) in which carbonate "pancakes" were deposited and produced feldspathic glass from some of the igneous feldspars and silica. After I2, carbonate pancakes and globules were deposited in Fr2 fractures and replaced feldspathic glass and possibly crystalline silicates. Next, feldspars, feldspathic glass, and possibly some carbonates were mobilized and melted in the third impact (I3). Microfaulting, intense fracturing, and shear are also associated with 13. In the fourth impact (I4), the rock was fractured and deformed without significant heating, which permitted remnant magnetization directions to vary across fracture surfaces. Finally, ALH 84001 was ejected from Mars in event I5, which could be identical to I4. This history of multiple impacts is consistent with the photogeology of the Martian highlands and may help resolve some apparent contradictions among recent results on ALH 84001. For example, the submicron rounded magnetite grains in the carbonate globules could be contemporaneous with carbonate deposition, whereas the elongate magnetite grains, epitaxial on carbonates, could be ascribed to vapor-phase deposition during I3.

  2. 77 FR 60458 - Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills Training Area; MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills... laws, for a period of 5 years. This withdrawal will protect the Limestone Hills Training Area in... hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Limestone Hills Training Area withdrawal will maintain the current...

  3. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  4. Theory of synergistic effects: Hill-type response surfaces as 'null-interaction' models for mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Michael

    2017-08-02

    The classification of effects caused by mixtures of agents as synergistic, antagonistic or additive depends critically on the reference model of 'null interaction'. Two main approaches are currently in use, the Additive Dose (ADM) or concentration addition (CA) and the Multiplicative Survival (MSM) or independent action (IA) models. We compare several response surface models to a newly developed Hill response surface, obtained by solving a logistic partial differential equation (PDE). Assuming that a mixture of chemicals with individual Hill-type dose-response curves can be described by an n-dimensional logistic function, Hill's differential equation for pure agents is replaced by a PDE for mixtures whose solution provides Hill surfaces as 'null-interaction' models and relies neither on Bliss independence or Loewe additivity nor uses Chou's unified general theory. An n-dimensional logistic PDE decribing the Hill-type response of n-component mixtures is solved. Appropriate boundary conditions ensure the correct asymptotic behaviour. Mathematica 11 (Wolfram, Mathematica Version 11.0, 2016) is used for the mathematics and graphics presented in this article. The Hill response surface ansatz can be applied to mixtures of compounds with arbitrary Hill parameters. Restrictions which are required when deriving analytical expressions for response surfaces from other principles, are unnecessary. Many approaches based on Loewe additivity turn out be special cases of the Hill approach whose increased flexibility permits a better description of 'null-effect' responses. Missing sham-compliance of Bliss IA, known as Colby's model in agrochemistry, leads to incompatibility with the Hill surface ansatz. Examples of binary and ternary mixtures illustrate the differences between the approaches. For Hill-slopes close to one and doses below the half-maximum effect doses MSM (Colby, Bliss, Finney, Abbott) predicts synergistic effects where the Hill model indicates 'null

  5. Crater Lake revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

  6. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  7. satellite lakes of lake victoria basin (tanzanian side)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake Victoria ... cyanobacteria occurrence and their unforeseen effects such as toxin production and oxygen depletion during nights that may ..... Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake.

  8. Methane emissions from permafrost thaw lakes limited by lake drainage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huissteden, J.; Berrittella, C.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Mi, Y.; Maximov, T.C.; Dolman, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Thaw lakes in permafrost areas are sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. They develop mostly in sedimentary lowlands with permafrost and a high excess ground ice volume, resulting in large areas covered with lakes and drained thaw-lake basins (DTLBs; refs,). Their expansion is enhanced by

  9. Seismic evidence of Quaternary faulting in the Benton Hills area, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J.R.; Shoemaker, M.; Hoffman, D.; Anderson, N.L.; Vaughn, J.D.; Harrison, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Two reflection seismic profiles at English Hill, across the southern edge of the Benton Hills escarpment, southeast Missouri, establish that geologic structures at English Hill are of tectonic origin. The lowland area to the south of the escarpment is relatively undisturbed. The geology at English Hill is structurally complex, and reflection seismic and geologic data indicate extensive and episodic faulting of Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary strata. The individual faults have near-vertical fault surfaces with maximum vertical separations on the order of 15 m. They appear to be clustered in north-northeast trending zones that essentially parallel one of the dominant Benton Hills structural trends. These observations suggest that previously mapped Quaternary faults at English Hill are deep-seated and tectonic in origin. This paper documents recent faulting at English Hill and is the first time late Quaternary, surface-rupture faulting has been recognized in the middle Mississippi River Valley region outside of the New Madrid seismic zone. This has important implications for earthquake assessment in the midcontinent.

  10. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  11. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting documents used in developing water quality standards in the Great Lakes watershed.

  12. Freshwater lake seabird surveys 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR complex hosts Becharof Lake, the largest lake within a National Wildlife Refuge system. In addition to this distinction, Becharof...

  13. Lake Erie Fish Community Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS), located in Sandusky, Ohio, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). LEBS is the primary federal agency...

  14. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  15. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Bolund Experiment, Part I: Flow Over a Steep, Three-Dimensional Hill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Mann, Jakob; Bechmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of data from a measurement campaign performed at the Bolund peninsula in Denmark in the winter of 2007–2008. Bolund is a small isolated hill exhibiting a significantly steep escarpment in the main wind direction. The physical shape of Bolund represents, in a scaled-down form...... hill. Depending on the wind direction, we find a maximum speed-up of 30% at the hill top accompanied by a maximum 300% enhancement of turbulence intensity. A closer inspection reveals transient behaviour with recirculation zones. From the wind energy context, this implies that the best site...

  17. Evidence for Acid-Sulfate Alteration in the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Vaniman. D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rock in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September 2014 and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three mudstone samples (targets Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak) to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF.

  18. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, P. H.; Davis, A. D.; Webb, C. J.; Nichols, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but the impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area.

  19. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  20. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes,…

  1. Red Lake Forestry Greenhouse Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2002-01-01

    In 1916, The Red Lake Indian Forest Act was created. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa in Minnesota stood alone and refused to consent to allotment. Consequently, The Red Lake Band is the only tribe in Minnesota for which a congressional act was passed to secure a permanent economic foundation for the band and its future.

  2. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  3. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemical transport on Arctic hill slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, R.; Harms, T.; Jones, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water tracks, saturated regions of the hill slope in permafrosted Arctic catchments, likely deliver the majority of water entering streams in these regions, and may play a central role in delivery of nutrients. Fate of dissolved nutrients and carbon as they are transported in water tracks has a substantial effect on stream ecosystems, as water tracks may cover up to 35% of the catchment land area. Water tracks are distinguished from adjacent areas of the hillslope by higher rates of hydrologic transport, greater woody biomass, and increased pools of nutrients. Substantial spatial heterogeneity within and between water tracks may influence their role in transfer of materials between the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. We examined spatial variability of hydrologic and chemical characteristics within and between water tracks in the Kuparuk Basin of northern Alaska to increase understanding of the factors influencing nutrient export from arctic catchments. We studied a sedge-dominated water track with perennial surface water flow with shrub-dominated water tracks containing intermittent surface flow. Nominal transit times of water in the perennial site was 5 hours, compared to 15.5 h in an ephemeral track over a 50 meter reach, indicating substantial variation in water residence time and opportunity for biogeochemical reaction across sites. We evaluated spatial heterogeneity in biogeochemical characteristics within 25-m reaches at each site with a grain size of 10 m. Dissolved CH4 concentration was elevated above atmospheric equilibrium only at the perennial water track, where CH4 concentration varied by more than 15-fold within the water track, indicating hot spots of anaerobic microbial activity. Dissolved CO2 concentration was 9 times greater on average at the perennial water track, compared to the ephemeral site, suggesting that continuous water flow supports more rapid microbial activity. CO2 concentration was also more variable in the perennial water track

  5. Geologic map of the northern White Hills, Mohave County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Priest, Susan S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Block, Debra L.

    2017-07-10

    IntroductionThe northern White Hills map area lies within the Kingman Uplift, a regional structural high in which Tertiary rocks lie directly on Proterozoic rocks as a result of Cretaceous orogenic uplift and erosional stripping of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. The Miocene Salt Spring Fault forms the major structural boundary in the map area. This low-angle normal fault separates a footwall (lower plate) of Proterozoic gneisses on the east and south from a hanging wall (upper plate) of faulted middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and their Proterozoic substrate. The fault is part of the South Virgin–White Hills Detachment Fault, which records significant tectonic extension that decreases from north to south. Along most of its trace, the Salt Spring Fault dips gently westward, but it also has north-dipping segments along salients. A dissected, domelike landscape on the eroded footwall, which contains antiformal salients and synformal reentrants, extends through the map area from Salt Spring Bay southward to the Golden Rule Peak area. The “Lost Basin Range” represents an upthrown block of the footwall, raised on the steeper Lost Basin Range Fault.The Salt Spring Fault, as well as the normal faults that segment its hanging wall, deform rocks that are about 16 to 10 Ma, and younger deposits overlie the faults. Rhyodacitic welded tuff about 15 Ma underlies a succession of geochemically intermediate to progressively more mafic lavas (including alkali basalt) that range from about 14.7 to 8 Ma, interfingered with sedimentary rocks and breccias in the western part of the map area. Upper Miocene strata record further filling of the extension-formed continental basins. Basins that are still present in the modern landscape reflect the youngest stages of extensional-basin formation, expressed as the downfaulted Detrital Valley and Hualapai Wash basins in the western and eastern parts of the map area, respectively, as well as the north-centrally located

  6. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas

  7. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  8. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  9. Reclaiming the lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    belonging during a weeklong uprising in defense of Lake Conococha. Highlighting the collective actions and personal narratives from participants in the region-wide blockade, the article therefore seeks to understand how dispossessions of environmental resources perceived as common property are cast in terms...... of individual rights that move well beyond the site of conflict. It is therefore argued that the actions to reclaim Lake Conococha were not only a battle for natural resources and clean water, but more fundamentally an attempt to repossess a citizenship that may be constitutionally secured but all too oft en...

  10. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  11. Megasplash at Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. G.; Schweickert, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Backwash from a major ~10 km3 landslide in Lake Tahoe washed away Tioga age (21 ka) moraines (Schweickert, et al 2000; Howle, 2012). Coring in the lake demonstrates a 7700-8000 yr Mt. Mazama ash is widely distributed in lake sediments that overlie the landslide blocks. Moreover, core stratigraphy and radiocarbon ages indicate that all of the sediments cored (to about 3 m depth reaching back 12 ka) were deposited after the landslide (Smith et al., 2013). The age of the landslide is hence constrained at 12-21 ka. Fifteen major subaqueous sand wave channels 2.5 to 10.2 km in length originate from subaqueous delta-terraces at depths of 5-28 m on the margins of the lake. The channels, apparently formed by turbidity currents, are distinctly erosional in their upper part, and transform to deposition aprons in their lower part as they approach the flat lake floor at 500 m depth. The channels contain wave forms (giant ripple marks) convex upstream with maximum wavelengths of 450 m. The lower depositional aprons are surfaced by sand waves convex downstream with maximum wavelengths of 100-300 m. Sand wave convexity mimics the contour of the substrate. The sand wave channel systems are mantled by the post-slide 12 ka sediments and hence have been inactive since that time. These channel-fan structures were apparently produced by backwash from the giant Tahoe landslide, which splashed ~5 km3 of water onto the surrounding countryside thereby lowering lake level by ~10 m. The sediment-charged backwash first deposited the delta-terraces at the lowered lake level and then partly eroded them to generate the sand wave channels, within minutes or hours, while seiche activity resurfaced the delta-terraces. A remarkably similar, though smaller, presently-forming system of turbidity sand wave channels has been imaged at the mouth of the Squamish River in British Columbia (Hughes Clark et al., 2012). The Tahoe splash-induced backwash was briefly equivalent to more than fifteen Squamish

  12. Maturity schedules of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    We determined maturity schedules of male and female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan from nearshore populations and from an offshore population on Sheboygan Reef, which is located in midlake. Gill nets and bottom trawls were used to catch lake trout in fall 1994 and 1995 from two nearshore sites and Sheboygan Reef. Each lake trout was judged immature or mature, based on visual examination of gonads. Probit analysis, coupled with relative potency testing, revealed that age-at-maturity and length-at-maturity were similar at the two nearshore sites, but that lake trout from the nearshore sites matured at a significantly earlier age than lake trout from Sheboygan Reef. However, length at maturity for the nearshore populations was nearly identical to that for the offshore population, suggesting that rate of lake trout maturation in Lake Michigan was governed by growth rather than age. Half of the lake trout males reached maturity at a total length of 580 mm, whereas half of the females were mature at a length of 640 mm. Over half of nearshore males were mature by age 5, and over half the nearshore females matured by age 6. Due to a slower growth rate, maturity was delayed by 2 years on Sheboygan Reef compared with the nearshore populations. Documentation of this delay in maturation may be useful in deciding stocking allocations for lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Michigan.

  13. Terrestrial CDOM in Lakes of Yamal Peninsula: Connection to Lake and Lake Catchment Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Dvornikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze interactions in lake and lake catchment systems of a continuous permafrost area. We assessed colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM absorption at 440 nm (a(440CDOM and absorption slope (S300–500 in lakes using field sampling and optical remote sensing data for an area of 350 km2 in Central Yamal, Siberia. Applying a CDOM algorithm (ratio of green and red band reflectance for two high spatial resolution multispectral GeoEye-1 and Worldview-2 satellite images, we were able to extrapolate the a(λCDOM data from 18 lakes sampled in the field to 356 lakes in the study area (model R2 = 0.79. Values of a(440CDOM in 356 lakes varied from 0.48 to 8.35 m−1 with a median of 1.43 m−1. This a(λCDOM dataset was used to relate lake CDOM to 17 lake and lake catchment parameters derived from optical and radar remote sensing data and from digital elevation model analysis in order to establish the parameters controlling CDOM in lakes on the Yamal Peninsula. Regression tree model and boosted regression tree analysis showed that the activity of cryogenic processes (thermocirques in the lake shores and lake water level were the two most important controls, explaining 48.4% and 28.4% of lake CDOM, respectively (R2 = 0.61. Activation of thermocirques led to a large input of terrestrial organic matter and sediments from catchments and thawed permafrost to lakes (n = 15, mean a(440CDOM = 5.3 m−1. Large lakes on the floodplain with a connection to Mordy-Yakha River received more CDOM (n = 7, mean a(440CDOM = 3.8 m−1 compared to lakes located on higher terraces.

  14. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the Danforth Hills coal field, Colorado (dan*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Final unioned polygon coverages and shapefiles used to calculate coal resources of the A through G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  15. Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding (the Company) is located in Concord, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Concord, New Hampshire.

  16. Generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills,...

  17. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  18. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Narrative Report for September - December 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  20. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Katie Van-Alstyne, project team leader, Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger... managing the ongoing insect outbreak. Public comment will help the planning team identify key issues and...

  1. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  2. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  3. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Integrated Pest Management Plan for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge 2004 through 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Flint Hills NWR. The...

  8. Atlas of water resources in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Williamson, Joyce E.; Lindquist, Van A.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills area is an important resource center that provides an economic base for western South Dakota through tourism, agriculture, the timber industry, and mineral resources. In addition, water originating from the area is used for municipal, industrial, agricultural, and recreational purposes throughout much of western South Dakota. The Black Hills area also is an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains.Population growth, resource development, and periodic droughts have the potential to affect the quantity, quality, and availability of water within the Black Hills area. Growth has resulted in competing interests for available water supplies. The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to address these concerns. This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators.

  9. Turbulence Models: Data from Other Experiments: FAITH Hill 3-D Separated Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exp: FAITH Hill 3-D Separated Flow. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence models. This resource is...

  10. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  11. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Narrative Report for September - December 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  13. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  14. ANALYSIS OF A MODEL OF TEAMWORK BY HILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Petkovski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary management of the intellectual capital of an organization, as a major determinant for efficient and effective operation of the organization has access to the teamwork. Teamwork means quality leadership which is necessary for a successful team management. In the theory and the practice are given a number of models for teamwork and team leadership, however, in this case the subject of this paperwork will be the analyzing of the model of team leadership according to Hill. According to this model there are two functions of team leading established: leading functions in the team and leading functions out of the team. In the first part, which refers to the functions of leadership in the team, are set two major categories: team leader’s tasks and the built relationships and atmosphere in the team. In terms of the functions of the leader out of the team, the model focuses on two categories, namely: the functions of leadership out of the team, but within the organization and leading functions of the team outside the organization.

  15. Hill Cipher and Least Significant Bit for Image Messaging Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Husnul Arif

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of information through cyberspace has many benefits as an example fast estimated time, unlimited physical distance and space limits, etc. But in these activities can also pose a security risk for confidential information. It is necessary for the safety that can be used to protect data transmitted through the Internet. Encryption algorithm that used to encrypt message to be sent (plaintext into messages that have been randomized (ciphertext is cryptography and steganography algorithms. In application of cryptographic techniques that will be used is Hill Cipher. The technique is combined with steganography techniques Least Significant Bit. The result of merging techniques can maintain the confidentiality of messages because people who do not know the secret key used will be difficult to get the message contained in the stego-image and the image that has been inserted can not be used as a cover image. Message successfully inserted and extracted back on all samples with a good image formats * .bmp, * .png , * .jpg at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels , 256 x 256 pixels. MSE and PSNR results are not influenced file format or file size, but influenced by dimensions of image. The larger dimensions of the image, then the smaller MSE that means error of image gets smaller.

  16. Orebody Modelling for Exploration: The Western Mineralisation, Broken Hill, NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfolah Hamedani, Mohammad, E-mail: mlotfham@gmail.com; Plimer, Ian Rutherford [University of Adelaide, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (Australia); Xu Chaoshui [University of Adelaide, School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    The Western Mineralisation in the Broken Hill deposit was studied to identify the zonation sequence of lithogeochemical haloes along and across the strike of the orebody. Samples used are from 77 drill holes and the samples were assayed for Pb, Zn, Fe, S, Cu, Ag, Cd, Sb, Bi and As. Variogram analyses were calculated for all the elements and kriging was used to construct the 3D block model. Analysis of cross sections along and across the strike of the orebody shows that Bi and Sb form broader halos around sulphide masses and this suggests that they are pathfinder elements for the Pb and Zn elements of this orebody. The threshold concentrations (minimum anomaly) of the 10 elements were determined using the concentration-area analysis. On east-west vertical cross sections, the values of linear productivity, variability gradient and zonality index were calculated for each element. Based on the maximum zonality index of each element, the sequence of geochemical zonation pattern was determined from top to bottom of the orebody. The result shows that S, Pb, Zn and Cd tend to concentrate in the upper part of the mineralisation whereas Ag, Cu, Bi and As have a tendency to concentrate in the lower part of the mineralised rocks. Also, an empirical product ratio index was developed based on the position of the elements in the zonation sequence. The methods and results of this research are applicable to exploration of similar Zn and Pb sulphide ore deposits.

  17. Metamorphic evolution of aluminous granulites from Labwor Hills, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Michael; Neall, Fiona B.; Powell, Roger

    1987-02-01

    Sapphirine-cordierite-quartz and spinel-cordierite-quartz form relic assemblages of probable Archaean age in Fe-rich aluminous metapelites from Labwor Hills, Uganda, and reflect an unusually high temperature metamorphism (˜1,000° C) at pressures in the vicinity of 7 9 kbars and a(O2) near the magnetite-hematite buffer. Subsequent reaction textures include the replacement of spinel and cordierite by sillimanite and hypersthene and formation of sapphirine-hypersthene-K-feldspar-quartz symplectites which are interpreted as pseudomorphs after osumilite. A petrogenetic grid appropriate to these assemblages suggests these reaction textures may be due to cooling at constant or increasing pressure and constant a(O2), or decreasing a(O2) at constant temperature and pressure. The former interpretation is supported by the coexistence of ilmenohematite and magnetite during the development of the reaction textures, and by the comparatively low Al2O3-contents of secondary hypersthene. This pressure-temperature path implies that: (1) metamorphism occurred at deep levels within normal thickness crust, probably less than 40 45 km thick, due to an extreme thermal perturbation induced either by emplacement of mantle-derived magmas or by thinning of the subcontinental lithosphere in an extensional tectonic regime, (2) the excavation and surface exposure of the granulites is due to a subsequent, postgranulite facies metamorphism, crustal thickening most probably involving their incorporation into an allochthonous upper crustal thrust sheet during the formation of the Mozambique foldbelt.

  18. Status of avifauna at Taranga Hill-forest, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Taranga is one of the famous pilgrim places of northern Gujarat. It is located (240 00’N & 72046’E at starting point of Aravalli ranges. Climate of this area is semi-arid with irregular rainfall. Variable width line transect method was adapted to study the avifaunal diversity. Taranga Hill-forest has atleast 90 species of birds belonging to 11 orders, 33 families and 68 genera. Passeriformes being the largest family. All common residents appear to be adapted to the prevailing conditions. Red-vented Bulbul and Rock Pigeon were most abundant while Asian Paradise-flycatcher, Crested Bunting and European Roller were rare. White-naped Tit a globally threatened and endemic resident has been found as local migrant, scarce in number, common in occurrence and breeder in the tropical thorn-scrub habitat of THf. Plum-headed Parakeet may be a breeding possible species. In comparison to other places, the avian diversity is observed poor, because Aravallis are not on the migratory route or landing site of migratory birds. In addition, anthropogenic factors, presence of predators and loss of vegetation may be having a telling effect.

  19. SRTM Stereo Pair: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This stereoscopic view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model

  20. The West Beverly Hills Lineament and Beverly Hills High School: Ethical Issues in Geo-Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, Eldon; Gonzalez, Tania; Roe, Joe; Buchiarelli, Philip; Kenny, Miles

    2014-05-01

    Results of geotechnical studies for the Westside Subway were disclosed in a public hearing on Oct. 19, 2011, showing new "active faults" of the Santa Monica fault and the West Beverly Hills Lineament (WBHL), identified as a northern extension of the Newport-Inglewood fault. Presentations made spoke of the danger posed by these faults, the possibility of killing people, and how it was good news that these faults had been discovered now instead of later. The presentations were live and are now memorialized as YouTube videos, (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Omx2BTIpzAk and others). No faults had been physically exposed or observed by the study; the faults were all interpreted from cone penetrometer probes, supplemented by core borings and geophysical transects. Several of the WBHL faults traversed buildings of the Beverly Hills High School (BHHS), triggering the school district to geologically map and characterize these faults for future planning efforts, and to quantify risk to the students in the 1920's high school building. 5 exploratory trenches were excavated within the high school property, 12 cone penetrometers were pushed, and 26-cored borings were drilled. Geologic logging of the trenches and borings and interpretation of the CPT data failed to confirm the presence of the mapped WBHL faults, instead showing an unfaulted, 3° NE dipping sequence of mid-Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits conformably overlying an ~1 Ma marine sand. Using 14C, OSL, and soil pedology for stratigraphic dating, the BHHS site was cleared from fault rupture hazards and the WBHL was shown to be an erosional margin of Benedict Canyon, partially buttressed by 40-200 ka alluvial deposits from Benedict Wash. The consequence of the Westside Subway's active fault maps has been the unexpected expenditure of millions of dollars for emergency fault investigations at BHHS and several other private properties within a densely developed urban highrise environment. None of these studies have found

  1. Distance-based functional diversity measures and their decomposition: a framework based on Hill numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Huo; Chao, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Hill numbers (or the "effective number of species") are increasingly used to characterize species diversity of an assemblage. This work extends Hill numbers to incorporate species pairwise functional distances calculated from species traits. We derive a parametric class of functional Hill numbers, which quantify "the effective number of equally abundant and (functionally) equally distinct species" in an assemblage. We also propose a class of mean functional diversity (per species), which quantifies the effective sum of functional distances between a fixed species to all other species. The product of the functional Hill number and the mean functional diversity thus quantifies the (total) functional diversity, i.e., the effective total distance between species of the assemblage. The three measures (functional Hill numbers, mean functional diversity and total functional diversity) quantify different aspects of species trait space, and all are based on species abundance and species pairwise functional distances. When all species are equally distinct, our functional Hill numbers reduce to ordinary Hill numbers. When species abundances are not considered or species are equally abundant, our total functional diversity reduces to the sum of all pairwise distances between species of an assemblage. The functional Hill numbers and the mean functional diversity both satisfy a replication principle, implying the total functional diversity satisfies a quadratic replication principle. When there are multiple assemblages defined by the investigator, each of the three measures of the pooled assemblage (gamma) can be multiplicatively decomposed into alpha and beta components, and the two components are independent. The resulting beta component measures pure functional differentiation among assemblages and can be further transformed to obtain several classes of normalized functional similarity (or differentiation) measures, including N-assemblage functional generalizations of the

  2. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  3. The Quaternary Tectonic and Structural Evolution of the San Felipe Hills, California

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Stefan M.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the transition between extension and strike-s lip in the San Felipe Hills, western Salton Trough, southern California using new and compiled geologic mapping, measured stratigraphic sections, magnetostratigraphy, and structural analysis. A 625 m measured section describes the Borrego, Ocotillo , and Brawley formations in the SE San Felipe Hills and constrains a regional disconformity and correlative angular unconformity at ~ 1 Ma. Sedimentation rates for the Brawley Formation above...

  4. A simple spectral model for the modification of turbulence in flow over gentle hills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    A model is presented which calculates the changes of the velocity variances and stress in flow over gentle isolated hills. At intermediate frequencies spectra of the velocity components are modified according to rapid distortion theory. At low frequencies spectral densities change...... with measurements of turbulent flow over various hills and an escarpment. The model is able to simulate the structure of the modified variance and covariance fields although larger differences occur at individual positions. The calculated modified spectra compare well with observed spectra....

  5. Beatrice Hill virus Represents a Novel Species in the Genus Tibrovirus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Sequence of the Beatrice Hill virus genome 1 Beatrice Hill virus represents a novel species in the genus Tibrovirus (Mononegavirales: 1...rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has three official members assigned to two species : 23 Bivens Arm virus and Tibrogargan virus ( species Tibrogargan...tibrovirus) and Coastal Plains 24 virus ( species Coastal Plains tibrovirus). Here we report the complete genome sequence of a 25 new putative member of

  6. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  7. Lake Guiers, North Senegal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This is a study of the environmental conditions and primary phytoplankton production in a Sahelian shallow lake of Senegal, West Africa. Environmental descriptors (nutrient, water transparency, temperature and hydrochemistry) and their effects on primary production were studied. Samples were collected ...

  8. Bishoftu crater lakes, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bottles and completely filled and tightened with double-sealed caps. Samples from wells were collected using a Klyen Downhole Sampler. water samples from the lakes were collected using a water sampling apparatus designed to collect samples at different depths. Water samples for isotope analysis were collected from ...

  9. IN LAKE CHAMO, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and dieta protein and cellulose levels on the growth 0 Tilapia nilotica. Mem. I-"ac. ish, 36:7-15. 14. Yirgaw Teferi, Demeke Admassu and Seyoum Men ' tou -(2000). The food and feeding habit of Oreochromis niloticus L. Pisces: Cichlidae) in Lake. Chamo, Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiop. I. Sci. 23(1):1-12. Yirgaw Teferi, Demeke ...

  10. Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overriding the effect of nutrients in determining the lack of. M. aeruginosa ..... (b) Enclosure. Figure 7. The relative abundances of the most abundant phytoplankton species based on phytoplankton biomass estimations in the lake and the enclosures at the .... Cyclotella sp. showed that diatoms can exhibit a wide spectrum.

  11. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this

  12. Lake Mead--clear and vital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Stephen M.; Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lake Mead – Clear and Vital” is a 13 minute documentary relating the crucial role of science in maintaining high water quality in Lake Mead. The program was produced coincident with release of the Lakes Mead and Mohave Circular a USGS publication covering past and on-going research in the lakes and tributaries of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

  13. The Volume of Earth's Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cael, B. B.

    How much water do lakes on Earth hold? Global lake volume estimates are scarce, highly variable, and poorly documented. We develop a mechanistic null model for estimating global lake mean depth and volume based on a statistical topographic approach to Earth's surface. The volume-area scaling prediction is accurate and consistent within and across lake datasets spanning diverse regions. We applied these relationships to a global lake area census to estimate global lake volume and depth. The volume of Earth's lakes is 199,000 km3 (95% confidence interval 196,000-202,000 km3) . This volume is in the range of historical estimates (166,000-280,000 km3) , but the overall mean depth of 41.8 m (95% CI 41.2-42.4 m) is significantly lower than previous estimates (62 - 151 m). These results highlight and constrain the relative scarcity of lake waters in the hydrosphere and have implications for the role of lakes in global biogeochemical cycles. We also evaluate the size (area) distribution of lakes on Earth compared to expectations from percolation theory. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. 2388357.

  14. HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets {mu} Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.

  15. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  16. Management Plan for Protection and Monitoring of Lake Ladora, Lake Mary and Lower Derby Lake During RMA Remediation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan further defines the conditions that are required to be maintained in Lake Ladora, Lake Mary, and Lower Derby Lake to meet the requirements of...

  17. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Supplemental Limnological Studies at Richard B. Russell and Clarks Hill Lakes, 1983-1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    levanderi Hust. Coteochaete flits llarum Jost A. linearis f. curta H. L. Smith Cosmarium botrytis Meneg . A. linearis var. pusitla Grunow Micrasterias...Schumaker Cosmariwn botrytis Meneg . Stigeocloniwn subsecundwn Kuetz. C. regnesi var. montanum Schmidle Tetraedron trigonum (Nag.) Hansgi0 Crucigenia

  18. Entomofaunal diversity of tree hole mosquitoes in Western and Eastern Ghats hill ranges of Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamarai Selvan, P; Jebanesan, A; Reetha, D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of various mosquito vectors is important in the determination of disease prevalence in disease endemic areas. The aim of the present study was to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of tree hole mosquito species in Tamilnadu, India. In addition to this, the impact of weather-conditions on tree hole mosquito population were evaluated between June, 2014 and May, 2015. Six hills ranges viz., Anaimalai hills, Kodaikanal hills, Sitheri hills, Kolli hills, Yercaud hills, and Megamalai were selected, the immatures collected from tree holes by the help of suction tube. Collections were made at dusk and dawn at randomly selected 15 different tree species. The collected samples were stored and morphologically identified to species level in the laboratory. Mosquito diversity was calculated by Simpson's and Shannon-Weiner diversity indicies with spatial and temporal aspects. Over 2642 mosquitoes comprising the primary vectors of dengue, chickungunya, malaria, filariasis were identified. Other species collected from the fifteen sites in each hill during the study included Christophersiomyia annularis, Christophersiomyia thomsoni, Downsiomyia albolateralis, Downsiomyia nivea and Toxorhynchites splendens, etc. Study revealed high species diversity and relative density associated with different study sites. Based on the Shannon diversity index high number of species was recorded with Aedes pseudoalbopicta (0.0829) followed by Ae. aegypti (0.0805) and least species was recorded as Anopheles elegans (0.0059). The distribution of the primary vectors of DF along the high occurrence was evident with most study sites representing proportions of this vector population. This showed the high risk level associated with the livestock movement in amplification and circulation of the virus during the outbreaks. The findings of this study, therefore, demonstrated the potential vulnerability of nomadic communities to

  19. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2012-01-01

    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  20. Mapping of the total magnetic field in the area of Lake Balaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnovitz, Ferenc; Hegyi, Betti; Raveloson, Andrea; Rozman, Gábor; Lenkey, László; Kovács, Péter; Csontos, András; Heilig, Balázs; Horváth, Ferenc

    2017-04-01

    The Lake Balaton with 600 km2 area represents the largest lake in Central Europe and a blank spot on the magnetic anomaly map of Hungary. It is because the construction of the Hungarian magnetic anomaly map dates back to the 1960s and relied mainly on classical vertical-field balance surveys. To fill the gap, we initiated a systematic mapping using modern magnetometers and positioning system in the framework of a complex geophysical study of Lake Balaton (National Research Project 109255 K). The main goal of this study has been to identify subvolcanic bodies and tectonic structures below the lake and correlate them with well-known features mapped onshore in the vicinity of Balaton. During the magnetic survey an Overhauser field magnetometer (GEM System, GSM-19) was mounted on a plastic boat and towed behind a motorboat in a distance of 20 m with a speed of 6 to 16 km/h depending on weather conditions. Tests measurements showed that at this distance the magnetic noise generated by the motorboat was negligible. We measured total field values with a sampling interval of 1 to 2 s. As a result, the whole lake has been covered by magnetic profiles in an orthogonal grid with spacing of 1 km. During data interpretation we applied for correction of temporal variation of magnetic field registered in the Tihany Geophysical Observatory and normal field correction from a regional model. The final anomaly map in the western part of the lake shows anomalies with amplitudes of 20 to 60 nT and a half wavelength of 0.5 to 1 km. A larger feature was recognized related to the Badacsony Hill a major basaltic bute at the northern shore of the lake. In the middle part of the lake the total field is rather smooth, no significant anomaly has been revealed. However, slight disturbances can be noticed in the proximity of a neotectonic fault zone mapped by high resolution seismic data. In the eastern part of the lake few low amplitude (5-20 nT) anomalies have been observed that are associated

  1. The endemic mollusks reveal history of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia in NW Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Oleg; Kurečić, Tomislav; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the fossil mollusk record of the long-lived Pliocene Lake Slavonia settled in the southern Pannonian Basin. The samples originate from Vukomeričke gorice, a low hill-range situated north of the Kupa River in the area between the towns of Zagreb, Sisak and Karlovac in NW Croatia. Representing the SW margin of the Lake Slavonia the freshwater deposits alternate there with the alluvial series, providing altogether about 400-m-thick, Pliocene continental succession, known in literature by informal name Paludina beds (acc. to a junior synonym of Viviparus). The endemic fauna of the Lake Slavonia became particularly well-known in the late 19th century after Melchior Neumayr demonstrated that the gradual evolutionary change of the mollusk phenotypes toward more complex morphology represents a function of adaptation to environmental change in the paleolake. Even Charles Darwin commented that result as by far the best case which I have ever met with, showing the direct influence of the conditions of life on the organization. The deposition in the Lake Slavonia (~4.5 to ~1.8 Ma) coincides with the Pliocene Climate Optimum (PCO), but captures also the transition into the Pleistocene climate marked by the initial Ice Age pulse at 2.59 Ma. The increase of polar temperatures resulted during PCO in a significant melting of the ice caps leading to a global sea level rise tentatively getting up to 25 m higher than today. Coincidence of the climate and geodynamic settings in southeastern Europe provided conditions supporting extended settlement of lacustrine environments including Lake Slavonia, Lake Kosovo, Lake Transylvania and Lake Dacia, all characterized by explosive adaptive radiations of viviparid snails. In particular, the latter adaptive radiations resulted in the regional phylostratigraphy of Lake Slavonia Viviparus species enabling excellent stratigraphic control for the investigated deposits. Hence, based on this evidence, the

  2. Lake Urmia is disappearing

    OpenAIRE

    Khatami, Sina

    2015-01-01

    The present article is a translation—to Farsi—of an article by Dr. Ali Mirchi (postdoctoral research associate at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University), Dr. Kaveh Madani (lecturer in Environmental Management at the Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London) and Dr. Amir Aghakouchak (assistant professor at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine), entitled "Lake Urmia: how Ir...

  3. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages.

  4. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  5. Bear Lake-Minidoka - Phragmites Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake: Phragmites patches were sprayed on the refuge & north of the lake proper. Minidoka: patches along the Snake River & Lake Walcott were treated with...

  6. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  7. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  8. Computational tools for fitting the Hill equation to dose-response curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadagkar, Sudhindra R; Call, Gerald B

    2015-01-01

    Many biological response curves commonly assume a sigmoidal shape that can be approximated well by means of the 4-parameter nonlinear logistic equation, also called the Hill equation. However, estimation of the Hill equation parameters requires access to commercial software or the ability to write computer code. Here we present two user-friendly and freely available computer programs to fit the Hill equation - a Solver-based Microsoft Excel template and a stand-alone GUI-based "point and click" program, called HEPB. Both computer programs use the iterative method to estimate two of the Hill equation parameters (EC50 and the Hill slope), while constraining the values of the other two parameters (the minimum and maximum asymptotes of the response variable) to fit the Hill equation to the data. In addition, HEPB draws the prediction band at a user-defined confidence level, and determines the EC50 value for each of the limits of this band to give boundary values that help objectively delineate sensitive, normal and resistant responses to the drug being tested. Both programs were tested by analyzing twelve datasets that varied widely in data values, sample size and slope, and were found to yield estimates of the Hill equation parameters that were essentially identical to those provided by commercial software such as GraphPad Prism and nls, the statistical package in the programming language R. The Excel template provides a means to estimate the parameters of the Hill equation and plot the regression line in a familiar Microsoft Office environment. HEPB, in addition to providing the above results, also computes the prediction band for the data at a user-defined level of confidence, and determines objective cut-off values to distinguish among response types (sensitive, normal and resistant). Both programs are found to yield estimated values that are essentially the same as those from standard software such as GraphPad Prism and the R-based nls. Furthermore, HEPB also has

  9. Soil Health Management under Hill Agroecosystem of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of soil quality/health is the combined result of soil fertility, biological degradation (decline of organic matter, biomass C, decrease in activity and diversity of soil fauna, increase in erodibility, acidity, and salinity, and exposure of compact subsoil of poor physicochemical properties. Northeast India is characterized by high soil acidity/Al+3 toxicity, heavy soil, and carbon loss, severe water scarcity during most parts of year though it is known as high rainfall area. The extent of soil and nutrient transfer, causing environmental degradation in North eastern India, has been estimated to be about 601 million tones of soil, and 685.8, 99.8, 511.1, 22.6, 14.0, 57.1, and 43.0 thousand tones of N, P, K, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Excessive deforestation coupled with shifting cultivation practices have resulted in tremendous soil loss (200 t/ha/yr, poor soil physical health in this region. Studies on soil erodibility characteristics under various land use systems in Northeastern Hill (NEH Region depicted that shifting cultivation had the highest erosion ratio (12.46 and soil loss (30.2–170.2 t/ha/yr, followed by conventional agriculture system (10.42 and 5.10–68.20 t/ha/yr, resp.. The challenge before us is to maintain equilibrium between resources and their use to have a stable ecosystem. Agroforestry systems like agri-horti-silvi-pastoral system performed better over shifting cultivation in terms of improvement in soil organic carbon; SOC (44.8%, mean weight diameter; MWD (29.4%, dispersion ratio (52.9%, soil loss (99.3%, soil erosion ratio (45.9%, and in-situ soil moisture conservation (20.6% under the high rainfall, moderate to steep slopes, and shallow soil depth conditions. Multipurpose trees (MPTs also played an important role on soil rejuvenation. Michelia oblonga is reported to be a better choice as bioameliorant for these soils as continuous leaf litter and root exudates improved soil physical

  10. Landslide susceptibility estimations in the Gerecse hills (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid, Gerzsenyi; Gáspár, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Surface movement processes are constantly posing threat to property in populated and agricultural areas in the Gerecse hills (Hungary). The affected geological formations are mainly unconsolidated sediments. Pleistocene loess and alluvial terrace sediments are overwhelmingly present, but fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the latest Miocene, and consolidated Eocene and Mesozoic limestones and marls can also be found in the area. Landslides and other surface movement processes are being studied for a long time in the area, but a comprehensive GIS-based geostatistical analysis have not yet been made for the whole area. This was the reason for choosing the Gerecse as the focus area of the study. However, the base data of our study are freely accessible from online servers, so the used method can be applied to other regions in Hungary. Qualitative data was acquired from the landslide-inventory map of the Hungarian Surface Movement Survey and from the Geological Map of Hungary (1 : 100 000). Morphometric parameters derived from the SRMT-1 DEM were used as quantitative variables. Using these parameters the distribution of elevation, slope gradient, aspect and categorized geological features were computed, both for areas affected and not affected by slope movements. Then likelihood values were computed for each parameters by comparing their distribution in the two areas. With combining the likelihood values of the four parameters relative hazard values were computed for each cell. This method is known as the "empirical probability estimation" originally published by Chung (2005). The map created this way shows each cell's place in their ranking based on the relative hazard values as a percentage for the whole study area (787 km2). These values provide information about how similar is a certain area to the areas already affected by landslides based on the four predictor variables. This map can also serve as a base for more complex landslide vulnerability studies involving

  11. GPS measurements of deformation associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake: Evidence for conjugate faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert; Neugebauer, Helen; Strange, William

    1991-01-01

    Large station displacements observed from Imperial Valley Global Positioning System (GPS) campaigns are attributed to the November 24, 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Thirty sites from a 42 station GPS network established in 1986 were reoccupied during 1988 and/or 1990. Displacements at three sites within 3 kilometers of the surface rupture approach 0.5 m. Eight additional stations within 20 km of the seismic zone are displaced at least 10 cm. This is the first occurrence of a large earthquake (M(sub S) 6.6) within a preexisting GPS network. Best-fitting uniform slip models of rectangular dislocations in an elastic half-space indicate 130 + or - 8 cm right-lateral displacement along the northwest-trending Superstition Hills fault and 30 + or - 10 cm left-lateral displacement along the conjugate northeast-trending Elmore Ranch fault. The geodetic moments are 9.4 x 10(exp 25) dyne-cm and 2.3 x 10(exp 25) dyne-cm for the Superstition Hills and Elmore Ranch faults, respectively, consistent with teleseismic source parameters. The data also suggest the post seismic slip along the Superstition Hills fault is concentrated at shallow depths. Distributed slip solutions using Singular Value Decomposition indicate near uniform displacement along the Elmore Ranch fault and concentrated slip to the northwest and southeast along the Superstition Hills fault. A significant component of non-seismic displacement is observed across the Imperial Valley, which is attributed in part to interseismic plate-boundary deformation.

  12. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  13. Grand Canyon, Lake Powell, and Lake Mead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A snowfall in the American West provides contrast to the landscape's muted earth tones and indicates changes in topography and elevation across (clockwise from top left) Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. In Utah, the southern ranges of the Wasatch Mountains are covered in snow, and the Colorado River etches a dark ribbon across the red rock of the Colorado Plateau. In the center of the image is the reservoir created by the Glen Canyon Dam. To the east are the gray-colored slopes of Navaho Mountain, and to the southeast, dusted with snow is the region called Black Mesa. Southwest of Glen Canyon, the Colorado enters the Grand Canyon, which cuts westward through Arizona. At a deep bend in the river, the higher elevations of the Keibab Plateau have held onto snow. At the end of the Grand Canyon lies another large reservoir, Lake Mead, which is formed by the Hoover Dam. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. Lake Vostok: From a Continental Margin to a Subglacial Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studinger, M.; Bell, R. E.; KArner, G. D.; Tikku, A. A.; Levin, V.; Raymond, C. A.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2002-05-01

    Subglacial ecosystems, in particular subglacial lakes, represent the most oligothrophic environments on Earth. The geologic origin of Lake Vostok is a critical boundary condition for both the stability of the lake and energy fluxes into the lake. Microbial life may use geothermal energy, similar to life discovered at deep sea hydrothermal vents. Significant geothermal anomalies are often associated with active faulting. The topographic depression which forms the craddle for Lake Vostok is part of a regional tectonic structure ranging from the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains to the Aurora Subglacial Basin. This geologic boundary was formed by emplacement of a thrust sheet from the east over a pre-existing passive continental margin beneath the present-day Lake Vostok. No data exist to directly date either the timing of passive margin formation or the subsequent crustal shortening. Minor extensional reactivation of the thrust sheet explains a simple mechanism to explain the formation of the Lake Vostok basin. The steep slopes bounding this depression are likley being fault-controlled. Our recent discovery of microseismic activity suggest that this faults might be active and could act as conduits for convecting fluids. The tectonic processes can have an important influence on the ecosystem within the lake.

  15. Lake Evaporation: a Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amayreh, Jumah Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    Reliable evaporation data are an essential requirement in any water and/or energy budget studies. This includes operation and management of both urban and agricultural water resources. Evaporation from large, open water surfaces such as lakes and reservoirs may influence many agricultural and irrigation decisions. In this study evaporation from Bear Lake in the states of Idaho and Utah was measured using advanced research instruments (Bowen Ratio and Eddy Correlation). Actual over-lake evaporation and weather data measurements were used to understand the mechanism of evaporation in the lake, determine lake-related parameters (such as roughness lengths, heat storage, net radiation, etc.), and examine and evaluate existing lake evaporation methods. This enabled the development of a modified and flexible model incorporating the tested methods for hourly and daily best estimates of lake evaporation using nearby simple land-based weather data and, if available, remotely sensed data. Average evaporation from Bear Lake was about 2 mm/day during the summer season (March-October) of this two-year (1993-1994) study. This value reflects the large amount of energy consumed in heating the water body of the lake. Moreover, evaporation from the lake was not directly related to solar radiation. This observation was clear during night time when the evaporation continued with almost the same rate as daytime evaporation. This explains the vital role of heat storage in the lake as the main driving energy for evaporation during night time and day time cloudy sky conditions. When comparing over-lake and nearby land-based weather parameters, land-based wind speed was the only weather parameter that had a significant difference of about 50% lower than over-lake measurements. Other weather parameters were quite similar. The study showed that evaporation from the lake can be accurately estimated using Penman-type equations if related parameters such as net radiation, heat storage, and

  16. Performance of ASTER and SRTM DEMs, and their potential for assessing glacial lakes in the Lunana region, Bhutan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Koji; Suzuki, Ryohei; Nuimura, Takayuki; Sakai, Akiko

    To assess the potential volume of a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) more precisely than in previous studies, we analyze ground survey data and remote-sensing digital elevation models (DEMs) around glacial lakes in the Lunana region, Bhutan. Based on a DEM generated from differential GPS ground surveys, we first evaluate the relative accuracies of DEMs produced by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Root-mean-square errors of the altitudinal difference between these DEMs and ground survey data were 11.0 m for ASTER and 11.3 m for SRTM. These errors are similar to those of previous studies. We show that a topographical classification allows a better estimate of elevation on lakes/ponds, riverbeds and glaciers due to their flat surfaces, while the relative accuracy is worse over moraines and hill slopes due to their narrow ridges and steep slopes. Using the optical satellite images and the ground survey data, we re-evaluate the GLOF volume in 1994 as (17.2±5.3) × 106 m3. We show GLOF-related information such as distance, altitudinal difference and gradient at possible outburst points where the lake level is higher than the neighboring riverbed and/or glacial lake.

  17. U.S. strategic petroleum reserve Big Hill 114 leak analysis 2012.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent well integrity issues related to cavern 114 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. DM Petroleum Operations, M&O contractor for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, recognized an apparent leak in Big Hill cavern well 114A in late summer, 2012, and provided written notice to the State of Texas as required by law. DM has since isolated the leak in well A with a temporary plug, and is planning on remediating both 114 A- and B-wells with liners. In this report Sandia provides an analysis of the apparent leak that includes: (i) estimated leak volume, (ii) recommendation for operating pressure to maintain in the cavern between temporary and permanent fixes for the well integrity issues, and (iii) identification of other caverns or wells at Big Hill that should be monitored closely in light of the sequence of failures there in the last several years.

  18. How does the DNA sequence affect the Hill curve of transcriptional response?

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, M

    2011-01-01

    The Hill coefficient is often used as a direct measure of the cooperativity of binding processes. It is an essential tool for probing properties of reactions in many biological systems. Here we analyze existing experimental data and demonstrate that the Hill coefficient characterizing the binding of many transcription factors to their cognate sites can in fact be larger than one -- the standard indication of cooperativity -- even in the absence of any standard cooperative binding mechanism. By studying the problem analytically, we demonstrate that this effect occurs due to the disordered binding energy of the transcription factor to the DNA molecule and the steric interactions between the different copies of the transcription factor. We quantify the dependence of the strength of this effect on the different parameters in the problem. In addition, we show that the enhanced Hill coefficient implies a significant reduction in the number of copies of the transcription factors which is needed to occupy a cognate s...

  19. Shallow seismic imaging of folds above the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Shaw, John H.; Dolan, James F.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Williams, Robert A.; Odum, Jack K.; Plesch, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles image discrete folds in the shallow subsurface (Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system, Los Angeles basin, California. The profiles demonstrate late Quaternary activity at the fault tip, precisely locate the axial surfaces of folds within the upper 100 m, and constrain the geometry and kinematics of recent folding. The Santa Fe Springs segment of the Puente Hills fault zone shows an upward-narrowing kink band with an active anticlinal axial surface, consistent with fault-bend folding above an active thrust ramp. The Coyote Hills segment shows an active synclinal axial surface that coincides with the base of a 9-m-high scarp, consistent with tip-line folding or the presence of a backthrust. The seismic profiles pinpoint targets for future geologic work to constrain slip rates and ages of past events on this important fault system.

  20. Choosing the Gorkha- at the crossroads of class and ethnicity in the Darjeeling hills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Mona

    2013-01-01

    The Darjeeling hills in northern West Bengal, India are being demanded as a homeland for the Gorkha community living in India. While the origin of Darjeeling is steeped in the imperial legacy of the British Raj, the Gorkha, a colonial construct is ironically used as a means to challenge the conte......The Darjeeling hills in northern West Bengal, India are being demanded as a homeland for the Gorkha community living in India. While the origin of Darjeeling is steeped in the imperial legacy of the British Raj, the Gorkha, a colonial construct is ironically used as a means to challenge...... the contemporary political regression and neo-colonisation of Darjeeling. Although the Gorkha identity is deemed as representative of the Nepali community residing in India, it acquires special meaning and importance in the Darjeeling hills, where majority of the people suffer low wages, unemployment...

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Big Hill Salt Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.J.; Ortiz, T.S.; Magorian, T.R.

    1981-09-01

    Geological and geophysical analyses of the Big Hill Salt Dome were performed to determine the suitability of this site for use in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Development of 140 million barrels (MMB) of storage capacity in the Big Hill Salt Dome is planned as part of the SPR expansion to achieve 750 MMB of storage capacity. Objectives of the study were to: (1) Acquire, evaluate, and interpret existing data pertinent to geological characterization of the Big Hill Dome; (2) Characterize the surface and near-surface geology and hydrology; (3) Characterize the geology and hydrology of the overlying cap rock; (4) Define the geometry and geology of the dome; (5) Determine the feasibility of locating and constructing 14 10-MMB storage caverns in the south portion of the dome; and (6) Assess the effects of natural hazards on the SPR site. Recommendations are included. (DMC)

  2. Stochastic modeling and simulation of reaction-diffusion system with Hill function dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghan; Li, Fei; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Young

    2017-03-14

    Stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems presents great challenges for spatiotemporal biological modeling and simulation. One widely used framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems is reaction diffusion master equation (RDME). Previous studies have discovered that for the RDME, when discretization size approaches zero, reaction time for bimolecular reactions in high dimensional domains tends to infinity. In this paper, we demonstrate that in the 1D domain, highly nonlinear reaction dynamics given by Hill function may also have dramatic change when discretization size is smaller than a critical value. Moreover, we discuss methods to avoid this problem: smoothing over space, fixed length smoothing over space and a hybrid method. Our analysis reveals that the switch-like Hill dynamics reduces to a linear function of discretization size when the discretization size is small enough. The three proposed methods could correctly (under certain precision) simulate Hill function dynamics in the microscopic RDME system.

  3. PCB concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) are correlated to habitat use and lake characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guildford, S J; Muir, D C G; Houde, M; Evans, M S; Kidd, K A; Whittle, D M; Drouillard, K; Wang, X; Anderson, M R; Bronte, C R; Devault, D S; Haffner, D; Payne, J; Kling, H J

    2008-11-15

    This study considers the importance of lake trout habitat as a factor determining persistent organochlorine (OC) concentration. Lake trout is a stenothermal, cold water species and sensitive to hypoxia. Thus, factors such as lake depth, thermal stratification, and phosphorus enrichment may determine not only which lakes can support lake trout but may also influence among-lake variability in lake trout population characteristics including bioaccumulation of OCs. A survey of 23 lakes spanning much of the natural latitudinal distribution of lake trout provided a range of lake trout habitat to test the hypothesis that lake trout with greater access to littoral habitat for feeding will have lower concentrations of OCs than lake trout that are more restricted to pelagic habitat. Using the delta13C stable isotope signature in lake trout as an indicator of influence of benthic littoral feeding, we found a negative correlation between lipid-corrected delta13C and sigmaPCB concentrations supporting the hypothesis that increasing accessto littoral habitat results in lower OCs in lake trout. The prominence of mixotrophic phytoplankton in lakes with more contaminated lake trout indicated the pelagic microbial food web may exacerbate the biomagnification of OCs when lake trout are restricted to pelagic feeding. A model that predicted sigmaPCB in lake trout based on lake area and latitude (used as proximate variables for proportion of littoral versus pelagic habitat and accessibility to littoral habitat respectively) explained 73% of the variability in sigmaPCBs in lake trout in the 23 lakes surveyed.

  4. Special Issue on Lake Victoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JA Mwambungu, 21-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjs.v30i1.18384 ...

  5. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  6. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  7. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  8. GROUNDWATER FLOODING HAZARD IN HILL REGIONS: EXAMPLE OF THE KAPOS RIVER, SW-HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉNES LÓCZY

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the riverine floodplains of hill regions built of sand and loess, interactions between river channels and groundwater reservoirs result from the high permeability of the riverbed and the spatial heterogeneity of floodplain deposits and soils. The spatial and temporal development of inundation in narrow floodplains of hill regions (like the Kapos River floodplain takes a course in several respects different from that in broad lowlands. In the study areas of the Kapos floodplain topographic, remote sensing, soil distribution and groundwater surveys are jointly applied to assess the true extent of frequent inundation hazard.

  9. Review of Barrow Hill: Curse of the Ancient Circle PC Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological video games are few and far between. Internet Archaeology has reviewed a number of archaeologically-based computer applications, but none that in my opinion would fall under the video game category. Barrow Hill: Curse of the ancient circle from Shadow Tor Studios, is a video game…with archaeology in it. It would be a stretch to claim that Barrow Hill is actually an archaeological video game, but it does have an occasionally solid archaeological foundation and back story.

  10. First report of Eutropis innovate (Blanford, 1870 (Reptilia: Scincidae from Nallamalai Hills, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of Eutropis innotata (Blanford, 1870 based on a specimen collected in 2002 from Gundla Brahmeswaram Metta Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India. The habitat from where it was collected is relatively undisturbed patch of forest in the Nallamalai Hills of Eastern Ghats. This constitutes the range extension of this species from central India to Nallamalai Hills in Eastern Ghats in peninsular India. We provide details on its diagnosis, habits and habitat, and key to species belonging to the genus Eutropis Fitzinger, 1843.

  11. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... blasting operations for the placement of a water intake pipe in Lake Mead during the first 6 months of 2011...

  12. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... Pipe from Lake Mead throughout 2010. This safety zone is necessary to ensure non-authorized personnel...

  13. The Changing Colors of Maple Hills: Intersections of Culture, Race, Language, and Exceptionality in a Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This case describes Maple Hills Elementary, a K-8 school in a rural farming community of the Midwest. As a community, Maple Hills has historically experienced a narrow range of diversity across race, ethnicity, language, and religion. Residents have predominantly been White, with German and English heritage, speak English as a mother tongue, and…

  14. Why to climb if one can jump : a hill jumping algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, David; Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout

    2018-01-01

    The most common approaches to solve the variants of the well-known vehicle routing problem are based on metaheuristic hill-climbing search. The deficiency of these methods is slow local search based hill climbing that often is restricted to limited local neighborhood. In this paper we suggest a

  15. Women's Perceptions and Labeling of Sexual Harassment in Academia before and after the Hill-Thomas Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik-Herman, Mollie L.; Fisk, Alene

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the effects of the Hill-Thomas hearings on changing sexual-harassment perceptions of female college students. Sixty-two students evaluated a video depicting a sexual harassment incident and provided their perceptions. Compared to a study conducted before the Hill-Thomas hearings, results indicate that publicity about the hearings…

  16. Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; Jose F. Negron; William R. Jacobi

    2008-01-01

    Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants...

  17. 77 FR 15096 - Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Liberty Hill Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  19. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  20. 77 FR 36394 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ..., National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... launched from a floating platform located within the National Harbor Access Channel at Oxon Hill in Prince... River, National Harbor Access Channel, within a 150 yards radius of a fireworks discharge platform in...

  1. 77 FR 56115 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... launched from a floating platform located within the National Harbor Access Channel at Oxon Hill in Prince... Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, within a 150 yards radius of a fireworks discharge platform...

  2. Lake contamination models…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan C. Varekamp

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available "The time to reach steady state in a perfectly mixed reservoir can be derived from the time that it takes for the term exp[-t/R] go to ≈ zero, which occurs if t = 6R, when 99.75% of Cssp has been reached (600 months in the case of the model lake." J.C. Varekamp. 2003. Lake contamination models for evolution towards steady state. J. Limnol., 62(Suppl.1: 67-72. The above sentence deserves critical consideration on the grounds of physical and experimental arguments. In an elementary physical system where a capacitor (C farad is fed a constant electromotive force (volt with some resistance (R ohm, the electrical charge (q coulomb varies over time as q = qmax (1-e-t/RC. Using this equation, we can determine the time necessary for the charge to attain some arbitrary fraction of its final value, say 0.9 qmax or 0.999 qmax. This choice is somewhat arbitrary and we must constrain it based on physical considerations.

  3. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters. ...

  4. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Levels of nitrates (NOg-N) and phosphates (PO4~P) in some satellite lakes within the Lake. Victoria basin were determined in Kagera (Lake Burigt), in Mara (River Mara) and in Mwanza region (Lake Malimbe) during August/September 2002 (dry season) and January/February 2003. (wet season).

  5. 27 CFR 9.99 - Clear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Boundaries. The Clear Lake viticultural area is located in southwestern Lake County, California. The....S. maps. The maps are titled as follows: (1) “Lower Lake Quadrangle, California,” 15 minute series... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clear Lake. 9.99 Section 9...

  6. Increased piscivory by lake whitefish in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the diet of Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in Lake Huron during 2002–2011 to determine the importance of Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus and other fish as prey items. Lake Whitefish that had reached approximately 400 mm in length incorporated fish into their diets. The overall percentage of adult Lake Whitefish in Lake Huron that had eaten fish increased from 10% in 2002–2006 to 20% in 2007–2011, with a corresponding decrease in the frequency of Lake Whitefish that ate Dreissena spp. from 52% to 33%. During 2002–2006, Round Goby (wet mass, 38%), sculpins (Cottidae) (34%), and Ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius (18%) were the primary fish eaten, whereas Round Goby accounted for 92% of the fish eaten in 2007–2011. Overall, Round Goby were found in the fewest Lake Whitefish stomachs in the north region of Lake Huron (6%) and in the most in the central (23%) and south (19%) regions of the lake. In the central region, Round Goby were eaten during all seasons that were sampled (spring through fall). In the south region, Round Goby were eaten only in the winter and spring but not in the summer when Dreissena spp. and spiny water flea Bythotrephes longimanus dominated the diet. Based on the 2007–2011 diet composition, an individual Lake Whitefish would need to have increased their consumption relative to that in 1983–1994 by 6% in the north region, 12% in the central region, and 41% in the southern region in order to achieve the same growth that was observed before dreissenid mussels arrived. However, Lake Whitefish weight adjusted for length only increased by 2% between 2002–2006 and 2007–2011 in the central region, decreased by 4% in the northern region, and remained constant in the southern region. This suggests that a shift toward more frequent piscivory does not necessarily improve the condition of a generalist feeder like Lake Whitefish.

  7. Climatic and environmental controls on the occurrence and distributions of long chain alkenones in lakes of the interior United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, Jaime L.; Huang, Yongsong; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Baker, Paul A.; Grimm, Eric; Nyren, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Long chain alkenones (LCA) are temperature-sensitive lipids with great potential for quantitative reconstruction of past continental climate. We conducted the first survey for alkenone biomarkers from 55 different lakes in the Northern Great Plains and Nebraska Sand Hills of the United States. Among those surveyed, we found 13 lakes that contain LCAs in the surface sediments. The highest concentrations of alkenones in sediments are found in cold (mean annual air temperature ˜11 °C versus 17 °C in our warmest sites), brackish to mesosaline (salinity = 8.5-9.7 g/L), and alkaline (pH = 8.4-9.0) lakes with high concentrations of sodium and sulfate. The dynamics of stratification and nutrient availability also appear to play a role in LCA abundance, as early spring mixing promotes a bloom of alkenone-producing haptophytes. Four of the alkenone-containing sites contain the C 37:4 alkenone; however, we discovered an unprecedented lacustrine alkenone distribution in a cluster of lakes, with a total absence of C 37:4 alkenone. We attribute this unusual composition to a different haptophyte species and show that the sulfate:carbonate ratio may control the occurrence of these two distinct populations. We created a new in-situ temperature calibration for lacustrine sites that contain C 37:4 using a water-column calibration from Lake George, ND and show that U37K is linearly correlated to lake water temperature ( R2 = 0.74), but U37K' is not. A number of lakes contain an unidentified compound series that elutes close to the LCAs, highlighting the importance of routine GC-MS examination prior to using lacustrine LCAs for paleotemperature reconstructions.

  8. Tectonic constraints and hydrological functioning in several playa-lakes from southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Miguel; Moral, Francisco; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Pérez-Valera, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    formation of a lacustrine area above a regional Triassic substratum of marls and clays. Nowadays, the majority of the area is drained out for agricultural purposes. The morphology of the relief and the distribution of the fluvial network seem to indicate the existence of a hill with a pseudo-diapiric structure. Accordingly, the lacustrine area (Lantejuela wetlands) could be the filling of the peripheral basin formed in the southern part of the hill. The existence of recent diapiric processes would explain the modification of the fluvial network pattern and the formation of the lacustrine basin. A record of hydrological variables in one of the playas of Lantejuela wetlands, Calderon playa-lake, has confirmed us the previous hypothesis, which is that the surface watershed is the hydrological local flow system from which all the water inputs come from. The presence of a local aquifer placed at the bottom of the closed depression in Calderon basin, hydrologically disconnected from the regional detrital aquifer, has also been described by means of time series of water level and water temperature in selected wells dug into the regional aquifer, the playa-lake and a near-shore piezometer dug into the local aquifer. Several water balances at a monthly and daily scale in these playas also reinforces the hypothesis of disconnected local groundwater flow system as the main hydrological unit that explains its hydrological behaviour and that is in accordance with the tectonic origin of this ecosystems, often misinterpreted as karstic lakes.

  9. Rehabilitation of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.

  10. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  11. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  13. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand

    2017-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  14. 78 FR 11226 - Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... functions related to sales services for Comcast products, including video, telephone, and high-speed... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, CA; Notice of...

  15. Analysis of multitone holographic interference filters by use of a sparse Hill matrix method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, D.W.; George, N.

    2004-01-01

    A theory is presented for the application of Hill's matrix method to the calculation of the reflection and transmission spectra of multitone holographic interference filters in which the permittivity is modulated by a sum of repeating functions of arbitrary period. Such filters are important because

  16. 77 FR 2128 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption-- Laurel Hill...) all of the tract or parcel of land and rights-of- way referred to as the Bowest Yard lying and being...

  17. Optimization Review, Optimization Review, Sidney and Richardson Hill Road Landfills, Delaware County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sidney Landfill site is located on Richardson Hill Road approximately 10 miles southeast of Sidney, New York. In March 1989, the site was added to the National Priorities List (NPL) based on investigations completed by the New York State Department...

  18. Galileo's 'Jumping-Hill' Experiment in the Classroom--A Constructivist's Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Fritz

    2001-01-01

    Uses Galileo's 'jumping-hill' experiment as an historical element to improve science teaching in the classroom. Illustrates that the experiment can stimulate an animated discussion in the classroom, even if precise historic circumstances are not mentioned. The historical dimensions bring some color into the lesson, which increases attention. (SAH)

  19. A hill type model of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle that accounts for shortening history effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van der Linden, B.J.J.J.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a Hill type muscle model that accounts for the effects of shortening history. For this purpose, a function was derived that relates force depression to starting length, shortening amplitude and contraction velocity. History parameters were determined from

  20. Two additions to the flora of the Palni Hills, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soosairaj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hiptage parvifolia Wight & Arn. (Malpighiaceae and Kalanchoe olivacea Dalz. & Gibs. (Crassulaceae are collected and reported for the first time from the Palni hills of Western Ghats from Tamil Nadu, India. This paper provided a detailed taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and photographs for their easy identification.

  1. Survival and cause-specific mortality of Merriam's turkeys in the southern Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Lester D. Flake; Mark A. Rumble

    2007-01-01

    Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills feed in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest habitats during winter, but some birds centralize winter activities within or near farmsteads that provide waste grain as supplemental food. The objective of our research was to determine if female Merriam's...

  2. Fire history in interior ponderosa pine communities of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Brown; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1996-01-01

    Chronologies of fire events were reconstructed from crossdated fire-scarred ponderosa pine trees for four sites in the south-central Black Hills. Compared to other ponderosa pine forests in the southwest US or southern Rocky Mountains, these communities burned less frequently. For all sites combined, and using all fires detected, the mean fire interval (MFI), or number...

  3. 77 FR 9889 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced AGENCY: Forest...) has announced its meeting dates for 2012. These meetings are open to the public, and public comment is... meeting, limited to three (3) minutes per person for oral comments. Meeting dates are the third Wednesday...

  4. 75 FR 78209 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced AGENCY: Forest...) has announced its meeting dates for 2011. These meetings are open to the public, and public comment is... meeting, limited to three (3) minutes per person for oral comments. Meeting dates are the third Wednesday...

  5. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  6. Wildlife conservation in fragmented tropical forests: A case of South Garo Hills, Meghalaya, North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish. Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Rohitkumar. Patel

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents findings on, and implications for, wildlife conservation in the tropical forests in Garo Hills of Meghalaya state in the North East India. A companion volume presented the findings on forest fragmentation due to practice of slash and burn agriculture in the region. Both of the volumes summarize work completed over more than a decade on...

  7. Designing a protected area network for conservation planning in Jhum landscapes of Garo Hills, Meghalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kumar; Bruce Marcot; G. Talukdar

    2010-01-01

    We studied vegetation and land cover characteristics within the existing array of protected areas (PAs) in South Garo Hills of Meghalaya, northeast India and introduce the concept of protected area network (PAN) and methods to determine linkages of forests among existing PAs. We describe and analyze potential elements of a PAN, including PAs, reserved forests,...

  8. Grading and Academic Freedom: An English Academic's Angle on Hill's Contentious Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglear, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the dismissal of a Canadian professor over disputed grading practices, Hill produced his triangle model of competing interests of academics, administrators and students. In the UK, academic freedom in relation to grading is increasingly constrained reflecting more assertive institutional management supervising over-burdened academic…

  9. phosphorus forms in soils of oban hills, akamkpa, cross river state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    during soil development to assess temporal P distribution and dynamics. Possible changes in soil P forms in the course of pedogenesis have been predicted by some scientists (Lekwa and Whiteside 1986; Crews et aI, 1995; Beck and Elsenbeer, 1999). Much work to investigate P forms present in soils of Oban Hills have.

  10. A note on the Mandible of Aceratherium Acutirostratum (Deraniyagala) from Moruaret hill, Turkana district, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1968-01-01

    The genus and species Turkanatherium acutirostratus was proposed by Deraniyagala (1951) for a skull, without the mandible, collected by Dr. H. B. S. Cooke, a member of the Wendell-Phillips Expedition to Africa in 1948, at Moruaret Hill (or Moruorot) near Losodok (or Lothidok) in the Turkana

  11. Veld management in the proposed Valley of 1 000 Hills Nature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nature reserve has been planned for the southern edge of the Valley of 1 000 Hills in Natal. The animals which it is intended to re-introduce are discussed. A management system intended to maintain the present plant communities is suggested. The veld is to be divided into seven units, each of which will be burnt initially ...

  12. Lithofacies and the depositional history of the Tessey Formation, Frenchman Hills, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Mohammad; Wardlaw, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Tessey Formation in the Frenchman Hills, northwest Glass Mountains, represent deposition in a basinal setting. The formation consists of at least two shallowing-upward sequences of carbonate and evaporite deposition marked by two episodes of subaerial exposure, meteoric water dissolution, and collapse brecciation.

  13. Measuring sustainability based upon various perspectives: a case study of a hill station in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoque, Ronald C; Murayama, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    A hill station is a town or city situated in mountain regions in the tropics founded during the western colonization in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Hill stations have moderate temperatures, and are known for their relatively good natural environments, which generate valuable ecosystem services that benefit the local population. However, rapid urbanization threatens the sustainability of these areas. This study evaluates the sustainability of the urbanization process of Baguio City, a hill station city in Southeast Asia and the summer capital of the Philippines, by determining the relationship between its velocity of urbanization and velocity of urban sustainability based upon various perspectives. From an equal weight perspective (of the triple bottom line of sustainability components, namely environmental, social, and economic) and a pro-economic perspective, the results revealed that the urbanization of Baguio City has been moving toward a "sustainable urbanization." However, from the environmental and eco-sustainable human development perspectives, the results indicated that it has been moving toward an "unsustainable urbanization." The paper discusses the implications of the findings for the planning of sustainable development for Baguio City, including some critical challenges in sustainability assessment and the applicability of the framework used for future sustainability assessments of the other hill stations in Southeast Asia.

  14. Impacts of green space and tree cover on birth outcomes in Durham-Chapel Hill, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services affect human health through a variety of mechanisms. We investigated associations between green space and tree cover, and birth weight (BWT), pre-term birth (PTB), and low birth weight (LBW). Births in and around Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, between 1 January 2004 ...

  15. Connecting Green Space, Tree Cover, and Birth Outcomes in Durham-Chapel Hill, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green space provides many ecosystem services relevant to human health. We investigated associations between green space, tree cover, and near-road tree cover with birth weight (BWT), pre-term birth (PTB), and low birth weight (LBW). Births occurring around Durham-Chapel Hill, NC,...

  16. Evaluation of a habitat capability model for nongame birds in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd R. Mills; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake

    1996-01-01

    Habitat models, used to predict consequences of land management decisions on wildlife, can have considerable economic effect on management decisions. The Black Hills National Forest uses such a habitat capability model (HABCAP), but its accuracy is largely unknown. We tested this model’s predictive accuracy for nongame birds in 13 vegetative structural stages of...

  17. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI. 80.145 Section 80.145 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., RI. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the...

  18. Evaluation of a Hill based muscle model for the energy cost and efficiency of muscular contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Bobbert, M.F.; de Haan, A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a Hill-based mathematical model of muscle energetics and to disclose inconsistencies in existing experimental data. For this purpose, we simulated iso-velocity contractions of mouse fast twitch EDL and slow twitch SOL fibers, and we compared the outcome to

  19. Conflict and Livelihood Decisions in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Badiuzzaman (Muhammad); S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We analyse rural household livelihood and child school enrolment decisions in the post-conflict setting of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) region of Bangladesh. What makes this paper innovative is the use of current subjective perceptions regarding the

  20. Period Determination of Binary Asteroid Targets Observed at Hunters Hill Observatory: May-September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Oey, Julian; Pravec, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Lightcurves for seven confirmed or possible binary asteroids were obtained at the Hunters Hill Observatory (HHO) and Leura Observatory from 2009 May through 2010 September: 1453 Fennia, 2501 Lohja, 3076 Garbor, 4029 Bridges, 5325 Silver, 6244 Okamoto, and (6265) 1985 TW3.

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Usha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  2. Predicting mortality of ponderosa pine regeneration after prescribed fire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Battaglia; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2009-01-01

    Reduction of crown fire hazard in Pinus ponderosa forests in the Black Hills, SD, often focuses on the removal of overstorey trees to reduce crown bulk density. Dense ponderosa pine regeneration establishes several years after treatment and eventually increases crown fire risk if allowed to grow. Using prescribed fire to control this regeneration is...

  3. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and.../EIR for the proposed Riverside-Corona Feeder Project. The public and agencies are invited to comment..., and construction of the Riverside-Corona Feeder Project including: (i) 20 groundwater wells; (ii...

  4. Five-year results of a ponderosa pine provenance study in the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Van Deusen

    1974-01-01

    Survival and height growth data were collected after five field growing seasons from ponderosa pine progeny representing 75 provenances of natural stands in the Great Plains and Northern Rockies. Results showed that trees from no other provenance survived significantly better or grew significantly taller than trees from the Black Hills. Trees from southern Colorado,...

  5. Engaged Scholarship at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Campus Integration and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Lynn W.; Strauss, Ronald P.; Webb, Lucille

    2012-01-01

    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill undertook faculty development activities to increase awareness of community-engaged scholarship through campus dialogue and by assisting faculty members in acquiring skills for community-engaged scholarship. This article presents a case report describing activities and their impact. The activities…

  6. Watershed management in the Black Hills: The status of our knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard K. Orr

    1975-01-01

    Climate, geology, soils, vegetation, and water yields are briefly described, followed by a review and discussion of watershed management research and problems unique to the Black Hills. Research needs with respect to water quality, data collection, and model development are highlighted.

  7. Establishment of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden in vitro using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the current demand for timber from forest species, there is a need to develop new strategies for the mass propagation of eucalyptus. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of different doses of Standak Top® and CoMo Raiz® on the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden from seeds in vitro.

  8. Interpolation study on ambient gamma levels in parts of Khasi Hills ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studycomprises periodic measurements of prevailing ambient gamma levels across 320 georeference points, inrelation to the major litho units of Mahadek basin, covering 673 line km of Khasi Hills. Acquired sampledata points were then analysed in geostatistical software (Surfer^{TM}) to develop analytical model of ...

  9. Akanization of the Hill Guan Arts | Labi | Research Review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The original inhabitants of the Akuapem Hills were predominantly Guan. From the mid-eighteenth century, they experienced fundamental political changes which marked a transition from the rule of priest-chiefs to secular chiefs. This new political order introduced new art forms and regalia. The cultural contact which took ...

  10. Productivity and cost analysis of feller buncher at Sao Hill Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore designed to analyze the productivity and costs of using feller bunchers for timber harvesting at Sao Hill Forest Plantations. Productivity studies were performed during clear felling operations. Continuous time study technique using snap-back timing method was used for data collection on productive ...

  11. Outcomes of arthroscopic "Remplissage": capsulotenodesis of the engaging large Hill-Sachs lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Hill-Sachs lesion of the humeral head after a shoulder dislocation is clinically insignificant in most cases. However, a sizable defect will engage with the anterior rim of the glenoid and cause instability even after anterior glenoid reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of arthroscopic capsulotenodesis of the posterior capsule and infraspinatus tendon ("remplissage" to seal a large engaging Hill-Sachs lesion in an unstable shoulder. Methods This was a prospective follow-up study of patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for recurrent shoulder instability with a large engaging Hill-Sachs lesion from 2007 to 2009. The clinical results were measured preoperatively and postoperatively with the Simple Shoulder test (SST and the Rowe score for instability. Results Eleven patients met the inclusion criteria of this study. The mean follow-up time was 30 months (range 24 to 35 months. At the last follow-up, significant improvement was observed in both scores with no recurrent dislocations. The mean SST improved from 6.6 to 11 (p Conclusions Arthroscopic remplissage for shoulder instability is an effective soft tissue technique to seal a large engaging Hill-Sachs lesion with respect to recurrence rate, range of motion and shoulder function.

  12. The burden of secrecy? No effect on hill slant estimation and beanbag throwing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecher, D.; Van Mierlo, H.; Canal Bruland, R.; Zeelenberg, R.

    2015-01-01

    Slepian, Masicampo, Toosi, and Ambady (2012, Experiment 1) reported that participants who recalled a big secret estimated a hill as steeper than participants who recalled a small secret. This finding was interpreted as evidence that secrets are experienced as physical burdens. In 2 experiments, we

  13. Dot Hill's SANnet storage solutions excel at CERN's High Performance Networking Forum

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Dot Hill Systems Corp. demonstrated its latest storage technolgies at the 4th HPN Forum hosted by CERN. These will be used to support CERN's ongoing high-end computing and storage requirements and to provide a gateway that will enable the next-generation DataGRID project to get off the ground.

  14. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Seismic of Frame Structure on Hill Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Weisu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, Wenchuan,Ya’an,Yushu and other areas in china occur a series of high earthquake, however areas of earthquake is similar as mountainous terrain, building structure of seismic increasingly aroused our concern, and the research that hill topography affected building structure seismic in shallow mountain. The research content mainly includes: through modelling was built by the ANSYS software, the cooperative effects of a ten layer of frame structure- hill system were calculation. First, simple comparative dynamic characteristics analysis of soil - structure interaction and the rigid foundation assumption conditions; Second, put Hill-Soil-Structure Interaction(referred to as HSSI and Soil - Structure - Interaction(referred to as SSI further analysis of the dynamic response, including: including structural modal analysis (vibration mode, cycle, the time history analysis (such as displacement, internal force and acceleration and so on. Through Hill-Soil-Structure Interaction research, taking each factor in consideration, giving structure seismic key technology measures about shallow mountain to provide reference for such structure theory research.

  15. The influence of administrative leadership: an interview with Dr Karen S. Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Karen S; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    This department highlights nursing leaders who have demonstrated a commitment to patient care leadership and innovation in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Karen Hill, DNP, RN, NEA-BC, FACHE, FAAN, chief operating officer and chief nursing officer of Baptist Health in Lexington, Kentucky, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nursing Administration.

  16. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  17. Productivity and cost analysis of grapple skidder at Sao Hill Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore this study was conducted to analyze the productivity and cost of grapple skidder at Sao hill forest plantation. Time and motion studies were used for data collection. Time elements of grapple skidder operations that were recorded included: travel empty time, grappling time, travel loaded time and unloading time.

  18. Dot Hill reports third quarter 2001 results operating results continue to improve

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Dot Hill Systems Corp., a leading supplier of carrier-class data storage and storage area network solutions announced slighly improved financial results for the period ending Sept. 30, 2001. Of their products, SANnet Axis and the SANnet 7100 Fibre Channel storage system were selected as the essential storage components for the GRID demonstration at the High Performance Networking Forum Conference at CERN.

  19. Some fossil Clypeastrids (Echinoidea) from Brimstone Hill (St. Kitts) and Sugar Loaf (St. Eustatius), Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, H.

    1961-01-01

    In March 1958 Dr. J. H. WESTERMANN and Mr. H. KIEL collected some fossil Echinids on the islands of St. Kitts and St. Eustatius. The fossils of St. Kitts were found in a yellow limestone (sample nr. 42), situated on the west flank of Brimstone Hill, belonging to a series of peculiar-looking upturned

  20. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  1. Annual narrative report 1995: Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The...

  2. Optical remote sensing of lakes: an overview on Lake Maggiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giardino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Optical satellite remote sensing represents an opportunity to integrate traditional methods for assessing water quality of lakes: strengths of remote sensing methods are the good spatial and temporal coverage, the possibility to monitor many lakes simultaneously and the reduced costs. In this work we present an overview of optical remote sensing techniques applied to lake water monitoring. Then, examples of applications focused on lake Maggiore, the second largest lake in Italy are discussed by presenting the temporal trend of chlorophyll-a (chl-a, suspended particulate matter (SPM, coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM and the z90 signal depth (the latter indicating the water depth from which 90% of the reflected light comes from as estimated from the images acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS in the pelagic area of the lake from 2003 to 2011. Concerning the chl-a trend, the results are in agreement with the concentration values measured during field surveys, confirming the good status of lake Maggiore, although occasional events of water deterioration were observed (e.g., an average increase of chl-a concentration, with a decrease of transparency, as a consequence of an anomalous phytoplankton occurred in summer 2011. A series of MERIS-derived maps (summer period 2011 of the z90 signal are also analysed in order to show the spatial variability of lake waters, which on average were clearer in the central pelagic zones. We expect that the recently launched (e.g., Landsat-8 and the future satellite missions (e.g., Sentinel-3 carrying sensors with improved spectral and spatial resolution are going to lead to a larger use of remote sensing for the assessment and monitoring of water quality parameters, by also allowing further applications (e.g., classification of phytoplankton functional types to be developed.

  3. Does the Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure Effectively Correct "Off-Track" Hill-Sachs Lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Johannes E; Henderson, Daniel J H; Coquay, Julien; Dück, Klaus; Haeni, David; Lafosse, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    The glenoid track concept describes the dynamic interaction of bipolar bone loss in anterior glenohumeral instability. Initial studies have successfully demonstrated this concept's application in clinical populations. In clinical practice, the Latarjet procedure is commonly the preferred treatment in addressing "off-track" Hill-Sachs lesions. The effectiveness of this procedure in restoring such lesions to an "on-track" state, however, has not yet been evaluated or described in the literature. The Latarjet procedure would transform "off-track" Hill-Sachs lesions to "on-track" lesions. Lesions would remain "on-track" during follow-up, despite glenoid remodeling. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients with "off-track" Hill-Sachs lesions treated with the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure between March 2013 and May 2014 were included. Glenoid track and coracoid graft contact surface area measurements using 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) were performed preoperatively and at 6-week, 6-month, and at least 12-month (final) follow-up. The mean final follow-up was 23 months. The glenoid diameter, as a percentage of the native glenoid, was also calculated from this imaging. Twenty-six patients met the inclusion criteria. 3D-CT scans were available for all patients preoperatively and postoperatively, with 21 patients (81%) undergoing 6-month follow-up CT and 19 patients (73%) undergoing final follow-up CT. Hill-Sachs lesions remained "on-track" at all follow-up time points. The mean glenoid diameter changed significantly from 84.6% preoperatively to 122.8% at 6 weeks ( P Latarjet procedure provides an effective treatment for "off-track" engaging Hill-Sachs lesions, despite an evident glenoid remodeling process. At a mean of 23 months postoperatively, a mean persisting enlargement of the glenoid arc of 14% beyond native dimensions remained, avoiding a recurrent "off-track" lesion in 32% of patients, which would otherwise have occurred with complete remodeling.

  4. Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Kirana Hills Region, Rabwah, District Chiniot, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Naseer Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to assess the groundwater quality of the area adjacent to Precambrian Kirana Hills, Pakistan. The majority of the people in the area use groundwater from private wells for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to provide an overview of the groundwater quality. This information would be beneficial to local people and the administration for selecting suitable water treatment methods. Samples were collected from different wells of Rabwah town, close to the Kirana Hills. Parameters like EC, pH, alkalinity and total dissolved solids (TDS were determined for 142 samples. While 40 samples were analyzed for hardness, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, NO3, and F. standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO were considered to evaluate the quality of groundwater. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to interpolate analyzed physicochemical parameters. The results showed that EC, TDS, hardness, Cl, SO4, and Ca were very high in the water samples of the area. Fifty-two percent of samples had pH values lower than the permissible limits. Results suggest that the water quality is extremely adverse close to the hills. The poor water quality in the area near the hills may be due to the limited recharge of aquifers because of the hills and shallow basement, which may act as a barrier to subsurface water movement. Some physical and chemical parameters indicated that the quality of water at deeper levels (i.e. >150 ft is relatively better. This may be due to limited exploitation of water from deeper aquifers as compared to shallow aquifers. Hence, proper aquifer management is required to prevent water quality deterioration due to over exploiataion. NO3 was found within the acceptable limits and all water samples were found free of any significant contamination by human activities.

  5. Eocene age of the Baranowski Glacier Group at Red Hill, King George Island, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozer Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1 from about 51–50 Ma; and (2 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.

  6. Slope processes in weathered volcaniclastic deposits within the city of Naples: The Camaldoli Hill case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, D.; Coppin, D.; de Vita, S.; Di Vito, M. A.; Orsi, G.; Palma, B.; Parise, M.

    2007-06-01

    We describe the slope processes acting on Camaldoli Hill, the main volcanic feature of the Neapolitan area whose geological evolution and setting have been reconstructed. The backbone of the hill includes the remnants of two partially superposed tuff cones, lying between the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT). This sequence is mantled by pyroclastic, anthropogenic and epiclastic deposits, with abrupt thickness and facies variations. The structural setting of the hill mainly results from several phases of reactivation of the CI caldera faults which were active until about 9.5 ka. Deformation younger than 15 ka is evidenced by landslide deposits, caused by slope instability from volcano-tectonism, and by a high-angle erosional unconformity, formed in response to a base-level lowering. A stratigraphic analysis of the reworked deposits at the foot of the slopes allowed us to define both depositional mechanisms and sedimentation rates. The results of combined volcanological, geomorphological and engineering-geological studies permitted us to constrain and quantify past geological processes and hypothesis about the future evolution of the hill. Present-day slope processes on Camaldoli Hill are largely controlled by the presence of weathered and reworked deposits, whose nature and thickness have been analysed and mapped in detail. Four main kinds of slope processes have been recognized: falls and toppling failures from NYT; small-scale slides in the weathered and pedogenized loose cover; mixed events, represented by slides evolving to hyperconcentrated flows, mud flows and debris flows; and areal and linear erosion. Consequently, a high number of mass movements not previously documented have been mapped. At the same time, an insight into the sedimentation rate due to the overall slope processes, covering a time-span of about 5 ka, was given. Some final considerations regarding landslide hazard are presented in the context of the most suitable

  7. The Lawn Hill annulus: An Ordovician meteorite impact into water-saturated dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Vicki; Blenkinsop, Tom; Dirks, Paul; Salisbury, Jess; Tomkins, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The Lawn Hill Impact Structure (LHIS) is located 250 km N of Mt Isa in NW Queensland, Australia, and is marked by a highly deformed dolomite annulus with an outer diameter of 18 km, overlying low metamorphic grade siltstone, sandstone, and shale, along the NE margin of the Georgina Basin. This study provides detailed field observations from sections of the Lawn Hill annulus and adjacent areas that demonstrate a clear link between the deformation of the dolomite and the Lawn Hill impact. 40Ar-39Ar dating of impact-related melt particles provides a time of impact in the Ordovician (472 ± 8 Ma) when the Georgina Basin was an active depocenter. The timing and stratigraphic thickness of the dolomite sequence in the annulus suggest that there was possibly up to 300 m of additional sedimentary rocks on top of the currently exposed Thorntonia Limestone at the time of impact. The exposed annulus is remarkably well preserved, with preservation attributed to postimpact sedimentation. The LHIS has an atypical crater morphology with no central uplift. The heterogeneous target materials at Lawn Hill were probably low-strength, porous, and water-saturated, with all three properties affecting the crater morphology. The water-saturated nature of the carbonate unit at the time of impact is thought to have influenced the highly brecciated nature of the annulus, and restricted melt production. The impact timing raises the possibility that the Lawn Hill structure may be a member of a group of impacts resulting from an asteroid breakup that occurred in the mid-Ordovician (470 ± 6 Ma).

  8. Three-dimensional computed tomography measurement accuracy of varying Hill-Sachs lesion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anthony; Kurdziel, Michael D; Koueiter, Denise M; Wiater, J Michael

    2018-02-01

    The glenoid track concept has been proposed to correlate shoulder stability with bone loss. Accurate assessment of Hill-Sachs lesion size preoperatively may affect surgical planning and postoperative outcomes; however, no measurement method has been universally accepted. This study aimed to assess the accuracy and reliability of measuring Hill-Sachs lesion sizes using 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). Nine polyurethane humerus bone substitutes were used to create Hill-Sachs lesions of varying sizes with a combination of lesion depth (shallow, intermediate, and deep) and width (small, medium, and large). Specimens were scanned with a clinical CT scanner for size measurements and a micro-CT scanner for measurement of true lesion size. Six evaluators repeated measurements twice in a 2-week interval. Scans were measured by use of 3D CT reconstructions for length, width, and Hill-Sachs interval and with use of 2D CT for depth. The interclass correlation coefficient evaluated interobserver and intraobserver variability and percentage error, and Student t-tests assessed measurement accuracy. Interclass correlation coefficient reliability demonstrated strong agreement for all variables measured (0.856-0.975). Percentage error between measured length and measured depth and the true measurement significantly varied with respect to both lesion depth (P = .003 and P = .005, respectively) and lesion size (P = .049 and P = .004, respectively). The 3D CT imaging is effective and reproducible in determining lesion size. Determination of Hill-Sachs interval width is also reliable when it is applied to the glenoid track concept. Measured values on 3D and 2-dimensional imaging using a conventional CT scanner may slightly underestimate true measurements. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Restoration in northern Lake Gehu, a eutrophic lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Wenchao; Pan, Jizheng; Ma, Shuzhan; Chen, Bingfa; He, Shangwei

    2017-11-01

    Lake Gehu is a severely eutrophic lake in southeast China. A series of restoration measures have been implemented since 2009 in northern Lake Gehu. This study compared aquatic plants, water quality, sediment, and phytoplankton between restoration and control areas to investigate the effect of restoration measures. The results demonstrated that aquatic macrophyte coverage increased from 0% to 10.6%; mean TP, TN, and CODMn concentrations increased by 50.0%, 42.4%, and 40.8%, respectively, compared with those before the measures were carried out; the mean Secchi depth (SD) increased to 42.5 cm, which is 1.4 times higher than that before restoration; the mean euphotic depth (Zeu) in the summer increased from 91 to 130 cm; the mean chl a concentration decreased from 34.8 to 20.2 μg/L, compared with that before restoration; the Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton increased by 28.7%. The mean TP and TN concentrations in sediments decreased by 63.8% and 52.4%, respectively, compared with that before dredging. These results indicate that the restoration in northern Lake Gehu was effective. To complete the transformation from an algae- to a macrophyte-stable state within the region, further measures must be adopted. This restoration of a eutrophic lake can serve as a reference for similar eutrophic lakes.

  10. A new fossil cichlid from the Middle Miocene in the East African Rift Valley (Tugen Hills, Central Kenya: First record of a putative Ectodini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Altner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of fossil cichlids is difficult, because the currently used diagnostic morphological characters for living cichlids are mostly soft tissue based and such characters are hardly preserved in fossils. During our recent fieldwork in the Central Kenya Rift (E-Africa, we discovered several exceptionally well-preserved fossil cichlids, which can be assigned to different lineages among the African Pseudocrenilabrinae. Here we present one of those new specimens. Its most conspicuous character is a lateral line divided into three segments. This specimen was found in the lacustrine sediments of the Middle Miocene site Waril, Tugen Hills, Kenya. The site represents the deposits of an ancient freshwater lake ca. 9-10 million years ago. Previous work on fossil leaves from the same site allow for the reconstruction of open vegetation surrounding the lake and pronounced dry seasons. Among the main further characteristics of the new fossil cichlid is a lachrimal with six lateral line canals, big cycloid scales and a low number of dorsal fin spines (XIII. The latter two characters are traceable in several members of tribes within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. However, a lachrimal with six lateral line canals is exclusively found in certain tribes of the EAR (East African Radiation within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. Moreover, the unique lateral line pattern is solely present in two genera of the EAR tribe Ectodini. However, the fossil shows cycloid scales, while modern Ectodini have ctenoid scales. Taken all evidence together, this fossil may perhaps represent an ancient lineage related to the Ectodini. Up to date, there is no definite fossil record of the members of the EAR. Our fossil may represent the first reliable calibration point for this group, which would be consistent with the previously reconstructed diversification time of the H-lineage (EAR tribes, except Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini, Trematocarini and Lamprologini and the Lamprologini ca

  11. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  12. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the Lake...

  13. Big Lake Dam Inspection Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes an inspection of the Big Lake Dam that was done in September of 1983. The inspection did not reveal any conditions that constitute and...

  14. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  15. Projecting the future levels of Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Inne; van Lipzig, Nicole; Thiery, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Lake Victoria directly sustains 30 million people living in its basin and 200 000 fishermen operating from its shores. As the one of the two sources of the Nile River, it also supports natural resources that impact the livelihood of over 300 million people living in the Nile basin. The outlet to the Nile is controlled by two hydropower dams. The water balance of Lake Victoria is controlled both by climatic conditions (precipitation and evaporation) and human management (dam outflow). Future climate simulations with a high resolution coupled lake-land-atmosphere model project decreasing mean precipitation and increasing evaporation over Lake Victoria. As these two are important factors in the water balance of Lake Victoria, these projected changes may induce a drop in future levels of Lake Victoria. Moreover, as Lake Victoria is also a relatively shallow lake, lake surface area may decrease as well. Here we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria that provides lake level and extent as output. We first force our model with observational input (new satellite products providing high quality precipitation and evaporation data) and evaluate it using measured lake levels. The skill of the model is subsequently assessed by forcing it with present-day regional climate simulations (CORDEX evaluation simulations). In a third step the future lake levels and surface area changes of Lake Victoria are simulated by forcing the model with CORDEX projections under RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally, the role of human decisions regarding future dam outflow are investigated.

  16. Low-velocity zone and topography as a source of site amplification effect on Tarzana hill, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graizer, V.

    2009-01-01

    Tarzana station is located in the foothills of the Santa Monica Mountains in California near the crest of a low (site class D. Strong-motion instrumentation at Tarzana consisted of an accelerograph at the top of the hill, a downhole instrument at 60 m depth, and an accelerograph at the base of the hill. More than 20 earthquakes were recorded by at least three instruments at Tarzana from 1998 till 2003. Comparisons of recordings and Fourier spectra indicate strong directional resonance in a direction perpendicular to the strike of the hill. The dominant peaks in ground motion amplification on the top of the hill relative to the base are at frequencies ???3.6 and 8-9 Hz for the horizontal components. Our hypothesis is that the hill acts like a wave trap. This results in an amplification at predominant frequencies f=V/4 h (h is layer's thickness) at f???3.6 Hz for S-waves (using average VS17=246 m/s and h=17 m) and f???7.9 Hz for P-waves (using average VP17=535 m/s and h=17 m). As was shown by Bouchon and Barker [Seismic response of a hill: the example of Tarzana, California. Bull Seism Soc Am 1996;86(1A):66-72], topography of this hill amplifies and polarizes ground motion in the frequency range of 3-5 Hz. Hill acts as a magnifying polarizing glass: It polarizes ground motion in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the hill and also amplifies ground motions that had been also amplified by a low-velocity layer.

  17. Novedades del género Pilosella Hill (Compositae en los montes astur-leoneses, IV (Novelties on the genus Pilosellla Hill (Compositae in the Cantabrian mountains, IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín del Egido Mazuelas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se comunica la presencia de diversas especies nuevas del género Pilosella (Compositae para las montañas del norte de la provincia de León y zonas colindantes de Asturias, de las que tres las proponemos como nuevos táxones intermedios. SUMMARY: Novelties on the genus Pilosellla Hill (Compositae in the Cantabrian mountains, IV. Several species of Pilosella (Compositae found in the provinces of León and Asturias (NW Spain are here commented or described as new.

  18. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  19. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  20. Impact of synthetic abyssal hill roughness on resolved motions in numerical global ocean tide models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Patrick G.; Arbic, Brian K.; Goff, John A.; Ansong, Joseph K.; Smith, Walter H. F.; Melet, Angélique; Wallcraft, Alan J.

    2017-04-01

    Global models of seafloor topography have incomplete and inconsistent resolution at horizontal wavelengths less than about 10-20 km, notably due to their inability to resolve abyssal hills in areas unsurveyed by ships (that is, about 90% of the global seafloor). We investigated the impact of this unresolved bottom roughness on global numerical simulations of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) that are forced exclusively by the M2 and K1 internal tides. Simulations were run with horizontal resolutions of 0.08° and 0.04°, 10 isopycnal layers in the vertical direction, and two versions of bathymetry: one derived from the SRTM30_PLUS global bathymetry model, and one merging SRTM30_PLUS with a synthetic fractal surface simulating the expected roughness of abyssal hills in the 2-10 km horizontal wavelength band. Power spectra of the two bathymetry versions diverge at wavenumbers of order 4*10-4 radians/m and higher (wavelengths of order 15 km and lower), with more pronounced differences evident on the 0.04° grid, as the 0.08° grid has a more limited ability to capture bathymetric details at the abyssal hill scale. Our simulations show an increase in the amount of kinetic and potential energy in higher vertical modes, especially in the 0.04° simulation, when the synthetic roughness is added. Adding abyssal hills to the 0.04° simulation increases the M2 kinetic energy for modes 3 and 4 by 12-18% and the potential energy by 5 - 15%. Adding abyssal hills to the 0.08° simulation yields a reduced, though still measurable, impact on simulated baroclinic tidal energies. Baroclinic tidal energy conversion rates increase by up to 16% in regions of high roughness, and by up to 3.4% in the global integral. The 3.4% increase in global conversion rates in the numerical simulations is less than the 10% increase computed from a linear analysis on a 0.008° grid because of the resolution limitations of the numerical simulations. The results obtained in the present study

  1. A census of colonially breeding waterbirds on Lake Louise and Skilak Lake, Alaska, 21-22 July 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents a census of colonial waterbird sites at Lake Louise and Slikak lake on 21 and 22 July 1981 respectively. Both Lake Louise and Skilak Lake are...

  2. Numerical simulations of Lake Vostok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchitser, E.; Tremblay, B.

    2003-04-01

    Numerical simulations of Lake Vostok We present a systematic approach towards a realistic hydrodynamic model of lake Vostok. The lake is characterized by the unusual combination of size (permitting significant geostrophic motion) and an overlying ice sheet several kilometers thick. A priori estimates of the circulation in the deep lake predict a mostly geostrophic circulation driven by horizontal temperature gradients produced by the pressure-dependent freezing point at the base of the (non-uniform) ice sheet. Further preliminary (remote) research has revealed the steep topography and the elliptical geometry of the lake. A three dimensional, primitive equation, free surface, model is used as a starting point for the Lake configuration. We show how the surface pressure gradient forces are modified to permit a simulation that includes the hydrostatic effects of the overlying ice sheet. A thermodynamic ice model is coupled with the circulation component to simulate the ice accretion/melting at the base of the ice sheet. A stretching of the terrain following vertical coordinate is used to resolve the boundary layer in the ice/water interface. Furthermore, the terrain-following coordinate evolves in time, and is used to track the evolution of the ice sheet due to ice accretion/melting. Both idealized and realistic ice sheet bottom topographies (from remote radar data) are used to drive the simulations. Steady state and time evolving simulations (i.e., constant and evolving ice sheet geometry) will be descirbed, as well as a comparison to an idealized box model (Tremblay, Clarke, and Hohman). The coastline and lake bathymetry used in the simulation are derived from radar data and are accurately represented in our model.

  3. Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    If you live in Europe and buy roses, there is a good chance that they were grown in Kenya specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Some 25% of Europe's cut flowers come from Kenya. After a tentative start in the 1980s the industry is now the country's third-largest foreign-currency earner, bringing in $120m a year. But the recent violence in Kenya is having a major impact on the flower growers. A local trade union says 3,000 of the 30,000 workers employed in Naivasha's flower farms have abandoned their jobs. Kenya emerged as a flower power when Israel scaled down its own industry. It has since lost business to neighboring Ethiopia, which offers tax breaks and better security, but Naivasha's perfect intensity of sunlight and days of near-constant length should keep it on top. The ASTER image was acquired February 2, 2008, covers an area of 25 x 26.6 km, and is located near 0.8 degrees south latitude, 36.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Geochemical data for environmental studies of mineral deposits at Nabesna, Kennecott, Orange Hill, Bond Creek, Bremner, and Gold Hill, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Ballestrazze, Vanessa; Aldir, Jose; Brown, Z.A.; Crock, J.G.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Doughten, M.W.; Fey, D.L.; Hageman, P.L.; Hopkins, R.T.; Knight, R.J.; Malcolm, M.J.; McHugh, J.B.; Meier, A.L.; Motooka, J.M.; O'Leary, R. M.; Roushey, B.H.; Sultley, S.J.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Wilson, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental geochemical investigations were carried out between 1994 and 1997 in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska. Mineralized areas studied include the historic Nabesna gold mine/mill and surrounding areas; the historic Kennecott copper mill area and nearby Bonanza, Erie, Glacier, and Jumbo mines; the historic mill and gold mines in the Bremner district; the active gold placer mines at Gold Hill; and the unmined copper-molybdenum deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of possible environmental hazards associated with these mineralized areas and to establish background and baseline levels for selected elements. Thus, concentrations of a large suite of trace elements were determined to assess metal loadings in the various sample media collected. This report presents the methodology, analytical results, and sample descriptions for water, leachate, sediment, heavy-mineral concentrate, rock, and vegetation (willow) samples collected during these geochemical investigations. An interpretive U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper incorporating these geochemical data will follow.

  5. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  6. THE MEANING OF RELATIONSHIP IN HEMINGWAY’S “HILLS LIKE WHITE ELEPHANT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanty Susanty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to postulate the position of women described well by Hemingway as a girl called Jig in “Hills like White Elephants” as a marginal part of a patriarchal society. Difficulty is found in describing the exact nature of a man-woman relationship in Hemingway as the woman characters are so thinly portrayed. “Hills like White Elephants” suggests a relationship between the meaning of white elephants and the man’s attitude toward the unborn child. The relationship presents the representation of boredom, desperateness of life, the sense of lost happiness, and the awareness of the failure of love. The story also can be defined into a two-part theme. The first is a commentary about the way selfishness can corrupt a relationship. The second comments on life and what it means to bear life. Keywords: attitude, character, Hemingway, relationship, women

  7. Around the Bend: The Curious Power of the Hills around Queenstown, Tasmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bullock

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article traces a concern with excess and waste, landscape and identity in a town on the western periphery of Tasmania.  Queenstown’s bald hills have been a popular tourist drawcard since the turn of the century, sold in travel guides and brochures as a spectacular ‘moonscape’. A combination of a severe bushfire in 1896 and the emission of sulphurous gases from the pyritic smelting process at the Mt Lyell Copper Mine have resulted in Queenstown’s weird denuded landscape. But the locals have grown attached to the hills and want to preserve their baldness.  Here, the impulse to preserve a grotesque landscape registers a culture surviving on desecration to stave off its own disappearance.

  8. Repair and maintenance costs of hill-farm tractors and transporters for upland mechanisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lips

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The annual repair and maintenance costs of two types of motorised agricultural machines for upland agriculture, hill-farm tractors (twoaxle mowers and transporters, are estimated on the basis of crosssectional data. An aggregation leads to the accumulated repair and maintenance costs for the entire service life of the machines, expressed as a repair and maintenance factor (RMF. Given the strong influence of annual utilisation, a high annual utilisation combined with a short length of service leads to lower accumulated costs. While the RMFs of hill-farm tractors and transporters are similar, they are higher than those of standard 4-wheel drive tractors analysed in a similar study. This effect is especially relevant for low annual utilisation, as is the case for both machine types under current operating conditions in Switzerland. Accordingly, the assumption that the RMFs of hillfarm tractors and transporters are equivalent to those of standard 4- wheel drive tractors is not to be recommended.

  9. Ground water in the Eola-Amity Hills area, northern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1967-01-01

    The Eola-Amity Hills area ,comprises about 230 square miles on the west side of the Willamette Valley between Salem and McMinnville, Oreg. The area is largely rural, and agriculture is the principal occupation. Rocks ranging in age from Eocene to Recent underlie the area. The oldest rocks are a sequence more than 5,000 feet thick of marine-deposited shale and siltstone strata, with thin interbeds of sandstone that range in age from Eocene to middle Oligocene. They are widely exposed in and west of the Eola-Amity Hills and underlie younger sedimentary and volcanic rocks throughout the study area. In the Eola-Amity Hills and Red Hills of Dundee, the Columbia River Group, a series of eastward-dipping basaltic lava flows locally of Miocene age, and conformably overlies the marine sedimentary rocks. The Columbia River Group ranges in thickness from less than 1 foot to about 900 feet and has an average thickness of about 200 feet. The formation is exposed in the Eola-Amity Hills and Red Hills of Dundee and, at places, extends to the east beneath younger rocks. Overlying the Columbia River Group and marine sedimentary rocks are nonmarine sedimentary deposits that range in thickness from less than 1 foot, where they lap up (to an altitude of about 200 ft) on the flanks of the higher hills, to several hundred feet along the east margin of the study area. These deposits include the Troutdale Formation of Pliocene age, the Willamette Silt of late Pleistocene age, and alluvium of the Willamette River and its tributaries. The Troutdale Formation and the alluvium of the Willamette River contain the most productive aquifers in the Eola-Amity Hills area. These aquifers, which consist mainly of sand and gravel, generally yield moderate to large quantities of water to properly constructed wells. Basalt of the Columbia River Group yields small to moderate quantities of water to wells, and the marine sedimentary rocks and Willamette Silt generally yield small but adequate quantities

  10. Cluster analysis on a sphere: Application to magnetizations from metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Richard K.; Tarduno, John A.; Dare, Matthew S.; Mitra, Gautam; Cottrell, Rory D.

    2018-02-01

    Metasediments of the Jack Hills contain the oldest known terrestrial minerals in the form of zircons nearly 4.4 billion years old. Paleointensity data from these zircons provide evidence for a Hadean geodynamo as old as 4.2 billion years old. Given the importance of these zircons for constraining the earliest history of the core, it is vital to understand the fidelity of the zircon record. A fundamental aspect providing context for the preservation of primary magnetic signals is the nature of overprints predicted to have been imparted on rocks of the Jack Hills due to Archean to Proterozoic metamorphic events. To be viable magnetic records of a Hadean geodynamo, zircon magnetization directions should differ from these secondary magnetizations. To evaluate these secondary magnetizations, we report paleomagnetic analyses of a comprehensive sampling of 68 quartzite cobble-sized clasts from the Jack Hills metasediments ∼0.5 to 1.0 km from the Discovery Site (which has yielded the oldest zircons and paleofield estimates). While application of standard paleomagnetic tests suggests that the ensemble of cobble directions cannot be distinguished from those drawn from a random distribution, a new cluster analysis of directions on a sphere and non-parametric resampling approaches reveal significant directions amongst subsets of the data. One, isolated at the lowest temperature analyzed [200 to 300 °C, Declination (Dec.) = 316.8°, Inclination (Inc.) = - 51.1 °] appears to be dominated by the present day field. Another, isolated at higher (but still relatively low unblocking temperatures that we call "intermediate", of ∼350-500 °C, Dec. = 243.8°, Inc. = 9.5°) agrees with a magnetic overprint isolated from the secondary Cr-Fe mica fuchsite isolated from the Jack Hills Discovery site, passing a field test at the 80% confidence level. No evidence is found in our data, or in the data of others collected on similar Jack Hills lithologies, for a widespread 1 Ga

  11. Pemecahan Sandi Kriptografi dengan Menggabungkan Metode Hill Cipher dan Metode Caesar Chipher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Eka Wardani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Message is a privacy statement which is made by a person and addressed to another person with the consent of people who have made the message. But with the development of modern technology resulted in a high level of privacy for their safety message. Especially lately act haeker (security breaker are increasingly rampant and alarming message makers. To address this, the authors will examine and discuss the cryptographic cipher to convey a secret message privacy. Message in the form of a password using cryptography in this paper Combining of Hill Cipher Method and Caesar Cipher Methods.In the operation process of encryption and decryption passwords cryptography, the steps using the Caesar CipherMethods, whereas in steps using keys by using Hill Cipher method. In the making and the first decoding the message makers and recipients know how the operation technique. Thus the expected delivery of message privacy secured.

  12. Chaos in Hill's generalized problem: from the solar system to black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şelaru, D.; Mioc, V.; Cucu-Dumitrescu, C.; Ghenescu, M.

    2005-06-01

    We generalize the well-known Hill's circular restricted three-body problem by assuming that the primary generates a Schwarzschild-type field of the form U=A/r+B/r3. The term in B influences the particle, but not the far secondary. Many concrete astronomical situations can be modelled via this problem. For the two-body problem primary-particle, a homoclinic orbit is proved to exist for a continuous range of parameters (the constants of energy and angular momentum, and the field parameter B>0). Within the restricted three-body system, we prove that, under sufficiently small perturbations from the secondary, the homoclinic orbit persists, but its stable and unstable manifolds intersect transversely. Using a result of symbolic dynamics, this means the existence of a Smale horseshoe, hence chaotic behaviour. Moreover, we find that Hill's generalized problem (in our sense) is nonintegrable.

  13. Diagenetic Features Analyzed by ChemCam/Curiosity at Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R. B.; Blank, J. G.; Calef, F.; Clegg, S.; Fabre, C.; Fisk, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of : (1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of targets and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), which provides imaging context for the LIBS. The LIBS/ChemCam performs analysis typically of spot sizes 350-550 micrometers in diameter, up to 7 meters from the rover. Within Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing toward the base of Mount Sharp, reaching Pahrump Hills outcrop circa sol 750. This region, as seen from orbit, represents the first exposures of lower Mount Sharp. In this abstract we focus on two types of features present within the Pahrump Hills outcrop: concretion features and light-toned veins.

  14. A new LL3 chondrite, Allan Hills A79003, and observations on matrices in ordinary chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Maggiore, P.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills A79003 is an LL3 chondrite with a petrologic subtype of 3.4 + or - 0.2. Contrary to previous suggestions, it is not paired with other Allan Hills specimens. It contains haxonite, (Fe,Ni)23C6; shock-melted, 'fizzed' metal-troilite intergrowths; and translucent, glassy-looking Huss matrix (fine-grained, Fe-rich silicate matrix), in addition to the normal opaque and recrystallized varieties of Huss matrix. Some chondrules are partly coated with opaque matrix, others with translucent matrix. Translucent matrix is more uniform in composition and contains less S, CaO and FeO and more MgO than the opaque variety. Both kinds of matrix rimmed chondrules before consolidation of the meteorite.

  15. 33 CFR 110.127 - Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada... Mead, Nevada and Arizona. (a) Willow Beach, Ariz. That portion of Lake Mohave enclosed by the shore and... the launching ramp, as established by the Superintendent, Lake Mead Recreation Area: Latitude...

  16. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out ... Melanoides tuberculata and Biomphalaria chaonomphala were the only two gastropods represented and widely distributed in the two lakes. Bivalvia constituting of ...

  17. 77 FR 9652 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake Linden... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake... settling party to pay $357,149.47 to the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement includes a covenant...

  18. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  19. MORPHOMETRY OF LAKE SFANTA ANA, ROMANIA (LAKE SAINT ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril PANDI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Sfanta Ana is one of the most emblematic lacustrine complexes of our country. In this context, its monitoring is not only necessary but also compulsory. The study of its evolution and the forecasts are done easier because we have had hydrotopometric highs for about 100 years, even if the frequency of evaluations has not been periodical. The morphometric elements have had a normal evolution, of continuous diminution, specific to lacustrine complexes. The modification rates of the morphometric parameters are different, but they all highlight the necessity of taking urgent measures of protection, in order to slow down the filling speed of the lake basin. Silting is fast due to anthropic influences. The tourism activity produces, direct and indirectly, alluviums that reach inside the lake, due to the processes occurred on the slopes of the crater. We must find a modus vivendi, which is possible in theory, so that tourism and environment protection may “live together” in harmony.

  20. LEUCEMIAS Y RADIACIÓN: JUICIO CAUSAL SEGÚN LOS CRITERIOS DE SIR AUSTIN BRADFORD HILL Causal judgment by Sir Austin Bradford Hill criteria: leukemias and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Martínez Betancur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El cometido del presente trabajo es la lectura interpretativa con base en la propuesta de inferencia causal de Austin Bradford Hill, del documento Radiation-related leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-1964. I. Distribution, incidence and appearance time. El documento informado por el comité de las víctimas de la bomba atómica cumple con la totalidad de los nueve "criterios" propuesto por Hill, y entre las limitaciones se cuentan la presunciones de homogeneidad genética de los sujetos expuestos y linealidad de los efectos de las radiaciones en la leucemia, además del hecho de sólo considerar la edad como variable confusora. Por otra parte, el número de muertes por leucemia, patrón de oro de la sensibilidad y la especificidad del sistema de vigilancia del estudio de duración de la vida, fue 61 muertes por leucemia entre los supervivientes situados dentro de 1500 metros del epicentro de la explosión y 25 muertes en el grupo que recibió radiación estando entre 1501 y 10000 metros, lo que habla de posible subregistro de casos y de sobrediagnóstico por la sumatoria de criterios empleados. Los "criterios" de Hill no son reglas lógicas sino metodológicas, que ayudan en el proceso de decisión sobre la inferencia causal en epidemiología. Se apartan de la discusión de si las inferencias a partir de ellos se ajustan a la lógica inductiva o a la deductiva, y deben entenderse pragmáticamente como "inferencias de la mejor explicación" en el contexto de la abducción. La única conclusión permitida dentro del marco de la "inferencia de la mejor explicación", es que se tienen buenas razones para considerar seriamente la hipótesis que la asociación estadística que se estudia, es una relación causal.This paper presents an interpretive reading based on the proposed causal inference by Austin Bradford Hill; of the document "Radiation-related leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-1964. I. Distribution, incidence, and Appearance time

  1. Opaline Silica Occurrences in the Columbia Hills of Mars: A Case Study in the Hunt for Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    Microbially mediated silica sinter deposits of El Tatio in the Atacama Desert of Chile have remarkably similar morphologic and spectral characteristics as those of silica deposits adjacent to Home Plate in the Columbia Hills of Mars.

  2. Conservation assessment for groundcedar and stiff clubmoss in the Black Hills National Forest South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Hope Hornbeck; Deanna J. Reyher; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Reed W. Crook

    2002-01-01

    Stiff clubmoss (Lycopodium annotinum L.) and groundcedar (Lycopodium complanatum L.; synonym = Diphasiastrum complanatum [L.] Holub.) (Lycopodiaceae) are circumboreal clubmoss species that are widely distributed in North American boreal habitats. In the northern Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming,...

  3. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C...

  4. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 2003...

  5. Evaluating Fuel Leak and Aging Infrastructure at Red Hill, Hawaii, the Largest Underground Fuel Storage Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA Region 9, Hawaii’s Department of Health, U.S. Navy, and Defense Logistics Agency are working tprotect human health and the environment at the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  6. Narrative Report for Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No.2 September - December 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1963. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Annual narrative report Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Burlington, Kansas January 1, 1967 to December 31, 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  8. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1999...

  9. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuges summarizes refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report...

  10. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1998...

  11. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 2000...

  12. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1997 calendar...

  13. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1994...

  14. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 2002...

  15. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge and Marais Des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 2004...

  16. Orientation of minimum principal stress in the hot dry rock geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The stress field at the source of microearthquakes in the interior of the hot dry rock geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill appears to be different to the far field stress outside the reservoir. The stress field seems to be re-oriented prior to failure, during the course of processes that inflate the reservoir. The state of stress, both inside and outside, the hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill, is important in predicting the course of stress-dependent processes, and in transferring HDR technology developed at Fenton Hill, to sites, such as at Clearlake in California, where the stress field is expected to be substantially different. The state of stress at Fenton Hill is not well known because of limitations in stress measuring technology. It is necessary to use a variety of indirect methods and seek an estimate of the stress. 5 refs.

  17. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve and Easement Refuges of District No. 2 Narrative Report for May - August 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500 feet...

  19. 75 FR 22620 - Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County..., Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon, and...

  20. Sacred hills of the Toda people of South India: A plea for world heritage status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun. Chhabra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract-The Todas worship scores of hilltops where they believe their principal deities or clan-specific local gods reside. It is thus considered sacrilege even to point towards such a deity peak with one's finger. It is also no coincidence at all that the area in and around the Toda sacred-landscape, where their major hill deities are believed to reside, has...