WorldWideScience

Sample records for vessel safety risk

  1. ADA access to passenger vessels : finding safety equivalence solutions for weathertight doors with coamings : Phase 2 : a risk management approach to reconfiguration design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    This report examines a risk management methodology to provide for both marine safety and disability access at weathertight doors into passenger accommodation spaces on U.S. passenger vessels. The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance B...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel safety. 151.1512 Section... River § 151.1512 Vessel safety. Nothing in this subpart relieves the master of the responsibility for ensuring the safety and stability of the vessel or the safety of the crew and passengers, or any other...

  3. 15 CFR 970.205 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vessel safety. 970.205 Section 970.205... safety. In order to provide a basis for the necessary determinations with respect to the safety of life... Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74) possesses current valid SOLAS 74 certificates; (2) That any...

  4. Safety vessels for explosive fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, V.

    1994-01-01

    The failure of several types of geometrically similar cylindrical and spherical steel and glass fibers vessels filled with water or air was investigated when an explosive charge of TNT was detonated in the center. Vessels had radius 50-1000 mm, thickness of walls 2-20%. The detonation on TNT imitated energy release. The parameter: K = M/mf is a measure of the strength of the vessel where M is the mass of the vessel, and mf is the mass of TNT for which the vessel fails. This demanded 2-4 destroyed and nondestroyed shots. It may be showed that: K=A/σ f where σ f is the fracture stress of the material vessel, and A = const = F(energy TNT, characteristic of elasticity of vessel material). The chief results are the following: (1) A similar increase in the geometrical dimensions of steel vessels by a factor of 10 leads to the increase of parameter K in about 5 times and to decrease of failure deformation in 7 times (scale effect). (2) For glass fibers, scale effect is absent. (3) This problem is solved in terms of theory energetic scale effect. (4) The concept of TNT equivalent explosive makes it possible to use these investigations to evaluate the response of safety vessels for explosive fusion reactor

  5. Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, S.

    1990-04-01

    A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

  6. Safety of steel vessel Magnox pressure circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokoe, T.Y.; Bolton, C.J.; Heffer, P.J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The maintenance of pressure circuit integrity is fundamental to nuclear safety at the steel vessel Magnox stations. To confirm continued pressure circuit integrity the CEGB, as part of the Long Term Safety Review, has carried out extensive assessment and inspection in recent years. The assessment methods and inspection techniques employed are based on the most modern available. Reactor pressure vessel integrity is confirmed by a combination of arguments including safety factors inferred from the successful pre-service overpressure test, leak-before-break analysis and probabilistic assessment. In the case of other parts of the pressure circuits that are more accessible, comprising the boiler shells and interconnecting gas duct work, in-service inspection is a major element of the safety substantiation. The assessment and inspection techniques and the materials property data have been underpinned for many years by extensive research and development programmes and in-reactor monitoring of representative samples has also been undertaken. The paper summarises the work carried out to demonstrate the long term integrity of the Magnox pressure circuits and provides examples of the results obtained. (author)

  7. Reactor pressure vessels safety and reliability - certainty and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the paper, it is suggested that the hazard to the population which would result from vessel failure rate of the order of 10 -6 to 10 -7 per vessel year could be acceptable to society on the basis of other natural and man-made risks. The paper considers the problems of demonstrating safety by calculation based on fracture mechanics, and indicates some of the uncertainties, and inconsistencies in the theory, particularly the effect of cracks in locally degraded volumes of material. The phenomenon of crack arrest is considered, and attention is drawn to the uncertainties as indicated at least by some tests. There is need for speedy resolution of this problem. The uncertainties in material properties, heat treatment and residual stresses are considered, and a proposed upper limit for residual defects ('original sin') is proposed. (orig.) [de

  8. 78 FR 42452 - Safety Zone; Kentucky Air National Guard Vessel for Parachute Rescue Jumpmaster Training, Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... only a few hours at a time during any 24 hour period. The majority of the training exercises will be... greatly reducing the likelihood of affecting transient recreational vessels. Additionally, the starting... Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an...

  9. Risk management and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.; Novegno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Risk assessment, including probabilistic analyses, has made great progress over the past decade. In spite of the inherent uncertainties it has now become possible to utilize methods and results for decision making at various levels. This paper will, therefore, review risk management in industrial installations, risk management for energy safety policy and prospects of risk management in highly industrialized areas. (orig.) [de

  10. Safety margins of PWR irradiated vessels - The Chooz A issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, F; Barthelet, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Guilleret, J C

    1988-12-31

    In 1986, some irradiated specimen of CHOOZ A (SENA) vessel showed a significant excess of {delta} RTNDT to former previsions. The lack of data on one of the two irradiated shells, and discrepancies between dosimeters results and available previous fluence calculations whose accuracy was questionable, cause the safety authorities to require an important complementary work program before putting again the plant on the grid after 1987 fuel reloading. These works are presented and discussed. They lead to a state that a conservative to day value of the vessel RTNDT is 64 degrees Celsius and that there is no underclad defect in the vessel wall and welds. Then the plant was allowed to restart with certitude that vessel irradiation will not impair its lifetime. (author). 4 refs.

  11. Initiation and arrest - two approaches to pressure vessel safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Stepanek, S.

    1976-01-01

    The safety analysis is described of the reactor pressure vessel related to brittle fracture based on the fracture mechanics theory using two different approximations, i.e., the Crack Arrest Temperature (CAT) or Nil Ductility Temperature (NDT), and fracture toughness. The variation of CAT with stress was determined for different steel specimens of 120 to 200 mm in thickness. A diagram is shown of CAT variation with stress allowing the determination of crack arrest temperature for all types of commonly used steels independently of the NDT initial value. The diagram also shows that the difference between fracture transition elastic (FTE) and NDT depends on the type of material and determines the value of the ΔTsub(sigma) factor typical of the safety coefficient. The so-called fracture toughness reference value Ksub(IR) is recommended for the computation of pressure vessel criticality. Also shown is a defect analysis diagram which may be used for the calculation of pressure vessel safety prior to and during operation and which may also be used in making the decision on what crack sizes are critical, what cracks may be arrested and what cracks are likely to expand. The diagram is also important for the fact that it is material-independent and may be employed for the estimates of pre-operational and operational inspections and for pressure vessel life prediction. It is generally applicable to materials of greater thickness in the region where the validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics is guaranteed. (J.P.)

  12. Integral reactor vessel related to power reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widart, J.; Scailteur, A.

    1978-01-01

    Integral design applied to PWR pressure vessels allows to reach a high level of safety because: 1) it presents a better balance of the material in the geometry, resulting in an improved stress level (mainly faulted condition loadings); 2) location and geometry of the welds are designed in order to get a very sound pressure boundary of the upper part of the vessel; 3) the new location and geometry of the welds allow an easy ISI in such a way that ambiguity surrounding defect size or locaton is practically suppressed. (author)

  13. Safety analysis of nuclear containment vessels subjected to strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants under expansion and under construction in China are mostly located in coastal areas, which means they are at risk of suffering strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis. This paper presents a safety analysis for a new reinforced concrete containment vessel in such events. A finite element method-based model was built, verified, and first used to understand the seismic performance of the containment vessel under earthquakes with increased intensities. Then, the model was used to assess the safety performance of the containment vessel subject to an earthquake with peak ground acceleration (PGA of 0.56g and subsequent tsunamis with increased inundation depths, similar to the 2011 Great East earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Results indicated that the containment vessel reached Limit State I (concrete cracking and Limit State II (concrete crushing when the PGAs were in a range of 0.8–1.1g and 1.2–1.7g, respectively. The containment vessel reached Limit State I with a tsunami inundation depth of 10 m after suffering an earthquake with a PGA of 0.56g. A site-specific hazard assessment was conducted to consider the likelihood of tsunami sources.

  14. Safety analysis of nuclear containment vessels subjected to strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Li, Hong Zhi [Dept. Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear power plants under expansion and under construction in China are mostly located in coastal areas, which means they are at risk of suffering strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis. This paper presents a safety analysis for a new reinforced concrete containment vessel in such events. A finite element method-based model was built, verified, and first used to understand the seismic performance of the containment vessel under earthquakes with increased intensities. Then, the model was used to assess the safety performance of the containment vessel subject to an earthquake with peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.56g and subsequent tsunamis with increased inundation depths, similar to the 2011 Great East earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Results indicated that the containment vessel reached Limit State I (concrete cracking) and Limit State II (concrete crushing) when the PGAs were in a range of 0.8–1.1g and 1.2–1.7g, respectively. The containment vessel reached Limit State I with a tsunami inundation depth of 10 m after suffering an earthquake with a PGA of 0.56g. A site-specific hazard assessment was conducted to consider the likelihood of tsunami sources.

  15. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The objectives of the risk-based indicator programme. The characteristics of the risk-based indicators. The objectives of risk-based safety indicators - in monitoring safety; in PSA applications. What indicators? How to produce the risk based indicators? PSA requirements

  16. 77 FR 35271 - Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... during the launching of the NOAA vessel, Rueben Lasker, on June 16, 2012. This temporary safety zone is... preceding paragraph, a 30 day notice period would also be impractical. B. Basis and Purpose The NOAA vessel...

  17. Risk management and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, K.

    2007-01-01

    Paper informs on the efforts to elaborate a feedback system for risk comprehensive evaluation and a system to improve structure safety foreseeing the possibility to control the latent risk, ensuring the qualitative evaluation of the safety level and improvement of safety culture in various branches of industry, first and foremost, in the electricity producing sector including the nuclear power industry [ru

  18. Elimination of the risk of brittle fracture in thick welded pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leymonie, C.; Genevray, R.

    1975-01-01

    The builder of welded pressure vessels faces the risk of brittle fracture throughout fabrication. He is forced to observe many precautions, in selecting the following: materials possessing good impact strength in the service conditions of the vessels; filler materials preventing transverse cracking of the welds: welding parameters preventing cold cracking. Fracture mechanics establish the relationships between material characteristics and critical defect size for a given set of service conditions. These principles must be expanded to increase the safety of thick pressure vessels. However, in order to derive maximum benefit, a major effort must be applied to increasing the effectiveness of nondestructive testing [fr

  19. Safety, risk and Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The author discusses public attitudes to safety, industrial accidents and reactor accidents, in particular the accident at Three-Mile Island. Arguments in favour of nuclear power, including its relative safety, are presented

  20. Development of Safety Review Guide for the Periodic Safety Review of Reactor Vessel Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongsoon; Ko, Hanok; Kim, Seonjae; Jhung, Myungjo

    2013-01-01

    Aging management of the reactor vessel internals (RVIs) is one of the important issues for long-term operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Safety review on the assessment and management of the RVI aging is conducted through the process of a periodic safety review (PSR). The regulatory body should check that reactor facilities sustain safety functions in light of degradation due to aging and that the operator of a nuclear power reactor establishes and implements management program to deal with degradation due to aging in order to guarantee the safety functions and the safety margin as a result of PSR. KINS(Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) has utilized safety review guides (SRG) which provide guidance to KINS staffs in performing safety reviews in order to assure the quality and uniformity of staff safety reviews. The KINS SRGs for the continued operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) published in 2006 contain areas of review regarding aging management of RVIs in chapter 2 (III.2.15, Appendix 2.0.1). However unlike the SRGs for the continued operation, KINS has not officially published the SRGs for the PSR of PWRs, but published them as a form of the research report. In addition to that, the report provides almost same review procedures for aging assessment and management of RVIs with the ones provided in the SRGs for the continued operation, it cannot provide review guidance specific to PSRs. Therefore, a PSR safety review guide should be developed for RVIs in PWRs. In this study, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals in PWRs is developed and provided. In this paper, a draft PSR safety review guide for reactor vessel internals (PSR SRG-RVIs) in PWRs is introduced and main contents of the draft are provided. However, since the PSR safety review guides for areas other than RVIs in the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are expected to be developed in the near future, the draft PSR SRG-RVIs should be revisited to be compatible with

  1. Safety Domain Measurement for Vessels in an Overtaking Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Zhi Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine traffic engineering has been pushed to the limits due to a rising demand in the shipping business. Merchant ships are growing dramatically, both in numbers and in size. To keep pace with current developments, automation seems to be one viable option when it comes to keeping ships running with fewer seafarers available. The aim of this paper is to monitor a modern day mariners’ performance while working in a tense situation. The objective is to define the size of the safety domain whilst overtaking a vessel. The approach was to assess the ship's domain area within a 3 nm wide traffic separation scheme by using a ship handling simulator. From the simulation results, an overtaking domain was determined as 1.36 nm long and 0.4 nm wide. Safety domains in real-life situations were experienced on a much smaller scale compared to the previous findings. The working load for this particular operation is expected to be stressful and highly skilled orientated.

  2. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: 1. Risk-based safety indicators: Typology of risk-based indicators (RBIs); Tools for defining RBIs; Requirements for the PSA model; Data sources for RBIs; Types of risks monitored; RBIs and operational safety indicators; Feedback from operating experience; PSO model modification for RBIs; RBI categorization; RBI assessment; RBI applications; Suitable RBI applications. 2. Proposal for risk-based indicators: Acquiring information from operational experience; Method of acquiring safety relevance coefficients for the systems from a PSA model; Indicator definitions; On-line indicators. 3. Annex: Application of RBIs worldwide. (P.A.)

  3. 78 FR 76751 - Safety Zone; Vessel Launch; Menominee River; Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Vessel Launch; Menominee River; Marinette, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Menominee River in Marinette, Wisconsin. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Menominee...

  4. 77 FR 60042 - Safety Zone; Research Vessel SIKULIAQ Launch, Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Menominee River in Marinette Wisconsin. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Menominee River during the launching of the Research vessel SIKULIAQ, on October 13th, 2012. This temporary safety...

  5. 77 FR 3115 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Terminal, Longview, WA, while they are located on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This safety zone extends... on the Columbia and Snake rivers when vessels begin arriving at EGT, Longview, WA. Under 5 U.S.C. 553...

  6. 76 FR 27897 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0342] Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River... will enforce the security and safety zone in 33 CFR 165.1318 for large passenger vessels operating in...

  7. Safety of nuclear pressure vessels and its regulatory aspects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Torquat, G; Queniart, D; Barrachin, B; Roche, R

    1979-01-01

    Having outlined the basic French regulations governing the safety of both pressure vessels and also of nuclear installations in general the particular safety regulations covering prestressed concrete vessels for nuclear reactors are considered. The regulations now being prepared to cover heat transfer systems of water reactors are detailed under sections headed; general provisions, sizing, and construction.

  8. Risk analysis and safety rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1989-01-01

    Decision making with respect to safety is becoming more and more complex. The risk involved must be taken into account together with numerous other factors such as the benefits, the uncertainties and the public perception. Can the decision maker be aided by some kind of system, general rules of thumb, or broader perspective on similar decisions? This question has been addressed in a joint Nordic project relating to nuclear power. Modern techniques for risk assessment and management have been studied, and parallels drawn to such areas as offshore safety and management of toxic chemicals in the environment. The report summarises the finding of 5 major technical reports which have been published in the NORD-series. The topics includes developments, uncertainties and limitations in probabilistic safety assessments, negligible risks, risk-cost trade-offs, optimisation of nuclear safety and radiation protection, and the role of risks in the decision making process. (author) 84 refs

  9. Demarcation of inland vessels' limit off Mormugao port region, India: A pilot study for the safety of inland vessels using wave modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Sudheesh, K.; Babu, M.T.; AshokKumar, A.

    The Ministry of Shipping desires to revise the inland vessels' limit (IVL) notification based on scientific rationale to improve the safety of vessels and onboard personnel. The Mormugao port region extending up to the Panaji was considered...

  10. Preliminary Performance Analysis Program Development for Safety System with Safeguard Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han-Ok; Lee, Jun; Park, Cheon-Tae; Yoon, Ju-Hyeon; Park, Keun-Bae

    2007-01-01

    SMART is an advanced modular integral type pressurized water reactor for a seawater desalination and an electricity production. Major components of the reactor coolant system such as the pressurizer, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP), and steam generators are located inside the reactor vessel. The SMART can fundamentally eliminate the possibility of large break loss of coolant accidents (LBLOCAs), improve the natural circulation capability, and better accommodate and thus enhance a resistance to a wide range of transients and accidents. The safety goals of the SMART are enhanced through highly reliable safety systems such as the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) and the safeguard vessel coupled with the passive safety injection feature. The safeguard vessel is a steel-made, leak-tight pressure vessel housing the RPV, SIT, and the associated valves and pipelines. A primary function of the safeguard vessel is to confine any radioactive release from the primary circuit within the vessel under DBAs related to loss of the integrity of the primary system. A preliminary performance analysis program for a safety system using the safeguard vessel is developed in this study. The developed program is composed of several subroutines for the reactor coolant system, passive safety injection system, safeguard vessel including the pressure suppression pool, and PRHRS. A small break loss of coolant accident at the upper part of a reactor is analyzed and the results are discussed

  11. Estimation of embrittlement damage risk at neutron embrittled vessel constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staevski, K.; Madzharov, D.; Detistov, P.; Petrova, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this work a methodology based on Damage mechanics criteria is proposed. This methodology serves for probability assessment of the brittle damage risk for the neutron embrittled vessel elements. The developed methodology is realised in RISK code and has been verified on the base of tough reliability of the pressure vessel, 'Kozloduy' NPP Unit 2. This investigation has been carried out at the given parameters of the possible defects on the vessel's weld 4 taking into account requirements of the western and Russian standards. The obtained values for ductile to brittle transition temperatures, defining the equipment life-time in the presence of maximal defect, are in good consistence with the experimentally determined ones. The analyses of results show that the pressure vessel of 'Kozloduy' NPP Unit 2 has got a high level of reliability from brittle damage risk point of view and that the western standards give more conservative evaluation. On the bases of the results a conclusion is made that the developed methodology enables analysing the influence of possible defects in the neutron embrittled elements on their to reliability and their remained life-time

  12. 33 CFR 165.121 - Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: High... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.121 Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode...

  13. Safety control and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable probability of major accidents in nuclear power is very small, and can not be determined from direct empirical evidence. Therefore, control of the level of safety is a complex problem. The difficulty is related to the fact that a variable, 'safety', which is not accessible to direct measurement, is to be tightly controlled. Control, therefore, depends on a systematic, analytical prediction of the target state, i.e., the level of safety, from indirect evidence. From a control theoretic point of view this means that safety is controlled by a system which includes openloop as well as closed loop control paths. The aim of the paper is to take a general systems view on the complex mechanisms involved in the control of safety of industrial installations like nuclear power. From this, the role of probabilistic risk analysis is evaluated and needs for further development discussed. (author)

  14. 78 FR 68995 - Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... waters of the Oakland Estuary just north of the Park Street Bridge in Alameda, CA in support of the Oakland Estuary Closure for the Vessel Removal Project on November 4, 2013 through November 22, 2013. This...

  15. Safety Climate, Perceived Risk, and Involvement in Safety Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kouabenan , Dongo Rémi; Ngueutsa , Robert ,; Safiétou , Mbaye

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article examines the relationship between safety climate, risk perception and involvement in safety management by first-line managers (FLM). Sixty-three FLMs from two French nuclear plants answered a questionnaire measuring perceived workplace safety climate, perceived risk, and involvement in safety management. We hypothesized that a positive perception of safety climate would promote substantial involvement in safety management, and that this effect would be str...

  16. Running Safety of Trains under Vessel-Bridge Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongle Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the sensor placement of the health monitoring system, the dynamic behavior of the train-bridge system subjected to vessel-collision should be studied in detail firstly. This study thus focuses on the characteristics of a train-bridge system under vessel-bridge collision. The process of the vessel-bridge collision is simulated numerically with a reliable finite element model (FEM. The dynamic responses of a single car and a train crossing a cable-stayed bridge are calculated. It is shown that the collision causes significant increase of the train’s lateral acceleration, lateral wheelset force, wheel unloading rate, and derailment coefficient. The effect of the collision on the train’s vertical acceleration is much smaller. In addition, parametric studies with various train’s positions, ship tonnage, and train speed are performed. If the train is closer to the vessel-bridge collision position or the ship tonnage is larger, the train will be more dangerous. There is a relatively high probability of running danger at a low speed, resulting from longer stay of the train on the bridge. The train’s position, the ship tonnage, and the train speed must be considered when determining the most adverse conditions for the trains running on bridges under vessel-bridge collision.

  17. Risk, fear and public safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1981-04-01

    Part 1 of the paper advocates a rational approach to public safety based on unbiassed quantitative assessment of overall risks and benefits of any technological activity. It shows that improved safety should be attainable at less cost than is the case at present. Part 2 offers an explanation of why so little has been achieved in this direction and outlines the major errors in present practices. Part 3 suggests what might realistically be done towards the achievement of some of the possible benefits. Factors which are important in the study of safety and evidence supporting the arguments are discussed in six appendices. It is urged that the scientific and technological community should improve its understanding of safety as a specialization and should endeavour to lead rather than follow in our present political system

  18. Reducing the risk, managing safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Fire safety in healthcare premises has always been a challenge to those that discharge this duty. Statutory compliance should be a matter of course, but in an ever increasingly challenged NHS, even this is not a given. While the NHS is driven by managing very complex risk to deliver cutting edge healthcare, providers cannot be risk averse. Which risk, however, takes priority? Here Peter Aldridge, fire and corporate services manager at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, and Secretary to the National Association of Healthcare Fire Officers (NAHFO)--which will this month and next jointly stage fire safety seminars with IHEEM; see page 8--considers the key issues, with input from a fire officer at a leading mental health and community Trust.

  19. Nuclear safety: risks and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Taking a fresh look at nuclear safety regulations, this study finds that the mandate and organization of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) militate against its making sound decisions. The author criticizes failures to make hard decisions on societal risk, to clarify responsibility, and to implement cost-effective safety measures. Among his recommendations are reorganization of the NRC under a single authoritative administrator, separation of technical issues from social ones, and reform of the Price-Anderson Act. The author concludes that the worst eventuality would be to continue the current state of indecision. 161 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  20. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  1. 77 FR 37600 - Safety Zone; Arctic Drilling and Support Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Arctic Drilling and Support Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... are underway in the Puget Sound Captain of the Port Zone. The safety zone is necessary to ensure the... Ensign Anthony P. LaBoy, Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Puget Sound; Coast Guard...

  2. 76 FR 31350 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2011-0357] Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of request for comments... Security and Safety Act of 2010(CVSSA), specifically related to video recording and overboard detection...

  3. Safety methodology and risk targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    In assessing the potential safety concerns of fusion, the experience from other energy sources lead to a variety of safety assessment approaches. The available approaches are: (1) The maximum possible accident approach; (2) The maximum credible accident approach; (3) The probabilistic total risk assessment. In the first approach, the mechanistic development of the events leading to the safety concern is ignored. Instead, the total radioactivity of the plant is assumed accessible to the public. Such an approach is obviously conservative and unrealistic. In the second approach a selection is made among the most severe of the possible accidents, and the progression of the accident is modeled as mechanistically as possible. In this case, the passive and active accident mitigation capabilities of the plant are taken into consideration. The result is expected to be that none or only a fraction of the total radioactivity can be released to the public. The adverse effect of this approach is to concentrate attention on a particular accident class, and perhaps not allow for other classes, a judgement that may later become undesirable. The probabilistic risk assessment requires the safety analysts to consider all classes of accidents and estimate both the probabilities of their occurrences and their consequences. Thus, the plant design in fact is subjected to a thorough investigation and the impact of alterations in design can be reflected in the total risk estimate. The disadvantage of this approach lies in the absence of well defined acceptable risk criteria as well as the large effect of public perception factors on the accepted risk. This paper will review the impact of application of these approaches in determination of the level of protection needed against activation product release to the atmosphere. (author)

  4. Fracture risk assessment for the pressurized water reactor pressure vessel under pressurized thermal shock events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Hsoung-Wei; Huang, Chin-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • The PTS loading conditions consistent with the USNRC's new PTS rule are applied as the loading condition for a Taiwan domestic PWR. • The state-of-the-art PFM technique is employed to analyze a reactor pressure vessel. • Novel flaw model and embrittlement correlation are considered in the study. • The RT-based regression formula of NUREG-1874 was also utilized to evaluate the failure risks of RPV. • For slightly embrittled RPV, the SO-1 type PTSs play more important role than other types of PTS. - Abstract: The fracture risk of the pressurized water reactor pressure vessel of a Taiwan domestic nuclear power plant has been evaluated according to the technical basis of the U.S.NRC's new pressurized thermal shock (PTS) screening criteria. The ORNL's FAVOR code and the PNNL's flaw models were employed to perform the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis associated with plant specific parameters of the domestic reactor pressure vessel. Meanwhile, the PTS thermal hydraulic and probabilistic risk assessment data analyzed from a similar nuclear power plant in the United States for establishing the new PTS rule were applied as the loading conditions. Besides, an RT-based regression formula derived by the U.S.NRC was also utilized to verify the through-wall cracking frequencies. It is found that the through-wall cracking of the analyzed reactor pressure vessel only occurs during the PTS events resulted from the stuck-open primary safety relief valves that later reclose, but with only an insignificant failure risk. The results indicate that the Taiwan domestic PWR pressure vessel has sufficient structural margin for the PTS attack until either the current license expiration dates or during the proposed extended operation periods.

  5. Risk management for industrial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novogno, A.

    1989-01-01

    The catastrophic accidents which have occurred in the last decade, in both developed and developing countries, have drawn the attention of decision-makers in the safety area to the urgent necessity to assess and manage risks from hazardous industrial activities which are concentrated in large industrialized areas. The aim of this paper is to review experience gained in conducting studies in the area of 'comparisons of risks in energy systems' and on the practical application of 'cost effectiveness of risk reduction analysis among different energy systems' (case studies). It is also the aim of the paper to discuss and propose a general framework for defining an 'integrated approach' to risk assessment and management in highly industrialized regions within a country. (author)

  6. MARS vessel safety analysis. LATA report No. 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigdon, L.D.; Donham, B.J.; Hughes, P.S.

    1979-08-01

    A previous study was performed to assess the hazards associated with an accidental leakage of cooling water into the crucible of molten 238 U for the MARS laser isotope separation experiment. Since that study found that the probability of such an explosion is extremely low during an accidental cooling system failure, a study was conducted to define a more realistic design basis accident (DBA) for the final MARS configuration. If the vapor-phase explosion is considered to be a significant threat, the design criteria for the vacuum vessel should be a working pressure of 67 psig or 101 psig momentary single pulse equivalent static pressure

  7. Probabilistic Assessment of the Design and Safety of HSLA-100 Steel Confinement Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.M. Dolin

    2003-03-03

    This probabilistic approach for assessing the design and safety of the HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel used for a DynEx test involved the probability of failure for several scenarios, in which a fragment may penetrate the vessel. The samples involve vessel thicknesses of 1 inch, 2 inches, and 5.25 inches--the combined thicknesses of the 2 inch containment vessel and the 3.25 inch safety vessel. Two simulation approaches were used for each scenario to assess the probability of failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence method simultaneously models all likely fragment events of a test, for which the net probability of failure is the sum of all the fragment events. The Stochastic Sampling method determines the probability of a fragment perforation on the basis of a logical model and takes the overall probability that an experiment results in failure as the maximum probability for any fragment event. With margin and safety assessments taken into account, it was concluded that the one and two inch thicknesses by themselves are inadequate for containing a DynEx test. The 5.25 inch thickness was determined to be safe by the Likelihood of Occurrence method and nearly adequate by the Stochastic Sampling simulation.

  8. Test of safety injection supply by diesel generator under reactor vessel closed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Bi Fengchuan; Che Junxia; Zhang Jianwen; Yang Bo

    2014-01-01

    The paper studied that the test of diesel generator full load take-up under the condition of actual safety injection and reactor vessel closed in Ningde nuclear project unit l. It is proved that test result accorded with design criteria, meanwhile, the test was removed from the key path of project schedule, which cut a huge cost. (authors)

  9. 75 FR 14609 - Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... which Chapter 45 of Title 46, U.S.C. applies and persons representing the marine insurance industry... Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Commercial Fishing Industry...

  10. 78 FR 33224 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around all inbound and outbound grain-shipment and grain-shipment assist vessels involved in commerce with the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in...

  11. 78 FR 57261 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment and Grain-Shipment Assist Vessels, Columbia and Willamette Rivers... temporary safety zone around all inbound and outbound grain-shipment and grain-shipment assist vessels involved in commerce with the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in Portland, OR, the United...

  12. The influence of chemistry concentration on the fracture risk of a reactor pressure vessel subjected to pressurized thermal shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Pin-Chiun [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Hsoung-Wei, E-mail: hwchou@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ferng, Yuh-Ming [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Probabilistic fracture mechanics method was used to analyze a reactor pressure vessel. • Effects of copper and nickel contents on RPV fracture probability under PTS were investigated and discussed. • Representative PTS transients of Beaver Valley nuclear power plant were utilized. • The range of copper and nickel contents of the RPV materials were suggested. • With different embrittlement levels the dominated PTS category is different. - Abstract: The radiation embrittlement behavior of reactor pressure vessel shell is influenced by the chemistry concentration of metal materials. This paper aims to study the effects of copper and nickel content variations on the fracture risk of pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessel subjected to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transients. The probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) code, FAVOR, which was developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States, is employed to perform the analyses. A Taiwan domestic PWR pressure vessel assumed with varied copper and nickel contents of beltline region welds and plates is investigated in the study. Some PTS transients analyzed from Beaver Valley Unit 1 for establishing the U.S. NRC's new PTS rule are applied as the loading condition. It is found that the content variation of copper and nickel will significantly affect the radiation embrittlement and the fracture probability of PWR pressure vessels. The results can be regarded as the risk incremental factors for comparison with the safety regulation requirements on vessel degradation as well as a reference for the operation of PWR plants in Taiwan.

  13. Device for removing hydrogen gas from the safety containment vessel of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefel, M.

    1983-01-01

    The safe processing of all concentrations of gas mixtures should be possible with such a device using a thermal recombiner of compact construction. A recombiner consisting of a metal case and diverter sheets situated in it is heated by induction. The incoming pipe for the gas mixture enriched with hydrogen and the outgoing pipe for the gas mixture with low hydrogen content are connected together by a three way valve. The third connection to the safety valve takes the larger port of the gas mixture with low hydrogen content back to the safety containment vessel. Sufficient amount of the gas mixture with low hydrogen content is taken via the three way valve to the safety containment vessel to ensure that the hydrogen content of the gas mixture taken to the recombiner remains below the 4% by volume limit. (orig./PW)

  14. Safety of light-water reactor pressure vessels against brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    The results are surveyed of research by SKODA Trust into brittle failure resistance of materials for WWER type reactor pressure vessels and into pressure vessel operating safety. Conditions are discussed in detail decisive for initiation, propagation and arrest of brittle fracture. The tests on the Cr-Mo-V type steel showed high resistance of the steel to the formation and the propagation of brittle fracture. They also confirmed the high operating reliability and the required service life of the steel. (B.S.)

  15. TPE upgrade for enhancing operational safety and improving in-vessel tritium inventory assessment in fusion nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M., E-mail: Masashi.Shimada@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Taylor, C.N.; Moore-McAteer, L.; Pawelko, R.J. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Kolasinski, R.D.; Buchenauer, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Hydrogen and Materials Science Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Cadwallader, L.C.; Merrill, B.J. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to evaluate in-vessel tritium inventory in the nuclear environment for fusion safety. The electrical upgrade were recently carried out to enhance operational safety and to improve plasma performance. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium and eliminating heat stress issue. In November 2015, the TPE successfully achieved first deuterium plasma via remote operation after a significant three-year upgrade. Simple linear scaling estimate showed that the TPE is expected to achieve Γ{sub i}{sup max} of >1.0 × 10{sup 23} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} and q{sub heat} of >1 MW m{sup −2} with new power supplies. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, FNSF, and DEMO for improving in-vessel tritium inventory assessment in fusion nuclear environment.

  16. Risk as a target of safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.

    1986-01-01

    Job creation is not the idea behind the demand for risk studies to be intensified in safety research. Risks are not only a target safety research should investigate, they are a subject that actually can be most adequately investigated by safety research. Assuming a neutral position between irrational fears and interest-minded problem minimization, that is the central approach and the ethics of a safety scientist. The Babylonian confusion of terminology experienced after the Chernobyl accident is a good example proving the necessity of fostering the neutral professionalism in safety research. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Safety assessment of a multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel with hot liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafitte, R.; Marchand, J. D. [Bonnard et Gardel, Ingenieurs-Conseil, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1981-01-15

    The prestressed concrete reactor vessel of the high temperature reactor with helium turbine project differs from those realized up to this day by the important number of cavities, by the different cavity pressures and by a liner in contact with hot gas. For the cases of operating conditions, the computations can be based on an identical pressure in all the cavities. The overdimensioning of the vessel which results is not a determining factor at this stage of the project. The possible loss of leaktightness of the liner can introduce gas pressure into the walls of the vessel. The great thickness of the walls makes it impossible to withstand the resulting forces with prestressing in offering sufficient safety factor against collapse. It is thus important to design a drainage network largely dimensioned. The warm liner appears at this stage of the project too highly stressed by fatigue at the singularity points (ducts between cavities, angles). A solution is proposed which limits the variations of thermal stresses by using a steel with low coefficient of thermal expansion. The cavity closures, which are numerous and some with large dimensions are an important aspect of the vessel safety. A solution of reinforced concrete shell with independent liner is proposed.

  18. Safety assessment of a multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel with hot liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, R.; Marchand, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The prestressed concrete reactor vessel of the high temperature reactor with helium turbine project differs from those realized up to this day by the important number of cavities, by the different cavity pressures and by a liner in contact with hot gas. For the cases of operating conditions, the computations can be based on an identical pressure in all the cavities. The overdimensioning of the vessel which results is not a determining factor at this stage of the project. The possible loss of leaktightness of the liner can introduce gas pressure into the walls of the vessel. The great thickness of the walls makes it impossible to withstand the resulting forces with prestressing in offering sufficient safety factor against collapse. It is thus important to design a drainage network largely dimensioned. The warm liner appears at this stage of the project too highly stressed by fatigue at the singularity points (ducts between cavities, angles). A solution is proposed which limits the variations of thermal stresses by using a steel with low coefficient of thermal expansion. The cavity closures, which are numerous and some with large dimensions are an important aspect of the vessel safety. A solution of reinforced concrete shell with independent liner is proposed

  19. Radiological safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.C.; Baird, R.D.; Card, D.H.; de Souza, F.; Elder, J.; Felthauser, K.; Jensen, C.; Winkler, V.

    1982-02-01

    A brief radiological safety and risk assessment of a nuclear power generation center with an adjacent on-site waste disposal facility at a specific site in the State of Utah is presented. The assessment was conducted to assist in determining the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in Utah consisting of nine 1250 MWe nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) electrical generating units arranged in 3 clusters of 3 units each known as triads. The site selected for this conceptual study is in the Horse Bench area about 15 miles directly south of the town of Green River, Utah. The radiological issues included direct radiation exposures to on-site workers and the off-site population, release of radioactive material, and effects of these releases for both normal operations and accidental occurrences. The basic finding of this study is that the concept of an NEC in the Green River area, specifically at the Horse Bench site, is radiologically feasible

  20. The safety of risk or the risk of safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suddle, S.I.; Waarts, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Safety is nowadays one of the main items on the agenda during the planning, realisation and management of most large-scale projects, particularly in infrastructure and building projects in intensively used areas such as multiple use of land projects. It is vital that safety aspects are properly

  1. Big Data Risk Analysis for Rail Safety?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gulijk, Coen; Hughes, Peter; Figueres-Esteban, Miguel; Dacre, Marcus; Harrison, Chris; HUD; RSSB

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists believe that the enormous amounts of data in the internet will unchain a management revolution of uncanny proportions. Yet, to date, the potential benefit of this revolution is scantily investigated for safety and risk management. This paper gives a brief overview of a research programme that investigates how the new internet-driven data-revolution could benefit safety and risk management for railway safety in the UK. The paper gives a brief overview the current activities...

  2. Ensuring the nuclear safety of VVER-440 reactor pressure vessels in Skoda, Concern Enterprise, Plzen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrbek, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Various types of routine inspections are described of reactor pressure vessels with the aim of identifying residual lifetime and overall safety. The inspection programme includes: choice of systems and instruments, type of tests, test frequency, safety criteria, measures to be taken in case of unsatisfactory results, documentation. The criteria are given for periodical inspections and requirements listed for instruments and equipment. The main three groups of tests are: visual inspection and dimension tests, surface inspection and volumetric inspection. Briefly described is some of the equipment used. (M.D.)

  3. Safeguarding the nuclear safety of WWER-440 reactor pressure vessels at SKODA Plzen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrbek, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The approach is described of the SKODA enterprise to safety assurance and to providing the reliability of WWER-440 reactor pressure vessels. The philosophy is analyzed of in-service inspection and determination of the residual service life of pressure vessels. This follows up on the so-called conception of basic safety whose main aim is to preclude failures at production stage by the selection of suitable material, namely by optimizing the choice of raw materials, of metallurgical procedures such as will lead to high purity of the pressure vessel material, by introducing multiple inspection in production, reducing the sensitivity of materials to technological operations, and by high-quality welds. The quality of in-service inspections is given by the use of technical diagnostic instruments of peak quality and of modern methods of nondestructive materials testing. The instruments and methods used are described. It is stated that the experience gained with in-service inspection will make it possible to draw up operating regulations and safety criteria for nuclear installations and own inspection regulations, this with regard to technical and economic factors. (Z.M.)

  4. 78 FR 55230 - Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements for Vessels on the U.S. Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...\\ including the regulation of workplace safety and health.\\2\\ The Coast Guard's regulatory authority extends... 147 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0779] RIN 1625-AC05 Safety and Environmental Management System Requirements... a vessel-specific Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) that incorporates the management...

  5. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within a 500-yard radius of any Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) vessel while it is moored at the LPG... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; LPG... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth...

  6. Safety in relation to risk and benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1985-01-01

    The proper definition and quantification of human safety is discussed and from this basis the historical development of our present very high standard of safety is traced. It is shown that increased safety is closely associated with increased wealth, and the quantitative relationship between then is derived from different sources of evidence. When this factor is applied to the production of wealth by industry, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the asserted risks by orders of magnitude. It is concluded that present policies and attitudes in respect to the safety of industry may be diametrically wrong. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  8. Aseismic safety analysis of a prestressed concrete containment vessel for CPR1000 nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Wang, Qingkang; Kong, Xianjing

    2017-01-01

    The containment vessel of a nuclear power plant is the last barrier to prevent nuclear reactor radiation. Aseismic safety analysis is the key to appropriate containment vessel design. A prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model with a semi-infinite elastic foundation and practical arrangement of tendons has been established to analyze the aseismic ability of the CPR1000 PCCV structure under seismic loads and internal pressure. A method to model the prestressing tendon and its interaction with concrete was proposed and the axial force of the prestressing tendons showed that the simulation was reasonable and accurate. The numerical results show that for the concrete structure, the location of the cylinder wall bottom around the equipment hatch and near the ring beam are critical locations with large principal stress. The concrete cracks occurred at the bottom of the PCCV cylinder wall under the peak earthquake motion of 0.50 g, however the PCCV was still basically in an elastic state. Furthermore, the concrete cracks occurred around the equipment hatch under the design internal pressure of 0.4MPa, but the steel liner was still in the elastic stage and its leak-proof function soundness was verified. The results provide the basis for analysis and design of containment vessels.

  9. Considerations of the manner of accounting for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellissier-Tanon, A.; Grandemange, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The French approach to the prevention of fast fracture in PWR vessels is to consider it as a whole and to choose the most convenient way to meet this general goal from an economic and technical point of view. According to this approach, there are no specific limits imposed on such factors as end of life RTsub(NDT) or neutron fluence, which are taken as criteria in other countries. The RCCM design and construction code specifications on chemical content and RTsub(NDT) for beltline and non-irradiated parts establish a sound basis for safety. However, for the most critical parts, the existence of large margins with respect to fast fracture is demonstrated by analysis for all second, third and fourth category design transients. To this aim, the RCCM code needs to demonstrate specified safety margins, depending on the transient category, for reference defects defined in kind and size, in order to bound realistically any defects which have a chance of occurring in the part during manufacture. This approach, which enables the disclosure of the influence of all significant design factors on fracture risk, ensures the most consistent way to improve design safety. (author)

  10. Considerations of the manner of accounting for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The French approach to the prevention of fast fracture in PWR vessels is to consider it as a whole and to choose the most convenient way to meet this general goal from an economic and technical point of view. According to this approach, there are no specific limits imposed on such factors as end of life RTsub(NDT) or neutron fluence, which are taken as criteria in other countries. The RCCM design and construction code specifications on chemical content and RTsub(NDT) for beltline and non-irradiated parts establish a sound basis for safety. However, for the most critical parts, the existence of large margins with respect to fast fracture is demonstrated by analysis for all second, third and fourth category design transients. To this aim, the RCCM code needs to demonstrate specified safety margins, depending on the transient category, for reference defects defined in kind and size, in order to bound realistically any defects which have a chance of occurring in the part during manufacture. This approach, which enables the disclosure of the influence of all significant design factors on fracture risk, ensures the most consistent way to improve design safety.

  11. Risk measures in living probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Niemelae, I.

    1993-05-01

    The main objectives of the study are: to define risk measures and suggested uses of them in various living PSA applications for the operational safety management and to describe specific model features required for living PSA applications. The report is based on three case studies performed within the Nordic research project Safety Evaluation by Use of Living PSA and Safety Indicators. (48 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.)

  12. Safety Research Experiment Facility Project. Conceptual design report. Volume V. Reactor vessel and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    The Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) will serve as the primary pressure retaining structure for the Safety Research Experiment Facility (SAREF) reactor. The reactor core, control rod drive room, primary heat exchangers, and gas circulators will be located in cavities within the PCRV. The orientation of these cavities, except for the control rod drive room, will be similar to the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs that are currently proposed or under design. Due to the nature of this type of structure, all biological and radiological shielding requirements are incorporated into the basic vessel design. At the midcore plane there are three radially oriented slots that will extend from the outside surface of the PCRV to the reactor core liner. These slots will accommodate each of the fuel motion monitoring systems which will be part of the observation apparatus used with the loop experiments

  13. Safety assessment of in-vessel vapor explosion loads in next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Jong Rae; Choi, Byung Uk; Kim, Ki Yong; Lee, Kyung Jung [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea); Park, Ik Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    A safety assessment of the reactor vessel lower head integrity under in-vessel vapor explosion loads has been performed. The premixing and explosion calculations were performed using TRACER-II code. Using the calculated explosion pressures imposed on the lower head inner wall, strain calculations were performed using ANSYS code. The explosion analyses show that the explosion impulses are not altered significantly by the uncertain parameters of triggering location and time, fuel and vapor volume fractions in uniform premixture bounding calculations within the conservative ranges. Strain analyses using the calculated pressure loads on the lower head inner wall show that the vapor explosion-induced lower head failure is physically unreasonable. The static analysis using the conservative explosion-end pressure of 7,246 psia shows that the maximum equivalent strain is 4.3% at the bottom of lower head, which is less than the allowable threshold value of 11%. (author). 24 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. On the Regulation of Life Safety Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    . Starting point is taken in a short outline of what is considered to comprise the present best practice rationale for life safety and health risk regulation. Thereafter, based on selected principal examples from different application areas, inconsistencies in present best practice risk quantification...... absolute level of individual life safety risk subject to assessment of acceptability. It is highlighted that a major cause of inconsistency in risk quantifications and comparisons originates from the fact that present regulations partly address societal activities and partly address applied technologies...

  15. Safety of the pressure vessels of water reactors. Prevention of sudden failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.; Barrachin, B.

    1975-01-01

    From the safety view point the primary circuit is considered as the essential barrier against the diffusion of radioactive products in the event of fuel element failure. The safety of the vessel itself, the failure of which is not accounted for in accident analyses, is based chiefly on a series of preventive measures such as the suitable choice of materials and manufacturing process, compliances with detailed specifications concerning tests and defect tolerances, supervision in service. All these points are examined in detail when the safety analysis is performed. In this context the Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees assists the Department de Surete Nucleaire in the study of special problems such as the prevention of sudden failure and the characterisation of steels as a function of working conditions, particularly neutron irradiation. The report is thus devoted mainly to the presentation of methods to prevent sudden failure, with special emphasis on the limits of application. Some results obtained at the Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees on steels typical of those used for water reactor vessels (A533 and A508Cl.3) are given by way of example. Part two concentrates on the role of various factors influencing embrittlement by irradiation [fr

  16. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kee Poong; Lee, Hyoung Wook; Jang, Kwang Keol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seong Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In this work, assessment system for methodology for reactor pressure vessel integrity is developed. Assessment system is make up of severe accident assessment code which can calculate the conditions of plant and structural analysis code which can assess the integrity of reactor vessel using given plant conditions. An assessment of cavity flooding using containment spray system has been done. As a result, by the containment spray, cavity can be flooded successfully and CCI can be reduced. The technical backgrounds for external vessel cooling and corium cooling on the cavity are summarized and provided in this report.

  17. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kee Poong; Lee, Hyoung Wook; Jang, Kwang Keol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Seong Jin; Park, Jae Hong

    2001-03-01

    In this work, assessment system for methodology for reactor pressure vessel integrity is developed. Assessment system is make up of severe accident assessment code which can calculate the conditions of plant and structural analysis code which can assess the integrity of reactor vessel using given plant conditions. An assessment of cavity flooding using containment spray system has been done. As a result, by the containment spray, cavity can be flooded successfully and CCI can be reduced. The technical backgrounds for external vessel cooling and corium cooling on the cavity are summarized and provided in this report

  18. Nuclear safety research - risk and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear power industry deals in many kinds of risks, complicated by political stress and communication problems. Power plant design must prepare for the unexpected attack, physical as well as psychological, but a zero-defects technology is not possible. The public has not been made sufficiently aware of the risk the US takes if there is not enough energy because nuclear power has been curtailed. Energy shortages could drive industry and jobs abroad, force the public to turn to government for a solution, drive the country to energy allocation, and cause a nuclear war. Policies that prevent closing the nuclear fuel cycle are ineffective in preventing proliferation and counterproductive to national needs

  19. Relocation work of temporary thermocouples for measuring the vessel cooling system in the safety demonstration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Ono, Masato; Yanagi, Shunki; Tochio, Daisuke; Iigaki, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    It is necessary to confirm that the temperature of water cooling panel of the vessel cooling system (VCS) is controlled under the allowable working temperature during the safety demonstration test because the water cooling panel temperature rises due to stop of cooling water circulation pumps. Therefore, several temporary thermocouples are relocated to the water cooling panel near the stabilizers of RPV and the side cooling panel outlet ring header of VCS in order to observe the temperature change of VCS. The relocated thermocouples can measure the temperature change with starting of the cooling water circulation pumps of VCS. So it is confirmed that the relocated thermocouples can observe the VCS temperature change in the safety demonstration test. (author)

  20. Aspects of the state safety regulation dealing with management of radioactive wastes from nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarov, Valentin G.

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, the Constitution of the Russian Federation states that nuclear power engineering and fissile materials are under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. But there is no federal law with detailed directions for radioactive waste (RW) management, which thus comes under the Federal law ''On Use of Atomic Energy''. This law defines the legal basis and principles of regulating the relations occurring during RW management and sets some general requirements. RW management safety is regulated by the federal norms and rules (1) Radiation Safety Norms (NRB-96), Basic Sanitary Rules (OSP-72, 87) and (3) Sanitary Rules for RW Management (SPORO-85), etc. A number of normative documents on RW management will be put in force in 1999. For work in the field of RW management, licence must in general be obtained from Gozatomnazdor of Russia. The conditions for receiving a license for the management of RW from vessels are presented

  1. Advanced in-vessel retention design for next generation risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In the TMI-2 accident, approximately twenty (20) tons of molten core material drained into the lower plenum. Early advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs assumed a lower head failure and incorporated various measures for ex-vessel accident mitigation. However,one of the major findings from the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project was that one part of the reactor lower head wall estimated to have attained a temperature of 1100 deg C for about 30 minutes has seemingly experienced a comparatively rapid cooldown with no major threat to the vessel integrity. In this regard, recent empirical and analytical studies have shifted interests to such in-vessel retention designs or strategies as reactor cavity flooding, in-vessel flooding and engineered gap cooling of the vessel. Accurate thermohydrodynamic and creep deformation modeling and rupture prediction are the key to the success in developing practically useful in-vessel accident/risk management strategies. As an advanced in-vessel design concept, this work presents the COrium Attack Syndrome Immunization Structures (COASIS) that are being developed as prospective in-vessel retention devices for a next-generation LWR in concert with existing ex-vessel management measures. Both the engineered gap structures in-vessel (COASISI) and ex-vessel (COASISO) are demonstrated to maintain effective heat transfer geometry during molten core debris attack when applied to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) reactor. The likelihood of lower head creep rupture during a severe accident is found to be significantly suppressed by the COASIS options. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  2. Advanced in-vessel retention design for next generation risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Y; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In the TMI-2 accident, approximately twenty (20) tons of molten core material drained into the lower plenum. Early advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs assumed a lower head failure and incorporated various measures for ex-vessel accident mitigation. However,one of the major findings from the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project was that one part of the reactor lower head wall estimated to have attained a temperature of 1100 deg C for about 30 minutes has seemingly experienced a comparatively rapid cooldown with no major threat to the vessel integrity. In this regard, recent empirical and analytical studies have shifted interests to such in-vessel retention designs or strategies as reactor cavity flooding, in-vessel flooding and engineered gap cooling of the vessel. Accurate thermohydrodynamic and creep deformation modeling and rupture prediction are the key to the success in developing practically useful in-vessel accident/risk management strategies. As an advanced in-vessel design concept, this work presents the COrium Attack Syndrome Immunization Structures (COASIS) that are being developed as prospective in-vessel retention devices for a next-generation LWR in concert with existing ex-vessel management measures. Both the engineered gap structures in-vessel (COASISI) and ex-vessel (COASISO) are demonstrated to maintain effective heat transfer geometry during molten core debris attack when applied to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) reactor. The likelihood of lower head creep rupture during a severe accident is found to be significantly suppressed by the COASIS options. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  3. Risk based limits for Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    OSR limits are designed to protect the assumptions made in the facility safety analysis in order to preserve the safety envelope during facility operation. Normally, limits are set based on ''worst case conditions'' without regard to the likelihood (frequency) of a credible event occurring. In special cases where the accident analyses are based on ''time at risk'' arguments, it may be desirable to control the time at which the facility is at risk. A methodology has been developed to use OSR limits to control the source terms and the times these source terms would be available, thus controlling the acceptable risk to a nuclear process facility. The methodology defines a new term ''gram-days''. This term represents the area under a source term (inventory) vs time curve which represents the risk to the facility. Using the concept of gram-days (normalized to one year) allows the use of an accounting scheme to control the risk under the inventory vs time curve. The methodology results in at least three OSR limits: (1) control of the maximum inventory or source term, (2) control of the maximum gram-days for the period based on a source term weighted average, and (3) control of the maximum gram-days at the individual source term levels. Basing OSR limits on risk based safety analysis is feasible, and a basis for development of risk based limits is defensible. However, monitoring inventories and the frequencies required to maintain facility operation within the safety envelope may be complex and time consuming

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Advanced Bipolar Vessel Sealing in Vaginal Hysterectomy: 1000 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavé, Henri; Clavé, Arnaud

    2017-02-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of advanced electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing (EBVS) during vaginal hysterectomy by evaluating urinary complications, overall complications, and reoperation rate. A retrospective cohort (Canadian Task Force classification III). High-volume gynecologic surgeon practice, private hospital. One thousand consecutive patients who have undergone vaginal hysterectomy for benign conditions carried out with EBVS between January 2002 and December 2012. Vaginal hysterectomy performed using an EBVS device. One thousand consecutive patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy with advanced EBVS between January 2002 and December 2012 with an average age of 51.4 ± 8.9 years (range, 31-88) and mean weight and body mass index of 57.4 ± 7.2 kg (range, 42-105) and 25.8 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 (range, 19.1-38.9), respectively. Eighty-five percent of patients (852/1000) were healthy without any severe systemic disease. A single experienced surgeon performed all vaginal hysterectomies with EBVS, specifically by not applying traction during thermofusion to avoid hemorrhage, amputating the cervix to transform the uterus to an apple shape to facilitate a vaginal approach and rotation of the uterus, and placing bi-clamp forceps on the edge of the uterus and not at a 45- or 90-degree angle. Wound closure was completed with a continuous suture. Eleven urinary complications (1.1%) were recorded (10 bladder mechanical injuries and 1 vesicovaginal fistula). This was not statistically different from the rate of .64% previously reported in the FINHYST study (p = .15). The overall rate of complications was 5.3%, and 20 patients (2.0%) required reoperation. The presence of uterine scar tissue (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-19.2) and larger uterus size (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-19.2) were associated with a higher risk of urinary complications. The use of EBVS during vaginal hysterectomy results in urinary and overall

  5. Follow-up Study of ITER Safety Analysis : Large In-vessel First Wall Pipe Break with Wet Confinement Bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Previous researches have been analyzed risk assessments of fusion reactors that are dangerous in the severe accidents where the radioactive material released from confinement building to the environment. To simulate the severe accidents in ITER, a number of thermal hydraulics simulation codes were used. Before construction of the fusion reactor, to obtain ITER license about safety issue, MELCOR is chosen as one of the several codes to be used to perform ITER safety analyses. Qualification of the simulation code is to simulate the cooling system in ITER, the transport of radionuclides during design basis accidents (DBAs) including beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs). MELCOR is fully integrated code that models the accidents in Light Water Reactor (LWR). To analyze the accidents in ITER, MELCOR 1.8.2 version is modified. In the nuclear fusion system, the amount of released radioactive material is criteria for safety permission. Tritium (or tritiated water: HTO) and radioactive dust aerosol are the source of radioactive leakage. In the Generic Site Safety Report (GSSR) for the ITER plant, Table I lists the release guidelines for tritium and activation products for normal operation, incidents and accidents. Several accident analyses have been studied to know how much radioactive material could be released from the severe accidents. In the present work, The MELCOR input deck of large First Wall (FW) coolant leak (pipe break) is used to study and radioactive material leakage thorough bypass accident are studied to follow up the ITER safety analysis. In this research, follow-up study of the in-vessel inboard/inboard-outboard FW pipe break was analyzed to investigate the amount of leakage of radioactive aerosol. All of the accident cases released the lower amount of radioactive aerosol compared to the IAEA guide lines. In addition, the OBB pipe break made lower HTO aerosol leakage because of condensation of HTO and adsorption between coolant and aerosol.

  6. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  7. Nuclear safety culture and integrated risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Orvis, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    A primary focus of nuclear safety is the prevention of large releases of radioactivity in the case of low-probability severe accidents. An analysis of the anatomy of nuclear (Chernobyl, Three Mile Island Unit 2) and nonnuclear (Challenger, Bhopal, Piper Alpha, etc.) severe accidents yields four broad categories of root causes: human (operating crew response), machine (design with its basic flaws), media (natural phenomena, operational considerations, political environment, commercial pressures, etc.)-providing triggering events, and management (basic organizational safety culture flaws). A strong management can minimize the contributions of humans, machines, and media to the risk arising from the operation of hazardous facilities. One way that management can have a powerful positive influence is through the establishment of a proper safety culture. The term safety culture is used as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Safety Advisory Group

  8. Thermonuclear generation program: risks and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the fundamental concepts of risk and safety related to nuclear power generation. In the first chapter, a general evaluation of the various systems for energy generation and their environmental impacts is made. Some definitions for safety and risk are suggested, based on the already existing regulatory processes and also on the current tendencies of risk management. Aspects regarding the safety culture are commented. The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES), a coherent and clear mechanism of communication between nuclear specialists and the general public, is analyzed. The second chapter examines the thermonuclear generation program in Brazil and the role of the National Nuclear Energy Commission. The third chapter presents national and international scenarios in terms of safety and risks, available policies and the main obstacles for future development of nuclear energy and nuclear engineering, and strategies are proposed. In the last chapter, comments about possible trends and recommendations related to practical risk management procedures, taking into account rational criteria for resources distribution and risk reduction are made, envisaging a closer integration between nuclear specialists and the society as a whole, thus decreasing the conflicts in a democratic decision-making process

  9. Concept of risk: risk assessment and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dissertation is a critical examination of risk assessment and its role in public policy. Nuclear power safety safety issues are selected as the primary source of illustrations and examples. The dissertation examines how risk assessment studies develop a concept of risk which becomes decisive for policy choices. Risk-assessment techniques are interpreted as instruments which secure an evaluation of risk which, in turn, figures prominently in technical reports on nuclear power. The philosophical critique is mounted on two levels. First, an epistemological critique surveys distinctions between the technical concept of risk and more familiar senses of risk. The critique shows that utilization of risk assessment re-structures the concept of risk. The technical concept is contrasted to the function of risk within a decision-maker's conceptual agenda and hierarchy of values. Second, an ethical critique exposes the value commitments of risk assessment recommendations. Although some of these values might be defended for policy decisions, the technical character of risk assessment obfuscates normative issues. Risk assessment is shown to be a form of factual enquiry which, nonetheless, represents a commitment to a specific selection of ethical and social values. Risk assessment should not be interpreted as a primary guide to decision unless the specific values incorporated into its concept of risk are stated explicitly and justified philosophically. Such a statement would allow value questions which have been sublimated by the factual tone of the analytic techniques to be debated on clear, social and ethical grounds

  10. Inspecting nuclear pressure vessels: the conundrum of minimizing risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestberg, G.

    1992-01-01

    The probability of a sudden, massive release of radioactivity from a light-water nuclear reactor through a breach of the containment is assessed on the basis of statistical data which partly consist of subjective estimates. This breach refers to the existence of crack-like defects remaining after a non-destructive examination of the main pressure vessel surrounding the reactor core. Two studies have recently been made of such sources of information about the effectiveness of non-destructive examination of pressure vessels with respect to defects. The results of these studies indicate that the data used as input in the probabilistic calculations do not possess the reliability that might be assumed from the assessments. This type of failure should therefore no longer be considered a de minimis case. In the present review the overconfidence in the efficiency of non-destructive examination is discussed from psychological, sociological and political science points of view. It is concluded that ingrained professional assumptions and values seem to be the main reason for the trust in the technology of inspection. However, there are also psychological constraints that can be understood only in their social and political contexts. (author)

  11. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  12. Stent-assisted coil embolization of aneurysms with small parent vessels: safety and efficacy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Anna Luisa; Hou, Samuel Y; Puri, Ajit S; Silva, Christine F; Gounis, Matthew J; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2016-06-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) is a viable therapeutic approach for wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. However, it can be technically challenging in small cerebral vessels (≤2 mm). To present our experience with stents approved for SACE in aneurysms with small parent arteries. All patients who underwent stent-assisted aneurysm treatment with either a Neuroform or an Enterprise stent device at our institution between June 2006 and October 2012 were identified. Additionally, we evaluated each patient's vascular risk factors, aneurysm characteristics (ruptured vs non-ruptured, incidental finding, recanalized) and follow-up angiography data. A total of 41 patients with 44 aneurysms met our criteria, including 31 women and 10 men. Most of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation (75%). Stent placement in vessels 1.2-2 mm in diameter was successful in 93.2%. Thromboembolic complications occurred in 6 cases and vessel straightening was seen in 1 case only. Initial nearly complete to complete aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 88.6%. Six-month follow-up angiography showed coil compaction in three cases, one asymptomatic in-stent stenosis and stent occlusion. Twelve to 20-months' follow-up showed stable coil compaction in two patients compared with previous follow-up, and aneurysm recanalization in two patients. Twenty-four to 36-months' follow-up showed further coil compaction in one of these patients and aneurysm recanalization in a previous case of stable coil compaction on mid-term follow-up. Our results suggest that SACE of aneurysms with small parent vessels is feasible in selected cases and shows good long-term patency rates of parent arteries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  14. Risk-informed appendices G and E for section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B; Spanner, J.; Server, W.; Gamble, R.; Bishop, B.; Palm, N.; Heinecke, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, contains two appendices (G and E) related to reactor pressure boundary integrity. Appendix G provides procedures for defining Service Level A and B pressure temperature limits for ferritic components in the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Recently, an alternative risk informed methodology has been developed for ASME Section XI, Appendix G. The alternative methodology provides simple procedures to define risk informed pressure temperature limits for Service Level A and B events, including leak testing and reactor start up and shut down for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Risk informed pressure temperature limits provide more operational flexibility, particularly for reactor pressure vessels (RPV) with relatively high irradiation levels and radiation sensitive materials. Appendix E of Section XI provides a methodology for assessing conditions when the Appendix G limits are exceeded. A similar risk informed methodology is being considered for Appendix E. The probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluations used to develop the risk informed relationships included appropriate material properties for the range of RPV materials in operating plants in the United States and operating history and system operational constraints in both BWRs and PWRs. The analysis results were used to define pressure temperature relationships that provide an acceptable level of risk, consistent with safety goals defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The alternative methodologies for Appendices G and E will provide greater operational flexibility, especially for Service Level A and B events that may adversely affect efficient and safe plant operation, such as low temperature over pressurization for PWRs and BWR leak testing. Overall, application of the risk informed appendices can result in increased plant

  15. Reducing catheter-related thrombosis using a risk reduction tool centered on catheter to vessel ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Timothy R; Mahoney, Keegan J

    2017-11-01

    In vascular access practices, the internal vessel size is considered important, and a catheter to vessel ratio (CVR) is recommended to assist clinicians in selecting the most appropriate-sized device for the vessel. In 2016, new practice recommendations stated that the CVR can increase from 33 to 45% of the vessels diameter. There has been evidence on larger diameter catheters and increased thrombosis risk in recent literature, while insufficient information established on what relationship to vessel size is appropriate for any intra-vascular device. Earlier references to clinical standards and guidelines did not clearly address vessel size in relation to the area consumed or external catheter diameter. The aim of this manuscript is to present catheter-related thrombosis evidence and develop a standardized process of ultrasound-guided vessel assessment, integrating CVR, Virchow's triad phenomenon and vessel health and preservation strategies, empowering an evidence-based approach to device placement. Through review, calculation and assessment on the areas of the 33 and 45% rule, a preliminary clinical tool was developed to assist clinicians make cognizant decisions when placing intravascular devices relating to target vessel size, focusing on potential reduction in catheter-related thrombosis. Increasing the understanding and utilization of CVRs will lead to a safer, more consistent approach to device placement, with potential thrombosis reduction strategies. The future of evidence-based data relies on the clinician to capture accurate vessel measurements and device-related outcomes. This will lead to a more dependable data pool, driving the relationship of catheter-related thrombosis and vascular assessment.

  16. Analyses for passive safety of fusion reactor during ex-vessel loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Maki, Koichi; Uda, Tatuhiko; Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao; Kunugi, Tomoaki.

    1995-01-01

    Passive safety of nuclear fusion reactors during ex-vessel Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in the divertor cooling system has been investigated using a hybrid code, which can treat the interaction of the plasma and plasma facing components (PFCs). The code has been modified to include the impurity emission from PFCs with a diffusion model at the edge plasma. We assumed an ex-vessel LOCA of the divertor cooling system during the ignited operation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in which a carbon-copper brazed divertor plate was employed in the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). When a double-ended break occurs at the cold leg of the divertor cooling system, the impurity density in the main plasma becomes about twice within 2s after the LOCA due to radiation enhanced sublimation of graphite PFCs. The copper cooling tube of the divertor begins to melt at about 3s after the LOCA, even though the plasma is passively shut down at about 4s due to the impurity accumulation. It is necessary to apply other PFC materials, which can shorten the time period for passive shutdown, or an active shutdown system to keep the reactor structures intact for such rapid transient accident. (author)

  17. Quantitative risk assessment of digitalized safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hym Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jun [UNIST, Ulasn (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A report published by the U.S. National Research Council indicates that appropriate methods for assessing reliability are key to establishing the acceptability of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in safety-critical plants such as NPPs. Since the release of this issue, the methodology for the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems has been studied. However, there is still no widely accepted method. Kang and Sung found three critical factors for safety assessment of digital systems: detection coverage of fault-tolerant techniques, software reliability quantification, and network communication risk. In reality the various factors composing digitalized I and C systems are not independent of each other but rather closely connected. Thus, from a macro point of view, a method that can integrate risk factors with different characteristics needs to be considered together with the micro approaches to address the challenges facing each factor.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging: hazard, risk and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Suri, S.; Singh, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hazard and risk associated with magnetic resonance imaging is a matter of concern. In 1982, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA issued guidelines to Hospital's Investigational Review Board (IRBs) in 'Guidelines for Evaluating Electromagnetic Exposure Risks for Trials of Clinical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)'. In 1997, the Berufsgenossenschaft (BG), professional association for precision engineering and electronics of Germany, in their preliminary proposal for safety limits extended their concerns on static magnetic field. Owing to both time varying and static magnetic fields applied in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) this became of immediate concern to user community to assess the potential hazard and risk associated with the NMR system

  19. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  20. Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material in evaluation of the safety analysis report of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widia Lastana Istanto

    2011-01-01

    Fracture toughness requirements of reactor vessel material that must be met by applicants for nuclear power plants construction permit has been investigated in this paper. The fracture toughness should be described in the Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) document that will be evaluated by the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Because BAPETEN does not have a regulations or standards/codes regarding the material used for the reactor vessel, especially in the fracture toughness requirements, then the acceptance criteria that applied to evaluate the fracture toughness of reactor vessel material refers to the regulations/provisions from the countries that have been experienced in the operation of nuclear power plants, such as from the United States, Japan and Korea. Regulations and standards used are 10 CFR Part 50, ASME and ASTM. Fracture toughness of reactor vessel materials are evaluated to ensure compliance of the requirements and provisions of the Regulatory Body and the applicable standards, such as ASME or ASTM, in order to assure a reliability and integrity of the reactor vessels as well as providing an adequate safety margin during the operation, testing, maintenance, and postulated accident conditions over the reactor vessel lifetime. (author)

  1. Safety analysis and risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.; Colwell, R.G.; Dickey, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) provides guidance to the safety analyst at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in the preparation of safety analyses and risk assessments. Although the older guidance (the Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide) continues to be used for updating the Final Safety Analysis Reports developed in the mid-1980s, this new guidance is used with all new authorization basis documents. With the mission change at RFETS came the need to establish new authorization basis documents for its facilities, whose functions had changed. The methodology and databases for performing the evaluations that support the new authorization basis documents had to be standardized, to avoid the use of different approaches and/or databases for similar accidents in different facilities. This handbook presents this new standardized approach. The handbook begins with a discussion of the requirements of the different types of authorization basis documents and how to choose the one appropriate for the facility to be evaluated. It then walks the analyst through the process of identifying all the potential hazards in the facility, classifying them, and choosing the ones that need to be analyzed further. It then discusses the methods for evaluating accident initiation and progression and covers the basic steps in a safety analysis, including consequence and frequency binning and risk ranking. The handbook lays out standardized approaches for determining the source terms of the various accidents (including airborne release fractions, leakpath factors, etc.), the atmospheric dispersion factors appropriate for Rocky Flats, and the methods for radiological and chemical consequence assessments. The radiological assessments use a radiological open-quotes templateclose quotes, a spreadsheet that incorporates the standard values of parameters, whereas the chemical assessments use the standard codes ARCHIE and ALOHA

  2. Application of probabilistic fracture mechanics to reactor pressure vessel safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, V.; Pitner, P.

    1995-06-01

    Among all the components of a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plant, the reactor vessel is of major importance for safety. The integrity of this structure must be guaranteed in all circumstances, even in the case of the most severe accidents, and its mechanical state can be decisive for the lifetime of the plant. The brittle rupture would be the most important of all potential hazards if the irradiation effects were not consistent with predictions. The interest of having a reliable and precise method of evaluating the available safety margins and the integrity of this component led Electricite de France (EDF) to carry out a probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. The probabilistic model developed by integration of the uncertainties in the usual fracture mechanics equations is presented. A special focus is made on the problem of coupling thermo-mechanical finite element calculations and reliability analysis. The use of a finite element code can be associated with prohibitive computation times when it is invoked numerous times during simulations sequences or complex iterative procedures. The response surface method is used. It provides an approximation of the response from a reduced number of original data. The global approach is illustrated on an example corresponding to a specific accidental transient. A validation of the obtained results is also carried out through the comparison with an equivalent model without coupling. (author)

  3. Assessment of the Zaporizhya NPP unit 1 reactor pressure vessel safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, V.; Popov, V.; Zaritsky, N.

    1997-01-01

    This emergency situation had occurred at the ZNPP unit 1 while its being under ''hot shutdown'' in natural coolant circulation mode. The main difference between emergency situation and mode with improper setting of PPPD described in the ''Technical Safety Substantiation (TSS) is that this mode is being considered in the TSS under rated power of reactor with main circulation pumps (MCP) under operation. This difference is a substantial one. For this reason a necessity appeared to asses an integrity of referred reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under given emergency situation to judge whether results obtained meet the ND requirements (safety assessment). Under operation such RPV elements are being mostly affected as upper cooling, lower cowling, weld No. 3 weld No. 4 situated in front of core. These elements materials ageing process is the most intense one. Thus, this work was aimed at investigation of structure material behavior and RPV integrity assessment under thermal shock conditions while PPPD improper setting. At that time the most attention was drawn to above mentioned upper and lower cowlings along with welds No. 3 and 4. 5 refs, figs, 10 tabs

  4. Efficiency and safety of bipolar vessel and tissue sealing in visceral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhaus, Marcus; Schaefer, Nico; Walgenbach, Klaus; Hirner, Andreas; Szyrach, Mara Natascha; Tolba, René Hany

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficiency and safety of the bipolar tissue/vessel sealing and cutting device EnSeal(™) in comparison to the conventional clamp and ligation technique in visceral surgery. In an acute animal model, a part of the small bowel, a part of the colon and the kidneys were resected either with the conventional clamp and ligation technique or with EnSeal(™). Operation time, blood loss and blood parameters as well as the lateral thermal spread were evaluated. Small bowel, colon and kidney resection time with the EnSeal(™) device was shorter compared to the conventional clamp and ligation technique (small bowel: EnSeal(™): 4.7 ± 1.0 min vs. con: 35.1 ± 2.3 min; colon: EnSeal(™): 7.0 ± 1.4 min vs. con: 16.3 ± 1.5 min, kidney: EnSeal(™): 5.7 ± 1.3 min vs. con: 16.7 ± 3.7 min, p surgery with EnSeal(™) can be performed more efficiently in a shorter time, with significantly less blood loss, minimal thermal damage and without changes of blood parameters, indicating biological safety and integrity.

  5. Assessment of the Zaporizhya NPP unit 1 reactor pressure vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkopaev, V; Popov, V; Zaritsky, N [State Scientific and Technical Centre on Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SSTC NRS), Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    This emergency situation had occurred at the ZNPP unit 1 while its being under ``hot shutdown`` in natural coolant circulation mode. The main difference between emergency situation and mode with improper setting of PPPD described in the ``Technical Safety Substantiation (TSS) is that this mode is being considered in the TSS under rated power of reactor with main circulation pumps (MCP) under operation. This difference is a substantial one. For this reason a necessity appeared to asses an integrity of referred reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under given emergency situation to judge whether results obtained meet the ND requirements (safety assessment). Under operation such RPV elements are being mostly affected as upper cooling, lower cowling, weld No. 3 weld No. 4 situated in front of core. These elements materials ageing process is the most intense one. Thus, this work was aimed at investigation of structure material behavior and RPV integrity assessment under thermal shock conditions while PPPD improper setting. At that time the most attention was drawn to above mentioned upper and lower cowlings along with welds No. 3 and 4. 5 refs, figs, 10 tabs.

  6. Mastery of risks and operating safety, risks and efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A proper management of ones risks consists in acting to exert prevention and protection capacities against the negative consequences of an event, but also by committing oneself into an offensive approach allowing to improve efficiency, quality and availability. Safety and efficiencies are mutual reinforcing goals aiming at ensuring the perenniality of industries and services. The implementation of a risk management approach in an industrial environment allows to reach a better reactiveness and to increase the efficiency of a system by the mastery of organization and processes. The activities in concern are those of industries and services: transports, energy and environment, automotive industry, petrochemistry, chemistry, food, space, health, defense industries, telecommunication, mining industry, information systems, textile industry, finances.. The topics approached during this meeting treat of: the relevance of risk-abatement resources with respect to risks criticality; the consistent management of uncertainties with respect to stakes; the mastery of components aging and the expression of aging-dependent availability, maintenance and safety policies; the expression of obsolescence-related renewing policies; the operating safety tools and methods applied to complex and computerized-controlled systems; the integration of social, organizational and human factors in technical decisions and companies management; transverse and global risk analysis and decision-aid approaches; the vigilance culture; crisis anticipation and management; the experience feedback on technical and organisational aspects; efficiency and risk mastery indicators; cost/benefit approach in risk management, and economic intelligence approaches. Nineteen presentations have been selected which deal with the mastery of risks and the operating safety at nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  7. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1318 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Portland, OR Captain of the Port Zone 165.1318 Section 165.1318 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND...

  9. Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, 'ensuring' plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is 'safe.' Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude

  10. RISK-INFORMED SAFETY MARGIN CHARACTERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Nam; Szilard, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    The concept of safety margins has served as a fundamental principle in the design and operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Defined as the minimum distance between a system's 'loading' and its 'capacity', plant design and operation is predicated on ensuring an adequate safety margin for safety-significant parameters (e.g., fuel cladding temperature, containment pressure, etc.) is provided over the spectrum of anticipated plant operating, transient and accident conditions. To meet the anticipated challenges associated with extending the operational lifetimes of the current fleet of operating NPPs, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a collaboration to conduct coordinated research to identify and address the technological challenges and opportunities that likely would affect the safe and economic operation of the existing NPP fleet over the postulated long-term time horizons. In this paper we describe a framework for developing and implementing a Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to evaluate and manage changes in plant safety margins over long time horizons

  11. Effect of radiation damage on operating safety of steel pressure vessels of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, M.; Havel, S.; Stoces, B.; Brumovsky, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects are assessed of the environment upon mechanical properties of steel used generally for pressure vessels of light water nuclear reactors. Changes caused by radiation affect the reliability of vessels. Deterioration of steel properties is mainly due to neutron radiation. The article deals with factors bearing upon damage and with methods allowing to evaluate the reliability of vessels and predict their service life. Operating reliability of vessels is very unfavourably affected by planned and accidental reactor transients. (author)

  12. [Adolescents, risk situations and road safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Falcón, Carmen; Gil García, Eugenia; Romo Avilés, Nuria

    2010-09-01

    Describe the risk behaviour relationships with road safety in adolescents. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Madrid and Andalusia Regions, representative samples. The sample included 3,612 in secondary school pupils from Madrid (n=1708) and Andalusia (n=1904). The survey was carried out during May and June 2007. The data collected included sociodemographic areas (age, sex, grade, father's profession, birth place, etc.) and risk situation and behaviour (risk behaviour as driver or passenger). 16.2% of the adolescents have been involved in a dangerous situation with motorcycles during the last year. 16.7% never use a helmet when riding a motorcycle and 62% do not wear one when riding a bicycle on the road; 17.4% frequently ride a motorcycle over the speed limit and 24.5% when driving a car. There are significant differences regarding sex, grade and region (Madrid or Andalusia). There are four factors which explain 62% of the variance: drug factor, speed factor, security factor and passenger factor. Two of these have twice the probability of having a dangerous situation when riding a motorcycle: drug factor (OR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.77-2.18) and the speed factor ((OR=2.13; 95% CI, 1.92-2.36). Adolescents in higher grades and living in Andalusia were less road safety conscious. This pattern should be taken into account when designing preventive actions in Road Safety Education. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Considerations on the manner to account for fast fracture risk in the design of PWR vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellisier-Tanon, A.; Grandemange, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    The way followed in France for analyzing fast fracture resistance of PWR primary components is the one of a deterministic analysis with safety coefficients imposed in the fracture criteria. The study of margins towards fast fracture of the 900 MWe program vessels undertaken in 1982 includes parametric evaluations of the influence of essential variables. It has stimulated further thoughts on the level of safety to fix in the analysis methodology, on the orientations for the choice of safety factors and on the manner to introduce them in the analysis. A first chapter tries to characterize the French approach in comparison to those of other countries. A second chapter examines the manner according to which safety factors can be introduced in the deterministic analysis. It presents the principle for a logical approach accounting for the interdependency of all factors and variables. It establishes criteria for the selection of defect kind and size for the computation

  14. Lowering risk score profile during PCI in multiple vessel disease is associated with low adverse events: The ERACI risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo E; Fernandez-Pereira, Carlos; Mieres, Juan; Pavlovsky, Hernan; Del Pozo, Juan; Rodriguez-Granillo, Alfredo M; Antoniucci, David

    2018-02-13

    In recent years angiographic risk scores have been introduced in clinical practice to stratify different levels of risk after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). The SYNTAX score included all intermediate lesions in vessels ≥1.5 mm, consequently, multiple stent implantation was required. Four years ago, we built a new angiographic score in order to guide PCI strategy avoiding stent deployment both in intermediate stenosis as in small vessels, therefore these were not scored (ERACI risk score). The purpose of this mini review is to validate the strategy of PCI guided by this scoring, taking into account long term follow up outcomes of two observational and prospective registries where this policy was used. With this new risk score we have modified risk profile of our patient's candidates for PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery lowering the risk and PCI. The simple exclusion of small vessels and intermediate stenosis from the revascularization approach resulted in clinical outcome comparable with the one of fractional flow reserve guided revascularization. Low events rate at late follow up observed in both studies was also in agreement with guided PCI by functional lesion assessment observed by Syntax II registry, where investigators found lower events rate in spite of a few number of stents implanted per patient. use of ERACI risk scores may significantly reclassify patients into a lower risk category and be associated with low adverse events rate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Proximal Occlusion of Medium-Sized Vessels with the Penumbra Occlusion Device: A Study of Safety and Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, E.; Petitpierre, F. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France); Brizzi, V.; Dubuisson, V. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Surgery (France); Bras, Y. Le; Grenier, N.; Cornelis, F., E-mail: cornelisfrancois@gmail.com [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo retrospectively investigate the safety and efficacy of hybrid proximal coiling of various medium-sized vessels (4 to 8 mm) using the Penumbra Occlusion Device (POD).Materials and MethodsFrom October 2014 to February 2016, 37 proximal embolizations were performed with PODs in 36 patients (mean age: 50.8, range: 10–86; 29 male, 7 female). Vessel occlusions were achieved under fluoroscopic guidance using a 2.7 French microcatheter. Among the 36 vessels targeted, 16 were splenic arteries, 11 renal arteries, 4 mesenteric arteries, 3 arteriovenous fistulae, 1 iliac artery, and 1 gonadal vein. Intermittent follow-up angiography was performed to assess the flow for final occlusion. Outcomes and complications were assessed by clinical and/or imaging follow-up.ResultsTo produce proximal occlusion of the intended vessels, the POD was used alone in 19 embolizations (51.4 %). In 12 procedures (32.4 %), POD was used as a coil constrainer to secure the coil construct. In 6 procedures (16.2 %), additional embolic devices were used to achieve vessel occlusion after initial POD deployment. After a mean follow-up of 3.2 months, no POD migration was observed but two complications occurred (5.4 %): one post embolic syndrome and one extensive infarction with splenic abscess.ConclusionThe POD system allows safe and effective proximal embolization of medium-sized vessels in a variety of clinical settings.

  16. Improving ICU risk management and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielty, Lucy Ann

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a study which aimed to develop and validate an assessment method for the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 80001-1 (IEC, 2010) standard (the Standard); raise awareness; improve medical IT-network project risk management processes; and improve intensive care unit patient safety. Design/methodology/approach An assessment method was developed and piloted. A healthcare IT-network project assessment was undertaken using a semi-structured group interview with risk management stakeholders. Participants provided feedback via a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was undertaken. Findings The assessment method was validated as fit for purpose. Participants agreed (63 per cent, n=7) that assessment questions were clear and easy to understand, and participants agreed (82 per cent, n=9) that the assessment method was appropriate. Participant's knowledge of the Standard increased and non-compliance was identified. Medical IT-network project strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the risk management processes were identified. Practical implications The study raised awareness of the Standard and enhanced risk management processes that led to improved patient safety. Study participants confirmed they would use the assessment method in future projects. Originality/value Findings add to knowledge relating to IEC 80001-1 implementation.

  17. Influence of shock waves as a result of assumed vessel failure on parts of the plant relevant to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Graubner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The shock wave induced rupture is of subordinate importance for the laying out of the parts of the plant relevant to safety. It is covered by the precautions for maximum potential earthquakes, aircraft crashes and chemical explosions. The failure of vessels in the power house (WAZUe, SPWB) as the result of a maximum potential earthquake is extremely improbable. If a combination of the stresses resulting from maximum potential earthquakes with the hypothetical stresses resulting from vessel failure is undertaken, it can be seen that the total stresses are only increased by a minimal amount, due to the quadratic averaging of less than 3%. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Safety margin evaluation of pre-stressed concrete nuclear containment vessel model with BARC code ULCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.M.; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Ultimate load capacity assessment of nuclear containments has been a thrust research area for Indian pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) power programme. For containment safety assessment of Indian PHWRs a finite element code ULCA was developed at BARC, Trombay. This code has been extensively benchmarked with experimental results and for prediction of safety margins of Indian PHWRs. The present paper highlights the analysis results for prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) tested at Sandia National Labs, USA in a round robin analysis activity co-sponsored by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), Japan and the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Three levels of failure pressure predictions namely the upper bound, the most probable and the lower bound (all with 90% confidence) were made as per the requirements of the round robin analysis activity. The most likely failure pressure is predicted to be in the range of 2.95 Pd to 3.15 Pd (Pd = design pressure of 0.39 MPa for the PCCV model) depending on the type of liners used in the construction of the PCCV model. The lower bound value of the ultimate pressure of 2.80 Pd and the upper bound of the ultimate pressure of 3.45 Pd are also predicted from the analysis. These limiting values depend on the assumptions of the analysis for simulating the concrete tendon interaction and the strain hardening characteristics of the steel members. The experimental test has been recently concluded at Sandia Laboratory and the peak pressure reached during the test is 3.3 Pd that is enveloped by our upper bound prediction of 3.45 Pd and is close to the predicted most likely pressure of 3.15 Pd

  19. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  20. [Patient safety in antibiotics administration: Risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda Palau, M; Pérez Juan, E

    To determine the level of risk in the preparation and administration of antibiotics frequently used in the Intensive Care Unit using a risk matrix. A study was conducted using situation analysis and literature review of databases, protocols and good practice guidelines on intravenous therapy, drugs, and their administration routes. The most used antibiotics in the ICU registered in the ENVIN-HELICS program from 1 April to 30 June 2015 were selected. In this period, 257 patients received antimicrobial treatment and 26 antibiotics were evaluated. Variables studied: A risk assessment of each antibiotic using the scale Risk Assessment Tool, of the National Patient Safety Agency, as well as pH, osmolarity, type of catheter recommended for administration, and compatibility and incompatibility with other antibiotics studied. Almost two-thirds (65.3%) of antibiotics had more than 3 risk factors (represented by a yellow stripe), with the remaining 34.7% of antibiotics having between 0 and 2 risk factors (represented by a green stripe). There were no antibiotics with 6 or more risk factors (represented by a red stripe). Most drugs needed reconstitution, additional dilution, and the use of part of the vial to administer the prescribed dose. More than half of the antibiotics studied had a moderate risk level; thus measures should be adopted in order to reduce it. The risk matrix is a useful tool for the assessment and detection of weaknesses associated with the preparation and administration of intravenous antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Mastery of risks and operational safety, risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Creating socially useful richness is certainly the prime reason for companies to exist. Reaching this always moving target leads to seize opportunities and to take risks at the same time. For companies, risks and opportunities are two indissociable factors. Any decision making has to deal with an uncertain environment with random events of technological, economical, biological, human, environmental or natural origin. Because of the fear of uncertainty, risk acts as a brake to initiatives. In front of this problem, companies have to adopt a prevention policy based on a global and systemic approach, by identifying, evaluating, quantifying, sorting, mastering and managing unwanted events and by communicating about the way to treat them. In front of uncertainties, the operational safety, thanks to its methods and tools, supplies an incomparable contribution in the form of an help to any decision made with uncertainties. Operational safety contributes to the evaluation of costs and makes more realistic the economical estimations by taking into account the foreseeable and unforeseeable risks. The mastery of unwanted events, of their stakes and uncertainties, allows companies to carry out their projects in non-determined contexts and in a competitive environment. This colloquium concerns all socio-economical actors: industrialists, investors, decision makers, university and laboratory staffs, etc., who need a better evaluation of risks for a better mastery of their decisions in all sectors of activity. Seventeen papers of this conference, dealing with safety analysis and risk assessment at nuclear facilities and at other energy-related facilities, have been selected for Inis. (J.S.)

  2. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  3. Safety analysis of Atucha 1 reactor pressure vessel for a typical transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomik, E.; Jinchuk, D.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of disturbances on the CNA I external electric grid some incidents were produced in a 6 minutes lapse, causing a sudden cooling of the primary system, while pressure was maintained nearly constant. On the basis of this event, a safety analysis based on the LInear Elastic Fracture Mechanics was carried out. This paper presents an alternative method for the calculation of transients; the Finite Element Method, particularly, the OCA-II FEM code. By using this method it was possible to demonstrate, for this event, a safe operating condition for the end of life of the RPV, with regard to brittle fracture risk. 6 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  4. Sailing Vessel Routing Considering Safety Zone and Penalty Time for Altering Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zyczkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce new model for simulation sea vessel routing. Besides a vessel types (polar diagram and weather forecast, travel security and the number of maneuvers are considered. Based on these data both the minimal travelling costs and the minimal processing time are found for different vessels and different routes. To test our model the applications SailingAssistance wad improved. The obtained results shows that we can obtain quite acceptable results.

  5. Study of evaluation methods for in-vessel corium retention through external vessel cooling and safety of reactor cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Huh, Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-03-15

    Cooling methodologies for the molten corium resulted from the severe accident of the Nuclear Power Plant is suggested as one of most important items for the safety of the NPP. In this regard, considerable experimental and analytical works have been devoted. In the second phase of this project, current status of research about corium-concrete interaction and corium coolability which can occur on the reactor cavity has been surveyed, and the researches about lower head failure mechanism have also been surveyed. And, severe accident analysis for Ulchin 3 and 4 has been conducted, and collapse load of lower head has been analyzed through structural analysis considering various heat transfer conditions. The results of accident analysis can be used as a basic input for structural analysis which will be conducted in 3rd phase of this study.

  6. Acceptable risk in reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.R.; Shinozuka, M.; Shah, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Acceptable risk is defined in terms of its five basic parameters: the hazard or problem; the probability of occurrence; the consequence; the possible alternative actions; and the value system of the community or the society. The problem of consistency in design at a site and between differing sites is discussed and solutions are suggested. Techniques for consistent deterministic and probabilistic setting limits and design standards are illustrated using data from AEC Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400. The influence of level of consequence is discussed and a general methodology for decision analysis in resource allocation problem is briefly introduced and illustrated. The concept of acceptable risk is put in a quantitative format that can be used by engineers and planners. Bayesian statistical methods are introduced to develop the methodologies

  7. Coupling finite elements and reliability methods - application to safety evaluation of pressurized water reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, P.; Venturini, V.

    1995-02-01

    When reliability studies are extended form deterministic calculations in mechanics, it is necessary to take into account input parameters variabilities which are linked to the different sources of uncertainty. Integrals must then be calculated to evaluate the failure risk. This can be performed either by simulation methods, or by approximations ones (FORM/SORM). Model in mechanics often require to perform calculation codes. These ones must then be coupled with the reliability calculations. Theses codes can involve large calculation times when they are invoked numerous times during simulations sequences or in complex iterative procedures. Response surface method gives an approximation of the real response from a reduced number of points for which the finite element code is run. Thus, when it is combined with FORM/SORM methods, a coupling can be carried out which gives results in a reasonable calculation time. An application of response surface method to mechanics reliability coupling for a mechanical model which calls for a finite element code is presented. It corresponds to a probabilistic fracture mechanics study of a pressurized water reactor vessel. (authors). 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. Passive safety features of low sodium void worth metal fueled cores in a bottom supported reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Wade, D.C.; Wigeland, R.A.; Kumaoka, Yoshio; Suzuki, Masao; Endo, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    A study has been performed on the passive safety features of low-sodium-void-worth metallic-fueled reactors with emphasis on using a bottom-supported reactor vessel design. The reactor core designs included self-sufficient types as well as actinide burners. The analyses covered the reactor response to the unprotected, i.e. unscrammed, transient overpower accident and the loss-of-flow accident. Results are given demonstrating the safety margins that were attained. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Risk communication activities toward nuclear safety in Tokai: your safety is our safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, T.

    2007-01-01

    As several decades have passed since the construction of nuclear power plants began, residents have become gradually less interested in nuclear safety. The Tokai criticality accident in 1909, however, had roused residents in Tokai-Mura to realize that they live with nuclear technology risks. To prepare a field of risk communication, the Tokai-Mura C 3 project began as a pilot research project supported by NISA. Alter the project ended, we are continuing risk. communication activities as a non-profit organisation. The most important activity of C 3 project is the citizen's inspection programme for nuclear related facilities. This programme was decided by participants who voluntarily applied to the project. The concept of the citizen's inspection programme is 'not the usual facility tours'. Participants are involved from the planning stage and continue to communicate with workers of the inspected nuclear facility. Since 2003, we have conducted six programmes for five nuclear related organisations. Participants evaluated that radiation protection measures were near good but there were some problems concerning the worker's safety and safety culture, and proposed a mixture of advice based on personal experience. Some advice was accepted and it did improve the facility's safety measures. Other suggestions were not agreed upon by nuclear organisations. The reason lies in the difference of concept between the nuclear expert's 'safety' and the citizen's 'safety'. Residents do not worry about radiation only, but also about the facility's safety as a whole including the worker's safety. They say, 'If the workers are not safe, you also are unable to protect us'. Although the disagreement remained, the participants and the nuclear industry learned much about each other. Participating citizens received a substantial amount of knowledge about the nuclear industry and its safety measures, and feel the credibility and openness of the nuclear industry. On the other hand, the nuclear

  10. Toward introduction of risk informed safety regulation. Nuclear Safety Commission taskforce's interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Safety Commission's taskforce on 'Introduction of Safety Regulation Utilizing Risk Information' completed the interim report on its future subjects and directions in December 2005. Although current safety regulatory activities have been based on deterministic approach, this report shows the risk informed approach is expected to be very useful for making nuclear safety regulation and assurance activities reasonable and also for appropriate allocation of regulatory resources. For introduction of risk informed regulation, it also recommends pileups of experiences with gradual introduction and trial of the risk informed approach, improvement of plant maintenance rules and regulatory requirements utilizing risk information, and establishment of framework to assure quality of risk evaluation. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  12. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  13. Safety measure S 05 'Sump clogging risk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper dealt with the safety measure S 05 'Sump clogging risk'. Problem specification contains: (1) to determine the effective strainer surface needed to be available in order to assure sufficient coolant volumes for a reliable operation of emergency systems; (2) to determine quantity and structure of insulation material which can be dislodged and can induce strained clogging; (3) to verify properties of insulation material with regard to its thermal degradation as a result of a long-term reactor unit operation; (4) to design and erect strainers so to assure sufficient congestion of emergency pump intake lines in post-accident regimes; (5) to design seismically resistant strainers with a capability to resist dynamic impacts from adjacent piping; (6) to assure monitoring of the strainer condition in real time with signals sent to the main control room

  14. Discussion on the safety production risk managmeent of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Luo Yun; Hu Penghua; Zhu Disi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the modern safety risk management theories and according to the actual situation, risk management for work safety in uranium mines is discussed from three aspects: risk identification,risk analysis and evaluation, and risk control. Referring to the '4M(Men,Machine,Medium,Management) factors' and 'Three types of hazards' theory, the classification of uranium mine accidents and risk factors are analyzed. In addition, the types and evaluation indexes of major risks of uranium mines as well as the 'spot, line, area' model of risk identification and analysis and the 'hierarchical' risk control mechanism are also studied. (authors)

  15. VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN): Innovative Vascular Mappings for Astronaut Exploration Health Risks and Human Terrestrial Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Kao, David; Valizadegan, Hamed; Martin, Rodney; Murray, Matthew C.; Ramesh, Sneha; Sekaran, Srinivaas

    2017-01-01

    Currently, astronauts face significant health risks in future long-duration exploration missions such as colonizing the Moon and traveling to Mars. Numerous risks include greatly increased radiation exposures beyond the low earth orbit (LEO) of the ISS, and visual and ocular impairments in response to microgravity environments. The cardiovascular system is a key mediator in human physiological responses to radiation and microgravity. Moreover, blood vessels are necessarily involved in the progression and treatment of vascular-dependent terrestrial diseases such as cancer, coronary vessel disease, wound-healing, reproductive disorders, and diabetes. NASA developed an innovative, globally requested beta-level software, VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) to map and quantify vascular remodeling for application to astronaut and terrestrial health challenges. VESGEN mappings of branching vascular trees and networks are based on a weighted multi-parametric analysis derived from vascular physiological branching rules. Complex vascular branching patterns are determined by biological signaling mechanisms together with the fluid mechanics of multi-phase laminar blood flow.

  16. Mitigating construction safety risks using prevention through design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Roca, Xavier; Fuertes, Alba

    2010-04-01

    Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made prior to work at construction sites can influence construction worker safety. However, it has also been argued that most architects and design engineers possess neither the knowledge of construction safety nor the knowledge of construction processes necessary to effectively perform Construction Hazards Prevention through Design (CHPtD). This paper introduces a quantitative methodology that supports designers by providing a way to evaluate the safety-related performance of residential construction designs using a risk analysis-based approach. The methodology compares the overall safety risk level of various construction designs and ranks the significance of the various safety risks of each of these designs. The methodology also compares the absolute importance of a particular safety risk in various construction designs. Because the methodology identifies the relevance of each safety risk at a particular site prior to the construction stage, significant risks are highlighted in advance. Thus, a range of measures for mitigating safety risks can then be implemented during on-site construction. The methodology is specially worthwhile for designers, who can compare construction techniques and systems during the design phase and determine the corresponding level of safety risk without their creative talents being restricted. By using this methodology, construction companies can improve their on-site safety performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A risk informed safety classification for a Nordic NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenkaelae, K.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes a study to develop a safety classification proposal or classi- fication recommendations based on risks for selected equipment of a nuclear power plant. The application plant in this work is Loviisa NPP unit 1. The safety classification proposals are to be considered as an exercise in this pilot study and do not necessarily represent final proposals in a real situation. Comparisons to original safety classifications and technical specifications were made. The study concludes that it is possible to change safety classes or safety signifi- cances as considered in technical specifications and in in-service-inspections into both directions without endangering the safety or even by improving the safety. (au)

  18. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wearout of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1119 documents ageing assessment and management practices for PWR Reactor Vessel Internals (RVIs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of baffle-former bolts, which threatened the integrity of the vessel internals. In addition, concern of fretting wear of control rod guide tubes has been raised in Japan. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1119 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update relevant sections of the existing IAEA-TECDOC- 1119 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RVIs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR safety in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  19. Evaluation of the Structural Safety of a Vessel with Different Material(Cr-13)-Supplemented Screw Thread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Hoon; Bae, Jun Ho; Kim, Chul [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The dome and neck part of a vessel is generally formed by a hot spinning process with a seamless tube. However, as studies on and design data from the hot spinning process are insufficient, this process has been performed based on trial and error and the experiences of field engineers. Changes in the inner diameter from the bottom to the top of the neck have occurred mainly because of the characteristics of the hot spinning process due to the high-speed rotation of the rollers. In this study, a theoretical and finite element analysis of the vessel is conducted with different material(Cr-13)-supplemented screw threads for tapping and to reduce shape errors. Based on the results, the structural safety under the operating conditions is evaluated.

  20. Resolution of the reactor vessel materials toughness safety issue; Task Action Plan A-11; Appendices C-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    The central problem in the Unresolved Safety Issue A-11, 'Reactor Vessel Materials Toughness,' was to provide guidance in performing analyses for reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) which fail to meet the toughness requirements during service life as a result of neutron radiation embrittlement. A technical team of recognized experts was organized to assist the NRC staff in addressing the problem. Using the foundation of the tearing modulus concept, which has been developed under earlier NRC sponsorship, relationships were obtained which provided approximate solutions to the RPV fracture problem with assumed beltline region flaws. Volume I of this report is a brief presentation of the problem and the results; Volume II provides the detailed technical foundations

  1. Discussion about risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yeyi

    2008-01-01

    The article introduces the background and status quo of regulations on the nuclear safety in China, and points out the inadequacies existing with the current regulations. The author explains the risk-informed safety management concerning its development, status quo, and achievements made, in an attempt to make out the trend of improving regulations on the nuclear safety through risk-informed methods. Combining the U.S. development program of establishing risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety, the author narrates principles and features of the new regulations system, and provides suggestions for the promotion of risk-informed safety management and establishment of risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety. (author)

  2. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Minimizing risks of maritime oil transport by holistic safety strategies (MIMIC) Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Dahlbo, Kim; Aps, Robert

    the costeffectiveness of different types of risk control options in reducing the risks of oil accidents. The cost-effectiveness of the ENSI (Enhanced Navigation Support Information) service, compulsory pilotage, and improved crashworthiness of ships was evaluated. According to the results, the ENSI service is the most......, and the consequent oil outflow  - evaluated optional measures to control oil accident risks and produced a related decision support model  - developed tools for estimating the length of oiled shoreline after an accident  - developed tools for examining the recovery efficiency and optimal disposition of Finnish...... oil combating vessels and for forecasting the clean-up costs of oil spills  - improved operational tools for guiding oil combating activities  - identified and assessed security threats and pondered their connection to safety - analysed the prevailing regulatory system related to maritime safety...

  4. 33 CFR 165.114 - Safety and Security Zones: Escorted Vessels-Boston Harbor, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.114 Safety and Security Zones: Escorted Vessels—Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. (a...

  5. Aging impact on the safety and operability of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation embrittlement causes a loss of reactor vessel material fracture toughness as nuclear plants age. Fracture mechanics based regulatory requirements limit the permissible level of irradiation embrittlement such that essential fracture prevention margins are maintained throughout the plant operating life. This paper reviews the regulatory requirements and the underlying fracture mechanics technology. Issues identified with that technology are identified and research programs implemented to resolve the issues are described. Where possible, an assessment is given of the anticipated impact on the research program output will have on the reactor vessel fracture-margin assessment process

  6. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    . The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The report addresses the reactor pressure vessel internals in BWRs. Maintaining the structural integrity of these reactor pressure vessel internals throughout NPP service life, in spite of several ageing mechanisms, is essential for plant safety

  7. Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components

  8. Applications of probabilistic risk analysis in nuclear criticality safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Many documents have been prepared that try to define the scope of the criticality analysis and that suggest adding probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to the deterministic safety analysis. The report of the US Department of Energy (DOE) AL 5481.1B suggested that an accident is credible if the occurrence probability is >1 x 10 -6 /yr. The draft DOE 5480 safety analysis report suggested that safety analyses should include the application of methods such as deterministic safety analysis, risk assessment, reliability engineering, common-cause failure analysis, human reliability analysis, and human factor safety analysis techniques. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) report NRC SG830.110 suggested that major safety analysis methods should include but not be limited to risk assessment, reliability engineering, and human factor safety analysis. All of these suggestions have recommended including PRA in the traditional criticality analysis

  9. 76 FR 30374 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... http://www.regulations.gov on or before July 25, 2011 or reach the Docket Management Facility by that... that occur on the vessel, and provide law enforcement officials in the course and scope of an... industry best practices for placement and retention of video recording devices exist? If yes, please...

  10. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... DWTF vessel owner/operator may demonstrate such non-availability, namely by recounting the good faith... Authorization Act (CGAA, signed into law (Pub. L. 111-281) on October 15, 2010) reauthorized the use of foreign... wording ``to the extent practicable.'' However, since licensed positions often have contracts associated...

  11. Communicating on risk and safety in terms of awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, L.; Andersson, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    'Safety awareness' is proposed as a possibly constructive concept for the purpose of promoting initiatives in nuclear safety work and gaining improved understanding when communicating on nuclear safety. Safety is thus conceived as resulting essentially from and actually constituting awareness of critical factors in regard of safety. The concept aims specifically at promoting the view of 'safety' as 'awareness of required conditions for being in control of risk'. It aims as well at making clearer sense in calling for constant improvement of safety, according to practice in a safety culture. This proposed view would be expected to lead to applying the usual types of safety criteria but offers the merit of attracting due attention to 'awareness goals' in process oriented safety management which are fundamental to maintaining and improving safety. Applications are discussed in regard of communicating on nuclear safety between decision-makers and the general public, developing and maintaining safety culture, integrating specialist expert contributions in over-all safety assessment, setting safety goals and using safety indicators

  12. University building safety index measurement using risk and implementation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Arumsari, F.; Maryani, A.

    2018-04-01

    Many high rise building constructed in several universities in Indonesia. The high-rise building management must provide the safety planning and proper safety equipment in each part of the building. Unfortunately, most of the university in Indonesia have not been applying safety policy yet and less awareness on treating safety facilities. Several fire accidents in university showed that some significant risk should be managed by the building management. This research developed a framework for measuring the high rise building safety index in university The framework is not only assessed the risk magnitude but also designed modular building safety checklist for measuring the safety implementation level. The safety checklist has been developed for 8 types of the university rooms, i.e.: office, classroom, 4 type of laboratories, canteen, and library. University building safety index determined using risk-implementation matrix by measuring the risk magnitude and assessing the safety implementation level. Building Safety Index measurement has been applied in 4 high rise buildings in ITS Campus. The building assessment showed that the rectorate building in secure condition and chemical department building in beware condition. While the library and administration center building was in less secure condition.

  13. Risk allocation approach to reactor safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcek, O.; Temme, M.I.; Derby, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a risk allocation technique used for determining nuclear power plant design reliability requirements. The concept of risk allocation-optimum choice of safety function reliabilities under a maximum risk constraint - is described. An example of risk allocation is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology

  14. Resolution of the Task A-11 reactor-vessel materials-toughness safety issue. Appendices C-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The central problem in the unresolved safety issue A-11, Reactor Vessel Materials Toughness, was to provide guidance in performing analyses required by 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix G, Section V.C. for reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) which fail to meet the toughness requirement during service life as a result of neutron radiation embrittlement. Although the methods of linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) were adequate for low-temperature RPV problems, they were inapplicable under operating conditions because vessel steels, even those which exhibit less than 50 ft-lb of C/sub v/ energy, were relatively tough at temperatures where the impact energy reached its upper shelf values. A technical team of recognized experts was organized to assist the NRC staff in addressing the problem. Using the foundation of the tearing modulus concept, which had been developed under earlier NRC sponsorship, relationships were obtained which provided approximate solutions to the problem of RPV fracture with assumed beltline region flaws. The first paper of this report is a summary of the problem, the solutions, and the results of verification analyses. The details are provided in a series of appendices in Volumes I and II

  15. New method of safety assessment for pressure vessel of nuclear power plant--brief introduction of master curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wendou

    2011-01-01

    The new Master Curve Method is called as a revolutionary advance to the assessment of- reactor pressure vessel integrity in USA. This paper explains the origin, basis and standard of the Master Curve from the reactor pressure-temperature limit curve which assures the safety of nuclear power plant. According to the characteristics of brittle fracture which is greatly susceptible to the microstructure, the theory and the test method of the Master Curve as well as its statistical law which can be modeled using Weibull distribution are described in this paper. The meaning, advantage, application and importance of the Master Curve as well as the relation between the Master Curve and nuclear power safety are understood from the fitting formula for the fracture toughness database by Weibull distribution model. (author)

  16. Categorization of reactor safety issues from a risk perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to identify and rank reactor safety and risk issues identified from past Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and other safety analyses. Because of the varied scope of these analyses, the list of issues may be incomplete. Nevertheless, those studies comprised ordered analyses to whatever their respective depths; hence, they warranted scrutiny for whatever insights they could reveal with respect to issue importance. The top-ranked issues in terms of their contribution to the uncertainty in risk are described in some detail. All of these risk issues are compared to the generic safety issues for completeness and omissions

  17. Nuclear safety risk control in the outage of CANDU unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingliang; Zheng Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fuel remains in the core during the outage of CANDU unit, but there are still nuclear safety risks such as reactor accidental criticality, fuel element failure due to inability to properly remove residual heat. Furthermore, these risks are aggravated by the weakening plant system configuration and multiple cross operations during the outage. This paper analyzes the phases where there are potential nuclear safety risks on the basis of the typical critical path arrangement of the outage of Qinshan NPP 3 and introduces a series of CANDU-specific risk control measures taken during the past plant outages to ensure nuclear safety during the unit outage. (authors)

  18. Safety vs. reputation: risk controversies in emerging policy networks regarding school safety in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, J.; Kingma, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with risk controversies in emerging policy networks regarding school safety in the Netherlands. It offers a grounded account of the interpretations of school risks and safety measures by the various stakeholders of the policy network, in particular, schools, local government and

  19. The risk of coronary heart disease of seafarers on vessels sailing under a German flag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Jensen, Hans-Joachim; Latza, Ute; Baur, Xaver

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among seafarers on German-flagged vessels and to assess the association of shipboard job duration at sea with the risk of CHD. During the legally required medical fitness test for nautical service, 161 seafarers in Hamburg participated in a cross-sectional study which included an interview, blood sampling, and blood pressure measurements (response 84.9%). The predicted 10-year risk of an acute coronary event of the examined German seafarers aged 35 to 64 years (n = 46) was assessed in comparison with a sample of male German employees of the same age working ashore (PROCAM study). The number of independent CHD risk factors (according to the PROCAM study) was compared in the groups with 'shorter' and 'longer' median shipboard job duration at sea (15.0 years). The examined German seafarers had a similar age-standardized predicted 10-year CHD risk as the German reference population. Nearly all independent CHD risk factors were significantly more frequent in seamen with job duration at sea of ≥ 15 years than in those with 〈 15 years. After adjusting for age, the number of CHD risk factors was associated with job duration (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.14] per year). Seafarers on German-flagged ships have to attend a medical fitness test for nautical service every 2 years. Thus, it can be assumed that seafarers present a healthier population than employees ashore. In this study, however, CHD risk of seafarers was similar to that of the reference population. This may indicate that working onboard implies a high coronary risk. Furthermore, the study results suggest a tendency of increased risk of CHD among seafarers with longer job duration at sea.

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers, and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety, which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant

  1. Risk assessment of safety violations for coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Orsulaka; Vladislav Kecojevicb; Larry Graysona; Antonio Nietoa [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept of Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2010-09-15

    This article presents an application of a risk assessment approach in characterising the risks associated with safety violations in underground bituminous mines in Pennsylvania using the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) citation database. The MSHA database on citations provides an opportunity to assess risks in mines through scrutiny of violations of mandatory safety standards. In this study, quantitative risk assessment is performed, which allows determination of the frequency of occurrence of safety violations (through associated citations) as well as the consequences of them in terms of penalty assessments. Focus is on establishing risk matrices on citation experiences of mines, which can give early indication of emerging potentially serious problems. The resulting frequency, consequence and risk rankings present valuable tools for prioritising resource allocations, determining control strategies, and could potentially contribute to more proactive prevention of incidents and injuries.

  2. Consistency between analytical and finite element predictions for safety of cylindrical pressure vessels at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, Otto Theodor

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of the plastic collapse load of cylindrical pressure vessels is very often made by using expensive Finite Element computations. The calculation of the collapse load requires an elastic-plastic material model and the consideration of non-linear geometry effects. The plastic collapse load causes overall structural instability and cannot be determined directly from a Finite Element analysis. In the present paper the plastic collapse load for a cylindrical pressure vessel is determined by an analytical method based on a linear elastic perfectly plastic material model. When plasticity occurs the material is considered to be incompressible and the tensor of plastic strains to be parallel to the stress deviator tensor. In this case the finite stress-strain relationships of Henkel can be used for calculating the pressure for which plastic flow occurs. The analytical results are completely confirmed by Finite Element predictions. (orig.)

  3. Effectiveness of In-Vessel Retention Strategies and Minimum Safety Injection Flow over Postulated Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Joong; Seo, Seungwon; Lee, Seongnyeon [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); KIm, Hwan Yeol; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Jonghwa; Park, Raejoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The objective of this study is first to evaluate various serious severe accident scenarios of OPR1000 with and without in-vessel retention strategies using MELCOR code. Second is to develop a mechanistic model of minimum safety injection flow using the thermal-hydraulic parameters of CET and collapsed water level obtained from the MELCOR simulation results. Effectiveness of RCS depressurization of OPR1000 is investigated for postulated severe accidents of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOF. It is seen that timely operator action is important to achieve the best mitigation. Also The MELCOR simulation results of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW are utilized to develop a model for minimum safety injection flow. The model suggests that if HPSI is available with RCS pressure lower than 120 bars, the core coolability can be guaranteed. In this study, several MELCOR simulations are conducted in search for effective in-vessel retention strategies over postulated severe accidents of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW of OPR1000. Detailed accident sequences are presented and indicative parameters diagnosing the reactor thermal-hydraulic state are interrogated to provide useful information to the operator actions. To properly assist operator's action during the severe accident, the thermal-hydraulic parameters should be virtual, intuitive, and reliable. In addition, the parameters should be collected through the instrumentations close to the reactor core. In this regard, Core Exit Temperature (CET) and collapsed core water level are deemed as the commensurate parameters.

  4. Effectiveness of In-Vessel Retention Strategies and Minimum Safety Injection Flow over Postulated Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Joong; Seo, Seungwon; Lee, Seongnyeon; KIm, Hwan Yeol; Ha, Kwang Soon; Park, Jonghwa; Park, Raejoon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is first to evaluate various serious severe accident scenarios of OPR1000 with and without in-vessel retention strategies using MELCOR code. Second is to develop a mechanistic model of minimum safety injection flow using the thermal-hydraulic parameters of CET and collapsed water level obtained from the MELCOR simulation results. Effectiveness of RCS depressurization of OPR1000 is investigated for postulated severe accidents of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOF. It is seen that timely operator action is important to achieve the best mitigation. Also The MELCOR simulation results of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW are utilized to develop a model for minimum safety injection flow. The model suggests that if HPSI is available with RCS pressure lower than 120 bars, the core coolability can be guaranteed. In this study, several MELCOR simulations are conducted in search for effective in-vessel retention strategies over postulated severe accidents of SBLOCA, SBO, and TLOFW of OPR1000. Detailed accident sequences are presented and indicative parameters diagnosing the reactor thermal-hydraulic state are interrogated to provide useful information to the operator actions. To properly assist operator's action during the severe accident, the thermal-hydraulic parameters should be virtual, intuitive, and reliable. In addition, the parameters should be collected through the instrumentations close to the reactor core. In this regard, Core Exit Temperature (CET) and collapsed core water level are deemed as the commensurate parameters

  5. Contribution of materials investigations and operating experience of reactor vessel internals to PWRs' safety, performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, E.; Monteil, N.; Jardin, N.; Doll, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel Internals (RVI) include all the components inside the pressure vessel, except the nuclear fuel, the rod cluster assemblies and the instrumentation. The RVI consist of bolted and welded structures that are divided into two sub-assemblies: the upper internals which are removed at every refueling outage and the lower internals which are systematically removed for inspection at every 10-year outage. The main functions of the RVI are to position the core, to support it, and to provide a coolant flow by channeling the fluid. Moreover, the lower internals contribute to a neutron protection of the reactor pressure vessel by absorbing most of the neutron flux from the core. Depending on their location and material composition, the RVI components can face different ageing phenomena, that are actual or potential (such as wear, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking, hardening and loss of ductility due to neutron irradiation, irradiation creep and irradiation swelling). EDF has developed a strategy for managing ageing and demonstrating the capacity of the RVI to perform their design functions over 40 years of operation. This overall approach is periodically revisited to take into account the most recent knowledge obtained from the following main topics: Safety Analyses, Research-Development programs, In-Service Inspection (ISI) results, Maintenance programs and Metallurgical Examinations. Based on continuous improvements in those fields, the goal of this paper is to present the way that materials investigations and operating experience obtained on RVI are managed by EDF to improve RVI safety, performance and reliability. It is shown that a perspective of 60 years of operation of RVI components is supported by large Research-Development efforts combined with field experience. (authors)

  6. 77 FR 21866 - Safety Zone; Sunken Vessel, Puget Sound, Everett, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone around the Vigor Marine Dry Dock... dry dock and associated debris, and to ensure the safety of the salvage crews on scene. It will do so... of the Port or his Designated Representative. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on April 12...

  7. Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) Marine Safety Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    NMSRA National Maritime Strategic Risk Assessment NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking PFD Personal flotation device PIW Person in the water PWC...barriers’ purpose is to limit the spread of various nuisance species, with a more-recent emphasis on preventing the “lake-ward” influx of silver and...crewmembers at risk of falling overboard, anyone on open decks was required to wear a Type 1 personal flotation device (PFD). • Commercial towing vessels

  8. Comprehensive safety analysis code system for nuclear fusion reactors III: Ex-vessel LOCA analyses considering passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Okazaki, T.; Maki, K.; Uda, T.; Seki, Y.; Aoki, I.; Kunugi, T.

    1996-01-01

    Ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in a fusion reactor have been analyzed to investigate the possibility of passive plasma shutdown. For this purpose, a hybrid code of the plasma dynamics and thermal characteristics of the reactor structures, which has been modified to include the impurity emission from plasma-facing components (PFCs), has been developed. Ex-vessel LOCAs of the cooling system during the ignition operation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in which graphite PFCs were employed in conceptual design activity, were assumed. When double-ended break occurs at the cold leg of the divertor cooling system, the copper cooling tube begins to melt within 3 s after the LOCA, even though the plasma is passively shut down at nearly 4 s. An active plasma shutdown system will be needed for such rapid transient accidents. On the other hand, when a small (1%) break LOCA occurs there, the plasma is passively shut down at nearly 36 s, which happens before the copper cooling tube begins to melt. When the double-ended break LOCA occurs at the cold leg of the first-wall cooling system, there is enough time (nearly 100 s) to shut down the plasma with a controllable method before the reactor structures are damaged. 21 refs., 8 figs

  9. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  10. Safety analyses for transient behavior of plasma and in-vessel components during plasma abnormal events in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Okazaki, Takashi; Bartels, H.W.; Uckan, N.A.; Seki, Yasushi.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analyses on plasma abnormal events have been performed using a hybrid code of a plasma dynamics model and a heat transfer model of in-vessel components. Several abnormal events, e.g., increase in fueling rate, were selected for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and transient behavior of the plasma and the invessel components during the events was analyzed. The physics model for safety analysis was conservatively prepared. In most cases, the plasma is terminated by a disruption or it returns to the original operation point. When the energy confinement improves by a factor of 2.0 in the steady state, which is a hypothetical assumption under the present plasma data, the maximum fusion power reaches about 3.3 GW at about 3.6 s and the plasma is terminated due to a disruption. However, the results obtained in this study show the confinement boundary of ITER can be kept almost intact during the abnormal plasma transients, as long as the cooling system works normally. Several parametric studies are needed to comprehend the overpower transient including structure behavior, since many uncertainties are connected to the filed of the plasma physics. And, future work will need to discuss the burn control scenario considering confinement mode transition, system specifications, experimental plans and safety regulations, etc. to confirm the safety related to the plasma anomaly. (author)

  11. Safety Goal, Multi-unit Risk and PSA Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon-Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The safety goal is an answer of each country to the question 'How safe is safe enough?'. Table 1 shows some examples of the safety goal. However, many countries including Korea do not have the official safety goal for NPPs up to now since the establishment of safety goal is not just a technical issue but a very complex socio-technical issue. In establishing the safety goal for nuclear facilities, we have to consider various factors including not only technical aspects but also social, cultural ones. Recently, Korea is trying to establish the official safety goal. In this paper, we will review the relationship between the safety goal and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). We will also address some important technical issues to be considered in establishing the safety goal for NPPs from PSA point of view, i.e. a multi-unit risk issue and the uncertainty of PSA. In this paper, we reviewed some issues related to the safety goal and PSA. We believe that the safety goal is to be established in Korea considering the multi-unit risk. In addition, the relationship between the safety goal and PSA should be also defined clearly since PSA is the only way to answer to the question 'How safe is safe enough?'.

  12. Making the link between radiological assessment, nuclear safety assessment and environmental impact assessment, as applied to unloading of the Lepse spent fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham M.; Sneve, Malgorzata K.; Markarov, Valentine G.

    2000-01-01

    Planning and optimisation of radioactive waste management operations is a complicated task involving scientific, technical and social issues. There are many factors which have to be balanced, involving trade-offs such as those between safety now and long term safety; between protection of human health and protection of the environment as a whole; between protection of workers and protection of the public; and between mitigation of risks of major accidents and mitigation of routine low-level but certain to occur risks. Managing the spent fuel currently stored on the Lepse vessel in Murmansk offers as big a challenge as any other in this context. The Russian Federation state regulatory process imposes strict requirements on operators to demonstrate adequate safety, environmental and human health protection. Practically, however, there is little experience in Russia or elsewhere on how to combine all the issues referred to above within an overall assessment that leads to informed decision making. The paper will describe the components of assessment work being considered within the context of the regulatory planning of Lepse unloading operations. The scope will focus on radiation protection issues but also include non-radioactive pollution risks and other safety issues have to be taken into account if a truly optimal allocation and application of resources is to be made. Consideration will be given to radiation worker dose and other health risk assessments for routine operations, safety assessments of special operations such as spent fuel handling; and the radiological and other environmental and human health impacts of planned releases of effluents to the biosphere. The need to identify and collate particular relevant information will discussed and the links between the different components of the overall assessment will be identified with a view to improving the overall effectiveness of the assessment process. The problem of combining all the information coherently

  13. Proactive Management of Aviation System Safety Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation safety systems have undergone dramatic changes over the past fifty years. If you take a look at the early technology in this area, you'll see that there was...

  14. Prestressed safety enclosure (PSE) with metallic cushion for new or existing reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    The special technology required to build the conventional types of thickwalled forged nuclear reactor pressure vessels is mastered only by a few large world-class manufactures. In order eventually to make it possible for other less established manufacturers, for example, those in newly industrialized nations, to construct nuclear RPVS or containers with large diameter for high pressures and which can tolerate large thermal gradients, an improved novel concept of a prestressed cast-iron container with multilayer shells and interlayer metallic cushions is being developed and is described in this paper. (author)

  15. Risk assessment and safety regulations in offshore oil and gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management of which risk assessment is part, and safety regulations are common in the offshore oil and gas industry management system. The process of conducting risk assessment is mostly a challenge for operational personnel assigned to perform this function. The most significant problem is the decision to use ...

  16. Occupational safety and health management and risk governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, A.; Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in new technologies, substances and new ways of working make it necessary to look beyond traditional methods of risk management. General drivers to emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) risks are: globalisation; demographic changes; technical innovations; changes in risk

  17. Psychological aspects of food safety risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    signals, motivating approach. Novelty, and the detection of certain olfactory and visual cues associated with spoilage or contamination, act as orientation or threat signals and motivate closer inspection or avoidance. Anticipatory affects are an inherent part of these behaviour regulation systems...... problematic food safety behaviours are likely to occur. The presentation will begin with an overview of the relevant psychological mechanisms that regulate approach and avoidance behaviour with respect to potentially hazardous foods. Learned representations of familiarity and reward value act as safety...

  18. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: BWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    . The guidance reports are directed at technical experts from NPPs and from regulatory, plant design, manufacturing and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. This report addresses the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in BWRs. Maintaining the structural integrity of this RPV throughout NPP service life in spite of several ageing mechanisms is essential for plant safety

  19. Operational Risk Management and Military Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Park

    1999-01-01

    .... The Army's Class A aviation mishap rate declined after it implemented risk management (RM) principles in 1987. This reduction caught the attention of Air Force leadership who have since stated that the application of operational risk management...

  20. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels. 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that effective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g. caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) is one of the most important issues for plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. IAEA-TECDOC-1120 documented ageing assessment and management practices for pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) that were current at the time of its finalization in 1997-1998. Safety significant operating events have occurred since the finalization of the TECDOC, e.g. primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) penetrations and boric acid corrosion/wastage of RPV heads, which threatened the integrity of the RPV heads. These events led to new ageing management actions by both NPP operators and regulators. Therefore it was recognized that IAEA-TECDOC-1120 should be updated by incorporating those new events and their countermeasures. The objective of this report is to update IAEA-TECDOC-1120 in order to provide current ageing management guidance for PWR RPVs to all involved in the operation and regulation of PWRs and thus to help ensure PWR RPV integrity in IAEA Member States throughout their entire service life

  1. Management of safety and risk at the HFIR [High-Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glovier, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the management of safety and risk at the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), a category A research reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HFIR went critical in 1966 and operated at its designed 100 MW for 20 yr until it was shut down on November 14, 1986. It operated at a >90% availability and without significant event during this period. The result was a complacent management program lacking rigor. This complacency came to an end with the Chernobyl accident, which led to the appointment of an internal committee to assess the safety of ORNL reactor operations. This committee found that HFIR pressure vessel material specimens removed several years earlier had not been analyzed. This issue led to a general review of management practices that were found lacking in quality assurance, safety documentation, training process, and emergency planning, among others. Management accountability was lacking, as shown by design basis and safety analyses that were not up to data and by the fact that reactor operators whose requalification examinations had not been graded were allowed to continue operating the reactor over a long period of time. Between shutdown in 1986 and restart in April 1989, significant management changes and initiatives were made in the area of risk and safety management of ORNL reactors. These are presented briefly in this paper

  2. Sanitation health risk and safety planning in urban residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this review paper was to determine the best sanitation health risk and safety planning approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was achieved by reviewing the concept of sanitation safety planning as a tool. The review adopted exploratory research approach and used secondary data ...

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  4. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  5. Safety Evaluation Report: Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage, Lincoln Composites, Lincoln, NE, May 25, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, III, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kallman, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maes, Miguel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skolnik, Edward G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiner, Steven C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-12-22

    Lincoln Composites operates a facility for designing, testing, and manufacturing composite pressure vessels. Lincoln Composites also has a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to develop composite tanks for high-pressure hydrogen storage. The initial stage of this project involves testing the permeation of high-pressure hydrogen through polymer liners. The company recently moved and is constructing a dedicated research/testing laboratory at their new location. In the meantime, permeation tests are being performed in a corner of a large manufacturing facility. The safety review team visited the Lincoln Composites site on May 25, 2010. The project team presented an overview of the company and project and took the safety review team on a tour of the facility. The safety review team saw the entire process of winding a carbon fiber/resin tank on a liner, installing the boss and valves, and curing and painting the tank. The review team also saw the new laboratory that is being built for the DOE project and the temporary arrangement for the hydrogen permeation tests.

  6. Assessment and Management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of the major NPP components (e.g., caused by unanticipated phenomena and by operating, maintenance or manufacturing errors) can jeopardize plant safety and also plant life. Ageing in these NPPs must be therefore effectively managed to ensure the availability of design functions throughout the plant service life. From the safety perspective, this means controlling within acceptable limits the ageing degradation and wear-out of plant components important to safety so that adequate safety margins remain, i.e. integrity and functional capability in excess of normal operating requirements. This TECDOC is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major NPP components important to safety. The reports are based on experience and practices of NPP operators, regulators, designers, manufacturers and technical support organizations and a widely accepted Methodology for the Management of Ageing of NPP Components Important to Safety which was issued by the IAEA in 1992. The current practices for the assessment of safety margins (fitness-for-service) and the inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing degradation of selected components of Canada deuterium-uranium (CANDU) reactors, boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including water moderated, water cooled energy reactors (WWERs) are documented in the reports. These practices are intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs; and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues. Since the reports are written from a safety perspective, they do not address life or life-cycle management of the plant components, which involves the integration of

  7. Ensuring the quality of occupational safety risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Abel; Ribeiro, Rita A; Nunes, Isabel L

    2013-03-01

    In work environments, the main aim of occupational safety risk assessment (OSRA) is to improve the safety level of an installation or site by either preventing accidents and injuries or minimizing their consequences. To this end, it is of paramount importance to identify all sources of hazards and assess their potential to cause problems in the respective context. If the OSRA process is inadequate and/or not applied effectively, it results in an ineffective safety prevention program and inefficient use of resources. An appropriate OSRA is an essential component of the occupational safety risk management process in industries. In this article, we performed a survey to elicit the relative importance for identified OSRA tasks to enable an in-depth evaluation of the quality of risk assessments related to occupational safety aspects on industrial sites. The survey involved defining a questionnaire with the most important elements (tasks) for OSRA quality assessment, which was then presented to safety experts in the mining, electrical power production, transportation, and petrochemical industries. With this work, we expect to contribute to the main question of OSRA in industries: "What constitutes a good occupational safety risk assessment?" The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that experts agree with the proposed OSRA process decomposition in steps and tasks (taxonomy) and also with the importance of assigning weights to obtain knowledge about OSRA task relevance. The knowledge gained will enable us, in the near future, to build a framework to evaluate OSRA quality for industrial sites. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. How employees perceive risks and safety in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barny, M.-H.; Brenot, J.; Moreau, A.

    1992-01-01

    Employees of the French centre of Saclay have been interviewed twice in November 1984 and March 1987 about their risks at the workplace, their views on safety, their protective attitudes, and also about the Chernobyl accident in the second survey. Perceived risks are compared, safety measures and protection teams are judged, importance of the Chernobyl accident is appreciated. Differences in perception between the various professional groups are pointed out. The main results are briefly presented hereafter. (author)

  9. Safety and security risk assessments--now demystified!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    Safety/security risk assessments no longer need to spook nor baffle healthcare safety/security managers. This grid template provides at-at-glance quick lookup of the possible threats, the affected people and things, a priority ranking of these risks, and a workable solution for each risk. Using the standard document, spreadsheet, or graphics software already available on your computer, you can easily use a scientific method to produce professional looking risk assessments that get quickly understood by both senior managers and first responders alike!

  10. Therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient: safety planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Bridget B; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Wortzel, Hal S

    2014-05-01

    This column is the fourth in a series describing a model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient. Previous columns presented an overview of the therapeutic risk management model, provided recommendations for how to augment risk assessment using structured assessments, and discussed the importance of risk stratification in terms of both severity and temporality. This final column in the series discusses the safety planning intervention as a critical component of therapeutic risk management of suicide risk. We first present concerns related to the relatively common practice of using no-suicide contracts to manage risk. We then present the safety planning intervention as an alternative approach and provide recommendations for how to use this innovative strategy to therapeutically mitigate risk in the suicidal patient.

  11. Information About Dynamics of the Sea Surface as a Means to Improve Safety of the Unmanned Vessel at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przyborski Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental states of the sea surface is its heave. Despite of years of the intense scientific inquiry, no clear understanding of the influence of this aspect on the dynamics of the sea environment has emerged. The separation of two nearby fluid elements which one may observed for example as a free floating of small objects on the sea surface (rescuers on the rough sea or small research vessels is caused by the interaction of different components. On the other hand one may say that the heave of the sea is also a summary interaction of a few components describing the dynamics of the sea. Therefore it is the most important aspect, which influenced the dispersion phenomenon. This observation has important consequences for many different problems as for example conducting Search and Rescue missions and using unmanned ships. We would like to present results of our experiment focused on finding the answer to question about nature of the heave of the sea and its influence on safety of Unmanned Surface Vessels (USV.

  12. TWRS safety and technical integration risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety and Technical Integration (STI) programmatic risk management program are to assess, analyze, and handle risks associated with TWRS STI responsibilities and to communicate information about the actions being taken and the results to enable decision making. The objective of this TWRS STI Risk Management Plan is to communicate a consistent approach to risk management that will be used by the organization

  13. Safety regulations: Implications of the new risk perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, T.; Ylönen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The current safety regulations for industrial activities are to a large extent functionally oriented and risk-based (informed), expressing what to achieve rather than the means and solutions needed. They are founded on a probability-based perspective on risk, with the use of risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria and tolerability limits. In recent years several risk researchers have argued for the adoption of some new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is defined, the point being to better reflect the knowledge, and lack of knowledge, dimension of risk. The Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority has recently implemented such a perspective. The new ISO standard 31000 is based on a similar thinking. In this paper we discuss the implications of these perspectives on safety regulation, using the oil & gas and nuclear industries as illustrations. Several suggestions for how to develop the current safety regulations in line with the ideas of the new risk perspectives are outlined, including some related to the use of risk acceptance criteria (tolerability limits). We also point to potential obstacles and incentives that the larger societal and institutional setting may impose on industry as regards the adoption of the new risk perspectives. - Highlights: • Some new types of risk perspectives have been promoted. • They have been implemented for example by the Norwegian Petroleum Safety Authority. • The paper studies the implication of these perspectives on the risk regulation. • Suggestions for how to develop the regulations are provided • Obstacles and incentives for the implementation of the perspectives are pointed to.

  14. The role of risk assessment and safety analysis in integrated safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niall, R.; Hunt, M.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    To ensure that the design and operation of both nuclear and non- nuclear hazardous facilities is acceptable, and meets all societal safety expectations, a rigorous deterministic and probabilistic assessment is necessary. An approach is introduced, founded on the concept of an ''Integrated Safety Assessment.'' It merges the commonly performed safety and risk analyses and uses them in concert to provide decision makers with the necessary depth of understanding to achieve ''adequacy.'' 3 refs., 1 fig

  15. Understanding Risk Tolerance and Building an Effective Safety Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, David

    2018-01-01

    Estimates range from 65-90 percent of catastrophic mishaps are due to human error. NASA's human factors-related mishaps causes are estimated at approximately 75 percent. As much as we'd like to error-proof our work environment, even the most automated and complex technical endeavors require human interaction... and are vulnerable to human frailty. Industry and government are focusing not only on human factors integration into hazardous work environments, but also looking for practical approaches to cultivating a strong Safety Culture that diminishes risk. Industry and government organizations have recognized the value of monitoring leading indicators to identify potential risk vulnerabilities. NASA has adapted this approach to assess risk controls associated with hazardous, critical, and complex facilities. NASA's facility risk assessments integrate commercial loss control, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Process Safety, API (American Petroleum Institute) Performance Indicator Standard, and NASA Operational Readiness Inspection concepts to identify risk control vulnerabilities.

  16. Nuclear station safety standardization from a risk concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a method of standardizing safety-system reliability on an entirely new basis: all hypothetical accidents are approximated as groups, for each of which one proposes permissible frequencies on the basis of the risk concept. In this risk concept, the ''average person'' is a person living near a nuclear station or working in it, who is of average age, average state of health, and so on. Therefore, the risk can be found by summing the estimated individual risks for a particular group in the population followed by division by the number of people in that group. Basic assumptions in deriving permissible safety-system reliability are presented. Estimated permissible failure probabilities are given to illustrate the proposed method and to refine the initial data. The probabilities may also be used to lay down the reliability requirements for safety systems in particular nuclear stations on the risk basis

  17. Risk-informed, performance-based safety-security interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowca, B.; Eltawila, F.

    2012-01-01

    Safety-security interface is a term that is used as part of the commercial nuclear power security framework to promote coordination of the many potentially adverse interactions between plant security and plant safety. Its object is to prevent the compromise of either. It is also used to describe the concept of building security into a plant's design similar to the long standing practices used for safety therefore reducing the complexity of the operational security while maintaining or enhancing overall security. With this in mind, the concept of safety-security interface, when fully implemented, can influence a plant's design, operation and maintenance. It brings the approach use for plant security to one that is similar to that used for safety. Also, as with safety, the application of risk-informed techniques to fully implement and integrate safety and security is important. Just as designers and operators have applied these techniques to enhance and focus safety, these same techniques can be applied to security to not only enhance and focus the security but also to aid in the implementation of effective techniques to address the safety-security interfaces. Implementing this safety-security concept early within the design process can prevent or reduce security vulnerabilities through low cost solutions that often become difficult and expensive to retrofit later in the design and/or post construction period. These security considerations address many of the same issues as safety in ensuring that the response of equipment and plant personnel are adequate. That is, both safety and security are focused on reaching safe shutdown and preventing radiological release. However, the initiation of challenges and the progression of actions in response these challenges and even the definitions of safe shutdown can be considerably different. This paper explores the techniques and limitations that are employed to fully implement a risk-informed, safety-security interface

  18. Inherent Risk or Risky Decision? Coach's Failure to Use Safety Device an Assumed Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Mark A.; Bochicchio, Kristi Schoepfer

    2013-01-01

    The court examined whether a coach's failure to implement a safety device during pitching practice enhanced the risk to the athlete or resulted in a suboptimal playing condition, in the context of the assumption of risk doctrine.

  19. Effect of engineered safety features on the risk of hypothetical LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1978-01-01

    The risks of hypothetical core-disruptive accidents in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors which involve meltthrough of the reactor vessel are compared for two plant designs: one design without specific provisions to accommodate such an accident and the other design with an ex-vessel core catcher and a cvity hot liner. The approach to risk analysis used is that developed in the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). Since the probability of occurrence of such an event has not been evaluated, however, insight into the potential risk is gained only on a relative basis. The principal conclusions of this study are: (1) adding a core catcher--hot liner reduces the probabilty of accidents having major consequences; (2) the degree to which hot liner--core catcher systems can reduce the risk of melt-through accidents is limited by the failure probability of these systems; (3) fractional radioactive releases to the environment in the liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor accidents considered are comparable to those from the light-water reactors evaluated in WASH-1400; (4) since sodium--concrete reactions are a dominant driving force during the accident, the integrity of the cavity liner is as important as the function of the core catcher; (5) there may be other accidents or paths to radioactive releases that are not affected by the addition of a hot liner--core catcher

  20. Investigation of vessel traffic passing through the Aleutian Islands with discussion of risk factors that could lead to oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eley, D.

    2006-01-01

    The oil spill risks posed by marine vessels travelling the North Pacific route from North America to Asia were discussed with reference to the grounding and break-up of the bulk grain ship M/V Selendang Ayu at Unalaska Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The challenge of gathering and categorizing vessel traffic data in the Aleutians was also discussed along with a review of methods for developing an accurate traffic study for this large, remote maritime region. The travelling route passes through, or lies in close proximity to large and valuable commercial fishing grounds as well as the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. As most vessels remain in international waters, they do not report their presence to state and national authorities and are exempt from contingency planning requirements. This paper listed the factors affecting risk of damage from oil spills from marine vessels. These include the volume of oil carried; types of oil; proximity to environmentally sensitive areas; fate of spill; location of spill response equipment; number of vessels travelling through the area; time that vessels are in the area; type and age of vessels; environmental factors affecting sailing conditions; factors limiting rescue; and interaction with regulatory agencies. When considered as a whole, these factors can help in deciding the degree and type of contingency planning. In order to estimate traffic through the North Pacific route, the authors compared, combined and extrapolated information from similar datasets. The task involved 3 steps: (1) estimating the number of trans-Pacific voyages through the Aleutians, (2) estimating vessel type, and (3) estimating fuel oil carried by vessel type. It was determined that more than 2,700 ship voyages pass through the Aleutians every year, of which 50 carry a total of 800 million gallons of oil as cargo. It was noted that serious ship accidents occur so infrequently in remote areas that it was impossible to establish an accurate

  1. Commercial Vessel Safety. Economic Costs. Appendix A. Estimation Procedures for Costs and Cost Impacts of Marine Safety Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Subsistence: Includes the cost of all edibles , sales taxes, delivery charges, and loading costs. Stores, Supplies, and Equipment: The cost of all...consumable stores, supplies, and expendable equipment other than edibles , fuel, and water. 89 Insurance: Annual cost for H&M, P&I, and port risk for the...Products (50) 3441 3442 3444 3446 3449 105 Screw Machine Products (51) 3450 106 Metal Stampings (51) 3460 107 Cutlery , Hand Tools, Hardware (52) 3420

  2. Selection of tolerable risk criteria for dam safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.M.; Hartford, D.N.D.; MacDonald, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment has received increasing attention in recent years as a means of aiding decision making on dams by providing systematic and rational methods for dealing with risk and uncertainty. Risk assessment is controversial and decisions affecting risk to life are the most controversial. Tolerable criteria, based on the risks that society is prepared to accept in order to avoid excessive costs, set bounds within which risk-based decisions may be made. The components of risk associated with dam safety are addressed on an individual basis and criteria established for each component, thereby permitting flexibility in the balance between component risk and avoiding the problems of placing a monetary value on life. The guiding principle of individual risk is that dams do not impose intolerable risks on any individual. A risk to life of 1 in 10 4 per annum is generally considered the maximum tolerable risk. When considering societal risk, the safety of a dam should be proportional to the consequences of its failure. Risks of financial losses beyond the corporation's ability to finance should be so low as to be considered negligible. 17 refs., 3 figs

  3. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    .... The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used...

  4. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Stian [Section for Control Systems, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Stian.Ruud@dnv.com; Mikkelsen, Age [Section for Lifting Appliances, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Age.Mikkelsen@dnv.com

    2008-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented.

  5. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Stian; Mikkelsen, Age

    2008-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented

  6. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  7. Comparison of Country Risk, Sustainability and Economic Safety Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankeviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Country risk, sustainability an economic safety are becoming more important in the contemporary economic world. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of comparison formalisation of country risk, sustainability, and economic safety indices for strategic alignment. The work provides an analysis on the relationship between country risk, sustainability an economic safety in EU countries, based on statistical data. Investigations and calculations of rankings provided by Euromoney Country Risk Index, European Economic Sustainability Index as well as for Economic Security Index were made and the results of EU country ranking based on three criteria were provided. Furthermore, the data for the Baltic States was summarised and the corresponding index of consistency for random judgments was evaluated.

  8. Tolerability of risk, safety assessment principles and their implications for probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.J.F.; Campbell, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper gives a regulatory view of probabilistic safety assessment as seen by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) and in the light of the general regulatory risk aims set out in the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) The tolerability of risk from nuclear power stations (TOR) and in Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants (SAPs), prepared by NII on behalf of the HSE. Both of these publications were revised and republished in 1992. This paper describes the SAPs, together with the historical background, the motivation for review, the effects of the Sizewell and Hinkley Point C public inquiries, changes since the original versions, comparison with international standards and use in assessment. For new plant, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is seen as an essential tool in balancing the safety of the design and in demonstrating compliance with TOR and the SAPs. (Author)

  9. APOL1 Risk Alleles Are Associated With More Severe Arteriosclerosis in Renal Resistance Vessels With Aging and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hughson

    2016-05-01

    Discussion: With the limitation of the small number of subjects contributing to the positive results, the findings imply that APOL1 risk alleles recessively augment small-vessel arteriosclerosis in conjunction with age and hypertension. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was not a significant finding, indicating that in the early stages of arterionephrosclerosis, the primary pathologic influence of APOL1 genotype is vascular rather than glomerular.

  10. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; Reactor vessel lower head integrity; Evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; reactor vessel lower head integrity; and evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; Reactor vessel lower head integrity; Evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1997-02-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and thermal annealing; reactor vessel lower head integrity; and evaluation and projection of steam generator tube condition and integrity. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  12. Risk investigation for safety assessment of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.; Hoertner, H.; Kersting, E.

    1987-01-01

    The most important results of the technical system investigations for Phase B of the German Risk Study and the insight gained from them are discussed in connection with the risk analyses in judging the safety-related design. The results of the German Precursor Study for the Biblis A and B plants are given. There is also a comparison of the German with more recent American risk analyses. (DG) [de

  13. Risk based maintenance to increase safety and decrease costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Risk-Based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants for the last eight years by a team working through the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD). System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the Probabilistic Risk Analysis or Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed to meet the Individual Plant Evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for the Maintenance Rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low risk-significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. Pilot studies on risk-based testing indicate that about 60% of pumps and 25 to 30% of valves in plants are high safety-significant The reduction in inspection and testing reduces the person-rem exposure and resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publications by the ASME CRTD which are referenced. (author)

  14. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, John C

    2011-01-01

    The book has been developed in conjunction with NERS 462, a course offered every year to seniors and graduate students in the University of Michigan NERS program. The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used to analyze the unavailability of systems with repairs, fault trees and event trees used in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear a

  15. Correlation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms with the risk of small vessel disease (SVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Wusheng; Yun, Wenwei; Wang, Qizhang; Cheng, Maogang; Zhang, Zhizhong; Liu, Xinfeng; Zhou, Xianju; Xu, Gelin

    2015-09-15

    Maladjustment of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) results in cerebral vasculature and blood-brain barrier dysfunction, which is associated with small vessel disease (SVD). This study was to aim at evaluating correlations between matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk of SVD. A total of 178 patients with SVD were enrolled into this study via Nanjing Stroke Registry Program (NSRP) from January 2010 to November 2011. SVD patients were further subtyped as isolated lacunar infarction (ILI, absent or with mild leukoaraiosis) and ischemic leukoaraiosis (ILA, with moderate or severe leukoaraiosis) according to the Fazekas scale. 100 age- and gender-matched individuals from outpatient medical examination were recruited as the control group. The genotypes of MMP-2-1306 T/C and MMP-9-1562 C/T were determined by the TaqMan method. Of 178 SVD patients, 86 and 92 patients were classified as ILI and ILA, respectively. Comparison analysis between SVD patients and controls revealed a significant correlation between SVD and hypertension, as well as a prevalence of hypertension in ILA. Further genotype analysis showed that the frequency of MMP-2-1306 CC genotype was higher in ILA patients than in controls (P=0.009, χ(2) test; P=0.027, the multiple test with Bonferroni correction). Finally, logistic regression analysis with adjustment of age, sex and vascular risk factors showed that the MMP-2-1306 T/C polymorphism was an independent predictor for ILA (OR: 2.605; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.067-6.364; P=0.036). Our findings suggest that the MMP-2-1306 T/C polymorphism is a direct risk factor for ILA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and consequences of cerebral small vessel diseases: data from three Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Mok, Vincent; Youn, Young Chul; Wong, Adrian; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2017-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has been suggested to be more common in Asians compared with Caucasians. However, data from population-based studies in Asia are lacking. We report on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of SVD from contemporary studies in three Asian countries using 3-Tesla MRI for the evaluation of SVD. Clinical, cognitive and 3-Tesla brain MRI assessments were performed among participants of three studies from Singapore, Hong Kong and Korea. SVD markers include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) using the modified Fazekas scale, lacunes and microbleeds. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Adjustments were made for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 1797 subjects were available for analysis (mean age: 70.1±6.3 years and 57% women). The prevalence of confluent WMH was 36.6%, lacunes, 24.6% and microbleeds, 26.9%. Presence of all three SVD markers showed a steeper increase with increasing age rising from 1.9% in the lowest to 46.2% in the highest 5-year age strata. The major risk factors for the increased severity of SVD markers were advancing age and hypertension. Moreover, increasing severity of SVD markers was independently associated with worse performance on MMSE and MoCA. Elderly Asians have a high burden of SVD which was associated with cognitive dysfunction. This suggests that SVD markers should be a potential target for treatment in clinical trials so as to delay progression of cerebrovascular disease and potentially cognitive decline. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Risk Perception, Communication and Food Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an effective communication strategy about different food hazards depends not only on technical risk assessments (for example related to health or the environment) but must also take into account consumer perceptions and preferences. In addition, consumers make decisions about food choices

  18. Safety criteria: Intercomparison and aggregation of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.

    1987-08-01

    Review of the assumptions underlying the use of limit lines in nuclear regulation and risk comparisons led to an alternative approach, where frequency-consequence curves are divided into two components: number of accidents during a specified time period and consequences conditional upon the occurrence of an unwanted event. This approach leads to a neat separation between natural and technological disasters. To compare probability distributions when stochastic dominance principles are not applicable, risk indices based on a linearized moments model (LMM) were established. The LMM permits explicit introduction of individual, societal or group opinions, thus incorporating the various perceptions of risks by society directly into the evaluation process. A questionnaire was applied to elicit empirical data which were then compared with the predictions of the linearized moments model. Furthermore the LMM also allows the comparison of events in those cases where the cumulative probability distributions cross each other. For the evaluation of a probability distribution that crosses the limit line, the risk index of the limit line (calculated by using the LMM) should be compared to the index of the accident under consideration

  19. Risk prediction, safety analysis and quantitative probability methods - a caveat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    Views are expressed on the use of quantitative techniques for the determination of value judgements in nuclear safety assessments, hazard evaluation, and risk prediction. Caution is urged when attempts are made to quantify value judgements in the field of nuclear safety. Criteria are given the meaningful application of reliability methods but doubts are expressed about their application to safety analysis, risk prediction and design guidances for experimental or prototype plant. Doubts are also expressed about some concomitant methods of population dose evaluation. The complexities of new designs of nuclear power plants make the problem of safety assessment more difficult but some possible approaches are suggested as alternatives to the quantitative techniques criticized. (U.K.)

  20. HySTAR: the hydrogen safety training and risk workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the output of the software package HySTAR, the Hydrogen Safety, Training and Risk Workplace. This is the software output of the CTFA, Canadian Hydrogen Safety Program projects. It shows the Hydrogen Virtual Interactive Expert Workplace, a guide for permitting and code enforcement for officials and other parties involved in approving hydrogen energy facilities. It also shows the Hydrogen Codes and Standards Report (Site Level) as well as Hydrogen Distances and Clearances Report

  1. Bowtie Risk Management methodology and Modern Nuclear Safety Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilizastigui Pérez, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Report (SR) plays a crucial role within the nuclear licensing regime as the principal means for demonstrating the adequacy of safety analysis for a nuclear facility to ensure that it can be constructed, operated, maintained, shut down, and decommissioned safely and in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. It serves as the basis for granting authorizations for the commencement of the main stages of the facility’s life cycle as well as decision-making processes related to safety. Historically, the majority of nuclear safety reports have operated under rather prescriptive regimes, with emphasis placed on demonstrations of the robustness of the facility’s design (design safety) against prescriptive technical requirements set by the regulatory body, and less attention paid to demonstrating the adequacy and effectiveness of Operator’s management system for managing risks to daily operation.

  2. Risk concepts in UK nuclear safety decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighton, P.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of risk as understood in the UK, with particular reference to the use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in nuclear safety decision making. The way 'risk' appears in UK fundamental legislation means that the concept cannot be limited to evaluation of numerical probabilities of physical harm. Rather the focus is on doing all that is reasonably practicable to reduce risks: this entails applying relevant good practice and then seeking further safety measures until the money, time and trouble required are grossly disproportionate to the residual risk. PSA is used to inform rather than dictate such decisions. This approach is reinforced by considering how far any practical PSA can be said to measure risk. The behaviour of complex socio-technical systems such as nuclear power stations does not meet the conditions under which probability theory can be applied in an absolutely objective statistical sense. Risk is not an intrinsic real property of such systems. Rather PSA is a synthesis of data and subjective expert judgements, dependent on the extent of detailed knowledge of the plant. There are many other aspects of engineering judgement involved in safety decisions which cannot be so captured. (author)

  3. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  4. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Safety of light water reactors. Risks of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veser, Anke; Schlueter, Franz-Hermann; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Paesler-Sauer, Juergen; Kessler, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    The book on the safety of light-water reactors includes the following chapters: Part I: Physical and technical safety concept of actual German and future European light-water reactors: (1) Worldwide operated nuclear power plants in 2011, (2) Some reactor physical fundamentals. (3) Nuclear power plants in Germany. (4) Radioactive exposure due to nuclear power plants. (5) Safety concept of light-water reactors. (6) Probabilistic analyses and risk studies. (7) Design of light-water reactors against external incidents. (8) Risk comparison of nuclear power plants and other energy systems. (9) Evaluation of risk studies using the improved (new) safety concept for LWR. (19) The severe reactor accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Part II: Safety of German LWR in case of a postulated aircraft impact. (11) Literature. (12) Review of requirements and actual design. (13) Incident scenarios. (14) Load approach for aircraft impact. (15) Demonstration of the structural behavior in case of aircraft impact. (16) Special considerations. (17) Evaluation of the safety state of German and foreign nuclear power plants. Part III: ROSOS as example for a computer-based decision making support system for the severe accident management. (19) Literature. (20) Radiological fundamentals, accident management, modeling of the radiological situation. (21) The decision making support system RODOS. (22) RODOS and the Fukushima accident. (23) Recent developments in the radiological emergency management in the European frame.

  6. Bayesian-network-based safety risk analysis in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Limao; Wu, Xianguo; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J.; Zhong, Jingbing; Lu, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systemic decision support approach for safety risk analysis under uncertainty in tunnel construction. Fuzzy Bayesian Networks (FBN) is used to investigate causal relationships between tunnel-induced damage and its influential variables based upon the risk/hazard mechanism analysis. Aiming to overcome limitations on the current probability estimation, an expert confidence indicator is proposed to ensure the reliability of the surveyed data for fuzzy probability assessment of basic risk factors. A detailed fuzzy-based inference procedure is developed, which has a capacity of implementing deductive reasoning, sensitivity analysis and abductive reasoning. The “3σ criterion” is adopted to calculate the characteristic values of a triangular fuzzy number in the probability fuzzification process, and the α-weighted valuation method is adopted for defuzzification. The construction safety analysis progress is extended to the entire life cycle of risk-prone events, including the pre-accident, during-construction continuous and post-accident control. A typical hazard concerning the tunnel leakage in the construction of Wuhan Yangtze Metro Tunnel in China is presented as a case study, in order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and its application potential. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages between FBN and fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) as risk analysis tools is also conducted. The proposed approach can be used to provide guidelines for safety analysis and management in construction projects, and thus increase the likelihood of a successful project in a complex environment. - Highlights: • A systemic Bayesian network based approach for safety risk analysis is developed. • An expert confidence indicator for probability fuzzification is proposed. • Safety risk analysis progress is extended to entire life cycle of risk-prone events. • A typical

  7. Durability and safety of concrete structures in the nuclear context. The case of the containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrenti, J.M. [Universite Paris Est, LCPC (France); Nahas, G. [IRSN/DSR (France)

    2011-07-01

    The durability of structures, because of its economic and environmental implications, is one of the actual hot topics in civil engineering. In the field of nuclear energy, we are facing very challenging problems like: how could we prolong the service life of actual nuclear containments and how can we assure the durability of a radioactive storage on the very long term (several centuries)? These already difficult questions in a classical civil engineering view are even more complicated in the field of nuclear energy where the structures are massive and the safety of the installations has to be considered. For the containment of nuclear power plants, these stakes will be lit with some examples of research concerning the mechanical behaviour of concrete and concrete structures (at early age, in service on long scales of time and in the event of an accident), the durability of the concrete structures (leaching, swelling due to delayed ettringite formation - DEF -) and the couplings between mechanics and durability. Finally, the importance of probabilistic aspects and the inherent difficulties will be shown. (authors)

  8. Durability and safety of concrete structures in the nuclear context. The case of the containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrenti, J.M.; Nahas, G.

    2011-01-01

    The durability of structures, because of its economic and environmental implications, is one of the actual hot topics in civil engineering. In the field of nuclear energy, we are facing very challenging problems like: how could we prolong the service life of actual nuclear containments and how can we assure the durability of a radioactive storage on the very long term (several centuries)? These already difficult questions in a classical civil engineering view are even more complicated in the field of nuclear energy where the structures are massive and the safety of the installations has to be considered. For the containment of nuclear power plants, these stakes will be lit with some examples of research concerning the mechanical behaviour of concrete and concrete structures (at early age, in service on long scales of time and in the event of an accident), the durability of the concrete structures (leaching, swelling due to delayed ettringite formation - DEF -) and the couplings between mechanics and durability. Finally, the importance of probabilistic aspects and the inherent difficulties will be shown. (authors)

  9. Materials technology and the energy problem : application to the reliability and safety of nuclear pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    In the U.S.A. over the past few months, widespread plant shutdowns because of cracking problems has produced considerable public pressure for a reappraisal of the reliability and safety of nuclear reactors. The awareness of such problems, and their solution, is particularly relevant to South Africa at this time. Some materials problems related to nuclear plant failure are examined in this paper. Since catastrophic failure (without prior warning from slow leakage) is in principle possible for light water (pressurised) reactors under operating conditions, it is essential to maintain rigorous manufacturing and quality control procedures, in conjunction with thorough and frequent examination by non-destructive testing methods. Although tests currently in progress in the U.S.A. on large-scale model reactors suggest that mathematical stress and failure analyses, for simple geometries at least, are sound, current in situ surveillance programmes aimed at categorizing the effects of irradiation are inadequate. In addition, the effects on materials properties and subsequent fracture resistance of the combined effects of irradiation and thermal shock (arising from the injection of emergency cooling water during a loss-of coolant accident) are unknown. The problem of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel pipelines is considerable, and at present virtually impossible to predict. Much of the available laboratory data is inapplicable in that it cannot account for the complex interactions of stress state, temperature, material variations and segregation effects, and water chemistry, especially in conjunction with irradiation effects, that are experienced in an operating environment

  10. TOXOPLASMOSIS: FOOD SAFETY AND RISK COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Celano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, parasitic pathology supported by Toxoplasma gondii, is a typical example of multi-issue and inter-disciplinary on which, with equal intensity, converge the interests of various branches of human and veterinary medicine. The aim of research was the assessment of risk communication to pregnant women by doctors gynecologists involved in ASL’s territorial about toxoplasmosis, which can have serious effects on pregnancy and the unborn child. The results acquired during the investigation showed the need to develop and implement appropriate information campaigns and proper nutrition education.

  11. Use of risk information to safety regulation. Fabrication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    A procedure of ISA (Integrated Safety Analysis) for uranium fuel fabrication/enrichment facilities has been under the development aiming to utilize risk information for safety regulations in this project. Activities in the fiscal year 2012 are summarized in the paper. There are two major activities in the year. First one is a study on ISA procedure for external events such as earthquakes. Second one is that for chemical consequences such as UF6 and HF. Other than the activities a fundamental study on a policy of utilizing risk information was conducted. The outline and results are provided in the chapter 1 and 2 respectively. (author)

  12. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS and RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard

  13. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  14. N reactor individual risk comparison to quantitative nuclear safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Rainey, T.E.; Zentner, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A full-scope level III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been completed for N reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided the technical leadership for this work, using the state-of-the-art NUREG-1150 methodology developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The main objectives of this effort were to assess the risks to the public and to the on-site workers posed by the operation of N reactor, to identify changes to the plant that could reduce the overall risk, and to compare those risks to the proposed NRC and DOE quantitative safety goals. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and SNL for individual health risk evaluation, its results, and a comparison to the NRC safety objectives and the DOE nuclear safety guidelines. The N reactor results, are also compared with the five NUREG-1150 nuclear plants. Only internal events are compared here because external events are not yet reported in the current draft NUREG-1150. This is the first full-scope level III PRA study with a detailed quantitative safety goal comparison performed for DOE production reactors

  15. Atomic risk insurance. Risk policy, safety production and expertise in Germany and the USA 1945 - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the following chapters: (I) Between threat and promise: Political change and the corporate perception, the burden of the atomic bomb, promise of nuclear energy risk criticism in the pre-ecological phase, nuclear risk as investment restraint; (II) Risk policy at the insurability limit: hazard knowledge, safety production and insurance expertise in the German nuclear policy (1955-1962); (III) Risk policy beyond the catastrophe, insurability interpretation, concepts and conflicts (1957-1968); (IV) Scandalization of risk policy: safety production, confidence and expertise in the nuclear controversial debate (1969 - 1979); (V) Nuclear risk policy and the challenge of the ''risk society'' (1975-1986); (VI) From safety production to hazard probe: atomic energy And the change of insurance.

  16. Integrating risk management and safety culture in a framework for risk informed decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Operators and regulators of nuclear power plants agree on the importance of maintaining safety and controlling accident risks. Effective safety and risk management requires treatment of both technical and organizational components. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) provides tools for technical risk management. However, organizational factors are not treated in PRA, but are addressed using different approaches. To bring both components together, a framework of Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is needed. The objective tree structure of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is a promising approach to combine both elements. Effective collaboration involving regulatory and industry groups is needed to accomplish the integration. (author)

  17. Radioactivity: Risks - safety. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupe, H.

    1991-01-01

    This revised and updated version of the report first published in 1987 by Karlsruhe Nuclear Center has been prepared by scientists of the Center who are experts in nuclear science and technology. The idea was to fulfill the so-to-speak ''creditor's'' obligation in the public debate about nuclear energy and its hazards, and to provide the general public not so familiar with the subject matter with information and insight for better understanding, hoping that the general public on their part will fulfill their ''debtor's'' obligation by trying to get properly informed. Chapters 1 and 6 of the report have been revised and brought up to date, while chapter 3 has been fully re-written, taking as a main source of reference the 1989 publication of Phase B of the German Risk Study on nuclear power plant. Chapters 2 and 5 are new in this report, dealing with less broadly known applications of radioactive substances in science, medicine and technology, and with the radiological situation in Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Protection of environment, health and safety using risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, G [Ghafari Associates, Inc. 17101 Michegan Avenue Dearborn, MI 48126-2736 (United States); Kummler, R H [Department of Chemical engineering Wayne Stae University Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); louvar, J [Research Services Basf Corporation Wyandotte, MI 48192 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Section 304 of the 1990 clean air amendments (CAAA) directed the US occupational safety and health administration (OSFA) to develop a chemical process safety standard to protect workers on-site from accidents involving hazardous substances. OSHA issued 29 CFR 1910.119, process safety management of Highly hazardous chemicals (PSM) in 1992. Section 112 r of the CAAA further mandated that a standard be developed to protect the environment from accidental releases of hazardous substances. The US environmental protection agency (EPA) proposed such a standard in 1993 (58 Fr 54190) and revised their proposal in 1995). The final rule for risk management and accidental release prevention is more comprehensive and extensive than OSHA`s PSM standard. In this paper we will discuss the concepts of both programs, the classes of substances that would trigger a facility`s need for compliance and review the regulations for risk management.

  19. Protection of environment, health and safety using risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, G.; Kummler, R.H.; louvar, J.

    1996-01-01

    Section 304 of the 1990 clean air amendments (CAAA) directed the US occupational safety and health administration (OSFA) to develop a chemical process safety standard to protect workers on-site from accidents involving hazardous substances. OSHA issued 29 CFR 1910.119, process safety management of Highly hazardous chemicals (PSM) in 1992. Section 112 r of the CAAA further mandated that a standard be developed to protect the environment from accidental releases of hazardous substances. The US environmental protection agency (EPA) proposed such a standard in 1993 (58 Fr 54190) and revised their proposal in 1995). The final rule for risk management and accidental release prevention is more comprehensive and extensive than OSHA's PSM standard. In this paper we will discuss the concepts of both programs, the classes of substances that would trigger a facility's need for compliance and review the regulations for risk management

  20. Downsizing, reengineering and patient safety: numbers, newness and resultant risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, G E; Kelley, M; Hodgson, S; Simpson, K R; Carrier, L; Berry, D

    1999-01-01

    Downsizing and reengineering are facts of life in contemporary healthcare organizations. In most instances, these organizational changes are undertaken in an attempt to increase productivity or cut operational costs with results measured in these terms. Less often considered are potential detrimental effects on patient safety or strategies, which might be used to minimize these risks.

  1. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  2. Risk Management: Earning Recognition with an Automated Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberry, Linden; Strasburger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is a huge task that requires diligent oversight to avoid penalties, fines, or lawsuits. Add in the burden of limited resources that schools face today, and the challenge of meeting the required training, reporting, compliance, and other administrative issues associated with a safety program is almost insurmountable. Despite an…

  3. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  4. A comparison of integrated safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, Dennis R.; Mattern, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted a comparison of two standard tools for risk informing the regulatory process, namely, the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA). PRA is a calculation of risk metrics, such as Large Early Release Frequency (LERF), and has been used to assess the safety of all commercial power reactors. ISA is an analysis required for fuel cycle facilities (FCFs) licensed to possess potentially critical quantities of special nuclear material. A PRA is usually more detailed and uses more refined models and data than an ISA, in order to obtain reasonable quantitative estimates of risk. PRA is considered fully quantitative, while most ISAs are typically only partially quantitative. The extension of PRA methodology to augment or supplant ISAs in FCFs has long been considered. However, fuel cycle facilities have a wide variety of possible accident consequences, rather than a few surrogates like LERF or core damage as used for reactors. It has been noted that a fuel cycle PRA could be used to better focus attention on the most risk-significant structures, systems, components, and operator actions. ISA and PRA both identify accident sequences; however, their treatment is quite different. ISA's identify accidents that lead to high or intermediate consequences, as defined in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 70, and develop a set of Items Relied on For Safety (IROFS) to assure adherence to performance criteria. PRAs identify potential accident scenarios and estimate their frequency and consequences to obtain risk metrics. It is acceptable for ISAs to provide bounding evaluations of accident consequences and likelihoods in order to establish acceptable safety; but PRA applications usually require a reasonable quantitative estimate, and often obtain metrics of uncertainty. This paper provides the background, features, and methodology associated with the PRA and ISA. The differences between the

  5. Risk perception, safety goals and regulatory decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, Lars

    1998-01-01

    Deciding on 'how safe is safe enough?' includes value judgements with implications of an ethical and political nature. As regulators are accountable to governments, parliaments and the general public, regulatory decision-making should be characterized by transparency with respect to how such value judgements are reflected in risk assessments and regulatory decisions. Some approaches in this respect are discussed in the paper, based on more than fifteen years of experience in nuclear regulatory decision-making. Issues discussed include: (1) risk profiles and safety goals associated with severe reactor accidents--individual health risks, societal risks and risk of losing investments; (2) risk profile-based licensing of the Swedish SFR final disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

  6. Applications of nuclear safety probabilistic risk assessment to nuclear security for optimized risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, S.K.; Harvey, S.B. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Critical infrastructure assets such as nuclear power generating stations are potential targets for malevolent acts. Probabilistic methodologies can be applied to evaluate the real-time security risk based upon intelligence and threat levels. By employing this approach, the application of security forces and other protective measures can be optimized. Existing probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) methodologies and tools employed. in the nuclear industry can be adapted to security applications for this purpose. Existing PSA models can also be adapted and enhanced to consider total plant risk, due to nuclear safety risks as well as security risks. By creating a Probabilistic Security Model (PSM), safety and security practitioners can maximize the safety and security of the plant while minimizing the significant costs associated with security upgrades and security forces. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the safety of hospitalized older adults as for the risk of falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia de Araújo Sarges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the safety of hospitalized older adults as for the risk of falls according to the parameters of the Morse Fall Scale. Method: Epidemiological, cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive study with n=75. Results: Average age of 71.3 years (SD±8.2; 58.7% male; 44% with low educational level; 38.7% hospitalized for cardiovascular diseases; average hospitalization of 10 days (SD±9.38; 78.7% with comorbidities; 61.3% with the calf circumference ≥ 31 cm; 62.7% were former smokers for more than 10 years; 65% did not drink alcohol; 100% did not have identification bracelet; 22.7% had similar names in the infirmary; 48% took up to five medicines; and 93.3% received some invasive procedure, especially the vessel puncture (65.3%. There was a high risk of falls in 52% of older adults. Conclusion: The results pointed to imminent risk of breach of patient safety, emphasizing the need for implementation of protocols and predictive scales such as the Morse scale.

  8. Use of risk information to safety regulation. Reprocessing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    A procedure of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for a reprocessing facility has been under the development aiming to utilize risk information for safety regulations in this project. Activities in the fiscal year 2012 are summarized in the paper. A major activity is a fundamental study on a concept of serious accidents, requirements of serious accident management, and a policy of utilizing risk information for fabrication and reprocessing facilities. Other than the activity a study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials at a serious accident in a reprocessing facility has been conducted. The outline and results are provided in the chapter 1 and 2 respectively. (author)

  9. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  10. Risks and safety perception. IPSN barometer october 1999. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    An opinion investigation was realized in october 1999 by the IPSN to know the public opinion concerning the risks and safety perception. Five subjects were treated: the public care subjects (social and environment); the science and scientists image; the food risks; the opinion on the nuclear activities (interveners ability and credibility, nuclear controversy, radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents); the french people cares about the risks. The methodology and the analysis of the poll results are detailed. Tables of data investigation are also included. (A.L.B.)

  11. An Autopsy Checklist: A Monitor of Safety and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkrum, Michael James; Kent, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    Any autopsy has safety and risk management issues, which can arise in the preautopsy, autopsy, and postautopsy phases. The London Health Sciences Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Autopsy Checklist was developed to address these issues. The current study assessed 1 measure of autopsy safety: the effectiveness of the checklist in documenting pathologists' communication of the actual or potential risk of blood-borne infections to support staff. Autopsy checklists for cases done in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed. The frequency of communication, as recorded in checklists, by pathologists to staff of previously diagnosed blood-borne infections (hepatitis B/C and human immunodeficiency virus) or the risk of infection based on lifestyle (eg, intravenous drug abuse) was tabulated. These data were compared with medical histories of the deceased and circumstances of their deaths described in the final autopsy reports. Information about blood-borne infections was recorded less frequently in the checklists compared with the final reports. Of 4 known human immunodeficiency virus cases, there was no checklist documentation in 3. All 11 hand injuries were documented. None of these cases had known infectious risks. The Autopsy Checklist is a standardized means of documenting safety and risk issues arising during the autopsy process, but its effectiveness relies on accurate completion.

  12. HSE assessment of explosion risk analysis in offshore safety cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brighton, P.W.M.; Fearnley, P.J.; Brearley, I.G. [Health and Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

    1995-12-31

    In the past two years HSE has assessed around 250 Safety Cases for offshore oil and gas installations, building up a unique overview of the current state of the art on fire and explosion risk assessment. This paper reviews the explosion risk methods employed, focusing on the aspects causing most difficulty for assessment and acceptance of Safety Cases. Prediction of overpressures in offshore explosions has been intensively researched in recent years but the justification of the means of prevention, control and mitigation of explosions often depends on much additional analysis of the frequency and damage potential of explosions. This involves a number of factors, the five usually considered being: leak sizes; gas dispersion; ignition probabilities; the frequency distribution of explosion strength; and the prediction of explosion damage. Sources of major uncertainty in these factors and their implications for practical risk management decisions are discussed. (author)

  13. Analisis Remaining Life dan Penjadwalan Program Inspeksi pada Pressure Vessel dengan Menggunakan Metode Risk Based Inspection (RBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Arina Wahyu Lillah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring perkembangan eksplorasi minyak dan gas bumi di dunia, perusahaan minyak dan gas di Indonesia juga turut berlomba-lomba untuk mendapatkan ladang minyak dan gas bumi sebanyak-banyaknya. Perkembangan ini turut dipengaruhi oleh aturan-aturan pemerintah mengenai keselamatan dan pencegahan bahaya baik pada unit yang dikelola maupun tenaga kerja pengelola. Untuk itu semua perlatan-peralatan (unit kerja harus dijamin kehandalaannya agar tidak menimbulkan bahaya baik bagi pekerja maupun lingkungan. Subjek penelitian dalam tugas akhir ini ialah pada pressure vessel yang dimiliki oleh Terminal LPG Semarang. Kemungkinan bahaya yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada pressure vessel perlu dianalisis agar dapat meminimalkan resiko yang akan terjadi. Metode Risk Based Inspection (RBI diharapkan dapat meminimalkan resiko yang ada pada pressure vessel. Penilaian resiko dalam tugas akhir ini mengacu pada standar API RP 581. Untuk mengetahui besarnya resiko yang ada pada plant, maka terlebih dahulu harus dihitung besarnya probabilitas kegagalan dan konsekuensi apabila terjadi kegagalan. Langkah selanjutnya ialah membandingkan besarnya resiko yang didapat dengan target resiko yang dimiliki oleh perusahaan. Dari hasil perbandingan ini dapat diketahui tingkat resiko pressure vessel, sehingga dapat ditentukan jadwal inspeksi dan metode inspeksi yang tepat.

  14. Safe patient care - safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, Michael

    2013-12-13

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organization's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organization's maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization's safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality. Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate stimulation based team trainings into their

  15. [Safe patient care: safety culture and risk management in otorhinolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M

    2013-04-01

    Safety culture is positioned at the heart of an organisation's vulnerability to error because of its role in framing organizational awareness to risk and in providing and sustaining effective strategies of risk management. Safety related attitudes of leadership and management play a crucial role in the development of a mature safety culture ("top-down process"). A type marker for organizational culture and thus a predictor for an organizations maturity in respect to safety is information flow and in particular an organization's general way of coping with information that suggests anomaly. As all values and beliefs, relationships, learning, and other aspects of organizational safety culture are about sharing and processing information, safety culture has been termed "informed culture". An informed culture is free of blame and open for information provided by incidents. "Incident reporting systems" are the backbone of a reporting culture, where good information flow is likely to support and encourage other kinds of cooperative behavior, such as problem solving, innovation, and inter-departmental bridging. Another facet of an informed culture is the free flow of information during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organisation's "safe surgery checklist" is the most prevalent example of a standardized information exchange aimed at preventing patient harm due to information deficit. In routine tasks mandatory standard operating procedures have gained widespread acceptance in guaranteeing the highest possible process quality.Technical and non-technical skills of healthcare professionals are the decisive human resource for an efficient and safe delivery of patient care and the avoidance of errors. The systematic enhancement of staff qualification by providing training opportunities can be a major investment in patient safety. In recent years several otorhinolaryngology departments have started to incorporate simulation based team trainings into their curriculum

  16. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 18F-fluoroethylcholine uptake in arterial vessel walls and cardiovascular risk factors. Correlation in a PET-CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Stefan; Rominger, A.; Cumming, P.; Bartenstein, P.; Hacker, M.; Saam, T.; Nikolaou, K.; Reiser, M.F.; Wolpers, S.; Univ. Muenchen

    2010-01-01

    Fluorine-labelled choline derivatives were recently suggested as agents for visualizing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between 18 F-fluorethylcholine (FEC) uptake in the wall of large arteries, where calcification was also measured, with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and occurrence of prior cardiovascular events. Detailed clinical information, including common cardiovascular risk factors, was obtained retrospectively in 60 prostate cancer patients examined with whole-body FEC PET-CT. In each patient, we calculated the mean blood pool-corrected SUV, as well as the mean target-to-background ratio (TBR), in addition to the sum of calcified plaques (CP sum ) from six major vessels: ascending and descending aorta, aortic arch, abdominal aorta, and both iliac arteries. As reported previously, the CP sum correlated significantly with cardiovascular risk factors, in contrast to mean SUV or TBR scores, which did not show any significance with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. There was no correlation between CP sum , mean TBR or SUV, nor was there any significant association of CP sum , mean TBR or SUV with the prior occurrence of cardio- or cerebrovascular events. Contrary to a recent report, we found in our rather large cohort of elderly prostate cancer patients no significant association between FEC uptake in large vessels and atherosclerotic plaque burden, or the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. In line with prior reports on structural changes in vessels, increased calcified atherosclerotic plaque burden was strongly associated with the occurrence of common cardiovascular risk factors. (orig.)

  18. Food, Risk and Politics: Scare, scandal and crisis - insights into the risk politics of food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Ed J.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about the risk politics of food safety. Food-related risks regularly grab the headlines in ways that threaten reasoned debate and obstruct sensible policy making. The author explains why this is the case. He goes on to make the case for a properly informed and fully open public debate about food safety issues. He argues that this is the true antidote to the politics of scare, scandal and crisis.\\ud \\ud The book skilfully weaves together the many different threads of food safety a...

  19. Issues regarding Risk Effect Analysis of Digitalized Safety Systems and Main Risk Contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors of safety-critical digital systems affect overall plant risk. In order to assess this risk effect, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required. This article aims to provide an overview of the issues when developing a risk model and demonstrate their effect on plant risk quantitatively. Research activities in Korea for addressing these various issues, such as the software failure probability and the fault coverage of self monitoring mechanism are also described. The main risk contributors related to the digitalized safety system were determined in a quantitative manner. Reactor protection system and engineered safety feature component control system designed as part of the Korean Nuclear I and C System project are used as example systems. Fault-tree models were developed to assess the failure probability of a system function which is designed to generate an automated signal for actuating both of the reactor trip and the complicated accident-mitigation actions. The developed fault trees were combined with a plant risk model to evaluate the effect of a digitalized system's failure on the plant risk. (authors)

  20. Managing health and safety risks: Implications for tailoring health and safety management system practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, D R; Haas, E J

    2016-01-01

    As national and international health and safety management system (HSMS) standards are voluntarily accepted or regulated into practice, organizations are making an effort to modify and integrate strategic elements of a connected management system into their daily risk management practices. In high-risk industries such as mining, that effort takes on added importance. The mining industry has long recognized the importance of a more integrated approach to recognizing and responding to site-specific risks, encouraging the adoption of a risk-based management framework. Recently, the U.S. National Mining Association led the development of an industry-specific HSMS built on the strategic frameworks of ANSI: Z10, OHSAS 18001, The American Chemistry Council's Responsible Care, and ILO-OSH 2001. All of these standards provide strategic guidance and focus on how to incorporate a plan-do-check-act cycle into the identification, management and evaluation of worksite risks. This paper details an exploratory study into whether practices associated with executing a risk-based management framework are visible through the actions of an organization's site-level management of health and safety risks. The results of this study show ways that site-level leaders manage day-to-day risk at their operations that can be characterized according to practices associated with a risk-based management framework. Having tangible operational examples of day-to-day risk management can serve as a starting point for evaluating field-level risk assessment efforts and their alignment to overall company efforts at effective risk mitigation through a HSMS or other processes.

  1. Personnel Risks in Ensuring Safety of Medical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: modern strategies of management of the organization require the formation of special management approaches based on the analysis of the mechanisms and processes of the organization of medical activities related to possible risks in activity of medical personnel. Based on international experience and own research the authors have identified features of a system of management of personnel risk in medical activities, examined approaches showing the sequence and contents of the main practical activities of the formation, maintenance and development of the system of management of personnel risks. Emphasized is the need for further research and implementation of the system of management of personnel risk in health care organizations. Study and assessment of personnel risks affecting the security of medical activities aimed at the development of the system of personnel risk management, development of a system of identification and monitoring of HR risk indicators with a purpose to improve institutional management and increase efficiency of activity of medical organizations. Methods: in the present study, the following methods were used: systemic approach, content analysis, methods of social diagnosis (questionnaires, interviews, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, method of statistical processing of information. Results: approaches to predict the occurrence and development of personnel risks have been reviewed and proposed. Conclusions and Relevance: patient safety is a global issue affecting countries at all levels of development. Each year, the WHO identifies a number of systemic and technical aspects and trends in the field of patient safety related to actions of medical workers. Existing imbalances in the staffing of the health system of the Russian Federation increase the probability of potential risks in medical practice. The personnel policy of healthcare of the Russian Federation requires further improvement and

  2. An integrated risk sensing system for geo-structural safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W. Huang; D.M. Zhang; B.M. Ayyub

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, geo-structures are experiencing a rapid development in China. The potential risks inherent in the huge amount of construction and asset operation projects in China were well managed in the major project, i.e. the project of Shanghai Yangtze tunnel in 2002. Since then, risk assessment of geo-structures has been gradually developed from a qualitative manner to a quantitative manner. However, the current practices of risk management have been paid considerable attention to the assessment, but little on risk control. As a result, the responses to risks occurrences after a comprehensive assessment are basically too late. In this paper, a smart system for risk sensing incorporating the wireless sensor network (WSN) on-site visualization techniques and the resilience-based repair strategy was proposed. The merit of this system is the real-time monitoring for geo-structural performance and dynamic pre-warning for safety of on-site workers. The sectional convergence, joint opening, and seepage of segmental lining of shield tunnel were monitored by the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based sensors. The light emitting diode (LED) coupling with the above WSN system was used to indicate different risk levels on site. By sensing the risks and telling the risks in real time, the geo-risks could be controlled and the safety of geo-structures could be assured to a certain degree. Finally, a resilience-based analysis model was proposed for designing the repair strategy by using the measured data from the WSN system. The application and efficiency of this system have been validated by two cases including Shanghai metro tunnel and underwater road tunnel.

  3. Workplace road safety risk management: An investigation into Australian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, more than 30% of the traffic volume can be attributed to work-related vehicles. Although work-related driver safety has been given increasing attention in the scientific literature, it is uncertain how well this knowledge has been translated into practice in industry. It is also unclear how current practice in industry can inform scientific knowledge. The aim of the research was to use a benchmarking tool developed by the National Road Safety Partnership Program to assess industry maturity in relation to risk management practices. A total of 83 managers from a range of small, medium and large organisations were recruited through the Victorian Work Authority. Semi-structured interviews aimed at eliciting information on current organisational practices, as well as policy and procedures around work-related driving were conducted and the data mapped onto the benchmarking tool. Overall, the results demonstrated varying levels of maturity of risk management practices across organisations, highlighting the need to build accountability within organisations, improve communication practices, improve journey management, reduce vehicle-related risk, improve driver competency through an effective workplace road safety management program and review organisational incident and infringement management. The findings of the study have important implications for industry and highlight the need to review current risk management practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health, Safety and Environmental Risk Assessment in Laboratory Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ”Exposing to danger” or in other words, “risk” is a process which is led to an uncertain result in every field. Project risks are uncertain contingent events or situations that if they occur will have positive or negative effects on project’s objectives. Todays, research and educational process and more complicated and the professional risk management become much more difficult, as a result. .Material and Method: In this research, the health and safety issues have been studied and analyzed using ISO 14121 and the environmental issues by EMEA to determine the risk level separately for research laboratories and to prioritize corrective measure in each field (school. .Result: The finding in this study showed that from all the main risks within the rage of 38-86 percent have been decreased. Moreover average of the risk level for the health, safety and environment cases showed a significant decrease (Pvalue<0.0001 by implement controlling and protective countermeasures compariy to the priority state without any measures. . Conclusion: The risk assessment with hazards control strategy based on ISO 14121 is a compatible method in laboratory site as universities and other reasearch sites.

  5. Safety Politics and Risk Perceptions in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    Abstract The book deals with the analysis of work hazards and safety in industrial enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia, Southeast Asia. It traces the development of this theme of conflict within the context constituted by state, labour market and labour-management relations in Malaysia. The book...... and safety, when compared with the influence of local conditions? What kind of process develops, as local theory about work hazards are formed among workers. And, which are the opportunities for changing working environment institutions in Malaysia? The first part of the book discusses traditions...... by the state from Burawoy, Beronius, and Adesina about production politics and social relations in the labour process provides an integrated perspective on individual risk perceptions, safety practices in enterprises, and government regulation. The empirical data were collected during the period 1989...

  6. [Perception of health and safety risks among workers pathology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Valencia-Cedillo, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Health care workers are experiencing increasing numbers of occupational illnesses. Safety practices in anatomical pathology laboratories (APL) are crucial to prevent unnecessary exposures to both chemical and biological agents. The main goal of this study was to determine if pathologists perceptions and actual practice mirror regulatory guidelines. Current available recommendations for APL were reviewed and used to construct an online survey distributed to pathologists. The survey was completed by 121 participants. Eighty-seven (72 %) of respondents reported receiving inadequate safety training. Most pathologists (82 %) were not well-informed about biosafety practices. Sixty-three (52 %) participants felt that the risks of chemical and infectious disease exposures in the APL were low. Most respondents reported having a needle stick or cut (71 %). Eighty-six (71 %) of participants reported musculo skeletal problems. This study indicated that there is a need for improving training in anatomical pathology safety practices in Mexican laboratories as daily practices do not reflected current guidelines.

  7. Cyber Security Risk Assessment for the KNICS Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C. K.; Park, G. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Choi, J. G.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.

    2008-01-01

    In the Korea Nuclear I and C Systems Development (KNICS) project the platforms for plant protection systems are developed, which function as a reactor shutdown, actuation of engineered safety features and a control of the related equipment. Those are fully digitalized through the use of safety-grade programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and communication networks. In 2006 the Regulatory Guide 1.152 (Rev. 02) was published by the U.S. NRC and it describes the application of a cyber security to the safety systems in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Therefore it is required that the new requirements are incorporated into the developed platforms to apply to NPP, and a cyber security risk assessment is performed. The results of the assessment were input for establishing the cyber security policies and planning the work breakdown to incorporate them

  8. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (k s ) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum k s and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P 50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A strategy for the risk-based inspection of pressure safety valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.-H.; Chen, C.-H.; Chao, Y.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of a pressure safety valve (PSV) is to protect the life and safety of pressure vessels in a pressurized system. If a weakened PSV fails to function properly, a catastrophic event might occur if no other protective means are provided. By utilizing the as-received test data and statistical analysis of the aging conditions of PSVs in lubricant process units, a risk-based inspection (RBI) system was developed in this study. First of all, the characteristics of PSV were discussed from the practical viewpoint of engineering inspection and maintenance. The as-received test data, which shows obvious PSV damage, will be separated from the data used in the following statistical analysis. Then, the relationship between the aging conditions and the corresponding PSV parameters was analyzed by using the statistical technique-analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, a strategy for semi-quantitative RBI is proposed. Also, a definitive estimated inspection interval for every PSV is suggested. The outcome indicated most of the risks result from a few PSVs, for which the corresponding inspection intervals will be shorter than the 2 years in accordance with relative standards and local government regulations

  10. An approach for risk informed safety culture assessment for Canadian nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important components of effective safety and risk management for nuclear power stations is a healthy safety culture. DNV has developed an approach for risk informed safety culture assessment that combines two complementary paradigms for safety and risk management: loss prevention - for preventing and intervening in accidents; and critical function management - for achieving safety and performance goals. Combining these two paradigms makes it possible to provide more robust systems for safety management and to support a healthy safety culture. This approach is being applied to safety culture assessment in partnership with a Canadian nuclear utility. (author)

  11. Nuclear risk and communication: the essential role of safety authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautin, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: whether concerning mad cow disease, asbestos, nuclear, OGM or now, dioxin in French meat, public health risks have been making the headlines of newspapers for a while. And, firms whose activity is associated with these risks are in effect in the defendants box. Therefore, communicating becomes difficult: their word is suspect and, debates quite rapidly exceed the firm competencies to become a socio-cultural conflict. This paper explores in nuclear fields the essential role of safety authorities in such communication cases. Our surveys and the comparative case study between the pipe at La Hague and 'contaminated' nuclear transports in France are eloquent: the messages of nuclear firms is perceived through their image of a State within the State built from the past and reinforced by the negative prism of the news. Regular and technical arguments (the respect of norms) entertain the debate rather than hush it. That is why we could infer an objective, and independent opinion is required, one different from the firm, the public and ministries: its role of referee could allow a constructive dialog between the public and the firm. Risk communication nature and efficiency depend on that (cf. the diagram). As a solution, we think about a legitimate authority organization identified by the public first, but by other actors as well. From the public point of view, if we see the place of pressure groups (e.g. Greenpeace) in the debate as a measure of the lack of trust in the independence of safety authorities, we can infer that it is a reaffirmation of democracy which is demanded by the French public, which could be satisfied with powerful safety authorities. That is why safety authorities have an essential role to play, beyond this of control, in nuclear risk communication towards the public. Diagram: communication path between a nuclear firm and the public during conflict. (author)

  12. Process management - critical safety issues with focus on risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2005-12-01

    Organizational changes focused on process orientation are taking place among Swedish nuclear power plants, aiming at improving the operation. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has identified a need for increased knowledge within the area for its regulatory activities. In order to analyze what process orientation imply for nuclear power plant safety a number of questions must be asked: 1. How is safety in nuclear power production created currently? What significance does the functional organization play? 2. How can organizational forms be analysed? What consequences does quality management have for work and for the enterprise? 3. Why should nuclear power plants be process oriented? Who are the customers and what are their customer values? Which customers are expected to contribute from process orientation? 4. What can one learn from process orientation in other safety critical systems? What is the effect on those features that currently create safety? 5. Could customer values increase for one customer without decreasing for other customers? What is the relationship between economic and safety interests from an increased process orientation? The deregulation of the electricity market have caused an interest in increased economic efficiency, which is the motivation for the interest in process orientation. among other means. It is the nuclear power plants' owners and the distributors (often the same corporations) that have the strongest interest in process orientation. If the functional organization and associated practices are decomposed, the prerequisites of the risk management regime changes, perhaps deteriorating its functionality. When nuclear power operators consider the introduction of process orientation, the Nuclear Power Inspectorate should require that 1. The operators perform a risk analysis beforehand concerning the potential consequences that process orientation might convey: the analysis should contain a model specifying how safety is currently

  13. Risk factors for fishermen's health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first occupational health study in Greek fishing. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational...... injury, of which half caused more than one day absence, while 14% had a near drowning experience. The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk...... factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken...

  14. Risk-based safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Prohaska, G.; Flodin, Y.; Grint, G.; Habermacher, H.; Hallman, A.; Isasia, R.; Melendez, E.; Verduras, E.; Karsa, Z.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Koeberlein, K.; Schwaeger, C.; Matahri, N.; Moravcik, I.; Tkac, M.; Preston, J.

    2003-01-01

    In a Concerted Action (CA), sponsored by the European Commission within its 5th Framework Program, a consortium of eleven partners from eight countries has reviewed and evaluated the application of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs), which - in combination with other tools - can be used to monitor and improve the safety of nuclear power plants. The project was aimed at identification of methods that can be used in a risk-informed regulatory system and environment, and to exploit PSA techniques for the development and use of meaningful additional/alternative SPIs. The CA included the review of existing indicator systems, and the collection of information on the experience from indicator systems by means of a specific questionnaire. One of the most important and challenging issues for nuclear plant owners and/or regulators is to recognize early signs of deterioration in safety performance, caused by influences from management, organization and safety culture (MOSC), before actual events and/or mishaps take place. Most of the existing SPIs as proposed by various organizations are considered as 'lagging' indicators, that is, they are expected to show an impact only when a downward trend has already started. Furthermore, most of the available indicators are at a relatively high level, such that they will not provide useful information on fundamental weaknesses causing the problem in the first place. Regulators' and utilities' views on the use of a Safety Performance Indicator System have also been a part of the development of the CA. (author)

  15. Managing risk in healthcare: understanding your safety culture using the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dianne

    2009-03-01

    To provide sufficient information about the Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF) to allow healthcare professionals to assess its potential usefulness. The assessment of safety culture is an important aspect of risk management, and one in which there is increasing interest among healthcare organizations. Manchester Patient Safety Framework offers a theory-based framework for assessing safety culture, designed specifically for use in the NHS. The framework covers multiple dimensions of safety culture, and five levels of safety culture development. This allows the generation of a profile of an organization's safety culture in terms of areas of relative strength and challenge, which can be used to identify focus issues for change and improvement. Manchester Patient Safety Framework provides a useful method for engaging healthcare professionals in assessing and improving the safety culture in their organization, as part of a programme of risk management.

  16. Toward a Safety Risk-Based Classification of Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend of growing interest and demand for greater access of unmanned aircraft (UA) to the National Airspace System (NAS) as the ongoing development of UA technology has created the potential for significant economic benefits. However, the lack of a comprehensive and efficient UA regulatory framework has constrained the number and kinds of UA operations that can be performed. This report presents initial results of a study aimed at defining a safety-risk-based UA classification as a plausible basis for a regulatory framework for UA operating in the NAS. Much of the study up to this point has been at a conceptual high level. The report includes a survey of contextual topics, analysis of safety risk considerations, and initial recommendations for a risk-based approach to safe UA operations in the NAS. The next phase of the study will develop and leverage deeper clarity and insight into practical engineering and regulatory considerations for ensuring that UA operations have an acceptable level of safety.

  17. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  18. Assessing the port to port risk of vessel movements vectoring non-indigenous marine species within and across domestic Australian borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marnie L; Hewitt, Chad L

    2011-07-01

    Biofouling of vessels is implicated as a high risk transfer mechanism of non-indigenous marine species (NIMS). Biofouling on international vessels is managed through stringent border control policies, however, domestic biofouling transfers are managed under different policies and legislative arrangements as they cross internal borders. As comprehensive guidelines are developed and increased compliance of international vessels with 'clean hull' expectations increase, vessel movements from port to port will become the focus of biosecurity management. A semi-quantitative port to port biofouling risk assessment is presented that evaluates the presence of known NIMS in the source port and determines the likelihood of transfer based on the NIMS association with biofouling and environmental match between source and receiving ports. This risk assessment method was used to assess the risk profile of a single dredge vessel during three anticipated voyages within Australia, resulting in negligible to low risk outcomes. This finding is contrasted with expectations in the literature, specifically those that suggest slow moving vessels pose a high to extreme risk of transferring NIMS species.

  19. Can stress in farm animals increase food safety risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, Marcos H

    2009-09-01

    All farm animals will experience some level of stress during their lives. Stress reduces the fitness of an animal, which can be expressed through failure to achieve production performance standards, or through disease and death. Stress in farm animals can also have detrimental effects on the quality of food products. However, although a common assumption of a potential effect of stress on food safety exists, little is actually known about how this interaction may occur. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge of the potential impact of stress in farm animals on food safety risk. Colonization of farm animals by enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, and their subsequent dissemination into the human food chain are a major public health and economic concern for the food industries. This review shows that there is increasing evidence to demonstrate that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, as the impact of stress is difficult to precisely determine, it is imperative that the issue receives more research attention in the interests of optimizing animal welfare and minimizing losses in product yield and quality, as well as to food safety risks to consumers. While there is some evidence linking stress with pathogen carriage and shedding in farm animals, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Understanding when pathogen loads on the farm are the highest or when animals are most susceptible to infection will help identifying times when intervention strategies for pathogen control may be most effective, and consequently, increase the safety of food of animal origin.

  20. EFFICIENT QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JUMP PROCESSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic framework for efficient quantitative risk assessment from the simplest general risk, combining three parameters (contamination, exposure, and dose response) in a Kataoka safety-first model and a Poisson probability representing the uncertainty effect or jump processes associated with food safety. Analysis indicates that incorporating jump processes in food safety risk assessment provides more efficient cost/risk tradeoffs. Nevertheless, increased margin of safety...

  1. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  2. Pharmaceutical company perspectives on current safety risk communications in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Hisashi; Kobashi, Gen; Masuda, Hideaki; Taneichi, Setsuko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawakami, Koji; Matsuda, Tsutomu; Ohta, Kaori; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    In 1987, a group infection of hepatitis in patients receiving a contaminated fibrinogen product was first reported to the Japanese regulatory agency. Eventually, this serious drug incident involved more than 10,000 cases of infection. In response, the Government of Japan established a responding inspection committee in 2008 to make recommendations for the restructuring of drug regulatory administration. The final report was issued in 2010. One agenda item of this restructuring was the improvement of drug-related safety risk communications. Our research group on drug safety risk communications, which is funded by the Government of Japan, surveyed pharmaceutical companies regarding their perspective on current risk communications. The survey was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire developed for this study which included the three operational domains of targets, contents, and measures of drug risk communication. Fifty-two of the 74 member companies of the Post-marketing Surveillance Subcommittee of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association participated, and this response rate of more than 70% was considered sufficient to ensure the external validity of the survey results. Results showed that the most highly prioritized aspect of risk messaging was the strength of evidence, and that outcome evaluation of risk communication gained recognition. Further, while physicians and pharmacists were the most prioritized communication targets, pharmacovigilance departments devoted the most resources to regulators, at more than 30%. The Internet was recognized as a useful public source of risk information, whereas Drug Guides for Patients delivered on the web were considered under-recognized. Further discussion of these results with the aim of enhancing the restructuring of the Japanese drug regulatory administration system are warranted.

  3. German data for risk based fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of data are necessary to perform risk based fire safety assessments and, in particular, to quantify the fire event tree considering the plant specific conditions. Data on fire barriers, fire detection and extinguishing, including also data on secondary effects of a fire, have to be used for quantifying the potential hazard and damage states. The existing German database on fires in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very small. Therefore, in general generic data, mainly from US databases, are used for risk based safety assessments. Due to several differences in the plant design and conditions generic data can only be used as conservative assumptions. World-wide existing generic data on personnel failures in case of fire fighting have only to be adapted to the plant specific conditions inside the NPP to be investigated. In contrary, unavailabilities of fire barrier elements may differ strongly depending on different standards, testing requirements, etc. In addition, the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment may vary depending on type and manufacturer. The necessity for more detailed and for additional plant specific data was the main reason for generating updated German data on the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment/features in NPPs to support risk based fire safety analyses being recommended to be carried out as an additional tool to deterministic fire hazard analyses in the frame of safety reviews. The results of these investigations revealed a broader and more realistic database for technical reliability of active fire protection means, but improvements as well as collection of further data are still necessary. (author)

  4. Application of risk-based methodologies to prioritize safety resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Hosler, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) started a program entitled risk-based prioritization in 1992. The purpose of this program is to provide generic technical support to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost control using state-of-the-art risk methods. The approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. Specifically, those items or events that have high risk significance would receive the most attention, while those with little risk content would command fewer resources. As quantified in a companion paper,close-quote the potential O ampersand M cost reduction inherent in this approach is very large. Furthermore, risk-based methods should also lead to safety improvements. This paper outlines the way that the EPRI technical work complements the technical, policy, and regulatory initiatives taken by others in the industry and provides an example of the approach as used to prioritize motor-operated valve (MOV) testing in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letter 89-10

  5. The Challenges of Safety Culture: No more risk!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Melnikova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to A. Maslow’s [1] hierarchy of human needs the need for safety and security is a priority for mankind. The concept ‘safety culture’ appeared only in 1986, when theChernobyldisaster made the whole world muse upon human relationship with technology [2]. This global catastrophe was a caution, but not for everyone. Potent academic systems and elaborated instruments of a huge economical value have been invoked in maintaining the satisfaction of biogenetic needs, whereas any manual on safety topic has not been issued yet. Even such progressive communities as the European Union, elaborating long-term strategic decisions, do not find clear and reasonable principles that would encourage to choose safe technologies with respect to present and future generations. Giving way to the ostensible effectiveness of centralized technologies such as equipment, communication, energetic that are well-disposed to big business, the majority of politicians and even scientists are not able to estimate the risk that is programmed in the choice of dangerous and insecure technical decisions. It is not still realized that none of the technologies is worth a human life or safety.The level of social maturity is a factor stipulating the merge of two concepts ‘safety’ and „a person“. At the time when industrial priorities were dominant the concept ‘safety techniques’ had been used putting stress on peculiarities of working with technical devices and on the ways manpower could be adjusted to them. Later the term ‘Safety of labour’ appeared. It drew attention to the labour process and its peculiarities. The assimilation of European culture has determined the introduction of the notion ‘personnel safety and health’ to labour relations. The postindustrial stage of humanity development brings the new understanding of major values. Individual is now identified as a personality as well as human life is understood as the major value. The natural

  6. 77 FR 65000 - Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...] Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... Use (ETASU) before CDER's Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee (DSaRM). The Agency plans...

  7. 78 FR 30929 - Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ...] Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... (REMS) with elements to assure safe use (ETASU) before its Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory...

  8. 77 FR 75176 - Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...] Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... being rescheduled due to the postponement of the October 29-30, 2012, Drug Safety and Risk Management... Committee: Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  9. Leptomeningeal collateral vessels are a major risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage after carotid stenting in patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Ji; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung Ho; Song, Ji Soo; Hwang, Seung Bae

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between leptomeningeal collaterals and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after carotid artery stenting (CAS). A retrospective study was undertaken of 228 patients (median age 75 years (range 44-90); 187 men and 41 women) who underwent CAS due to unilateral carotid atherosclerotic plaque from January 2009 to December 2013. Cerebral angiographic findings were classified into three patterns: type I, normal visualization of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries without leptomeningeal collaterals; type II, visualization of the middle cerebral artery only without leptomeningeal collaterals; and type III, visualization of leptomeningeal collateral flow. For all cerebral angiographic findings, 146 (64.0%) were type I, 61 (26.8%) were type II, and 21 (9.2%) were type III. Four patients (1.8%) died with fatal ICH after CAS and had type III angiographic findings (19%). The prevalence of ICH in patients with leptomeningeal collateral vessels was significantly higher than in patients without leptomeningeal collateral vessels (19% vs 0%, pcollateral vessels are a major risk factor for ICH after CAS in patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. 2011 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  16. Comparison of API 510 pressure vessels inspection planning with API 581 risk-based inspection planning approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishesaz, Mohammad Reza; Nazarnezhad Bajestani, Mohammad; Hashemi, Seyed Javad; Shekari, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    To ensure mechanical integrity, all pressure vessels shall be inspected at the intervals provided in inspection codes or based on a risk-based inspection (RBI) assessment. The RBI assessment may allow previously established inspection intervals to be extended. This paper describes the methodology, analysis and results of two RBI studies conducted on 293 pressure vessel components in two crude oil distillation units. Based on API RBI methodology in API 581 (2008), risk target concept was used for determining inspection dates. It was shown that when thinning is the major active damage, the RBI recommended intervals are as long as twice the API 510 intervals. This paper summarizes that, as a fundamental step in the risk calculation, RBI has a more defined methodology for evaluating equipment for multiple damage mechanisms and a more defined approach to specify the use of other inspection technologies beyond the traditional visual, ultrasonic, and radiography tests. -- Highlights: • RBI calculated inspection intervals are as long as twice of API 510 inspection code. • Two case studies verified the advantage of RBI in inspection planning. • RBI is a more reliable methodology when evaluating multiple damage mechanisms. • Damage factor calculations can be used for determining RSFa value in FFS assessments

  17. Safety analysis and risk assessment of the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.; McLouth, L.; Odell, B.

    1996-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a proposed U.S. Department of Energy inertial confinement laser fusion facility. The candidate sites for locating the NIF are: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the preferred site. The NIF will operate by focusing 192 laser beams onto a tiny deuterium-tritium target located at the center of a spherical target chamber. The NIF mission is to achieve inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition, access physical conditions in matter of interest to nuclear weapons physics, provide an above ground simulation capability for nuclear weapons effects testing, and contribute to the development of inertial fusion for electrical power production. The NIF has been classified as a radiological, low hazard facility on the basis of a preliminary hazards analysis and according to the DOE methodology for facility classification. This requires that a safety analysis be prepared under DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. A draft Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) has been written, and this will be finalized later in 1996. This paper summarizes the safety issues associated with the operation of the NIF and the methodology used to study them. It provides a summary of the methodology, an overview of the hazards, estimates maximum routine and accidental exposures for the preferred site of LLNL, and concludes that the risks from NIF operations are low

  18. [Occupational risks among public safety and security forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candura, S M; Verni, P; Minelli, C M; Rosso, G L; Cappelli, M I; Strambi, S; Martellosio, V

    2006-01-01

    The present paper tries to identify the occupational risk factors (physical, chemical, biological, psychological), variable depending on jobs and tasks, to which the heterogeneous public safety/security workers are exposed. The fight against criminality and public order maintenance imply (sometimes fatal) traumatic risks, and expose to psychophysical and sensorial tiring, unfavourable macro- and microclimatic conditions, the risk of baropathy (air navigation, underwater activities), noise (generated by firearms and several other sources), vibrations and shakings (automatic weapons, transport vehicles), the risk of electric injury, ionizing (X and gamma rays) and non-inonizing (ultraviolet rays, microwaves and radiofrequencies, electromagnetic fields) radiations. Chemical hazards include carbon monoxide and other combustion products (fires, urban traffic), substances released in chemical accidents, tear gases, lead (firing grounds, metal works, environmental pollution), solvents, lubrificants and cutting oils (mechanic repair and maintenance), laboratory materials and reagents, irritant and/or sensitizing agents contained in gloves. The main biological risks are tetanus, blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), aerogenous diseases (e.g., tuberculosis, Legionnaire's disease, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis), dog- or horse-transmitted zoonosis. Finally, emotional, psychosomatic and behavioural stress-related disorders (e.g., burn-out syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder) are typically frequent. The presence of numerous and diversified hazards among public safety/security forces imposes the adoption of occupational medicine measures, including risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, personal protective devices, sanitary surveillance and biological monitoring, clinical interventions (diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation of occupational accidents and illnesses), prompt medico-legal evaluation of occupational

  19. Generic analyses for evaluation of low Charpy upper-shelf energy effects on safety margins against fracture of reactor pressure vessel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1993-07-01

    Appendix G to 10 CFR Part 50 requires that reactor pressure vessel beltline material maintain Charpy upper-shelf energies of no less than 50 ft-lb during the plant operating life, unless it is demonstrated in a manner approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), that lower values of Charpy upper-shelf energy provide margins of safety against fracture equivalent to those in Appendix G to Section XI of the ASME Code. Analyses based on acceptance criteria and analysis methods adopted in the ASME Code Case N-512 are described herein. Additional information on material properties was provided by the NRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Materials Engineering Branch. These cases, specified by the NRC, represent generic applications to boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor vessels. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 140

  20. 60th Anniversary of electricity production from light water reactors: Historical review of the contribution of materials science to the safety of the pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duysen, J.C. van; Meric de Bellefon, G.

    2017-01-01

    The first light water nuclear reactor dedicated to electricity production was commissioned in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in the United States in 1957. Sixty years after the event, it is clear that this type of reactor will be a major source of electricity and one of the key solutions to limit climate change in the 21st century. This article pays homage to the teams that contributed to this achievement by their involvement in research and development and their determination to push back the frontiers of knowledge. Via a few examples of scientific or technological milestones, it describes the evolution of ideas, models, and techniques during the last 60 years, and gives the current state-of-the-art in areas related to the safety of the reactor pressure vessel. Among other topics, it focuses on vessel manufacturing, steel fracture mechanics analysis, and understanding of irradiation-induced damage.

  1. 60th Anniversary of electricity production from light water reactors: Historical review of the contribution of materials science to the safety of the pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duysen, J.C. van, E-mail: jean-claude.van-duysen@ensc-lille.fr [Department of Nuclear Engineering University of Tennessee Knoxville (United States); Unité Matériaux et Transformation (UMET) CNRS, Université de Lille 1 (France); Meric de Bellefon, G., E-mail: mericdebelle@wisc.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The first light water nuclear reactor dedicated to electricity production was commissioned in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in the United States in 1957. Sixty years after the event, it is clear that this type of reactor will be a major source of electricity and one of the key solutions to limit climate change in the 21st century. This article pays homage to the teams that contributed to this achievement by their involvement in research and development and their determination to push back the frontiers of knowledge. Via a few examples of scientific or technological milestones, it describes the evolution of ideas, models, and techniques during the last 60 years, and gives the current state-of-the-art in areas related to the safety of the reactor pressure vessel. Among other topics, it focuses on vessel manufacturing, steel fracture mechanics analysis, and understanding of irradiation-induced damage.

  2. In prospect: role of safety assessment and risk regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novegno, A.; Askulaj, Eh.

    1987-01-01

    Problems of accident prevention in industry and power engineering are considered for the sake of environment and human health protection. Investigations into comparison of power system risks are conducted; based on the data obtained a possibility to control the risk has appeared. The IAEA provides an active assistance in realization of a program of coordinated investigations on the risk assessment using the cost-benefit method. For each NPP investigation into all types of its effect on the environment (risk for personnel and population under normal radioactivity releases and in case of accidents), is conducted. Two approaches to calculating the impacts of accidents at NPPs-'determination' one, based on the designed accident and safety probability evaluation exist. Regional approach appears to be the best one when solving the problems of risk control. Attention is paid to a joint project of the IAEA-UNO and WHO related to risk assessment and control for human health and environment protection at power and other complex commercial systems

  3. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-09-01

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk monitor - a tool for operational safety assessment risk monitor - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, M.; Vinod, Gopika; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment has become a key tool as on today to identify and understand Nuclear Power Plant vulnerabilities. As a result of the availability of these PSA studies, there is a desire to use them to enhance plant safety and to operate the nuclear stations in the most efficient manner. Risk Monitor is a PC based tool, which computes the real time safety level and assists plant personnel to manage day-to-day activities. Risk Monitor is a PC based user friendly software tool used for modification and re-analysis of a nuclear Power plant. Operation of Risk Monitor is based on PSA methods for assisting in day to day applications. Risk Monitoring programs can assess the risk profile and are used to optimize the operation of Nuclear Power Plants with respect to a minimum risk level over the operating time. This report presents the background activities of Risk Monitor, its application areas and the step by step procedure for the user.to interact with the software. This software can be used with the PSA model of any Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  5. Integrated risk management of safety and development on transportation corridors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thekdi, Shital A.; Lambert, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Prioritization of investments to protect safety and performance of multi-regional transportation networks from adjacent land development is a key concern for infrastructure agencies, land developers, and other stakeholders. Despite ample literature describing relationships between transportation and land use, no evidence-based methods exist for monitoring corridor needs on a large scale. Risk analysis is essential to the preservation of system safety and capacity, including avoidance of costly retrofits, regret, and belated action. This paper introduces the Corridor Trace Analysis (CTA) for prioritizing corridor segments that are vulnerable to adjacent land development. The method integrates several components: (i) estimation of likelihood of adjacent land development, using influence diagram and rule-based modeling, (ii) characterization of access point density using geospatial methods, and (iii) plural-model evaluation of corridors, monitoring indices of land development likelihood, access point densities, and traffic volumes. The results inform deployment of options that include closing access points, restricting development, and negotiation of agencies and developers. The CTA method is demonstrated on a region encompassing 6000 centerline miles (about 10,000 km) of transportation corridors. The method will be of interest to managers investing in safety and performance of infrastructure systems, balancing safety, financial, and other criteria of concern for diverse stakeholders. - Highlights: • The Corridor Trace Analysis (CTA) method for prioritizing transportation corridors. • The CTA method studies corridors vulnerable to adjacent land development. • The CTA method quantifies the influence of risk scenarios on agency priorities. • The CTA method is demonstrated on 6000 miles of critical transportation corridor

  6. Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuckmyun Kwon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm- shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers’ compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012 and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  7. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  8. Assessing systemwide occupational health and safety risks of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Input-output modelling is now being used to assess systemwide occupational and public health and safety risks of energy technologies. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of this method are presented and some of its important limitations are discussed. Its primary advantage is that it provides a standard method with which to compare technologies on a consistent basis without extensive economic analysis. Among the disadvantages are limited range of applicability, limited spectrum of health impacts, and inability to identify unusual health impacts unique to a new technology. (author)

  9. Assessing Risk-Based Performance Indicators in Safety-Critical Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    TONT Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes framework for a multidisciplinary nuclear risk and safety assessment by modeling uncertainty and combining diverse evidence provided in such a way that it could be used to represent an entire argument about a system's dependability. The identified safety issues are being treated by means of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The behavior simulation of power plant in thepresence of risk factors is analyzed from the vulnerability, risk and functional safety viewpoints, hi...

  10. Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: The Effect of Consumer Risk Information on Human Disease Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Jong, de A.E.I.; Frewer, L.J.; Jonge, de R.

    2008-01-01

    The improvement of food safety in the domestic environment requires a transdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between both the social and natural sciences. This approach is applied in a study on risks associated with Campylobacter on broiler meat. First, some web-based information

  11. Risk assessment for safety laboratories in Politeknik Negeri Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyata Sundawa, Bakti; Hutajulu, Elferida; Sirait, Regina; Banurea, Waldemar; Indrayadi; Mulyadi, Sangap

    2017-09-01

    International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated 2.34 million people die each year because accidents and diseases in workplace. It also impact to economic losses in some countries. It need to do safety and healthy in working environment especially in laboratory. Identification of potential hazards and risks must be done in Telecommunication Laboratory Politeknik Negeri Medan. Therefore, this study was assessed 5 of potential hazards and risks in our laboratory by Likert Scale. This object was divided into 2 assessment namely likelihood of hazards and severity of consequences. Collecting data is taken from questionnaire who involved 100 students at random academic level. The result showed The highest score is chemical hazards 73.2% in likelihood of hazards and electrical hazards 85% in severity of consequences. This condition is classified as “high” state. Big attention must be given to “high” state because it can help us to determine mitigate action.

  12. Safety concerns and risk management of multiple sclerosis therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg Sorensen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, more than ten drugs have been approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Newer treatments may be more effective, but have less favorable safety record. Interferon-β preparations and glatiramer acetate treatment require frequent subcutaneous or intramuscular...... disease activity can choose between dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide or the “old injectable.” Patients with very active MS may choose a more effective drug as the initial treatment. In case of side effects on one drug, switch to another drug can be tried. Suboptimal effect of the first drug indicates...... escalation to a highly efficacious drug. A favorable benefit-risk balance can be maintained by appropriate patient selection and appropriate risk management on therapy. New treatments will within the coming 1-2 years change our current treatment algorithm for relapsing-remitting MS....

  13. Setting priorities for reducing risk and advancing patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Ann D

    2016-04-01

    We set priorities every day in both our personal and professional lives. Some decisions are easy, while others require much more thought, participation, and resources. The difficult or less appealing priorities may not be popular, may receive push-back, and may be resource intensive. Whether personal or professional, the urgency that accompanies true priorities becomes a driving force. It is that urgency to ensure our patients' safety that brings many of us to work each day. This is not easy work. It requires us to be knowledgeable about the enterprise we are working in and to have the professional skills and competence to facilitate setting the priorities that allow our organizations to minimize risk and maximize value. © 2016 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  14. Deploying and measuring a risk and patient safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, Howard; McGroarty, Molly; Marchegiani, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Health care continues to evolve at a rapid rate. Over just the past decade, the industry has seen the introduction and widespread implementation of an electronic health record, increase in presence of nurse practitioners and physician assistants to help manage the shortage of physicians, and the introduction of accountable care organizations. It is with these changes that new challenges and opportunities emerge. One such challenge is the increase in the severity of medical malpractice claims throughout the nation. Another emerging challenge is the introduction of outcome-based reimbursements, with providers potentially losing a portion of their payment should the patient experience result in a preventable adverse event. These trends are resulting in providers continuously seeking innovative approaches to reducing risk and improving patient safety. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  15. Risk assessment of safety data link and network communication in digital safety feature control system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Kwang Seop; Jung, Wondea; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety data communication risk assessment framework and quantitative scheme were proposed. • Fault-tree model of ESFAS unavailability due to safety data communication failure was developed. • Safety data link and network risk were assessed based on various ESF-CCS design specifications. • The effect of fault-tolerant algorithm reliability of safety data network on ESFAS unavailability was assessed. - Abstract: As one of the safety-critical systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs), the Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) employs safety data link and network communication for the transmission of safety component actuation signals from the group controllers to loop controllers to effectively accommodate various safety-critical field controllers. Since data communication failure risk in the ESF-CCS has yet to be fully quantified, the ESF-CCS employing data communication systems have not been applied in NPPs. This study therefore developed a fault tree model to assess the data link and data network failure-induced unavailability of a system function used to generate an automated control signal for accident mitigation equipment. The current aim is to provide risk information regarding data communication failure in a digital safety feature control system in consideration of interconnection between controllers and the fault-tolerant algorithm implemented in the target system. Based on the developed fault tree model, case studies were performed to quantitatively assess the unavailability of ESF-CCS signal generation due to data link and network failure and its risk effect on safety signal generation failure. This study is expected to provide insight into the risk assessment of safety-critical data communication in a digitalized NPP instrumentation and control system.

  16. Using the Job Demands-Resources model to investigate risk perception, safety climate and job satisfaction in safety critical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Mearns, Kathryn; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Eid, Jarle

    2011-10-01

    Using the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as a theoretical framework, this study investigated the relationship between risk perception as a job demand and psychological safety climate as a job resource with regard to job satisfaction in safety critical organizations. In line with the JD-R model, it was hypothesized that high levels of risk perception is related to low job satisfaction and that a positive perception of safety climate is related to high job satisfaction. In addition, it was hypothesized that safety climate moderates the relationship between risk perception and job satisfaction. Using a sample of Norwegian offshore workers (N = 986), all three hypotheses were supported. In summary, workers who perceived high levels of risk reported lower levels of job satisfaction, whereas this effect diminished when workers perceived their safety climate as positive. Follow-up analyses revealed that this interaction was dependent on the type of risks in question. The results of this study supports the JD-R model, and provides further evidence for relationships between safety-related concepts and work-related outcomes indicating that organizations should not only develop and implement sound safety procedures to reduce the effects of risks and hazards on workers, but can also enhance other areas of organizational life through a focus on safety. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Occupational Health and Safety: reflection on potential risks and the safety handling of nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Frederico Bernardo Lenz e Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every day the nanotechnology, that refers to a field whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale working with nanometric structures (<100 nm, is more present in the development of products and industrial processes. The particle manipulation of nanometric structures has created opportunities in the development of new products and materials. However, synthesis, handling, storage, stabilization and the incorporation of these materials, with nanometric dimensions, demand a new perspective of analysis and evaluation of old manufacturing processes, procedures and industrial devices, in order to guarantee collective and individual protection to workers and society. With the increasing of scale and production of nanoestrutuctured materials, a big part of labour community starts to be in contact with different nanomaterials (forms and ways. In this work the main aspects and involved risks of manufacture, storage, synthesis, stabilization and incorporation of nanomaterials on new products are evaluated in order to reduce, decrease and eliminate chemical, physical and biological risks for the employees. A bibliographic review was conducted about risk, safety and nanotechnology based on available English literature focusing safety and environmental agencies from different countries such as USA, Canada, EU (France, UK, Germany, Den-mark, Australia and Japan.

  18. Safety and risk assessment of ceramide 3 in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 3 is used mainly as a moisturizer in various cosmetic products. Although several safety studies on formulations containing pseudo-ceramide or ceramide have been conducted at the preclinical and clinical levels for regulatory approval, no studies have evaluated the systemic toxicity of ceramide 3. To address this issue, we conducted a risk assessment and comprehensive toxicological review of ceramide and pseudo-ceramide. We assumed that ceramide 3 is present in various personal and cosmetic products at concentrations of 0.5-10%. Based on previously reported exposure data, the margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for product type, use pattern, and ceramide 3 concentration. Lipsticks with up to 10% ceramide 3 (MOS = 4111) are considered safe, while shampoos containing 0.5% ceramide 3 (MOS = 148) are known to be safe. Reported MOS values for body lotion applied to the hands (1% ceramide 3) and back (5% ceramide 3) were 103 and 168, respectively. We anticipate that face cream would be safe up to a ceramide 3 concentration of 3% (MOS = 149). Collectively, the MOS approach indicated no safety concerns for cosmetic products containing less than 1% ceramide 3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear power plant safety - the risk of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.; Crancher, D.W.

    1975-08-01

    Although it is physically impossible for any nuclear plant to explode like an atom bomb, an accidental release of radioactive material into the environment is conceivable. Three factors reduce the probability of such releases, in dangerous quantities, to an extremely low level. Firstly, there are many safety features built into the plant including a leaktight containment building to prevent the escape of such material. Secondly, the quality of engineering and standards used are far more demanding than in conventional power engineering. Thirdly, strict government licensing and regulatory control is enforced at all phases from design through construction to operation. No member of the general public is known to have been injured or died as a result of any accident to a commercial nuclear power plant. Ten workers have died as a result of over-exposure to radiation from experimental reactors and laboratory work connected with the development of nuclear plant since 1945. Because of this excellent safety record the risk of serious accidents can only be estimated. On the basis of such estimates, the chance of an accident in a nuclear power reactor which could cause a detectable increase in the incidence of radiation-induced illnesses would be less than one chance in a million per year. In a typical highly industrialised society, such as the USA, the estimated risk of an individual being killed by such accidents, from one hundred operating reactors, is no greater than one chance in sixteen million per year. There are undoubtedly risks from reactor accidents but estimates of these risks show that they are considerably less than from other activities which are accepted by society. (author)

  20. Risk management: integration of social and technical risk variables into safety assessments of LWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnage, J.J.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A risk management methodology is developed here to formalize the acceptability levels of commercial LWR power plants via the estimation of risk levels acceptable to the public and the integration of such estimates into risk-benefit analysis. Utility theory is used for developing preference models based on value trade-offs among multiple objectives and uncertainties about the impact of alternatives. The method involves reducing the various variables affecting safety acceptability decisions to a single function that provides a metric for acceptability levels. The function accomondates for technical criteria related to design and licensing decisions, as well as public reactions to certain choices

  1. Risk-informed decision making during Bohunice NPP safety upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipar, M.; Muzikova, E.; Kubanyi, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper summarizes some facts of risk-informed regulation developments within UJD regulatory environment. Based on national as well as international operating experience and indications resulted from PSA, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) since its constituting in 1993 has devoted an effort to use PSA technology to support the regulatory policy in Slovakia. The PSA is considered a complement, not a substitute, to the deterministic approach. Suchlike integrated approach is used in decision making processes and the final decision on scope and priorities is based on it. The paper outlines risk insights used in the decision making process concerning Bohunice NPP safety upgrading and focuses on the role of PSA results in Gradual Reconstruction of Bohunice VI NPP. Besides, two other examples of the PSA results application to the decision making process are provided: the assessment of proposal of modifications to the main power supply diagram (incorporation of generator switches) and the assessment of licensee request for motor generator AOT (Allowable Outage Time) extension. As an example of improving support of Bohunice V-2 risk-informed operations, concept of AOT calculations and Bohunice V-2 Risk Monitor Project are briefly described. (author)

  2. [Sleepiness, safety on the road and management of risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, S; Traversa, F; Spigno, F

    2012-01-01

    Public health studies have shown that sleepiness at the wheel and other risks associated with sleep are responsible for 5% to 30% of road accidents, depending on the type of driver and/or road. In industrialized countries one-fifth of all traffic accidents can be ascribed to sleepiness behind the wheel. Sleep disorders and various common acute and chronic medical conditions together with lifestyles, extended work hours and prolonged wakefulness directly or indirectly affect the quality and quantity of one's sleep increasing the number of workers with sleep debt and staggered hours. These conditions may increase the risk of road accidents. Strategies to reduce this risk of both commercial and non-commercial drivers related to sleepiness include reliable diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, management of chronobiological conflicts, adequate catch-up sleep, and countermeasures against sleepiness at the wheel. Road transport safety requires the adoption of occupational health measures, including risk assessment, health education, technical-environmental prevention and health surveillance.

  3. The implications of probabilistic risk assessment for safety policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The use of PRA results in decision making requires a level of understanding on the part of the decision maker which is higher than that obtaining previously. The most important application of PRA lies not in the final results but in the intermediate results which refer to specific systems and operations. Such intermediate results are of great value either at the design stage or later during operation. One of the most 'visible' uses of PRA results is in comparing calculated plant risks with either proposed acceptability criteria, or with other plant, or even natural events. The capability to perform PRA has been established. Only the incorporation of PRA into the licensing process is lacking. The principal conclusions on the implications of PRA for safety policy are as follows: regardless of its state of development, PRA is the only means available for calculating public risk, being able to quantify risk is important in policy related to risk acceptability and to national energy policy. PRAs will be used to establish research and development priorities. Any hazardous plant can be treated using the same methods. More sophisticated methods will be used for solving engineering problems. (author)

  4. Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during planning and budgeting of construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminbakhsh, Saman; Gunduz, Murat; Sonmez, Rifat

    2013-09-01

    The inherent and unique risks on construction projects quite often present key challenges to contractors. Health and safety risks are among the most significant risks in construction projects since the construction industry is characterized by a relatively high injury and death rate compared to other industries. In construction project management, safety risk assessment is an important step toward identifying potential hazards and evaluating the risks associated with the hazards. Adequate prioritization of safety risks during risk assessment is crucial for planning, budgeting, and management of safety related risks. In this paper, a safety risk assessment framework is presented based on the theory of cost of safety (COS) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The main contribution of the proposed framework is that it presents a robust method for prioritization of safety risks in construction projects to create a rational budget and to set realistic goals without compromising safety. The framework provides a decision tool for the decision makers to determine the adequate accident/injury prevention investments while considering the funding limits. The proposed safety risk framework is illustrated using a real-life construction project and the advantages and limitations of the framework are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prestressed cast iron pressure vessels as burst-proof pressure vessels for innovative nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehling, W.; Boettcher, A.; Bounin, D.; Steinwarz, W.; Geiss, M.; Trauth, M.

    2000-01-01

    The amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act from July 28, 1994 requires that events 'whose occurrence is practically excluded by the measures against damages', i.e. events of the category residual risk, must not necessitate far reaching protective measures outside the plant. For a conventional reactor pressure vessel, the residual risk consists in the very small probability of a catastrophic failure (formation of a large fracture opening, bursting of the vessel). With a prestressed cast iron vessel (PCIV), the formation of a large fracture opening or bursting of the vessel, respectively, is impossible due to its design properties. Against this background the possibility of the use of this type of pressure vessel for lightwater reactors has been studied in the frame of a 'Working Group for Innovative Nuclear Technology', founded by different research institutes and industrial companies. Furthermore, it has been studied whether the use of the PCIV support the realization of a corecatcher system. The results are presented in this report. Already many years earlier, Siempelkamp has performed industrial development and Forschungszentrum Juelich related experimental and theoretical safety research for the PCIV as an innovative, bust-proof pressure vessel concept. This development of the PCIV as well as its safety properties are also presented in a conclusive manner. (orig.) [de

  6. 75 FR 75486 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev. 4); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Directive 104-6 (Rev. 4); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) on international voyages through or in designated high risk... MARSEC Directives are available at your local Captain of the Port (COTP) office. Phone numbers and...

  7. 76 FR 2402 - Maritime Security Directive 104-6 (Rev 5); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Directive 104-6 (Rev 5); Guidelines for U.S. Vessels Operating in High Risk Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... designated high risk waters, and provides additional counter-piracy guidance and mandatory measures for these... MARSEC Directives are available at your local Captain of the Port (COTP) office. Phone numbers and...

  8. Risk-informed approaches to assess ecological safety of facilities with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashchenko, V.N.; Zlochevskij, V.V.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Ingenious risk-informed methods to assess ecological safety of facilities with radioactive waste are proposed in the paper. Probabilistic norms on lethal outcomes and reliability of safety barriers are used as safety criteria. Based on the probability measures, it is established that ecological safety conditions are met for the standard criterion of lethal outcomes

  9. Safety risk management of underground engineering in China: Progress, challenges and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihu Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Underground construction in China is featured by large scale, high speed, long construction period, complex operation and frustrating situations regarding project safety. Various accidents have been reported from time to time, resulting in serious social impact and huge economic loss. This paper presents the main progress in the safety risk management of underground engineering in China over the last decade, i.e. (1 establishment of laws and regulations for safety risk management of underground engineering, (2 implementation of the safety risk management plan, (3 establishment of decision support system for risk management and early-warning based on information technology, and (4 strengthening the study on safety risk management, prediction and prevention. Based on the analysis of the typical accidents in China in the last decade, the new challenges in the safety risk management for underground engineering are identified as follows: (1 control of unsafe human behaviors; (2 technological innovation in safety risk management; and (3 design of safety risk management regulations. Finally, the strategies for safety risk management of underground engineering in China are proposed in six aspects, i.e. the safety risk management system and policy, law, administration, economy, education and technology.

  10. Risk and safety in the nuclear industry and conventional norms of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1977-01-01

    The societal acceptance of various risks is analyzed and rules of risk acceptance as a function of different parameters (e. g., expected benefit, intensity of effect) are spelled out. The monetary value of a human life is estimated, based on investments in safety of different human activities. The acceptable risks and safety investments in different human activities are then compared with risks and safety investments of the nuclear industry. Safety investments required to reduce radioactivity releases and risks from nuclear power stations to ALAP (as low as practiable) levels are taken as a study case. It is found that risks in the nuclear industry are several orders of magnitude lower and safety investments per human life saved are several orders of magnitude higher, as compared with risks and safety investments in other human activities

  11. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2) The...

  12. Licensing experiences, risk assessment, demonstration test on nuclear fuel packages and design criteria for sea going vessel carrying spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ikeda, K.

    1978-01-01

    In Japan spent fuels from nuclear power plants shall be shipped to reprocessing plants by sea-going vessels. Atomic Energy Committee has initiated a board of experts to implement the assessment of environmental safety for sea transport. As a part of the assessment a study has been conducted by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry under sponsorship of Nuclear Safety Bureau, which is intended to guarantee the safety of sea transport. Nuclear Safety Bureau also has a program to carry out a long term demonstration test on spent fuel package using full scale package models. The test consists of drop, heat transfer, fire, collapse under high external pressure, immersion, shielding and subcritical test. The purpose of this test is to obtain the public acceptance and also to verify the adequacy of the safety analysis for nuclear fuel packages. In order to secure the safety of sea transport, the Ministry of Transportation has provided for the design criteria for sea-going vessel in the case of full load shipping, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collision, grounding and other unforeseen accidents on the sea and also to retain the radiation exposure to crews as low as possible. The design criteria consists of the following items: (1) structural strength of vessel, (2) collision protective structure, (3) arrangement of holds, (4) stability after damage, (5) grounding protective structure, (6) cooling system, (7) tie-down equipment, (8) radiation inspection apparatus, (9) decontamination facilities, (10) emergency water flooding equipment for ship fire, (11) emergency electric sources, etc. Based on the design criteria a sea-going vessel names HINOURA-MARU has been reconstructed to transport spent fuel packages from nuclear power stations to the reprocessing plant

  13. The infectious disease blood safety risk of Australian hemochromatosis donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Veronica; Bentley, Peter; Bell, Barbara; Pathak, Praveen; Chan, Hiu Tat; Keller, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that blood donors with hereditary hemochromatosis may pose an increased infectious disease risk and adversely affect recipient outcomes. This study compares the infectious disease risk of whole blood (WB) donors enrolled as therapeutic (T) donors to voluntary WB donors to evaluate the safety of blood products provided by the T donors. This was a retrospective cohort study of all WB donations at the Australian Red Cross Blood Service who donated between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, comparing a yearly mean of 11,789 T donors with 107,773 total donations and a yearly mean of 468,889 voluntary WB donors with 2,584,705 total donations. We compared postdonation notification of infectious illnesses, bacterial contamination screening results, and positive tests for blood borne viruses in T and WB donors. Rates of transfusion-transmissible infections in donations destined for component manufacture were significantly lower in therapeutic donations compared to voluntary donations (8.4 vs. 21.6 per 100,000 donations). Bacterial contamination (43.0 vs. 45.9 per 100,000 donations) and postdonation illness reporting (136.2 vs. 110.8 per 100,000 donations) were similar in both cohorts. The Australian therapeutic venisection program enables T donors to provide a safe and acceptable source of donated WB that has a low infectious disease risk profile. © 2016 AABB.

  14. Proactive safety management in health care : towards a broader view of risk analysis, error recovery, and safety culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, M.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors occur frequently. The harm and additional costs associated with those errors ask for effective safety management. According to the objective of minimal patient harm, safety management in health care should be proactive; that is, risks should be anticipated and reduced before patients

  15. Using the Steel Vessel Material-Cost Index to Mitigate Shipbuilder Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keating, Edward G; Murphy, Robert; Schank, John F; Birkler, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how the US Navy structures fixed-price and fixed-price, incentive-fee shipbuilding contracts and how labor- and material-cost indexes can mitigate shipbuilder risk in either type of contract...

  16. Paternal perception of infant sleep risks and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Heather M; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) results in 3400 sleep-related deaths yearly in the United States, yet caregivers' compliance with safe sleep recommendations remains less than optimal. Paternal caregiver's attitudes toward infant safe sleep messages are largely unaddressed, despite established differences between female and male caregiver perceptions. This study aimed to explore the determinants of safe sleep practices among male caregivers. Focus groups were conducted in Arkansas with male caregivers of infants ages 2-12 months to discuss infant sleep routines, parental roles, sources for safe sleep information, and messaging suggestions for safe sleep promotion. The Health Belief Model of behavior change framed a moderator guide. Transcript-based analysis was used, and data were managed using HyperRESEARCH (version 2.8.3). The transcribed data were coded to identify significant themes. Ten focus groups were conducted with 46 participants. Inconsistent adherence to safe sleep practices was reported. Participants were more likely to describe safe location (57% of participants) and supine position behaviors (42%) than an uncluttered bed environment (26%). Caregivers acknowledged the importance of recommended safe sleep behavior, but admitted to unsafe practices, such as co-sleeping and unsafe daytime sleep. Lack of perceived risk, comfort, and/or resources, and disagreement among family members about safety practices were identified as barriers. Participants voiced concerns that current advertising portrays males as incompetent caregivers. Suggestions included portraying positive images of fathers and male caregivers acting to promote safety and the incorporation of statistics about the hazards of unsafe sleep to better engage fathers. Potential distribution venues included sporting events, home improvement and/or automotive stores, and social media from trusted sites (e.g. hospitals or medical professionals). Male caregivers demonstrate some knowledge base

  17. Gendered Safety and Health Risks in the Construction Trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Hannah M; Meischke, Hendrika; Stover, Bert; Simcox, Nancy J; Seixas, Noah S

    2018-04-18

    Despite women's increased representation in the overall workforce, construction remains a male-dominated industry. Prior studies have noted that the hazardous workplace environment combined with a culture that can be discriminatory and openly hostile can threaten women workers' health and safety. However, little information exists about the current physical and psychosocial hazards at work affecting tradeswomen. We examined differences in workplace exposure between women and men, and the association of these exposures with self-reported stress and work injury, in order to highlight how gendered conditions of work negatively affect tradeswomen's health. A holistic view of health that included the influence of both home and work spheres as well as hazards related to women's social experience was considered. Almost 300 workers (198 tradeswomen and 93 tradesmen) throughout Washington State completed surveys. We used descriptive statistics to compare exposures between genders, and logistic regression to model the association between psychosocial exposures and injury and stress outcomes. We found that women were significantly more likely than men to report high perceived stress (31 and 18%, respectively) and being injured at work in the past year (31 and 12%, respectively). Ten of the 12 work-related psychosocial exposures were found to be associated with either stress (job strain, gender and age discrimination, bullying, work/life balance, isolation, sexual harassment, safety climate, and social support) or injury (gender discrimination, bullying, overcompensation, and sexual harassment) for women. The industry continues to lag in supporting tradeswomen's health and safety needs. This study suggests that multiple exposures (including discrimination, overcompensation, and work/life balance) have an important impact on worker well-being. The findings underscore the complex interaction of gender, psychosocial exposures, and occupational risks, and indicate areas for

  18. The Research on Safety Management Information System of Railway Passenger Based on Risk Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenmin; Jia, Yuanhua

    2018-01-01

    Based on the risk management theory and the PDCA cycle model, requirements of the railway passenger transport safety production is analyzed, and the establishment of the security risk assessment team is proposed to manage risk by FTA with Delphi from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The safety production committee is also established to accomplish performance appraisal, which is for further ensuring the correctness of risk management results, optimizing the safety management business processes and improving risk management capabilities. The basic framework and risk information database of risk management information system of railway passenger transport safety are designed by Ajax, Web Services and SQL technologies. The system realizes functions about risk management, performance appraisal and data management, and provides an efficient and convenient information management platform for railway passenger safety manager.

  19. Food safety in the domestic environment: the effect of consumer risk information on human disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Maarten J; Fischer, Arnout R H; van Asselt, Esther D; de Jong, Aarieke E I; Frewer, Lynn J; de Jonge, Rob

    2008-02-01

    The improvement of food safety in the domestic environment requires a transdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between both the social and natural sciences. This approach is applied in a study on risks associated with Campylobacter on broiler meat. First, some web-based information interventions were designed and tested on participant motivation and intentions to cook more safely. Based on these self-reported measures, the intervention supported by the emotion "disgust" was selected as the most promising information intervention. Its effect on microbial cross-contamination was tested by recruiting a set of participants who prepared a salad with chicken breast fillet carrying a known amount of tracer bacteria. The amount of tracer that could be recovered from the salad revealed the transfer and survival of Campylobacter and was used as a measure of hygiene. This was introduced into an existing risk model on Campylobacter in the Netherlands to assess the effect of the information intervention both at the level of exposure and the level of human disease risk. We showed that the information intervention supported by the emotion "disgust" alone had no measurable effect on the health risk. However, when a behavioral cue was embedded within the instruction for the salad preparation, the risk decreased sharply. It is shown that a transdisciplinary approach, involving research on risk perception, microbiology, and risk assessment, is successful in evaluating the efficacy of an information intervention in terms of human health risks. The approach offers a novel tool for science-based risk management in the area of food safety.

  20. LWR risk management by safety R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, K.A.; Damon, D.R.; Temme, M.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology which has been developed for selecting LWR safety RandD projects. The methodology provides ranking of the RandD projects and the RandD budget allocation which minimizes public risk. The methodology contains procedures to identify institutional, organizational, legal, and contractual factors which affect the probabilities of success and use of RandD projects so that these factors can be evaluated and possibly managed.The methodology also contains a nonlinear optimization code to provide the optimum selection of RandD projects and evaluate the sensitivity of this selection to uncertainity in the input data. Application of the methodology to a test case has shown that: 1) commonly used schemes for ranking RandD projects do not necessarily lead to the optimum selection, and 2) the optimum selection is not necessarily strongly sensitive to uncertainty in the input data

  1. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  2. Utilization of a risk matrix based on Probabilistic Safety Analysis to improve nuclear safety in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbe, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a systematic and comprehensive methodology to evaluate risks associated with a complex engineered technological entity. Risk in a PSA is defined as a feasible detrimental outcome of an initiator. Those initiators can be 'classical' transient as the loss of main feedwater, loss of the secondary heat sink, etc.. or accident (LOCA - Loss Of Coolant Accident, SGTR - Steam Generator Tube Rupture, LOOP - Loss Of Offsite Power, etc..) In a PSA, risk is characterized by two quantities: the magnitude (severity) of the possible adverse consequence, the likelihood (probability) of occurrence of each consequence. Consequences are expressed numerically (for this purpose: the core damage) and their likelihoods of occurrence are expressed as probabilities or frequencies (i.e., the number of occurrences or the probability of occurrence per unit time). The total risk is the expected loss: the sum of the products of the consequences multiplied by their probabilities. This lead to the parameter CDF: The Core Damage Frequency, which is expressed by unit of time. The main advantage of this risk calculation is to have a global, integrated, overview of the plants and their systems. This allows to have an objective and quantitative point of view on the importance of the equipments, human action, or common cause failures that can challenge the plant's safety. A total PSA model is divided in three levels: Level one, which consider the core damage; Level two, which consider the robustness of the containment; Level three, which consider the impact of the radiological release on the public. For the purpose of the risk matrix, a level one PSA is needed. The scope of a PSA model is important to have a good characterization of the plant's risk. The matrix makes more sense if you have a full scope level one model, containing, furthermore the internal events, the fire and flooding, but also seismic event (if relevant). Asymmetries are also classical in the

  3. Risk management for existing energy facilities. A global approach to numerical safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate-Cornell, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a structured set of numerical safety goals for risk management of existing energy facilities. The rationale behind these safety goals is based on principles of equity and economic efficiency. Some of the issues involved when using probabilistic risk analyses results for safety decisions are discussed. A brief review of existing safety targets and open-quotes floating numbersclose quotes is presented, and a set of safety goals for industrial risk management is proposed. Relaxation of these standards for existing facilities, the relevance of the lifetime of the plant, the treatment of uncertainties, and problems of failure dependencies are discussed briefly. 17 refs., 1 fig

  4. Risk of no-reflow in culprit lesion versus culprit vessel PCI in acute STEMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Uğur; Yaman, Mehmet; Kocaoğlu, İbrahim; Turan, Oğuzhan Ekrem; Yücel, Huriye; Aksakal, Aytekin; Günaydin, İlksen Atasoy; Hakan Ateş, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    The present report describes patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction who had at least two lesions in the culprit vessel (CV) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Here, we aimed to examine two different strategies, namely, PCI of only culprit lesion (CL) versus PCI of all lesions in the CV in the setting of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients who underwent primary PCI were examined for the presence of an additional lesion in the infarct-related artery and divided into two groups according to the PCI strategy: CV versus CL groups. Coronary angiograms were examined for coronary thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow and major clinical outcomes were determined. Of 637 patients, 472 (74.1%) underwent primary PCI for the CV (CV group) and 165 (25.9%) underwent primary PCI only for CL (CL group). TIMI flow before primary PCI and after stenting of the CL was similar; however, TIMI flow after completion of the procedure was significantly better in the CL group (P=0.022). The composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization was significantly better in the CL group (P=0.041) and early stent thrombosis was observed more commonly in the CV group [14 (3.0%) patients vs. 1 (0.6%) patient, P=0.09]. In the presence of an additional lesion in the CV during primary PCI, deferring stenting for the non-CL in the culprit artery after stenting the CL may be considered to prevent the development of no-reflow or slow-reflow, and thus major clinical adverse events may be reduced.

  5. [Safety evaluation and risk control measures of Cassiae Semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Meng; Wu, Li; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xue-Min; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Chun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed domestic and foreign literatures, conducted the textual research on origin and development of Cassia Semen, studied records in ancient books and ancient and modern literatures, clinical adverse reactions and relevant experimental studies in recent years, and summarized the clinical features and influencing factors related to the safety of Cassiae Semen. According to the findings,Cassia Semen's safety risks are mainly liver and kidney system damages, with the main clinical features of fatigue, anorexia, disgusting of oil, yellow urine and gray stool; digestive system injury, with the main clinical features of diarrhea, abdominal distension, nausea and loose stool; reproductive system damage, with the main clinical features of vaginal bleeding. Allergic reactions and clinical adverse events, with the main clinical features for numb mouth, itching skin, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, wheezing and lip cyanosis were also reported. The toxicological studies on toxic components of Cassiae Semen obtusifolia were carried out through acute toxicity test, subacute toxicity test, subchronic toxicity test and chronic toxicity test. Risk factors might include patients, compatibility and physicians. Physicians should strictly abide by the medication requirements in the Pharmacopoeia, pay attention to rational compatibility, appropriate dosage,correct usage and appropriate processing, control the dosage below 15 g to avoid excessive intake, strictly control the course of treatment to avoid accumulated poisoning caused by long-term administration. At the same time, clinicians should pay attention to the latest research progress, update the knowledge structure, quickly find the latest and useful materials from clinical practice, scientific research and drug information and other literatures, make evaluation and judgment for the materials, establish a traditional Chinese medicine intelligence information library, and strengthen the control over

  6. Estimating and controlling workplace risk: an approach for occupational hygiene and safety professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffel, Michael W; Birkner, Lawrence R

    2002-07-01

    The protection of people and physical assets is the objective of health and safety professionals and is accomplished through the paradigm of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of risks in the occupational environment. Risk assessment concepts are not only used by health and safety professionals, but also by business and financial planners. Since meeting health and safety objectives requires financial resources provided by business and governmental managers, the hypothesis addressed here is that health and safety risk decisions should be made with probabilistic processes used in financial decision-making and which are familiar and recognizable to business and government planners and managers. This article develops the processes and demonstrates the use of incident probabilities, historic outcome information, and incremental impact analysis to estimate risk of multiple alternatives in the chemical process industry. It also analyzes how the ethical aspects of decision-making can be addressed in formulating health and safety risk management plans. It is concluded that certain, easily understood, and applied probabilistic risk assessment methods used by business and government to assess financial and outcome risk have applicability to improving workplace health and safety in three ways: 1) by linking the business and health and safety risk assessment processes to securing resources, 2) by providing an additional set of tools for health and safety risk assessment, and 3) by requiring the risk assessor to consider multiple risk management alternatives.

  7. Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuschner, R. G. K.; Robinson, T. P.; Hugas, M.

    2010-01-01

    Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation...... and value of the QPS assessment for EFSA and to explain its principles such as the unambiguous identity of a taxonomic unit, the body of knowledge including potential safety concerns and how these considerations lead to a list of biological agents recommended for QPS which EFSA keeps updated through...

  8. Airport Ground Operations Risks and Establishment of the Safety Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stojić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a relatively new approach to air transport safety. This approach introduces the safety indicators whose application’s primer goal is to reduce the number of aviation safety events and to search for their causes. These causes are defined as factors contributing to safety event realisation. These are supposed to be adequately identified and then prevented or at least mitigated. Defined safety indicators are focused on airport processes and subjects.

  9. A systems approach to risk management through leading safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of leading indicators for safety is to identify the potential for an accident before it occurs. Past efforts have focused on identifying general leading indicators, such as maintenance backlog, that apply widely in an industry or even across industries. Other recommendations produce more system-specific leading indicators, but start from system hazard analysis and thus are limited by the causes considered by the traditional hazard analysis techniques. Most rely on quantitative metrics, often based on probabilistic risk assessments. This paper describes a new and different approach to identifying system-specific leading indicators and provides guidance in designing a risk management structure to generate, monitor and use the results. The approach is based on the STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) model of accident causation and tools that have been designed to build on that model. STAMP extends current accident causality to include more complex causes than simply component failures and chains of failure events or deviations from operational expectations. It incorporates basic principles of systems thinking and is based on systems theory rather than traditional reliability theory. - Highlights: • Much effort has gone into developing leading indicators with only limited success. • A systems-theoretic, assumption-based approach may be more successful. • Leading indicators are warning signals of an assumption’s changing vulnerability. • Heuristic biases can be controlled by using plausibility rather than likelihood

  10. Risk limitation, safety and environmental compatibility in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of meeting future electricity needs while at the same time reducing to a minimum the risks, the pollution of air and water and the environmental effects of power stations. The first resource to exploit is the ''virtual source'' represented by energy saving pursued to the limit of the possible. The second, in order of priority, is that of renewable resources as yet unused and under development. Unfortunately, in most countries these latter resources are far from sufficient: it is then necessary to choose between the use of conventional fossil fuels and nuclear fuels. In this paper it is shown that, of all the possible fossil fuels, only coal can be considered for electricity production. As a result, in meeting new electricity needs, the choice will have to be made between coal and nuclear power. Attention is directed to factors having a significant influence on this choice, particularly the risks and safety problems in the widest sense, with a view to making a global evaluation comprising not just generating stations but the entire production cycle, from the search for the primary source to the supplying of electricity to the user. The most important problems that arise in this connection are briefly analysed in the paper, which concludes with an appeal for more objectivity in providing information on energy, such information being at present very ''polluted'' and exerting a major influence on the views of experts. (author)

  11. Quantifying Safety Margin Using the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David; Bucknor, Matthew; Brunett, Acacia; Nakayama, Marvin

    2015-04-26

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC), developed by Idaho National Laboratory as part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability Project, utilizes a probabilistic safety margin comparison between a load and capacity distribution, rather than a deterministic comparison between two values, as is usually done in best-estimate plus uncertainty analyses. The goal is to determine the failure probability, or in other words, the probability of the system load equaling or exceeding the system capacity. While this method has been used in pilot studies, there has been little work conducted investigating the statistical significance of the resulting failure probability. In particular, it is difficult to determine how many simulations are necessary to properly characterize the failure probability. This work uses classical (frequentist) statistics and confidence intervals to examine the impact in statistical accuracy when the number of simulations is varied. Two methods are proposed to establish confidence intervals related to the failure probability established using a RISMC analysis. The confidence interval provides information about the statistical accuracy of the method utilized to explore the uncertainty space, and offers a quantitative method to gauge the increase in statistical accuracy due to performing additional simulations.

  12. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  13. Age-related vessel calcification at distal extremities is a risk factor of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a cohort study to investigate if the vessel calcifications (VCs found in the distal extremities are an index of low bone mass at multiskeletal sites. A total of 332 healthy women aged 41–80 years were recruited for bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density measurement using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Seven percent of the women showed VC at both upper and lower distal extremities based on pQCT images. Women who had VC were then compared with their age-matched non-VC counterparts. Results showed that peripheral VC was mainly formed at distal lower extremities, and the prevalence of VC increased with advancing age, with 0%, 5.6%, 9.3%, and up to 34.5% in the age groups of 41–50 years, 51–60 years, 61–70 years, and 71–80 years, respectively. Compared with the control group, the VC group showed a significantly higher body mass index (25.2 vs. 23.2, p < 0.01, lower BMC at the spine (27.4 g vs. 31.3 g, p < 0.05, and lower BMC (1.8 g vs. 2.0 g, p < 0.05 and bone mineral density (0.57 g/cm2 vs. 0.66 g/cm2, p < 0.05 at the hip as measured by DXA. The diagnosis of VC in the distal extremities by pQCT increased the diagnosis sensitivity of osteoporosis by 50%. The significance of our findings imply that in clinical settings using pQCT for bone assessment and identification of patients with VC in the distal extremities, patients should also be referred for central DXA measurement at the femoral neck for diagnosis of osteoporosis as well as further assessment of vascular disorders.

  14. Safety from physical viewpoint: ''two-risk model in multiple risk problem''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'Min, I.I.; Akimov, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the problem of safety provision for people and environment within the framework of a certain socio-economic system (SES) as a problem of managing a great number of interacting risks characterizing numerous hazards (natural, manmade, social, economic once, etc.) inherent in the certain SES has been discussed. From the physical point of view, it can be considered a problem of interaction of many bodies which has no accurate mathematical solution even if the laws of interaction of this bodies are known. In physics, to solve this problem, an approach based on the reduction of the above-mentioned problem of the problem of two-body interaction which can be solved accurately in mathematics has been used. The report presents a similar approach to the problem of risk management in the SES. This approach includes the subdivision of numerous hazards inherent within the framework of the SES into two classes of hazards, so that each of the classes could be considered an integrated whole one, each of them being characterized by the appropriate risk. Consequently, problem of 'multiple-risk' management (i.e. the problem of many bodies, as represented in physics) can be reduced to the 'two-risk' management problem (that is, to the problem two-bodies). Within the framework of the two-risk model the optimization of costs to reduce the two kinds of risk, that is, the risk inherent in the SES as a whole, as well as the risk potentially provoked by lots of activities to be introduced in the SES economy has been described. The model has made it possible to formulate and prove the theorem of equilibrium in risk management. Using the theorem, a relatively simple and practically applicable procedure of optimizing the threshold costs to reduce diverse kinds of risk has been elaborated. The procedure provides to assess the minimum value of the cost that can be achieved regarding the socio-economic factors typical of the SES under discussion. The aimed

  15. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, William E.; Blandford, Edward; Kim, Lance

    2009-01-01

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public

  18. Long-term safety and feasibility of three-vessel multimodality intravascular imaging in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the feasibility and the procedural and long-term safety of intracoronary (i.c) imaging for documentary purposes with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI in the s......We assessed the feasibility and the procedural and long-term safety of intracoronary (i.c) imaging for documentary purposes with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI...... in the setting of IBIS-4 study. IBIS4 (NCT00962416) is a prospective cohort study conducted at five European centers including 103 STEMI patients who underwent serial three-vessel coronary imaging during primary PCI and at 13 months. The feasibility parameter was successful imaging, defined as the number...... of pullbacks suitable for analysis. Safety parameters included the frequency of peri-procedural complications, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) and any clinically-indicated revascularization at 2 years. Clinical outcomes were compared...

  19. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  20. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    The role of the research vessels as a tool for marine research and exploration is very important. Technical requirements of a suitable vessel and the laboratories needed on board are discussed. The history and the research work carried out...

  2. Study of system safety evaluation on LTO of national project. Structural integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Kunio; Masaki, Koichi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Osakabe, Kazuya; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To assure the structural integrity of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is known as one of the critical issues to maintain the safe long-term operation of a nuclear power plant. In Japan, the assessment methods for RPV integrity, stipulated in the codes and standards, have been endorsed by the regulatory body. Authors have initiated extensive research on the improvement of structural integrity assessment methods of RPVs. In this paper, we describe some research results obtained from the first-year activity. These include the study on revisiting the technical background of the methods, such as loading conditions, postulated crack definition, the other evaluation methods. In addition, studies on probabilistic methods for the applicability to the current rules and the standardization of the probabilistic analysis methods have been presented. (author)

  3. A Practical Risk Assessment Methodology for Safety-Critical Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project proposes a Practical Risk Assessment Methodology (PRAM) for analyzing railroad accident data and assessing the risk and benefit of safety-critical train control systems. This report documents in simple steps the algorithms and data input...

  4. 76 FR 14279 - Safety Zone; Todd Pacific Shipyards Vessel Roll-Out, West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... from entering or remaining in the safety zone unless authorized by the Captain of the Port or a... published. In addition, given the dangers involved with a large slow moving dry dock maneuvering close to... with a large slow moving dry dock maneuvering close to the shore, delaying the effective date of this...

  5. Research on Occupational Safety, Health Management and Risk Control Technology in Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu-Jie; Cao, Qing-Gui; Yu, Kai; Wang, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2018-04-26

    This paper studies the occupational safety and health management methods as well as risk control technology associated with the coal mining industry, including daily management of occupational safety and health, identification and assessment of risks, early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks, etc.; also, a B/S mode software (Geting Coal Mine, Jining, Shandong, China), i.e., Coal Mine Occupational Safety and Health Management and Risk Control System, is developed to attain the aforementioned objectives, namely promoting the coal mine occupational safety and health management based on early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks. Furthermore, the practical effectiveness and the associated pattern for applying this software package to coal mining is analyzed. The study indicates that the presently developed coal mine occupational safety and health management and risk control technology and the associated software can support the occupational safety and health management efforts in coal mines in a standardized and effective manner. It can also control the accident risks scientifically and effectively; its effective implementation can further improve the coal mine occupational safety and health management mechanism, and further enhance the risk management approaches. Besides, its implementation indicates that the occupational safety and health management and risk control technology has been established based on a benign cycle involving dynamic feedback and scientific development, which can provide a reliable assurance to the safe operation of coal mines.

  6. Fusion reactor passive safety and ignitor risk-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1995-01-01

    Passive design features are more reliable than operator action of successful operation of active safety systems. Passive safety has usually been adopted for fission. The achievement of an inventory-based passive safety is difficult if the fusion reactor uses neutronic reactions. Ignitor is a high-magnetic field tokamak designed to study the physics of ignited plasmas. The safety goal for Ignitor is classification as a mobility-based passively safe machine

  7. Review on the assessment of safety and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiber, C.O. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany); Doherty, R.M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Historically explosion accidents are linked with energetic materials. There is the further belief, that the proneness to accidents-and their severity-is linked with the sensitivity of these explosives. Consequently there exist seemingly very insensitive materials for which it is believed that their accidental explosion can be ignored, so that safety distances can be reduced to those that apply to materials for which the hazard is assumed to be mass fire rather than mass detonation. Evidence is presented here that shows these assumptions to be invalid. Reports of explosion accidents are gathered here for substances that are not generally considered to be explosives (non UN-class 1 substances, like ammonium nitrate (AN), neat alkali metal chlorates, and even hypochlorites and nitromethane). In most of these cases the proneness of accidents had not been foreseen by testing. The basic explosion mechanisms are of a more general nature than simply those that apply to high explosives. Explosion is not solely a matter of energy, but of any physical power conversion. In order to prove this, a survey of explosion events is given: Natural events, like the impacts of celestial bodies and volcanic erptions. Fuel/liquid interactions in nature are industrial risks too, which occur at very different occasions and sites: Cellulose processing, the oil industry, foundries, power stations, explosions of hot cinders, chemical processing, fire extinguishing, and (most common) in the kitchen, and (most catastrophic) in nuclear reactors. Explosions of similar type are Hydraulic Transients, Bubble resonance explosions with the possibility of associated chemical room explosions (BLEVE), Rollovers. Second order effects are sorption/desorption resonance explosions, which most powerful also occur in nature (Nios Lake (CO{sub 2}-release), Kivu Lake, Monoun Lake, 1984, Tanganjika Lake, all in Africa, and the Ocracoke in the Gulf of Mexico (CH{sub 4}-release))-and at the lowest end shaken

  8. Proposal for the improvement of IRD safety culture based on risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, L.A.; Ferreira, P.R.R.; Silveira, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    The Safety Culture (SC) is a concept about the relationship of individuals and organizations towards the safety in a specific activity. Any organization that carries out activities with risks has a SC, even at minimum levels. People perceive different types of radiation risks in very different ways, therefore, to identify and to analysis of the possible radiation risks resulting from normal operation or accident conditions is an important issue in order to improve the SC in organization. The main is to present guidelines for the improvement of the safety culture in the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD through on risk-based approach. The methodology proposed here is: A) select a division of the IRD for case study; B) assess the level of the 10 culture safety basic elements of the IRD division selected; C) conduct a survey of the hazards and risks associated with the various activities developed by the division; D) reassess the level of the 10 basic elements of CS; And E) analyze the results and correlate the impact of risk knowledge on safety culture improvement. The expected result is improvement the safety and of safety culture by understanding of radiation risks and hazards relating to work and to the working environment; and thus enforce a collective commitment to safety by teams and individuals and raise the safety culture to higher levels. (author)

  9. Proposal for the improvement of IRD safety culture based on risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L.A.; Ferreira, P.R.R. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (DIRAD/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silveira, C.S., E-mail: laguiar@ird.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DRS/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Safety Culture (SC) is a concept about the relationship of individuals and organizations towards the safety in a specific activity. Any organization that carries out activities with risks has a SC, even at minimum levels. People perceive different types of radiation risks in very different ways, therefore, to identify and to analysis of the possible radiation risks resulting from normal operation or accident conditions is an important issue in order to improve the SC in organization. The main is to present guidelines for the improvement of the safety culture in the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD through on risk-based approach. The methodology proposed here is: A) select a division of the IRD for case study; B) assess the level of the 10 culture safety basic elements of the IRD division selected; C) conduct a survey of the hazards and risks associated with the various activities developed by the division; D) reassess the level of the 10 basic elements of CS; And E) analyze the results and correlate the impact of risk knowledge on safety culture improvement. The expected result is improvement the safety and of safety culture by understanding of radiation risks and hazards relating to work and to the working environment; and thus enforce a collective commitment to safety by teams and individuals and raise the safety culture to higher levels. (author)

  10. Overview of Risk Mitigation for Safety-Critical Computer-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a high-level overview of a general strategy to mitigate the risks from threats to safety-critical computer-based systems. In this context, a safety threat is a process or phenomenon that can cause operational safety hazards in the form of computational system failures. This report is intended to provide insight into the safety-risk mitigation problem and the characteristics of potential solutions. The limitations of the general risk mitigation strategy are discussed and some options to overcome these limitations are provided. This work is part of an ongoing effort to enable well-founded assurance of safety-related properties of complex safety-critical computer-based aircraft systems by developing an effective capability to model and reason about the safety implications of system requirements and design.

  11. Risks and safety aspects related to PET/MR examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke A.; Nosske, Dietmar; Griebel, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) systems into medical practice in the foreseeable future may not only lead to a gain in clinical diagnosis compared to PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging due to the superior soft-tissue contrast of the MR technology but can also substantially reduce exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. On the other hand, there are also risks and health effects associated with the use of diagnostic MR devices that have to be considered carefully. This review article summarizes biophysical and biological aspects, which are of relevance for the assessment of health effects related to the exposure of patients to both ionizing radiation in PET and magnetic and electromagnetic fields in MR. On this basis, some considerations concerning the justification and optimization of PET/MR examinations are presented - as far as this is possible at this very early stage. Current safety standards do not take into account synergistic effects of ionizing radiation and magnetic and electromagnetic fields. In the light of the developing PET/MR technology, there is an urgent need to investigate this aspect in more detail for exposure levels that will occur at PET/MR systems. (orig.)

  12. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  13. Risks and safety of combination therapy for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2016-08-01

    Hypothyroidism is currently a condition that can be treated, but not cured. Although levothyroxine reverses stigmata of hypothyroidism in most individuals, some patients feel dissatisfied with 'monotherapy', and this has stimulated interest in 'combination therapy' with both levothyroxine and liothyronine. A search of PubMed was conducted using terms including hypothyroidism, treatment, benefits, risks, and safety. Based on the articles identified, the body of evidence regarding the efficacy of traditional levothyroxine is reviewed. Concerns with levothyroxine therapy including impaired quality of life in treated patients, thyroxine-predominant hormone ratios, and inadvertent iatrogenic thyroid disease are discussed. The trials of combination therapy performed since 1999 were reviewed. The heterogeneity of these trials, both in terms of design and results, is discussed. The potential for new trials to determine whether combination therapy can reverse the dissatisfaction associated with monotherapy, while avoiding non-physiologic hormone ratios, inadvertent thyrotoxicosis, and unacceptable side effects is discussed. Expert commentary: Research regarding which therapy fully reverses hypothyroidism at a tissue and cellular level is ongoing. The field would be advanced by the development of an extended release preparation of liothyronine. In the future regeneration of functional thyroid follicles from stem cells may offer hope for curing hypothyroidism.

  14. The role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzumdar, Ajit; Professor, Visiting

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment by examining the reasons for human-based error. The need for more emphasis on producing engineers with good engineering judgement is described. The progress in quantifying the role of safety culture and organizational factors in risk assessment studies is summarized

  15. Patient safety risk factors in minimally invasive surgery : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.P.; Ter Kuile, M.; Dankelman, J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to adapt and validate a patient safety (PS) framework for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as a first step in understanding the clinical relevance of various PS risk factors in MIS. Eight patient safety risk factor domains were identified using frameworks from a systems

  16. Risk and safety in the nuclear industry and conventional norms of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    In the present study the societal acceptance of various risks is analyzed and rules of risk acceptance as a function of different parameters are spelled out. The monetary value of a human life is estimated, based on investments in safety of different human activities. The acceptable risks and safety investments in different human activities are then compared with risks and safety investments of the nuclear industry. Safety investments required to reduce the radioactivity releases and risks from nuclear power stations to ALAP levels are taken as a study case. It is found that risks in the nuclear industry are several orders of magnitude lower and safety investments per human life saved are several orders of magnitude higher, as compared with risks and safety investments in other human activities. It is also shown that the incremental safety investments needed to further reduce the radiation doses in the environment during normal and continuous operation of nuclear plants are extravagantly high as compared to safety investments in other human activities and in other facets of human life. Considering that there is a limit to the economic means available, societal expenditures for reducing risks should by spread, as much as possible, over all human activities to get the maximum return from investments. (B.G.)

  17. 75 FR 23782 - Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  18. [Post-marketing drug safety-risk management plan(RMP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Asami; Hori, Akiko

    2013-03-01

    The Guidance for Risk Management Plan(RMP)was released by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in April 2012. The RMP consists of safety specifications, pharmacovigilance plans and risk minimization action plans. In this paper, we outline post-marketing drug safety operations in PMDA and the RMP, with examples of some anticancer drugs.

  19. Track 6: safety and risk management. Plant operational risk management. Plant Configuration Risk Assessment Methodology Development for Periodic Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Huichang; Chung, Chang Hyun; Sung, Key Yong

    2001-01-01

    As the operation experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea accumulate and NPP safety functions become enhanced, the role of stable and optimal NPP operation within acceptable safety criteria becomes important at present. To accomplish the goal of safe and optimal operation, maintenance and its related activities should be regarded as the issues of most concern. Studies of methodologies for maintenance improvement and optimization have focused on system performance rather than on the hardware itself. From this point of view, the probabilistic methods are most useful. In terms of risk including core damage frequency and unavailability, the cause that might impact plant safety during normal maintenance activities can be identified and evaluated effectively. The results from these probabilistic analyses can provide insightful information for the reallocation of risk-contributing maintenance activity. This information can be utilized in a way that separates the significant risk-contributing maintenance activities from each other unless they are timely related. In Korea, the risk-monitoring program for operating NPPs is under development and will be implemented in 2003. To accomplish the risk-monitoring program objectives, suitable risk evaluation methods should be developed before the implementation of the risk-monitoring program. The plant configuration assessment methodology was developed for these reasons, and this method is to incorporate the field experiences into the risk calculation exactly within the limit of probabilistic methods. During normal plant operation, the plant operational risk changes frequently depending on the status of the plant system and the arrangement of the components. Specific plant systems or components are typically removed from service because of random equipment failure, planned preventive/predictive maintenance, corrective maintenance, surveillance testing, and operational bypass activities, and such events usually impact the

  20. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary: main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the objectives and organization of the reactor safety study; the basic concepts of risk; the nature of nuclear power plant accidents; risk assessment methodology; reactor accident risk; and comparison of nuclear risks to other societal risks

  1. Cooperative conflict and contested space: a case study of risk and safety in the steel industry.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is a journey into the world of risk and safety in the steel industry. The problem statement that is explored in this study relates to the nature of the relationship between safety performance and stakeholders in the steel industry, the nature of the relationships between different stakeholders and the way in which these relationships impact on risk management strategies. The author contends that safety is not a normative or procedural system within the workplace, but rather ...

  2. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  3. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  4. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG ampersand G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort

  5. A risk-informed perspective on deterministic safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, P.T.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the deterministic safety analysis (DSA) approach to nuclear safety is examined from a risk-informed perspective. One objective of safety analysis of a nuclear power plant is to demonstrate via analysis that the risks to the public from events or accidents that are within the design basis of the power plant are within acceptable levels with a high degree of assurance. This nuclear safety analysis objective can be translated into two requirements on the risk estimates of design basis events or accidents: the nominal risk estimate to the public must be shown to be within acceptable levels, and the uncertainty in the risk estimates must be shown to be small on an absolute or relative basis. The DSA approach combined with the defense-in-depth (DID) principle is a simplified safety analysis approach that attempts to achieve the above safety analysis objective in the face of potentially large uncertainties in the risk estimates of a nuclear power plant by treating the various uncertainty contributors using a stylized conservative binary (yes-no) approach, and applying multiple overlapping physical barriers and defense levels to protect against the release of radioactivity from the reactor. It is shown that by focusing on the consequence aspect of risk, the previous two nuclear safety analysis requirements on risk can be satisfied with the DSA-DID approach to nuclear safety. It is also shown the use of multiple overlapping physical barriers and defense levels in the traditional DSA-DID approach to nuclear safety is risk-informed in the sense that it provides a consistently high level of confidence in the validity of the safety analysis results for various design basis events or accidents with a wide range of frequency of occurrence. It is hoped that by providing a linkage between the consequence analysis approach in DSA with a risk-informed perspective, greater understanding of the limitation and capability of the DSA approach is obtained. (author)

  6. Taking up national safety alerts to improve patient safety in hospitals: The perspective of healthcare quality and risk managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Schwappach, David

    2016-01-01

    National safety alert systems publish relevant information to improve patient safety in hospitals. However, the information has to be transformed into local action to have an effect on patient safety. We studied three research questions: How do Swiss healthcare quality and risk managers (qm/rm(1)) see their own role in learning from safety alerts issued by the Swiss national voluntary reporting and analysis system? What are their attitudes towards and evaluations of the alerts, and which types of improvement actions were fostered by the safety alerts? A survey was developed and applied to Swiss healthcare risk and quality managers, with a response rate of 39 % (n=116). Descriptive statistics are presented. The qm/rm disseminate and communicate with a broad variety of professional groups about the alerts. While most respondents felt that they should know the alerts and their contents, only a part of them felt responsible for driving organizational change based on the recommendations. However, most respondents used safety alerts to back up their own patient safety goals. The alerts were evaluated positively on various dimensions such as usefulness and were considered as standards of good practice by the majority of the respondents. A range of organizational responses was applied, with disseminating information being the most common. An active role is related to using safety alerts for backing up own patient safety goals. To support an active role of qm/rm in their hospital's learning from safety alerts, appropriate organizational structures should be developed. Furthermore, they could be given special information or training to act as an information hub on the issues discussed in the alerts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Consumer Food Safety Risk Attitudes and Perceptions Over Time: The Case of BSE Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogeras, Nikos; Pennings, Joost M.E.; van Ittersum, Koert

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions on consumer risk behaviour for contaminated food products can be used to formulate effective agricultural policies and strategies in case of a food ...

  8. Physicians' and nurses' perceptions of patient safety risks in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källberg, Ann-Sofie; Ehrenberg, Anna; Florin, Jan; Östergren, Jan; Göransson, Katarina E

    2017-07-01

    The emergency department has been described as a high-risk area for errors. It is also known that working conditions such as a high workload and shortage off staff in the healthcare field are common factors that negatively affect patient safety. A limited amount of research has been conducted with regard to patient safety in Swedish emergency departments. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge about clinicians' perceptions of patient safety risks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe emergency department clinicians' experiences with regard to patient safety risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 physicians and 10 registered nurses from two emergency departments. Interviews were analysed by inductive content analysis. The experiences reflect the complexities involved in the daily operation of a professional practice, and the perception of risks due to a high workload, lack of control, communication and organizational failures. The results reflect a complex system in which high workload was perceived as a risk for patient safety and that, in a combination with other risks, was thought to further jeopardize patient safety. Emergency department staff should be involved in the development of patient safety procedures in order to increase knowledge regarding risk factors as well as identify strategies which can facilitate the maintenance of patient safety during periods in which the workload is high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  10. The role of the safety analysis organization in steam generators replacement and reactor vessel head replacement evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Whee G.; Boatwright, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    When a major component in a nuclear power plant is replaced, especially the steam generators, the plant operator is presented a rare opportunity to learn from operating experience and significantly improve the performance, reliability and robustness of the plant. In addition to the use of improved materials, improved design margins can be built into the component specification that can later be used to provide meaningful operating margins. A Safety Analysis organization that is well-integrated with other plant organizations and possesses a detailed knowledge of the plant design and licensing bases can effectively balance the wants and needs of each organization to optimize the benefits realized by the plant as a whole. Knowledge of the assumptions, limitations, and available margins, both analytical and operating, can be used to specify a replacement steam generator design that optimizes costs and operating improvements. The work scope required to support the new design can be controlled through carefully selected and evaluated restrictions in operations, development of alternate operating strategies, and imposition of appropriate limitations. The important point is that the effective Safety Analysis organization must possess both the breadth and depth of knowledge of the plant design and operations and proactively use this information to support the replacement steam generator project. (author)

  11. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    rankings. The aim of this contribution is to provide a better understanding to food risk analysts of why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information. This paper presents some cases of seemingly irrational and inconsistent consumer behaviour with respect to food safety...... and risk information and provides explanations for these behaviours based on the nature of the risk and individual psychological processes. Potential solutions for rebuilding consumer confidence in food safety and bridging between lay and expert opinions towards food risks are reviewed. These include......In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers' food concern...

  12. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  13. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  14. Impediments for the application of risk-informed decision making in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.

    2001-01-01

    A broad application of risk-informed decision making in the regulation of safety of nuclear power plants is hindered by the lack of quantitative risk and safety standards as well as of precise instruments to demonstrate an appropriate safety. An additional severe problem is associated with the difficulty to harmonize deterministic design requirements and probabilistic safety assessment. The problem is strengthened by the vulnerability of PSA for subjective influences and the potential of misuse. Beside this scepticism the nuclear community is encouraged to intensify the efforts to improve the quality standards for probabilistic safety assessments and their quality assurance. A prerequisite for reliable risk-informed decision making processes is also a well-defined and transparent relationship between deterministic and probabilistic safety approaches. (author)

  15. Risk perception, risk management and safety assessment: what can governments do to increase public confidence in their vaccine system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Noni E; Smith, Jennifer; Appleton, Mary

    2012-09-01

    For decades vaccine program managers and governments have devoted many resources to addressing public vaccine concerns, vaccine risk perception, risk management and safety assessment. Despite ever growing evidence that vaccines are safe and effective, public concerns continue. Education and evidence based scientific messages have not ended concerns. How can governments and programs more effectively address the public's vaccine concerns and increase confidence in the vaccine safety system? Vaccination hesitation has been attributed to concerns about vaccine safety, perceptions of high vaccine risks and low disease risk and consequences. Even when the public believes vaccines are important for protection many still have concerns about vaccine safety. This overview explores how heuristics affect public perception of vaccines and vaccine safety, how the public finds and uses vaccine information, and then proposes strategies for changes in the approach to vaccine safety communications. Facts and evidence confirming the safety of vaccines are not enough. Vaccine beliefs and behaviours must be shaped. This will require a shift in the what, when, how and why of vaccine risk and benefit communication content and practice. A change to a behavioural change strategy such as the WHO COMBI program that has been applied to disease eradication efforts is suggested. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment of Health and Safety Approach JSA (Job Safety Analysis) in Plantation Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarindra, Muchamad; Ragil Suryoputro, Muhammad; Tiya Novitasari, Adi

    2017-06-01

    Plantation company needed to identify hazard and perform risk assessment as an Identification of Hazard and Risk Assessment Crime and Safety which was approached by using JSA (Job Safety Analysis). The identification was aimed to identify the potential hazards that might be the risk of workplace accidents so that preventive action could be taken to minimize the accidents. The data was collected by direct observation to the workers concerned and the results were recorded on a Job Safety Analysis form. The data were as forklift operator, macerator worker, worker’s creeper, shredder worker, workers’ workshop, mechanical line worker, trolley cleaning workers and workers’ crepe decline. The result showed that shredder worker value was 30 and had the working level with extreme risk with the risk value range was above 20. So to minimize the accidents could provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) which were appropriate, information about health and safety, the company should have watched the activities of workers, and rewards for the workers who obey the rules that applied in the plantation.

  17. Using a quantitative risk register to promote learning from a patient safety reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, James G; Caplan, Robert A; Campos, John S; Dreis, David F; Furman, Cathie

    2015-02-01

    Patient safety reporting systems are now used in most health care delivery organizations. These systems, such as the one in use at Virginia Mason (Seattle) since 2002, can provide valuable reports of risk and harm from the front lines of patient care. In response to the challenge of how to quantify and prioritize safety opportunities, a risk register system was developed and implemented. Basic risk register concepts were refined to provide a systematic way to understand risks reported by staff. The risk register uses a comprehensive taxonomy of patient risk and algorithmically assigns each patient safety report to 1 of 27 risk categories in three major domains (Evaluation, Treatment, and Critical Interactions). For each category, a composite score was calculated on the basis of event rate, harm, and cost. The composite scores were used to identify the "top five" risk categories, and patient safety reports in these categories were analyzed in greater depth to find recurrent patterns of risk and associated opportunities for improvement. The top five categories of risk were easy to identify and had distinctive "profiles" of rate, harm, and cost. The ability to categorize and rank risks across multiple dimensions yielded insights not previously available. These results were shared with leadership and served as input for planning quality and safety initiatives. This approach provided actionable input for the strategic planning process, while at the same time strengthening the Virginia Mason culture of safety. The quantitative patient safety risk register serves as one solution to the challenge of extracting valuable safety lessons from large numbers of incident reports and could profitably be adopted by other organizations.

  18. Safety Risk Management for Homeland Defense and Security Responders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyers, Tommey H

    2005-01-01

    .... Coast Guard and the U.S. Navy. This revealed that Operational Risk Management (ORM), a risk-based decision-making tool that systematically balances risk and mission completion, and Crew Resource Management (CRM...

  19. Problems of safety and risk in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the methodology issues in Physical Education is providing children with safety. The purpose of this work is to present basic concepts of safety at Physical Education classes. Material & Methods: The issues connected with safety at classes of Physical Education have been discussed in the subsections, each of which focuses on different concepts such as: legal safety regulations, causes of hazards, theoretical models of preventing hazards at P.E. classes, nutrition programs related to exercise’s fulfillment, prevention of heat disorders and dehydration. Results: According to experts’ opinion, the causes of safety hazards at P.E. classes can be divided into three groups: caused by instructor, caused by a student, and finally hazards technical in nature. The number of accidents during P.E. classes is still substantial, and among most common hazards there are the following: fractures of upper and lower limbs, dislocations, contusions, tendonitis, muscle tear and cuts. Curiously, boys experience such injuries more frequently than girls. Conclusions: Even though safety rules at Physical Education classes are defined by specific regulations, children’s absolute safety is never guaranteed. In order to diminish the number of misadventures, instructor is obliged not only to adhere to the norms but also to teach children to safety rules.

  20. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  1. Bridging the Divide between Safety and Risk Management for your Project or Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will bridge the divide between these separate but overlapping disciplines and help explain how to use Risk Management as an effective management decision support tool that includes safety. Risk Management is an over arching communication tool used by management to prioritize and effectively mitigate potential problems before they concur. Risk Management encompasses every kind of potential problem that can occur on a program or project. Some of these are safety issues such as hazards that have a specific likelihood and consequence that need to be controlled and included to show an integrated picture of accepted) mitigated, and residual risk. Integrating safety and other assurance disciplines is paramount to accurately representing a program s or projects risk posture. Risk is made up of several components such as technical) cost, schedule, or supportability. Safety should also be a consideration for every risk. The safety component can also have an impact on the technical, cost, and schedule aspect of a given risk. The current formats used for communication of safety and risk issues are not consistent or integrated. The presentation will explore the history of these disciplines, current work to integrate them, and suggestions for integration for the future.

  2. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation

  3. Formal safety assessment based on relative risks model in ship navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Shenping [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: sphu@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Fang Quangen [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: qgfang@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Xia Haibo [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: hbxia@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn; Xi Yongtao [Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550, Pudong Dadao, Shanghai 200135 (China)]. E-mail: xiyt@mmc.shmtu.edu.cn

    2007-03-15

    Formal safety assessment (FSA) is a structured and systematic methodology aiming at enhancing maritime safety. It has been gradually and broadly used in the shipping industry nowadays around the world. On the basis of analysis and conclusion of FSA approach, this paper discusses quantitative risk assessment and generic risk model in FSA, especially frequency and severity criteria in ship navigation. Then it puts forward a new model based on relative risk assessment (MRRA). The model presents a risk-assessment approach based on fuzzy functions and takes five factors into account, including detailed information about accident characteristics. It has already been used for the assessment of pilotage safety in Shanghai harbor, China. Consequently, it can be proved that MRRA is a useful method to solve the problems in the risk assessment of ship navigation safety in practice.

  4. Formal safety assessment based on relative risks model in ship navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shenping; Fang Quangen; Xia Haibo; Xi Yongtao

    2007-01-01

    Formal safety assessment (FSA) is a structured and systematic methodology aiming at enhancing maritime safety. It has been gradually and broadly used in the shipping industry nowadays around the world. On the basis of analysis and conclusion of FSA approach, this paper discusses quantitative risk assessment and generic risk model in FSA, especially frequency and severity criteria in ship navigation. Then it puts forward a new model based on relative risk assessment (MRRA). The model presents a risk-assessment approach based on fuzzy functions and takes five factors into account, including detailed information about accident characteristics. It has already been used for the assessment of pilotage safety in Shanghai harbor, China. Consequently, it can be proved that MRRA is a useful method to solve the problems in the risk assessment of ship navigation safety in practice

  5. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, beryllium (Be and nickel (Ni in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil particle ingestion. The comprehensive carcinogenic risk from As in Wulantuga open-cast coal mine soil is 6.29–87.70-times the acceptable risk, and the highest total hazard quotient of As in soils in this area can reach 4.53-times acceptable risk levels. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of Cd, Be and Ni are acceptable. The main exposure route of As from open-cast coal mine soils is soil particle ingestion, accounting for 76.64% of the total carcinogenic risk. Considering different control values for each exposure pathway, the minimum control value (1.59 mg/kg could be selected as the strict reference safety threshold for As in the soil environment of coal-chemical industry areas. However, acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk are not unanimous; thus, the safety threshold identified here, calculated under a 1.00 × 10−6 acceptable carcinogenic risk level, needs further consideration.

  6. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. Colonising Safety : creating risk through the enforcement of biomedical constructions of safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadetz, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the normative health care discourse, safety is represented as a concept that is at once universal, irrefutable, and inherently beneficent. Yet, research at local levels in the Philippines challenges these assumptions embedded in the biomedical construction of safety. This article examines how the

  12. The safety imperative: don't run risks - manage them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, A.

    1992-01-01

    The SRD Association, launched last April, has taken over from a club of companies set up in 1970 by SRD - the safety and reliability business of AEA Technology. This report is from the Association's wide- ranging inaugural conference. (author)

  13. Investigations of safety risks in converted electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolech, M.; Foster, D.L.; Lange, R. de; Rodarius, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the departments Environmentally Sustainable Transport and Automotive of TNO (Netherlands organisation for applied scientific research) several projects investigating safety aspects of electric vehicles have been conducted, including one in cooperation with KEMA and RDW of the Netherlands.

  14. Consumer Food Safety Risk Attitudes and Perceptions Over Time: The Case of BSE Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Ittersum, van K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the

  15. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim

    2015-01-01

    action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health. Scope and approach The advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring the safety of food chemicals, allergens, ingredients and microorganisms were...

  16. Assessment of Health, Safety and Environmental Risks of Zahedan City Gasoline Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Far

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk and determine the health, safety and environmental status of fuel stations in Zahedan. In this study, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA method was used for risk assessment in accordance with the HSE guidelines, national and international standards and laws. In this cross-sectional study, 2 governmental stations and 6 active private stations were evaluated after the necessary coordination with the relevant units. As a result of risk assessment, 27 health risks, 55 safety risks and 22 environmental risks were identified. From among all the identified risks, 67 risks had a Risk Priority Number (RPN of less than 91, 31 risks had an RPN ranging between 91 and 201, and 6 risks had an RPN of over 201. The findings of the study indicated that compliance with the HSE requirements was 51.85%, in the area of health, 47.57% in the area of safety and 27.45% in the environmental area. Overall compliance with the HSE requirements was 42.54%. In order to distribute fuel considering health, reducing risk and increasing compliance with the requirements for safety improvement, health and environmental conditions of fuel supplies are essential.

  17. Risk Perceptions That Effect Behavior and Attitudes in Safety Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Turner, B.A. (1978), Man-made Disasters. London, Wykeham. Van Manen , Max. 1990. Reasearching lived experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. New York: State University of New York. ...question guided the study: (1) what factors determine a successful safety program? METHOD In my approach I used Phenomenological inquiry...method employed tried to capture the “essence” of lived experiences, which may have an impact on aviation safety. In Max Van Manen’s book

  18. Identification and evaluation of priorities in the business process of a risk or safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Kuei-Yung; Thekdi, Shital A.; Lambert, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Agencies are increasingly following principles and guidelines for the coordination of risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication in large-scale programs. In particular, there is a challenge to comply with the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) memorandum “Updated Principles for Risk Analysis” among other guidelines. This paper demonstrates a systemic approach to achieve compliance of a risk program with administrative and organizational principles and guidelines for risk analysis. The paper suggests three canonical questions as the mission of such a program: (i) what sources of risks are to be managed by the program, (ii) how should multiple risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication activities be administered and coordinated, and what should be the basis for resource allocation to these activities, and (iii) how will the performance of the program be monitored and evaluated. The paper demonstrates a re-prioritization of policy initiatives of the program based on emergent and future conditions. The approach is useful to agencies implementing risk or safety organizational guidelines such as those of the OMB, the US Government Accountability Office, the US Department of Homeland Security, the US Department of Defense, and others. This paper will be of interest to risk managers; agencies; and risk and safety analysts engaged in the conception, implementation, and evaluation of risk or safety programs. - Highlights: ► We develop a systemic approach for management of a risk or safety program. ► The approach includes business process models and policy prioritization. ► The results support organizations to implement risk and safety programs.

  19. 76 FR 63929 - Joint Meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee and the Dermatologic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ...] Joint Meeting of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee and the Dermatologic and... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committees: Drug Safety and Risk Management... Safe Use (ETASU) before its Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee (DSaRM). On December 1...

  20. 75 FR 17417 - Joint Meeting of the Arthritis Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...] Joint Meeting of the Arthritis Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory... Arthritis Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee. This meeting was... Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee would be held on May 12, 2010. On page 10490, in the...

  1. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures......./capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness...... in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety...

  2. Common basis of establishing safety standards and other safety decision-making levels for different sources of health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Current approaches in establishing safety standards and other decision-making levels for different sources of health risk are critically analysed. To have a common basis for this decision-making a specific risk index R is recommended. In the common sense R is quantitatively defined as LLE caused by the annual exposure to the risk source considered: R = annual exposure, damage (LLE) from the exposure unit. This common definition is also rewritten in specific forms for a set of different risk sources (ionising radiation, chemical pollutants, etc): for different risk sources the exposure can be measured with different quantities (the probability of death, the exposure dose, etc.). R is relative LLE: LLE in years referred to 1 year under the risk. The dimension of this value is [year/year]. In the statistical sense R is conditionally the share of the year, which is lost due to exposure to a risk source during this year. In this sense R can be called as the relative damage. Really lifetime years are lost after the exposure. R can be in some conditional sense considered as a dimensionless quantity. General safety standards R n for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index: R n = 0.0007 and 0.01 accordingly. Secondary safety standards are derived for a number of risk sources (ionising radiation, environmental chemical pollutants, etc). Values of R n are chosen in such a way that to have the secondary radiation BSS being equivalent to the current one's. Other general and derived levels for safety decision-making are also proposed including the de-minimus levels. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data (HDD) is considered. Such issues as the ways of the integration and averaging of risk indices considered through the national or regional HDD for different risk sources and the use of non-threshold linear exposure - response relationships for ionising radiation and chemical pollutants are analysed

  3. Thermal radiation from fireballs on failure of liquefied petroleum gas storage vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.; Hawksworth, S. [Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Lab., Buxton (United Kingdom); Gosse, A. [BG Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Fire impingement on vessels containing pressure liquefied gases can result in catastrophic failure of the vessel leading to a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE). If the gas is flammable, this can result in the formation of very large fireballs. In safety assessments where catastrophic vessel failure is identified as a real possibility, the risk of death from a fireball tends to be higher than that from missiles or blast. Since many of the physical processes which take place in a BLEVE are scale dependent, a series of tests were undertaken at a large scale where 2 tonne propane vessels were taken to failure in a jet fire and the vessel response, mode of failure and consequence of failure characterised. The measurements taken by the Health and Safety Laboratory and BG Technology relating to fireball formation are described. (Author)

  4. A model for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risikko, Tanja; Mäkinen, Tiina M; Påsche, Arvid; Toivonen, Liisa; Hassi, Juhani

    2003-05-01

    Cold conditions increase health and safety risks at work in several ways. The effects of cold have not been sufficiently taken into consideration in occupational safety and health practices. A systematic model and methods were developed for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces. The development work was performed, in a context-bound manner, in pilot industries and workplaces. The model can be integrated into the company's occupational health and safety management system, such as OHSAS 18001. The cold risks are identified and assessed by using a checklist. The preventive measures are systematically planned in a written form specifically produced for cold workplaces. It includes the organisational and technical preventive measures, protective clothing and personal protective equipment, as well as training and information of the personnel. According to the model, all the workers, foremen, occupational safety personnel and occupational health care personnel are trained to recognise the cold risks and to conduct preventive actions. The developed model was evaluated in the context of cold outdoor (construction) and indoor work (fish processing), and by occupational health and safety professionals. According to the feedback, the model and methods were easy to use after a one-day introduction session. The continuum between the cold risk assessment and management worked well, although there was some overlap in the documentation. The cold risk management model and its methods form an essential part of ISO CD 15743 Strategy for risk assessment, management and work practice in cold environments.

  5. Safety inspections - the role of TS : risks, their assessment and the role of safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar-Alonso, Isabel; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 the DG decided a new approach for safety at CERN. This had as consequence the creation of a new unit, the safety service provider, in the TS department. The organization and the services that this unit provides to CERN will be described and the achievements since the creation of the unit will be summarized. Some important personnel safety systems, on their side have been the responsibility of the TS Department for many years. Their importance has grown with the arrival of LHC and their complexity and impact on operation has increased. Their role as well as the importance of an appropriate regulatory framework shall be discussed.

  6. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk (requirements of safety and reliability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Starting out from the given safety objectives as they have evolved during the past few years and from the present legal and regulatory provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the hazards involved in regular operation, accidents and emergency situations are discussed. In compliance with the positive safety balance of nuclear power plants in the FRG, special attention is focused on the preventive safety analysis within the frame of the nuclear licensing procedure. Reference is made to the beginnings of a comprehensive hazard concept for an unbiased plant assessment. Emergency situations are discussed from the point of view of general hazard comparisons. (orig.) [de

  7. Report No. 3 -- Background of the factors of safety used in Divisions 1 of Sections III and XI of the ASME rules for nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper was prepared in 1984 as a quick background summary of the factors of safety used in the various Code rules as they apply to Class 1 reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). This document should be interpreted as the individual viewpoint of the author on the matters under discussion. The general approach followed is to cite basic reference documents, to lead the reader to the more important aspects which are pertinent to the subject material, and to provide a viewpoint on additional rules which might be either needed or desirable. After a discussion of the differences between Sections 3 and 11 in categorizing the loadings to be considered, the sequence of consideration is as follows: (1) The rules of the code that control initial construction, Section 3, Division (Construction = materials + design + examination + testing + inspection + certification). (2) The rules of Section 3 that specifically affect operation, Appendix G, which forms the basis of the pressure-temperature limits of the Technical Specifications. (3) The rules of Section 11 as they affect ''Acceptance by Examination'' and ''Acceptance by Evaluation''. (4) The special considerations of: (a) Limits for Emergency and Faulted Conditions (b) Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics (c) Low Upper-Shelf Energy (USE) Materials (d) Pressure Thermal Shock (PTS)

  8. Archer Fire and Safety - reducing risk in the offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, K

    2000-06-01

    Protecting the lives and safety of offshore oil and gas workers is the business of Newfoundland-based Archer Fire and Safety. Originally established as a supplier of industrial materials focusing on the oil and gas industry, the company narrowed its focus in 1996 to fire and safety protection, introduced more specialized fire and safety equipment, and began to explore service opportunities to the industry in addition to the usual consumables. After some anxious few years, the company now operates two SCBA service centres in Newfoundland, in addition to sales and servicing a wide range of fire and safety equipment such as gas, flame and heat detection.The company is constantly on the lookout for new opportunities and has developed a computer-based pricing system which enables them to provide quick response to pricing inquiries, a big advantage in an industry with relatively unsophisticated business practices. The company's emphasis on research and quick response capability enabled the company to anticipate future requirements and to land major contracts first at Bull Arm, and later on the Terra Nova Project. Its reputation for best-in-class products, high quality service and a business-like approach helped to attract other clients such as Terra Nova Alliance, Canship and Schlumberger, and offshore drilling companies like Glomar International and TransOcean Sedco-Forex, with further opportunities in the offing with upcoming projects such as the White Rose and Hebron.Today about 60 per cent of the business is offshore related.

  9. Archer Fire and Safety - reducing risk in the offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, K.

    2000-06-01

    Protecting the lives and safety of offshore oil and gas workers is the business of Newfoundland-based Archer Fire and Safety. Originally established as a supplier of industrial materials focusing on the oil and gas industry, the company narrowed its focus in 1996 to fire and safety protection, introduced more specialized fire and safety equipment, and began to explore service opportunities to the industry in addition to the usual consumables. After some anxious few years, the company now operates two SCBA service centres in Newfoundland, in addition to sales and servicing a wide range of fire and safety equipment such as gas, flame and heat detection.The company is constantly on the lookout for new opportunities and has developed a computer-based pricing system which enables them to provide quick response to pricing inquiries, a big advantage in an industry with relatively unsophisticated business practices. The company's emphasis on research and quick response capability enabled the company to anticipate future requirements and to land major contracts first at Bull Arm, and later on the Terra Nova Project. Its reputation for best-in-class products, high quality service and a business-like approach helped to attract other clients such as Terra Nova Alliance, Canship and Schlumberger, and offshore drilling companies like Glomar International and TransOcean Sedco-Forex, with further opportunities in the offing with upcoming projects such as the White Rose and Hebron.Today about 60 per cent of the business is offshore related.

  10. Safety targets and public risk perceptions in the nuclear field - technical treadmill or institutional responses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, B.

    1989-01-01

    The context of our treatment of risk perceptions and safety targets is the apparently wide gap between expert judgements of 'objective risks' and public perceptions of those risks. In the nuclear field the latter appear to so multiply the objective risks as seen by the experts, as to make safety targets vastly too strict (whether for routine discharges or for large accidents), thus design extravagantly expensive on any 'rational' criteria. In recent years the nuclear industry has come to terms more with the public perceptions problem, and has accepted that it is legitimate to exercise different, more severe and costly safety standards in the nuclear field if that is what society wants, as it appears to do. Whilst retaining the conviction that this is scientifically unwarranted, the industry has therefore reconciled itself somewhat to more stringent technical safety targets. (author)

  11. Safety analysis in the high risk industry: Similarities and differences with the nuclear approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut LLanes, Juan Jose; Castillo Alvarez, Jorge Patricio

    2001-01-01

    In this article shows a conceptual aspects to the risk safety analysis, comparing them with the focus to the nuclear industry that has been characterized to be the pioneers in their systematized application

  12. Food safety ontology and text mining strategies as a tool in (re)emerging risk identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, F. van de

    2009-01-01

    Industry and government are held responsible for the safety of food and feed products. Therefore actual and relevant information concerning emerging safety risks is crucial. But how is it possible to filter relevant information from the fast growing volumes of information produced by science and the

  13. A framework of risk-informed seismic safety evaluation of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.; Sakagami, M.; Hirano, M.; Shiba, M.

    2001-01-01

    A framework of risk-informed seismic design and safety evaluation of nuclear power plants is under consideration in Japan so as to utilize the progress in the seismic probabilistic safety assessment methodology. Issues resolved to introduce this framework are discussed after the concept, evaluation process and characteristics of the framework are described. (author)

  14. Relationship between Risk Assessment and Compliance to Health and Safety in Ugandan Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiwu, Denis; Kabanda, Milly; Naluwemba, Esther Frances; Kaggwa, Victoria Tamale

    2015-01-01

    Health hazards are part and parcel of human life necessitating the provision of safety in every organizational environment (WHO regional Office for Africa, 2004). Likewise, the area of safety and accident prevention is of great concern to school improvement. The study sought to investigate the relationship between Risk Assessment and Compliancy to…

  15. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Pieters, Wolter; Texeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by

  16. Stockholm Safety Conference. Analysis of the sessions on radiological protection, licensing and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gea, A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the sessions on radiological protection, licensing and risk assessment in the safety conference of Stockholm is presented. It is considered the new point of view of the nuclear safety, probabilistic analysis, components failures probability and accident analysis. They are included conclusions applicable in many cases to development countries. (author)

  17. Quantification of the ex-vessel severe accident risks for the Swedish boiling water reactors. A scoping study performed for the APRI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkonen, T.; Dinh, T.N.; Bui, V.A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1995-07-01

    Results of a scoping study to quantify the ex-vessel severe accident risks for the Swedish BWRs are reported. The study considers that a pool of water is established in the containment prior to vessel failure, as prescribed by the accident management scheme for the newer Swedish BWRs. The integrated methodology developed and employed combines probabilistic and deterministic treatment of the various melt-structure-water interaction processes occurring in sequence. The potential steam explosion, and the melt attack on the containment basemat, are treated with enveloping analyses. Uncertain parameters in the models and the initial conditions are treated with Monte Carlo simulations. Independent models are developed for melt coolability and possible attack on the concrete basemat. It is found that, with current models, the melt discharge scenarios, in which a large amount of accumulated melt may be released from the vessel, could subject the containment to large steam explosion loads. However, the uncertainties are so large that no definite conclusion can be drawn. The assessment of ex-vessel core debris coolability is disturbed by similar phenomenological uncertainties. Presently, coolability of the core debris can not be demonstrated. 133 refs

  18. Quantification of the ex-vessel severe accident risks for the Swedish boiling water reactors. A scoping study performed for the APRI project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T; Dinh, T N; Bui, V A; Sehgal, B R [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    Results of a scoping study to quantify the ex-vessel severe accident risks for the Swedish BWRs are reported. The study considers that a pool of water is established in the containment prior to vessel failure, as prescribed by the accident management scheme for the newer Swedish BWRs. The integrated methodology developed and employed combines probabilistic and deterministic treatment of the various melt-structure-water interaction processes occurring in sequence. The potential steam explosion, and the melt attack on the containment basemat, are treated with enveloping analyses. Uncertain parameters in the models and the initial conditions are treated with Monte Carlo simulations. Independent models are developed for melt coolability and possible attack on the concrete basemat. It is found that, with current models, the melt discharge scenarios, in which a large amount of accumulated melt may be released from the vessel, could subject the containment to large steam explosion loads. However, the uncertainties are so large that no definite conclusion can be drawn. The assessment of ex-vessel core debris coolability is disturbed by similar phenomenological uncertainties. Presently, coolability of the core debris can not be demonstrated. 133 refs.

  19. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Russ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, a person or organisation that creates risk is required to manage and control that risk so that it is reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' (SFAIRP. How the risk is managed is to be determined by those who create the risk. They have a duty to demonstrate that they have taken action to ensure all risk is reduced SFAIRP and must have documentary evidence, for example a risk assessment or safety case, to prove that they manage the risks their activities create. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE does not tell organisations how to manage the risks they create but does inspect the quality of risk identification and management. This paper gives a brief overview of where responsibility for occupational health and safety lies in the UK, and how risk should be managed through risk assessment. The focus of the paper is three recent major UK incidents, all involving fatalities, and all of which were wholly avoidable if risks had been properly assessed and managed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the common failings of risk assessments and key actions for improvement.

  20. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Karen

    2010-09-01

    In the UK, a person or organisation that creates risk is required to manage and control that risk so that it is reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' (SFAIRP). How the risk is managed is to be determined by those who create the risk. They have a duty to demonstrate that they have taken action to ensure all risk is reduced SFAIRP and must have documentary evidence, for example a risk assessment or safety case, to prove that they manage the risks their activities create. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) does not tell organisations how to manage the risks they create but does inspect the quality of risk identification and management. This paper gives a brief overview of where responsibility for occupational health and safety lies in the UK, and how risk should be managed through risk assessment. The focus of the paper is three recent major UK incidents, all involving fatalities, and all of which were wholly avoidable if risks had been properly assessed and managed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the common failings of risk assessments and key actions for improvement.

  1. MANAGEMENT PROCESS OF HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK IN THE NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Akwu, Ifeoma Claris

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the state of health and safety risk management practices in the building sector of the construction industry with the objective to examine the health and safety risk management processes adopted by the construction industry in Nigeria; the study adopted the survey and case study research design. It employed the use of Delphi’s technique in the distribution of questionnaire and made use of chi-square analytical technique for the analysis of gathered data. The findings reveal...

  2. Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy; Colantonio, Angela; Garritano, Enzo; Lafrance, Marc; Lewko, John; Mantis, Steve; Moody, Joel; Power, Nicole; Theberge, Nancy; Westwood, Eleanor; Travers, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men’s health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of...

  3. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Pieters, Wolter; Teixeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by implementing suitable risk treatment plans. However, an overarching overview of these methods, systematizing the characteristics of such methods, is missing. In this paper, we conduct a systematic l...

  4. The Effects of Occupational Health and Safety Risk Factors on Job Satisfaction in Hotel Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Kilic; Murat Selim Selvi

    2009-01-01

    Occupational health and safety risk factors can have direct or indirect effects on levels of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and the job productivity of workers in service companies as well as other types of industries. In this paper, the effects of physical, biological, chemical and socio-psychological risk factors, related to occupational safety and health, encountered in hotel enterprises on job satisfaction were investigated. Questionnaire survey was conducted as a data colle...

  5. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered open-quotes necessaryclose quotes for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost

  6. Reducing risks and increasing safety in everyday life: the role of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enander, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: in social science risk research more attention has been paid to examining how people in general perceive risks than to how they perceive possible measures to reduce risks and to increase their own safety. The latter area is, however, becoming increasingly important to understand, particularly in the light of current emphasis on individual responsibility in risk prevention and emergency preparedness. For example, in Sweden a major effort to increase safety awareness among the general public and to increase knowledge and skills in a number of safety-related areas is at present being planned. This effort is being undertaken as a cooperative effort between different authorities and institutions and is coordinated by the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. The intentions behind this and similar programmes raise a number of questions concerning how people view risks and safety measures in their own immediate environment. Knowledge of the factors affecting willingness to take precautions is important in the design of communication and information. The factors which are of significance may be risk-related and concern perceptions of personal risk, but may also be related to attitudes an beliefs concerning different precautionary measures, to perception of social norms and conventions as well as to personal experiences and values. This paper presents some data concerning views and actions among lay groups in relation to reducing risks and increasing safety. Factors affecting these views are discussed in the light of previous research and of empirical data from some recent studies. (author)

  7. The Concepts of Risk, Safety, and Security: Applications in Everyday Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholm, Max; Möller, Niklas; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2016-02-01

    The concepts of risk, safety, and security have received substantial academic interest. Several assumptions exist about their nature and relation. Besides academic use, the words risk, safety, and security are frequent in ordinary language, for example, in media reporting. In this article, we analyze the concepts of risk, safety, and security, and their relation, based on empirical observation of their actual everyday use. The "behavioral profiles" of the nouns risk, safety, and security and the adjectives risky, safe, and secure are coded and compared regarding lexical and grammatical contexts. The main findings are: (1) the three nouns risk, safety, and security, and the two adjectives safe and secure, have widespread use in different senses, which will make any attempt to define them in a single unified manner extremely difficult; (2) the relationship between the central risk terms is complex and only partially confirms the distinctions commonly made between the terms in specialized terminology; (3) whereas most attempts to define risk in specialized terminology have taken the term to have a quantitative meaning, nonquantitative meanings dominate in everyday language, and numerical meanings are rare; and (4) the three adjectives safe, secure, and risky are frequently used in comparative form. This speaks against interpretations that would take them as absolute, all-or-nothing concepts. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted.

  9. Evaluation of severe accident safety system value based on averting financial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, S.W.; Benjamin, A.S.; Bennett, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program is being performed to benchmark the risks from nuclear power plants and to assess the benefits and impacts of a set of severe accident safety features. This paper describes the program in general and presents some preliminary results. These results include estimates of the financial risks associated with the operation of six reference plants and the value of severe accident prevention and mitigation safety systems in averting these risks. The results represent initial calculations and will be iterated before being used to support NRC decisions

  10. [Communication on health and safety risk control in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses communication as a technology for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, within the context of a "risk society". As a component of Risk Analysis, risk communication is a technology that appears in risk literature, with well defined objectives, principles and models. These aspects are described and the difficulties are stressed, taking into consideration the multiple rationales related to risks in the culture and the many different aspects of risk regulation and control in the so-called "late modernity". Consideration is also given to the complexity of the communications process, guided by theoretical and methodological discussions in the field. In order to understand the true value of the communications field for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, this paper also offers an overview of communication theories that support discussions of this matter, proposing a critical approach to models that include the dimensions of power and culture in the context of a capitalist society.

  11. RiskSOAP: Introducing and applying a methodology of risk self-awareness in road tunnel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-05-01

    Complex socio-technical systems, such as road tunnels, can be designed and developed with more or less elements that can either positively or negatively affect the capability of their agents to recognise imminent threats or vulnerabilities that possibly lead to accidents. This capability is called risk Situation Awareness (SA) provision. Having as a motive the introduction of better tools for designing and developing systems that are self-aware of their vulnerabilities and react to prevent accidents and losses, this paper introduces the Risk Situation Awareness Provision (RiskSOAP) methodology to the field of road tunnel safety, as a means to measure this capability in this kind of systems. The main objective is to test the soundness and the applicability of RiskSOAP to infrastructure, which is advanced in terms of technology, human integration, and minimum number of safety requirements imposed by international bodies. RiskSOAP is applied to a specific road tunnel in Greece and the accompanying indicator is calculated twice, once for the tunnel design as defined by updated European safety standards and once for the 'as-is' tunnel composition, which complies with the necessary safety requirements, but calls for enhancing safety according to what EU and PIARC further suggest. The derived values indicate the extent to which each tunnel version is capable of comprehending its threats and vulnerabilities based on its elements. The former tunnel version seems to be more enhanced both in terms of it risk awareness capability and safety as well. Another interesting finding is that despite the advanced tunnel safety specifications, there is still room for enriching the safe design and maintenance of the road tunnel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk and safety perception on urban and rural roads: Effects of environmental features, driver age and risk sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jolene A; Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J

    2017-10-03

    The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of this study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment. Factors explored were the environment in which the change occurs (i.e., urban vs. rural), the type of object that changes, and the driver's age, experience, and risk sensitivity. Sixty-three licensed drivers aged 18-70 years completed a hazard rating task, which required them to rate the perceived hazardousness of changing specific elements within urban and rural driving environments. Three attributes of potential hazards were systematically manipulated: the environment (urban, rural); the type of object changed (road sign, car, motorcycle, pedestrian, traffic light, animal, tree); and its inherent safety risk (low risk, high risk). Inherent safety risk was manipulated by either varying the object's placement, on/near or away from the road, or altering an infrastructure element that would require a change to driver behavior. Participants also completed two driving-related risk perception tasks, rating their relative crash risk and perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors. Driver age was not significantly associated with hazard ratings, but individual differences in perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors predicted hazard ratings, suggesting that general driving-related risk sensitivity plays a strong role in safety perception. In both urban and rural scenes, there were significant associations between hazard ratings and inherent safety risk, with low-risk changes perceived as consistently less hazardous than high-risk

  13. Health risk from radioactive and chemical environmental contamination: common basis for assessment and safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the growing practical need in risk analysis in Russia health risk assessment tools and regulations have been developed in the frame of few federal research programs. RRC Kurchatov Institute is involved in R and D on risk analysis activity in these programs. One of the objectives of this development is to produce a common, unified basis of health risk analysis for different sources of risk. Current specific and different approaches in risk assessment and establishing safety standards developed for chemicals and ionising radiation are analysed. Some recommendations are given to produce the common approach. A specific risk index R has been proposed for safety decision-making (establishing safety standards and other levels of protective actions, comparison of various sources of risk, etc.). The index R is defined as the partial mathematical expectation of lost years of healthy life (LLE) due to exposure during a year to a risk source considered. The more concrete determinations of this index for different risk sources derived from the common definition of R are given. Generic safety standards (GSS) for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index. Secondary specific safety standards have been derived from GSS for ionizing radiation and a number of other risk sources including environmental chemical pollutants. Other general and derived levels for decision-making have also been proposed including the e-minimum level. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data is shortly considered. Recommendations are given on methods and criteria for comparison of various sources of risk. Some examples of risk comparison are demonstrated in the frame of different comparison tasks. The paper has been prepared on the basis of the research work supported by International Science and Technology Centre, Moscow (project no. 2558). (author)

  14. Rôle of contrast media viscosity in altering vessel wall shear stress and relation to the risk of contrast extravasations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Sophia; Li, Wenguang; Paul, Manosh C; Roditi, Giles

    2016-12-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) are the most commonly used injectables in radiology today. A range of different media are commercially available, combining various physical and chemical characteristics (ionic state, osmolality, viscosity) and thus exhibiting distinct in vivo behaviour and safety profiles. In this paper, numerical simulations of blood flow with contrast media were conducted to investigate the effects of contrast viscosity on generated vessel wall shear stress and vessel wall pressure to elucidate any possible relation to extravasations. Five different types of contrast for Iodine fluxes ranging at 1.5-2.2gI/s were modelled through 18G and 20G cannulae placed in an ideal vein at two different orientation angles. Results demonstrate that the least viscous contrast media generate the least maximum wall shear stress as well as the lowest total pressure for the same flow rate. This supports the empirical clinical observations and hypothesis that more viscous contrast media are responsible for a higher percentage of contrast extravasations. In addition, results support the clinical hypothesis that a catheter tip directed obliquely to the vein wall always produces the highest maximum wall shear stress and total pressure due to impingement of the contrast jet on the vessel wall. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  16. Report on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) quality assurance in utilization of risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Recently in Japan, introduction of nuclear safety regulations using risk information such as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been considered and utilization of risk information in the rational and practical measures on safety assurance has made a progress to start with the operation or inspection area. The report compiled results of investigation and studies of PSA quality assurance in risk-informed activities in the USA. Relevant regulatory guide and standard review plan as well as issues and recommendations were reviewed for technical adequacy and advancement of probabilistic risk assessment technology in risk-informed decision making. Useful and important information to be referred as issues in PSA quality assurance was identified. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Treatment of Passive Component Reliability in Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization FY 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W Youngblood

    2010-09-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, is founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance.

  18. Risk-based evaluation tool for safety-related maintenance involving scaffolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.; Azizi, M.; Massman, M.

    1988-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed a general concern that transient materials in and around safety systems at nuclear power plants represent a seismic safety hazard to the plant, in particular, the uncontrolled use of scaffolding during maintenance activities. Currently, most plants perform a seismic safety analysis for all uses of scaffolding near safety-related equipment to determine appropriate tie-down locations, scaffolding reinforcements, etc. This is both time-consuming and, for the most part, unnecessary. A workable engineering solution based on risk analysis techniques has been developed and is being used at the Palo Verde nuclear generating station (PVNGS)

  19. Drug and alcohol crash risk : traffic safety facts : research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While the extent of use of alcohol by drivers and the risks posed by alcohol use have been well known for many decades, relatively little has been known about the use of other drugs by drivers and the associated risks. However, drug-impaired driving ...

  20. safety risk management based on fuzzy logic at underground projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Taherkhani

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: In the present article, a new model was developed to calculate the probability of occurrence of the event, which so far has not been addressed in other studies. Finally, effective measures can be taken to reduce the risk of a project by eliminating the high risk factors.

  1. Safety in psychiatric inpatient care: The impact of risk management culture on mental health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemon, Allie; Jenkins, Emily; Bungay, Vicky

    2017-10-01

    The discourse of safety has informed the care of individuals with mental illness through institutionalization and into modern psychiatric nursing practices. Confinement arose from safety: out of both societal stigma and fear for public safety, as well as benevolently paternalistic aims to protect individuals from self-harm. In this paper, we argue that within current psychiatric inpatient environments, safety is maintained as the predominant value, and risk management is the cornerstone of nursing care. Practices that accord with this value are legitimized and perpetuated through the safety discourse, despite evidence refuting their efficacy, and patient perspectives demonstrating harm. To illustrate this growing concern in mental health nursing care, we provide four exemplars of risk management strategies utilized in psychiatric inpatient settings: close observations, seclusion, door locking and defensive nursing practice. The use of these strategies demonstrates the necessity to shift perspectives on safety and risk in nursing care. We suggest that to re-centre meaningful support and treatment of clients, nurses should provide individualized, flexible care that incorporates safety measures while also fundamentally re-evaluating the risk management culture that gives rise to and legitimizes harmful practices. © 2017 The Authors Nursing Inquiry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. How to interpret safety critical failures in risk and reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvik, Jon Tømmerås; Signoret, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Management of safety systems often receives high attention due to the potential for industrial accidents. In risk and reliability literature concerning such systems, and particularly concerning safety-instrumented systems, one frequently comes across the term ‘safety critical failure’. It is a term associated with the term ‘critical failure’, and it is often deduced that a safety critical failure refers to a failure occurring in a safety critical system. Although this is correct in some situations, it is not matching with for example the mathematical definition given in ISO/TR 12489:2013 on reliability modeling, where a clear distinction is made between ‘safe failures’ and ‘dangerous failures’. In this article, we show that different interpretations of the term ‘safety critical failure’ exist, and there is room for misinterpretations and misunderstandings regarding risk and reliability assessments where failure information linked to safety systems are used, and which could influence decision-making. The article gives some examples from the oil and gas industry, showing different possible interpretations of the term. In particular we discuss the link between criticality and failure. The article points in general to the importance of adequate risk communication when using the term, and gives some clarification on interpretation in risk and reliability assessments.

  3. Discounting the value of safety: effects of perceived risk and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Taylor, Matthew A; Wirth, Oliver

    2013-09-01

    Although falls from heights remain the most prevalent cause of fatalities in the construction industry, factors impacting safety-related choices associated with work at heights are not completely understood. Better tools are needed to identify and study the factors influencing safety-related choices and decision making. Using a computer-based task within a behavioral economics paradigm, college students were presented a choice between two hypothetical scenarios that differed in working height and effort associated with retrieving and donning a safety harness. Participants were instructed to choose the scenario in which they were more likely to wear the safety harness. Based on choice patterns, switch points were identified, indicating when the perceived risk in both scenarios was equivalent. Switch points were a systematic function of working height and effort, and the quantified relation between perceived risk and effort was described well by a hyperbolic equation. Choice patterns revealed that the perceived risk of working at heights decreased as the effort to retrieve and don a safety harness increased. Results contribute to the development of computer-based procedure for assessing risk discounting within a behavioral economics framework. Such a procedure can be used as a research tool to study factors that influence safety-related decision making with a goal of informing more effective prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nursing involvement in risk and patient safety management in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Vázquez, Valle; García-López, Ana; López-Sauras, Susana; Turón Alcaine, José María

    Patient safety and quality of care in a highly complex healthcare system depends not only on the actions of professionals at an individual level, but also on interaction with the environment. Proactive risk management in the system to prevent incidents and activities targeting healthcare teams is crucial in establishing a culture of safety in centres. Nurses commonly lead these safety strategies. Even though safety incidents are relatively infrequent in primary care, since the majority are preventable, actions at this level of care are highly effective. Certification of services according to ISO standard 9001:2008 focuses on risk management in the system and its use in certifying healthcare centres is helping to build a safety culture amongst professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Presentation of a Software Method for Use of Risk Assessment in Building Fire Safety Measure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koohpaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The property loss and physical injuries due to fire events in buildings demonstrate the necessity of implementation of efficient and performance based fire safety measures. Effective and high efficiency protection is possible when design and selection of protection measures are based on risk assessment. This study aims at presenting a software method to make possible selection and design of building fire safety measures based upon quantitative risk assessment and building characteristics. Methods: based on “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineer (FRAME” a program in MATLB software was written. The first section of this program, according to the FRAME method and based on the specification of a building, calculates the potential risk and acceptable risk level. In the second section, according to potential risk, acceptable risk level and the fire risk level that user want, program calculate concession of protective factor for that building.Results: The prepared software make it possible to assign the fire safety measure based on quantitative risk level and all building specifications. All calculations were performed with 0.001 of precision and the accuracy of this software was assessed with handmade calculations. During the use of the software if an error occurs in calculations, it can be distinguished in the output. Conclusion: Application of quantitative risk assessment is a suitable tool for increasing of efficiency in designing and execution of fire protection measure in building. With using this software the selected fire safety measure would be more efficient and suitable since the selection of fire safety measures performed on risk assessment and particular specification of a building. Moreover fire risk in the building can be managed easily and carefully.

  6. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  7. Establishment of safety goal and its quantification based on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Ken

    2017-01-01

    We must clarify the safety objectives sought by society in securing the safety of nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants. For that purpose, it is useful to utilize risk assessment. Quantitative methods including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are superior in terms of scientific rationality and quantitative performance compared with conventional deterministic methods, and able to indicate an objective numerical value of safety level. Consequently, quantitative methods can enhance the transparency, consistency, compliance, predictability, and explanatory power of regulatory decisions toward business operators and citizens. Business operators can explain the validity of their own safety assurance activities to regulators and citizens. The goal to be secured becomes clear by incorporating the safety goal into the specific performance goal required for the nuclear power plant from the viewpoint of deep safeguard, and it becomes easy to evaluate the effectiveness of the safety measures. It helps us greatly in judging and selecting the appropriateness of safety measures. It should be noted: the fact that the result of implementing the PRA satisfies the safety goal is not a sufficient condition in the sense of guaranteeing complete safety but a necessary condition. The nuclear power field is a region with large uncertainty, and research/efforts for accuracy improvement and evaluation validity will be required continuously. (A.O.)

  8. 75 FR 56015 - Vessel Inspection Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 8 Vessel Inspection Alternatives CFR... Certificate; (ii) International Tonnage Certificate; (iii) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate; (iv) Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate; and (v) International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate; and...

  9. Comparison of a Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Approach with Advanced Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L; Mandelli, Diego; Zhegang Ma

    2014-11-01

    As part of the Light Water Sustainability Program (LWRS) [1], the purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) [2] Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a “station blackout” (SBO) wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario. We also describe our approach we are using to represent advanced flooding analysis.

  10. [Endorsement of risk management and patient safety by certification of conformity in health care quality assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waßmuth, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Certification of conformity in health care should provide assurance of compliance with quality standards. This also includes risk management and patient safety. Based on a comprehensive definition of quality, beneficial effects on the management of risks and the enhancement of patient safety can be expected from certification of conformity. While these effects have strong face validity, they are currently not sufficiently supported by evidence from health care research. Whether this relates to a lack of evidence or a lack of investigation remains open. Advancing safety culture and "climate", as well as learning from adverse events rely in part on quality management and are at least in part reflected in the certification of healthcare quality. However, again, evidence of the effectiveness of such measures is limited. Moreover, additional factors related to personality, attitude and proactive action of healthcare professionals are crucial factors in advancing risk management and patient safety which are currently not adequately reflected in certification of conformity programs.

  11. Proactive life extension of pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Lloyd

    1998-03-01

    For a company to maintain its competitive edge in today's global market every opportunity to gain an advantage must be exploited. Many companies are strategically focusing on improved utilization of existing equipment as well as regulatory compliance. Abbott Laboratories is no exception. Pharmaceutical companies such as Abbott Laboratories realize that reliability and availability of their production equipment is critical to be successful and competitive. Abbott Laboratories, like many of our competitors, is working to improve safety, minimize downtime and maximize the productivity and efficiency of key production equipment such as the pressure vessels utilized in our processes. The correct strategy in obtaining these objectives is to perform meaningful inspection with prioritization based on hazard analysis and risk. The inspection data gathered in Abbott Laboratories pressure vessel program allows informed decisions leading to improved process control. The results of the program are reduced risks to the corporation and employees when operating pressure retaining equipment. Accurate and meaningful inspection methods become the cornerstone of a program allowing proper preventative maintenance actions to occur. Successful preventative/predictive maintenance programs must utilize meaningful nondestructive evaluation techniques and inspection methods. Nondestructive examination methods require accurate useful tools that allow rapid inspection for the entire pressure vessel. Results from the examination must allow the owner to prove compliance of all applicable regulatory laws and codes. At Abbott Laboratories the use of advanced NDE techniques, primarily B-scan ultrasonics, has provided us with the proper tools allowing us to obtain our objectives. Abbott Laboratories uses B-scan ultrasonics utilizing a pulse echo pitch catch technique to provide essential data on our pressure vessels. Equipment downtime is reduced because the nondestructive examination usually takes

  12. Theories of risk and safety: what is their relevance to nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Hannah

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to review key theories of risk and safety and their implications for nursing. The concept of of patient safety has only recently risen to prominence as an organising principle in healthcare. The paper considers the wider social context in which contemporary concepts of risk and safety have developed. In particular it looks at sociological debates about the rise of risk culture and the risk society and their influence on the patient safety movement. The paper discusses three bodies of theory which have attempted to explain the management of risk and safety in organisations: normal accident theory, high reliability theory, and grid-group cultural theory. It examine debates between these theories and their implications for healthcare. It discusses reasons for the dominance of high reliability theory in healthcare and its strengths and limitations. The paper suggest that high reliability theory has particular difficulties in explaining some aspects of organisational culture. It also suggest that the implementation of high reliability theory in healthcare has involved over reliance on numerical indicators. It suggests that patient safety could be improved by openness to a wider range of theoretical perspectives.

  13. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  14. Safety risk assessment for vertical concrete formwork activities in civil engineering construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Gibb, Alistair G F; Gambatese, John A

    2014-01-01

    The construction sector has one of the worst occupational health and safety records in Europe. Of all construction tasks, formwork activities are associated with a high frequency of accidents and injuries. This paper presents an investigation of the activities and related safety risks present in vertical formwork for in-situ concrete construction in the civil engineering sector. Using the methodology of staticized groups, twelve activities and ten safety risks were identified and validated by experts. Every safety risk identified in this manner was quantified for each activity using binary methodology according to the frequency and severity scales developed in prior research. A panel of experts was selected according to the relevant literature on staticized groups. The results obtained show that the activities with the highest risk in vertical formwork tasks are: Plumbing and leveling of forms, cutting of material, handling materials with cranes, and climbing or descending ladders. The most dangerous health and safety risks detected were falls from height, cutting and overexertion. The research findings provide construction practitioners with further evidence of the hazardous activities associated with concrete formwork construction and a starting point for targeting worker health and safety programmes.

  15. The spread model of food safety risk under the supply-demand disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jining; Chen, Tingqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on the imbalance of the supply-demand relationship of food, we design a spreading model of food safety risk, which is about from food producers to consumers in the food supply chain. We use theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to describe the supply-demand relationship and government supervision behaviors' influence on the risk spread of food safety and the behaviors of the food producers and the food retailers. We also analyze the influence of the awareness of consumer rights protection and the level of legal protection of consumer rights on the risk spread of food safety. This model contributes to the explicit investigation of the influence relationship among supply-demand factors, the regulation behavioral choice of government, the behavioral choice of food supply chain members and food safety risk spread. And this paper provides a new viewpoint for considering food safety risk spread in the food supply chain, which has a great reference for food safety management.

  16. Application of a risk management system to improve drinking water safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Asoka

    2008-12-01

    The use of a comprehensive risk management framework is considered a very effective means of managing water quality risks. There are many risk-based systems available to water utilities such as ISO 9001 and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). In 2004, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality recommended the use of preventive risk management approaches to manage water quality risks. This paper describes the framework adopted by Yarra Valley Water for the development of its Drinking Water Quality Risk Management Plan incorporating HACCP and ISO 9001 systems and demonstrates benefits of Water Safety Plans such as HACCP. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  17. Navigation safety and risk assessment challenges in the High North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchenko, N.A.; Borch, O.J.; Andreassen, N.

    2017-01-01

    marine accidents. Therefore, in this study a mostly qualitative analysis and expert judgement is the basis for the risk assessments. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the region are discussed. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location,....... In this paper we look into the risks of accidents in the Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of response in emergency situations. As accidents are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic...

  18. Preparing Safety Cases for Operating Outside Prescriptive Fatigue Risk Management Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa; Mangie, Jim; Wu, Lora; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, Leigh; Phillips, Adrienne

    2017-07-01

    Transport operators seeking to operate outside prescriptive fatigue management regulations are typically required to present a safety case justifying how they will manage the associated risk. This paper details a method for constructing a successful safety case. The method includes four elements: 1) scope (prescriptive rules and operations affected); 2) risk assessment; 3) risk mitigation strategies; and 4) monitoring ongoing risk. A successful safety case illustrates this method. It enables landing pilots in 3-pilot crews to choose the second or third in-flight rest break, rather than the regulatory requirement to take the third break. Scope was defined using a month of scheduled flights that would be covered (N = 4151). These were analyzed in the risk assessment using existing literature on factors affecting fatigue to estimate the maximum time awake at top of descent and sleep opportunities in each break. Additionally, limited data collected before the new regulations showed that pilots flying at landing chose the third break on only 6% of flights. A prospective survey comparing subjective reports (N = 280) of sleep in the second vs. third break and fatigue and sleepiness ratings at top of descent confirmed that the third break is not consistently superior. The safety case also summarized established systems for fatigue monitoring, risk assessment and hazard identification, and multiple fatigue mitigation strategies that are in place. Other successful safety cases have used this method. The evidence required depends on the expected level of risk and should evolve as experience with fatigue risk management systems builds.Gander P, Mangie J, Wu L, van den Berg M, Signal L, Phillips A. Preparing safety cases for operating outside prescriptive fatigue risk management regulations. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):688-696.

  19. Use of reliability engineering tools in safety and risk assessment of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Amanda Laureano; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Marques, Raíssa Oliveira; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: amandaraso@hotmail.com, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: raissaomarques@gmail.com, E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Tecnologia de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    Safety, reliability and availability are fundamental criteria in design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as nuclear power plants. Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments of such facilities are required by regulatory authorities in order to meet licensing regulations, contributing to assure safety, as well as reduce costs and environmental impacts. Probabilistic Risk Assessment has become an important part of licensing requirements of the nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the world. Risk can be defined as a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of accident sequence frequencies (or probabilities) and their consequences. Risk management is a systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to identify, analyze, plan, implement, control, communicate and document risks. Several tools and computer codes must be combined, in order to estimate both probabilities and consequences of accidents. Event Tree Analysis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD), and Markov models are examples of evaluation tools that can support the safety and risk assessment for analyzing process systems, identifying potential accidents, and estimating consequences. Because of complexity of such analyzes, specialized computer codes are required, such as the reliability engineering software develop by Reliasoft® Corporation. BlockSim (FTA, RBD and Markov models), RENO (ETA and consequence assessment), Weibull++ (life data and uncertainty analysis), and Xfmea (qualitative risk assessment) are some codes that can be highlighted. This work describes an integrated approach using these tools and software to carry out reliability, safety, and risk assessment of nuclear facilities, as well as, and application example. (author)

  20. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. & Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  1. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, S.M.; Boobis, A.R.; Bridges, J.; Cockburn, A.; Dekant, W.; Hepburn, P.; Houben, G.F.; König, J.; Nauta, M.J.; Schuermans, J.; Bánáti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management

  2. Use of reliability engineering tools in safety and risk assessment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, Amanda Laureano; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Marques, Raíssa Oliveira; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    Safety, reliability and availability are fundamental criteria in design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, as nuclear power plants. Deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments of such facilities are required by regulatory authorities in order to meet licensing regulations, contributing to assure safety, as well as reduce costs and environmental impacts. Probabilistic Risk Assessment has become an important part of licensing requirements of the nuclear power plants in Brazil and in the world. Risk can be defined as a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of accident sequence frequencies (or probabilities) and their consequences. Risk management is a systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to identify, analyze, plan, implement, control, communicate and document risks. Several tools and computer codes must be combined, in order to estimate both probabilities and consequences of accidents. Event Tree Analysis (ETA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD), and Markov models are examples of evaluation tools that can support the safety and risk assessment for analyzing process systems, identifying potential accidents, and estimating consequences. Because of complexity of such analyzes, specialized computer codes are required, such as the reliability engineering software develop by Reliasoft® Corporation. BlockSim (FTA, RBD and Markov models), RENO (ETA and consequence assessment), Weibull++ (life data and uncertainty analysis), and Xfmea (qualitative risk assessment) are some codes that can be highlighted. This work describes an integrated approach using these tools and software to carry out reliability, safety, and risk assessment of nuclear facilities, as well as, and application example. (author)

  3. Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milczarek, M.; Brun, E.; Houtman, I.; Goudswaard, A.; Evers, M.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Roskams, N.; Op de Beeck, R.; Pahkin, K.; Berthet, M.; Morvan, E.; Kuhn, K.; Kaluza, K.; Hupke, M.; Hauke, A.; Reinert, D.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Perez, J.; Oncins de Frutos, M.

    2007-01-01

    This report is in cooperation with TNO Work and Employment and the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks was carried out by means of the Delphi method. The main emerging psychosocial risks revealed were related to new forms of employment

  4. Safety and radiation risks in the labelling of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Risk in the management of radioactive material and biological exposition to infectious agents. Protocols and normative to observe GOOD RADIOPHARMACY Practices. Main infectious agents that may be transmitted during preparation of a blood cell radiopharmaceutical. Problems of contamination

  5. Sanitation Health Risk and Safety Planning in Urban Residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    affordable drinking-water and sanitation for ... systems are expensive and most communities in developing countries ... To appraise the techniques of sanitary risk assessment ..... contribution to decision making is limited to the extent that it can ...

  6. Investigating risk and protective factors to mainstream safety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies investigate manifest risk and protective factors within South African universities. ... More importantly, many of these students and staff personally .... more than half of the students could not operate the fire equipment, rendering the fire ...

  7. Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) technology to improve outage safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken an aggressive program, called ORAM (Outage Risk Assessment and Management), to provide utilities with tools and technology to assist in managing risk during the planning and conduct of outages. The ORAM program consists of the following 6 steps: i) Perform utility surveys and visits on shutdown risk management needs, ii) Perform probabilistic shutdown safety assessments (PSSAs) to identify generic insights that can be incorporated into risk management guidelines and identify selected areas for the development of contingency actions, iii) Develop risk management guidelines (RMG's) that provide a systematic approach to the planning and conduct of outages from a safety perspective. Incorporate insights from the shutdown safety assessments and other operating experience into the RMG's. iv) Develop selected contingency actions including a thermalhydraulic tool kit to address higher risk time periods and activities identified in the shutdown safety assessments, v) Develop computer software that integrates all of the above capability into an easy to use tool for effective shutdown operation management for utilities, vi) Provide assistance in the transfer of this technology and the application of these tools. This paper briefly describes the technical approach and tools developed under EPRI's ORAM program and its applications for improving outage safety and economics. (author)

  8. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  9. Food Safety Management in a Global Environment: The Role of Risk Assessment Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Pila, Joaquin; Jimeno, Vicente; Manzano, Amparo; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos; Mar Fernandez, Maria Del

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment models are playing a minor role in the development of the new EU legal framework for food safety. There is a tendency of the EU institutions to apply the precautionary principle versus the predisposition of the USA institutions to rely on risk analysis. This paper provides a comparison of the role played by quantitative risk assessment models in the development of new policies on food safety in the EU and in the USA, focusing on a study case: the supply chain of s...

  10. Methodology for assessment of safety risk due to potential accidents in US gaseous diffusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.; O'Kain, D.U.

    1991-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion plants that operate in the United States represent a unique combination of nuclear and chemical hazards. Assessing and controlling the health, safety, and environmental risks that can result from natural phenomena events, process upset conditions, and operator errors require a unique methodology. Such a methodology has been developed for the diffusion plants and is being utilized to assess and control the risk of operating the plants. A summary of the methodology developed to assess the unique safety risks at the US gaseous diffusion plants is presented in this paper

  11. An Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) to Increase Safety and Security Levels in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M; Ur Rahman, Khalil; Ul Hassan, Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    The main idea of this research is to develop an Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) based on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA). The article highlights the essential features and functions of ORMS. The basic models and modules such as, Reliability Data Update Model (RDUM), running time update, redundant system unavailability update, Engineered Safety Features (ESF) unavailability update and general system update have been described in this study. ORMS not only provides quantitative analysis but also highlights qualitative aspects of risk measures. ORMS is capable of automatically updating the online risk models and reliability parameters of equipment. ORMS can support in the decision making process of operators and managers in Nuclear Power Plants

  12. An Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) to Increase Safety and Security Levels in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, M.; Rahman, Khalil Ur; Hassan, Mehmood Ul

    2013-12-01

    The main idea of this research is to develop an Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) based on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA). The article highlights the essential features and functions of ORMS. The basic models and modules such as, Reliability Data Update Model (RDUM), running time update, redundant system unavailability update, Engineered Safety Features (ESF) unavailability update and general system update have been described in this study. ORMS not only provides quantitative analysis but also highlights qualitative aspects of risk measures. ORMS is capable of automatically updating the online risk models and reliability parameters of equipment. ORMS can support in the decision making process of operators and managers in Nuclear Power Plants.

  13. Developing tools for the safety specification in risk management plans: lessons learned from a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew J P; Lettis, Sally; Chapman, Charlotte L; Evans, Stephen J W; Waller, Patrick C; Shakir, Saad; Payvandi, Nassrin; Murray, Alison B

    2008-05-01

    Following the adoption of the ICH E2E guideline, risk management plans (RMP) defining the cumulative safety experience and identifying limitations in safety information are now required for marketing authorisation applications (MAA). A collaborative research project was conducted to gain experience with tools for presenting and evaluating data in the safety specification. This paper presents those tools found to be useful and the lessons learned from their use. Archive data from a successful MAA were utilised. Methods were assessed for demonstrating the extent of clinical safety experience, evaluating the sensitivity of the clinical trial data to detect treatment differences and identifying safety signals from adverse event and laboratory data to define the extent of safety knowledge with the drug. The extent of clinical safety experience was demonstrated by plots of patient exposure over time. Adverse event data were presented using dot plots, which display the percentages of patients with the events of interest, the odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Power and confidence interval plots were utilised for evaluating the sensitivity of the clinical database to detect treatment differences. Box and whisker plots were used to display laboratory data. This project enabled us to identify new evidence-based methods for presenting and evaluating clinical safety data. These methods represent an advance in the way safety data from clinical trials can be analysed and presented. This project emphasises the importance of early and comprehensive planning of the safety package, including evaluation of the use of epidemiology data.

  14. Commercial Vessel Safety Economic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    accidents, including basic steps in conducting cost- benefit analyses. 15 Ill. ASSUMPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS This section is used to define the scope...Analysis. Alexandria: Department of Defense, 1978. Devanney, J. W., et al. "Conference Ratemaking and the West Coast of South America," Journal of Transport

  15. In vessel core melt progression phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtaud, M.

    1993-01-01

    For all light water reactor (LWR) accidents, including the so called severe accidents where core melt down can occur, it is necessary to determine the amount and characteristics of fission products released to the environment. For existing reactors this knowledge is used to evaluate the consequences and eventual emergency plans. But for future reactors safety authorities demand decrease risks and reactors designed in such a way that fission products are retained inside the containment, the last protective barrier. This requires improved understanding and knowledge of all accident sequences. In particular it is necessary to be able to describe the very complex phenomena occurring during in vessel core melt progression because they will determine the thermal and mechanical loads on the primary circuit and the timing of its rupture as well as the fission product source term. On the other hand, in case of vessel failure, knowledge of the physical and chemical state of the core melt will provide the initial conditions for analysis of ex-vessel core melt progression and phenomena threatening the containment. Finally a good understanding of in vessel phenomena will help to improve accident management procedures like Emergency Core Cooling System water injection, blowdown and flooding of the vessel well, with their possible adverse effects. Research and Development work on this subject was initiated a long time ago and is still in progress but now it must be intensified in order to meet the safety requirements of the next generation of reactors. Experiments, limited in scale, analysis of the TMI 2 accident which is a unique source of global information and engineering judgment are used to establish and assess physical models that can be implemented in computer codes for reactor accident analysis

  16. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  17. Demonstration of Risk Profiling for promoting safety in SME´s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the risks and potential risks that may lead to accidents. It aims to look at how to improve risk assessment within SMEs for the benefit of all staff. Design/methodology/approach – The research included results from a Dutch project which...... identifies accident risks and safety barriers that are presented in a huge database and risk calculator. The method was first to develop a simple way of accessing this enormous amount of data, second, to develop a tool to observe risks and safety barriers in SMEs and to investigate the usefulness...... of the developed tools in real life, third, to collect data on risks and safety barriers in SMEs for two occupations by following 20 people for three days each and to create a risk profile for each occupations. Findings – The result is a simple way to go through all types of risks for accidents – a tool for risk...

  18. Development of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment program RiskA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There are four parts in the structure of RiskA. User input part lets users input the PSA model and some necessary data by GUI or model transformation tool. In calculation engine part, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, importance analysis and failure mode and effects analysis are supplied. User output part outputs the analysis results, user customized reports and some other data. The last part includes reliability database, some other common tools and help documents. • RiskA has several advanced features. Extensible framework makes it easy to add any new functions, making RiskA to be a large platform of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. It is very fast to analysis fault tree in RiskA because many advanced algorithm improvement were made. Many model formats can be imported and exported, which made the PSA model in the commercial software can be easily transformed to adapt RiskA platform. Web-based co-modeling let several users in different places work together whenever they are online. • The comparison between RiskA and other mature PSA codes (e.g. CAFTA, RiskSpectrum, XFTA) has demonstrated that the calculation and analysis of RiskA is correct and efficient. Based on the development of this code package, many applications of safety and reliability analysis of some research reactors and nuclear power plants were performed. The development of RiskA appears to be of realistic and potential value for academic research and practical operation safety management of nuclear power plants in China and abroad. - Abstract: PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) software, the indispensable tool in nuclear safety assessment, has been widely used. An integrated reliability and PSA program named RiskA has been developed by FDS Team. RiskA supplies several standard PSA modules including fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, failure mode and effect analysis and reliability

  19. Incorporation of formal safety assessment and Bayesian network in navigational risk estimation of the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Yan, X.P.; Yang, Z.L.; Wall, A.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Formal safety assessment (FSA), as a structured and systematic risk evaluation methodology, has been increasingly and broadly used in the shipping industry around the world. Concerns have been raised as to navigational safety of the Yangtze River, China's largest and the world's busiest inland waterway. Over the last few decades, the throughput of ships in the Yangtze River has increased rapidly due to the national development of the Middle and Western parts of China. Accidents such as collisions, groundings, contacts, oil-spills and fires occur repeatedly, often causing serious consequences. In order to improve the navigational safety in the Yangtze River, this paper estimates the navigational risk of the Yangtze River using the FSA concept and a Bayesian network (BN) technique. The navigational risk model is established by considering both probability and consequences of accidents with respect to a risk matrix method, followed by a scenario analysis to demonstrate the application of the proposed model

  20. Development of Risk Assessment Matrix for NASA Engineering and Safety Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.; Moses, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study, which had as its principal goal the development of a sufficiently detailed 5 x 5 Risk Matrix Scorecard. The purpose of this scorecard is to outline the criteria by which technical issues can be qualitatively and initially prioritized. The tool using this score card has been proposed to be one of the information resources the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) takes into consideration when making decisions with respect to incoming information on safety concerns across the entire NASA agency. The contents of this paper discuss in detail each element of the risk matrix scorecard, definitions for those elements and the rationale behind the development of those definitions. This scorecard development was performed in parallel with the tailoring of the existing Futron Corporation Integrated Risk Management Application (IRMA) software tool. IRMA was tailored to fit NESC needs for evaluating incoming safety concerns and was renamed NESC Assessment Risk Management Application (NAFMA) which is still in developmental phase.