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Sample records for vessel designs gas

  1. Software design and technical considerations for the calibration of gas process vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.H.

    1991-12-31

    In a new facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the volume of 35 vessels were determined. A literature search was made to determine an appropriate calibration method. When no practical non-laboratory methods providing the targeted uncertainty were found, an innovative approach was developed using the Gas Law principles and a portable, computerized data acquisition system. These vessels were calibrated in their final installed configuration. Each tank was calibrated in less than 24 hours. The system was comprised of a portable computer, pressure sensor, resistance temperature device temperature sensor, bottled nitrogen, and a mass comparator. This paper will describe the development of the calibration program.

  2. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  3. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  4. Design and analysis of multicavity prestressed concrete reactor vessels. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodpasture, D.W.; Burdette, E.G.; Callahan, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    During the past 25 years, a rather rapid evolution has taken place in the design and use of prestressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRVs). Initially the concrete vessel served as a one-to-one replacement for its steel counterpart. This was followed by the development of the integral design which led eventually to the more recent multicavity vessel concept. Although this evolution has seen problems in construction and operation, a state-of-the-art review which was recently conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicated that the PCRV has proven to be a satisfactory and inherently safe type of vessel for containment of gas-cooled reactors from a purely functional standpoint. However, functionalism is not the only consideration in a demanding and highly competitive industry. A summary is presented of the important considerations in the design and analysis of multicavity PCRVs together with overall conclusions concerning the state of the art of these vessels.

  5. Design study: fishing vessel technical information system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, C.H

    1979-01-01

    ... out. This study is primarily concerned with the design of a Fishing Vessel Technical Information System that will meet the requirements of the Department, and the determination of a schedule and means of data collection and management.

  6. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document provides the requirements for a test simulant suitable for demonstrating the mixing requirements for the Single High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). This simulant has not been evaluated for other purposes such as gas retention and release or erosion. The objective of this work is to provide an underpinning for the simulant properties based on actual waste characterization.

  7. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  8. ITER Vacuum Vessel design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Jones, L. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Jun, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC ' Sintez' , Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector -25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J.; Reich, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2012-08-15

    After implementing a few design modifications (referred to as the 'Modified Reference Design') in 2009, the Vacuum Vessel (VV) design had been stabilized. The VV design is being finalized, including interface components such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils. It is necessary to make adjustments to the locations of the blanket supports and manifolds to accommodate design modifications to the in-vessel coils. The VV support design is also being finalized considering a structural simplification. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. The detailed layout of ferritic steel plates and borated steel plates was optimized based on the toroidal field ripple analysis. A dynamic test on the inter-modular key to support the blanket modules was performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An R and D program has started to select and qualify the welding and cutting processes for the port flange lip seal. The ITER VV material 316 L(N) IG was already qualified and the Modified Reference Design was approved by the Agreed Notified Body (ANB) in accordance with the Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  9. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  10. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a) The...

  11. Radial gas turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausche, S.; Ohlsson, Johan

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a program dealing with design point calculations of radial turbine machinery, including both compressor and turbine, with as few input data as possible. Some simple stress calculations and turbine metal blade temperatures were also included. This program was then implanted in a German thermodynamics program, Gasturb, a program calculating design and off-design performance of gas turbines. The calculations proceed with a lot of assumptions, necessary to finish the task, concerning pressure losses, velocity distribution, blockage, etc., and have been correlated with empirical data from VAT. Most of these values could have been input data, but to prevent the user of the program from drowning in input values, they are set as default values in the program code. The output data consist of geometry, Mach numbers, predicted component efficiency etc., and a number of graphical plots of geometry and velocity triangles. For the cases examined, the error in predicted efficiency level was within {+-} 1-2% points, and quite satisfactory errors in geometrical and thermodynamic conditions were obtained Examination paper. 18 refs, 36 figs

  12. Structural design for a 10-GWh SMES vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.G.; Anderson, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    An approximate solution to the problem of the nonlinear elastic deformation of a periodically point-supported cylindrical shell is obtained. This solution is used to investigate the structural design of the vacuum vessel for the large underground superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) concept. Vacuum vessel designs are evaluated by varying such parameters as shell thickness, support spacing, material properties and physical configuration to keep the amount of material used and construction cost to a minimum.

  13. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Design and Implementation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1- to 2-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. We have developed a neutron assay system for the purposes of Materials Control and Accountability (MC&A) measurements of the vessel prior to and after cleanout. We present our approach to confronting the challenges in designing, building, and testing such a system. The system was designed to meet a set of functional and operational requirements. A Monte Carlo model was developed to aid in optimizing the detector design as well as to predict the systematic uncertainty associated with confinement vessel measurements. Initial testing was performed to optimize and determine various measurement parameters, and then the system was characterized using {sup 252}Cf placed a various locations throughout the measurement system. Measurements were also performed with a {sup 252}Cf source placed inside of small steel and HDPE shells to study the effect of moderation. These measurements compare favorably with their MCNPX model equivalent, making us confident that we can rely on the Monte Carlo simulation to predict the systematic uncertainty due to variations in response to material that may be localized at different points within a vessel.

  14. Iodine Adsorption by Ag-Aerogel under Prototypical Vessel Off-Gas Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    U.S. regulations will require the removal of 129I from the off-gas streams of any used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing plant prior to discharge of the off-gas to the environment. The required plant decontamination factor for iodine will vary based on fuel burnup, cooling time, and other factors but is very likely to be >1000 and could be as high as 8000. Multiple off-gas streams within a UNF reprocessing plant combine prior to environmental release, and each of these streams contains some amount of iodine. To achieve the decontamination factors (DFs) that are likely to be required by regulations, iodine removal from the vessel off-gas will be necessary. The vessel off-gas contains iodine at very dilute concentrations (ppb levels), and will also contain water vapor. Iodine species present are likely to include both elemental and organic iodides. There will also be solvent vapors and volatile radiolysis products. The United States has considered the use of silver-based sorbents for removal of iodine from UNF off-gas streams, but little is known about the behavior of those sorbents at very dilute iodine concentrations. The purpose of this study was to expose silver-functionalized silica aerogel (AgAerogel) to a prototypical vessel off-gas stream containing 40 ppb methyl iodide to obtain information about organic iodine capture by silver-sorbents at very low iodine concentrations. The design of this extended duration testing was such that information about the rate of adsorption, the penetration of the iodine species, and the overall system DF could be obtained. Results show that CH3I penetrates into a AgAerogel sorbent bed to a depth of 3.9 cm under prototypical vessel off-gas conditions. An iodine loading of 22 mg I/g AgAerogel was observed in the first 0.3 cm of the bed. Of the iodine delivered to the system, 48% could not be accounted for, and future efforts will investigate this concern. Direct calculation of the decontamination factor is not

  15. Design Procedure on Stud Bolt for Reactor Vessel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Wook; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Jeoung, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    The reactor pressure vessel flange is welded to the upper part of reactor pressure vessel, and there are stud holes to mount the closure head with stud bolts. The surface mating the closure head is compressed with O-ring, which acts as a sealing gasket to prevent coolant leakage. Bolted flange connections perform a very important structural role in the design of a reactor pressure vessel. Their importance stems from two important functions: (a) maintenance of the structural integrity of the connection itself, and (b) prevention of leakage through the O-ring preloaded by stud bolts. In the present study, an evaluation procedure for the design of stud bolt is developed to meet ASME code requirements. The developed design procedure could provide typical references in the development of advanced reactor design in the future.

  16. Design and Optimization of Filament Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues for the design of filament-wound pressure vessels reflects on the determination of the most efficient meridian profiles and related fiber architectures, leading to optimal structural performance. To better understand the design and optimization of filament-wound

  17. Analysis and Design of Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for Automotive Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco Javier

    Cryogenic pressure vessels maximize hydrogen storage density by combining the high pressure (350-700 bar) typical of today's composite pressure vessels with the cryogenic temperature (as low as 25 K) typical of low pressure liquid hydrogen vessels. Cryogenic pressure vessels comprise a high-pressure inner vessel made of carbon fiber-coated metal (similar to those used for storage of compressed gas), a vacuum space filled with numerous sheets of highly reflective metalized plastic (for high performance thermal insulation), and a metallic outer jacket. High density of hydrogen storage is key to practical hydrogen-fueled transportation by enabling (1) long-range (500+ km) transportation with high capacity vessels that fit within available spaces in the vehicle, and (2) reduced cost per kilogram of hydrogen stored through reduced need for expensive structural material (carbon fiber composite) necessary to make the vessel. Low temperature of storage also leads to reduced expansion energy (by an order of magnitude or more vs. ambient temperature compressed gas storage), potentially providing important safety advantages. All this is accomplished while simultaneously avoiding fuel venting typical of cryogenic vessels for all practical use scenarios. This dissertation describes the work necessary for developing and demonstrating successive generations of cryogenic pressure vessels demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work included (1) conceptual design, (2) detailed system design (3) structural analysis of cryogenic pressure vessels, (4) thermal analysis of heat transfer through cryogenic supports and vacuum multilayer insulation, and (5) experimental demonstration. Aside from succeeding in demonstrating a hydrogen storage approach that has established all the world records for hydrogen storage on vehicles (longest driving range, maximum hydrogen storage density, and maximum containment of cryogenic hydrogen without venting), the work also

  18. Organic Iodine Adsorption by AgZ under Prototypical Vessel Off-Gas Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-30

    U.S. regulations will require the removal of 129I from the off-gas streams of any used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing plant prior to discharge of the off-gas to the environment. Multiple off-gas streams within a UNF reprocessing plant combine prior to release, and each of these streams contains some amount of iodine. For an aqueous UNF reprocessing plant, these streams include the dissolver off-gas, the cell off-gas, the vessel off-gas (VOG), the waste off-gas and the shear off-gas. To achieve regulatory compliance, treatment of multiple off-gas streams within the plant must be performed. Preliminary studies have been completed on the adsorption of I2 onto silver mordenite (AgZ) from prototypical VOG streams. The study reported that AgZ did adsorb I2 from a prototypical VOG stream, but process upsets resulted in an uneven feed stream concentration. The experiments described in this document both improve the characterization of I2 adsorption by AgZ from dilute gas streams and further extend it to include characterization of the adsorption of organic iodides (in the form of CH3I) onto AgZ under prototypical VOG conditions. The design of this extended duration testing was such that information about the rate of adsorption, the penetration of the iodine species, and the effect of sorbent aging on iodine removal in VOG conditions could be inferred.

  19. Structural design and manufacturing of TPE-RX vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sago, H.; Orita, J.; Kaguchi, H.; Ishigami, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Urata, K.; Kudough, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Oyabu, I. [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Tokyo (Japan); Yagi, Y.; Sekine, S.; Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Sakakita, H.; Koguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    TPE-RX is a newly constructed, large-sized reversed field pinch (RFP) machine installed at the Electrotechnical Laboratory of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. This is the third largest RFP in the world. Major and minor radii of the plasma are 1.72 and 0.45 m, respectively. TPE-RX aims to optimize plasma confinement up to 1 MA. RFP plasma configuration was successfully obtained in March 1998. This paper reports the structural design and manufacturing of the vacuum vessel of TPE-RX. The supporting system on the bellows sections of the vessel was designed based on a detailed finite element method. The integrity of the vacuum vessel against a plasma disruption has been confirmed using dynamic inelastic analyses. (orig.)

  20. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  1. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bontha, Jagannadha R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rassat, Scot D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boeringa, Gregory K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buchmiller, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Karri, Naveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tran, Diana N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  2. Circular cylinders and pressure vessels stress analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Vullo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of stress and strain analysis of circular cylinders and pressure vessels, one of the classic topics of machine design theory and methodology. Whereas other books offer only a partial treatment of the subject and frequently consider stress analysis solely in the elastic field, Circular Cylinders and Pressure Vessels broadens the design horizons, analyzing theoretically what happens at pressures that stress the material beyond its yield point and at thermal loads that give rise to creep. The consideration of both traditional and advanced topics ensures that the book will be of value for a broad spectrum of readers, including students in postgraduate, and doctoral programs and established researchers and design engineers. The relations provided will serve as a sound basis for the design of products that are safe, technologically sophisticated, and compliant with standards and codes and for the development of innovative applications.

  3. Heating and cooling system for an on-board gas adsorbent storage vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburello, David A.; Anton, Donald L.; Hardy, Bruce J.; Corgnale, Claudio

    2017-06-20

    In one aspect, a system for controlling the temperature within a gas adsorbent storage vessel of a vehicle may include an air conditioning system forming a continuous flow loop of heat exchange fluid that is cycled between a heated flow and a cooled flow. The system may also include at least one fluid by-pass line extending at least partially within the gas adsorbent storage vessel. The fluid by-pass line(s) may be configured to receive a by-pass flow including at least a portion of the heated flow or the cooled flow of the heat exchange fluid at one or more input locations and expel the by-pass flow back into the continuous flow loop at one or more output locations, wherein the by-pass flow is directed through the gas adsorbent storage vessel via the by-pass line(s) so as to adjust an internal temperature within the gas adsorbent storage vessel.

  4. Design and development of in-vessel viewing periscope for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Ito, Akira; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Tada, Eisuke [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka , Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    An in-vessel viewing system is essential not only to detect and locate damage of components exposed to plasma, but also to monitor and assist in-vessel maintenance operation. In ITER, the in-vessel viewing system must be capable of operating at high temperature (200degC), under intense gamma radiation (30 kGy/h) and high vacuum or 1 bar inert gas. A periscope-type in-vessel viewing system has been chosen as a reference of the ITER in-vessel viewing system due to its wide viewing capability and durability for sever environments. According to the ITER research and development program, a full-scale radiation hard periscope with a length of 15 m has been successfully developed by the Japan Home Team. The performance tests have been shown sufficient capability at high temperature up to 250degC and radiation resistance over 100 MGy. This report describes the design and R and D results of the ITER in-vessel viewing periscope based on the development of 15-m-length radiation hard periscope. (author)

  5. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  6. Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spexarth, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A Mathcad computer program largely automates the design and analysis of the restraint layer (the primary load-bearing layer) of an inflatable vessel that consists of one or more sections having cylindrical, toroidal, and/or spherical shape(s). A restraint layer typically comprises webbing in the form of multiple straps. The design task includes choosing indexing locations along the straps, computing the load at every location in each strap, computing the resulting stretch at each location, and computing the amount of undersizing required of each strap so that, once the vessel is inflated and the straps thus stretched, the vessel can be expected to assume the desired shape. Prior to the development of this program, the design task was performed by use of a difficult-to-use spreadsheet program that required manual addition of rows and columns depending on the numbers of strap rows and columns of a given design. In contrast, this program is completely parametric and includes logic that automatically adds or deletes rows and columns as needed. With minimal input from the user, this program automatically computes indexing locations, strap lengths, undersizing requirements, and all design data required to produce detailed drawings and assembly procedures. It also generates textual comments that help the user understand the calculations.

  7. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  8. An Approach to Understanding Cohesive Slurry Settling, Mobilization, and Hydrogen Gas Retention in Pulsed Jet Mixed Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2009-05-22

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. Some of these vessels have mixing-system requirements to maintain conditions where the accumulation of hydrogen gas stays below acceptable limits, and the mixing within the vessels is sufficient to release hydrogen gas under normal conditions and during off-normal events. Some of the WTP process streams are slurries of solid particles suspended in Newtonian fluids that behave as non-Newtonian slurries, such as Bingham yield-stress fluids. When these slurries are contained in the process vessels, the particles can settle and become progressively more concentrated toward the bottom of the vessels, depending on the effectiveness of the mixing system. One limiting behavior is a settled layer beneath a particle-free liquid layer. The settled layer, or any region with sufficiently high solids concentration, will exhibit non-Newtonian rheology where it is possible for the settled slurry to behave as a soft solid with a yield stress. In this report, these slurries are described as settling cohesive slurries.

  9. Reactor moderator, pressure vessel, and heat rejection system of an open-cycle gas core nuclear rocket concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.; Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.; Sirocky, P. J., Jr.; Iwanczyke, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design study of a conceptual 6000-megawatt open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine system was made. The engine has a thrust of 196,600 newtons (44,200 lb) and a specific impulse of 4400 seconds. The nuclear fuel is uranium-235 and the propellant is hydrogen. Critical fuel mass was calculated for several reactor configurations. Major components of the reactor (reflector, pressure vessel, and waste heat rejection system) were considered conceptually and were sized.

  10. Optimization of Helium Vessel Design for ILC Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratangelo, Enrico [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2009-01-01

    certify the compliance of the Helium vessel and the cavity to the ASME code standard. After briefly recalling to the main contents of the the ASME Code (Sections II and Vlll - Division ll), the procedure used for finding all relevant stresses and comparing the obtained results with the maximum values allowed are explained. This part also includes the buckling verification of the cavity. In Chapter 5 the manufacturing process of the cavity end-caps, whose function is to link the Helium vessel with the cavity, is studied. The present configuration of the dies is described and the manufacturing process is simulated in order to explain the origin of some defects fol.llld on real parts. Finally a new design of the dies is proposed and the resulting deformed piece is compared with the design requirements. Chapter 6 describes a finite elements analysis to assess the efficiency and the stiffness of the Helium vessel. Furthermore the results of the optimization of the Helium vessel (in order to increase the value of the efficiency) are reported. The same stiffness analysis is used in Chapter 7 for the Blade-Tuner study. After a description of this tuner and of its function, the preliminary analyses done to confirm the results provided by the vendor are described and then its limiting load conditions are found. Chapter 8 shows a study of the resistance of all the welds present in between the cavity and the end-cap and between the end-caps and the He vessel for a smaller superconducting cavity operating at 3.9 GHz. Finally Chapter 9 briefly describes some R&D activities in progress at INFN (Section of Pisa) and Fermilab that could produce significant cost reductions of the Helium vessel design. All the finite elements analyses contained and described in this thesis made possible the certification of the whole superconducting cavity-Helium vessel assembly at Fermilab. Furthermore they gave several useful indications to the Fermilab staff to improve the performance of the Helium

  11. Polar vessel hullform design based on the multi-objective optimization NSGA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN Fei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] With the increasing exploitation of the Arctic abundant oil and gas resources, a large number of ships which meet the polar navigational requirements are needed.[Methods] In this paper, the fast elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA Ⅱ is applied to the hull optimization, and the multi-objective optimization method of polar vessel design is proposed. With the optimization goal of resistance and icebreaking resistance, filtering hull forms through the standard of polar vessel displacement and EEDI, fast ship hull optimization that satisfy the ice-ship dead weight and EEDI requirements has been achieved. Taking a 65 000 t shuttle tanker as an example, full parametric modeling method is adopted, the hull optimization of three different bow forms is conducted through the polar vessel multi-objective optimization method.[Results] The ship hull after optimization can satisfy the IA class navigation require, where the resistance in calm water decreases up to 12.94%, and the minimum propulsion power in ice field has a 27.36% reduction.[Conclusions] The feasibility and validity of the NSGA Ⅱ applying in polar vessel design is verified.

  12. Impact of chemistry on Standard High Solids Vessel Design mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-02

    The plan for resolving technical issues regarding mixing performance within vessels of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility directs a chemical impact study to be performed. The vessels involved are those that will process higher (e.g., 5 wt % or more) concentrations of solids. The mixing equipment design for these vessels includes both pulse jet mixers (PJM) and air spargers. This study assesses the impact of feed chemistry on the effectiveness of PJM mixing in the Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). The overall purpose of this study is to complement the Properties that Matter document in helping to establish an acceptable physical simulant for full-scale testing. The specific objectives for this study are (1) to identify the relevant properties and behavior of the in-process tank waste that control the performance of the system being tested, (2) to assess the solubility limits of key components that are likely to precipitate or crystallize due to PJM and sparger interaction with the waste feeds, (3) to evaluate the impact of waste chemistry on rheology and agglomeration, (4) to assess the impact of temperature on rheology and agglomeration, (5) to assess the impact of organic compounds on PJM mixing, and (6) to provide the technical basis for using a physical-rheological simulant rather than a physical-rheological-chemical simulant for full-scale vessel testing. Among the conclusions reached are the following: The primary impact of precipitation or crystallization of salts due to interactions between PJMs or spargers and waste feeds is to increase the insoluble solids concentration in the slurries, which will increase the slurry yield stress. Slurry yield stress is a function of pH, ionic strength, insoluble solids concentration, and particle size. Ionic strength and chemical composition can affect particle size. Changes in temperature can affect SHSVD mixing through its effect on properties such as viscosity, yield stress, solubility

  13. Closed system cell culture protocol using HYPERStack vessels with gas permeable material technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Kim; Klimovich, Vitaly; Rothenberg, Mark; Pardo, Pilar; Tanner, Allison; Martin, Greg

    2010-11-29

    Large volume adherent cell culture is currently standardized on stacked plate cell growth products when microcarrier beads are not an optimal choice. HYPERStack vessels allow closed system scale up from the current stacked plate products and delivers >2.5X more cells in the same volumetric footprint. The HYPERStack vessels function via gas permeable material which allows gas exchange to occur, therefore eliminating the need for internal headspace within a vessel. The elimination of headspace allows the compartment where cell growth occurs to be minimized to reduce space, allowing more layers of cell growth surface area within the same volumetric footprint. For many applications such as cell therapy or vaccine production, a closed system is required for cell growth and harvesting. The HYPERStack vessel allows cell and reagent addition and removal via tubing from media bags or other methods. This protocol will explain the technology behind the gas permeable material used in the HYPERStack vessels, gas diffusion results to meet the metabolic needs of cells, closed system cell growth protocols, and various harvesting methods.

  14. Development of design Criteria for ITER In-vessel Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannazzaro, G., E-mail: Giulio.Sannazzaro@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Barabash, V.; Kang, S.C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Fernandez, E. [Fusion For Energy, Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Mar B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kalinin, G.; Obushev, A. [The Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, P.O. Box 788, Moscow (Russian Federation); Martínez, V.J.; Vázquez, I. [IDESA, Parque Científico Tecnológico, C/Profesor Potter 105, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Fernández, F.; Guirao, J. [NATEC, C/Marqués de San Esteban 52 Entlo, 33209 Gijón (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Absrtract: The components located inside the ITER vacuum chamber (in-vessel components – IC), due to their specific nature and the environments they are exposed to (neutron radiation, high heat fluxes, electromagnetic forces, etc.), have specific design criteria which are, in this paper, referred as Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC). The development of these criteria started in the very early phase of the ITER design and followed closely the criteria of the RCC-MR code. Specific rules to include the effect of neutron irradiation were implemented. In 2008 the need of an update of the SDC-IC was identified to add missing specifications, to implement improvements, to modernise rules including recent evolutions in international codes and regulations (i.e. PED). Collaboration was set up between ITER Organization (IO), European (EUDA) and Russian Federation (RFDA) Domestic Agencies to generate a new version of SDC-IC. A Peer Review Group (PRG) composed by members of the ITER Organization and all ITER Domestic Agencies and code experts was set-up to review the proposed modifications, to provide comments, contributions and recommendations.

  15. Standard High Solids Vessel Design De-inventory Simulant Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Linn, Diana T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the de-inventory (residual high-density tank solids cleanout) process. Its basis and target characteristics are defined in 24590-WTP-ES-ENG-16-021 and implemented through PNNL Test Plan TP-WTPSP-132 Rev. 1.0. This document describes the de-inventory Newtonian carrier fluid (DNCF) simulant composition that will satisfy the basis requirement to mimic the density (1.18 g/mL ± 0.1 g/mL) and viscosity (2.8 cP ± 0.5 cP) of 5 M NaOH at 25 °C.1 The simulant viscosity changes significantly with temperature. Therefore, various solution compositions may be required, dependent on the test stand process temperature range, to meet these requirements. Table ES.1 provides DNCF compositions at selected temperatures that will meet the density and viscosity specifications as well as the temperature range at which the solution will meet the acceptable viscosity tolerance.

  16. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE... of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull may...

  17. CFD simulation of gas-liquid floating particles mixing in an agitated vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liangchao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas dispersion and floating particles suspension in an agitated vessel were studied numerically by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The Eulerian multi-fluid model along with standard k-ε turbulence model was used in the simulation. A multiple reference frame (MRF approach was used to solve the impeller rotation. The velocity field, gas and floating particles holdup distributions in the vessel were first obtained, and then, the effects of operating conditions on gas dispersion and solid suspension were investigated. The simulation results show that velocity field of solid phase and gas phase are quite different in the agitated vessel. Floating particles are easy to accumulate in the center of the surface region and the increasing of superficial gas velocity is in favor of floating particles off-surface suspension. With increasing solids loading, the gas dispersion becomes worse, while relative solid holdup distribution changes little. The limitations of the present modeling are discussed and further research in the future is proposed.

  18. Offshore support vessel developments for deep water oil and gas E and P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dielen, Baldo A.M. [SMIT, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide trend to move towards more exposed locations and deeper waters for O and G exploration and production activities resulted in an increased need for larger and more powerful tugs and offshore support vessels. These vessels must meet higher operational requirements under higher wind and sea-state conditions. This market-driven need, together with technological developments, is leading towards a new generation of powerful and sophisticated offshore support vessels (OSV's). This paper will describe the actual and future trends in OSV design for deep water offshore use. (author)

  19. Storage vessel for ship transport of liquefied gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.R.; Rothrock, E.W.; Lange, K.W.; Kircik, W.J.; Davis, R.N.

    1975-05-13

    Chicago Bridge and Iron Co. developed and improved self-supporting tank design for LNG tankers which features added safety, minimizes the concentration of stresses in the ship's hull, and allows the ready installation of insulation. The tank generally consists of an enclosed circular metal shell with an upwardly projecting lower walled portion joined at its bottom edge to the ship-hold bottom, transferring the vertical force of the liquid product to the hold bottom. Within the lower walled portion of the tank shell, a metal secondary bottom is positioned above the hold bottom, with a primary bottom positioned above it. A load-bearing insulation system is positioned between the secondary bottom and the ship-hold bottom. Each of the tank bottoms is usually constructed of thin metal and functions as a leaktight liner. The tank shell and primary and secondary bottoms should be constructed of cryogenically safe metals, but the new design allows the use of conventional carbon steel for the ship's hull. In the event of a primary-bottom failure, the cryogenic liquid will flow into the space below the primary bottom where it will be restrained from further flow by the secondary bottom and kept from damaging the ship-hold bottom by the insulation system.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Study of Effect of Thermal Management on Storage Capacity of the Adsorbed Natural Gas Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan

    2017-07-08

    One of the main challenges in the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage system is the thermal effect of adsorption, which significantly lowers storage capacity. These challenges can be solved by efficient thermal management system. In this paper, influence of thermal management on storage capacity of the ANG vessel was studied experimentally and numerically. 3D numerical model was considered in order to understand heat transfer phenomena and analyze influence of thermal control comprehensively. In addition, a detailed 2D axisymmetric unit cell model of adsorbent layer with heat exchanger was developed, followed by optimization of heat exchanging device design to minimize volume occupied by fins and tubes. Heat transfer, mass transfer and adsorption kinetics, which occur in ANG vessel during charging process, are accounted for in models. Nelder-Mead method is implemented to obtain the geometrical parameters, which lead to the optimal characteristics of heat exchange. A new optimized configuration of ANG vessel was developed with compact heat exchanger. Results show that storage capacity of the ANG vessel increased significantly due to lowering of heat exchanger volume for 3 times from 13.5% to 4.3% and effective temperature control.

  1. Standard practice for examination of Gas-Filled filament-wound composite pressure vessels using acoustic emission

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examination of filament-wound composite pressure vessels, for example, the type used for fuel tanks in vehicles which use natural gas fuel. 1.2 This practice requires pressurization to a level equal to or greater than what is encountered in normal use. The tanks' pressurization history must be known in order to use this practice. Pressurization medium may be gas or liquid. 1.3 This practice is limited to vessels designed for less than 690 bar [10,000 psi] maximum allowable working pressure and water volume less than 1 m3 or 1000 L [35.4 ft3]. 1.4 AE measurements are used to detect emission sources. Other nondestructive examination (NDE) methods may be used to gain additional insight into the emission source. Procedures for other NDE methods are beyond the scope of this practice. 1.5 This practice applies to examination of new and in-service filament-wound composite pressure vessels. 1.6 This practice applies to examinations conducted at amb...

  2. Olivine, dolomite and ceramic filters in one vessel to produce clean gas from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2018-01-01

    Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm3 of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm3 of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. FINAL DESIGN REVIEW REPORT Subcritical Experiments Gen 2, 3-ft Confinement Vessel Weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    A Final Design Review (FDR) of the Subcritical Experiments (SCE) Gen 2, 3-ft. Confinement Vessel Weldment was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on September 14, 2017. The review was a focused review on changes only to the confinement vessel weldment (versus a system design review). The changes resulted from lessons-learned in fabricating and inspecting the current set of confinement vessels used for the SCE Program. The baseline 3-ft. confinement vessel weldment design has successfully been used (to date) for three (3) high explosive (HE) over-tests, two (2) fragment tests, and five (5) integral HE experiments. The design team applied lessons learned from fabrication and inspection of these vessel weldments to enhance fit-up, weldability, inspection, and fitness for service evaluations. The review team consisted of five (5) independent subject matter experts with engineering design, analysis, testing, fabrication, and inspection experience. The

  4. Standard practice for examination of seamless, gas-filled, steel pressure vessels using angle beam ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a contact angle-beam shear wave ultrasonic technique to detect and locate the circumferential position of longitudinally oriented discontinuities and to compare the amplitude of the indication from such discontinuities to that of a specified reference notch. This practice does not address examination of the vessel ends. The basic principles of contact angle-beam examination can be found in Practice E 587. Application to pipe and tubing, including the use of notches for standardization, is described in Practice E 213. 1.2 This practice is appropriate for the ultrasonic examination of cylindrical sections of gas-filled, seamless, steel pressure vessels such as those used for the storage and transportation of pressurized gasses. It is applicable to both isolated vessels and those in assemblies. 1.3 The practice is intended to be used following an Acoustic Emission (AE) examination of stacked seamless gaseous pressure vessels (with limited surface scanning area) described in Test Met...

  5. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10{sup -4} Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  6. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  7. Advanced in-vessel retention design for next generation risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In the TMI-2 accident, approximately twenty (20) tons of molten core material drained into the lower plenum. Early advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs assumed a lower head failure and incorporated various measures for ex-vessel accident mitigation. However,one of the major findings from the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project was that one part of the reactor lower head wall estimated to have attained a temperature of 1100 deg C for about 30 minutes has seemingly experienced a comparatively rapid cooldown with no major threat to the vessel integrity. In this regard, recent empirical and analytical studies have shifted interests to such in-vessel retention designs or strategies as reactor cavity flooding, in-vessel flooding and engineered gap cooling of the vessel. Accurate thermohydrodynamic and creep deformation modeling and rupture prediction are the key to the success in developing practically useful in-vessel accident/risk management strategies. As an advanced in-vessel design concept, this work presents the COrium Attack Syndrome Immunization Structures (COASIS) that are being developed as prospective in-vessel retention devices for a next-generation LWR in concert with existing ex-vessel management measures. Both the engineered gap structures in-vessel (COASISI) and ex-vessel (COASISO) are demonstrated to maintain effective heat transfer geometry during molten core debris attack when applied to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNPP) reactor. The likelihood of lower head creep rupture during a severe accident is found to be significantly suppressed by the COASIS options. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Finite element analyses for design evaluation of biodegradable magnesium alloy stents in arterial vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wei [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gastaldi, Dario, E-mail: dario.gastaldi@polimi.it [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Yang Ke; Tan Lili [Division of Specialized Materials and Devices, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco [Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics, Structural Engineering Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Biodegradable magnesium alloy stents (MAS) can provide a great benefit for diseased vessels and avoid the long-term incompatible interactions between vessels and permanent stent platforms. However, the existing MAS showed insufficient scaffolding to the target vessels due to short degradation time. In this study, a three dimensional finite element model combined with a degradable material model of AZ31 (Al 0.03, Zn 0.01, Mn 0.002 and Mg balance, mass percentage) was applied to three different MAS designs including an already implanted stent (Stent A), an optimized design (Stent B) and a patented stent design (Stent C). One ring of each design was implanted through a simulation in a vessel model then degraded with the changing interaction between outer stent surface and the vessel. Results showed that a proper stent design (Stent B) can lead to an increase of nearly 120% in half normalized recoil time of the vessel compared to the Stent A; moreover, the expectation that the MAS design, with more mass and optimized mechanical properties, can increase scaffolding time was verified numerically. The Stent C has more materials than Stent B; however, it only increased the half normalized recoil time of the vessel by nearly 50% compared to the Stent A because of much higher stress concentration than that of Stent B. The 3D model can provide a convenient design and testing tool for novel magnesium alloy stents.

  9. Designing of a Fleet-Leader Program for Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases on board spacecraft when mass saving is a prime requirement. Substantial weight savings can be achieved compared to all metallic pressure vessels. For example, on the space shuttle, replacement of all metallic pressure vessels with Kevlar COPVs resulted in a weight savings of about 30 percent. Mass critical space applications such as the Ares and Orion vehicles are currently being planned to use as many COPVs as possible in place of all-metallic pressure vessels to minimize the overall mass of the vehicle. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads during long periods of a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is, therefore, important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since it is practically impossible to show by experimental testing the reliability of flight quality vessels. Also, it is a common practice to set aside flight quality vessels as "fleet leaders" in a test program where these vessels are subjected to slightly accelerated operating conditions so that they lead the actual flight vessels both in time and load. The intention of fleet leaders is to provide advanced warning if there is a serious design flaw in the vessels so that a major disaster in the flight vessels can be averted with advance warning. On the other hand, the accelerating conditions must be not so severe as to be prone to false alarms. The primary focus of the present paper is to provide an analytical basis for designing a viable fleet leader program for carbon COPVs. The analysis is based on a stress rupture behavior model incorporating Weibull statistics and power-law sensitivity of life to fiber stress level.

  10. Design and implementation of visual inspection system handed in tokamak flexible in-vessel robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Xu, Lifei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)

    2016-05-15

    In-vessel viewing system (IVVS) is a fundamental tool among the remote handling systems for ITER, which is used to providing information on the status of the in-vessel components. The basic functional requirement of in-vessel visual inspection system is to perform a fast intervention with adequate optical resolution. In this paper, we present the software and hardware solution, which is designed and implemented for tokamak in-vessel viewing system that installed on end-effector of flexible in-vessel robot working under vacuum and high temperature. The characteristic of our in-vessel viewing system consists of two parts: binocular heterogeneous vision inspection tool and first wall scene emersion based augment virtuality. The former protected with water-cooled shield is designed to satisfy the basic functional requirement of visual inspection system, which has the capacity of large field of view and high-resolution for detection precision. The latter, achieved by overlaying first wall tiles images onto virtual first wall scene model in 3D virtual reality simulation system, is designed for convenient, intuitive and realistic-looking visual inspection instead of viewing the status of first wall only by real-time monitoring or off-line images sequences. We present the modular division of system, each of them in smaller detail, and go through some of the design choices according to requirements of in-vessel visual inspection task.

  11. An experimental study on coolability through the external reactor vessel cooling according to RPV insulation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Rae Joon; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Sang Baik

    2004-01-01

    LAVA-ERVC experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of insulation design features on the water accessibility and coolability in case of the external reactor vessel cooling. Alumina iron thermite melt was used as corium stimulant. And the hemispherical test vessel is linearly scaled-down of RPV lower plenum. 4 tests have been performed varying the melt composition and the configuration of the insulation system. Due to the limited steam venting capacity through the insulation, steam binding occurred inside the annulus in the LAVA- ERVC-1, 2 tests which were performed for simulating the KSNP insulation design. This steam binding brought about incident heat up of the vessel outer surface at the upper part in the LAVA-ERVC-1, 2 tests. On the contrary, in the LAVA-ERVC-3, 4 tests which were performed for simulating the APR1400 insulation design, the temperatures of the vessel outer surface maintained near saturation temperature. Sufficient water ingression and steam venting through the insulation lead to effective cooldown of the vessel characterized by nucleate boiling in the LAVA-ERVC-3, 4 tests. From the LAVA-ERVC experimental results, it could be preliminarily concluded that if pertinent modification of the insulation design focused on the improvement of water ingression and steam venting should be preceded the possibility of in-vessel corium retention through the external vessel cooling could be considerably increased.

  12. High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

    2014-08-15

    The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard practice for examination of seamless, Gas-Filled, pressure vessels using acoustic emission

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of seamless pressure vessels (tubes) of the type used for distribution or storage of industrial gases. 1.2 This practice requires pressurization to a level greater than normal use. Pressurization medium may be gas or liquid. 1.3 This practice does not apply to vessels in cryogenic service. 1.4 The AE measurements are used to detect and locate emission sources. Other nondestructive test (NDT) methods must be used to evaluate the significance of AE sources. Procedures for other NDT techniques are beyond the scope of this practice. See Note 1. Note 1—Shear wave, angle beam ultrasonic examination is commonly used to establish circumferential position and dimensions of flaws that produce AE. Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD), ultrasonic examination is also commonly used for flaw sizing. 1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standa...

  14. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    natural gas (LNG). The study compares the performance of six different ORC configurations both in design and off-design operation, and provides guidelines with respect to the most promising heat sources and sinks to be utilized by an ORC unit in order to maximize the annual fuel savings. In addition......Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...

  15. In-Vessel Coil Material Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2013-01-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design for construction of this large tokamak fusion experiment. One of the design issues is ensuring proper control of the fusion plasma. In-vessel magnet coils may be needed for plasma control, especially the control of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS). These coils will be lifetime components that reside inside the ITER vacuum vessel behind the blanket modules. As such, their reliability is an important design issue since access will be time consuming if any type of repair were necessary. The following chapters give the research results and estimates of failure rates for the coil conductor and jacket materials to be used for the in-vessel coils. Copper and CuCrZr conductors, and stainless steel and Inconel jackets are examined.

  16. Pendulum support of the W7-X plasma vessel: Design, tests, manufacturing, assembly, critical aspects, status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missal, B., E-mail: bernd.missal@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Leher, F.; Schiller, T. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Werftstraße 17, 94469 Deggendorf (Germany); Friedrich, P. [Universität Rostock, FB Maschinenbau und Schiffstechnik, Albert-Einsteins-Straße 2, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Capriccioli, A. [ENEA Frascati, Fusion Technology Unit, Frascati (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma vessel support has to allow vertical adjustment and horizontal passive movement. • Planar sliding tables with PTFE do not fulfill all requirements. • Pendulums can fulfill all requirements. • Geometry and material of spherical bearings had to be optimized in calculations and tests. • Optimized pendulums were manufactured and assembled. - Abstract: The superconducting helical advanced stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Greifswald, Germany. The three dimensional shape of plasma will be generated by 50 non-planar magnetic coils. The plasma vessel geometry follows exactly this three dimensional shape of plasma. To ensure the superconductivity of coils a cryo vacuum has to be generated. Therefore the coils and their support structure are enclosed within the outer vessel. Plasma vessel, coil structures and outer vessel have to be supported separately. This paper will describe the vertical supports of plasma vessel which have to fulfill two special requirements, vertical adjustability and horizontal mobility. These two tasks will be carried out by plasma vessel supports (PVS) with hydraulic cylinders, special sliding tables during assembly and pendulum supports during operating phase. The paper will give an overview of design, calculation, tests, fabrication, assembly, critical aspects and status of PVS.

  17. Design considerations for a gas microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the design problems that are now being addressed in consideration of a microcontroller for the upcoming GAS payload are discussed. Microcontrollers will be used to run the experiments and to collect and store the data from those experiments. Some of the requirements for a microcontroller are to be small, lightweight, have low power consumption, and high reliability. Some of the solutions that were developed to meet these design requirements are discussed. At present, the experiment is still in the design stage and the final design may change from what is presented here. The search for new integrated circuits which will do all that is needed all in one package continues.

  18. Streamlined vessels for speedboats: Macro modifications of shark skin design applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Amran, S. N. A.; Zulkharnain, A.; Sunami, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Functional properties of shark denticles have caught the attention of engineers and scientist today due to the hydrodynamic effects of its skin surface roughness. The skin of a fast swimming shark reveals riblet structures that help to reduce skin friction drag, shear stresses, making its movement to be more efficient and faster. Inspired by the structure of the shark skin denticles, our team has conducted a study on alternative on improving the hydrodynamic design of marine vessels by applying the simplified version of shark skin skin denticles on the surface hull of the vessels. Models used for this study are constructed and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are then carried out to predict the effectiveness of the hydrodynamic effects of the biomimetic shark skins on those models. Interestingly, the numerical calculated results obtained shows that the presence of biomimetic shark skin implemented on the vessels give improvements in the maximum speed as well as reducing the drag force experience by the vessels. The pattern of the wave generated post cruising area behind the vessels can also be observed to reduce the wakes and eddies. Theoretically, reduction of drag force provides a more efficient vessel with a better cruising speed. To further improve on this study, the authors are now actively arranging an experimental procedure in order to verify the numerical results obtained by CFD. The experimental test will be carried out using an 8 metre flow channel provided by University Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia.

  19. Design assessment for manufacturability of supporting structures for IWS and ELM coil of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu-Gyeong, E-mail: aspirany@hhi.co.kr [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Dong-gu, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yun-Seok; Kwon, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Yung-Jin [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Dong-gu, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hee-Jae; Kim, Byung-Chul; Lee, Young-Ju [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A “bridge type” welding method was proposed for IWS rib and ELM coil supports. ► This method could reduce the welding distortion and increase the manufacturability. ► Structural integrity of proposed design was assessed for both P and S type damages. ► Results show that the proposed designs meet the design criteria of RCC-MR. -- Abstract: A vacuum vessel is one of the core facilities of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and basically all-welded structure. Korea is responsible for the procurement of sector 1 and 6 of the main vessel. Accordingly, the design review for the fabrication is in progress by ITER Korea and Hyundai Heavy Industries. Due to anticipated manufacturing problems such as the welding distortion, the design of some components of main vessel, IWS (In-Wall Shield) supporting rib and ELM (Edge Localized Mode) coil support, needs to be modified. To release the risk of welding distortion, the welding method called “bridge type” is suggested and the shape of weld joint is adjusted to secure the manufacturability of the issued components. The elastic and limit analyses with fatigue evaluation have been performed under the most critical loading condition to verify the structural integrity of modified design. Analysis results show that the proposed designs meet the design criteria of RCC-MR. The design deviation requests have been submitted to ITER Organization and ANB (Agreed Notified Body) for approval and their verification is currently in progress.

  20. Development of advanced design features for KNGR reactor vessel and internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Ru, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyung Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Ku, Kyung Heoy; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Jun; Kim, Young In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Developments of KNGR design require to enhance the design to implement the design requirements, such as plant life time from 40 years to 60 years, safety, performance and structure and components design. The designs used for existing nuclear power plants should be modified or improved to meet the requirements in KNGR design. The purpose of the task is to develop the Advanced Design Features (ADF) related to mechanical and structural design for KNGR reactor vessel and reactor internals. The structural integrity for the System 80+ reactor vessel, of which design life is 60 years, was reviewed. EPRI-URD, CESSAR-DC, and the present design status and characteristics of System 80+ reactor vessel were comparatively studied and the improvement of reactor vessel surveillance program was investigated. The performance and aseismic characteristics of the CE-type CEDM, which will be used in System 80+, are investigated. The driving cycles of CEDM are evaluated for the load follow operation(LFO), of which Mode K is being developed by KAERI. The position of the USNRC, EPRI, ABB-CE, and industries on the elimination of OBE are reviewed, and especially ABB-CE System 80+ FSER is reviewed in detail. For the pre-stage of the verification of the OBE elimination from the design, the review of the seismic responses, i.e.. shear forces and moments, of YGN 3/4 RI was performed and the ratio of OBE response to SSE response was analysed. The screening criteria were reviewed to evaluate the integrity against pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for RV belt-line of System 80+. The evaluation methods for fracture integrity when screening criteria are not met were reviewed. The structural characteristics of IRWST spargers of System 80+ were investigated and the effect of hydrodynamic loads on NSSS was reviewed. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 40 refs. (Author) .new.

  1. Design of Semi-composite Pressure Vessel using Fuzzy and FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Mohammad H.; Foghani, Mohammad F.

    2010-04-01

    The present study attempts to present a new method to design a semi-composite pressure vessel (known as hoop-wrapped composite cylinder) using fuzzy decision making and finite element method. A metal-composite vessel was designed based on ISO criteria and then the weight of the vessel was optimized for various fibers of carbon, glass and Kevlar in the cylindrical vessel. Failure criteria of von-Mises and Hoffman were respectively employed for the steel liner and the composite reinforcement to characterize the yielding/ buckling of the cylindrical pressure vessel. The fuzzy decision maker was used to estimate the thickness of the steel liner and the number of composite layers. The ratio of stresses on the composite fibers and the working pressure as well as the ratio of stresses on the composite fibers and the burst (failure) pressure were assessed. ANSYS nonlinear finite element solver was used to analyze the residual stress in the steel liner induced due to an auto-frettage process. Result of analysis verified that carbon fibers are the most suitable reinforcement to increase strength of cylinder while the weight stayed appreciably low.

  2. Design, construction, and testing of the vacuum vessel for the tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerich, J. W.

    1985-11-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy gave the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory approval to design and build a tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) to support the goals of the National Mirror Program. We designed the MFTF-B vacuum vessel both to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum environment and to structurally support the 42 superconducting magnets plus auxiliary internal and external equipment. During our design work, we made extensive use of both simple and complex computer models to arrive at a cost-effective final configuration. As part of this work, we conducted a unique dynamic analysis to study the interaction of the 32,000-ton concrete-shielding vault with the 2850-ton vacuum vessel system. To maintain a vacuum of 2 x 10 to the -8 Torr during the physics experiments inside the vessel, we designed a vacuum pumping system of enormous capacity. The vacuum vessel (4200 cu m) has been fabricated, erected, and acceptance tests have been completed at the Livermore site. The rest of the machine has been assembled, and individual systems have been successfully checked. On October 1, 1985, we began a series of integrated engineering tests to verify the operation of all components as a complete system.

  3. 33 CFR 165.1405 - Regulated Navigation Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including Cabras Island... Areas and Security Zones; Designated Escorted Vessels-Philippine Sea and Apra Harbor, Guam (including... point of origin. (2) Apra Harbor, Guam—All waters from surface to bottom of Apra Harbor, Guam, shoreward...

  4. Evaluasi Desain Dan Stabilitas Kapal Penangkap Ikan Di Palabuhanratu (Studi Kasus Kapal Psp 01) Fishing Vessel Design and Stability Evaluation in Palabuhanratu (Case Study of Psp 01 Training-fishing Vessel)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Adi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Imron, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    PSP 01 is a training-fishing vessel that was built in a traditional dock yard in Palabuhanratu, so it was not completed with design drawings and stability calculation. This paper discusses on determining the vessel's suitability of design and stability condition followed by redesign of main dimension to obtain more optimal design. Simulation carried out in various load conditions and different vessel sizes to get the considerably ideal size of the vessel. The main dimension ratio and coeffici...

  5. Network design for cylinder gas distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Network design of the supply chain is an important and strategic aspect of logistics management. In this paper, we address the network design problem specific to packaged gases (cylinder supply chain. We propose an integrated framework that allows for the determination of the optimal facility locations, the filling plant production capacities, the inventory at plants and hubs, and the number of packages to be routed in primary and secondary transportation. Design/methodology/approach: We formulate the problem as a mixed integer program and then develop a decomposition approach to solve it. We illustrate the proposed framework with numerical examples from real-life packaged gases supply chain. The results show that the decomposition approach is effective in solving a broad range of problem sizes. Findings: The main finding of this paper is that decomposing the network design problem into two sub-problems is very effective to tackle the real-life large scale network design problems occurring in cylinder gas distribution by optimizing strategic and tactical decisions and approximating the operational decisions. We also benchmark the results from the decomposition approach by solving the complete packaged gases network design model for smaller test cases. Originality/value: The main contribution of our work is that it integrates supply chain network design decisions without fixing the fillings plant locations with inventory and resource allocation decisions required at the plants. We also consider the transportation costs for the entire supply chain including the transhipment costs among different facilities by deciding the replenishment frequency.

  6. Optimal design of high pressure hydrogen storage vessel using an adaptive genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ping [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zheng, Jinyang; Chen, Honggang; Liu, Pengfei [Institute of Chemical Machinery and Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The weight minimum optimization of composite hydrogen storage vessel under the burst pressure constraint is considered. An adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to perform the optimal design of composite vessels. The proposed optimization algorithm considers the adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation which change with the fitness values of individuals and proposes a penalty function to deal with the burst pressure constraint. The winding thickness and angles of composite layers are chosen as the design variables. Effects of the population size and the number of generations on the optimal results are explored. The results using the adaptive genetic algorithm are also compared with those using the simple genetic algorithm and the Monte Carlo optimization method. (author)

  7. Optimization of a twin-skeg container vessel by parametric design and CFD simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingpu Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The model tests results for the original lines of an 10000TEU container vessel show that the delivered power is higher and could not satisfy the requirement of energy saving effects and design targets. In this paper, the lines optimization of the 10,000 twin-skeg container vessel was carried out by parametric modeling and CFD simulations. At first, the CFD methods for twin-skeg hull form were validated by the comparison with the experimental results. Then more than one hundred parameters were adopted for the establishment of the fully parametric model. Based on the parametric model of the twin-skeg container vessel, the preliminary optimization was carried out by tight coupling of FRIENDSHIP-FRAMEWORK with potential flow of SHIPFLOW. Then several important parameters related to the after part of twin-skeg vessel were investigated by viscous flow computation. The final optimized variant PM11, which the total resistance was reduced by about 8.3% in model scale, is obtained within the constraints of general arrangement. And the model tests for variant PM11 was carried out in CSSRC, which shows that the resistance of optimized variant PM11 is decreased by about 8.6%.

  8. Conceptual design of the handling and storage system of the spent target vessel for neutron scattering facility 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Junichi; Kaminaga, Masanori; Sasaki, Shinobu; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aso, Tomokazu; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    In designing the neutron scattering facility, a spent target vessel should be replaced with remote handling devices in order to protect radioactive exposure, since it would be highly activated through the high energy neutron irradiation caused by the spallation reaction between mercury of the target material and the MW-class proton beam. In the storage of the spent target vessel, it is necessary to consider decay heat of the target vessel and mercury contamination caused by vaporization of the residual mercury in the vessel. A conceptual design has been carried out to establish basic concept and to clarify its specification of main equipments on handling and storage systems for the spent target vessel. This report presents the basic concept and a system plot plan based on latest design works of remote handling devices such as a spent target vessel storage cask and a target vessel exchange trolley, which aim at reasonability and simplification. In addition, storage systems for the spent moderator vessel, the spent proton beam window and the spent reflector vessel are also investigated based on the plot plan. (author)

  9. Evaluation of thermal protection structure mechanism of LMR reactor vessels and design improvement for thermal stress reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Seok Hun; Lee, Jae Han

    2003-03-01

    LMR reactor vessels operated in high temperature have a severe thermal damage due to the significant temperature gradient in the hot pool free surface regions of reactor vessel. The thermal protection mechanism of LMR reactor vessel should be designed for the structural integrity in high temperature condition. In this study, the thermal protection mechanism of foreign LMR reactor vessels is investigated for the power upgrade of KALIMER and the modified reactor baffle design with a Y-piece type structure is proposed for the reduction of thermal damage for KALIMER reactor vessel. The modified reactor baffle design leads to reduce the thermal damage such as creep-fatigue and ratcheting in the transient operation condition.

  10. Design and deployment of autoclave pressure vessels for the portable deep-sea drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pape

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pressure barrels for sampling and preservation of submarine sediments under in situ pressure with the robotic sea-floor drill rig MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerät housed at the MARUM (Bremen, Germany were developed. Deployments of the so-called MDP (MeBo pressure vessel during two offshore expeditions off New Zealand and off Spitsbergen, Norway, resulted in the recovery of sediment cores with pressure stages equaling in situ hydrostatic pressure. While initially designed for the quantification of gas and gas-hydrate contents in submarine sediments, the MDP also allows for analysis of the sediments under in situ pressure with methods typically applied by researchers from other scientific fields (geotechnics, sedimentology, microbiology, etc.. Here we report on the design and operational procedure of the MDP and demonstrate full functionality by presenting the first results from pressure-core degassing and molecular gas analysis.

  11. Design and implementation of motion planning of inspection and maintenance robot for ITER-like vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Lai, Yinping [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Cao, Qixin [Institute of Robotics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Robot motion planning is a fundamental problem to ensure the robot executing the task without clashes, fast and accurately in a special environment. In this paper, a motion planning of a 12 DOFs remote handling robot used for inspecting the working state of the ITER-like vessel and maintaining key device components is proposed and implemented. Firstly, the forward and inverse kinematics are given by analytic method. The work space and posture space of this manipulator are both considered. Then the motion planning is divided into three stages: coming out of the cassette mover, moving along the in-vessel center line, and inspecting the D-shape section. Lastly, the result of experiments verified the performance of the motion design method. In addition, the task of unscrewing/screwing the screw demonstrated the feasibility of system in function.

  12. A simple design for microwave assisted digestion vessel with low reagent consumption suitable for food and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Behkami, Shima; Zain, Sharifuddin Md.; Bakirdere, Sezgin

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to prepare a cost-effective, low reagent consumption and high performance polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vessel that is capable to work in domestic microwave for digesting food and environmental samples. The designed vessel has a relatively thicker wall compared to that of commercial vessels. In this design, eight vessels are placed in an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) holder to keep them safe and stable. This vessel needs only 2.0 mL of HNO3 and 1.0 mL H2O2 to digest 100 mg of biological sample. The performance of this design is then evaluated with an ICP-MS instrument in the analysis of the several NIST standard reference material of milk 1849a, rice flour 1568b, spinach leave 1570a and Peach Leaves 1547 in a domestic microwave oven with inverter technology. Outstanding agreement to (SRM) values are observed by using the suggested power to time microwave program, which simulates the reflux action occurring in this closed vessel. Taking into account the high cost of commercial microwave vessels and the volume of chemicals needed for various experiments (8-10 mL), this simple vessel is cost effective and suitable for digesting food and environmental samples.

  13. Design and Analysis of Boiler Pressure Vessels based on IBR codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Kanimozhi, B.

    2017-05-01

    Pressure vessels components are widely used in the thermal and nuclear power plants for generating steam using the philosophy of heat transfer. In Thermal power plant, Coal is burnt inside the boiler furnace for generating the heat. The amount of heat produced through the combustion of pulverized coal is used in changing the phase transfer (i.e. Water into Super-Heated Steam) in the Pressure Parts Component. Pressure vessels are designed as per the Standards and Codes of the country, where the boiler is to be installed. One of the Standards followed in designing Pressure Parts is ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers). The mandatory requirements of ASME code must be satisfied by the manufacturer. In our project case, A Shell/pipe which has been manufactured using ASME code has an issue during the drilling of hole. The Actual Size of the drilled holes must be, as per the drawing, but due to error, the size has been differentiate from approved design calculation (i.e. the diameter size has been exceeded). In order to rectify this error, we have included an additional reinforcement pad to the drilled and modified the design of header in accordance with the code requirements.

  14. 'Fair-wind gas cell' - a new concept of a buffer gas cell design

    CERN Document Server

    Varentsov, V L

    2003-01-01

    A new concept of the buffer gas cell design is presented for the first time. For fast and efficient transport of stopped ions through the gas cell and afterwards to guide them out of the cell, the use of an intensive compulsory buffer gas flow through the cell combined with an RF-funnel structure is suggested. The operation of this type of gas cell that we call the fair-wind gas cell has been investigated by means of detailed computer simulations. Results of calculations for big size gas cell at 1 bar He buffer gas pressure are presented and discussed.

  15. Issues in trial design for ANCA-associated and large-vessel vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzi, Ruth M; Mason, Justin C; Pusey, Charles D

    2014-08-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have informed the management of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, although challenges still exist. The evidence base for treating large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) is weaker, but initiatives to standardize diagnostic criteria and outcome measures, and to validate biomarkers in LVV, together with newly initiated RCTs should start to address this need. In this Perspectives, we discuss the prerequisites for RCTs in vasculitis, existing trial evidence, continuing unmet needs, potential therapeutic avenues to explore and considerations in the design of future trials.

  16. Heat exchanger design considerations for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.; Van Hagan, T.H.; King, J.H.; Spring, A.H.

    1980-02-01

    Various aspects of the high-temperature heat exchanger conceptual designs for the gas turbine (HTGR-GT) and process heat (HTGR-PH) plants are discussed. Topics include technology background, heat exchanger types, surface geometry, thermal sizing, performance, material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, and the systems-related impact of installation and integration of the units in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The impact of future technology developments, such as the utilization of nonmetallic materials and advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction, is also discussed.

  17. software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... software for optimum design and simulation of natural gas pipeline. General Gas equation coupled with correlations for friction factor, Reynolds number, viscosity of gas mixture, compressibility factor etc were used to developed an algorithm from which the software was developed using VISUAL BASIC 6.0.

  18. Software for natural gas pipeline design and simulation (gaspisim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a sudden increase in demand and utilization of natural gas in Nigeria; this may be attributed to federal government policy on establishment of independent power plants and the rising cost of kerosene and fire wood. This increase in demand for natural gas call for design and construction of pipelines for natural gas ...

  19. Design and in-vitro evaluation of a tissue engineered large vessel prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Ayesha

    Tissue engineering of large diameter blood vessels can offer a promising long-term solution to the large population suffering from congenital vascular defects and other vascular disease. In this report design, assembly, in vitro maturation and evaluation of a large diameter, chitosan-based prosthesis is described. To facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation, collagen was included as a scaffold component to a chitosan scaffold. In vitro studies evaluated the role of collagen content, crosslinker type and crosslinking density on degradation kinetics, mechanical properties and cellular interactions. Finally, the vessel scaffold (ID = 12 mm, OD = 15 mm) was fabricated from a moderately cross-linked, 90%/10% chitosan/collagen material. A tubular scaffold with gradient porosity and interconnected pores was generated by controlled freezing and lyophilization of the polymer. For graft culture laminar and pulsatile flow systems were designed and porous scaffolds were seeded with vascular cells under static conditions. Laminar system grafts were seeded and cultured/analyzed over an 8 week period (15ml/min). For the pulsatile system SMC were seeded and after 2 weeks of pulsatile flow culture (360ml/min, 82 beats/min) microvascular EC were seeded lumenally to initiate a microvascular network followed by aortic EC seeding at 3 weeks. For both systems, cell viability at different culture periods showed the formation of high density of cell within few weeks of graft culture. However, the pulsatile flow system graft showed a significant increase in mechanical properties and ECM protein (collagen and elastin) deposition overtime. This novel chitosan based tissue engineered vascular graft shows promising results for large vessel replacements.

  20. QFD-ANP Approach for the Conceptual Design of Research Vessels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kambagowni; Yeshwanth Sai, Koneru; Suresh, Challa

    2016-10-01

    Conceptual design is a subset of concept art wherein a new idea of product is created instead of a visual representation which would directly be used in a final product. The purpose is to understand the needs of conceptual design which are being used in engineering designs and to clarify the current conceptual design practice. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a customer oriented design approach for developing new or improved products and services to enhance customer satisfaction. House of quality (HOQ) has been traditionally used as planning tool of QFD which translates customer requirements (CRs) into design requirements (DRs). Factor analysis is carried out in order to reduce the CR portions of HOQ. The analytical hierarchical process is employed to obtain the priority ratings of CR's which are used in constructing HOQ. This paper mainly discusses about the conceptual design of an oceanographic research vessel using analytical network process (ANP) technique. Finally the QFD-ANP integrated methodology helps to establish the importance ratings of DRs.

  1. Technology update: Nickel-hydrogen Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) 2.5V twin stack cell designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Tim; Miller, Lee

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel (CPV) 2.5V twin stack cell designs. Information given includes an energy analysis, a CPV design comparison, a summary of CPV characterization testing, a comparison of discharge voltage among designs, and life test performance summaries.

  2. Optimal Fuzzy and Dynamics Design of Ecological Sandwich Panel Vessel Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Martikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the basic engineering principles, goals, and constraints are all combined with fuzzy methodology and applied to optimally design sandwich panel circular plate roofs for large vessels loaded statically and dynamically. These panels are made up of two stiff, strong veneer skins separated by vertical and peripheral stiffener plates. Advantages are high strength, lightweight, and sustainability. In the present approach, first the goals and constraints of the end user are identified and expressed as decision variables which are formulated using the engineering variables for materials, geometry, and function. Then same consistent fuzzy satisfaction functions are formed over the desired ranges to suit the customer's desires. The risk of extreme dynamic loadings exciting resonance is studied by natural frequency and mode analysis by FEM and analytical models. The results show the most critical locations and give guidelines for innovative remedies of the concept before detailed FEM analyses to finalize the design.

  3. Design prediction for long term stress rupture service of composite pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ernest Y.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive stress rupture studies on glass composites and Kevlar composites were conducted by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory beginning in the late 1960's and extending to about 8 years in some cases. Some of the data from these studies published over the years were incomplete or were tainted by spurious failures, such as grip slippage. Updated data sets were defined for both fiberglass and Kevlar composite stand test specimens. These updated data are analyzed in this report by a convenient form of the bivariate Weibull distribution, to establish a consistent set of design prediction charts that may be used as a conservative basis for predicting the stress rupture life of composite pressure vessels. The updated glass composite data exhibit an invariant Weibull modulus with lifetime. The data are analyzed in terms of homologous service load (referenced to the observed median strength). The equations relating life, homologous load, and probability are given, and corresponding design prediction charts are presented. A similar approach is taken for Kevlar composites, where the updated stand data do show a turndown tendency at long life accompanied by a corresponding change (increase) of the Weibull modulus. The turndown characteristic is not present in stress rupture test data of Kevlar pressure vessels. A modification of the stress rupture equations is presented to incorporate a latent, but limited, strength drop, and design prediction charts are presented that incorporate such behavior. The methods presented utilize Cartesian plots of the probability distributions (which are a more natural display for the design engineer), based on median normalized data that are independent of statistical parameters and are readily defined for any set of test data.

  4. Critical design parameters to prevent gas invasion during cementing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, C.E.; Birch, G.; Jones, M.J.; Shuster, G.; Wooldridge, L.

    1983-10-01

    The invasion of gas into cement slurries has been studied using a simulated wellbore model. Results indicate that a cement slurry loses its ability to transmit pressure with time. This loss is caused by gel structure development due, in part, to cement hydration and fluid loss. Gas flow can be initiated when the pressure transmitted by the fluid column becomes less than the gas pressure. The relationship between gas flow and this pressure differential has been determined for several cement systems. This relationship has been termed ''gas conductivity'' and is a measure of gas permeability of cement slurries prior to the development of compressive strength. Two different design approaches were investigated in order to reduce gas conductivities in cement slurries. One involves inhibition of gas flow by the deposition of an impermeable cement filter cake against the formation. The second design incorporates a modified cement slurry which interacts with incoming gas to form an impermeable barrier in the cement pore spaces, thereby inhibiting further gas flow. The use of this ''gas-induced'' cement barrier to prevent gas flow has been successfully applied in Canada, Europe and the United States. Several case histories are discussed.

  5. Preliminary electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical design for first wall and vacuum vessel of FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucca, F., E-mail: Flavio.Lucca@LTCalcoli.it [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Bertolini, C. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Crescenzi, F.; Crisanti, F. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Di Gironimo, G. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Labate, C. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Parthenope, Via Acton 38, 80133 Napoli (Italy); Manzoni, M.; Marconi, M.; Pagani, I. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Ramogida, G. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Renno, F. [CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Roccella, M. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy); Roccella, S. [C.R. ENEA Frascati – UT FUS, Via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Viganò, F. [LT Calcoli srl, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate, LC (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The fusion advanced study torus (FAST), with its compact design, high toroidal field and plasma current, faces many of the problems met by ITER, and at the same time anticipates much of the DEMO relevant physics and technology. The conceptual design of the first wall (FW) and the vacuum vessel (VV) has been defined on the basis of FAST operative conditions and of “Snow Flakes” (SF) magnetic topology, which is also relevant for DEMO. The EM loads are one of the most critical load components for the FW and the VV during plasma disruptions and a first dimensioning of these components for such loads is mandatory. During this first phase of R&D activities the conceptual design of the FW and VV have been assessed estimating, by means of FE simulations, the EM loads due to a typical vertical disruption event (VDE) in FAST. EM loads were then transferred on a FE mechanical model of the FAST structures and the mechanical response of the FW and VV design for the analyzed VDE event was assessed. The results indicate that design criteria are not fully satisfied by the current drawing of the VV and FW components. The most critical regions have been individuated and the effect of some geometrical and material changes has been checked in order to improve the structure.

  6. Pressure vessels design methods using the codes, fracture mechanics and multiaxial fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Majid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a highlight about pressure vessel (PV methods of design to initiate new engineers and new researchers to understand the basics and to have a summary about the knowhow of PV design. This understanding will contribute to enhance their knowledge in the selection of the appropriate method. There are several types of tanks distinguished by the operating pressure, temperature and the safety system to predict. The selection of one or the other of these tanks depends on environmental regulations, the geographic location and the used materials. The design theory of PVs is very detailed in various codes and standards API, such as ASME, CODAP ... as well as the standards of material selection such as EN 10025 or EN 10028. While designing a PV, we must design the fatigue of its material through the different methods and theories, we can find in the literature, and specific codes. In this work, a focus on the fatigue lifetime calculation through fracture mechanics theory and the different methods found in the ASME VIII DIV 2, the API 579-1 and EN 13445-3, Annex B, will be detailed by giving a comparison between these methods. In many articles in the literature the uniaxial fatigue has been very detailed. Meanwhile, the multiaxial effect has not been considered as it must be. In this paper we will lead a discussion about the biaxial fatigue due to cyclic pressure in thick-walled PV. Besides, an overview of multiaxial fatigue in PVs is detailed

  7. The design study of the JT-60SU device. No. 4. The vacuum vessel and cryostat of JT-60SU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Tobita, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-03-01

    The vacuum vessel and the cryostat for the JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) have been designed. Two types of the complex materials for the vacuum vessel were chosen on the basis of the avoidance of tritium occlusion and the low irradiation, i.e. (1) SUS316 covered by tungsten plate (30mm thickness) as a {gamma}-ray shielding, (2) Ti-6Al-4V alloy covered by SUS430 plate (1mm thickness) as a tritium protector. Selecting the double skin type of vacuum vessel with toroidally continued structure gave the basic design of the vacuum vessel satisfying the design criteria of the vessel strength for the electromagnetic force, heat load and the property of radiation shielding. The characteristics of the SUS316 covered by tungsten plate type is that as the tungsten can shield the {gamma}-ray, the dose rate inside the vacuum vessel during the maintenance can reduce effectively. The advantage of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy covered by SUS430 plate type vacuum vessel is the quick reduction of the radioactive isotope because of no production of the isotopes with long half-life periods. Channel type and vertical type of the divertor were designed. The sector type of toroidally separated structure was selected for the remote handling. The material of the armor plate was not determined because no material endure the high heat load on the divertor. The cryostat composing the dome and the tank was designed. The electromagnetic force by the eddy current, generated at the plasma start up phase and at the quench of CS super-conducting coil, were small compared to the force produced by the stress limit. (author)

  8. Software design of the hybrid robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming, E-mail: Ming.Li@lut.fi [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Yang, Guangyou [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2013-10-15

    A specific software design is elaborated in this paper for the hybrid robot machine used for the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) assembly and maintenance. In order to provide the multi-machining-function as well as the complicated, flexible and customizable GUI designing satisfying the non-standardized VV assembly process in one hand, and in another hand guarantee the stringent machining precision in the real-time motion control of robot machine, a client–server-control software architecture is proposed, which separates the user interaction, data communication and robot control implementation into different software layers. Correspondingly, three particular application protocols upon the TCP/IP are designed to transmit the data, command and status between the client and the server so as to deal with the abundant data streaming in the software. In order not to be affected by the graphic user interface (GUI) modification process in the future experiment in VV assembly working field, the real-time control system is realized as a stand-alone module in the architecture to guarantee the controlling performance of the robot machine. After completing the software development, a milling operation is tested on the robot machine, and the result demonstrates that both the specific GUI operability and the real-time motion control performance could be guaranteed adequately in the software design.

  9. THE STIRLING GAS REFRIGERATING MACHINE MECHANICAL DESIGN IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the mechanical design of the piston Stirling gas refrigeration machine the structural optimization of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine is carried out. This paper presents the results of theoretical research. Analysis and prospects of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine for domestic and industrial refrigeration purpose are represented. The results of a patent search by mechanisms of transformation of rotary vane machines are discussed.

  10. THE STIRLING GAS REFRIGERATING MACHINE MECHANICAL DESIGN IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the mechanical design of the piston Stirling gas refrigeration machine the structural optimization of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine is carried out. This paper presents the results of theoretical research. Analysis and prospects of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine for domestic and industrial refrigeration purpose are represented. The results of a patent search by mechanisms of transformation of rotary vane machines are discussed

  11. Design of micro-sensor-array detector for toxic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hai-yang; Tian, Peng

    2010-08-01

    To quickly measure the trace concentration of the single component toxic gas (e.g. sarin), a micro-array toxic gas detector is designed. A 3 x 3 gas sensor array with metalloporphyrins as sensitive materials is introduced. A micro-capsule that can be easy to be loaded and unloaded is designed for the gas reaction. A fiber-array optical path is designed, which is based on the principle that gas sensors will show different colors after reaction with the toxic gas. The tricolor information about the concentration of gas is collected by the color liner CCD. A control handling system with C8051F021 MCU as the core is implemented and embedded into the detector to perform the functions of gas sampling, data collection and analysis calculation. Data acquisition experimental results show that the proposed scheme can effectively collect the color information after gas reaction. Moreover, the system has many important advantages, such as small size, compact structure, high degree of automation, fast detection speed and high performance-cost ratio, etc.

  12. Design of a diesel exhaust-gas purification system for inert-gas drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    To combat the serious oxygen corrosion of drill pipe when a low density drilling fluid (air or mist) is used in geothermal drilling, a system has been designed that produces an inert gas (essentially nitrogen) to be substituted for air. The system fits on three flatbed trailers, is roadable and produces 2000 scfm of gas. The projected cost for gas is slightly less than $2.00 per thousand standard cubic feet.

  13. Gas Turbine Design & Analysis Tool: Turbomachinery Components.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Soto, David

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto se centra en la creación de un programa el cual ha de ser una herramienta de ayuda en el diseño y simulación de aplicaciones de motores de turbina de gas, permitiendo al usuario realizar los cálculos necesarios para poder implementar posteriormente los resultados en sus diseños. Por ello, dicha herramienta debe ser versátil y permitir trabajar tanto con un solo módulo como con diversos acoplados según las necesidades del usuario. Además el hecho de modularizar permite acotar y r...

  14. Gas Turbine Engine Inlet Wall Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Razvan Virgil (Inventor); Matalanis, Claude G. (Inventor); Stucky, Mark B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an inlet duct formed to have a shape with a first ellipse in one half and a second ellipse in a second half. The second half has an upstream most end which is smaller than the first ellipse. The inlet duct has a surface defining the second ellipse which curves away from the first ellipse, such that the second ellipse is larger at an intermediate location. The second ellipse is even larger at a downstream end of the inlet duct leading into a fan.

  15. Design of a supercritical water-cooled reactor. Pressure vessel and internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Kai

    2008-08-15

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is a light water reactor with supercritical steam conditions which has been investigated within the 5th Framework Program of the European Commission. Due to the supercritical pressure of 25 MPa, water, used as moderator and as coolant, flows as a single phase through the core and can be directly fed to the turbine. Using the technology of coal fired power plants with supercritical steam conditions, the heat-up in the core is done in several steps to achieve the targeted high steam outlet temperature of 500.C without exceeding available cladding material limits. Based on a first design of a fuel assembly cluster for a HPLWR with a single pass core, the surrounding internals and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are dimensioned for the first time, following the safety standards of the nuclear safety standards commission in Germany. Furthermore, this design is extended to the incorporation of core arrangements with two and three passes. The design of the internals and the RPV are verified using mechanical or, in the case of large thermal deformations, combined mechanical and thermal stress analyses. Additionally, a passive safety component for the feedwater inlet of the RPV of the HPLWR is designed. Its purpose is the reduction of the mass flow rate in case of a LOCA for a feedwater line break until further steps are executed. Starting with a simple vortex diode, several steps are executed to enhance the performance of the diode and adapt it to this application. Then, this first design is further optimized using combined 1D and 3D flow analyses. Parametric studies determine the performance and characteristic for changing mass flow rates for this backflow limiter. (orig.)

  16. Standardized surface engineering design of shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchuan Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special physical properties of shale gas reservoirs, it is necessary to adopt unconventional and standardized technologies for its surface engineering construction. In addition, the surface engineering design of shale gas reservoirs in China faces many difficulties, such as high uncertainty of the gathering and transportation scale, poor adaptability of pipe network and station layout, difficult matching of the process equipments, and boosting production at the late stage. In view of these problems, the surface engineering construction of shale gas reservoirs should follow the principles of “standardized design, modularized construction and skid mounted equipment”. In this paper, standardized surface engineering design technologies for shale gas reservoirs were developed with the “standardized well station layout, universal process, modular function zoning, skid mounted equipment selection, intensive site design, digitized production management” as the core, after literature analysis and technology exploration were carried out. Then its application background and surface technology route were discussed with a typical shale gas field in Sichuan–Chongqing area as an example. Its surface gathering system was designed in a standardized way, including standardized process, the modularized gathering and transportation station, serialized dehydration unit and intensive layout, and remarkable effects were achieved. A flexible, practical and reliable ground production system was built, and a series of standardized technology and modularized design were completed, including cluster well platform, set station, supporting projects. In this way, a system applicable to domestic shale gas surface engineering construction is developed.

  17. The role of classification and reference vessels in the design of inland fairways for commercial vessels – contribution to the Workshop of WG 141 Design Guidelines for Inland Waterways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, O.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Pianc WG 141 is proceeding in the conception of Design Guidelines for Inland Waterways. WG 141 aims to produce its first draft in the end of 2015. Part of the forseen content are classification of waterways and the object of reference vessels. The role of those subjects will be presented and

  18. Towards the Development of a Risk Model for Unmanned Vessels Design and Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wrobel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An unmanned merchant vessel seems to be escaping from the stage of idea exploration. Once the concept proofs its safety, it may become a part of maritime reality. Although the safety aspect of such a ship has been addressed by a handful of scholars, the problem remains open. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge regarding actual operational circumstances and design of unmanned ships, which are yet to be developed. In the attempt of bridging this gap, the risk analysis associated with unmanned ships needs to be carried out, where all relevant hazards and consequences are assessed and quantified in systematic manner. In this paper we present the results of a first step of such analysis, namely the hazard analysis associated with the unmanned ships. The list of hazards covers various aspects of unmanned shipping originating from both design and operational phases of vessel’s life. Subsequently the hazards and related consequences are organized in a casual manner, resulting in the development of a structure of a risk model.

  19. A microdissection study of perforating vessels in the perineum: implication in designing perforator flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bai; Hasi, Wulan; Yang, Chao; Song, Jianxing

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the quantity, position, and caliber of perforating vessels in the perineum, and to provide an anatomic basis for designing perineal perforator flaps. Eleven adult cadavers (22 sides) were dissected under an operating microscope (x10). Microstructures, including perforating arteries, vena comitantes, vascular anastomoses, and cutaneous nerves, were measured with a sliding caliper (accurate to 0.2 mm). There were 4 relatively constant perforating arteries in the perineum: inguinal and perineal perforating branches of the superficial external pudendal artery, a perforating branch of the anterior cutaneous branch of the obturator artery, and a perforating branch of the lateral branch of the posterior scrotal (pudendal) artery. All 4 arteries were direct perforating branches. These perforating arteries and accompanying veins overlapped with each other and formed the upper, middle, and lower parts of the vascular anastomosis in deep fascia above the adductor wall. There were 4 important cutaneous nerves in the region originating from the following nerves: the genitofemoral nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, posterior scrotum (labium) major nerve, and rami perineales nervi cutanei femoris posterioris. The perineum has abundant blood supply, venous return, and innervation. Due to its covert location and manoeuvrability, perforator flaps from this region are good sources of donor tissue for perineal reconstruction.

  20. Design of Remote GPRS-based Gas Data Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiyue; Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of remote data transmission of gas flowmeter, and realize unattended operation on the spot, an unattended remote monitoring system based on GPRS for gas data is designed in this paper. The slave computer of this system adopts embedded microprocessor to read data of gas flowmeter through rs-232 bus and transfers it to the host computer through DTU. In the host computer, the VB program dynamically binds the Winsock control to receive and parse data. By using dynamic data exchange, the Kingview configuration software realizes history trend curve, real time trend curve, alarm, print, web browsing and other functions.

  1. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  2. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Laboratory; Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Laboratory; Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Laboratory; Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Laboratory; Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Laboratory; Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Laboratory; Kumar, Akansha [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-04-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technological readiness level, licensing approach and costs.

  3. Application of Factorial Design for Gas Parameter Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different gas process parameters involved in CO2 laser welding has been studied by applying two-set of three-level complete factorial designs. In this work 5 gas parameters, gas type, gas flow rate, gas blowing angle, gas nozzle diameter, gas blowing point-offset, are optimized...

  4. Gas Tank for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lorenz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the development of a highly efficient pressure vessel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG in integral design is described. The pressure vessel can be customized in an optimal available installation space and thus means that the suitable for everyday use of existing modified cars or trucks can be increased.

  5. Modelling of Rotor-gas bearings for Feedback Controller Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    be designed from suitable models describing the relation from actuator input to measured shaft position. Current state of the art models of controllable gas bearings however do not provide such relation, which calls for alternative strategies. The present contribution discusses the challenges for feedback...

  6. Triple rotary gas lock seal system for transferring coal continuously into, or ash out of, a pressurized process vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enright, F.J.; Seidl, R.M.

    1981-01-13

    A multiple rotary gas lock apparatus using a buffer seal gas is disclosed to enable the transfer of solid materials into or out of a pressurized process containing high temperature, flammable or toxic gases. The buffer seal gas, has a pressure higher than the process pressure and is introduced between two series connected gas locks; this prevents process gas backflow to the feed system. Buffer seal leakage gas from the first pair of gas locks and air from a third gas lock are removed from an opening in a connection between the pair of gas locks and the third gas lock at subatmospheric pressure. This system enables control and usuage of toxic or flammable gases as a buffer for mixing compatibility with the process gas when a suitable inert gas is not available. It also prevents the flow of any toxic gas to the worker environment.

  7. Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nourian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.

  8. Progress on the design development and prototype manufacturing of the ITER In-vessel coils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encheva, A.; Omran, H.; Devred, A.; Vostner, A.; Mitchell, N.; Mariani, N.; Jun, CH H.; Long, F.; Zhou, C.; Macklin, B.; Marti, H. P.; Sborchia, C.; della Corte, A. Della; Di Zenobio, A.; Anemona, A.; Righetti, R.; Wu, Y.; Jin, H.; Xu, A.; Jin, J.

    2017-01-01

    ITER is incorporating two types of In-Vessel Coils (IVCs): ELM Coils to mitigate Edge Localized Modes and VS Coils to provide a reliable Vertical Stabilization of the plasma. Strong coupling with the plasma is required in order that the ELM and VS Coils can meet their performance requirements.

  9. Tank designs for combined high pressure gas and solid state hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea

    Many challenges have still to be overcome in order to establish a solid ground for significant market penetration of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles. The development of an effective solution for on-board hydrogen storage is one of the main technical tasks that need to be tackled. The present thesis...... for each storage solution investigated in this work. Attention is given to solutions that involve high-pressure solid-state and gas hydrogen storage with an integrated passive cooling system. A set of libraries is implemented in the modeling platform to select among different material compositions, kinetic...... compressed-hydrogen vessel respectively. For the former, these models are used to quantify the main design parameter, being the critical metal hydride thickness, for the tank/heat-exchanger system. For the metal hydride tank, the tubular layout in a shell and tube configuration with 2 mm inner diameter tubes...

  10. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  11. Nuclear analysis and shielding optimisation in support of the ITER In-Vessel Viewing System design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.turner@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pampin, Raul [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Loughlin, M.J. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ghani, Zamir; Hurst, Gemma [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lo Bue, Alessandro [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mangham, Samuel [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Puiu, Adrian [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Zheng, Shanliang [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    The In-Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) units proposed for ITER are deployed to perform in-vessel examination. During plasma operations, the IVVS is located beyond the vacuum vessel, with shielding blocks envisaged to protect components from neutron damage and reduce shutdown dose rate (SDR) levels. Analyses were conducted to determine the effectiveness of several shielding configurations. The neutron response of the system was assessed using global variance reduction techniques and a surface source, and shutdown dose rate calculations were undertaken using MCR2S. Unshielded, the absorbed dose to piezoelectric motors (PZT) was found to be below stable limits, however activation of the primary closure plate (PCP) was prohibitively high. A scenario with shielding blocks at probe level showed significantly reduced PCP contact dose rate, however still marginally exceeded port cell requirements. The addition of shielding blocks at the bioshield plug demonstrated PCP contact dose rates below project requirements. SDR levels in contact with the isolated IVVS cartridge were found to marginally exceed the hands-on maintenance limit. For engineering feasibility, shielding blocks at bioshield level are to be avoided, however the port cell SDR field requires further consideration. In addition, alternative low-activation steels are being considered for the IVVS cartridge.

  12. Active disturbance rejection controller design for dynamically positioned vessels based on adaptive hybrid biogeography-based optimization and differential evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Defeng; Ren, Fengkun; Qiao, Lei; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-11-01

    Vessels with a dynamic positioning system (DPS) are widely applied in ocean resource exploration. Because of the inaccuracy and coupling of the vessel dynamic model, it is important to design a controller that performs well in an oceanic environment. The active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is introduced in this study to control the vessel movement and positioning in the DPS. The merit of the ADRC is that it does not need an accurate plant and disturbance model. In the proposed method, an adaptive hybrid biogeography-based optimization (BBO) and differential evolution (DE) are developed. The orthogonal learning (OL) mechanism is employed to achieve adaptive switching to different searching mechanisms between BBO and DE. The proposed adaptive hybrid BBO-DE (AHBBODE) algorithm is then used to optimize the parameters of ADRC; these parameters are not easy to determine by using the trial and error method. Finally, the proposed method is compared with the BBO- and DE-based methods. The results show that better performance is obtained by the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design concept of conducting shell and in-vessel components suitable for plasma vertical stability and remote maintenance scheme in DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu, E-mail: uto.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Takase, Haruhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Tobita, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); Mori, Kazuo; Kudo, Tatsuya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Someya, Youji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto; Tokunaga, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design of in-vessel component including conducting shell has been investigated. • The conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability was clarified from the plasma vertical stability analysis. • The calculation results showed that the double-loop shell has the most effect on plasma vertical stability. - Abstract: In order to realize a feasible DEMO, we designed an in-vessel component including the conducting shell. The project is affiliated with the broader approach DEMO design activities and is conceptualized from a plasma vertical stability and engineering viewpoint. The dependence of the plasma vertical stability on the conducing shell parameters and the electromagnetic force at plasma disruption were investigated in numerical simulations (programmed in the 3D eddy current analysis code and a plasma position control code). The simulations assumed the actual shape and position of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components. The plasma vertical stability was most effectively maintained by the double-loop shell.

  14. Cálculo de patana especializada construida de PRFV. // Calculation of specialized shalow water vessels designed and manufactured with PRFV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García de la Figal

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se trata del cálculo de resistencia y rigidez de una patana especializada para el tratamiento de aguas residuales en la zonapantanosa de la Ciénaga de Zapata, Cuba, por lo que se recurre a materiales altamente duraderos y resistentes a la acción deun medio tan agresivo. Se trata de plásticos y fibra de vidrio. Por los altos pesos en la cubierta, su calculo no estaestablecido en los Registros de Buques, haciéndose necesario el calculo completo de la patana con este material ortotrópico.Para ello se recurrió al Método de los Elementos Finitos, a través del empleo de un programa de computación. Se llega aldiseño completo de las diferentes partes de la patana con este complejo material. Ya ha sido construida y está en operación.Palabras claves: Elementos finitos, embarcaciones, tratamiento de aguas,PRFV.___________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper deals with the calculations of resistance and rigidity of a specialized shalow water vessel for the treatment ofwaste waters. It will be located in the marshy area of Cienaga de Zapata, Cuba, for this reason highly durable and resistantmaterials to the action of such aggressive environment are used. We are dealing with plastics and glass fiber due to the highweight in the cover the calculation is not established by Ships Registrations and therefore became necessary to carried outthe complete vessel calculation with this orthotropic material. It was neccesary applied the Finite Elements Method bymeans of a computation program. We arrived to the complete design of different parts of the vessel with this complexmaterial. It has already been built and it is in operation.Key words: Finite element, vessel, water treatment, PRFV.

  15. Cálculo de patana especializada construida de PRFV. // Calculation of specialized shalow water vessels designed and manufactured with PRFV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García de la Figal

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Se trata del cálculo de resistencia y rigidez de una patana especializada para el tratamiento de aguas residuales en la zonapantanosa de la Ciénaga de Zapata, Cuba, por lo que se recurre a materiales altamente duraderos y resistentes a la acción deun medio tan agresivo. Se trata de plásticos y fibra de vidrio. Por los altos pesos en la cubierta, su calculo no estaestablecido en los Registros de Buques, haciéndose necesario el calculo completo de la patana con este material ortotrópico.Para ello se recurrió al Método de los Elementos Finitos, a través del empleo de un programa de computación. Se llega aldiseño completo de las diferentes partes de la patana con este complejo material. Ya ha sido construida y está en operación.Palabras claves: Elementos finitos, embarcaciones, tratamiento de aguas,PRFV._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper deals with the calculations of resistance and rigidity of a specialized shalow water vessel for the treatment ofwaste waters. It will be located in the marshy area of Cienaga de Zapata, Cuba, for this reason highly durable and resistantmaterials to the action of such aggressive environment are used. We are dealing with plastics and glass fiber due to the highweight in the cover the calculation is not established by Ships Registrations and therefore became necessary to carried outthe complete vessel calculation with this orthotropic material. It was neccesary applied the Finite Elements Method bymeans of a computation program. We arrived to the complete design of different parts of the vessel with this complexmaterial. It has already been built and it is in operation.Key words: Finite element, vessel, water treatment, PRFV.

  16. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  17. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  18. Physics design of the in-vessel collection optics for the ITER electron cyclotron emission diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, W L; Houshmandyar, S; Phillips, P E; Austin, M E; Beno, J H; Hubbard, A E; Khodak, A; Ouroua, A; Taylor, G

    2016-11-01

    Measurement of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is one of the primary diagnostics for electron temperature in ITER. In-vessel, in-vacuum, and quasi-optical antennas capture sufficient ECE to achieve large signal to noise with microsecond temporal resolution and high spatial resolution while maintaining polarization fidelity. Two similar systems are required. One views the plasma radially. The other is an oblique view. Both views can be used to measure the electron temperature, while the oblique is also sensitive to non-thermal distortion in the bulk electron distribution. The in-vacuum optics for both systems are subject to degradation as they have a direct view of the ITER plasma and will not be accessible for cleaning or replacement for extended periods. Blackbody radiation sources are provided for in situ calibration.

  19. Ignitor Vacuum Vessel Structural Design with Dynamic Loads Due to Plasma Disruption Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiaro, Antonio; Crescenzi, Claudio; Mazzone, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Aldo; Ramogida, Giuseppe; Roccella, Massimo; Bianchi, Aldo; Parodi, Bruno; Linari, Mauro; Lucca, Flavio; Marin, Anna; Coppi, Bruno

    2004-11-01

    The new reference plasma disruption for IGNITOR produces a significant increase of electromagnetic (EM) loads and requires a dynamic elastic-plastic structural analysis of the vacuum vessel (VV). The EM loads due to the worst disruption event (VDE) have been calculated using the MAXFEA 2D code and it is found that the stresses and deformation that would be produced on a relatively thin chamber could be excessive. A varying thickness configuration for the VV has been adopted on the basis of a step by step optimization with the aim of minimizing the vertical displacement while complying with the allowable plastic strains. A non-linear analysis is required with a modelling of the entire (360°) VV structure. With the new thickness distribution, the VV is capable to withstand several hundred of cycles under plasma disruption conditions in compliance with the ASME III code rules.

  20. Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

  1. The Design of Rice Powder Production Vessel and the Pulverization of the Rice Using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shibuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the food self-support rate of Japan is 40%, and this value is the lowest level of major advanced country. The stable supply of food is a big subject that Japan has. Therefore, rice powder attracts attention for improvement of the food self-support rate in Japan. Previously, the rice powder is produced by two methods. One is dry type, and the other is wet type. However, these systems have a fault of the heat damage of the starch and the consumption of a large quantity of water. In our laboratory, as solution of those problems, production of the rice powder by using the underwater shock wave is considered. Shock wave is the pressure wave which is over velocity of sound by discharging high energy in short time. Propagating shock wave in water is the underwater shock wave. This food processing using an underwater shock wave has little influence of heat and its processing time is very short, preventing the loss of nutrients. In this research optical observation experiment and the numerical simulation were performed using trial vessel, in order to understand the behavior of the underwater shock wave in the development of the rice powder production vessel using an underwater shock wave at the factory. In addition, in order to understand the rice powder production and to develop it, the numerical simulation about pulverization of rice is performed. By this method, the pressure which takes for rice at the time of pulverization, and its pulverization phenomenon are solved. Analysis soft LS-DYNA was used for these numerical simulations. The comparative study of the experiment and the numerical simulation was investigated. The behavior of the shock wave in the device and transformation of rice were able to be clarified.

  2. Off-Design Behavior Analysis and Operating Curve Design of Marine Intercooled Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-kun Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intercooled gas turbine obtained by adopting an indirect heat exchanger into an existing gas turbine is one of the candidates for developing high-power marine power units. To simplify such a strong coupled nonlinear system reasonably, the feasibility and availability of qualifying equivalent effectiveness as the only parameter to evaluate the intercooler behavior are investigated. Regarding equivalent effectiveness as an additional degree of freedom, the steady state model of a marine intercooled gas turbine is developed and its off-design performance is analyzed. With comprehensive considerations given to various phase missions of ships, operational flexibility, mechanical constraints, and thermal constraints, the operating curve of the intercooled gas turbine is optimized based on graphical method in three-dimensional performance space. The resulting operating curve revealed that the control strategy at the steady state conditions for the intercooled gas turbine should be variable cycle control. The necessity of integration optimization design for gas turbine and intercooler is indicated and the modeling and analysis method developed in this paper should be beneficial to it.

  3. Servicing the Arctic. Report 3 : Design of an Arctic Offshore Supply Vessel (AMTSV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.W.; Huisman, T.J.; Obers, M.P.W.; Schaap, T.; Van der Zalm, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background To design a ship its specific design requirements are to be known. These are, together with class notations, specified in previous reports and extended in this report. Since the requirements are formed iteratively, design freedom is possible. This is used to implement several innovations

  4. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    -makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation......A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...... be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision...

  5. Concept design of the DEMO divertor cassette-to-vacuum vessel locking system adopting a systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gironimo, G., E-mail: giuseppe.digironimo@unina.it [Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Carfora, D. [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, PO Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Esposito, G.; Lanzotti, A.; Marzullo, D. [Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Siuko, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, PO Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • An iterative and incremental design process for cassette-to-VV locking system of DEMO divertor is presented. • Three different concepts have been developed with a systematic design approach. • The final concept has been selected with Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process in virtual reality. - Abstract: This paper deals with pre-concept studies of DEMO divertor cassette-to-vacuum vessel locking system under the work program WP13-DAS-07-T06: Divertor Remote Maintenance System pre-concept study. An iterative design process, consistent with Systems Engineering guidelines and named Iterative and Participative Axiomatic Design Process (IPADeP), is used in this paper to propose new innovative solutions for divertor locking system, which can overcome the difficulties in applying the ITER principles to DEMO. The solutions conceived have been analysed from the structural point of view using the software Ansys and, eventually, evaluated using the methodology known as Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process. Due to the lack and the uncertainty of the requirements in this early conceptual design stage, the aim is to cover a first iteration of an iterative and incremental process to propose an innovative design concept to be developed in more details as the information will be completed.

  6. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael, E-mail: mfb@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lima Azevedo, Ines, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Scott Matthews, H., E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Hendrickson, Chris T., E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO{sub 2} eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: > We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. > We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. > Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. > Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. > We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  7. Optimal design issues of a gas-to-liquid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Interests in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is increasing rapidly due to the recent improvements of the technology, clean-burning fuels (low sulphur, low aromatics) derived from the FT process and the realization that the process can be used to monetize stranded natural gas resources. The economy of GTL plants depends very much on the natural gas price and there is a strong incentive to reduce the investment cost and in addition there is a need to improve energy efficiency and carbon efficiency. A model is constructed based on the available information in open literature. This model is used to simulate the GTL process with UNISIM DESIGN process simulator. In the FT reactor with cobalt based catalyst, Co2 is inert and will accumulate in the system. Five placements of Co2 removal unit in the GTL process are evaluated from an economical point of view. For each alternative, the process is optimized with respect to steam to carbon ratio, purge ratio of light ends, amount of tail gas recycled to syngas and FT units, reactor volume, and Co2 recovery. The results show that carbon and energy efficiencies and the annual net cash flow of the process with or without Co2 removal unit are not significantly different and there is not much to gain by removing Co2 from the process. It is optimal to recycle about 97 % of the light ends to the process (mainly to the FT unit) to obtain higher conversion of CO and H2 in the reactor. Different syngas configurations in a gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant are studied including auto-thermal reformer (ATR), combined reformer, and series arrangement of Gas Heated Reformer (GHR) and ATR. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor is based on cobalt catalyst and the degrees of freedom are; steam to carbon ratio, purge ratio of light ends, amount of tail gas recycled to synthesis gas (syngas) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis units, and reactor volume. The production rate of liquid hydrocarbons is maximized for each syngas configuration. Installing a steam

  8. Design and Use of a Novel Bioreactor for Regeneration of Biaxially Stretched Tissue-Engineered Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela Hai; Lee, Yong-Ung; Calle, Elizabeth A; Boyle, Michael; Starcher, Barry C; Humphrey, Jay D; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-08-01

    Conventional bioreactors are used to enhance extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical strength of tissue-engineered vessels (TEVs) by applying circumferential strain, which is uniaxial stretching. However, the resulting TEVs still suffer from inadequate mechanical properties, where rupture strengths and compliance values are still very different from native arteries. The biomechanical milieu of native arteries consists of both circumferential and axial loading. Therefore, to better simulate the physiological stresses acting on native arteries, we built a novel bioreactor system to enable biaxial stretching of engineered arteries during culture. This new bioreactor system allows for independent control of circumferential and axial stretching parameters, such as displacement and beat rate. The assembly and setup processes for this biaxial bioreactor system are reliable with a success rate greater than 75% for completion of long-term sterile culture. This bioreactor also supports side-by-side assessments of TEVs that are cultured under three types of mechanical conditions (static, uniaxial, and biaxial), all within the same biochemical environment. Using this bioreactor, we examined the impact of biaxial stretching on arterial wall remodeling of TEVs. Biaxial TEVs developed the greatest wall thickness compared with static and uniaxial TEVs. Unlike uniaxial loading, biaxial loading led to undulated collagen fibers that are commonly found in native arteries. More importantly, the biaxial TEVs developed the most mature elastin in the ECM, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The presence of mature extracellular elastin along with the undulated collagen fibers may contribute to the observed vascular compliance in the biaxial TEVs. The current work shows that biaxial stretching is a novel and promising means to improve TEV generation. Furthermore, this novel system allows us to optimize biomechanical conditioning by unraveling the interrelationships among the

  9. New market designs and their effect on economic performance in European Union's natural gas markets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2008-01-01

    The European gas market reform triggered new market designs which aimed to achieve competitive natural gas prices, efficiency gains, and security of gas supply. The paper analyses to what extent the effects of regulation-for-competition on eco-nomic performance in the form of natural gas prices,

  10. Design of an Ultra-wide Band Waveguide Transition for the Ex-vessel Transmission Line of ITER Plasma Position Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetto, A.; Platania, P.; Garavaglia, S.; Gittini, G.; Granucci, G.; Pallotta, F.

    2017-11-01

    Plasma position reflectometry for ITER requires interfaces between in-vessel and ex-vessel waveguides. An ultra broadband interface (15-75 GHz) was designed between moderately oversized rectangular waveguide (20 × 12 mm), operated in TE01 (i.e., tall waveguide mode), and circular corrugated waveguide, with 88.9-mm internal diameter, propagating HE11. The interface was designed both as a sequence of waveguide components and as a quasi-optical confocal telescope. The design and the simulated performance are described for both concepts. The latter one requires more space but has better performance, and shall be prototyped.

  11. Characteristics of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel for Reactor Pressure Vessel of Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Ryu, W. S.; Han, Chang Hee; Yoon, J. H.; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2004-11-15

    Many researches and developments have been progressed for the construction of VHTR by 2020 in Korea. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been receiving attention for the application to the reactor pressure vessel material of VHTR. We collected and analyzed the research data for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel in order to understand the characteristics of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a modified alloy system similar to conventional 9Cr-1Mo grade ferritic steel. Modifications include additions of vanadium, niobium, and nitrogen, as well as lower carbon content. In this report, we summarized the change of microstructure and mechanical properties after tempering, thermal aging, and irradiation. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has high strength and thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and good resistance to corrosion. But the irradiation embrittlement behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel should be evaluated and the evaluation methodology also should be developed. At the same time, the characteristics of weldment which is the weak part in pressure vessel should be evaluated.

  12. Development of impact design methods for ceramic gas turbine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.

    1990-01-01

    Impact damage prediction methods are being developed to aid in the design of ceramic gas turbine engine components with improved impact resistance. Two impact damage modes were characterized: local, near the impact site, and structural, usually fast fracture away from the impact site. Local damage to Si3N4 impacted by Si3N4 spherical projectiles consists of ring and/or radial cracks around the impact point. In a mechanistic model being developed, impact damage is characterized as microcrack nucleation and propagation. The extent of damage is measured as volume fraction of microcracks. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating late impact tests. Structural failure is caused by tensile stress during impact exceeding material strength. The EPIC3 code was successfully used to predict blade structural failures in different size particle impacts on radial and axial blades.

  13. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  14. Using SA508/533 for the HTGR Vessel Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) module power rating and normal operating temperatures on the use of SA508/533 material for the HTGR vessel system with emphasis on the calculated times at elevated temperatures approaching or exceeding ASME Code Service Limits (Levels B&C) to which the reactor pressure vessel could be exposed during postulated pressurized and depressurized conduction cooldown events over its design lifetime.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Database Management System to Support Administrative Activities Onboard Hellenic Navy Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    well SPAS testing strategy will be discussed at this point. 1. Paradox Testing Paradox is designed to allow the developer to conduct tesiing through...34 St Deartmend Nate Grado 0m 1 L9 Offence # 2amaonAl M #’ 0. Name 10. Dale Apology IPunishment IStart Date IEnd Date IReporting Officer Disciplinary

  16. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  17. On the design of residential condensing gas boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    1997-02-01

    Two main topics are dealt with in this thesis. Firstly, the performance of condensing boilers with finned tube heat exchangers and premix burners is evaluated. Secondly, ways of avoiding condensate formation in the flue system are evaluated. In the first investigation, a transient heat transfer approach is used to predict performance of different boiler configurations connected to different heating systems. The smallest efficiency difference between heat loads and heating systems is obtained when the heat exchanger gives a small temperature difference between flue gases and return water, the heat transfer coefficient is low and the thermostat hysteresis is large. Taking into account heat exchanger size, the best boiler is one with higher heat transfer per unit area which only causes a small efficiency loss. The total heating cost at part load, including gas and electricity, has a maximum at the lowest simulated heat load. The heat supplied by the circulation heat pump is responsible for this. The second investigation evaluates methods of drying the flue gases. Reheating the flue gases in different ways and water removal in an adsorbent bed are evaluated. Reheating is tested in two specially designed boilers. The necessary reheating is calculated to approximately 100-150 deg C if an uninsulated masonry chimney is used. The tested boilers show that it is possible to design a proper boiler. The losses, stand-by and convective/radiative, must be kept at a minimum in order to obtain a high efficiency. 86 refs, 70 figs, 16 tabs

  18. Design of universal cancer vaccines using natural tumor vessel-specific antigens (SANTAVAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhov, Petr G; Balashova, Elena E

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against endothelial cells (ECs) lining the tumor vasculature represents one of the most attractive potential cancer immunotherapy options due to its ability to prevent solid tumor growth. Using this approach, target antigens can be derived from ECs and used to develop a universal cancer vaccine. Unfortunately, direct immunization with EC preparations can elicit autoimmune vasculitis in normal tissues. Recently, tumor-induced changes to the human EC surface were described that provided a basis for designing efficient EC-based vaccines capable of eliciting immune responses that targeted the tumor endothelium directly. This review examines these data from the perspective of designing EC-based cancer vaccines for the treatment of all solid tumors, including the antigen composition of vaccine formulations, the selection ECs for antigen derivation, the production and control of antigens, and the method for estimating vaccine efficacy and safety. As the vaccine preparation requires a specifically derived set of natural cell surface antigens, a new vaccine preparation concept was formulated. Antigen compositions prepared according to this concept were named SANTAVAC (Set of All Natural Target Antigens for Vaccination Against Cancer).

  19. A new stent design with multiple radio-opaque markers for protection of side-branch vessels in bifurcation lesions: HJ stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Myeong-Ki; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2011-01-01

    Loss of side-branch vessels is a serious complication following stent implantation in parent vessels of bifurcation lesions. The purpose of this study was to introduce and test a new stent design for the protection of side-branch vessels in the management of bifurcation lesions. This stent has multiple radio-opaque markers in its central portion, whose presence is useful in avoiding stent-strut placement across the side-branch orifice and in correctly directing the insertion of a second guide wire through the struts into the side branch to minimize jailing of side branches during stent deployment in the parent vessel. In vitro tests of the acrylic resin bifurcation phantom model were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in the catheterization laboratory with 10 stents with multiple radio-opaque markers and 10 stents without. Kissing balloon angioplasty was performed across the side branch after stent implantation in the parent vessel in both groups. Side-branch jailing by the stent (presence of any stent struts crossing the side-branch orifice) was determined visually and compared between the two groups. The jailed side branch with the stent struts was observed in one of 10 new stents and in five of 10 conventional stents without them. The in vitro tests demonstrated the superiority of a new stent design for the reduction of side-branch jailing in bifurcation lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrical design considerations for a 40MHz gas ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datte, P.; Manfredi, P.F.; Millaud, J.E.; Turner, W.C.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Traversi, G.

    2001-06-01

    The front IR quadrupole absorbers (TAS) and the IR neutral particle absorbers (TAN) in the high luminosity insertions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) each absorb approximately 1.8 TeV of forward collision products on average per pp interaction ({approx}235W at design luminosity 1034cm-2s-1). This secondary particle flux can be exploited to provide a useful storage ring operations tool for optimization of luminosity. A novel segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chambers is being developed for sampling the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The ionization chamber must be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40MHz. The ionization chamber is segmented into quadrants; each quadrant consists of sixty (40x40)mm2 Cu plates 1.0mm thick, with 0.5mm gaps. The 0.5mm gap width has been chosen so that the time for the ionization electrons to drift across the gap, is short enough to produce at the output of the shaping amplifier, a signal that returns to the base line is less than the 25ns bunch spacing of the LHC. From noise considerations in the presence of a cable the stack of plates are connected electrically 10 in parallel, 6 in series to achieve an equivalent detector capacitance Cd{approx}50pF. This type connection forms an electrode inductive Le and electrode capacitive Ce network that must be optimized to transfer charge from the chamber to the sensing amplifier. This paper describes the design of the collection electrodes optimized for 40 MHz operation.

  1. Summary report on the design of the retained gas sampler system (retained gas sampler, extruder and extractor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootan, D.W.; Bolden, R.C.; Bridges, A.E.; Cannon, N.S.; Chastain, S.A.; Hey, B.E.; Knight, R.C.; Linschooten, C.G.; Pitner, A.L.; Webb, B.J.

    1994-09-29

    This document summarizes work performs in Fiscal Year 1994 to develop the three main components of Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS). These primary components are the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), the Retained Gas Extruder (RGE), and the Retained Gas Extractor (RGEx). The RGS is based on the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Universal Sampler design, and includes modifications to reduce gas leakage. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. Significant progress has been made in developing the RGSS. The RGSS is being developed by WHC to extract a representative waste sample from a Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks and to measure both the amount and composition of free and {open_quotes}bound{close_quotes} gases. Sudden releases of flammable gas mixtures are a safety concern for normal waste storage operations and eventual waste retrieval. Flow visualization testing was used to identify important fluid dynamic issues related to the sampling process. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. The safety analysis for the RGSS is being performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is more than sixty percent (60%) complete.

  2. Power-to-Gas: storing surplus electrical energy. A design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, O.S.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Veneman, Rens; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work a conceptual design of a Power-to-Gas (PtG) process for storing electrical energy in form of synthetic natural gas (SNG) of gas grid quality H is presented. The combination with a conventional lignite fired power plant (LPP) was investigated for possible improvement of its economic

  3. Software protocol design: Communication and control in a multi-task robot machine for ITER vacuum vessel assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming, E-mail: ming.li@lut.fi [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Yang, Guangyou [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Yongbo [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A high-level protocol is proposed for the data inter-transmission. • The protocol design is task-oriented for the robot control in the software system. • The protocol functions as a role of middleware in the software. • The protocol running stand-alone as an independent process in the software provides greater security. • Providing a reference design protocol for the multi-task robot machine in the industry. - Abstract: A specific communication and control protocol for software design of a multi-task robot machine is proposed. In order to fulfill the requirements on the complicated multi machining functions and the high performance motion control, the software design of robot is divided into two main parts accordingly, which consists of the user-oriented HMI part and robot control-oriented real-time control system. The two parts of software are deployed in the different hardware for the consideration of run-time performance, which forms a client–server-control architecture. Therefore a high-level task-oriented protocol is designed for the data inter-communication between the HMI part and the control system part, in which all the transmitting data related to a machining task is divided into three categories: trajectory-oriented data, task control-oriented data and status monitoring-oriented data. The protocol consists of three sub-protocols accordingly – a trajectory protocol, task control protocol and status protocol – which are deployed over the Ethernet and run as independent processes in both the client and server computers. The protocols are able to manage the vast amounts of data streaming due to the multi machining functions in a more efficient way. Since the protocol is functioning in the software as a role of middleware, and providing the data interface standards for the developing groups of two parts of software, it also permits greater focus of both software parts developers on their own requirements-oriented design. By

  4. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  5. Development and validation of mass transfer models for the design of agitated gas-liquid reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Laakkonen, Marko

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical agitation is used commonly in gas-liquid reactors to improve the homogeneity of dispersion and to enhance the transfer of reacting compounds between gas and liquid. The design and scaleup of gas-liquid reactors is problematic due to non-ideal mixing, heat and mass transfer limitations. In this work, phenomenological models were developed and validated against experiments to investigate local gas-liquid mass transfer in agitated tanks. The aim was to develop more generalized and rel...

  6. Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course...5 from the contempory Level of Technology 4. The design point for this example is a supercruise mission leg at Mach 1.5 and altitude of 36,000 feet...Gas Turbine Engine Course. Feb 2012, ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power , Vol. 134, pp. 021601-1. Byerley, Aaron R., Rolling

  7. Science Underpinning TBC Design to Overcome the CMAS Threat to Progress in Gas Turbine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Science Underpinning TBC Design to Overcome the CMAS Threat to Progress in Gas Turbine Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14-08-1-0522 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...degradation in current and future gas turbine engines with expected material temperatures :::=:: 1300°C. The overarching goal was to elucidate the...Z39.1t Final Report on ONR Grant No. N00014-08-1-0522 SCIENCE UNDERPINNING TBC DESIGN TO OVERCOME THE CMAS THREAT TO PROGRESS IN GAS TURBINE

  8. Design of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle gas cylinder filling semi-physical simulation training and assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zheng, Jianrong; Zhao, Yinghui

    2017-08-01

    With the rapid development of LNG vehicle in China, the operator's training and assessment of the operating skills cannot operate on material objects, because of Vehicle Gas Cylinder's high pressure, flammable and explosive characteristics. LNG Vehicle Gas Cylinder's filling simulation system with semi-physical simulation technology presents the overall design and procedures of the simulation system, and elaborates the realization of the practical analog machine, data acquisition and control system and the computer software, and introduces the design process of equipment simulation model in detail. According to the designed assessment system of the Vehicle Gas Cylinder, it can obtain the operation on the actual cylinder filling and visual effects for the operator, and automatically record operation, the results of real operation with its software, and achieve the operators' training and assessment of operating skills on mobile special equipment.

  9. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Miao; Mancang Yuan; Guodong Li

    2014-01-01

    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is propos...

  10. Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (BP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path. The thermodynamic analyses of gas turbine cycles with modifications such as intercooling, recuperating, and reheating have shown that intercooling is important to achieving high efficiency gas turbines. The gas turbine industry has considerable interest in adopting intercooling to advanced gas turbines of different capacities. This observation is reinforced by the US Navys Intercooled-Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine development program to power the surface ships. In an intercooler system, the air exiting the LP compressor must be decelerated to provide the necessary residence time in the heat exchanger. The cooler air must subsequently be accelerated towards the inlet of the HP compressor. The circumferential flow nonuniformities inevitably introduced by the heat exchanger, if not isolated, could lead to rotating stall in the compressors, and reduce the overall system performance and efficiency. Also, the pressure losses in the intercooler flow path adversely affect the system efficiency and hence, must be minimized. Thus, implementing intercooling requires fluid dynamically efficient flow path with minimum flow nonuniformities and consequent pressure losses.

  11. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  12. Design and Development of Gas Carburettor for a Gasifier-Engine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Sharma, Avdhesh Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a novel design of a gas-carburettor for SI engine operated on producer gas in single fuel mode. For geometrical modelling of carburettor, the ANSYS workbench is used, while RNG k-ɛ turbulence model in conjunction with species transport model is employed for numerical simulations. This carburettor design was fabricated, the operations were performed to ensure load following flexibility of gas carburettor. CFD model for gas carburettor gives realistic predictions for qualitative trends of pressure drop at different load conditions.

  13. Tanker for liquefied natural gas. Development, technology, design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H. (Howaldtswerke - Deutsche Werft A.G., Kiel (Germany, F.R.))

    1978-12-01

    The article reports on the development of transport of liquefied natural gas overseas and the technical developments required for this purpose. The tank systems most frequently used for LNG tankers are described. Further, a report is given on the construction of two 125,800 cu. metre LNG/LPG tankers, which were built by the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft shipyard at Kiel in the past year. The considerations which led to the use of spherical tanks are discussed. Finally, the possible development of the transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) overseas is discussed.

  14. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is proposed in the paper. This paper introduces the system framework of SCADA system based on cloud computing and the realization details about the private cloud platform of SCADA system.

  15. A Study of Insulation Design of a Gas Transformer Using Extra Turns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Woo Heng; Ha, Yong Sik [Hyosung Industries Co., Ltd (Korea); Hong, Jung Pyo; Kim, Gyu Tak [Changwon University, Changwon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    This paper deals with the electrical insulation design of a gas insulated power transformer based on extra turns method satisfying the impulse test performed in the worst condition. The calculation of electrical strength in insulation structure was done by 2D finite element method. The gas insulated power transformer was manufactured by selecting the optimum arrangement among design results. the validity of the design result is verified by the impulse test of manufactured machine. (author). 11 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. In-vessel inspection before head removal: TMI II, Phase III (tooling and systems design and verification)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, G S; Ryan, R F; Pieleck, A W; Bibb, H Q

    1982-09-01

    Under EG and G contract K-9003 to General Public Utilities Corporation, a Task Order was assigned to Babcock and Wilcox to develop and provide equipment to facilitate early assessment of core damage in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. Described is the work performed, the equipment developed, and the tests conducted with this equipment on various mockups used to simulate the constraints inside and outside the reactor vessel that affect the performance of the inspection. The tooling developed provides several methods of removing a few control rod drive leadscrews from the reactor, thereby providing paths into which cameras and lights may be inserted to permit video viewing of many potentially damaged areas in the reactor vessel. The tools, equipment, and cameras demonstrated that these tasks could be accomplished.

  17. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...

  18. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    by the research vessels RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya are reported. The work carried out by the three charted ships is also recorded. A short note on cruise plans for the study of ferromanganese nodules is added...

  19. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear ...... Feedback Theory (QFT) designs. Validation of the controller is made on the model with focus on disturbance reduction ability....

  20. Improving fuel cycle design and safety characteristics of a gas cooled fast reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, W.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research concerns the fuel cycle and safety aspects of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor, one of the so-called "Generation IV" nuclear reactor designs. The Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor uses helium as coolant at high temperature. The goal of the GCFR is to obtain a "closed nuclear fuel cycle",

  1. SYSTEM MODELLING OF ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DESIGN ORGANIZATION IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Kh. Bakhitova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effectivization of design organization in oil and gas industry is being investigated in terms of system modeling. A method of forming production functions of design organization is considered and used for substantiation of cost, expenses, budget of design organization, as well as the mechanism of transparent interaction, cooperation, coordination and control of field development.

  2. Optimization of Safety Instrumented System Design and Maintenance Frequency for Oil and Gas Industry Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yury Redutskiy

    2017-01-01

    ... for safety system design is introduced in a generalized form. The model aims to reflect the divergent perspectives of the main parties involved in oil and gas projects, and, therefore, it is formulated as a multi-objective problem...

  3. Thermal and structural analysis of a filter vessel ceramic tubesheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, R.H. [Mallett Technology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Zievers, J.F. [Industrial Filter & Pump Mfg. Co., Cicero, IL (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A ceramic tubesheet assembly for a hot gas filter vessel is analyzed using the finite element method to determine stresses under differential pressure loading. The stresses include local concentration effects. Selection of the stress measures for evaluation of structural integrity is discussed. Specification of stress limits based upon limited data is considered. Stress results from this ongoing design analysis technology project are shown for one design concept.

  4. Visualization of Atomization Gas Flow and Melt Break-up Effects in Response to Nozzle Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver; Rieken, Joel; Meyer, John; Byrd, David; Heidloff, Andy

    2011-04-01

    Both powder particle size control and efficient use of gas flow energy are highly prized goals for gas atomization of metal and alloy powder to minimize off-size powder inventory (or 'reverb') and excessive gas consumption. Recent progress in the design of close-coupled gas atomization nozzles and the water model simulation of melt feed tubes were coupled with previous results from several types of gas flow characterization methods, e.g., aspiration measurements and gas flow visualization, to make progress toward these goals. Size distribution analysis and high speed video recordings of gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) experiments on special ferritic stainless steel alloy powders with an Ar+O{sub 2} gas mixture were performed to investigate the operating mechanisms and possible advantages of several melt flow tube modifications with one specific gas atomization nozzle. In this study, close-coupled gas atomization under closed wake gas flow conditions was demonstrated to produce large yields of ultrafine (dia.<20 {mu}m) powders (up to 32%) with moderate standard deviations (1.62 to 1.99). The increased yield of fine powders is consistent with the dual atomization mechanisms of closed wake gas flow patterns in the near-field of the melt orifice. Enhanced size control by stabilized pre-filming of the melt with a slotted trumpet bell pour tube was not clearly demonstrated in the current experiments, perhaps confounded by the influence of the melt oxidation reaction that occurred simultaneously with the atomization process. For this GARS variation of close-coupled gas atomization, it may be best to utilize the straight cylindrical pour tube and closed wake operation of an atomization nozzle with higher gas mass flow to promote the maximum yields of ultrafine powders that are preferred for the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys made from these powders.

  5. Genetic algorithm to optimize the design of main combustor and gas generator in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Ko, Sangho; Koo, Jaye

    2014-06-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to develop optimal design methods for the regenerative cooled combustor and fuel-rich gas generator of a liquid rocket engine. For the combustor design, a chemical equilibrium analysis was applied, and the profile was calculated using Rao's method. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed along the profile, and cooling channels were designed. For the gas-generator design, non-equilibrium properties were derived from a counterflow analysis, and a vaporization model for the fuel droplet was adopted to calculate residence time. Finally, a genetic algorithm was adopted to optimize the designs. The combustor and gas generator were optimally designed for 30-tonf, 75-tonf, and 150-tonf engines. The optimized combustors demonstrated superior design characteristics when compared with previous non-optimized results. Wall temperatures at the nozzle throat were optimized to satisfy the requirement of 800 K, and specific impulses were maximized. In addition, the target turbine power and a burned-gas temperature of 1000 K were obtained from the optimized gas-generator design.

  6. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  7. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickl, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.pickl@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria); Wirl, Franz [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria)

    2011-04-15

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: {yields} Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. {yields} Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. {yields} Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. {yields} Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. {yields} Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. {yields} On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  8. Impact Of Melter Internal Design On Off-Gas Flammability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2012-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify the more dominant design parameters that can serve as the quantitative measure of how prototypic a given melter is, (2) run the existing DWPF models to simulate the data collected using both DWPF and non-DWPF melter configurations, (3) confirm the validity of the selected design parameters by determining if the agreement between the model predictions and data is reasonably good in light of the design and operating conditions employed in each data set, and (4) run Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain new insights into how fluid mixing is affected by the configuration of melter internals and to further apply the new insights to explaining, for example, why the agreement is not good.

  9. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  10. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  11. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  12. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  13. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  14. Impact design methods for ceramic components in gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.

    1991-01-01

    Methods currently under development to design ceramic turbine components with improved impact resistance are presented. Two different modes of impact damage are identified and characterized, i.e., structural damage and local damage. The entire computation is incorporated into the EPIC computer code. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating instrumented plate impact and particle impact tests.

  15. Gas flow parameters in laser cutting of wood- nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali Mukherjee; Tom Grendzwell; Parwaiz A.A. Khan; Charles McMillin

    1990-01-01

    The Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS) is an ongoing team research effort to optimize the yield of parts in a furniture rough mill. The process is designed to couple aspects of computer vision, computer optimization of yield, and laser cutting. This research is focused on optimizing laser wood cutting. Laser machining of lumber has the advantage over...

  16. Gas core reactor power plants designed for low proliferation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, L.L. (comp.)

    1977-09-01

    The feasibility of gas core nuclear power plants to provide adequate power while maintaining a low inventory and low divertability of fissile material is studied. Four concepts were examined. Two used a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and helium in the reactor cavities, and two used a uranium-argon plasma, held away from the walls by vortex buffer confinement. Power levels varied from 200 to 2500 MWth. Power plant subsystems were sized to determine their fissile material inventories. All reactors ran, with a breeding ratio of unity, on /sup 233/U born from thorium. Fission product removal was continuous. Newly born /sup 233/U was removed continuously from the breeding blanket and returned to the reactor cavities. The 2500-MWth power plant contained a total of 191 kg of /sup 233/U. Less than 4 kg could be diverted before the reactor shut down. The plasma reactor power plants had smaller inventories. In general, inventories were about a factor of 10 less than those in current U.S. power reactors.

  17. Interactions between the Design and Operation of Shale Gas Networks, Including CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Mahdi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for energy continues to increase, shale gas, as an unconventional source of methane (CH4, shows great potential for commercialization. However, due to the ultra-low permeability of shale gas reservoirs, special procedures such as horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, periodic well shut-in, and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection may be required in order to boost gas production, maximize economic benefits, and ensure safe and environmentally sound operation. Although intensive research is devoted to this emerging technology, many researchers have studied shale gas design and operational decisions only in isolation. In fact, these decisions are highly interactive and should be considered simultaneously. Therefore, the research question addressed in this study includes interactions between design and operational decisions. In this paper, we first establish a full-physics model for a shale gas reservoir. Next, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of important design and operational decisions such as well length, well arrangement, number of fractures, fracture distance, CO2 injection rate, and shut-in scheduling in order to gain in-depth insights into the complex behavior of shale gas networks. The results suggest that the case with the highest shale gas production may not necessarily be the most profitable design; and that drilling, fracturing, and CO2 injection have great impacts on the economic viability of this technology. In particular, due to the high costs, enhanced gas recovery (EGR using CO2 does not appear to be commercially competitive, unless tax abatements or subsidies are available for CO2 sequestration. It was also found that the interactions between design and operational decisions are significant and that these decisions should be optimized simultaneously.

  18. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  19. Design Optimization of a Natural Gas Substation with Intensification of the Energy Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Pellegrino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is currently the natural substitute of petroleum as an energy source, since the foreseen ending up of this latter in the next decades. As a matter of fact, natural gas is easier to handle, less dangerous to be transported, somehow environmentally more friendly. The gas ducts operate with large flow rates over very long distances at high pressures, which are usually lowered in proximity of the final substations by lamination valves which, in fact, dissipate energy. However, a careful management of the pressure reduction may allow an energy recovery while using the gas expansion to operate a turbine. In this case, gas must be preheated to compensate for the energy required by the expansion. A proper control of all the parameters involved becomes crucial to an intelligent use of these resources. In this paper, the possibility of using a pre-heating system has been examined as a way to intensify the energy cycle in an expansion substation of the city gas network. Fuzzy logic has been used to optimize the natural gas expansion in a turbine to produce electrical energy. A fuzzy system has been designed and realized to control the whole process of gas expansion, from the gas pre-heating to the pressure reduction. The system operates over the whole year, accounting for the pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate variations experienced in the gas line. The exit values of the latter and the inlet value of the gas pressure are selected as input variables, being the output variable the temperature of the pre-heating water at the heat exchanger inlet.

  20. Synthesis of preliminary system designs for offshore oil and gas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Sin, Gürkan; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with the design of oil and gas platforms, with a particular focus on the developmentof integrated and intensified petroleum processing plants. It builds on a superstructure based approach that includes all the process steps, transformations and interconnections of relevance...... configurations and screening potentially novel solutions at early stage designs, with respect to technical, energetic and economic criteria....

  1. Design of nanocomposite film-based plasmonic device for gas sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Design of nanocomposite film-based plasmonic device for gas sensing ... A theoretical simulation study incorporating the use of admittance loci design methodology in SPR-based sensing device using gold-tungsten trioxide (Au-WO3−) nanocomposite ...

  2. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  3. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Fabio; Stoppato, Anna; Benato, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen). Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will contribute to achieve the renewable production targets, but the impact on whole fuel gas production-to-consumption chain must be evaluated. In the first part of this study, the Authors present the future scenario of the grid gas composition and the implications on gas fed appliances. Given that the widely used premixed burners are currently designed mainly by trial and error, a broader fuel gas quality range means an additional hitch on this design process. A better understanding and structuring of this process is helpful for future appliance-oriented developments. The Authors present an experimental activity on a premixed condensing boiler setup. A test protocol highlighting the burners' flexibility in terms of mixture composition is adopted and the system fuel flexibility is characterized around multiple reference conditions.

  4. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiro Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen. Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will contribute to achieve the renewable production targets, but the impact on whole fuel gas production-to-consumption chain must be evaluated. In the first part of this study, the Authors present the future scenario of the grid gas composition and the implications on gas fed appliances. Given that the widely used premixed burners are currently designed mainly by trial and error, a broader fuel gas quality range means an additional hitch on this design process. A better understanding and structuring of this process is helpful for future appliance-oriented developments. The Authors present an experimental activity on a premixed condensing boiler setup. A test protocol highlighting the burners' flexibility in terms of mixture composition is adopted and the system fuel flexibility is characterized around multiple reference conditions.

  5. Off-Design Behavior Analysis and Operating Curve Design of Marine Intercooled Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Nian-kun Ji; Shu-ying Li; Zhi-tao Wang; Ning-bo Zhao

    2017-01-01

    The intercooled gas turbine obtained by adopting an indirect heat exchanger into an existing gas turbine is one of the candidates for developing high-power marine power units. To simplify such a strong coupled nonlinear system reasonably, the feasibility and availability of qualifying equivalent effectiveness as the only parameter to evaluate the intercooler behavior are investigated. Regarding equivalent effectiveness as an additional degree of freedom, the steady state model of a marine int...

  6. Karst hazard assessment in the design of the main gas pipeline (South Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Dutova, E. M.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Alimova, I. N.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The paper represents the description of the zonal and regional geological factors of geoengineering conditions which characterize the territory in South Yakutia crossed by the designed main gas pipeline. Cryogenic processes and karst are considered to be the most dangerous hazards for gas pipeline maintenance. Karst hazard assessment of the gas pipeline section made in the course of the research has involved a complex of geological methods: geoengineering, geophysical, hydrogeological, and mapping. Sections prone to karst development have been identified. The authors have suggested the measures to protect potentially hazardous sections and to ensure timely informing on sinkhole collapses.

  7. Gas cooled fast breeder reactor design for a circulator test facility (modified HTGR circulator test facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    A GCFR helium circulator test facility sized for full design conditions is proposed for meeting the above requirements. The circulator will be mounted in a large vessel containing high pressure helium which will permit testing at the same power, speed, pressure, temperature and flow conditions intended in the demonstration plant. The electric drive motor for the circulator will obtain its power from an electric supply and distribution system in which electric power will be taken from a local utility. The conceptual design decribed in this report is the result of close interaction between the General Atomic Company (GA), designer of the GCFR, and The Ralph M. Parson Company, architect/engineer for the test facility. A realistic estimate of total project cost is presented, together with a schedule for design, procurement, construction, and inspection.

  8. Design of a Low Voltage 0.18 mm CMOS Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MOGHAVVEMI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW gas sensor is designed and tested in this paper. The objective of the designed SAW Gas sensor is to detect H2S and NOX gases. The inter-digital transducers (IDT antennas in the proposed sensor are coated with thin film WO3, which mass is sensitive to mentioned gas concentrations upon close contact. The changes in WO3 mass are registered as frequency shift from 300 to 500 MHz. The sensor blocks are simulated, fabricated and tested for an operating frequency of 300 MHz to 350 MHz. A relatively linear response is achieved with a step of 0.1 V for 10 MHz step frequency shift emitted from WO3 coated IDTs. This fully integrated signal processing circuitry designed by 0.18 mm CMOS process is simple, cost effective, small in size, has low power consumption, and fast real-time operation response as well.

  9. Numerical design and simulation of gas turbines; Numerische Auslegung und Simulation von Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaber, R.W.

    2000-12-14

    Purpose of this thesis is the development of a universal tool for the conceptual design phase of gas turbine engines. The software concept for the tool especially for tasks in industry will be provided and examples will be shown. The Gas Turbine Simulation and Design Program GTSDP given, developed in this theses, will augment the quality of work and reduce the calculation time. In parameter studies, gas turbine designs can be easily compared with respect to component efficiencies, mass, cost, and life. [German] Ziel der Arbeit ist, unter besonderer Beachtung industrieller Aufgabenstellungen ein neues universelles Auslegungsverfahren fuer die Vorauslegung von Gasturbinen zu entwickeln, die Voraussetzungen fuer ein derartiges Programmsystem bereitzustellen und die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten an ersten Beispielen aufzuzeigen. Mit dem entwickelten Gasturbinen-Vorauslegungsprogramm GTSDP wird ein Werkzeug vorgestellt, das die Arbeitsqualitaet bei gleichzeitiger Reduzierung der Durchlaufzeiten, insbesondere durch die schnelle Vergleichbarkeit von Triebwerken hinsichtlich Wirkungsgraden, Gewicht, Kosten und Lebensdauer verbessert.

  10. Simulation tools for the design of natural gas domestic burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilka, M. [DEG Gaz de France, Saint Denise la Plaine (France). Direction de la Recherche; Quilichini, V.; Gicquel, O.; Darabiha, N. [Laboratoire E.M2.C., Ecole Centrale Paris, CNRS, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2000-07-01

    The design of domestic burners crucially depends on the availability of tools taking into account complex interactions between flame chemistry, heat transfer and fluid flow. A very promising approach is therefore the development of modern simulation tools incorporating appropriate physical models that enable the predicition of flame stability and pollutant formation in practical devices. Given the complex, 3D geometry of practical burners, we decided to adapt the commercially available, general purpose CFD-code ESTET to the simulation of combustion in domestic burners. This has been achieved through the implementation of a complex chemical kinetics library (BISCUIT) within the CFD code and an adaptation of the graphical user interface. The resulting tool is capable to predict partially premixed flames that characterize domestic burners, as well as the formation of pollutants such as NO{sub x} and has been carefully validated against experimental data obtained for a model burner. Computational ressources required for multi-dimensional burner configurations are standard UNIX workstations. Computing time typically varies from 3 h to 150 h, depending on the physical models used. (orig.)

  11. Preliminary design and modelling of a gas-fired thermoelectric generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimanek Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses modelling of coupled heat transfer and electricity generation in a thermoelectric generator designed for reliable island-mode power supply. The considered generator is a new concept of a low power supply (50 W whose aim is to provide electricity for remote gas pressure reduction stations with the purpose to maintain the control and automation equipment. This equipment contributes to the system safety and minimizes the risk of unintended methane emissions. The thermoelectric generator is designed for reliable and maintenance-free operation and power supply. Natural gas is burned in a partially premixed burner and the flue gas heats the hot side of the thermoelectric generator. The combustion air cools the cold side of the thermoelectric generator, providing the temperature difference required for electricity generation occurring based on the Seebeck effect. The flow of air and flue gas through the system is driven by chimney draft. The developed model couples the heat transfer on the hot and the cold side, as well as the generation of electrical energy inside the thermoelectric modules. The model takes into account convection and conduction in the gas flow conduits and in finned heat exchangers of the cold and hot sides. The analysis demonstrates the relevance of design and operational parameters on the boundary temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. The obtained results will be used in further (ongoing phase leading to the design and construction of a prototype electricity generator dedicated for island-mode supply.

  12. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  13. New research vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Two “new” ocean-going research vessels operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will soon begin full-time scientific duties off the coast of California and in the Antarctic, respectively. The 37.5-m Scripps vessel, named Robert Gordon Sprout in honor of the ex-president of the University of California, replaces the smaller ship Ellen B. Scripps, which had served the institution since 1965. The new ship is a slightly modified Gulf Coast workboat. Under the name of Midnight Alaskan, it had been used for high-resolution geophysical surveys in American and Latin American waters by such firms as Arco Oil & Gas, Exxon, Pennzoil, and Racal-Decca before its purchase by Scripps from a Lousiana chartering firm last summer.

  14. Conceptual Design for a High-Temperature Gas Loop Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James B. Kesseli

    2006-08-01

    This report documents an early-stage conceptual design for a high-temperature gas test loop. The objectives accomplished by the study include, (1) investigation of existing gas test loops to determine ther capabilities and how the proposed system might best complement them, (2) development of a preliminary test plan to help identify the performance characteristics required of the test unit, (3) development of test loop requirements, (4) development of a conceptual design including process flow sheet, mechanical layout, and equipment specifications and costs, and (5) development of a preliminary test loop safety plan.

  15. Injector design for liner-on-target gas-puff experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Conti, F.; Wessel, F.; Fadeev, V.; Narkis, J.; Ross, M. P.; Rahman, H. U.; Ruskov, E.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-11-01

    We present the design of a gas-puff injector for liner-on-target experiments. The injector is composed of an annular high atomic number (e.g., Ar and Kr) gas and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers an ionized deuterium target. The annular supersonic nozzle injector has been studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to produce a highly collimated (M > 5), ˜1 cm radius gas profile that satisfies the theoretical requirement for best performance on ˜1-MA current generators. The CFD simulations allowed us to study output density profiles as a function of the nozzle shape, gas pressure, and gas composition. We have performed line-integrated density measurements using a continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser to characterize the liner gas density. The measurements agree well with the CFD values. We have used a simple snowplow model to study the plasma sheath acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun to help us properly design the target injector.

  16. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  17. Multipurpose service vessels. Versatile toolkits for well intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, S. [Dowell, Las Morochas (Venezuela); Cupello, F.; Hicks, J.; Keenleyside, M. [Sedco Forex, Las Morochas (Venezuela); Formas, D.; Gabillard, C. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); Gamarra, F.; Sanchez, A. [Lagoven SA, Tia Juana (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    The industry has entered a new area in offshore support operations. Today, novel concepts and designs offer an expanded range of capabilities from a single vessel rather than the multiple boats and barges that have been used in the past. This continuing evolution in marine services is rapidly transforming well workover and intervention activities, and solving logistics and performance problems that have challenged oil and gas operators for decades. 13 figs., 5 refs.

  18. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatherley, V. E., E-mail: vef@lanl.gov; Bingham, D. A.; Cartelli, M. D.; Griego, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); DiDomizio, R. A.; Pollack, M. J. [EnvirOptics, Inc., Colmar, Pennsylvania 18915 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  19. Advanced gas-emission anode design for microfluidic fuel cell eliminating bubble accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xuan, Jin; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Wang, Huizhi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    A microfluidic fuel cell is a low cost, easily fabricated energy device and is considered a promising energy supplier for portable electronics. However, the currently developed microfluidic fuel cells that are fed with hydrocarbon fuels are confronted with a bubble problem especially when operating at high current density conditions. In this work, a gas-emission anode is presented to eliminate the gas accumulation at the anode. This gas-emission anode is verified as a valid design for discharging gaseous products, which is especially beneficial for stable operation of microfluidic fuel cells. The electrochemical performance of a counter-flow microfluidic fuel cell equipped with a gas-emission anode was measured. The results indicate that the specific design of the gas-emission anode is essential for reducing the oxygen reduction reaction parasitic effect at the anode. Fuel utilization of 76.4% was achieved at a flow rate of 0.35 µl min‑1. Current–voltage curves of single electrodes were measured and the parasitic effect at the anode was identified as the main performance limiting factor in the presented anode design.

  20. 49 CFR 176.5 - Application to vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (explosive) materials, Class 3 (flammable liquids), or Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials, in which case... extinguish fire as the Coast Guard may prescribe; (7) A cable vessel, dredge, elevator vessel, fireboat...

  1. MATHEMATICAL AND INFORMATION SUPPORT FOR CALCULATION AND DESIGN OF TUBE GAS HEATERS LOCATED IN STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHORNOMORETS H. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. For the design and construction of tube gas heaters in building structures to need solve the problems of analysis and synthesis of such heating system. The mathematical model of this system is consists of: mathematical model of the tube gas heater, mathematical model of heat distribution in the building structure and corresponding boundary conditions. To solve the tasks of analysis and synthesis must be appropriate mathematical and information support. Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to describe the developed mathematical and information support that solve the problems of analysis and synthesis of heating systems with gas tube heaters, located in building constructions.Conclusion. Mathematical support includes the development of algorithms and software for the numerical solution of problems analysis and synthesis heating system. Information support includes all the necessary parameters characterizing the thermal properties of materials which used in the heating system, and the parameters characterizing the heat exchange between the coolant and components of the heating system. It was developed algorithms for solving problems of analysis and synthesis heating system with tube gas heater located in structures to use evolutionary search algorithm and software. It was made experimental study and was obtained results allow to calculate the heat transfer from the gas-air mixture to the boundary surface of the building structure. This results and computation will provide full information support for solving problems of analysis and synthesis of the heating system. Was developed mathematical and software support, which allows to solve the problems of analysis and synthesis heating systems with gas tube heaters, located in building structures. Tube gas heaters located in the building structures allows with small capital expenditures to provide space heating. Is necessary to solve the problems of analysis (calculation and

  2. Model-Based Control Design for Flexible Rotors Supported by Active Gas Bearings - Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo

    Gas journal bearings have been increasingly adopted in modern turbo-machinery due to their numerous indisputable advantages. They can operate at higher speed than most bearing designs, almost without noise or heat generation and in most cases, as in this work, the gas used is air which is cheap...... work, the control signal design is based on a theoretical model. This approach enables easy modifications of any of the numerous physical parameters in the system if needed. The theoretical model used is based on a modifed version of Reynolds equation where an extra term is added in order to include...... the effect of external pressurization. In order to validate the theoretical model, a test rig is used, which consists of a flexible rotor supported by a ball bearing and the active gas bearing. This thesis has three main focuses and original contributions: Firstly, contribute to improving a existing...

  3. Nonlinear multivariable design by total synthesis. [of gas turbine engine control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, M. K.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The Nominal Design Problem (NDP) is extended to nonlinear cases, and a new case study of robust feedback synthesis for gas turbine control design is presented. The discussion of NDP extends and builds on earlier Total Synthesis Problem theory and ideas. Some mathematical preliminaries are given in which a bijection from a set S onto a set T is considered, with T admitting the structure of an F-vector space. NDP is then discussed for a nonlinear plant, and nonlinear nominal design is defined and characterized. The design of local controllers for a turbojet and the scheduling of these controls into a global control are addressed.

  4. Design layout for gas monitoring system II (GMS-2) computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, V.; Philipp, B.L.; Manke, M.P.

    1995-08-02

    This document provides a general overview of the computer systems software that perform the data acquisition and control for the 241-SY-101 Gas Monitoring System II (GMS-2). It outlines the system layout, and contains descriptions of components and the functions they perform. The GMS-2 system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company

  5. The design and implementation of an international trading scheme for greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    The inclusion of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol reflects an important decision to address climate-change issues through flexible market mechanisms. The author addresses a number of policy issues that must be considered in designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG)

  6. Design of an inspection robot for small diameter gas distribution mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin Christian

    2014-01-01

    The gas distribution network in the Netherlands has a length of roughly 100.000 km in urban areas. This network needs to be monitored constantly and segments need to be replaced when the risks of leaks increase. Since no information can be obtained from inse the network, in this thesis the design of

  7. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conceptual design of a fuel cell (FC) system for operation on anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is described and its economic and environmental feasibility is projected. ADG is produced at water treatment plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids....

  8. Microcontroller ATMEGA8535 based Design of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Gas Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Suyuti, Ansar

    2012-01-01

    1218204-3737-IJECS-IJENS ?? August 2012 IJENS This paper presents design of Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas detector based on microcontroller performance. The device is embedded with real-time measurement through visualization in Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and computer monitor. In addition, the data processing utilizes microcontroller ATMEGA8535 under programming environment of CodeVision AVR V2.03.4. The visualization itself is designed based on the combination between programming language of ...

  9. Design of a new tissue-equivalent proportional counter based on a gas electron multiplier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, M. E-mail: m.farahmand@iri.tudelft.nl; Bos, A.J.J.; Huizenga, J.; De Nardo, L.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    2003-08-21

    By employing a Gas Electron Multiplier a new type of mini multi-element Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) has been designed and constructed. In this paper, we describe the design of this novel counter. The first pulse height measurements with this counter for both methane- and propane-based Tissue Equivalent gases are presented. These results show promising properties for application of this novel type TEPC in microdosimetric measurements.

  10. Engineering computer graphics in gas turbine engine design, analysis and manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatka, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A time-sharing and computer graphics facility designed to provide effective interactive tools to a large number of engineering users with varied requirements was described. The application of computer graphics displays at several levels of hardware complexity and capability is discussed, with examples of graphics systems tracing gas turbine product development, beginning with preliminary design through manufacture. Highlights of an operating system stylized for interactive engineering graphics is described.

  11. Design and development of a thermoelectric cogeneration device integrated in autonomous gas heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codecasa, Matteo P.; Fanciulli, Carlo; Gaddi, Roberto; Passaretti, Francesca

    2012-06-01

    An autonomous heat-radiating gas heater for commercial outdoor environments has been selected as a test case for implementing cogeneration in autonomous gas heaters and stoves, permitting its installation and operation without the need of a connection to the electrical network. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) was selected for this purpose[1], designed for converting an amount of the produced heat into electrical power for auxiliary (ventilation, battery recharge) or ancillary functions (high efficiency LED illumination). The design approach, the layout and structure of the TEG are discussed, as well as the constraints for its integration in the existing gas heater. Design features and main components are examined: hot side heat collector for capturing heat from the flame; thermoelectric module (TEGM) technology and model selection; natural convection heat radiator at cold side; analysis and optimization of the thermal chain; TEG's assembly and its design as a whole. A prototype has been built and tested, its functional behavior has been modeled through multi-physics numerical simulation[2] to allow for further optimization and extrapolation of the results towards larger and/or more complex designs. A patent application has been issued jointly by the authors, covering the design hereinafter described.

  12. Dry Scrubbing of Aluminum Cell Gases: Design and Operating Characteristics of a Novel Gas/Solids Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, W. D.; Reeve, Martin R.; Dethloff, F. H.; Leinum, Magne

    1982-11-01

    Engineering details of a pilot plant reactor are described. It comprises a vertical cylindrical vessel with a tangential bottom gas entry. Countercurrent spiraling gas-solids flow is achieved. Reacted solids can be withdrawn from the bottom or the top using a rising axial gas jet. The reactor was evaluated by testing in a dry scrubber system treating 14,000 m3/h of gas from prebake cells. At inlet concentrations of 30-60 mg/m3 it achieved 99.5% scrubbing efficiency with aluminas of a surface area of 45-80 m2/g at feed rates considerably less than cell requirements. Potential benefits are: 1) control of metal purity by segregation of scrubber catch to selected cells, 2) scrubbing high HF inlet concentrations at full feed rate, and 3) meeting more stringent working environment and stack emission requirements.

  13. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  14. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  15. ELEMENT DESIGN FOR AN INKJET SYSTEM OF HYDROSTATIC GAS BEARING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Il'ina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper discusses the concept of inkjet systems application, also known as pneumonics, for automatic hydrostatic gas bearing control. Inkjet systems have the advantages over traditional control systems in those problems where the speed of traditional mechanical, electrical or hydraulic servomotors is not enough. Control of the shaft position in gas bearing with forced gas supply into the gap between the shaft and the bearing is typical for this class of problems. In this case, control means the pressure changing or flow rate of gas supplied to the gap by at least one of three axes at a frequency higher than the nominal speed of the shaft. Thus, high speed of response is required from the system. The objective of this work is to design a discrete jet element, testing of its geometry and switching characteristics. Main Results. The discrete inkjet element for oil-free non-contact transmission working on the refrigerant was designed. Relay transition process was modeled in the inkjet element with the use of numerical methods. The switching time has reached 0.2-0.3 ms; this is one order less than the requirements of aircraft control systems, which typically operate at a frequency of about 200 Hz. It is shown that periodic oscillations with high frequency occur when the control signal is injected with insufficient level of pressure. Therefore, a separate design task is to determine the minimum pressure allowable in the control channel.

  16. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  17. Report - Analysis of designer drugs in human blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueguo; Zhao, Dan

    2017-05-01

    A robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was utilized in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of designer drugs in human blood. Designer drugs, including methcathinone, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethcathinone, 4'-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone and methylenedioxy-pyrovalerone were simultaneously analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid-liquid small volume extraction was employed in the pretreatment of human blood sample, and the experimental results showed that the method was validated with high extraction efficiency, low limits of detection and good linearity throughout the studied concentration ranges. Furthermore, the method not only exhibited good accuracy and precision in the determination of designer drugs in human blood, but also showed the potential of the approach in the determination of trace evidence in forensic science.

  18. Optimization of Safety Instrumented System Design and Maintenance Frequency for Oil and Gas Industry Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redutskiy Yury

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas industry processes are associated with significant expenditures and risks. Adequacy of the decisions on safety measures made during early stages of planning the facilities and processes contributes to avoiding technological incidents and corresponding losses. Formulating straightforward requirements for safety instrumented systems that are followed further during the detailed engineering design and operations is proposed, and a mathematical model for safety system design is introduced in a generalized form. The model aims to reflect the divergent perspectives of the main parties involved in oil and gas projects, and, therefore, it is formulated as a multi-objective problem. Application of black box optimization is suggested for solving real-life problem instances. A Markov model is applied to account for device failures, technological incidents, continuous restorations and periodic maintenance for a given process and safety system configuration. This research is relevant to engineering departments and contractors, who specialize in planning and designing the technological solution.

  19. Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

    2009-12-31

    , the minimum CO{sub 2} gas quality (volume % of gas) recommended is 30% for moderate differences between fracture and reservoir pressures (2900 psi reservoir, 5300 psi fracture). The minimum quality is reduced to 20% when the difference between pressures is larger, resulting in additional gas expansion in the invaded zone. Inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, and base viscosity did not have a large impact on fracture production. Finally, every stage of the fracturing treatment should be energized with a gas component to ensure high gas saturation in the invaded zone. A second, more general, sensitivity study was conducted. Simulations show that CO{sub 2} outperforms N{sub 2} as a fluid component because it has higher solubility in water at fracturing temperatures and pressures. In fact, all gas components with higher solubility in water will increase the fluid's ability to reduce damage in the invaded zone. Adding methanol to the fracturing solution can increase the solubility of CO{sub 2}. N{sub 2} should only be used if the gas leaks-off either during the creation of the fracture or during closure, resulting in gas going into the invaded zone. Experimental data is needed to determine if the gas phase leaks-off during the creation of the fracture. Simulations show that the bubbles in a fluid traveling across the face of a porous medium are not likely to attach to the surface of the rock, the filter cake, or penetrate far into the porous medium. In summary, this research has created the first compositional fracturing simulator, a useful tool to aid in energized fracture design. We have made several important and original conclusions about the best practices when using energized fluids in tight gas sands. The models and tools presented here may be used in the future to predict behavior of any multi-phase or multi-component fracturing fluid system.

  20. Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This component will be larger than any nuclear reactor pressure vessel presently in service in the United States. The RPV will be taller, larger in diameter, thicker walled, heavier and most likely fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site of multiple subcomponent pieces. The pressure vessel steel can either be a conventional materials already used in the nuclear industry such as listed within ASME A508/A533 specifications or it will be fabricated from newer pressure vessel materials never before used for a nuclear reactor in the US. Each of these characteristics will present a

  1. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  2. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  3. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  4. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  5. Licensing topical report: interpretation of general design criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, D.D.; Raabe, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    This Licensing Topical Report presents a set of General Design Criteria (GDC) which is proposed for applicability to licensing of graphite-moderated, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Modifications as necessary to reflect HTGR characteristics and design practices have been made to the GDC derived for applicability to light-water-cooled reactors and presented in Appendix A of Part 50, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, including the Introduction, Definitions, and Criteria. It is concluded that the proposed set of GDC affords a better basis for design and licensing of HTGRs.

  6. Resonance frequency of microbubbles in small blood vessels: a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaroli, E; Hynynen, K [Focused Ultrasound Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2005-11-21

    Microbubbles are currently used as ultrasound contrast agents. Their potential therapeutic applications are also under investigation. This work is designed to provide some insight into the mechanisms of energy absorption and deposition by a preformed gas bubble in the microvasculature to optimize its efficacy. In the linear regime, the most favourable condition for the transfer of energy from an ultrasonic field to a gas bubble occurs when the centre frequency of the ultrasonic field equals the resonance frequency of the bubble. The resonance frequency of gas microbubbles has been investigated up to now mainly in unbounded liquids; however when bubbles are confined in small regions, their resonance frequency is strongly affected by the surrounding boundaries. A parametric study on how the resonance frequency of microbubbles in blood vessels is affected by the bubble radius, vessel radius and the bubble position in the vessel is presented. The resonance frequency decreases below its free value with decreasing vessel radius for vessels smaller than 200-300 {mu}m depending on the bubble size. This model suggests the possibility of using ultrasound in a range of frequencies that are, in general, lower than the ones used now for therapeutic and diagnostic applications of ultrasound (a few MHz). When microbubbles oscillate at their resonance frequency they absorb and therefore emit more energy. This energy may allow specific blood vessels to be targeted for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound.

  7. Novel design methods and control strategies for oil and gas offshore power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo

    This doctoral thesis is devoted to the research of innovative design methods and control strategies for power systems supplying future and existing oshore oil and gas facilities.The author uses these methods to address five research challenges: i) the definitionof the optimal waste heat recovery...... system, and v) the enhancement of its dynamic flexibility using the model predictive control. The case study of this work is the power system of the Draugen oil and gas platform (Kristiansund,Norway), where the possibility of equipping one of the gas turbines with abottoming cycle unit is investigated...... connected to an organic Rankine cycle unit. The regulator uses the linear model predictive control to maintain the quality of the power supply, and, at the same time, to track the maximum performance of the plant. The speed of the pump of the organic Rankine cycle unit is varied to maximize the energy...

  8. Design, Fabrication, and Shakeout Testing of ATALANTE Dissolver Off-Gas Sorbent-Based Capture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Jr, Joseph Franklin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, Jacob A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-31

    A sorbent-based capture system designed for integration into the existing dissolver off-gas (DOG) treatment system at the ATelier Alpha et Laboratoires pour ANalyses, Transuraniens et Etudes de retraitement (ATALANTE) facility has been successfully designed and fabricated and has undergone shakeout testing. Discussions with personnel from the ATALANTE facility provided guidance that was used for the design. All components for this system were specified, procured, and received on site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system was then fabricated and tested at ORNL to verify operation. Shakeout testing resulted in a simplified system. This system should be easily installed into the existing facility and should be straightforward to operate during future experimental testing. All parts were selected to be compatible with ATALANTE power supplies, space requirements, and the existing DOG treatment system. Additionally, the system was demonstrated to meet all of four design requirements. These include (1) a dissolver off-gas flow rate of ≤100 L/h (1.67 L/min), (2) an external temperature of ≤50°C for all system components placed in the hot cell, (3) a sorbent bed temperature of ~150°C, and (4) a gas temperature of ~150°C upon entry into the sorbent bed. The system will be ready for shipment and installation in the existing DOG treatment system at ATALANTE in FY 2016.

  9. Towards a liquid Argon TPC without evacuation filling of a 6$m^3$ vessel with argon gas from air to ppm impurities concentration through flushing

    CERN Document Server

    Curioni, A; Gendotti, A; Knecht, L; Lussi, D; Marchionni, A; Natterer, G; Resnati, F; Rubbia, A; Coleman, J; Lewis, M; Mavrokoridis, K; McCormick, K; Touramanis, C

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a successful experimental test of filling a volume of 6 $m^3$ with argon gas, starting from normal ambient air and reducing the impurities content down to few parts per million (ppm) oxygen equivalent. This level of contamination was directly monitored measuring the slow component of the scintillation light of the Ar gas, which is sensitive to $all$ sources of impurities affecting directly the argon scintillation.

  10. Design of an Infrared Imaging System for Robotic Inspection of Gas Leaks in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Barber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection can become a critical task in dangerous environments that involve hazardous or contaminant gases, and the use of imaging sensors provides an important tool for leakage location. This paper presents a new design for remote sensing of gas leaks based on infrared (IR imaging techniques. The inspection system uses an uncooled microbolometer detector, operating over a wide spectral bandwidth, that features both low size and low power consumption. This equipment is boarded on a robotic platform, so that wide objects or areas can be scanned. The detection principle is based on the use of active imaging techniques, where the use of external IR illumination enhances the detection limit and allows the proposed system to operate in most cases independently from environmental conditions, unlike passive commercial approaches. To illustrate this concept, a fully radiometric description of the detection problem has been developed; CO2 detection has been demonstrated; and simulations of typical gas detection scenarios have been performed, showing that typical industrial leaks of CH4 are well within the detection limits. The mobile platform where the gas sensing system is going to be implemented is a robot called TurtleBot. The control of the mobile base and of the inspection device is integrated in ROS architecture. The exploration system is based on the technique of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM that makes it possible to locate the gas leak in the map.

  11. Design and fabrication report on instrumented capsule (99M-01K.02H) for korean reactor pressure vessel material made by HANJUNG (Co)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Kim, D. S.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T

    2000-09-01

    The instrumented capsules (99M-01K{center_dot}02H) was designed and fabricated. The purpose of the capsules were to evaluate the nuclear irradiation performance of the Korean nuclear reactor pressure vessel material, SA508 class 3 steel, fabricated by HANJUNG Co for Yonggwang Units 4,5 and Ulchin Unit 4. There are 5 stages having specimens and independent electric heaters in the capsule mainbody. 12 K-type thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe and sapphire neutron Fluence Monitors were also inserted in the apsule. Various types of specimens, such as round compact tension, Charpy insert, pre-cracked v-notch (PCVN), tensile, small punch (SP), magnetic Barkhausen effect (MBE), and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) specimens, were inserted in the capsule. The capsule was fabricated at DAEWOO Precision Co. according to KAERI detailed design specifications. This report describes the details of the design, fabrication and inspection of the 99M-01K and 99M-02H capsule. The capsules were irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 290{+-}10 deg C up to the fast neutron fluence (E>1.0 MeV) of 3.0x10{sup 19} (n/cm{sup 2})

  12. The process of gas-dynamic design of pneumatic braking system using the baseline compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Y.; Popov, G.; Goriachkin, E.; Baturin, O.; Zubanov, V.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of work on the design of the air brake for testing of industrial gas turbine engines with free turbine. Designing of the air brake was performed on the basis of existing units using the program CFD - simulation Numeca FineTurbo. During the design the air brake arrangement was determined, which allows to utilize the required power to the shaft of the free turbine, increases stall margin of the air brake by waisting of the meridional flow channel. It was also made designing of the outlet guide vane to remove the residual twist. Unified nozzle also was designed to provide the air brake work at necessary points on the characteristic.

  13. Design aspects of the Chinese modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTR-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zuoyi [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu Zongxin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun Yuliang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Fu [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: lifu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2006-03-15

    The modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) has distinct advantages in terms of inherent safety, economics potential, high efficiency, potential usage for hydrogen production, etc. The Chinese design of the MHTGR, named as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-pebble bed module (HTR-PM), based on the technology and experience of the HTR-10, is currently in the conceptual phase. The HTR-PM demonstration plant is planned to be finished by 2012. The main philosophy of the HTR-PM project can be pinned down as: (1) safety, (2) standardization, (3) economy, and (4) proven technology. The work in the categories of marketing, organization, project and technology is done in predefined order. The biggest challenge for the HTR-PM is to ensure its economical viability while maintaining its inherent safety. A design of a 450 MWth annular pebble bed core connected with steam turbine is aimed for and presented in this paper.

  14. Design and characterization of a gas actuated pump for µTAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhan; Yu, Xiaomei

    2009-11-01

    We present the results on the design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a gas-actuated micro-jet pump for integrated micro-fluidic systems. Vacuum suction mode provided by the pump can effectively decrease the formation of air bubbles and overcome the interface tension between the liquid and the solid wall in the micro-fluidic systems. Structurally the pump, which can be fabricated with only one etching step, consists of a nozzle, a diffuser, two suction tubes, a throat pipe, and a suction chamber. To optimize the parameters for the future designs, various pump configurations with different geometries were simulated through FLUENT software firstly. Then, the characteristics of the gas-actuated micro-jet pumps were studied experimentally. The pump began to work at a pressure of 2kPa, and the actuation pressure could be easily realized through a medical syringe.

  15. Designing a Model of Organizational Agility: A Case Study of Ardabil Gas Company

    OpenAIRE

    Behrooz Razmi; Hossein Mohammad Ghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Organizational agility means the ability of every organization in sensation, perception, and prediction of available changes in the business environment. The importance of organizational agility in a competitive environment is nowadays widely recognized and accepted. The aim of this research was to design a unified theoretical model of organizational agility for Ardabil Gas Company based upon the theoretical principles of organizational agility proposed by Goldman (1995). Independent variable...

  16. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  17. Design, simulation and construction of a position sensitive X-ray gas detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a one dimentional position-sensitive X-ray gas detector has been designed, simulated and constructed based on Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC with delay line position readout. These kinds of detectors are useful in soft X-ray imaging and are capable of being extended to two dimensions position readout easily. The position resolution of this detector is estimated to be 230µm  

  18. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  19. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center; McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  1. Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Expansion Module for Wireless Gas Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore STAMATESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless gas sensor networks (WGSN offer the potential of high spatial and temporal resolution monitoring of target areas in both critical and non-critical scenarios. We describe the design and evaluation of an electronic expansion module, MICARES, suitable for gas sensing applications with wireless sensor networks. The module is intended for use with the MICA family of motes through the 51-pin connector. Proper housing assured, the device is applicable to both indoor and outdoor gas sensing for buildings, commercial and industrial spaces. Challenges lay in sensor selection, analytical and experimental power budgeting and field testing. We present the design goals at the network and node level and the adopted solutions to achieve them. Appropriate adaptive sampling strategies for energy efficiency, along with data resulting from CO2 monitoring are described. Emphasis is put on embedded sensor integration into the electrical design and methods for on-board data acquisition and processing for decision support at the node and network levels.

  2. Assessment of long-term gas sampling design at two commercial manure-belt layer barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Long; Ni, Ji-Qin; Chen, Yan; Diehl, Claude A; Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng T

    2010-06-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial variations of aerial pollutant concentrations is important for designing air quality monitoring systems. In long-term and continuous air quality monitoring in large livestock and poultry barns, these systems usually use location-shared analyzers and sensors and can only sample air at limited number of locations. To assess the validity of the gas sampling design at a commercial layer farm, a new methodology was developed to map pollutant gas concentrations using portable sensors under steady-state or quasi-steady-state barn conditions. Three assessment tests were conducted from December 2008 to February 2009 in two manure-belt layer barns. Each barn was 140.2 m long and 19.5 m wide and had 250,000 birds. Each test included four measurements of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations at 20 locations that covered all operating fans, including six of the fans used in the long-term sampling that represented three zones along the lengths of the barns, to generate data for complete-barn monitoring. To simulate the long-term monitoring, gas concentrations from the six long-term sampling locations were extracted from the 20 assessment locations. Statistical analyses were performed to test the variances (F-test) and sample means (t test) between the 6- and 20-sample data. The study clearly demonstrated ammonia and carbon dioxide concentration gradients that were characterized by increasing concentrations from the west to east ends of the barns following the under-cage manure-belt travel direction. Mean concentrations increased from 7.1 to 47.7 parts per million (ppm) for ammonia and from 2303 to 3454 ppm for carbon dioxide from the west to east of the barns. Variations of mean gas concentrations were much less apparent between the south and north sides of the barns, because they were 21.2 and 20.9 ppm for ammonia and 2979 and 2951 ppm for carbon dioxide, respectively. The null hypotheses that the variances and means between the 6- and 20

  3. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...

  4. Flow design and simulation of a gas compression system for hydrogen fusion energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, E. J.; Salvatore, E.; Munjiza, A.; Suponitsky, V.; Plant, D.; Laberge, M.

    2017-08-01

    An innovative gas compression system is proposed and computationally researched to achieve a short time response as needed in engineering applications such as hydrogen fusion energy reactors and high speed hammers. The system consists of a reservoir containing high pressure gas connected to a straight tube which in turn is connected to a spherical duct, where at the sphere’s centre plasma resides in the case of a fusion reactor. Diaphragm located inside the straight tube separates the reservoir’s high pressure gas from the rest of the plenum. Once the diaphragm is breached the high pressure gas enters the plenum to drive pistons located on the inner wall of the spherical duct that will eventually end compressing the plasma. Quasi-1D and axisymmetric flow formulations are used to design and analyse the flow dynamics. A spike is designed for the interface between the straight tube and the spherical duct to provide a smooth geometry transition for the flow. Flow simulations show high supersonic flow hitting the end of the spherical duct, generating a return shock wave propagating upstream and raising the pressure above the reservoir pressure as in the hammer wave problem, potentially giving temporary pressure boost to the pistons. Good agreement is revealed between the two flow formulations pointing to the usefulness of the quasi-1D formulation as a rapid solver. Nevertheless, a mild time delay in the axisymmetric flow simulation occurred due to moderate two-dimensionality effects. The compression system is settled down in a few milliseconds for a spherical duct of 0.8 m diameter using Helium gas and a uniform duct cross-section area. Various system geometries are analysed using instantaneous and time history flow plots.

  5. Quick opening closure: a brazilian design to pig launching and receiving vessels; Tampa de abertura rapida: um projeto brasileiro para lancadores e recebedores de pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Antonio T. [ASCA Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Originally designed to use at launcher and receiver pig traps on offshore, area, the quick opening closure, presented at this work, it has technical features that assure a singular performance. The safety is assured by the 'vent bleed screw' that stop the blockage mechanism in closed position until it to be totally removed. A limited pressure bleed, give a warning that there is pressure in the vessel. The height quality of the door and external ring grinding surfaces added to the circular block segments system mechanism give a same pressure all over the o'ring surface. This assure the leak proof warranty. The open an close Asca system composed by circular blocks segments more the push pull mechanism actuated by the same davit-screw that lift the door, provide a quick, safety and ease operation. The care at the design and the manufacture quality of the parts prevent grip rings and the door opening operation failure. (author)

  6. Contested Technologies and Design for Values: The Case of Shale Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignum, Marloes; Correljé, Aad; Cuppen, Eefje; Pesch, Udo; Taebi, Behnam

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of new energy technologies may lead to public resistance and contestation. It is often argued that this phenomenon is caused by an inadequate inclusion of relevant public values in the design of technology. In this paper we examine the applicability of the value sensitive design (VSD) approach. While VSD was primarily introduced for incorporating values in technological design, our focus in this paper is expanded towards the design of the institutions surrounding these technologies, as well as the design of stakeholder participation. One important methodological challenge of VSD is to identify the relevant values related to new technological developments. In this paper, we argue that the public debate can form a rich source from which to retrieve the values at stake. To demonstrate this, we have examined the arguments used in the public debate regarding the exploration and exploitation of shale gas in the Netherlands. We identified two important sets of the underlying values, namely substantive and procedural values. This paper concludes with two key findings. Firstly, contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, both proponents and opponents seem to endorse the same values. Secondly, contestation seems to arise in the precise operationalization of these values among the different stakeholders. In other words, contestation in the Dutch shale gas debate does not arise from inter-value conflict but rather from intra-value conflicts. This multi-interpretability should be incorporated in VSD processes.

  7. Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; John Hockert

    2011-08-01

    The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work

  8. Gas nanosensor design packages based on tungsten oxide: mesocages, hollow spheres, and nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc; El-Safty, Sherif A

    2011-12-02

    Achieving proper designs of nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of toxic environmental gases is one of the crucial issues in the field of gas sensor technology, because such designs can lead to the enhancement of gas sensor performance and expansion of their applications. Different geometrical designs of porous tungsten oxide nanostructures, including the mesocages, hollow spheres and nanowires, are synthesized for toxic gas sensor applications. Nanosensor designs with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enable the highly sensitive and selective detection of low concentration (ppm levels), highly toxic NO(2) among CO, as well as volatile organic compound gases, such as acetone, benzene, and ethanol. The experimental results showed that the sensor response was not only dependent on the specific surface area, but also on the geometries and crystal size of materials. Among the designed nanosensors, the nanowires showed the highest sensitivity, followed by the mesocages and hollow spheres-despite the fact that mesocages had the largest specific surface area of 80.9 m(2) g( - 1), followed by nanowires (69.4 m(2) g( - 1)), and hollow spheres (6.5 m(2) g( - 1)). The nanowire sensors had a moderate specific surface area (69.4 m(2) g( - 1)) but they exhibited the highest sensitivity because of their small diameter (∼5 nm), which approximates the Debye length of WO(3). This led to the depletion of the entire volume of the nanowires upon exposure to NO(2), resulting in an enormous increase in sensor resistance.

  9. Design of continuous circulation sub for gas drilling and the mechanical analysis on the sub body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas drilling, as an important part of underbalanced drilling, can increase drilling speed. But in the process of conventional gas drilling, it tends to cause cutting settlement, borehole collapse, sticking and other safety hazards because gas circulation has to be interrupted. Therefore, this paper presents a continuous circulation sub which can be installed and removed easily. With this sub, gas circulation will not be interrupted when drilling tools are connected and removed. This sub is composed of body, main valve, bypass valve and side entry sub. The structure design of its key components (i.e. main and bypass valves were fulfilled. Based on statics analysis on the sub body, its force situations under extension, torsion and internal pressure were simulated by using the ANSYS finite element analysis software. It is shown that its stress distribution trend is consistent with its elastic–plastic mechanics analysis results. Stress concentrates around the two round holes of the sub body, and the maximum deformation amount is still at the stage of elastic deformation. The analysis results are in line with the elastic–plastic mechanics analysis results, and the requirement of body strength is satisfied. This paper provides a new program to guarantee the drilling safety of extended-reach wells, underbalanced wells and narrow-density window wells.

  10. Stomatal design principles for gas exchange in synthetic and real leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Haaning, Katrine; Boyce, C. Kevin; Zwieniecki, Maciej

    2016-11-01

    Stomata are portals in plant leaves that control gas exchange for photosynthesis, a process fundamental to life on Earth. Gas fluxes and plant productivity depend on external factors such as light, water, and CO2 availability and on geometric properties of the stomata pores. The link between stomata geometry and environmental factors have informed a wide range of scientific fields - from agriculture to climate science, where observed variations in stomata size and density is used to infer prehistoric atmospheric CO2 content. However, the physical mechanisms and design principles responsible for major trends in stomatal patterning, are not well understood. Here we use a combination of biomimetic experiments and theory to rationalize the observed changes in stomatal geometry. We show that the observed correlations between stomatal size and density are consistent with the hypothesis that plants favor efficient use of space and maximum control of dynamic gas conductivity, and - surprisingly - that the capacity for gas exchange in plants has remained constant over at least the last 325 million years. Our analysis provides a new measure to gauge the relative performance of species based on their stomatal characteristics. Supported by the Carlsberg Foundation (2013-01-0449), VILLUM FONDEN (13166) and the National Science Foundation (EAR-1024041).

  11. Development of high-strength concrete mix designs in support of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel design for a HTGR steam cycle/cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design optimization studies indicate that a significant reduction in the size of the PCRV for a 2240 MW(t) HTGR plant can be effected through utilization of high-strength concrete in conjunction with large capacity prestressing systems. A three-phase test program to develop and evaluate high-strength concretes (>63.4 MPa) is described. Results obtained under Phase I of the investigation related to materials selection-evaluation and mix design development are presented. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor with 90% efficiency. Model test approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2015-08-01

    Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor 32 MW was made for PAO SMPO (Sumy, Ukraine). The technical specification requires compressor efficiency of 90%. The customer offered favorable scheme - single-stage design with console impeller and axial inlet. The authors used the standard optimization methodology of 2D impellers. The original methodology of internal scroll profiling was used to minimize efficiency losses. Radically improved 5th version of the Universal modeling method computer programs was used for precise calculation of expected performances. The customer fulfilled model tests in a 1:2 scale. Tests confirmed the calculated parameters at the design point (maximum efficiency of 90%) and in the whole range of flow rates. As far as the authors know none of compressors have achieved such efficiency. The principles and methods of gas-dynamic design are presented below. The data of the 32 MW compressor presented by the customer in their report at the 16th International Compressor conference (September 2014, Saint- Petersburg) and later transferred to the authors.

  13. Instrumentation and control design for the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, E. L. [ANS Past President, Dana Point, CA 92629 (United States); Shenoy, A. [Gas Reactor Programs, General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Instrumentation and Control design for the Gas Turbine -Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), under development by General Atomics in San Diego, CA, as supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy for the U.S. Generation IV Program and the U.S./Russian Plutonium Disposition Program. The level of automation designed into the GT-MHR plant control systems is based on economic, reliability and operability requirements. These requirements are supplemented by a set of criteria developed as part of the GT-MHR Utility Requirements Document (URD). The development of these requirements and criteria considers industry experience with automation for multi-module plants, including steam and gas combined cycle plants in the U.S. and Japan. The design, configuration control and testing methodology applied to the application software used in the automatic control systems will consider software design criteria similar to that contained in Regulatory Guide 1.152. (authors)

  14. Design and deployment of low-cost plastic optical fiber sensors for gas monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassini, Sabrina; Ishtaiwi, Maen; Parvis, Marco; Vallan, Alberto

    2014-12-30

    This paper describes an approach to develop and deploy low-cost plastic optical fiber sensors suitable for measuring low concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere. The sensors are designed by depositing onto the exposed core of a plastic fiber thin films of sensitive compounds via either plasma sputtering or via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The interaction between the deposited layer and the gas alters the fiber's capability to transmit the light, so that the sensor can simply be realized with a few centimeters of fiber, an LED and a photodiode. Sensors arranged in this way exhibit several advantages in comparison to electrochemical and optical conventional sensors; in particular, they have an extremely low cost and can be easily designed to have an integral, i.e., cumulative, response. The paper describes the sensor design, the preparation procedure and two examples of sensor prototypes that exploit a cumulative response. One sensor is designed for monitoring indoor atmospheres for cultural heritage applications and the other for detecting the presence of particular gas species inside the RPC (resistive plate chamber) muon detector of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN in Geneva.

  15. Rationale, design and methodology of the image analysis protocol for studies of patients with cerebral small vessel disease and mild stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Armitage, Paul A; Thrippleton, Michael J; Chappell, Francesca; Sandeman, Elaine; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Shuler, Kirsten; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is common in ageing and patients with dementia and stroke. Its manifestations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) include white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, perivascular spaces, small subcortical infarcts, and brain atrophy. Many studies focus only on one of these manifestations. A protocol for the differential assessment of all these features is, therefore, needed. To identify ways of quantifying imaging markers in research of patients with SVD and operationalize the recommendations from the STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging guidelines. Here, we report the rationale, design, and methodology of a brain image analysis protocol based on our experience from observational longitudinal studies of patients with nondisabling stroke. The MRI analysis protocol is designed to provide quantitative and qualitative measures of disease evolution including: acute and old stroke lesions, lacunes, tissue loss due to stroke, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, macrohemorrhages, iron deposition in basal ganglia, substantia nigra and brain stem, brain atrophy, and white matter hyperintensities, with the latter separated into intense and less intense. Quantitative measures of tissue integrity such as diffusion fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and the longitudinal relaxation time are assessed in regions of interest manually placed in anatomically and functionally relevant locations, and in others derived from feature extraction pipelines and tissue segmentation methods. Morphological changes that relate to cognitive deficits after stroke, analyzed through shape models of subcortical structures, complete the multiparametric image analysis protocol. Final outcomes include guidance for identifying ways to minimize bias and confounds in the assessment of SVD and stroke imaging biomarkers. It is intended that this information will inform the design of studies to examine the underlying pathophysiology of SVD

  16. Design and coupled-effect simulations of CMOS micro gas sensors built on SOI thin membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Udrea, Florin; Gardner, Julian W.; Setiadi, D.; Dogaru, T.; Tsai, T. H.; Covington, James A.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes coupled-effect simulations of smart micro gas-sensors based on standard BiCMOS technology. The smart sensor features very low power consumption, high sensitivity and potential low fabrication cost achieved through full CMOS integration. For the first time the micro heaters are made of active CMOS elements (i.e. MOSFET transistors) and embedded in a thin SOI membrane consisting of Si and SiO2 thin layers. Micro gas-sensors such as chemoresistive, microcalorimeteric and Pd/polymer gate FET sensors can be made using this technology. Full numerical analyses including 3D electro- thermo-mechanical simulations, in particular stress and deflection studies on the SOI membranes are presented. The transducer circuit design and the post-CMOS fabrication process, which includes single sided back-etching, are also reported.

  17. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: German Pebble Bed Reactor design and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    This report describes and evaluates several gas-cooled reactor plant concepts under development within the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The concepts, based upon the use of a proven Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element design, include nuclear heat generation for chemical processes and electrical power generation. Processes under consideration for the nuclear process heat plant (PNP) include hydrogasification of coal, steam gasification of coal, combined process, and long-distance chemical heat transportation. The electric plant emphasized in the report is the steam turbine cycle (HTR-K), although the gas turbine cycle (HHT) is also discussed. The study is a detailed description and evaluation of the nuclear portion of the various plants. The general conclusions are that the PBR technology is sound and that the HTR-K and PNP plant concepts appear to be achievable through appropriate continuing development programs, most of which are either under way or planned.

  18. A comprehensive method for preliminary design optimization of axial gas turbine stages. II - Code verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The present effort represents an extension of previous work wherein a calculation model for performing rapid pitchline optimization of axial gas turbine geometry, including blade profiles, is developed. The model requires no specification of geometric constraints. Output includes aerodynamic performance (adiabatic efficiency), hub-tip flow-path geometry, blade chords, and estimates of blade shape. Presented herein is a verification of the aerodynamic performance portion of the model, whereby detailed turbine test-rig data, including rig geometry, is input to the model to determine whether tested performance can be predicted. An array of seven (7) NASA single-stage axial gas turbine configurations is investigated, ranging in size from 0.6 kg/s to 63.8 kg/s mass flow and in specific work output from 153 J/g to 558 J/g at design (hot) conditions; stage loading factor ranges from 1.15 to 4.66.

  19. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles – they consist of the same operations such as heat exchange, compression and expansion, but they have different layouts, components and working fluids. The design of these systems requires a preliminary simulation and evaluation...... presents a thorough comparison of six equations of state widely used in the academia and industry, including the GERG-2008 model, which has recently been adopted as an ISO standard for natural gases. These models are used to (i) estimate the thermophysical properties of a Danish natural gas, (ii) simulate......, and (iii) optimise liquefaction systems. Three case studies are considered: a cascade layout with three pure refrigerants, a single mixed-refrigerant unit, and an expander-based configuration. Significant deviations are found between all property models, and in all case studies. The main discrepancies...

  20. Design and Performance of a Low Btu Fuel Rich-Quench-Lean Gas Turbine Combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitelberg, A.S.; Jackson, M.R.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.; Ritter, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    General Electric Company is developing gas turbines and a high temperature desulfurization system for use in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. High temperature desulfurization, or hot gas cleanup (HGCU), offers many advantages over conventional low temperature desulfurization processes, but does not reduce the relatively high concentrations of fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) that are typically found in low Btu fuel. When fuels containing bound nitrogen are burned in conventional gas turbine combustors, a significant portion of the FBN is converted to NO{sub x}. Methods of reducing the NO{sub x} emissions from IGCC power plants equipped with HGCU are needed. Rich-quench-lean (RQL) combustion can decrease the conversion of FBN to NO{sub x} because a large fraction of the FBN is converted into non-reactive N{sub 2} in a fuel rich stage. Additional air, required for complete combustion, is added in a quench stage. A lean stage provides sufficient residence time for complete combustion. Objectives General Electric has developed and tested a rich-quench-lean gas turbine combustor for use with low Btu fuels containing FBN. The objective of this work has been to design an RQL combustor that has a lower conversion of FBN to N{sub x} than a conventional low Btu combustor and is suitable for use in a GE heavy duty gas turbine. Such a combustor must be of appropriate size and scale, configuration (can-annular), and capable of reaching ``F`` class firing conditions (combustor exit temperature = 2550{degrees}F).

  1. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  2. Design report: An off gas trapping system for a voloxidizer in INL of US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Lee, H. H

    2006-09-15

    This reports on the 'Development of Voloxidation Process for Treatment of LWR Spent Fuel', and it is the second year since it has started from June 2004 as a tripartite cooperation project among KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), INL(Idaho National Laboratory) and ORNL(Oak Ridge National Laboratory). This report is described mainly for the Task B2 accomplished during the second project year. The Task B2 in proposal contains two sub-tasks. The first one is design of an off-gas treatment system for a voloxidizer to be used in HFEF of INL. For this, KAERI team developed the design of INL OTS (Off-gas Treatment System) for hot experiment in the HFEF. INL team modified and completed the design of the INL OTS. The second task is manufacturing and test operation of the INL OTS for a voloxidizer in the INL. Manufacturing of the OTS is accomplished by INL team with co-work of KAERI. KAERI provided four sets of trapping filters needed for conducting hot experiment in the INL HFEF.

  3. Application of additive laser technologies in the gas turbine blades design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, I. V.; Rogalev, A. N.; Osipov, S. K.; Bychkov, N. M.; Komarov, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    An emergence of modern innovative technologies requires delivering new and modernization existing design and production processes. It is especially relevant for designing the high-temperature turbines of gas turbine engines, development of which is characterized by a transition to higher parameters of working medium in order to improve their efficient performance. A design technique for gas turbine blades based on predictive verification of thermal and hydraulic models of their cooling systems by testing of a blade prototype fabricated using the selective laser melting technology was presented in this article. Technique was proven at the time of development of the first stage blade cooling system for the high-pressure turbine. An experimental procedure for verification of a thermal model of the blades with convective cooling systems based on the comparison of heat-flux density obtained from the numerical simulation data and results of tests in a liquid-metal thermostat was developed. The techniques makes it possible to obtain an experimentally tested blade version and to exclude its experimental adjustment after the start of mass production.

  4. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P

    2011-02-15

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of a diagnostic residual gas analyzer for the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepper, C.C., E-mail: kleppercc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Biewer, T.M.; Graves, V.B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Andrew, P. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lukens, P.C. [US ITER Project Office, 1055 Commerce Park Dr #1, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Marcus, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Shimada, M., E-mail: shimada.michiya@jaea.go.jp [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hughes, S.; Boussier, B. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johnson, D.W. [US ITER Diagnostics Office, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Gardner, W.L. [US ITER Project Office, 1055 Commerce Park Dr #1, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Hillis, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The divertor DRGA for ITER will measure neutral gas composition in the pumping ducts during plasma. • System must respond in timescales relevant to compositional changes in the divertor plasma. • It is shown that times can vary from 1 to 6 s for fuel (H2, D2, T2) up to 50 s for He (fusion reaction ash). • It is shown that present design delivers ∼ 1 s response even via an 8m long sampling pipe sampling. • Response time validated with VacTran{sup ®} over anticipated the 0.1–10 Pa pressure range in the ducts. - Abstract: One of the ITER diagnostics having reached an advanced design stage is a diagnostic RGA for the divertor, i.e. residual gas analysis system for the ITER divertor, which is intended to sample the divertor pumping duct region during the plasma pulse and to have a response time compatible with plasma particle and impurity lifetimes in the divertor region. Main emphasis is placed on helium (He) concentration in the ducts, as well as the relative concentration between the hydrogen isotopes (mainly in the form of diatomic molecules of H, D, and T). Measurement of the concentration of radiative gases, such as neon (Ne) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}), is also intended. Numerical modeling of the gas flow from the sampled region to the cluster of analysis sensors, through a long (∼8 m long, ∼110 mm diameter) sampling pipe originating from a pressure reducing orifice, confirm that the desired response time (∼1 s for He or D{sub 2}) is achieved with the present design.

  6. Review of Well Operator Files for Hydraulically Fractured Oil and Gas Production Wells: Well Design and Construction Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA reviewed a statistically representative sample of oil and gas production wells reported by nine service companies to help understand the role of well design and construction practices preventing pathways for subsurface fluid movement.

  7. A case study to optimum selection of deliquification method for gas condensate well design: South Pars gas field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2016-06-01

    Today, the most effective liquid-removal devices are pumping, the combination of liquid-diverter with gas lift and velocity string. Considering mentioned complexities, the most efficient method of liquid removal is different from one well to the others. This paper discusses a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM strategy for ranking these methods based on ELECTRE and TOPSIS techniques in a gas condensate reservoir. The most efficient model in this case, regarding its high efficiency and level of reliability is continuous gas lift. These procedures can be extended to other cases easily by changing the comparison matrix and user defined weights.

  8. Data on conceptual design of cryogenic energy storage system combined with liquefied natural gas regasification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyu Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes data of an integrated process, cryogenic energy storage system combined with liquefied natural gas (LNG regasification process. The data in this paper is associated with the article entitled “Conceptual Design and Exergy Analysis of Combined Cryogenic Energy Storage and LNG Regasification Processes: Cold and Power Integration” (Lee et al., 2017 [1]. The data includes the sensitivity case study dataset of the air flow rate and the heat exchanging feasibility data by composite curves. The data is expected to be helpful to the cryogenic energy process development.

  9. Data on conceptual design of cryogenic energy storage system combined with liquefied natural gas regasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inkyu; Park, Jinwoo; Moon, Il

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes data of an integrated process, cryogenic energy storage system combined with liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification process. The data in this paper is associated with the article entitled "Conceptual Design and Exergy Analysis of Combined Cryogenic Energy Storage and LNG Regasification Processes: Cold and Power Integration" (Lee et al., 2017) [1]. The data includes the sensitivity case study dataset of the air flow rate and the heat exchanging feasibility data by composite curves. The data is expected to be helpful to the cryogenic energy process development.

  10. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE STUDY AND DESIGN OF A ROTARY-VANE GAS REFRIGERATION MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of calculating the main parameters the operating cycle, rotary-vane gas refrigerating machine that affect installation, machine control and working processes occurring in it at the specified criteria. A procedure and a graphical method for the rotary-vane gas refrigerating machine (RVGRM are proposed. A parametric study of the main geometric variables and temperature variables on the thermal behavior of the system is analyzed. The model considers polytrope index for the compression and expansion in the chamber. Graphs of the pressure and temperature in the chamber of the angle of rotation of the output shaft are received. The possibility of inclusion in the cycle regenerative heat exchanger is appreciated. The change of the coefficient of performance machine after turning the cycle regenerative heat exchanger is analyzed. It is shown that the installation of a regenerator RVGRM cycle results in increased COP more than 30%. The simulation results show that the proposed model can be used to design and optimize gas refrigerator Stirling.

  11. ADA access to passenger vessels : finding safety equivalence solutions for weathertight doors with coamings : Phase 2 : a risk management approach to reconfiguration design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    This report examines a risk management methodology to provide for both marine safety and disability access at weathertight doors into passenger accommodation spaces on U.S. passenger vessels. The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance B...

  12. A Study on Gas Insulation Characteristics for Design Optimization of High Voltage Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I. S.; Kim, M. K.; Seo, K. S.; Moon, I. W.; Choi, C. K. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This study aim of obtaining the basic data for gas insulation in the high voltage apparatus and for investigating the breakdown characteristics in uniform field and non-uniform which the geometric construction in the practical power apparatus. In this study, the research results on the insulation technology published earlier are reviewed and the basic data for an optimum design of a high voltage apparatus are obtained thorough the experiment and computer simulation by using a uniform field. The main result are summarized as follows: (A) Investigation on the insulation technology in a large-capacity power apparatus. (B) Investigation on the breakdown characteristics in particle contaminated condition. (C) Investigation on the design in computer simulation. (D) Investigation on the simulation technology of breakdown characteristics. (E) Investigation on breakdown characteristics in the nonuniform field and experiment. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  13. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  14. New design of process for cold forging to improve multi-stage gas fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a process that solves the problem of the formation of cracks inside forged gas fittings in the cold forging process that arises from poor forging process design. DEFORM-3D forming software was utilized, and macroscopic experiments with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to investigate the processed structures and the distribution therein of metal flow lines, and to find the internal micro-cracks to determine whether the cold forging process is reasonable. Analytical results herein demonstrate that the stress and strain inside the gas fitting can be elucidated using metal forming software. Together with experimental results, they demonstrate that a concentration of stress damages the workpiece in the forming process. Moreover, as metal flow lines become narrower, the workpiece becomes more easily damaged. Consequently, the improved cold forging process that is described in this work should be utilized to reduce the occurrence of fine cracks and defects. Planning for proper die design and production, increasing the quality of products, and reducing the number of defective products promote industrial competitiveness.

  15. Characterization of Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Designs for Aviation Gas-Turbine Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Injector geometry, physical mixing, chemical processes, and engine cycle conditions together govern performance, operability and emission characteristics of aviation gas-turbine combustion systems. The present investigation explores swirl-venturi lean direct injection combustor fundamentals, characterizing the influence of key geometric injector parameters on reacting flow physics and emission production trends. In this computational study, a design space exploration was performed using a parameterized swirl-venturi lean direct injector model. From the parametric geometry, 20 three-element lean direct injection combustor sectors were produced and simulated using steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes reacting computations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 18-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear ?-e model. Results demonstrate sensitivities of the geometric perturbations on axially averaged flow field responses. Output variables include axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, static temperature, fuel patternation and minor species mass fractions. Significant trends have been reduced to surrogate model approximations, intended to guide future injector design trade studies and advance aviation gas-turbine combustion research.

  16. Design and Development of Polysilicon-based Microhotplate for Gas Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanth PRASAD

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and development of a polysilicon-based microhotplate (MHP on a SiO2 membrane formed by bulk micromachining in orientation P-type silicon. The chip comprises four microheater cells, which can be used separately or in series combination. The chip size is 2.1 × 2.1 sq. mm. The design and simulation of a single-cell microhotplate is carried out using ANSYS. The complete fabrication process is described in this paper. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR of polysilicon resistors of values 5.7 kW and 3.36 kW has been measured as 0.69 × 10-3 and 0.5 × 10-3 per °C respectively. These values are used to estimate the temperature of the polysilicon heater by measuring the change in resistance value of the resistor on applying a voltage to it. Temperatures up to 367 °C have been calculated at low bias voltages. As the sensitivity of the gas sensing film is temperature dependent, the developed hotplate will be used as a platform for fabricating the gas sensors.

  17. Optical design of a compact near-infrared multispecies gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Joshua; Toor, Fatima

    In this work we present the design of a compact and cost effective near infrared (NIR) gas sensor system that can detect nitrous oxide (NOx) , ammonia (NH3) , and methane (CH4) simultaneously. These three gases were chosen as they are environmental pollutants and their monitoring is especially important in agricultural states like Iowa. As a first step in our design process, we have developed a Matlab model based on Beer-Lambert's law to generate sample sensor data for each of the gases at different concentrations. The data measured from the sensor system will be as a function of time instead of wavelength, so we performed Fourier Transform analysis on the sensor data to convert it to voltage versus time. The simulated sensor data will enable to design software algorithms to separate the absorption signals for each of the three gases. As a second step, we have developed a lab-based sensor system comprising of three components: (i) a NIR lead sulfide (PbS) photodiode, (ii) an LED that emits 1900 nm to 2600 nm, and (iii) an optical cavity where the gases are introduced. We are designing the optical cavity using ray optics COMSOL finite element method simulator using the principles of a compact chaotic cavity that will allow the LED light to have a path length of greater than 100 m within the cavity, enabling high sensitivity gas detection. Our end goal is to have an autonomous drone mounted device that is simple and inexpensive to use. We plan to license this technology to agricultural equipment manufacturers.

  18. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

    2012-08-01

    The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on pebble fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEA’s statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information

  19. The results of pre-design studies on the development of a new design of gas turbine compressor package of GPA-C-16 type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Chobenko, V. M.; Shcherbakov, O. M.; Ushakov, S. M.; Parafiynyk, V. P.; Sereda, R. M.

    2017-08-01

    The article summarizes the results of analysis of data concerning the operation of turbocompressor packages at compressor stations for the natural gas transmission system of Ukraine. The basic requirements for gas turbine compressor packages used for modernization and reconstruction of compressor stations are considered. Using a 16 MW gas turbine package GPA-C-16S/76-1,44M1 as an example, the results of pre-design studies and some technical solutions that improve the energy efficiency of gas turbine compressor packages and their reliability, as well as its environmental performance are given. In particular, the article deals with the matching of performance characteristics of a centrifugal compressor (hereinafter compressor) and gas turbine drive to reduce fuel gas consumption; as well as application of energy efficient technologies, in particular, exhaust gas heat recovery units and gas-oil heat exchangers in turbocompressor packages oil system; as well as reducing emissions of carbon monoxide into the atmosphere using a catalytic exhaust system. Described technical solutions can be used for development of other types of gas turbine compressor packages.

  20. Designed synthesis of nanoporous organic polymers for selective gas uptake and catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Pezhman

    Design and synthesis of porous organic polymers have attracted considerable attentions during the past decade due to their wide range of applications in gas storage, gas separation, energy conversion, and catalysis. Porous organic polymers can be pre-synthetically and post-synthetically functionalized with a wide variety of functionalities for desirable applications. Along these pursuits, we introduced new synthetic strategies for preparation of porous organic polymers for selective CO2 capture and catalytic applications. Porous azo-linked polymers (ALPs) were synthesized by an oxidative reaction of amine-based monomers using copper(I) as a catalyst which leads to azo-linkage formation. ALPs exhibit high surface areas of up to 1200 m2 g-1 and have high chemical and thermal stabilities. The nitrogen atoms of the azo group can act as Lewis bases and the carbon atom of CO2 can act as a Lewis acid. Therefore, ALPs show high CO2 uptake capacities due to this Lewis acid-based interaction. The potential applications of ALPs for selective CO2 capture from flue gas, natural gas, and landfill gas under pressure-swing and vacuum swing separation settings were studied. Due to their high CO2 uptake capacity, selectivity, and regenerability, ALPs are among the best porous organic frameworks for selective CO2 capture. In our second project, a new bis(imino)pyridine-linked porous polymer (BIPLP-1) was synthesized and post-synthetically functionalized with Cu(BF4)2 for highly selective CO2 capture. BIPLP-1 was synthesized via a condensation reaction between 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde and 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene, wherein the bis(imino)pyridine linkages are formed in-situ during polymerization. The functionalization of the polymer with Cu(BF4)2 was achieved by treatment of the polymer with a solution of Cu(BF4)2 via complexation of copper cations with bis(imino)pyridine moieties of the polymer. BF4- ions can act Lewis base and CO2 can act as a Lewis acid; and therefore

  1. Current design efforts for the gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3850 (United States)]. e-mail: Kevan.Weaver@inl.gov

    2005-07-01

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFC I) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GCFR: a helium-cooled, direct Brayton cycle power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850 C at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GCFR. These are EURATOM (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, EURATOM (including the United Kingdom), France, Japan, and Switzerland have active research activities with respect to the GCFR. The research includes GCFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This paper outlines the current design status of the GCFR, and includes work done in the areas mentioned above. (Author)

  2. The Off-Design Performance Simulation of Marine Gas Turbine Based on Optimum Scheduling of Variable Stator Vanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the antisurge techniques, the adjusting scheme of VSV under off-design conditions has a significant impact on the performance of gas turbines. In this paper, the one-dimensional characteristic of the compressor calculation program is embedded into the zero-dimensional overall gas turbine model, which replaces the original compressor characteristic module. Based on the assembling relationship of the actual components of the marine gas turbine, the architecture of the modular model library is designed, and an integrated simulation platform of marine gas turbine is developed by using MATLAB/GUI software. The influence of the first 3 rows of variable stator vanes of the 9-stage axial compressor working alone on the performance of the compressor at different speeds and different angles was analyzed by the HARIKA compressor characteristic calculation program. Taking the economics and stability of the gas turbine as the optimization objective, the optimization of the first three-stage stator vanes regulation schemes under different working conditions was carried out. The steady-state performance parameters under each working condition of gas turbine of power generation with or without variable stator vane mode were calculated. The study results can provide references for the adjusting scheme of VSV under gas turbine off-design conditions operating process.

  3. Exploring Advanced Technology Gas Turbine Engine Design and Performance for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) conceptual design was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nautical miles at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing capability. This paper explores gas turbine component performance and cycle parameters to quantify performance gains possible for additional improvements in component and material performance beyond those identified in previous LCTR2 propulsion studies and to identify additional research areas. The vehicle-level characteristics from this advanced technology generation 2 propulsion architecture will help set performance levels as additional propulsion and power systems are conceived to meet ever-increasing requirements for mobility and comfort, while reducing energy use, cost, noise and emissions. The Large Civil Tiltrotor vehicle and mission will be discussed as a starting point for this effort. A few, relevant engine and component technology studies, including previous LCTR2 engine study results will be summarized to help orient the reader on gas turbine engine architecture, performance and limitations. Study assumptions and methodology used to explore engine design and performance, as well as assess vehicle sizing and mission performance will then be discussed. Individual performance for present and advanced engines, as well as engine performance effects on overall vehicle size and mission fuel usage, will be given. All results will be summarized to facilitate understanding the importance and interaction of various component and system performance on overall vehicle characteristics.

  4. Erosion and break-up of light-gas layers by a horizontal jet in a multi-vessel, large-scale containment test system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zboray, Robert, E-mail: robert.zboray@psi.ch; Mignot, Guillaume; Kapulla, Ralf; Paladino, Domenico

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and eventual stratification of hydrogen released during a hypothetical severe accident and the stability of the stratification formed in the early phase of the transient is of particular safety concern in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The large-scale containment test facility PANDA (PSI, Switzerland) has been used to perform a series of four tests examining the erosion and break-up of stratified light-gas layers in the frame of the OECD SETH-2 project. The ultimate goal of the test program is to set-up an experimental data base of high-quality and high-density data that can challenge and validate 3D containment codes like e.g. GOTHIC, GASFLOW or MARS and validate the applicability of CFD codes like FLUENT or CFX for LWR containment problems. The test series discussed here focuses on the erosion of a stratified, helium-rich layer by horizontal steam injection at different locations below the layer. An approach with step-wise increasing complexity has been chosen to examine this problem allowing control over the rate of pressure increase and the occurrence of condensation. The step-wise approach enables a thorough understanding of the influence of different phenomena like position of steam injection, diffusion, pressurization and condensation on the behavior and erosion of the stratified layer.

  5. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  6. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  7. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  8. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  9. The structural design of the bat wing web and its possible role in gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanya, Andrew N; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2007-12-01

    The structure of the skin in the epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) wing and body trunk was studied with a view to understanding possible adaptations for gas metabolism and thermoregulation. In addition, gas exchange measurements were performed using a respirometer designed for the purpose. The body skin had an epidermis, a dermis with hair follicles and sweat glands and a fat-laden hypodermis. In contrast, the wing web skin was made up of a thin bilayered epidermis separated by a connective tissue core with collagen and elastic fibres and was devoid of hair follicles and sweat glands. The wings spanned 18-24 cm each, with about 753 cm2 of surface exposed to air. The body skin epidermis was thick (61 +/- 3 microm, SEM), the stratum corneum alone taking a third of it (21 +/- 3 microm). In contrast, the wing web skin epidermis was thinner at 9.8 +/- 0.7 microm, with a stratum corneum measuring 4.1 +/- 0.3 microm (41%). The wing capillaries in the wing web skin ran in the middle of the connective tissue core, with a resultant surface-capillary diffusion distance of 26.8 +/- 3.2 microm. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) of the wings alone and of the whole animal measured under light anaesthesia at ambient temperatures of 24 masculineC and 33 masculineC, averaged 6% and 10% of the total, respectively. Rate of carbon dioxide production had similar values. The membrane diffusing capacity for the wing web was estimated to be 0.019 ml O2 min(-1) mmHg(-1). We conclude that in Epomophorus wahlbergi, the wing web has structural modifications that permit a substantial contribution to the total gas exchange.

  10. Evaluation of fatigue vessel in the Sta. M Garona NPP : real transients and design transients; Evaluacion de la fatiga en la vasija de CN Santa M de Garona: transitorios reales frente a transitorios de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Gorrochategui, I.

    2005-07-01

    The number of transient that control the fatigue of its reactor pressure vessel is included in the Sta. M Garona NPP Technical Specifications, being the different transients described in the design specification of the corresponding component. In this work, on the one hand, the description of the design transients with their corresponding real ones is compared and, on the other hand, the number of occurrences and the number of transients originally estimated is also compared. In both cases the influence of the difference between design and reality in the fatigue usage is discussed. (Author)

  11. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  12. Designing a Model of Organizational Agility: A Case Study of Ardabil Gas Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Razmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational agility means the ability of every organization in sensation, perception, and prediction of available changes in the business environment. The importance of organizational agility in a competitive environment is nowadays widely recognized and accepted. The aim of this research was to design a unified theoretical model of organizational agility for Ardabil Gas Company based upon the theoretical principles of organizational agility proposed by Goldman (1995. Independent variables including organizational intelligence, organizational commitment, and organizational trust were considered as mediator variable and other four essential components of organizational agility such as forming of virtual participation valorize to humanistic knowledge and skills, change readiness, and customers answering were known as dependent variables of research. This is an applied, descriptive-correlation research, conducted by survey methodology. In this study, 568 employees, contractors, and subscribers of Ardabil Gas Company were chosen as the statistical population of the study. For the purpose of the study a questionnaire for data collection was used. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, it is straightforward to test hypotheses of the equality of various correlation coefficients with any number of covariates across multiple groups. The gathered data was analyzed by using SPSS and LISREL software packages. The results of statistical analysis indicate that organizational trust has a significant positive relationship with organizational agility and organizational trust is the moderator of the relationship between technology intelligence and organizational agility and the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational agility.

  13. A new nanocomposite forward osmosis membrane custom-designed for treating shale gas wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Delai Sun, Darren; Song, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    Managing the wastewater discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge, because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this wastewater because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination. In this study, we designed a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior anti-fouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization (ICP) through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions) and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters.

  14. Resolution of isomeric new designer stimulants using gas chromatography - Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and theoretical computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skultety, Ludovit; Frycak, Petr; Qiu, Changling; Smuts, Jonathan; Shear-Laude, Lindsey; Lemr, Karel; Mao, James X; Kroll, Peter; Schug, Kevin A; Szewczak, Angelica; Vaught, Cory; Lurie, Ira; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2017-06-08

    Distinguishing isomeric representatives of "bath salts", "plant food", "spice", or "legal high" remains a challenge for analytical chemistry. In this work, we used vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy combined with gas chromatography to address this issue on a set of forty-three designer drugs. All compounds, including many isomers, returned differentiable vacuum ultraviolet/ultraviolet spectra. The pair of 3- and 4-fluoromethcathinones (m/z 181.0903), as well as the methoxetamine/meperidine/ethylphenidate (m/z 247.1572) triad, provided very distinctive vacuum ultraviolet spectral features. On the contrary, spectra of 4-methylethcathinone, 4-ethylmethcathinone, 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone triad (m/z 191.1310) displayed much higher similarities. Their resolution was possible only if pure standards were probed. A similar situation occurred with the ethylone and butylone pair (m/z 221.1052). On the other hand, majority of forty-three drugs was successfully separated by gas chromatography. The detection limits for all the drug standards were in the 2-4 ng range (on-column amount), which is sufficient for determinations of seized drugs during forensics analysis. Further, state-of-the-art time-dependent density functional theory was evaluated for computation of theoretical absorption spectra in the 125-240 nm range as a complementary tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new nanocomposite forward osmosis membrane custom-designed for treating shale gas wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Delai Sun, Darren; Song, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Managing the wastewater discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge, because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this wastewater because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination. In this study, we designed a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior anti-fouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization (ICP) through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions) and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters. PMID:26416014

  16. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  17. Gas-Cooled Thorium Reactor with Fuel Block of the Unified Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shamanin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches of new technological platform realization carried out in Russia are based on ideas of nuclear fuel breeding in closed fuel cycle and physical principles of fast neutron reactors. Innovative projects of low-power reactor systems correspond to the new technological platform. High-temperature gas-cooled thorium reactors with good transportability properties, small installation time, and operation without overloading for a long time are considered perspective. Such small modular reactor systems at good commercial, competitive level are capable of creating the basis of the regional power industry of the Russian Federation. The analysis of information about application of thorium as fuel in reactor systems and its perspective use is presented in the work. The results of the first stage of neutron-physical researches of a 3D model of the high-temperature gas-cooled thorium reactor based on the fuel block of the unified design are given. The calculation 3D model for the program code of MCU-5 series was developed. According to the comparison results of neutron-physical characteristics, several optimum reactor core compositions were chosen. The results of calculations of the reactivity margins, neutron flux distribution, and power density in the reactor core for the chosen core compositions are presented in the work.

  18. Design and fabrication of resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector for SF6 gas sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jason; Choi, Kwong-Kit; DeCuir, Eric; Olver, Kimberley; Fu, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The infrared absorption of SF6 gas is narrowband and peaks at 10.6 μm. This narrowband absorption posts a stringent requirement on the corresponding sensors as they need to collect enough signal from this limited spectral bandwidth to maintain a high sensitivity. Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors (R-QWIPs) are the next generation of QWIP detectors that use resonances to increase the quantum efficiency for more efficient signal collection. Since the resonant approach is applicable to narrowband as well as broadband, it is particularly suitable for this application. We designed and fabricated R-QWIPs for SF6 gas detection. To achieve the expected performance, the detector geometry must be produced according to precise specifications. In particular, the height of the diffractive elements and the thickness of the active resonator must be uniform, and accurately realized to within 0.05 μm. Additionally, the substrates of the detectors must be completely removed to prevent the escape of unabsorbed light in the detectors. To achieve these specifications, two optimized inductively coupled plasma etching processes were developed. Due to submicron detector feature sizes and overlay tolerance, we used an advanced semiconductor material lithography stepper instead of a contact mask aligner to pattern wafers. Using these etching techniques and tool, we have fabricated focal plane arrays with 30-μm pixel pitch and 320×256 format. The initial test revealed promising results.

  19. Environmentally friendly drive for gas compression applications: enhanced design of high-speed induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Karina Velloso; Pradurat, Jean Francois; Mercier, Jean Charles [Institut National Polytechncique, Lorrain (France). Converteam Motors Div.; Truchot, Patrick [Nancy Universite (France). Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs (ERPI)

    2008-07-01

    Taking into account the key issues faced by gas compressors users, this paper aims to help optimize the choice of the drive equipment as well as the driven equipment, in function of the cost of the whole installation life cycle. The design of the enhanced high-speed induction motor (MGV-Moteuer a Grande Vitesse) represents a technological breakthrough for the industry, it allows the direct coupling to the compressor, without using a gearbox making the system more efficient and reliable. From both micro and macro-economic viewpoints, the high-speed electric driver becomes a more efficient use of natural gas energy resources. This new technology associated with the electric option offers challenging and rewarding work to those responsible for the operation and maintenance of the compressor station. The electric option is not only conceptually viable but has a proven track record that justifies serious consideration as an alternative for reliably powering. Once an operator becomes comfortable with the prospects of motor-driven compression, the analysis of machine options requires only a few new approaches to fairly evaluate the alternatives. The application of this reasoning in projects using compression units is especially opportune, in view of the great variations of operational conditions and environmental issues. (author)

  20. Design and first operation of a supersonic gas jet based beam profile monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoganis, Vasilis; Zhang, Hao D.; Jeff, Adam; Welsch, Carsten P.

    2017-06-01

    Noninterceptive beam profile monitors are of great importance for many particle accelerators worldwide. Extra challenges are posed by high energy, high intensity machines and low energy low intensity accelerators. For these applications, existing diagnostics are no longer suitable due to the high power of the beam or the very low intensity. In addition, many other accelerators, from medical to industrial will benefit from a noninvasive, real time beam profile monitor. In this paper we present a new beam profile monitor with a novel design for the nozzle and skimmer configuration to generate a supersonic gas jet meeting ultrahigh vacuum conditions and we describe the first results for such a beam profile monitor at the Cockcroft Institute. This monitor is able to measure two-dimensional profiles of the particle beam while causing negligible disturbance to the beam or to the accelerator vacuum. The ultimate goal for this diagnostic is to provide a versatile and universal beam profile monitor suitable for measuring any beams.

  1. New design features of gas ionization detectors used for elastic recoil detection

    CERN Document Server

    Timmers, H; Ophel, T R

    2000-01-01

    Several alternative design features of large acceptance, gas ionization detectors have proven to be successful for application to elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). In particular, effects due to the distortion of the entrance field by a large area window have been eliminated in a simple fashion, to allow measurement of the initial rate of energy loss and to provide an energy- and species-independent cathode signal. No less importantly, use of a divided electrode in the anode plane has enabled a more straightforward means of determining the scattering angle that is required for kinematic corrections. An intermediate grid was found to provide a direct and true total energy signal, with only slightly diminished resolution compared with that of the summed total anode equivalent.

  2. Selective Laser Melting of Hot Gas Turbine Components: Materials, Design and Manufacturing Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2017-01-01

    are built additively to nearly net shape. This allows the fabrication of arbitrary complex geometries that cannot be made by conventional manufacturing techniques. However, despite the powerful capabilities of SLM, a number of issues (e.g. part orientation, support structures, internal stresses), have......Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allows the design and manufacturing of novel parts and structures with improved performance e.g. by incorporating complex and more efficient cooling schemes in hot gas turbine parts. In contrast to conventional manufacturing of removing material, with SLM parts...... to be considered in order to manufacture cost-effective and high quality parts at an industrial scale. These issues are discussed in the present work from an engineering point of view with the aim to provide simple quidelines to produce high quality SLM parts....

  3. Gas-cooled thorium reactor with fuel block of the unified design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shamanin

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of information materials pertaining to the use of thorium as fuel element in rector facilities of the new generation and of its future potential was performed in the present study. Results of the first phase of neutronics studies of 3D model of high-temperatures gas-cooled reactor facility on the basis of unified design of the fuel block are presented. Calculation 3D model was developed using the software code of the MCU-5 series. Several optimal configurations of the reactor core were selected according to the results of comparison of neutronics characteristics of the examined options for the purpose of development of small-size modular nuclear power installations with power up to 60MW. Results of calculations of reactivity margin of the reactor, neutron flux distribution and power density profiles are presented for the selected options of reactor core configuration.

  4. Selective Laser Melting of Hot Gas Turbine Components: Materials, Design and Manufacturing Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2017-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allows the design and manufacturing of novel parts and structures with improved performance e.g. by incorporating complex and more efficient cooling schemes in hot gas turbine parts. In contrast to conventional manufacturing of removing material, with SLM parts...... to be considered in order to manufacture cost-effective and high quality parts at an industrial scale. These issues are discussed in the present work from an engineering point of view with the aim to provide simple quidelines to produce high quality SLM parts....... are built additively to nearly net shape. This allows the fabrication of arbitrary complex geometries that cannot be made by conventional manufacturing techniques. However, despite the powerful capabilities of SLM, a number of issues (e.g. part orientation, support structures, internal stresses), have...

  5. Selective Laser Melting of Hot Gas Turbine Components: Materials, Design and Manufacturing Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2017-07-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allows the design and manufacturing of novel parts and structures with improved performance e.g. by incorporating complex and more efficient cooling schemes in hot gas turbine parts. In contrast to conventional manufacturing of removing material, with SLM parts are built additively to nearly net shape. This allows the fabrication of arbitrary complex geometries that cannot be made by conventional manufacturing techniques. However, despite the powerful capabilities of SLM, a number of issues (e.g. part orientation, support structures, internal stresses), have to be considered in order to manufacture cost-effective and high quality parts at an industrial scale. These issues are discussed in the present work from an engineering point of view with the aim to provide simple quidelines to produce high quality SLM parts.

  6. Behavior of free surface vortices in cylindrical vessel under fluctuating flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hideaki Monji; Toshinori Akimoto; Daisuke Miwa [Graduate School of System and Information Engineering University of Tsukuba Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Hideaki Kamide [New Thechnology Development Group, Advanced Technology Division O-arai Engineering Center, Japan Nucler Cycle Development Institute O-arai 311-1393 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper deals with characteristics of free surface vortices at an upper plenum in a Fast Breeder Reactor. The free surface vortex is one of the most important mechanisms causing gas entrainment. Because the gas entrainment affects on reactivity of the reactor, the estimation of the onset condition of gas entrainment is an important factor for design of the reactor. The gas entrainment due to the free surface vortex is a time series phenomena; (i) formation of a vortex dimple on the free surface, (ii) development of the gas core of the vortex by a downward flow, and (iii) gas entrainment by the separation of bubbles at a tip of the gas core. In this study, the gas entrainment by the bubble separation is focused on and the unsteady behavior of the gas core by the fluctuations of the flow conditions is investigated experimentally. In the experiment, the free surface vortex was generated in a cylindrical vessel with a tangential slit injection and the downward flow was by a suction pipe at the bottom. The working fluid was water and the vessel is under the atmospheric air. The gas core developed due to the circulating and downward flow. In order to know the unsteady behavior of the gas core, the injection flow rate into the vessel was changed as a sine wave, and the time series of the gas core geometry was measured by a stereo image processing. The results of the study are mainly as follows; (i) The gas core length changed with the water flow rate but the shape of the fluctuation of gas core length was not a sine wave. The core length decreased suddenly when the water flow rate decreased. This corresponds that the characteristic time of the flow for the increasing flow rate is longer than that for the decreasing flow rate. (ii) The gas core length under the fluctuating flow rate was shorter than that under the condition of the fixed water flow rate which is the same as the maximum water flow rate of the fluctuating flow. This fact

  7. Re-Design Lube Oil Cooler pada Turbin Gas dengan Analisa Termodinamika dan Perpindahan Panas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Duratun Nasiqiati Rosady

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada sebuah pembangkit listrik tenaga gas, sistem pelumasan turbin sangat diperlukan. Pelumas yang telah digunakan didinginkan kembali menggunakan lube oil cooler. Lube oil cooler merupakan compact heat exchanger tipe circular tubes, continuous fins yang berfungsi sebagai pendingin oli dengan udara sebagai fluida pendingin. Pada kondisi operasional didapatkan bahwa temperatur oli keluar lube oil cooler masih cukup tinggi. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan turbin gas shut down. Berdasarkan kondisi tersebut, maka dilakukan analisa performa lube oil cooler existing dan melakukan redesign untuk meningkatkan effectiveness dari lube oil cooler. Analisa performa lube oil cooler existing meliputi perpindahan panas actual dan effectiveness. Sedangkan redesign dilakukan dengan variasi laju aliran massa fluida dingin (udara dan surface designation berdasarkan standard Compact heat exchangers untuk tipe circular tubes, continuous fins. Dengan batasan yang digunakan dalam perancangan lube oil cooler adalah volume ruang penempatan heat exchanger. Perancangan menggunakan metode LMTD dan NTU meliputi perhitungan perpindahan panas pada sisi tubes dan fins, area perpindahan panas, heat transfer actual, overall heat transfer coefficient serta effectiveness. Dari perhitungan yang telah dilakukan didapatkan effectiveness dari lube oil cooler existing adalah sebesar 13.6%. Berdasarkan analisa redesign, hasil yang memiliki performa paling baik adalah surface designation 8.0-3/8 T dengan laju aliran massa udara 7.5 kg/s dengan temperatur keluar oli sebesar 342.14 K, effectiveness 29%. Adapun detail dimensi redesign adalah jumlah tubes 245, diameter tube 0.0102 m, jumlah fins/ meter 315, transverse pitch 0.022 m dan longitudinal pitch sebesar 0.0254 m.

  8. Thermal energy storage using Prestressed Cast Iron Vessels (PCIV). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilli, P.V.; Beckmann, G.; Schilling, F.E.

    1977-06-01

    The wide-spread application of thermal energy and high-pressure air storage to electric power generation has so far been hampered by the lack of large high-pressure storage vessels of reasonable cost. Welded steel vessels are too expensive for this purpose. However, the Prestressed Cast Iron Vessel (PCIV), developed as a nuclear reactor pressure vessel by Siempelkamp Giesserei KG of Krefeld, FRG, has the potential of complying with these requirements. Applications of the PCIV include: high-pressure air storage for the quick start-up of open cycle gas turbines; pressurized high-temperature sensible heat storage by means of solids with a gaseous heat transfer medium for closed cycle gas turbines of future solar power stations; and pressurized hot water storage for nuclear, solar, or coal-fired steam power plants, employing either separate peaking turbines or overloadable main turbine sets. A reference PCIV of 8000 m/sup 3/, 275/sup 0/C, with hot going walls and cold going tendons was developed, designed, and stress-analysed. A parametric study showed that pressures between 4 and 8 MPa and L/D ratios larger than 4 should be optimal. Cost of the reference vessel is about $10,000,000 or 33 to 50 $/kWh electric energy stored. Cost of peak power will be from 30 to 100 mills/kWh, depending on many parameters.

  9. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  10. Urban Form and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Findings, Strategies, and Design Decision Support Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael West Mehaffy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this dissertation contains three complementary and overlapping parts:One, “findings”: It assesses the factors of urban morphology that contribute to increased rates of greenhouse gas emissions per capita, and the ways they interact. It finds a significant but underrepresented set of factors, distinct from but relating the factors at the individual building scale and the scale of regional transportation systems.Two, “strategies”: It assesses the methodologies by which such findings might be put to use in identifying and achieving reductions through changes in urban design, and proposes new strategies to do so using innovative forms of design decision support tools.Three, “design decision support tools”: It then proposes a specific new technology, namely a new class of open-source scenario-modelling tool, embodied in new prototype software. The tool utilizes a new kind of “federated” web-based wiki technology incorporating design pattern languages, which was developed in collaboration with the software engineer and wiki inventor Ward Cunningham.As part of this research, it has been necessary to examine fundamental methodological questions, and to account for limitations of current data as well as current significant gaps in research. In the process, this research has made a modest contribution to the state of knowledge about additional research needed.For me, this work has also highlighted the need for urgent and effective reforms to current “business as usual” practices. The need is all the more urgent given unprecedented rates of urbanisation – much of it sprawling and resource-inefficient – taking place in many parts of the world today.

  11. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions of alternative pavement designs: framework development and illustrative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Qingbin; Schwartz, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pavement rehabilitation is carbon intensive and the choice of pavement type is a critical factor in controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The existing body of knowledge is not able to support decision-making on pavement choice due to a lack of consensus on the system boundaries, the functional units and the estimation periods. Excessive data requirements further inhibit the generalization of the existing methodologies for design evaluation at the early planning stage. This study proposes a practical life-cycle GHG estimation approach, which is arguably effective to benchmark pavement emissions given project bid tabulation. A set of case studies conducted for this study suggest that recycled asphalt pavement (e.g., foam stabilized base (FSB), and warm mix asphalt (WMA)) would prevent up to 50% of GHGs from the initial construction phase. However, from a life-cycle perspective, pavement emissions are dictated largely by the traffic characteristics and the analysis period for the use phase. The benefits from using recycled materials (e.g., FSB) are likely to diminish if the recycled products do not perform as well as those properly proportioned with less recycled materials, or if the recycled materials are locally unavailable. When the AADT reaches 10,000, use phase releases more than 97% of the life cycle emissions and the emissions difference among alternative designs will be within 1%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Breakdown Features of Various Microstrip-Type Gas Counter Designs and Their Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, V.; Ramsey, B. D.; Fonte, P.

    1998-01-01

    Breakdown mechanisms and spurious pulses, the precursors to some breakdowns, were studied experimentally for both uncoated and coated Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGCs) of different geometries, as well as for MicroGap Counters (MGCs) and for the "Compteur A Trou" (CAT). It was found that in all cases the breakdowns occurred through surface streamers, although the exact mechanism of streamer formation depended on the particular detector design. Based on these studies, new designs of microstrip detectors, in which the role of the substrate was minimized, were elaborated and tested. In some of these detectors, especially with large pitches (greater than 2mm), gains up to 2-3 x 10(exp 5) were achieved together with good rate characteristics. The ultimate gain limit in all geometries was still set by spark-inducing streamers which appeared at some critical charge density in the avalanche. To avoid this, and particularly to enhance the performance of small-pitch MSGCs, preamplification structures can be used. Utilizing a parallel plate avalanche chamber as a front end to an MSGC resulted in an overall gain of approximately 10(exp 6), limited in this case only by charge saturation.

  14. Network design assessment for greenhouse gas observing systems using Lagrangian footprint simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, C.; Pillai, D.; Kretschmer, R.; Karstens, U.; Koch, F. T.

    2011-12-01

    Deriving greenhouse gas balances at regional scales can be done via two approaches: up-scaling of local information such as from inventories for emissions and natural processes ("bottom-up"), or independently via combined atmospheric observations and inverse transport modeling ("top-down"). For the top-down approach, a dense coverage of the atmosphere with an observing network that enables a precise estimation of surface fluxes is associated with considerable costs. The European infrastructure project ICOS, (Integrated Carbon Observation System), together with Earth Networks, a US based Company, will largely increase the density of the atmospheric network within the next years. To facilitate decision-making with respect to the number and location of observing stations to be deployed, a quantitative network design tool is required that allows balancing cost and benefit. Here we assess different aspects of network design using the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model. We present sensitivities of mixing ratio observations from various potential networks to surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes (footprints), and assess impact from transport model uncertainties. Footprint analysis on specific temporal and spatial scales is used to assess the ability of a given network to detect spatial and temporal patterns and trends, and to investigate the impact of different a-priori assumptions for flux distributions on the potential to retrieve fluxes at reduced uncertainty bounds.

  15. Design and fabrication of a CMOS-compatible MHP gas sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel micro-hotplate (MHP gas sensor is designed and fabricated with a standard CMOS technology followed by post-CMOS processes. The tungsten plugging between the first and the second metal layer in the CMOS processes is designed as zigzag resistor heaters embedded in the membrane. In the post-CMOS processes, the membrane is released by front-side bulk silicon etching, and excellent adiabatic performance of the sensor is obtained. Pt/Ti electrode films are prepared on the MHP before the coating of the SnO2 film, which are promising to present better contact stability compared with Al electrodes. Measurements show that at room temperature in atmosphere, the device has a low power consumption of ∼19 mW and a rapid thermal response of 8 ms for heating up to 300 °C. The tungsten heater exhibits good high temperature stability with a slight fluctuation (<0.3% in the resistance at an operation temperature of 300 °C under constant heating mode for 336 h, and a satisfactory temperature coefficient of resistance of about 1.9‰/°C.

  16. Design and Development of a Wood-Fired Gasifier Prototype for Synthesis Gas Production and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neres Ann S. Manguiat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available -Synthesis gas formation which can be transformed to useful compounds through biomass gasification is perceived as one promising process of biofuel production. A construction, design and development of an efficient and small-scale wood-fired gasifier prototype was made at Batangas State University. This study included the costs and specifications of materials, the design, components and percent conversion of the biomass to syngas by obtaining the amount of the residue. Set of operating conditions were determined so as to achieve a good performance of the gasifier; otherwise it adversely affected the operation of the prototype. The gasifier operates in a condition in which the air flow rate is 560 - 610 cm3 /min wherein the valve is half-open and the blower is turned on after 20 seconds. The gasifier will be closed after a minute of start-up. With these conditions, the gasifier works accordingly to a smooth operation. Syngas was composed of methane (2.32 % volume, carbon dioxide (10 % volume, carbon monoxide and minimal amount of hydrogen. Two (2 kg of woodchips with 90.75% conversion was the best amount of feed suited for the operation of the gasifier. This innovation comprises a method which efficiently converts the feedstock thereby enhancing the energy of the syngas produced with byproducts at minimum acceptable value. The wood-fired gasifier will be a very helpful tool in contributing to the resolution of pressing social and environmental problems such as energy security and local agricultural waste pollution.

  17. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  18. Design principles and fabrication method for a miniaturized fuel gas combustion reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Veltkamp, Henk-Willem; de Boer, Meint J.; Zeng, Yaxiang; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    Wobbe Index meter is widely used to reflect the energy content and gas quality of a fuel gas mixture. It is highly in demand to downscale from the conventionally large Wobbe Index facility to a miniaturized Wobbe Index meter. Therefore spontaneously combustion of the fuel gas/air mixtures on a

  19. Decentralized (bio)gas storage design with small scale MTT/CAES/TES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Pelletier; R. de Boer; H. van Weerden; F. Koopman; M. de Rooij

    2014-01-01

    The increase in renewable energy sources will require an increase in the operational flexibility of the grid, due to the intermittent nature of these sources. This can be achieved for the gas and the electricity grid, which are integrated by means of power-to-gas and vice versa, by applying gas and

  20. Study on in-vessel thermohydraulics phenomena of sodium-cooled fast reactors. 3. Numerical investigation for thermal stratification phenomena in the upper plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Akira [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Wakita, Junichi [Customer System Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    A large-scale sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor in the feasibility studies on commercialized fast reactors has a feature of consideration of thorough simplified and compacted systems and components design to realize drastic economical improvements. Therefore, special attentions should be paid to thermohydraulic designs for gas entrainment behavior from free surface, flow-induced vibration of in-vessel components, thermal stratification in the plenum, thermal shock for various structures due to high-speed coolant flows, nonsymmetrical coolant flows, etc. in the reactor vessel. In-vessel thermohydraulic analyses were carried out using a multi-dimensional code AQUA to understand the thermal stratification characteristics in the upper plenum, and to investigate trade-off relations between gas entrainment and thermal stratification phenomena on in-vessel structures for the elimination of gas entrainment possibility. From the analysis, the following results were obtained. (1) Dummy plug insertion to a slit of the upper core structure is one of the effective measures to stabilize the in-vessel flow patterns and to mitigate in-vessel thermal shocks. (2) Though flow guide device such as a baffle ring attached to reactor vessel wall is an effective measure to eliminate impinging jet to dipped plate, rising characteristics of the thermal stratification interface are affected by the baffle ring devise. (3) Thermal stratification characteristics are not influenced very much by the installation of a partial inner barrel to the dipped plate, which is an effective measure to reduce the horizontal flow velocity components at free surface. (4) Labyrinth structures to the gap between the reactor vessel wall and the outer dipped plate have direct effects upon in-vessel thermal shock characteristics including thermal stratification phenomena due to the closing of flow path between the upper plenum and the free surface plenum. (author)

  1. Design and Experimentation with Sandwich Microstructure for Catalytic Combustion-Type Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Tao Gu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional handmade catalytic combustion gas sensor has some problems such as a pairing difficulty, poor consistency, high power consumption, and not being interchangeable. To address these issues, integrated double catalytic combustion of alcohol gas sensor was designed and manufactured using silicon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology. The temperature field of the sensor is analyzed using the ANSYS finite element analysis method. In this work, the silicon oxide-PECVD-oxidation technique is used to manufacture a SiO2-Si3N2-SiO2 microstructure carrier with a sandwich structure, while wet etching silicon is used to form a beam structure to reduce the heat consumption. Thin-film technology is adopted to manufacture the platinum-film sensitive resistance. Nano Al2O3-ZrO-ThO is coated to format the sensor carrier, and the sensitive unit is dipped in a Pt-Pd catalyst solution to form the catalytic sensitive bridge arm. Meanwhile the uncoated catalyst carrier is considered as the reference unit, realizing an integrated chip based on a micro double bridge and forming sensors. The lines of the Pt thin-film resistance have been observed with an electronic microscope. The compensation of the sensitive material carriers and compensation materials have been analyzed using an energy spectrum. The results show that the alcohol sensor can detect a volume fraction between 0 and 4,500 × 10−6 and has good linear output characteristic. The temperature ranges from −20 to +40 °C. The humidity ranges from 30% to 85% RH. The zero output of the sensor is less than ±2.0% FS. The power consumption is ≤0.2 W, and both the response and recovery time are approximately 20 s.

  2. Design and experimentation with sandwich microstructure for catalytic combustion-type gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Yong-De; Jiang, Jin-Gang

    2014-03-12

    The traditional handmade catalytic combustion gas sensor has some problems such as a pairing difficulty, poor consistency, high power consumption, and not being interchangeable. To address these issues, integrated double catalytic combustion of alcohol gas sensor was designed and manufactured using silicon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The temperature field of the sensor is analyzed using the ANSYS finite element analysis method. In this work, the silicon oxide-PECVD-oxidation technique is used to manufacture a SiO2-Si3N2-SiO2 microstructure carrier with a sandwich structure, while wet etching silicon is used to form a beam structure to reduce the heat consumption. Thin-film technology is adopted to manufacture the platinum-film sensitive resistance. Nano Al2O3-ZrO-ThO is coated to format the sensor carrier, and the sensitive unit is dipped in a Pt-Pd catalyst solution to form the catalytic sensitive bridge arm. Meanwhile the uncoated catalyst carrier is considered as the reference unit, realizing an integrated chip based on a micro double bridge and forming sensors. The lines of the Pt thin-film resistance have been observed with an electronic microscope. The compensation of the sensitive material carriers and compensation materials have been analyzed using an energy spectrum. The results show that the alcohol sensor can detect a volume fraction between 0 and 4,500 × 10(-6) and has good linear output characteristic. The temperature ranges from -20 to +40 °C. The humidity ranges from 30% to 85% RH. The zero output of the sensor is less than ±2.0% FS. The power consumption is ≤0.2 W, and both the response and recovery time are approximately 20 s.

  3. Design of Plant Gas Exchange Experiments in a Variable Pressure Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1996-01-01

    Sustainable human presence in extreme environments such as lunar and martian bases will require bioregenerative components to human life support systems where plants are used for generation of oxygen, food, and water. Reduced atmospheric pressures will be used to minimize mass and engineering requirements. Few studies have assessed the metabolic and developmental responses of plants to reduced pressure and varied oxygen atmospheres. The first tests of hypobaric pressures on plant gas exchange and biomass production at the Johnson Space Center will be initiated in January 1996 in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), a large, closed plant growth chamber rated for 10.2 psi. Experiments were designed and protocols detailed for two complete growouts each of lettuce and wheat to generate a general database for human life support requirements and to answer questions about plant growth processes in reduced pressure and varied oxygen environments. The central objective of crop growth studies in the VPGC is to determine the influence of reduced pressure and reduced oxygen on the rates of photosynthesis, dark respiration, evapotranspiration and biomass production of lettuce and wheat. Due to the constraint of one experimental unit, internal controls, called pressure transients, will be used to evaluate rates of CO2 uptake, O2 evolution, and H2O generation. Pressure transients will give interpretive power to the results of repeated growouts at both reduced and ambient pressures. Other experiments involve the generation of response functions to partial pressures of O2 and CO2 and to light intensity. Protocol for determining and calculating rates of gas exchange have been detailed. In order to build these databases and implement the necessary treatment combinations in short time periods, specific requirements for gas injections and removals have been defined. A set of system capability checks will include determination of leakage rates conducted prior to the actual crop

  4. High Toughness Light Weight Pressure Vessel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is a pressure vessel with 25% better Fracture Strength over equal strength designed Fiberglass to help reduce 10 to 25% weight for aerospace use. Phase I is...

  5. Design of a tritium gas cell for beta-ray induced X-ray spectrometry using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Masanori, E-mail: masahara@ctg.u-toyama.ac.jp [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Organization for Promotion of Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama City, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Abe, Shinsuke; Matsuyama, Masao [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Organization for Promotion of Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama City, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Aso, Tsukasa [Electronics and Computer Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 1-2 Ebie-neriya, Imizu City, Toyama 933-0293 (Japan); Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi; Kawakami, Tomohiko; Ito, Takeshi [KAKEN Company Limited, 1044 Horimachi, Mito City, Ibaraki 310-0903 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Beta-ray induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) is a method for tritium gas analysis. • Gas cell for BIXS was designed by Monte Carlo simulations. • The optimum thickness of the gold layer on a beryllium window was around 150 nm. • This simulation model considered the self-absorption with increasing the cell length. - Abstract: One of the methods used for tritium gas analysis is beta-ray induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS). Gas cell design is important in this method. The structure of the gas cell for BIXS was optimized by Monte Carlo simulation of beta-ray induced X-ray spectra in various window geometries using the Geant4 tool kit (version 10.01.p02). The simulated spectrum from tritium decay fitted the observed one, and the simulation model was used to obtain the cell parameters for BIXS. The optimum thickness of the gold layer on a beryllium window was around 150 nm. This simulation model also considered the relationship between self-absorption by hydrogen gas and the cell length. Self-absorption increased with increasing cell length and the relationship between the sample pressure and cell length was formulated.

  6. The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor: Report on Safety System Design for Decay Heat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. D. Weaver; T. Marshall; T. Y. C. Wei; E. E. Feldman; M. J. Driscoll; H. Ludewig

    2003-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radiotoxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. This report addresses/discusses the decay heat removal options available to the GFR, and the current solutions. While it is possible to design a GFR with complete passive safety (i.e., reliance solely on conductive and radiative heat transfer for decay heat removal), it has been shown that the low power density results in unacceptable fuel cycle costs for the GFR. However, increasing power density results in higher decay heat rates, and the attendant temperature increase in the fuel and core. Use of active movers, or blowers/fans, is possible during accident conditions, which only requires 3% of nominal flow to remove the decay heat. Unfortunately, this requires reliance on active systems. In order to incorporate passive systems, innovative designs have been studied, and a mix of passive and active systems appears to meet the requirements for decay heat removal during accident conditions.

  7. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  8. Design and test of a simple fast electromagnetic inductive gas valve for planar pulsed inductive plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dawei; Cheng, Mousen; Li, Xiaokang

    2017-10-01

    In support of our planar pulsed inductive plasma thruster research, a fast electromagnetic inductive valve for a gas propellant injection system has been built and tested. A new and important design feature is the use of a conical diaphragm as the action part, which greatly contributes to the virtue of simplicity for adopting the resultant force of the diaphragm deformation as the closing force. An optical transmission technique is adopted to measure the opening and closing characters of the valve while the gas throughput is determined by measuring the pressure change per pulse in a test chamber with a capacitance manometer. The experimental results revealed that the delay time before the valve reaction is less than 40 μs, and the valve pulse width is no longer than 160 μs full width at half maximum. The valve delivers 0-2.5 mg of argon gas per pulse varied by adjusting the drive voltage and gas pressure.

  9. METC CFD simulations of hot gas filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the fluid/particle flow in several hot gas filtration vessels will be presented. These simulations have been useful in designing filtration vessels and in diagnosing problems with filter operation. The simulations were performed using the commercial code FLUENT and the METC-developed code MFIX. Simulations of the initial configuration of the Karhula facility indicated that the dirty gas flow over the filter assemblage was very non-uniform. The force of the dirty gas inlet flow was inducing a large circulation pattern that caused flow around the candles to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the vessel. By introducing a system of baffles, a more uniform flow pattern was developed. This modification may have contributed to the success of the project. Several simulations of configurations proposed by Industrial Filter and Pump were performed, varying the position of the inlet. A detailed resolution of the geometry of the candles allowed determination of the flow between the individual candles. Recent simulations in support of the METC/CeraMem Cooperative Research and Development Agreement have analyzed the flow in the vessel during the cleaning back-pulse. Visualization of experiments at the CeraMem cold-flow facility provided confidence in the use of CFD. Extensive simulations were then performed to assist in the design of the hot test facility being built by Ahlstrom/Pyropower. These tests are intended to demonstrate the CeraMem technology.

  10. Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagy, Laura E; Johnson, Brenda M; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2008-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system's performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland cells planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and Typha latifolia were used to treat fresh and brackish waters. Saline and hypersaline waters were treated by saltwater wetland cells planted with Spartina alterniflora and by reverse osmosis. Effective removal of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was achieved by the pilot-scale system. Results suggest that use of specifically designed constructed wetland treatment systems provides a flexible and effective approach for treating gas storage produced waters over a wide range of compositions.

  11. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  12. Background gas density and beam losses in NIO1 beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, v.le dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is a versatile ion source designed to study the physics of production and acceleration of H- beams up to 60 keV. In ion sources, the gas is steadily injected in the plasma source to sustain the discharge, while high vacuum is maintained by a dedicated pumping system located in the vessel. In this paper, the three dimensional gas flow in NIO1 is studied in the molecular flow regime by the Avocado code. The analysis of the gas density profile along the accelerator considers the influence of effective gas temperature in the source, of the gas temperature accommodation by collisions at walls, and of the gas particle mass. The calculated source and vessel pressures are compared with experimental measurements in NIO1 during steady gas injection.

  13. 46 CFR 90.10-16 - Industrial vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-16 Industrial vessel. This term means every vessel which by reason of its special outfit, purpose, design, or function engages in certain industrial... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial vessel. 90.10-16 Section 90.10-16 Shipping...

  14. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH-[TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James; Bayless, Paul; Strydom, Gerhard; Kumar, Akansha; Gougar, Hans

    2016-11-01

    A point design for a graphite-moderated, high-temperature, gas-cooled test reactor (HTG TR) has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as part of a United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to explore and potentially expand the existing U.S. test reactor capabilities. This paper provides a summary of the design and its main attributes. The 200 MW HTG TR is a thermal-neutron spectrum reactor composed of hexagonal prismatic fuel and graphite reflector blocks. Twelve fuel columns (96 fuel blocks total and 6.34 m active core height) are arranged in two hexagonal rings to form a relatively compact, high-power density, annular core sandwiched between inner, outer, top, and bottom graphite reflectors. The HTG-TR is designed to operate at 7 MPa with a coolant inlet/outlet temperature of 325°C/650°C, and utilizes TRISO particle fuel from the DOE AGR Program with 425 ?m uranium oxycarbide (UCO) kernels and an enrichment of 15.5 wt% 235U. The primary mission of the HTG TR is material irradiation and therefore the core has been specifically designed and optimized to provide the highest possible thermal and fast neutron fluxes. The highest thermal neutron flux (3.90E+14 n/cm2s) occurs in the outer reflector, and the maximum fast flux levels (1.17E+14 n/cm2s) are produced in the central reflector column where most of the graphite has been removed. Due to high core temperatures under accident conditions, all the irradiation test facilities have been located in the inner and outer reflectors where fast flux levels decline. The core features a large number of irradiation positions with large test volumes and long test lengths, ideal for thermal neutron irradiation of large test articles. The total available test volume is more than 1100 liters. Up to four test loop facilities can be accommodated with pressure tube boundaries to isolate test articles and test fluids (e.g., liquid metal, liquid salt, light water) from the helium primary coolant system.

  15. Assessment and Design of Illumination in the Unit of Carbon Dioxide Gas of Khuzestan Zam Zam Company

    OpenAIRE

    Rangkooy; Zangeneh; Lefti

    2015-01-01

    Background Light is the first that necessary for any effort. This factor, more than any physical variable, affects human labor. Two properties of cognitive and psychological lighting in the workplace can affect human performance. Objectives This study aimed to assess the illuminance in CO2 Gas unit of Khuzestan Zam Zam Company, and resolve its light deficiency through artificial lighting design. ...

  16. Design and synthesis of copper-cobalt catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to ethanol and higher alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieto Gonzalez, Gonzalo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328231703; Beijer, Steven; Smith, Miranda L.; He, Ming; Au, Yuen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328200360; Wang, Zi; Bruce, David A.; De Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X; Spivey, James J.; De Jongh, Petra E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372

    2014-01-01

    Combining quantum-mechanical simulations and synthesis tools allows the design of highly efficient CuCo/MoOx catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas (CO+H2) into ethanol and higher alcohols, which are of eminent interest for the production of platform chemicals from non-petroleum

  17. Design and development of a propulsion system for a cubesat - Based on solid propellant cool gas generator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackemann, N.J.; Sanders, H.M.; Vliet, L.D. van

    2006-01-01

    Orbital manoeuvring is the next challenge in the development of cubesats. In this study a propulsion system for a cubesat with the main purpose of providing orbit manoeuvring and formation flying has been designed. This propulsion system is basically a cold gas system but it does not use a

  18. Conceptual design of sustainable integrated microalgae biorefineries: Parametric analysis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and techno-economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada, John A.; Brentner, Laura B.; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Patel, Martin K.

    This study covers four main aspects of the conceptual design of sustainable integrated microalgae-based biorefineries using flue gas from CO2-intensive industries (i.e. 100% CO2): i) screening of technologies (4 options for cultivation, 3 for culture dewatering, 3 for cell disruption, 4 for lipids

  19. Conceptual design of sustainable integrated microalgae biorefineries : Parametric analysis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and techno-economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada Duque, J.A.; Brentner, L.B.; Ramirez, A; Patel, MK

    2016-01-01

    This study covers four main aspects of the conceptual design of sustainable integrated microalgae-based biorefineries using flue gas from CO2-intensive industries (i.e. 100% CO2): i) screening of technologies (4 options for cultivation, 3 for culture dewatering, 3 for cell disruption, 4 for lipids

  20. Conceptual design of sustainable integrated microalgae biorefineries: Parametric analysis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and techno-economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posada, John; Brentner, Laura; Ramirez, Andrea; Patel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study covers four main aspects of the conceptual design of sustainable integrated microalgae-based biorefineries using flue gas from CO2-intensive industries (i.e. 100% CO2): i) screening of technologies (4 options for cultivation, 3 for culture dewatering, 3 for cell disruption, 4 for lipids

  1. Design and first operation of a supersonic gas jet based beam profile monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Tzoganis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninterceptive beam profile monitors are of great importance for many particle accelerators worldwide. Extra challenges are posed by high energy, high intensity machines and low energy low intensity accelerators. For these applications, existing diagnostics are no longer suitable due to the high power of the beam or the very low intensity. In addition, many other accelerators, from medical to industrial will benefit from a noninvasive, real time beam profile monitor. In this paper we present a new beam profile monitor with a novel design for the nozzle and skimmer configuration to generate a supersonic gas jet meeting ultrahigh vacuum conditions and we describe the first results for such a beam profile monitor at the Cockcroft Institute. This monitor is able to measure two-dimensional profiles of the particle beam while causing negligible disturbance to the beam or to the accelerator vacuum. The ultimate goal for this diagnostic is to provide a versatile and universal beam profile monitor suitable for measuring any beams.

  2. Design and fabrication of capacitive interdigitated electrodes for smart gas sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2016-09-05

    In this paper, we study the design parameters of capacitive interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) and the effect of these parameters on the sensitivity of the IDEs when employed as a capacitive gas sensor. Finite element simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics were carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the capacitive sensor. Simulations show that for permittivity-based sensing, the optimum thickness of the sensing film is slightly more than half the wavelength of the IDEs structure. On the other hand, sensing films that are thinner than half wavelength should be used if the required sensing mechanism is based on structural swelling. Increasing the IDEs metal thickness can increase the sensitivity by increasing the sidewall electric field, but this is only true if the sensing film is thick enough to completely fill the spacing between the electrodes. A simple and reliable IDEs structure and fabrication process are proposed. Physical dry etching provides good yield and fine resolution compared to liftoff technique. Fabricated and packaged prototype sensors are presented. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. FUNDAMENTALS OF STRUCTURAL TYPOLOGY DEVICE DESIGN WITH A GAS BEARING LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Аvtsinоv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the typical stages of a structural typology of devices allowing them to design quality in the automatic mode on the known parameters of products (parts and the required processing operations with them. In the first stage classification it was organized as a piece of specific products and devices for the manipulation of the latter. Specifics items described their physical – mechanical properties, geometry and their application. The most frequently described specific products are used in pharmaceutical, perfume, food, microelectronics, electrical engineering, electronics. The main elements of the proposed device is a carrier working surface over which a thin layer of gas is created. Depending on the position (horizontal or vertical of the form of its movement (rotation, rotational – translational or is stationary, and the configuration of the carrier operating the surface implement various manufacturing operations (targeting, positioning, shaping, classification, transport, heat treatment, weight control, assembly, culling, and others. The second stage was to mathematically describe the relationship of the specificity of piece goods, with design features of devices supporting the work surface and sold them operations. For this purpose, the device has been used in discrete mathematics, with which you can produce a description of all types of devices, and then make a conclusion such as the work surface meets the specified requirements. The apparent advantage of using predicate logic to this problem is fairly simple implementation of the algorithm of structural typology, which can be expressed using a declarative programming language. In the third phase, work is underway to create the necessary algorithmic language program "Prolog" and presented the structure of the imperative and declarative implementation of the algorithm.

  4. Design, techno-economic and environmental risk assessment of aero-derivative industrial gas turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Abaad, Abdelmanam

    2012-01-01

    Increased availability of natural gas has boosted research and development efforts to further increase gas turbine performance. Performance has been increased remarkably and unit cost reduced due to achievements gained in improving thermodynamic cycles and cooling technologies. However, increased complexity in power industry regulations and fluctuations in fuel price have indicated that all the aforementioned improvements in gas turbine performance could not cope with the in...

  5. Design and Development of Gas Leakage Monitoring System Using Arduino and ZigBee

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Huan Hui; Rahayu, Yusnita

    2014-01-01

    Gas leakage in industrial area causes many health issues. Thus, to prevent such disasters happen, the atmosphere of a workplace should be regularly monitored and controlled, in order to maintain the clean air environment. However, efforts in industrial air quality control have been impeded by the lack of science-based approaches to identify and assess atmosphere air quality and level of dangerous gas. Therefore, a monitoring system for gas leakage detection needs to be developed. For the deve...

  6. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  7. Conceptual design for a kerosene fuel-rich gas-generator of a turbopump-fed liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Koo, Jaye; Cho, Won Kook; Lee, Eun Seok

    2012-10-01

    A design method for a kerosene fuel-rich gas-generator of a liquid rocket engine using turbopumps to supply propellant was performed at a conceptual level. The gas-generator creates hot gases, enabling the turbine to operate the turbopumps. A chemical non-equilibrium analysis and a droplet vaporization model were used for the estimation of the burnt gas properties and characteristic chamber length. A premixed counter-flow flame analysis was performed for the prediction of the burnt gas properties, namely the temperature, the specific heat ratio and heat capacity, and the chemical reaction time. To predict the vaporization time, the Spalding model, using a single droplet in convective condition, was used. The minimum residence time in the chamber and the characteristic length were calculated by adding the reaction time and the vaporization time. Using the characteristic length, the design methods for the fuel-rich gas-generator were established. Finally, a parametric study was achieved for the effects of the O/F ratio, mass flow rate, chamber pressure, initial droplet temperature, initial droplet diameter and initial droplet velocity.

  8. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  9. Transient evolution of inter vessel gap pressure due to relative thermal expansion between two vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    In a typical liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), a cylindrical sodium filled main vessel, which carries the internals such as reactor core, pumps, intermediate heat exchangers etc. is surrounded by another vessel called safety vessel. The inter vessel gap is filled with nitrogen. During a thermal transient in the pool sodium, because of the relative delay involved in the thermal diffusion between MV and SV, they are subjected to relative thermal expansion or contraction between them. This in turn results in pressurisation and depressurisation of inter vessel gap nitrogen respectively. In order to obtain the external pressurization for the buckling design of MV, transient thermal models for obtaining the evolutions of MV, SV and inter gap nitrogen temperatures and hence their relative thermal expansion and inter vessel gap pressure have been developed. This paper gives the details of the mathematical model, assumptions made in the calculation and the results of the analysis.

  10. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  11. Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Woo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the enhancement of gas sensing properties, and specifically the improvement of gas selectivity of metal oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW networks grown by chemical vapor deposition and thermal evaporation, are reviewed. Highly crystalline NWs grown by vapor-phase routes have various advantages, and thus have been applied in the field of gas sensors over the years. In particular, n-type NWs such as SnO2, ZnO, and In2O3 are widely studied because of their simple synthetic preparation and high gas response. However, due to their usually high responses to C2H5OH and NO2, the selective detection of other harmful and toxic gases using oxide NWs remains a challenging issue. Various strategies—such as doping/loading of noble metals, decorating/doping of catalytic metal oxides, and the formation of core–shell structures—have been explored to enhance gas selectivity and sensitivity, and are discussed herein. Additional methods such as the transformation of n-type into p-type NWs and the formation of catalyst-doped hierarchical structures by branch growth have also proven to be promising for the enhancement of gas selectivity. Accordingly, the physicochemical modification of oxide NWs via various methods provides new strategies to achieve the selective detection of a specific gas, and after further investigations, this approach could pave a new way in the field of NW-based semiconductor-type gas sensors.

  12. On the optimal design of membrane-based gas separation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Gazzani, Matteo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412517361; Mazzotti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Gas-separation processes are of paramount importance for several industrial applications. In this context, membrane-based gas separation has a great innovation potential in term of limiting the energy consumption and simplifying the process operation and control. Much of the research in this field

  13. Design and fabrication of data logger to measure the ambient parameters in gas detector R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.; Nag, D.; Rudra, S.; Swain, S.; Biswas, S.; Das, S.; Sahu, P. K.

    2017-05-01

    A novel instrument has been developed to monitor and record the ambient parameters such as temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. With this data logger continuous recording of temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and the time stamp can be done with a programmable sampling interval. The device is interfaced with computer by Lab-view software. This instrument is very economical and these parameters are very essential for understanding the characteristics of gas filled detectors such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and Multi Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC). In this article the details of the design, fabrication and operation processes of the device have been presented.

  14. Gas chromatography vs. quantum cascade laser-based N2O flux measurements using a novel chamber design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruemmer, Christian; Lyshede, Bjarne; Lempio, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    automated chamber system against a conventional gas chromatography (GC) approach using the same chambers plus an automated gas sampling unit with septum capped vials and subsequent laboratory GC analysis. Through its high precision and time resolution, data of the QCL system were used for quantifying...... conditions, although single flux values were highly scattered during the low efflux campaign. Furthermore, the QCL technology provides a useful tool to accurately investigate the highly debated topic of diurnal courses of N2O fluxes and its controlling factors. Our new chamber design protects the measurement...

  15. Design of a portable gas chromatography with a conducting polymer nanocomposite detector device and a method to analyze a gas mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsa, Sajad

    2017-04-01

    A portable chromatography device and a method were developed to analyze a gas mixture. The device comprises a chromatographic column for separating components of a sample of the gas mixture. It has an air pump coupled to the inlet of a chromatographic column for pumping air and an injector coupled to the inlet of chromatographic column for feeding the sample using the air as a carrier gas. A detector is arranged downstream from and coupled to the outlet of the chromatographic column. The detector is a nanostructure semiconductive microfiber. The device further comprises an evaluation unit arranged and configured to evaluate each detected component to determine the concentration. The designed portable system was used for simultaneous detection of amines. The possibility of applying dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of analytes in trace levels is demonstrated. The reproducibility of this method is acceptable, and good standard deviations were obtained. The relative standard deviation value is less than 6% for all analytes. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of analytes in water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Analysis of gravity-induced particle motion and fluid perfusion flow in the NASA-designed rotating zero-head-space tissue culture vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    The gravity induced motions, through the culture media, is calculated of living tissue segments cultured in the NASA rotating zero head space culture vessels. This is then compared with the media perfusion speed which is independent of gravity. The results may be interpreted as a change in the physical environment which will occur by operating the NASA tissue culture systems in actual microgravity (versus unit gravity). The equations governing particle motions which induce flows at the surface of tissues contain g terms. This allows calculation of the fluid flow speed, with respect to a cultured particle, as a function of the external gravitational field strength. The analysis is approached from a flow field perspective. Flow is proportional to the shear exerted on a structure which maintains position within the field. The equations are solved for the deviation of a particle from its original position in a circular streamline as a function of time. The radial deviation is important for defining the operating limits and dimensions of the vessel because of the finite radius at which particles necessarily intercept the wall. This analysis uses a rotating reference frame concept.

  17. 3D Printing of Artificial Blood Vessel: Study on Multi-Parameter Optimization Design for Vascular Molding Effect in Alginate and Gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanbao Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing has emerged as one of the modern tissue engineering techniques that could potentially form scaffolds (with or without cells, which is useful in treating cardiovascular diseases. This technology has attracted extensive attention due to its possibility of curing disease in tissue engineering and organ regeneration. In this paper, we have developed a novel rotary forming device, prepared an alginate–gelatin solution for the fabrication of vessel-like structures, and further proposed a theoretical model to analyze the parameters of motion synchronization. Using this rotary forming device, we firstly establish a theoretical model to analyze the thickness under the different nozzle extrusion speeds, nozzle speeds, and servo motor speeds. Secondly, the experiments with alginate–gelatin solution are carried out to construct the vessel-like structures under all sorts of conditions. The experiment results show that the thickness cannot be adequately predicted by the theoretical model and the thickness can be controlled by changing the parameters. Finally, the optimized parameters of thickness have been adjusted to estimate the real thickness in 3D printing.

  18. Drug-eluting or bare-metal stents for large coronary vessel stenting? The BASKET-PROVE (PROspective Validation Examination) trial: Study protocol and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, M.; Bertel, O.; Bonetti, P.O.

    2008-01-01

    Background Based on a subgroup analysis of 18-month BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitats Trial (BASKET) outcome data, we hypothesized that very late (>12 months) stent thrombosis occurs predominantly after drug-eluting stent implantation in large native coronary vessel stenting. Methods To prove or r...... to cobalt-chromium bare-metal stents in this relevant, low-risk group of everyday patients. In addition, a comparison with similar BASKET patients will allow to estimate the impact of 12-versus 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy on these outcomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4......Background Based on a subgroup analysis of 18-month BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitats Trial (BASKET) outcome data, we hypothesized that very late (>12 months) stent thrombosis occurs predominantly after drug-eluting stent implantation in large native coronary vessel stenting. Methods To prove...... or refute this hypothesis, we set up an 11-center 4-country prospective trial of 2260 consecutive patients treated with >= 3.0-mm stents only, randomized to receive Cypher (Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, FL), Vision (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Laboratories, IL), or Xience stents (Abbott Vascular). Only...

  19. Analysis of the micro-structural damages by neutronic irradiation of the steel of reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Characterization of the design steel; Analisis de los danos micro-estructurales por irradiacion neutronica del acero de la vasija de los reactores de la Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde. Caracterizacion del acero de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moranchel y Rodriguez, M.; Garcia B, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Luis Enrique Erro s/n, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: mmoranchel@ipn.m [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The vessel of a nuclear reactor is one of the safety barriers more important in the design, construction and operation of the reactor. If the vessel results affected to the grade of to have fracture and/or cracks it is very probable the conclusion of their useful life in order to guarantee the nuclear safety and the radiological protection of the exposure occupational personnel, of the public and the environment avoiding the exposition to radioactive sources. The materials of the vessel of a nuclear reactor are exposed continually to the neutronic irradiation that generates the same nuclear reactor. The neutrons that impact to the vessel have the sufficient energy to penetrate certain depth in function of the energy of the incident neutron until reaching the repose or to be absorbed by some nucleus. In the course of their penetration, the neutrons interact with the nuclei, atoms, molecules and with the same crystalline nets of the vessel material producing vacuums, interstitial, precipitate and segregations among other defects that can modify the mechanical properties of the steel. The steel A533-B is the material with which is manufactured the vessel of the nuclear reactors of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, is an alloy that, among other components, it contains atoms of Ni that if they are segregated by the neutrons impact this would favor to the cracking of the same vessel. This work is part of an investigation to analyze the micro-structural damages of the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde due to the neutronic irradiation which is exposed in a continuous way. We will show the characterization of the design steel of the vessel, what offers a comprehension about their chemical composition, the superficial topography and the crystalline nets of the steel A533-B. It will also allow analyze the existence of precipitates, segregates, the type of crystalline net and the distances inter-plains of the design steel of the vessel. (Author)

  20. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  1. Splitter-bladed centrifugal compressor impeller designed for automotive gas turbine application. [at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampreen, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical design and fabrication of two splitter-bladed centrifugal compressor impellers were completed for rig testing at NASA Lewis Research Center. These impellers were designed for automotive gas turbine application. The mechanical design was based on NASA specifications for blade-shape and flowpath configurations. The contractor made engineering drawings and performed calculations for mass and center-of-gravity, for stress and vibration analyses, and for shaft critical speed analysis. One impeller was machined to print; the other had a blade height and exit radius of 2.54 mm larger than print dimensions.

  2. Experimental study and comparison of various designs of gas flow fields to PEM fuel cells and cell stack performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eLiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to PEM fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells all have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm2. The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still favorable, giving the best single fuel cell performance amongst all the studied flow channel designs. A novel symmetric serpentine flow field was proposed for relatively large size fuel cell application. Four fuel cell stacks each including four cells were assembled using different designs of serpentine flow channels. The output power performances of fuel cell stacks were compared and the novel symmetric serpentine flow field design is recommended for its very good performance.

  3. Cycle development and design for CO2 capture from flue gas by vacuum swing adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A

    2008-01-15

    CO2 capture and storage is an important component in the development of clean power generation processes. One CO2 capture technology is gas-phase adsorption, specifically pressure (or vacuum) swing adsorption. The complexity of these processes makes evaluation and assessment of new adsorbents difficult and time-consuming. In this study, we have developed a simple model specifically targeted at CO2 capture by pressure swing adsorption and validated our model by comparison with data from a fully instrumented pilot-scale pressure swing adsorption process. The model captures nonisothermal effects as well as nonlinear adsorption and nitrogen coadsorption. Using the model and our apparatus, we have designed and studied a large number of cycles for CO2 capture. We demonstrate that by careful management of adsorption fronts and assembly of cycles based on understanding of the roles of individual steps, we are able to quickly assess the effect of adsorbents and process parameters on capture performance and identify optimal operating regimes and cycles. We recommend this approach in contrast to exhaustive parametric studies which tend to depend on specifics of the chosen cycle and adsorbent. We show that appropriate combinations of process steps can yield excellent process performance and demonstrate how the pressure drop, and heat loss, etc. affect process performance through their effect on adsorption fronts and profiles. Finally, cyclic temperature profiles along the adsorption column can be readily used to infer concentration profiles-this has proved to be a very useful tool in cyclic function definition. Our research reveals excellent promise for the application of pressure/vacuum swing adsorption technology in the arena of CO2 capture from flue gases.

  4. A study of reactor vessel integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung; Shin, Chang Ho; Seo, Bo Kyun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The fast neutron fluence at the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) of KNGR designed for 60 years lifetime was calculated by full-scope Monte Carlo simulation for reactor vessel integrity assessment. KNGR core geometry was modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-sixteenth of the reactor in-vessel component. Each fuel assemblies were modeled explicitly, and each fuel pins were axially divided into 5 segments. The maximum flux of 4.3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. sec at the RPV was obtained by tallying neutrons crossing the beltline of inner surface of the RPV.

  5. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  6. Design and performance of a pressurized cyclone combustor (PCC) for high and low heating value gas combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-attab, K.A.; Zainal, Z.A. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-04-15

    The combustion difficulties for low heating value (LHV) gases derived from biomass fuels via a gasification process have led to more investigations into LHV gas combustors. Cyclone combustors provide good air/fuel mixing with long residence times. In this study, a small-scale pressurized cyclone combustor (PCC) was designed and optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The PCC, along with a turbocharger-based, two-stage microturbine engine, was first characterized experimentally with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuel and then with both LPG and LHV gas derived from biomass in dual-fuel mode. The combustor achieved ultra-low CO and NO{sub x} emissions of about 5 and 7 ppm, respectively, for LPG fuel and of about 55 and 12 ppm, respectively, in dual-fuel mode at the maximum second-stage turbine speed of 26,000 rpm with stable turbine operation. (author)

  7. Thermally Simulated 32kW Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor: Design, Assembly, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas J.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2004-02-01

    One of the power systems under consideration for nuclear electric propulsion is a direct-drive gas-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, power is transferred from the reactor to the Brayton system via a circulated closed loop gas. To allow early utilization, system designs must be relatively simple, easy to fabricate, and easy to test using non-nuclear heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. This combination of attributes will allow pre-prototypic systems to be designed, fabricated, and tested quickly and affordably. The ability to build and test units is key to the success of a nuclear program, especially if an early flight is desired. The ability to perform very realistic non-nuclear testing increases the success probability of the system. In addition, the technologies required by a concept will substantially impact the cost, time, and resources required to develop a successful space reactor power system. This paper describes design features, assembly, and test matrix for the testing of a thermally simulated 32kW direct-drive gas-cooled reactor in the Early Flight Fission - Test Facility (EFF-TF) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The reactor design and test matrix are provided by Los Alamos National Laboratories.

  8. Thermal destruction of vessels with liquid upon heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, V. G.; Goldin, V. D.; Svetashkov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    A new engineering technique of calculating the heating and thermal destruction of vessels containing liquid under extreme thermal loading conditions is offered. The heating of the shell and the internal vessel volume is described on the basis of the thermodynamic approach. The pressure growth in a vessel is a result of gas heating and liquid evaporation. Stresses within the shell and its destruction conditions are determined, which allows predicting the critical time of destruction upon heating. The calculation and experimental data for pressure growth inside the vessel are in good agreement.

  9. TiO2-Based Nanoheterostructures for Promoting Gas Sensitivity Performance: Designs, Developments, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Yun; Meng, Chuanmin; Zhu, Wenjun; Liu, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Gas sensors based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) have attracted much public attention during the past decades due to their excellent potential for applications in environmental pollution remediation, transportation industries, personal safety, biology, and medicine. Numerous efforts have therefore been devoted to improving the sensing performance of TiO2. In those effects, the construct of nanoheterostructures is a promising tactic in gas sensing modification, which shows superior sensing performance to that of the single component-based sensors. In this review, we briefly summarize and highlight the development of TiO2-based heterostructure gas sensing materials with diverse models, including semiconductor/semiconductor nanoheterostructures, noble metal/semiconductor nanoheterostructures, carbon-group-materials/semiconductor nano- heterostructures, and organic/inorganic nanoheterostructures, which have been investigated for effective enhancement of gas sensing properties through the increase of sensitivity, selectivity, and stability, decrease of optimal work temperature and response/recovery time, and minimization of detectable levels. PMID:28846621

  10. Design of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Gas Distribution System for the Micromegas Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00084094; The ATLAS collaboration; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Maltezos, Stavros; Vlachos, Sotirios; Karentzos, Efstathios; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Moschovakos, Paris; Koutelieris, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present and describe the methodology, the particular calculations and simulations accordingly to achieve the appropriate gas flow rates ensuring a uniform gas distribution among the same type of NSW Micromegas modules. The majority of the components used are in large multiplicity so space saving criteria is taking into account and simplicity on the performance with respect to the total cost as well. An appropriate simulation program has been developed for studying the overall gas system determining the gauge pressure, flow rate in the crucial points and branches, respectively. Moreover, an overall prototype configuration, implemented at the NTUA laboratory and based on the Lock-in Amplifier technique to be used in conjunction with the gas leak test via the FRL method is presented. The obtained performances, by means of sensitivity and S/N ratio improvement, are also discussed.

  11. Update on the Design and Development of a TEG Cogenerator Device Integrated into Self-Standing Gas Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codecasa, Matteo Paolo; Fanciulli, Carlo; Gaddi, Roberto; Gomez-Paz, Francisco; Passaretti, Francesca

    2013-07-01

    Heating by gas combustion is widespread in residential and industrial environments, through the use of different types of systems and plants. A relevant case is that of gas stoves, where the heat-radiating unit operates autonomously with local gas feeding. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be integrated within this type of autonomous gas heater, for local production of electric power, so that devices requiring electric power can be added, where desired, without the need for any connection to the electrical grid. This approach can also lead to easier installation and operation, and eventually increases the overall efficiency. Following the development plan presented in a previous report, a new prototype of an autonomous gas heater for outdoor use has been implemented through the integration of an improved TEG device with a simple and robust design, which can be easily operated by the end-user. A small amount of heat is withdrawn and converted into electricity by the TEG, providing self-sustaining operation and, moreover, powering additional functions such as high-efficiency light-emitting diode lighting.

  12. Design and Development of a TEG Cogenerator Device Integrated into a Self-Standing Natural Combustion Gas Stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codecasa, Matteo Paolo; Fanciulli, Carlo; Gaddi, Roberto; Gomez-Paz, Francisco; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Heating by gas combustion, by use of different types of systems and plants, is widespread in residential and industrial environments. One example is the gas stove, the heat-radiating unit of which operates autonomously with a local gas feed and, possibly, electricity for an optional fan convector. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be integrated within this type of autonomous gas heater for local production of electric power, to support electrical auxiliaries, where desired, without the need for any connection to the electricity grid. This approach can lead to easier installation and operation and increases overall efficiency. A new prototype of an autonomous gas heater has been implemented by integration of a TEG device of simple and robust design, easily operated by the end user. A small amount of heat is withdrawn and converted into electricity by the TEG. This enables self-sustaining operation and, moreover, powers new ancillary functions (e.g. fan convector) without extra electrical requirements and no need for an electrical connection.

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE STUDY AND DESIGN OF A ROTARY-VANE GAS REFRIGERATION MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Trandafilov; M.G. Khmelniuk; O. Y.Yakovleva

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of calculating the main parameters the operating cycle, rotary-vane gas refrigerating machine that affect installation, machine control and working processes occurring in it at the specified criteria. A procedure and a graphical method for the rotary-vane gas refrigerating machine (RVGRM) are proposed. A parametric study of the main geometric variables and temperature variables on the thermal behavior of the system is analyzed. The model considers poly...

  14. CCS on Offshore Oil and Gas Installation - Design of Post Combustion Capture System and Steam Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Lars O.; Anantharaman, Rahul; Chikukwa, Actor; Mejdell, Thor

    2017-01-01

    Most of the released CO2 on offshore oil and gas installation originates from the gas turbines that power the installations. For certain offshore installations, CO2 capture and storage (CCS) could be an alternative to decrease the CO2 emissions. When opting for a chemical absorption CO2 capture system, a heat source for the stripper reboiler is needed. Since most offshore installations are powered by simple cycle GTs, there is typically no steam available that could be used for stripper reboi...

  15. Bottom-up design of a gas futures market in East Asia: Lessons from the Dojima rice exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural gas market in East Asia remains fragmented without a functioning benchmark price to duly reflect the dynamics of demand and supply forces in the region. A functional regional gas futures market, which is highly dependent on the presence of well-developed physical spot trading, is yet to be established. Since the intra-regional pipeline connection is largely non-existent in East Asia, it is the LNG spot cargo trading that is likely to become the basis for the regional gas futures market. This paper offers a novel approach to understanding the development of such a market by analyzing the experience of a different commodity market – the Dojima Rice Exchange (DRE – and identifying potentially transferrable lessons in the market design and the role of government regulations. Based on the case study analysis, implications for the development of natural gas trading hubs in East Asia are offered and an LNG futures exchange design is put forward.

  16. A comprehensive review of microbial electrolysis cells (MEC reactor designs and configurations for sustainable hydrogen gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abudukeremu Kadier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen gas has tremendous potential as an environmentally acceptable energy carrier for vehicles. A cutting edge technology called a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC can achieve sustainable and clean hydrogen production from a wide range of renewable biomass and wastewaters. Enhancing the hydrogen production rate and lowering the energy input are the main challenges of MEC technology. MEC reactor design is one of the crucial factors which directly influence on hydrogen and current production rate in MECs. The rector design is also a key factor to up-scaling. Traditional MEC designs incorporated membranes, but it was recently shown that membrane-free designs can lead to both high hydrogen recoveries and production rates. Since then multiple studies have developed reactors that operate without membranes. This review provides a brief overview of recent advances in research on scalable MEC reactor design and configurations.

  17. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. 2011 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  19. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  20. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  1. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  2. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  4. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  5. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  9. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  10. INVESTIGATION ON STRUCTURAL STABILITY OF CMSX-4 AND RENE 77 MADE SHOWERHEAD COOLING DESIGNED GAS TURBINE GUIDE VANES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. R. Saravanan*, M. Karuppasamy

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency and power output of a thermal device is directly proportional to its inlet temperature. Operating at elevated temperature affects the structural stability of its components under load. The gas turbine is a thermal device in which components like fixed and moving blades experience dynamic loading. Apart from elevated temperature, the design of cooling passages, materials which made up of also influential in their structural stability of the blades. In this research the guide van...

  11. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  12. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    use of UAS on oceanographic research vessels is just beginning. We report on several initial field efforts which demonstrated that UAS improve spatial and temporal mapping of ocean features, as well as monitoring marine mammal populations, ocean color, sea ice and wave fields and air-sea gas exchange. These studies however also confirm the challenges for shipboard computer systems ingesting and archiving UAS high resolution video, SAR and lidar data. We describe the successful inclusion of DTN communications for: 1) passing video data between two UAS or a UAS and ship; 2) for inclusion of ASVs as communication nodes for AUVs; as well as, 3) enabling extension of adaptive sampling software from AUVs and ASVs to include UAS. In conclusion, we describe how autonomous sampling systems may be best integrated into shipboard oceanographic vessel research to provide new and more comprehensive time-space ocean and atmospheric data collection that is important not only for scientific study, but also for sustainable ocean management, including emergency response capabilities. The recent examples of such integrated studies highlighted confirm ocean and atmospheric studies can more cost-effectively pursued, and in some cases only accomplished, by combining underwater, surface and aircraft autonomous systems with research vessel operations.

  13. Gas Sensor Based on 3-D WO3 Inverse Opal: Design and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruiqing; Du, Yang; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xiu

    2017-01-01

    A three-dimensional inverse opal (3DIO) WO3 architecture has been synthesized via a simple sacrificial template method. Morphology features of the 3DIO were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shrinking ratio of the PMMA spheres was ~28.2% through measuring the distribution of the PMMA spheres and 3DIO WO3 center-to-center distance between the spheres and macropores, respectively. Beyond that, the 3DIO gas sensing properties were investigated systematically and the sensing mechanism of 3DIO WO3 was proposed. The results indicated that the response of the 3DIO sensor possessed excellent sensitivity to acetone gas, especially at trace levels. The 3DIO gas sensor response was ~7 to 5 ppm of acetone and could detect acetone low to 0.2 ppm effectively, which was in close proximity to the theoretical low detection limit of 0.14 ppm when Ra/Rg ≥ 1.2 was used as the criterion for reliable gas sensing. All in all, the obvious satisfaction of the gas-sensing properties was ascribed to the structure of the 3DIO, and the sensor could be a promising novel device in the future. PMID:28353672

  14. Gas Sensor Based on 3-D WO3 Inverse Opal: Design and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqing Xing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional inverse opal (3DIO WO3 architecture has been synthesized via a simple sacrificial template method. Morphology features of the 3DIO were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The shrinking ratio of the PMMA spheres was ~28.2% through measuring the distribution of the PMMA spheres and 3DIO WO3 center-to-center distance between the spheres and macropores, respectively. Beyond that, the 3DIO gas sensing properties were investigated systematically and the sensing mechanism of 3DIO WO3 was proposed. The results indicated that the response of the 3DIO sensor possessed excellent sensitivity to acetone gas, especially at trace levels. The 3DIO gas sensor response was ~7 to 5 ppm of acetone and could detect acetone low to 0.2 ppm effectively, which was in close proximity to the theoretical low detection limit of 0.14 ppm when Ra/Rg ≥ 1.2 was used as the criterion for reliable gas sensing. All in all, the obvious satisfaction of the gas-sensing properties was ascribed to the structure of the 3DIO, and the sensor could be a promising novel device in the future.

  15. Designing better methane mitigation policies: the challenge of distributed small sources in the natural gas sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-04-01

    Methane—a short-lived and potent greenhouse gas—presents a unique challenge: it is emitted from a large number of highly distributed and diffuse sources. In this regard, the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recommended periodic leak detection and repair surveys at oil and gas facilities using optical gas imaging technology. This regulation requires an operator to fix all detected leaks within a set time period. Whether such ‘find-all-fix-all’ policies are effective depends on significant uncertainties in the character of emissions. In this work, we systematically analyze the effect of facility-related and mitigation-related uncertainties on regulation effectiveness. Drawing from multiple publicly-available datasets, we find that: (1) highly-skewed leak-size distributions strongly influence emissions reduction potential; (2) variations in emissions estimates across facilities leads to large variability in mitigation effectiveness; (3) emissions reductions from optical gas imaging-based leak detection programs can range from 15% to over 70%; and (4) while implementation costs are uniformly lower than EPA estimates, benefits from saved gas are highly variable. Combining empirical evidence with model results, we propose four policy options for effective methane mitigation: performance-oriented targets for accelerated emission reductions, flexible policy mechanisms to account for regional variation, technology-agnostic regulations to encourage adoption of the most cost-effective measures, and coordination with other greenhouse gas mitigation policies to reduce unintended spillover effects.

  16. A design of toxic gas detecting security robot car based on wireless path-patrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ho-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because a toxic gas detecting/monitoring system in a chemical plant is not movable, a gas detecting/monitoring system will be passive and the detecting range will also be constrained. This invention is an active multi-functional wireless patrol car that can substitute for humans that inspect a plant's security. In addition, to widen the monitoring vision within the environment, two motors used to rotate a wireless IPCAM with two axes are presented. Also, to control the robot car's movement, two axis motors used to drive the wheel of the robot car are also installed. Additionally, a toxic gas detector is linked to the microcontroller of the patrol car. The detected concentration of the gas will be fed back to the server pc. To enhance the robot car's patrolling duration, a movable electrical power unit in conjunction with a wireless module is also used. Consequently, this paper introduces a wireless path-patrol and toxic gas detecting security robot car that can assure a plant's security and protect workers when toxic gases are emitted.

  17. Design and assembly of a catalyst bed gas generator for the catalytic decomposition of high concentration hydrogen peroxide propellants and the catalytic combustion of hydrocarbon/air mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for designing and assembling a high performance catalyst bed gas generator for use in decomposing propellants, particularly hydrogen peroxide propellants, for use in target, space, and on-orbit propulsion systems and low-emission terrestrial power and gas generation. The gas generator utilizes a sectioned catalyst bed system, and incorporates a robust, high temperature mixed metal oxide catalyst. The gas generator requires no special preheat apparatus or special sequencing to meet start-up requirements, enabling a fast overall response time. The high performance catalyst bed gas generator system has consistently demonstrated high decomposition efficiency, extremely low decomposition roughness, and long operating life on multiple test articles.

  18. Greenhouse gas network design using backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling – Part 2: Sensitivity analyses and South African test case

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nickless, A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gase network design South Africa A. Nickless et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures J I J I Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion D iscussion P aper | D iscussion P aper... and Physics O pen Access Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Greenhouse gas network design using backward...

  19. Gas Diffusivity-Based Design and Characterization of Greenhouse Growth Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    coefficients in soil air and free air, respectively) and an operationally defined critical window of diffusivity (CWD) representing the interval of air-filled porosity between critical air filled porosity where Dp/Do ≈ 0.02 and interaggregate porosity. The Dp measurements were conducted with 100-cm3 samples...... combinations thereof, are commonly used as growth media, detailed and comparable physical characterization is key to identify the best performing media. In this study, five potential growth media and two mixtures thereof were characterized based on soil gas diffusivity (Dp/Do, where Dp and Do are gas diffusion...... from wet to complete dry conditions achieved by stepwise air drying and equilibration of initially water-saturated samples. A previously developed inactive pore and density-corrected (IPDC) model was able to describe gas diffusivities for media with distinct inactive pore space in the interaggregate...

  20. Modeling the microclimate inside a vessel in in vitro culture : vessel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    Numerical simulations show that variations in vessel internal humidity was ... Keywords : Agar, in vitro culture, microclimate, modeling, transfer coefficient. ... determining the atmospheric conditions inside .... is a function of air speed was used. .... latent heat of evaporation, R the gas constant and .... mesoscale circulation.

  1. Design and Development of a Residential Gas-Fired Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [ORNL; Mahderekal, Dr. Isaac [Intellichoice Energy, Boulder City, Nevada

    2017-01-01

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment consumes 43% of the total primary energy consumption in U.S. households. Presently, conventional gas furnaces have maximum heating efficiencies of 98%. Electric air conditioners used in association with the furnace for cooling have a minimum seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 14.0. A residential gas-fired heat pump (RGHP) was developed and tested under standard rating conditions, resulting in a significant increase in heating efficiency of over 40% versus conventional natural gas furnaces. The associated efficiency of the RGHP in cooling mode is comparable in efficiency to an electric air conditioner (14.0 SEER) when compared on a primary energy basis. The RGHP is similar in nature to a conventional heat pump but with two main differences. First, the primary energy savings are higher, based on a site versus source comparison, as the result of using natural gas to supply shaft power to the compressor rather than an electric motor. Second, waste heat is recovered from the engine to supplement space heating and reduce the energy input. It can also be used to provide supplemental water heating. The system utilizes a programmable logic controller that allows variable-speed operation to achieve improved control to meet building loads. RGHPs significantly reduce peak electric use during periods of high demand, especially peak summer loads, as well as peak winter loads in regions with widespread use of electric heating. This contributes to leveling year-round gas loads, with the potential to increase annual gas demand in some regions. The widespread adoption of RGHPs will contribute to significant reductions in primary energy consumption and carbon emissions through improved efficiencies.

  2. Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Cécile; Saubaméa, Bruno; Declèves, Xavier; Cohen-Salmon, Martine

    2015-11-10

    In the brain, most of the vascular system consists of a selective barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that regulates the exchange of molecules and immune cells between the brain and the blood. Moreover, the huge neuronal metabolic demand requires a moment-to-moment regulation of blood flow. Notably, abnormalities of these regulations are etiological hallmarks of most brain pathologies; including glioblastoma, stroke, edema, epilepsy, degenerative diseases (ex: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), brain tumors, as well as inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis and sepsis-induced brain dysfunctions. Thus, understanding the signaling events modulating the cerebrovascular physiology is a major challenge. Much insight into the cellular and molecular properties of the various cell types that compose the cerebrovascular system can be gained from primary culture or cell sorting from freshly dissociated brain tissue. However, properties such as cell polarity, morphology and intercellular relationships are not maintained in such preparations. The protocol that we describe here is designed to purify brain vessel fragments, whilst maintaining structural integrity. We show that isolated vessels consist of endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions that are surrounded by a continuous basal lamina. Pericytes, smooth muscle cells as well as the perivascular astrocyte endfeet membranes remain attached to the endothelial layer. Finally, we describe how to perform immunostaining experiments on purified brain vessels.

  3. Aerodynamic design of a free power turbine for a 75 KW gas turbine automotive engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Schumann, L. F.

    1975-01-01

    A single stage axial-flow turbine having a tip diameter of 15.41 centimeters was designed. The design specifications are given and the aerodynamic design procedure is described. The design includes the transition duct and the turbine exit diffuser. The aerodynamic information includes typical results of a parametric study, velocity diagrams, blade surface and wall velocities, and blade profile and wall coordinates.

  4. Optimization of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor using statistical methods to maximize performance without compromising system design margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommers, L.J.; Parme, L.L.; Shenoy, A.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a statistical approach for determining the impact of system performance and design uncertainties on power plant performance. The objectives of this design approach are to ensure that adequate margin is provided, that excess margin is minimized, and that full advantage can be taken of unconsumed margin. It is applicable to any thermal system in which these factors are important. The method is demonstrated using the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor as an example. The quantitative approach described allows the characterization of plant performance and the specification of the system design requirements necessary to achieve the desired performance with high confidence. Performance variations due to design evolution, in service degradation, and basic performance uncertainties are considered. The impact of all performance variabilities is combined using Monte Carlo analysis to predict the range of expected operation.

  5. Optimization of the gas turbine-modular helium reactor using statistical methods to maximize performance without compromising system design margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommers, L.J.; Parme, L.L.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a statistical approach for determining the impact of system performance and design uncertainties on power plant performance. The objectives of this design approach are to ensure that adequate margin is provided, that excess margin is minimized, and that full advantage can be taken of unconsumed margin. It is applicable to any thermal system in which these factors are important. The method is demonstrated using the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor as an example. The quantitative approach described allows the characterization of plant performance and the specification of the system design requirements necessary to achieve the desired performance with high confidence. Performance variations due to design evolution, inservice degradation, and basic performance uncertainties are considered. The impact of all performance variabilities is combined using Monte Carlo analysis to predict the range of expected operation.

  6. STATUS OF TRISO FUEL IRRADIATIONS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR SUPPORTING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR DESIGNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, Michael; Petti, D. A.; Palmer, Joe

    2016-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is irradiating up to seven low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The experiments will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of several independent capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and completed in October 2013. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated (AGR-3/4), which started its irradiation in December 2011 and completed in April 2014. Since the purpose of this experiment was to provide data on fission product migration and retention in the NGNP reactor, the design of this experiment was significantly different from the first two experiments, though the control

  7. Army Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems Program. The ML-1 analytical design report. Volume IV. Electrical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1961-10-01

    The analysis preceding and supporting the design of the ML-1--a mobile, low-power, nuclear power plant--is described in sufficient detail for an engineer, not a specialist, to follow the development of the design. Test results and similar data are used to support the calculations whenever possible. Useless repetition of detail is avoided: when the development of several items of equipment, performing a similar function under similar conditions, is described the calculations and derivations are given only once.

  8. Gas Atomization Equipment Statement of Work and Specification for Engineering design, Fabrication, Testing, and Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutaleb, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pluschkell, T. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-30

    The Gas Atomization Equipment will be used to fabricate metallic powder suitable for Powder Bed Fusion additive Manufacturing material to support Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) research and development. The project will modernize our capabilities to develop spherical reactive, refractory, and radioactive powders in the 10-75 μm diameter size range at LLNL.

  9. COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE FOR THERMAL POWER STATIONS: EXPERIENCE IN DESIGNING AND OPERATION, PROSPECTS IN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Karnitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has reviewed main world tendencies in power consumption and power system structure. Main schemes of combined cycle gas turbines have been considered in the paper. The paper contains an operational analysis of CCGT blocks that are operating within the Belarusian energy system. The analysis results have been given in tables showing main operational indices of power blocks

  10. Parametric analysis of a high temperature packed bed thermal storage design for a solar gas turbine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of a high temperature Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system will allow for high solar shares in Solar Gas Turbine (SGT) plants. In this research a pressurised storage solution is proposed that utilises a packed bed of alumina spheres...

  11. Development in the design and performance of gas avalanche microdetectors (MSGC, MGC, and MDOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo-Sung [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Enginering

    1997-12-01

    There has been continuing development of generic classes of microstrip gas chambers (MSGCs), microgap gas chambers (MGCs) and microdot gas chambers (MDOTs) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past few years, to improve such detectors beyond their present capabilities, to produce detectors suitable for use in current or upcoming experiments, and to allow a basis for new R&D developments which may incorporate these detectors as part of the system. All of these new detectors are collectively referred to as "gas avalanche microdetectors". The MSGC, which was motivated by the pioneering work of A. Oed, has many attractive features, especially excellent spatial resolution (~30 μm rms at normal incidence) and high rate capability (~106 mm-2∙s-1). Moreover, the MGC seems to have certain advantages over the MSGC in speed, stability and simplicity, and the MDOT has larger gain (>104) and the intrinsic advantages of two-dimensional readout. Because of these attractive properties, they have received a great deal of attention for nuclear and high energy physics experiments, medical X-ray imaging and many other fields requiring radiation detection and measurement.

  12. Design and construction of gas-fed burners for laboratory studies of flame structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Jimenez; Mark A. Finney; Jack Cohen

    2010-01-01

    The study of buoyant convection for diffusion flames in wildland fires is critical to understanding heating and cooling dynamics related to particle ignition. Studies based on solid biomass fuels are made difficult by short flame residence time associated with fine fuels. An alternative is to use artificial fuel gas rather than relying on pyrolysis of solid fuels to...

  13. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Ronald G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Wang, Chun Yun [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadak, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Todreas, Neil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mirick, Bradley [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States); Demetri, Eli [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States); Koronowski, Martin [Concepts, Northern Engineering and Research, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2004-08-30

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R&D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the

  14. Design, construction and performance tests of a prototype micromegas chamber with two readout planes in a common gas volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickwedde, Bernard; Düdder, Andreas; Schott, Matthias; Yildirim, Eda

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the design and the performance of a prototype detector based on MicroMegas technology with two detection planes in a common gas volume is discussed. The detector is suited for the forward region of LHC detectors, addressing the high-rate environment and limited available space. Each detection plane has an active area of 9 × 9cm2 with a two-dimensional strip readout and is separated by a common gas region with a height of 14 mm . A micro-mesh, working as a cathode, is placed in the middle of the common gas volume separating it into two individual cells. This setup allows for an angle reconstruction of incoming particles with a precision of ∼ 2 mrad. Since this design reduces the impact of multiple scattering effects by the reduced material budget, possible applications for low energy beam experiments can be envisioned. The performance of the prototype detector has been tested with a 4 . 4 GeV electron beam, provided by the test beam facility at DESY.

  15. Calculation and Designing of Up-to-Date Gas-Flame Plants for Metal Heating and Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Тimoshpolsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of development trends in the CIS machine-building industry and current status of the heating and heat treatment furnaces of main machine-building enterprises of the Republic of Belarus as of the 1st quarter of 2008 is given in the paper.The paper presents the most efficient engineering solutions from technological and economic point of view that concern calculation and designing of up-to-date gas-flame plants which are to be applied for modernization of the current heating and heat treatment furnaces of the machine-building enterprises in the Republic of Belarus.A thermo-technical calculation of main indices of the up-to-date gas-flame plant has been carried out in the paper.

  16. The preliminary design of an annular combustor for a mini gas turbine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, Bronwyn C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available of applying the procedure is 12 design options to choose from for the engine in question (CAT 200 KS). The multiple designs stem from either accepting certain compromises or variations in variables that are not dictated in the standard NREC design process....

  17. Solar thermal power & gas turbine hybrid design with molten salt storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Fernando; Wiesenberg, Ralf; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Taking into consideration the need to decelerate the global climatic change, power generation has to shift from burning fossil fuel to renewable energy source in short medium period of time. In this work, we are presenting a new model of a solar-gas natural hybrid power cycle with the main aim of decoupling the solar generation system from the gas turbine system. The objective is to have high solar power contribution compared to conventional ISCC plants [2], producing firm and dispatchable electricity at the same time. The decoupling is motivated by the low solar contribution reached by the ISCC, which is technically limited to maximum of 15%, [4]. In our case, we have implemented a solar tower with molten salts as working fluid. Central receiver systems get higher performance than others systems, like parabolic trough technology [1], due to the higher temperature achieved in the heat transferred fluid HTF, close to 560°C.

  18. Design of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Gas Leak Tightness Station for the Micromegas Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Gazis, Evangelos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this work we describe advanced data processing and analysis techniques intended to be used in the gas tightness station at CERN for Quality Assurance and Quality Control of the New Small Wheel Micromegas Quadruplets. We combine two methods: a conventional one based on the Pressure Decay Rate and an alternative-novel one, based on the Flow Rate Loss. A prototype setup has been developed based on a Lock-in Amplifier device and should be operated in conjunction with the gas leak test via the Flow Rate Loss. Both methods have been tested by using emulated leak branches based on specific thin medical needles. The semi-automatic data acquisition, monitoring and processing system is presented also in this work while a more sophisticated environment based on the WinCC-OA SCADA is under development.

  19. Design of single mode spiral photonic crystal fiber for gas sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibadul Islam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spiral shape photonic crystal fiber (S-PCF has been suggested as a gas sensor for detecting toxic or colorless gases as well as monitoring the air pollution by metering gas condensate elements in production facilities. Our reported S-PCF is micro-structured where two layers porous core is encircled by a spiral shape cladding. The geometrical parameters have altered to optimize the parameters of the proposed structure. The numerical analysis of the proposed S-PCF is performed by utilizing finite element method (FEM. The relative sensitivity and birefringence of the proposed S-PCF are 55.10% and 7.23 × 10−3 respectively at the 1.33 μm wavelength that lies in the absorption line of toxic gases (methane and hydrogen fluoride. Besides, effective area, nonlinear coefficient and V parameters are also described briefly.

  20. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    in a trade-off in performance when used in a diesel engine. To boost GTL diesel physicochemical properties and thereby enable its use in conventional diesel engines, GTL diesel needs improvement. This can be achieved by mixing suitable additives to the GTL diesel and through the development of surrogate...... their physicochemical properties. These surrogates are further verified using rigorous mathematical tools as well as through advanced experimental techniques. An optimal surrogate MI-5 is identified, which closely mimics GTL diesel-conventional diesel blends in terms of its physicochemical properties. An engine study......Synthetic diesel fuel produced from natural gas via gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology is referred to as ultraclean fuel but is still challenged for full certification as diesel fuel. GTL diesel lacks certain hydrocarbons and chemical constituents, which although are benign to the environment, result...

  1. Design of the gas cell for the IGISOL facility at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, P., E-mail: paul.constantin@eli-np.ro [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Balabanski, D.L. [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Anh, L.T. [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Cuong, P.V. [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Centre of Nuclear Physics, Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Mei, B. [Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics, “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest Magurele (Romania)

    2017-04-15

    One of the experimental programs that will be carried out at the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility is the production of exotic neutron-rich ion beams in an IGISOL facility via photofission in a stack of actinide targets placed at the center of a cell filled with He gas. Simulations with the Geant4 toolkit were done for the optimization of the target configuration that maximizes the rate of released photofission fragments. The cell geometry is established based on the stopping properties of these fragments. Studies, based on simulations with Geant4 and SIMION 8.1, of the space charge effect and its induced electric field in the gas cell are presented. Estimates of the extraction time and efficiency of the photofission fragments are derived.

  2. Design Study of Modular Nuclear Power Plant with Small Long Life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors Utilizing MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Muhammad; Su'ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Growing energy needed due to increasing of the world’s population encourages development of technology and science of nuclear power plant in its safety and security. In this research, it will be explained about design study of modular fast reactor with helium gas cooling (GCFR) small long life reactor, which can be operated over 20 years. It had been conducted about neutronic design GCFR with Mixed Oxide (UO2-PuO2) fuel in range of 100-200 MWth NPPs of power and 50-60% of fuel fraction variation with cylindrical pin cell and cylindrical balance of reactor core geometry. Calculation method used SRAC-CITATION code. The obtained results are the effective multiplication factor and density value of core reactor power (with geometry optimalization) to obtain optimum design core reactor power, whereas the obtained of optimum core reactor power is 200 MWth with 55% of fuel fraction and 9-13% of percentages.

  3. Unit with Fluidized Bed for Gas-Vapor Activation of Different Carbonaceous Materials for Various Purposes: Design, Computation, Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strativnov, Eugene

    2017-12-01

    We propose the technology of obtaining the promising material with wide specter of application-activated nanostructured carbon. In terms of technical indicators, it will stand next to the materials produced by complex regulations with the use of costly chemical operations. It can be used for the following needs: as a sorbent for hemosorption and enterosorption, for creation of the newest source of electric current (lithium and zinc air batteries, supercapacitors), and for processes of short-cycle adsorption gas separation.In this study, the author gives recommendations concerning the design of the apparatus with fluidized bed and examples of calculation of specific devices. The whole given information can be used as guidelines for the design of energy effective aggregates. Calculation and design of the reactor were carried out using modern software complexes (ANSYS and SolidWorks).

  4. Optimization of the green gas supply chain. Identification of critical choices in designing an efficient (from an energetic and economic perspective) green gas supply chain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Summary Global climate change and the need for security of energy supply drive the development of bio-energy production and utilization. Green gas is defined as bio-based gas that has been upgraded to natural gas quality. Amongst other energy carriers, g

  5. Ceramics for the advanced automotive gas turbine engine - A look at a single shaft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    A single-shaft regenerative design with a single-stage radial turbine is analyzed in terms of achievable fuel economy for the cases of both limited and unlimited turbine tip speed and regenerator inlet temperature. The 100-hp engine for a 3500-lb automobile is designed to use gasoline. Fuel economy data and operating parameters are presented for different values of turbine inlet temperatures, and turbine stress estimates and ceramic design stress estimates are discussed.

  6. Design study of a modular gas-cooled, closed-brayton cycle reactor for marine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Richard D.

    1989-06-01

    A conceptual design of a direct Brayton cycle marine power plant is presented. The design is a modification of the commercial MGR-GT, as proposed by James Staudt, sized to produce 40,000 shaft horsepower (SHP) and 5 MW of ship service electrical power. The requirements of a shipboard power plant are discussed and the design changes that must be made to the components of a commercial power plant in order to fit them into the demanding environment of a ship at sea are detailed. The final design consists of an 80-MWth passively safe pebble bed reactor with an outlet temperature of 850.

  7. Thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel turbocharged V18 engine for ship propulsion and power plant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.

  8. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  9. Network of endocardial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Hong Bae; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Kim, Ki Woo; Sohn, Jamin; Son, Boram; Chang, Byung-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been reports on threadlike structures inside the heart, they have received little attention. We aimed to develop a method for observing such structures and to reveal their ultrastructures. An in situ staining method, which uses a series of procedures of 0.2-0.4% trypan blue spraying and washing, was applied to observe threadlike structures on the surfaces of endocardia. The threadlike structures were isolated and observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Networks of endocardial vessels (20 μm in thickness) with expansions (40-100 μm in diameter) were visualized; they were movable on the endocardium of the bovine atrium and ventricle. CLSM showed that (1) rod-shaped nuclei were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel and (2) there were many cells inside the expansion. TEM on the endocardial vessel revealed that (1) there existed multiple lumens (1-7 μm in diameter) and (2) the extracellular matrices mostly consisted of collagen fibers, which were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel or were locally organized in reticular structures. We investigated the endocardial circulatory system in bovine cardiac chambers and its ultrastructures, such as nucleic distributions, microlumens, and collagenous extracellular matrices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  11. Designing economic and legal mechanism of land management in oil and gas companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    The article deals with the problem of economic and legal relationship in the sphere of land management provided by Russian government. The gas pipeline construction serves as an example to analyze the problems connected with leasing of both federal and privately owned lands. Comparative analysis of costs made by Gazprom to lease the lands at the stage of construction has been conducted. It has been concluded that the government should regulate relationships within the land sector to harmonize the interests of the Federation and private landowners.

  12. Understanding the Design and Performance of Emissions Trading Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.

    1999-01-31

    Research Spotlight presents new research findings and projects underway at Resources for the Future that are relevant to the analysis of climate change policy. As interest in greenhouse gas trading policies grows in the United States and other Annex I countries, so does the need for stronger analytical tools. The paper by Tietenberg in this collection lays out some of the principal conceptual issues that analysts face in providing more accurate and relevant tools and results for decisionmakers. In this paper we build on Tietenberg's analysis to consider some of the key modeling challenges that analysts face in developing an improved capacity for quantitatively assessing real-world policies.

  13. Molecule-surface interaction processes of relevance to gas blanket type fusion device divertor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, K.J. [Newcastle Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Tawara, H.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms which may lead to the departure of molecular species from surfaces exposed to low energy (0.1-100 eV) particle or photon and electron irradiation are reviewed. Where possible, the charge and electronic state, angular, translational and internal energy distributions of the departing molecules are described and the physical origin of the nature of those distributions identified. The consequences, for the departing molecules, of certain material choices become apparent from such an analysis. Such information may help guide the choice of appropriate materials for plasma facing components of gas-blanket type divertors such as that recently proposed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). (author). 71 refs.

  14. Designing of Competitive Logistics Network for Liquefied Petroleum Gas in Conditions of Imperfect Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Aržek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing network for liquefied gas in the Republic ofCroatia is characterized by numerous weaknesses, led by lackof investment into LPG branch that has been going on foryears, i. e. outdated equipment and apparatuses, insufficientstorage space, outdated vehicles. The existing LPG logisticsnetwork has the following drawbacks: LPG market withoutcompetition, outdated legislative that imposes restrictions onimporters, lack of marketing know-how, insufficient investmentsfunding ( .. . Since foreign investors have been showingincreased interest in entering the Croatian LPG market, itseemed appropriate to investigate and elaborate decisive factorsand effects of constructing a new competitive logistics networkin conditions of imperfect competition.

  15. Design of carbon nanotube-based gas-diffusion cathode for O{sub 2} reduction by multicopper oxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Carolin; Adkins, Emily R.; Atanassov, Plamen [University of New Mexico, Center for Emerging Energy Technologies, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ramasamy, Ramaraja P. [Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Airbase Sciences, Air Force Research Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Nano-Electrochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Luckarift, Heather R.; Johnson, Glenn R. [Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Airbase Sciences, Air Force Research Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Multicopper oxidases, such as laccase or bilirubin oxidase, are known to reduce molecular oxygen at very high redox potentials, which makes them attractive biocatalysts for enzymatic cathodes in biological fuel cells. By designing an enzymatic gas-diffusion electrode, molecular oxygen can be supplied through the gaseous phase, avoiding solubility and diffusion limitations typically associated with liquid electrolytes. In doing so, the current density of enzymatic cathodes can theoretically be enhanced. This publication presents a material study of carbon/Teflon composites that aim to optimize the functionality of the gas-diffusion and catalytic layers for application in enzymatic systems. The modification of the catalytic layer with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, for example, creates the basis for stronger {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions through tethered enzymatic linkers, such as pyrenes or perylene derivates. Cyclic voltammograms show the effective direct electron contact of laccase with carbon nanotube-modified electrodes via tethered crosslinking molecules as a model system. The polarization behavior of laccase-modified gas-diffusion electrodes reveals open-circuit potentials of +550 mV (versus Ag/AgCl) and current densities approaching 0.5 mA cm{sup 2} (at zero potential) in air-breathing mode. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Sustainable Oceanographic Vessels - Setting an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leer, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In response to climate change, global warming and post “peak oil” fuel scarcity, the oceanographic community should consider reducing its carbon foot print. Why should scientists operate inefficient vessels while lecturing the general public on the need to reduce CO2 emissions? We have already seen curtailment of ship schedules and ship lay-ups, due in part to rising fuel costs, following $140/barrel crude oil. When the global recession ends, upward pressure on oil prices will again commence. Who can forecast how high fuel prices may ultimately rise during the typical 25-30 year lifetime of a research vessel? Are we to curtail future work at sea when oceanic climate research is becoming ever more important? A catamaran research vessel has been designed which can be electrically propelled from by a combination of high efficiency generators, photovoltaic panels and/or sails. Sail produced power is transformed with propellers and motor/generators into electric power which is stored in battery banks. This vessel could operate as the first true hybrid oceanographic research vessel. It could even continue operations without fuel in cases of a severe fuel shortage or fueling denial. Since the power produced by any water turbine increases with the cube of the velocity flowing over its propeller, the low fluid friction and high stability of a catamaran, with reasonably slender hulls, provide an important boost to efficient hybrid operation. The author has chartered a 42’ hybrid catamaran sailboat and found it efficient and extremely easy to operate and control. A 79’ motor sailing catamaran research vessel by Lock Crowther Designs will be presented as one example of a sustainable research vessel with excellent speed and sea-keeping. A center well makes operation as a small drilling/coring ship for coastal climate investigation possible. The center well also supports a host of remote sensing and robotic gear handling capabilities.

  17. Design of Helium Brayton Cycle for Small Modular High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yoon Han; Lee, Je Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The small modular reactor (SMR) is gaining a lot of interest recently. Not only it can achieve better passive safety, but also it can be potentially utilized for the diverse applications to respond to the increasing global energy demands. As a part of the SMR development effort, SM-HTGR (Small Modular-High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor), a 20MWth reactor is under development by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for the complete passive safety, desalination and industrial process heat application. The Helium Brayton cycle is considered as a promising candidate for the SM-HTGR power conversion. The advantages of Helium Brayton cycles are: 1) helium is an inert gas that does not interact with structure material. 2) helium is chemically stable that helium Brayton cycle can be utilized under the high temperature circumstance. 3) higher thermal efficiency is achievable under higher outlet temperature range. Moreover, high temperature advantage can be utilized (reinforced) by diverting part of the heat for industrial process heat. This paper will discuss the progress on the helium power conversion cycle operating condition optimization by studying the sensitivity of the maximum pressure, pressure ratio and the component cooling on the total cycle efficiency

  18. Design of fiber laser and sensor systems for gas spectroscopy in the near-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, George; Whitenett, Gillian; Shields, Peter; Marshall, Joanna; Culshaw, Brian

    2004-03-01

    Because of the ready availability of fibre optic components from the communications industry, fibre optic systems operating in the near-IR are well suited for remote, multi-point monitoring of hazardous and environmentallyimportant gases. However a number of challenges have to be met in order exploit the potential commercial opportunities and applications for such sensors. Here we review our research on gas sensors based on fibre laser systems and absorption spectroscopy. Fibre lasers are of particular interest for sensors since on-going developments have extended their wavelength range of operation over ~1480-1620nm, encompassing the near-IR absorption lines of numerous gases. We discuss several configurations for fibre laser systems which offer the prospect of either enhanced performance or the possibility of multiplexing a number of sensor cells. However, because gas absorption lines in the near-IR spectral region are relatively weak, high sensitivity techniques are required for a number of species and we discuss methods for path-length enhancement through ring-down and intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy. Effective interrogation methods are required to attain the benefits of the various forms of cavity enhanced spectroscopy in fibre optic systems and several techniques are under investigation to realise this potential.

  19. Evaluating the biogas yield and design of a biodigester to generate cooking gas from human faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Saheed ISMAIL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Erratic power supply in the halls of residence in the University of Ibadan has been the major source of series of protest and students’ provocation on campus. Electric power is the only cheap source of energy that students use to heat and cook their food. The University claims to incur huge cost on electricity supply. An alternative energy is sought from the biogas generated from the digestion of faeces of members of the halls. The large population of the halls could be taken advantage of, as more quantity of faeces is expected daily. The first batch of the experiment, after a few days has stopped producing gas. This, as was later discovered, was as a result of low moisture content of the systems. Digester II of the batch II experiment yielded 0.00227m3 of biogas, out of which 0.0013 m3 is expected to be methane gas. A 540m3 yearly production of biogas is projected, which gave a payback period of 15 years for the cost of construction of the digester. This could be considered a free renewable energy as human faeces is a waste and readily available. Environmental impact of the methane generated and vented into the atmosphere has higher Global Warming Potential (GWP x21 than Carbon (IV oxide.

  20. The CREATE Program Software Applications for the Design and Analysis of Air Vehicles, Naval Vessels, Radio Frequency Antennas, and Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    can handle arbitrary rotor configurations (e.g., conventional main rotor/ tail -fan; co-axial 6 main rotor/pusher propeller; tandem main rotors...contractor proposals. The Army Rotorcraft Program (AMRDEC/AED) is using Helios to assess the H-60 tail rotor effectiveness for providing directional...designed and tested for all the standard Linux and Unix operating systems. Each release is extensively tested both during the development process

  1. Design considerations for teleoperation systems operating in gas-tight argon cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nuclear industry, mechanical engineers spend a significant portion of their time designing equipment such as manipulators, bogies, mechanical grippers, and so on. Some customized designs can be considered as standard mechanical equipment in this area, although it is not unusual to find that an existing design cannot simply be copied from one project to another. Varied performance requirements can dictate that redesign, often quite extensive redesign, is required. However, if something similar has been done before, engineers could use that as a starting point for the new project. In this regard, this study presents several guidelines inspired by previous design knowledge for similar development cases. Moreover, this study presents more detailed suggestions such as design guidelines for an argon-based hot cell atmosphere and design experience for a large-scale practical hot cell facility. Design considerations and case studies dealt with in this study are dedicated to teleoperation manipulators that are used at a large-scale argon cell facility for pyroprocess integrated inactive demonstration (PRIDE, at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In particular, for case studies to support the suggested recommendations, a fabricated telemanipulator system for PRIDE is introduced, and several kinds of experimental results associated with it are presented.

  2. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume II. Commercial plant design (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume II presents the commercial plant design and various design bases and design analyses. The discussion of design bases includes definition of plant external and internal considerations. The basis is described for process configuration selection of both process units and support facilities. Overall plant characteristics presented include a summary of utilities/chemicals/catalysts, a plant block flow diagram, and a key plot plan. Each process unit and support facility is described. Several different types of process analyses are presented. A synopsis of environmental impact is presented. Engineering requirements, including design considerations and materials of construction, are summarized. Important features such as safety, startup, control, and maintenance are highlighted. The last section of the report includes plant implementation considerations that would have to be considered by potential owners including siting, coal and water supply, product and by-product characteristics and uses, overall schedule, procurement, construction, and spare parts and maintenance philosophy.

  3. Application of process simulators in chemical engineering process design -natural gas separation plant case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dimitrije Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software for chemical processes modeling and simulation, in the past few decades, play an important role in the development of chemical-process industry with their growing capabilities and wide range of application. Usage of process simulators in Serbia for the process design is very limited. This paper gives a brief overview of the numerous process simulators that are used in the chemical-process industry today. The conceptual design is responsible for most of the investment costs in chemical process industry. Importance of precise design on preliminary level is obvious. Wrong decisions made at the conceptual level could be carried out throughout the chain in process design to the detailed design procedures and procurement of equipment. Although preliminary design phase comprises only about 2% of the total cost of the project, it contributes significantly to the reduction of cost of the project by more than 30%. Therefore process simulators play important role in elimination of unnecessary errors in basic process design. Here is also shown a case study of parallel process simulated in different process simulators which tests the results, the reliability and usefulness of these programs in solving specific engineering tasks. Comparison of given simulation results confirm that the modern process simulators are at high level of confidence, no matter they are based on different models, equations, methods, operations, interfaces or data bases. Usage of software speeds up the arrival of optimized solution during the design and the operational procedures. Therefore software have significant impact on reducing time of pre-project phase such as research, conceptual design, and proving project abilities. It’s development lead to faster commercialization of industrial ideas. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34009

  4. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2.3: Sulfur Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is Subtask 2.3 of Task 2, Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates, of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 2.3 builds upon the sulfur removal information first presented in Subtask 2.1, Gas Cleanup Technologies for Biomass Gasification by adding additional information on the commercial applications, manufacturers, environmental footprint, and technical specifications for sulfur removal technologies. The data was obtained from Nexant's experience, input from GTI and other vendors, past and current facility data, and existing literature.

  5. Testing and design of selective catalytic reduction DENOX catalysts on the basis of titanium dioxide for flue gas cleaning plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufert, R.; Zuerbig, J. (Siemens AG, Redwitz (Germany). Unternehmensbereich KWU, Keramik- und Porzellanwerk)

    1990-12-01

    Selective catalytic reduction catalysers based on titanium dioxide enjoy a commanding position in the market. Reasons for this are high catalytic activity with simultaneous high specificity, low SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} oxidation rates, chemical resistance against acid, flue gas constituents and mechanical stability. The principle of DENOX catalyser design is precise knowledge and analyses of the limiting conditions under which use in power station shall result. A suitable type of catalyser has to be selected in accordance with the conditions of application. Manufacture has to be supported by a complex system of quality assurance measures and tests, so that the catalyser characteristics specified in the design can be guaranteed. 4 figs.

  6. Design and characterization of a Raman-scattering-based sensor system for temporally resolved gas analysis and its application in a gas turbine power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J.; Seeger, T.; Steuer, S.; Schorsch, S.; Weikl, M. C.; Leipertz, A.

    2008-08-01

    A sensor system for fast gas composition analysis is presented. Using linear Raman scattering the simultaneous detection of virtually all components of fuel gas mixtures such as natural gas and biogas can be achieved. The system consists of commercially available hardware components, in detail a frequency doubled continuous wave laser at 532 nm and a compact spectrometer with an embedded charge coupled device chip. For the evaluation of the Raman spectra a fast software module based on a contour fit algorithm is developed. Moreover, modules for controlling the hardware components are implemented in the sensor software ensuring simple operability of the entire system. In this paper the sensor is characterized in terms of, e.g., accuracy, reproducibility, detection limits and temporal performance. Finally its application for natural gas analysis in a gas turbine power plant is demonstrated, and the results obtained are compared to gas chromatography results.

  7. Assessment and Design of Illumination in the Unit of Carbon Dioxide Gas of Khuzestan Zam Zam Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangkooy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Light is the first that necessary for any effort. This factor, more than any physical variable, affects human labor. Two properties of cognitive and psychological lighting in the workplace can affect human performance. Objectives This study aimed to assess the illuminance in CO2 Gas unit of Khuzestan Zam Zam Company, and resolve its light deficiency through artificial lighting design. Materials and Methods This study is a descriptive-analytical based on survey of natural and artificial lighting sources in the workplace. It also included measurement of lighting levels in 3 shifts, calculating the average illuminance and comparing with recommended values, drawing graphs of results measured illuminance and finally designing the lighting of the unit by lumen method with room index (Kr. The study was conducted between March and June 2006 and its data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Mean ± SD level of illuminance in the morning, evening, and night was 211.31 ± 292.07, 182.16 ± 205.16, 67.47 ± 71.10 (lx, respectively. The results showed that there is a significant difference (P < 0.001 between average illuminance of 3 shifts of morning (day light, evening, and night (artificial light and the standard illuminance value (300 lx, which entails the lighting design’s work area for this unit. According to the design of artificial lighting base on the lumen method calculations in CO2 Gas unit, 400, 250 watt Metal Halides and 10585 watt compact fluorescent lamps were required, which their numbers were 610 and 44, respectively. Conclusions This paper considered the method based on comprehensive surveys of workplace illuminance levels (natural light and artificial light and design of lighting system as one of workplace physical factors in order to increase the efficiency of the production unit, decrease in carelessness, fatigue errors, and work accident.

  8. Theoretical study and design of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane and intended for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a novel combined system intended for natural gas transportation and power production, and for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline. The proposed system includes a gas turbine compressor, a combined electrogenerating plant and an ejector refrigeration unit operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The combined electrogenerating plant consists of a high-temperature steam-power cycle and a low-temperature hydrocarbon vapor power cycle, which together comprise a binary vapor system. The combined system is designed for the highest possible effectiveness of power generation and could find wide application in gas-transmission systems of gas-main pipelines. Application of the proposed system would enable year-round power generation and provide cooling of natural gas during periods of high ambient temperature operation. This paper presents the main results of a theoretical study and design performance specifications of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  9. Gas reservoir and a method to supply gas to plasma tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautner, Ernst Wolfgang; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2017-01-31

    A reservoir for storing and supplying a portion of a reservoir gas into a gas-filled tube is presented. The reservoir includes a first vessel having a thermally conductive surface, a meshed vessel having a lid, and placed inside the first vessel to form a cavity between the meshed vessel and the first vessel, at least one tray placed inside the meshed vessel to divide an inner space of the meshed vessel into a plurality of compartments, a sorbent material placed inside the plurality of compartments in the meshed vessel, a temperature control device positioned such that a first portion of the temperature control device is in physical contact with at least a portion of the thermally conductive surface, and a change in the temperature of the temperature control device changes the temperature of the sorbent material, wherein the reservoir gas is retained by the sorbent material at the storage temperature.

  10. Single vessel air injection estimates of xylem resistance to cavitation are affected by vessel network characteristics and sample length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturas, Martin D; Rodriguez-Zaccaro, F Daniela; Percolla, Marta I; Crous, Casparus J; Jacobsen, Anna L; Pratt, R Brandon

    2016-10-01

    Xylem resistance to cavitation is an important trait that is related to the ecology and survival of plant species. Vessel network characteristics, such as vessel length and connectivity, could affect the spread of emboli from gas-filled vessels to functional ones, triggering their cavitation. We hypothesized that the cavitation resistance of xylem vessels is randomly distributed throughout the vessel network. We predicted that single vessel air injection (SVAI) vulnerability curves (VCs) would thus be affected by sample length. Longer stem samples were predicted to appear more resistant than shorter samples due to the sampled path including greater numbers of vessels. We evaluated the vessel network characteristics of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), English oak (Quercus robur L.) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray), and constructed SVAI VCs for 5- and 20-cm-long segments. We also constructed VCs with a standard centrifuge method and used computer modelling to estimate the curve shift expected for pathways composed of different numbers of vessels. For all three species, the SVAI VCs for 5 cm segments rose exponentially and were more vulnerable than the 20 cm segments. The 5 cm curve shapes were exponential and were consistent with centrifuge VCs. Modelling data supported the observed SVAI VC shifts, which were related to path length and vessel network characteristics. These results suggest that exponential VCs represent the most realistic curve shape for individual vessel resistance distributions for these species. At the network level, the presence of some vessels with a higher resistance to cavitation may help avoid emboli spread during tissue dehydration. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Design and Operation of the Synthesis Gas Generator System for Reformed Propane and Glycerin Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Derek Kyle

    Due to an increased interest in sustainable energy, biodiesel has become much more widely used in the last several years. Glycerin, one major waste component in biodiesel production, can be converted into a hydrogen rich synthesis gas to be used in an engine generator to recover energy from the biodiesel production process. This thesis contains information detailing the production, testing, and analysis of a unique synthesis generator rig at the University of Kansas. Chapter 2 gives a complete background of all major components, as well as how they are operated. In addition to component descriptions, methods for operating the system on pure propane, reformed propane, reformed glycerin along with the methodology of data acquisition is described. This chapter will serve as a complete operating manual for future students to continue research on the project. Chapter 3 details the literature review that was completed to better understand fuel reforming of propane and glycerin. This chapter also describes the numerical model produced to estimate the species produced during reformation activities. The model was applied to propane reformation in a proof of concept and calibration test before moving to glycerin reformation and its subsequent combustion. Chapter 4 first describes the efforts to apply the numerical model to glycerin using the calibration tools from propane reformation. It then discusses catalytic material preparation and glycerin reformation tests. Gas chromatography analysis of the reformer effluent was completed to compare to theoretical values from the numerical model. Finally, combustion of reformed glycerin was completed for power generation. Tests were completed to compare emissions from syngas combustion and propane combustion.

  12. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  13. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  14. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  20. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  1. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  2. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  3. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  4. Upgraded automotive gas turbine engine design and development program, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for the design and development of an upgraded engine. The design incorporated technology advancements which resulted from development testing on the Baseline Engine. The final engine performance with all retro-fitted components from the development program showed a value of 91 HP at design speed in contrast to the design value of 104 HP. The design speed SFC was 0.53 versus the goal value of 0.44. The miss in power was primarily due to missing the efficiency targets of small size turbomachinery. Most of the SFC deficit was attributed to missed goals in the heat recovery system relative to regenerator effectiveness and expected values of heat loss. Vehicular fuel consumption, as measured on a chassis dynamometer, for a vehicle inertia weight of 3500 lbs., was 15 MPG for combined urban and highway driving cycles. The baseline engine achieved 8 MPG with a 4500 lb. vehicle. Even though the goal of 18.3 MPG was not achieved with the upgraded engine, there was an improvement in fuel economy of 46% over the baseline engine, for comparable vehicle inertia weight.

  5. WIPP Gas-Generation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank S. Felicione; Steven M. Frank; Dennis D. Keiser

    2007-05-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for gas generation in contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) wastes subjected for several years to conditions similar to those expected to occur at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) should the repository eventually become inundated with brine. Various types of actual CH TRU wastes were placed into 12 corrosion-resistant vessels. The vessels were loosely filled with the wastes, which were submerged in synthetic brine having the same chemical composition as that in the WIPP vicinity. The vessels were also inoculated with microbes found in the Salado Formation at WIPP. The vessels were sealed, purged, and the approximately 750 ml headspace in each vessel was pressurized with nitrogen gas to approximately 146 atmospheres to create anoxic conditions at the lithostatic pressure estimated in the repository were it to be inundated. The temperature was maintained at the expected 30°C. The test program objective was to measure the quantities and species of gases generated by metal corrosion, radiolysis, and microbial activity. These data will assist in the specification of the rates at which gases are produced under inundated repository conditions for use in the WIPP Performance Assessment computer models. These experiments were very carefully designed, constructed, instrumented, and performed. Approximately 6 1/2 years of continuous, undisturbed testing were accumulated. Several of the vessels showed significantly elevated levels of generated gases, virtually all of which was hydrogen. Up to 4.2% hydrogen, by volume, was measured. Only small quantities of other gases, principally carbon dioxide, were detected. Gas generation was found to depend strongly on the waste composition. The maximum hydrogen generation occurred in vessels containing carbon steel. Visual examination of carbon-steel coupons confirmed the correspondence between the extent of observable corrosion and hydrogen generation. Average corrosion penetration rates

  6. Large vessel vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Pukšić, Silva; Gudelj Gračanin, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in y...

  7. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...seating compartment. The sides should also limit wave splash on the deck. The freeboard should contribute reserve buoyancy , increasing large-angle and...Resistance, Powering, and Propulsion Savitsky’s Method Since model testing data or other reliable performance data was unavailable for the proposed

  8. Design, Optimization and Energetic Efficiency of Producing Hydrogen-Rich Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chih Kuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the conceptual design of biomass steam gasification (BSG processes using raw oil palm (ROP and torrefied oil palm (TOP are examined in an Aspen Plus simulator. Through thermodynamic analysis, it is verified that the BSG process with torrefied feedstock can effectively enhance the hydrogen yield. When the heat recovery design is added into the BSG process, the system energetic efficiency (SEE is significantly improved. Finally, an optimization algorithm with respect to SEE and hydrogen yield is solved, and the optimum operating conditions are validated by simulations.

  9. Design and preliminary results of a fuel flexible industrial gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The design characteristics are presented of a fuel tolerant variable geometry staged air combustor using regenerative/convective cooling. The rich/quench/lean variable geometry combustor is designed to achieve low NO(x) emission from fuels containing fuel bound nitrogen. The physical size of the combustor was calculated for a can-annular combustion system with associated operating conditions for the Allison 570-K engine. Preliminary test results indicate that the concept has the potential to meet emission requirements at maximum continuous power operation. However, airflow sealing and improved fuel/air mixing are necessary to meet Department of Energy program goals.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  11. Gas dynamics in CO2 angiography: in vitro evaluation in a circulatory system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K; Cho, D; Shinn, K; Charlton, E; Cho, K

    1999-02-01

    The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a vascular contrast agent has increased significantly since the introduction of digital subtraction angiography. To optimize the injection of CO2 for digital subtraction angiography, we evaluated the gas dispersion patterns from differing catheter designs, gas flow dynamics, and the influence of vessel size and inclination on luminal gas filling. A circulatory system model was constructed and perfused with 36% glycerin solution at a rate of 1.08 to 1.13 liters per minutes (pulse rate 72 beats/minute, pressure 90-111 mm Hg). Fifty milliliters of CO2 was rapidly injected into the vascular tube of the model (diameter 6.4-15.9 mm) at an inclination of 0 degrees to 45 degrees via a catheter, and imaged digitally in a cross-table lateral projection. The dispersal patterns of gas bubbles from the halo, pigtail, and end-hole catheters were evaluated as well as the degree of luminal gas filling. The halo and end-hole catheters produced continuous gas flow with homogeneous density. The pigtail catheter produced smaller bubbles with inhomogeneous density. Luminal gas filling was incomplete, with a residual fluid level posteriorly regardless of the size and inclination of the tube. At 0 degrees inclination, gas filling was greater with the 6.4-mm tube than with the 15.9-mm tube. With an inclination of 0 degrees to 15 degrees, gas filling was significantly improved for the larger tubes. On dispersal, CO2 bubbles rapidly coalesced and moved forward along the anterior aspect of the tube. The frontal motion of the bubble was parabolic in configuration. The halo and end-hole catheters provide more homogeneous gas density than the pigtail catheter. Gas filling was incomplete regardless of catheter design, vessel size, or inclination. Inclination improves gas filling in vessels > 12.7 mm in diameter.

  12. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials

  13. Design optimization of metal getter reactors for removing tritium from flowing gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, A.; Bieniewski, T.; Frame, K.; Little, R.; Fisher, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A reaction engineering approach was used to design a SAES St 198 metal getter reactor for a glovebox detritiation system. The detritiation system will be used to decontaminate and decommission an Li(D, T)-contaminated glovebox previously used in the U.S. nuclear weapons program. The approach involved development of a model that calculates reactor breakthrough curves as a function of various reactor physical parameters. Experiments involving flow of deuterium in nitrogen through a small metal getter reactor validated the model. The model was then used to investigate the effects of temperature, getter pellet size, reactor diameter, and reactor volume on the reactor performance. The resulting design was a 7 cm diam. by 40 cm long cylindrical reactor that operates at 250 {degree}C, and is filled with 5 kg of as-received SAES St 198 getter pellets. The reactor handles a flow rate of 100 L/min. An St 909 getter reactor was used upstream of the St 198 reactor for impurity removal and water decomposition. The glovebox cleanup system design and getter reactor mechanical design are discussed. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Parametric analysis of a high temperature packed bed thermal storage design for a solar gas turbine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available , conductive and radiative heat transfer mechanisms and is validated against high temperature experimental data from a laboratory scale test facility. The validated model is further utilised to conduct a parametric design study of a nominal six hour TES (1:55MW...

  15. Study of design and technology factors influencing gas turbine blade cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, I. V.; Garanin, I. V.; Rogalev, A. N.; Kindra, V. O.; Khudyakova, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of aerodynamic and thermal parameters of turbulators used in order to design an efficient blade cooling system. However, all experimental tests of the hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the turbulators were conducted on the rectangular shape channels with a strongly defined air flow direction. The actual blades have geometry of the channels that essentially differs from the rectangular shape. Specifically, the air flow in the back cavity of a blade with one and half-pass cooling channel changes its direction throughout the feather height. In most cases the ribs and pins are made with a tilt to the channel walls, which is determined by the moving element design of a mould for the ceramic rod element fabrication. All of the factors described above may result in the blade thermohydraulic model being developed failing to fully simulate the air flow and the heat exchange processes in some sections of the cooling path. Hence, the design temperature field will differ from the temperature field of an actual blade. This article studied the numerical data of design and technology factors influencing heat transfer in the cooling channels. The results obtained showed their substantial impact on the blade cooling efficiency.

  16. Design and optimization of photonic crystal fiber based sensor for gas condensate and air pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Ibadul; Ahmed, Kawsar; Sen, Shuvo; Chowdhury, Sawrab; Paul, Bikash Kumar; Islam, Md. Shadidul; Miah, Mohammad Badrul Alam; Asaduzzaman, Sayed

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a hexagonal shape photonic crystal fiber (H-PCF) has been proposed as a gas sensor of which both micro-structured core and cladding are organized by circular air cavities. The reported H-PCF has a single layer circular core which is surrounded by a five-layer hexagonal cladding. The overall pretending process of the H-PCF is completed by using a full vectorial finite element method (FEM) with perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition. All geometrical parameters like diameters and pitches of both core and cladding regions have fluctuated with an optimized structure. After completing the numerical analysis, it is clearly visualized that the proposed H-PCF exhibits high sensitivity with low confinement loss. The investigated results reveal the relative sensitivity of 56.65% and confinement loss of 2.31×10-5 dB/m at the 1.33-μm wavelength. Moreover, effective area, nonlinearity, and V-parameter of the suggested PCF are also briefly described.

  17. Design of Satellite Attitude Control Algorithm Based on the SDRE Method Using Gas Jets and Reaction Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. G. de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental attitude control algorithm design using prototypes can minimize space mission costs by reducing the number of errors transmitted to the next phase of the project. The Space Mechanics and Control Division (DMC of INPE is constructing a 3D simulator to supply the conditions for implementing and testing satellite control hardware and software. Satellite large angle maneuver makes the plant highly nonlinear and if the parameters of the system are not well determined, the plant can also present some level of uncertainty. As a result, controller designed by a linear control technique can have its performance and robustness degraded. In this paper the standard LQR linear controller and the SDRE controller associated with an SDRE filter are applied to design a controller for a nonlinear plant. The plant is similar to the DMC 3D satellite simulator where the unstructured uncertainties of the system are represented by process and measurements noise. In the sequel the State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE method is used to design and test an attitude control algorithm based on gas jets and reaction wheel torques to perform large angle maneuver in three axes. The SDRE controller design takes into account the effects of the plant nonlinearities and system noise which represents uncertainty. The SDRE controller performance and robustness are tested during the transition phase from angular velocity reductions to normal mode of operation with stringent pointing accuracy using a switching control algorithm based on minimum system energy. This work serves to validate the numerical simulator model and to verify the functionality of the control algorithm designed by the SDRE method.

  18. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  19. LQG Dynamic Positioning for a Supply Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott Ron

    The purpose of this study is to merge my on the job marine experience and the control knowledge gathered throughout my studies at University of California San Diego into a practical control design. This thesis creates a Dynamic Positioning (DP) control loop for a supply vessel which utilizes two azimuthal thrusters as actuators. The control loop is designed to also account for external environmental disturbances and sensor measurement noise. The control loop is accomplished using modern control theory which makes use of known vessel dynamics and assumptions associated with the environment and sensor measurement variances. During this thesis research and design period, a testing platform for the control loop was required. Without the ability to retrofit a physical vessel with the proposed azimuthal thrusters it was determined that a simulation model would be required and was designed and implemented in Matlab Simulink to allow for control loop testing and validation. This simulation model is presented as part of the thesis research and design flow as it was a required element of the design and encompasses the knowledge acquired in my marine work and during my period at UCSD. Control loop performance results were obtained through testing on the generated simulation model. These results allowed for validation and optimization during the design phases of the vessel control loop. The principal conclusions were that the simulation model provided sufficient dynamics to properly execute the required tests to the control loop and that the implemented control loop was capable of operating within the determined parameters set forth in the design validation testing.

  20. Test results of the Chrysler upgraded automotive gas turbine engine: Initial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, D.; Ribble, G. H., Jr.; Warren, E. L.; Wood, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The upgraded engine as built to the original design was deficient in power and had excessive specific fuel consumption. A high instrumented version of the engine was tested to identify the sources of the engine problems. Analysis of the data shows the major problems to be low compressor and power turbine efficiency and excessive interstage duct losses. In addition, high HC and CO emission were measured at idle, and high NOx emissions at high energy speeds.

  1. Gas Turbine Engine Control Design Using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bazazzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a successful approach in designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC for a specific Jet Engine. At first, a suitable mathematical model for the jet engine is presented by the aid of SIMULINK. Then by applying different reasonable fuel flow functions via the engine model, some important engine-transient operation parameters (such as thrust, compressor surge margin, turbine inlet temperature, etc. are obtained. These parameters provide a precious database, which train a neural network. At the second step, by designing and training a feedforward multilayer perceptron neural network according to this available database; a number of different reasonable fuel flow functions for various engine acceleration operations are determined. These functions are used to define the desired fuzzy fuel functions. Indeed, the neural networks are used as an effective method to define the optimum fuzzy fuel functions. At the next step, we propose a FLC by using the engine simulation model and the neural network results. The proposed control scheme is proved by computer simulation using the designed engine model. The simulation results of engine model with FLC illustrate that the proposed controller achieves the desired performance and stability.

  2. Synthesis of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Designed for Radiation Detection, Luminescence, and Gas Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Shae Anne

    Materials discovery is the driving force behind the research presented herein. Basic research has been conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of coordination chemistry and structural outcomes, particularly within the area of trivalent lanthanides. Discovering new materials is one route to further advancement of technology; another one is the focus on incremental changes to already existing materials. Often the building blocks of a compound are chosen in an effort to synthesize a material that makes use of the properties of each individual component and may result in a better, more robust, applicable material. The combination of organic and inorganic components for the synthesis of novel materials with potential applications such as scintillation photoluminescence, catalysis, and gas storage are the focus of the research presented herein. The first part focuses on lanthanide organic hybrid materials, where the synthesis of a new family of potential scintillating materials was undertaken and yielded improved understanding of the control that can be achieved over the topological structure of these materials by controlling the coordinating crystallization solvents. This research has led to the synthesis of an array of unique motifs, ranging from dimeric complexes, tetrameric complexes, to 1-D chains, and most intriguing of all, catenated tetradecanuclear rings. These rings represent the largest lanthanide rings synthesized to date, the next largest multinuclear rings, until now, were dodecanuclear complexes of alkoxides. From a basic research standpoint this is an exciting new development in lanthanide coordination chemistry and illustrates the importance of steric effects upon a system. These complexes are potential scintillators, supported by their luminescence and measurements of similar compounds that demonstrate surprising scintillation efficiencies. In the second part, other hybrid materials that have also been prepared are discussed, including the

  3. Design for low-cost gas metal arc weld-based aluminum 3-D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselhuhn, Amberlee S.

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3-D printing, has the potential to change the state of manufacturing across the globe. Parts are made, or printed, layer by layer using only the materials required to form the part, resulting in much less waste than traditional manufacturing methods. Additive manufacturing has been implemented in a wide variety of industries including aerospace, medical, consumer products, and fashion, using metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and even organic tissues. However, traditional 3-D printing technologies, particularly those used to print metals, can be prohibitively expensive for small enterprises and the average consumer. A low-cost open-source metal 3-D printer has been developed based upon gas metal arc weld (GMAW) technology. Using this technology, substrate release mechanisms have been developed, allowing the user to remove a printed metal part from a metal substrate by hand. The mechanical and microstructural properties of commercially available weld alloys were characterized and used to guide alloy development in 4000 series aluminum-silicon alloys. Wedge casting experiments were performed to screen magnesium, strontium, and titanium boride alloying additions in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys for their properties and the ease with which they could be printed. Finally, the top performing alloys, which were approximately 11.6% Si modified with strontium and titanium boride were cast, extruded, and drawn into wire. These wires were printed and the mechanical and microstructural properties were compared with those of commercially available alloys. This work resulted in an easier-to-print aluminum-silicon-strontium alloy that exhibited lower porosity, equivalent yield and tensile strengths, yet nearly twice the ductility compared to commercial alloys.

  4. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James; Bayless, Paul; Strydom, Gerhard; Kumar, Akansha; Gougar, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is an indispensable element of any substantial attempt in reactor simulation validation. The quantification of uncertainties in nuclear engineering has grown more important and the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) initiated in 2012 aims to investigate the various uncertainty quantification methodologies for this type of reactors. The first phase of the CRP is dedicated to the estimation of cell and lattice model uncertainties due to the neutron cross sections co-variances. Phase II is oriented towards the investigation of propagated uncertainties from the lattice to the coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics core calculations. Nominal results for the prismatic single block (Ex.I-2a) and super cell models (Ex.I-2c) have been obtained using the SCALE 6.1.3 two-dimensional lattice code NEWT coupled to the TRITON sequence for cross section generation. In this work, the TRITON/NEWT-flux-weighted cross sections obtained for Ex.I-2a and various models of Ex.I-2c is utilized to perform a sensitivity analysis of the MHTGR-350 core power densities and eigenvalues. The core solutions are obtained with the INL coupled code PHISICS/RELAP5-3D, utilizing a fixed-temperature feedback for Ex. II-1a.. It is observed that the core power density does not vary significantly in shape, but the magnitude of these variations increases as the moderator-to-fuel ratio increases in the super cell lattice models.

  5. A Preliminary Study on Designing and Testing of an Absorption Refrigeration Cycle Powered by Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, F. H.; Daulay, F. A.; Dedy, P. M.; Denis; Jecson

    2017-03-01

    In order to recover the waste heat from the exhaust gas of a combustion engine, an adsorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. This is a preliminary study on design and testing of a prototype of absorption refrigeration cycle powered by an internal combustion engine. The heat source of the cycle is a compression ignition engine which generates 122.36 W of heat in generator of the cycle. The pairs of absorbent and refrigerant are water and ammonia. Here the generator is made of a shell and tube heat exchanger with number of tube and its length are 20 and 0.69 m, respectively. In the experiments the exhaust gas, with a mass flow rate of 0.00016 kg/s, enters the generator at 110°C and leaves it at 72°C. Here, the solution is heated from 30°C to 90°C. In the evaporator, the lowest temperature can be reached is 17.9°C and COP of the system is 0.45. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that the proposed system can be used to recycle the waste heat and produced cooling. However, the COP is still low.

  6. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 1, Erosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-04-01

    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  7. Rational design of intrinsically ultramicroporous polyimides containing bridgehead-substituted triptycene for highly selective and permeable gas separation membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-08-12

    Highly ultramicroporous, solution-processable polyimides bearing 9,10-bridgehead-substituted triptycene demonstrated the highest BET surface area reported for polyimides (840 m2 g-1) and several new highs in gas selectivity and permeability for hydrogen (1630-3980 barrers, H2/CH4 ∼ 38) and air (230-630 barrers, O 2/N2 = 5.5-5.9) separations. Two new dianhydrides bearing 9,10-diethyl- and 9,10-dipropyltriptycenes indicate that the ultramicroporosity is optimized for fast polymeric sieving with the use of short, bulky isopropyl bridgeheads and methyl-substituted diamines (TrMPD, TMPD, and TMBZ) that increase intrachain rigidity. Mechanically, the triptycene-based analogue of a spirobisindane-based polyimide exhibited 50% increases in both tensile strength at break (94 MPa) and elastic modulus (2460 MPa) with corresponding 90% lower elongations at break (6%) likely due to the ability of highly entangled spiro-based chains to unwind. To guide future polyimide design, structure/property relationships are suggested between the geometry of the contortion center, the diamine and bridgehead substituent, and the mechanical, microstructural, and gas transport properties. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  8. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Christopher N; Parker, Joseph F; Nelson, Eric S; Rolison, Debra R; Long, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-29

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode-a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  9. CAD/CAM-designed 3D-printed electroanalytical cell for the evaluation of nanostructured gas-diffusion electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Christopher N.; Parker, Joseph F.; Nelson, Eric S.; Rolison, Debra R.; Long, Jeffrey W.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to effectively screen and validate gas-diffusion electrodes is critical to the development of next-generation metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells. The limiting electrode in a classic two-terminal device such as a battery or fuel cell is difficult to discern without an internal reference electrode, but the flooded electrolyte characteristic of three-electrode electroanalytical cells negates the prime function of an air electrode—a void volume freely accessible to gases. The nanostructured catalysts that drive the energy-conversion reactions (e.g., oxygen reduction and evolution in the air electrode of metal-air batteries) are best evaluated in the electrode structure as-used in the practical device. We have designed, 3D-printed, and characterized an air-breathing, thermodynamically referenced electroanalytical cell that allows us to mimic the Janus arrangement of the gas-diffusion electrode in a metal-air cell: one face freely exposed to gases, the other wetted by electrolyte.

  10. GIS as a practical and powerful tool for gas pipeline design and planning; GIS como ferramenta pratica e poderosa para projeto e planejamento de gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Gas pipeline design and planning requires the management of huge quantity of information related to environmental, socio-economic and engineering data. To optimize the design process and guarantee a high level of quality and reliability a GIS solution was implemented that proved to be worth taking and adopted the state of the art of the technology available in the market. This paper will present the GIS solution implemented at PETROBRAS Gas and Energy based on APDM, a pipeline data model that is a result of a joint work that has been developed by specialized worldwide oil and gas companies. Two applications developed in house will also be presented, one is the application called Scenario Builder that is related to gas pipeline thermo-hydraulic simulation fully integrated with GIS technology and the other is called Project Viewer that provides different ways of having quick access and visualization of the existing and ongoing projects. (author)

  11. Design study of gas cooled fast reactors using natural uranium as fuel cycle input employing radial shuffling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irka, Feriska Handayani; Su'ud, Zaki; Aryani, Menik; Aziz, Ferhat; Sekimoto, H.

    2012-06-01

    Design study of gas cooled fast reactors with natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been performed. The reactors utilizes UN-PUN as fuel, helium as coolant, and can be operated without refueling for 10 years in each batch. Reactor design optimization is performed to utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This reactor subdivided into 10 regions with equal volume in radial directions. The natural uranium is initially put in region 1, and after one cycle of 10 years of burnup it is shifted to region 2 and the region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all regions. To achieve criticality requirement relatively high fuel volume fraction is applied. In this study several parametric survey were performed for several parameters such as fuel-to-coolant volume fraction ratio, core radius, and core height. After some optimization process we determine a standard core with a height and a diameter of 350 cm and 240 cm respectively, and the volume fraction for this design is 65% fuel, 10% cladding and 25% coolant. Calculation has been done by using SRAC-Citation system code and JENDL-3.2 library.

  12. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  13. Ceramics for the advanced automotive gas turbine engine: A look at a single shaft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a preliminary analysis of a single shaft regenerative design with a single stage radial turbine are presented to show the fuel economy that can be achieved at high turbine inlet temperatures, with this particular advanced design, if the turbine tip speed and regenerator inlet temperature are not limited. The engine size was 100 hp for application to a 3500 lb auto. The fuel economy was analyzed by coupling the engine to the auto through a continuously variable speed-ratio transmission and operating the system at constant turbine inlet temperature over the Composite Driving Cycle. The fuel was gasoline and the analysis was for a 85 F day. With a turbine inlet temperature of 2500 F the fuel economy was 26.2 mpg, an improvement of 18 percent over that of 22.3 mpg with a turbine inlet temperature of 1900 F. The turbine tip speed needed for best economy with the 2500 F engine was 2530 ft/sec. The regenerator temperature was approximately 2200 F at idle. Disk stresses were estimated for one single stage radial turbine and two two-stage radial-axial turbines and compared with maximum allowable stress curves estimated for a current ceramic material. Results show a need for higher Weibull Modulus, higher strength ceramics.

  14. Challenges in the Design and Fabrication of a Lab-on-a-Chip Photoacoustic Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Glière

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The favorable downscaling behavior of photoacoustic spectroscopy has provoked in recent years a growing interest in the miniaturization of photoacoustic sensors. The individual components of the sensor, namely widely tunable quantum cascade lasers, low loss mid infrared (mid-IR waveguides, and efficient microelectromechanical systems (MEMS microphones are becoming available in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS compatible technologies. This paves the way for the joint processes of miniaturization and full integration. Recently, a prototype microsensor has been designed by the means of a specifically designed coupled optical-acoustic model. This paper discusses the new, or more intense, challenges faced if downscaling is continued. The first limitation in miniaturization is physical: the light source modulation, which matches the increasing cell acoustic resonance frequency, must be kept much slower than the collisional relaxation process. Secondly, from the acoustic modeling point of view, one faces the limit of validity of the continuum hypothesis. Namely, at some point, velocity slip and temperature jump boundary conditions must be used, instead of the continuous boundary conditions, which are valid at the macro-scale. Finally, on the technological side, solutions exist to realize a complete lab-on-a-chip, even if it remains a demanding integration problem.

  15. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  16. Vanishing corneal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Chana, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    We wish to highlight the importance of acknowledging the accompanying effects of topical phenylephrine drops on the eye other than its intended mydriasis. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with a corneal graft who was noted to have superficial corneal vascularisation which was not documented previously. After the instillation of topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5%, for funduscopy, the corneal vascularisation was not visible. When reassessed on another visit, tropicamide had no effect on the vessels and only phenylephrine did. We wish to highlight that when reviewing patients in cornea clinics, instilling phenylephrine prior to being seen may mask important corneal vascularisation. PMID:24121816

  17. Development of Improved Models and Designs for Coated-Particle Gas Reactor Fuels -- Final Report under the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Martin, Philippe [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Phelip, Mayeul [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ballinger, Ronald [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this INERI project was to develop improved fuel behavior models for gas reactor coated-particle fuels and to explore improved coated-particle fuel designs that could be used reliably at very high burnups and potentially in gas-cooled fast reactors. Project participants included the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), Centre Étude Atomique (CEA), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). To accomplish the project objectives, work was organized into five tasks.

  18. Boosted learned kernels for data-driven vesselness measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisan, E.

    2017-03-01

    Common vessel centerline extraction methods rely on the computation of a measure providing the likeness of the local appearance of the data to a curvilinear tube-like structure. The most popular techniques rely on empirically designed (hand crafted) measurements as the widely used Hessian vesselness, the recent oriented flux tubeness or filters (e.g. the Gaussian matched filter) that are developed to respond to local features, without exploiting any context information nor the rich structural information embedded in the data. At variance with the previously proposed methods, we propose a completely data-driven approach for learning a vesselness measure from expert-annotated dataset. For each data point (voxel or pixel), we extract the intensity values in a neighborhood region, and estimate the discriminative convolutional kernel yielding a positive response for vessel data and negative response for non-vessel data. The process is iterated within a boosting framework, providing a set of linear filters, whose combined response is the learned vesselness measure. We show the results of the general-use proposed method on the DRIVE retinal images dataset, comparing its performance against the hessian-based vesselness, oriented flux antisymmetry tubeness, and vesselness learned with a probabilistic boosting tree or with a regression tree. We demonstrate the superiority of our approach that yields a vessel detection accuracy of 0.95, with respect to 0.92 (hessian), 0.90 (oriented flux) and 0.85 (boosting tree).

  19. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  20. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...