WorldWideScience

Sample records for vessel central axis

  1. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  2. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  3. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište, Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers, and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9. Recognizable among the glass vessels are bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska Mitrovica (fig. 10/3, Brestovik (fig. 13/3, Mirijevo (fig. 4/1, Vinča (figs. 4/2; 10/4, Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2 and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7. The available descriptions of vessels and archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1. Among

  4. Central regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis: focus on clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Boelen, A.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamus is the most prominent brain region involved in setpoint regulation of the thyroid axis. It generates the diurnal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) rhythm, and it plays a central role in the adaptation of the thyroid axis to environmental factors such as caloric deprivation or

  5. Small vessel disease and cognitive impairment : The relevance of central network connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Piantoni, Giovanni; Boulouis, Gregoire; Kelly, Kathleen E.; Gurol, Mahmut E.; Leemans, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network

  6. D-Zero Central Calorimeter Pressure Vessel and Vacuum Vessel Safety Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; Luther, R.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-25

    The relief valve and relief piping capacity was calculated to be 908 sefm air. This exceeds all relieving conditions. The vessel also has a rupture disc with a 2640 scfm air stamped capacity. In order to significantly decrease the amount of time required to fill the cryostats, it is desired to raise the setpoint of the 'operating' relief valve on the argon storage dewar to 20 psig from its existing 16 psig setting. This additional pressure increases the flow to the cryostats and will overwhelm the relief capacity if the temperature of the modules within these vessels is warm enough. Using some conservative assumptions and simple calculations within this note, the maximum average temperature that the modules within each cryostat can be at prior to filling from the storage dewar with liquid argon is at least 290 K. The average temperature of the module mass for any of the three cryostats can be as high as 290 K prior to filling that particular cryostat. This should not be confused with the average temperature of a single type or location which is useful in protecting the modules-not necessarily the vessel itself. A few modules of each type and at different elevations should be used in an average which would account for the different weights of each module. Note that at 290 K, the actual flow of argon through the relief valve and the rupture disk was under the maximum theoretical flows for each relief device. This means that the bulk temperature could actually have been raised to flow argon through the reliefs at their maximum capacity. Therefore, the temperature of 290 K is a conservative value for the calculated flow rate of 12.3 gpm. Safeguards in addition to and used in conjunction with operating procedures shall be implemented in such a way so that the above temperature limitation is not exceeded and such that it is exclusive of the programmable logic controller (PLC). One suggestion is using a toggle switch for each cryostat mounted in the PLC I/O box

  7. Endothelial sphingosine kinase/SPNS2 axis is critical for vessel-like formation by human mesoangioblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Cencetti, Francesca; Serratì, Simona; Bruno, Gennaro; Japtok, Lukasz; Bianchini, Francesca; Torre, Eugenio; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario; Bruni, Paola; Donati, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    The interaction between endothelial cells and pericytes is crucial for the stabilization of newly formed vessels in angiogenesis. The comprehension of the mechanisms regulating pericyte recruitment might open therapeutical perspectives on vascular-related pathologies. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that derives from sphingomyelin catabolism and regulates biological functions in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. In this study, we aimed to identify the role of S1P axis in the intercellular communication between human mesenchymal progenitor mesoangioblasts (MAB) and endothelial cells (human microvascular endothelial cells (H-MVEC)) in the formation of capillary-like structures. We demonstrated that the S1P biosynthetic pathway brought about by sphingosine kinases (SK) SK1 and SK2 as well as spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) transporter in H-MVEC is crucial for MAB migration measured by Boyden chambers and for the formation and stabilization of capillary-like structures in a 3D Matrigel culture. Moreover, the conditioned medium (CM) harvested from H-MVEC, where SK1, SK2, and SPNS2 were down-regulated, exerted a significantly diminished effect on MAB capillary morphogenesis and migration. Notably, we demonstrated that S1P1 and S1P3 receptors were positively involved in CM-induced capillary-like formation and migration, while S1P2 exerted a negative role on CM-induced migratory action of MAB. Finally, SK inhibition as well as MAB S1P1 and S1P3 down-regulation impaired H-MVEC-MAB cross-talk significantly reducing in vivo angiogenesis evaluated by Matrigel plug assay. These findings individuate novel targets for the employment of MAB in vascular-related pathologic conditions. • Down-regulation of SK1/2 in H-MVEC impaired vessel formation when cultured with MAB. • H-MVEC SPNS2 is critical for morphogenesis and migration induced by H-MVEC CM of MAB. • CM from SK1- and SK2-siRNA H-MVEC impaired morphogenesis and migration of MAB.

  8. Cushing’s Syndrome and Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis Hyperactivity in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke M. van Haalen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCentral serous chorioretinopathy (CSC, a specific form of macular degeneration, has been reported as presenting manifestation of Cushing’s syndrome. Furthermore, CSC has been associated with both exogenous hypercortisolism and endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. It is important to know whether CSC patients should be screened for Cushing’s syndrome. Although hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis hyperactivity in CSC has been suggested, no detailed evaluation of the HPA axis has been performed in a large cohort of CSC patients. This study aimed to investigate whether Cushing’s syndrome prevalence is increased among chronic CSC (cCSC patients and whether detailed endocrinological phenotyping indicates hyperactivity of the HPA axis.DesignCross-sectional study.Patients86 cCSC patients and 24 controls.MeasurementsPrevalence of Cushing’s syndrome, HPA axis activity.ResultsNone of the cCSC patients met the clinical or biochemical criteria of Cushing’s syndrome. However, compared to controls, HPA axis activity was increased in cCSC patients, reflected by higher 24 h urinary free cortisol, and accompanying higher waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure, whereas circadian cortisol rhythm and feedback were not different. Chronic CSC patients did not report more stress or stress-related problems on questionnaires.ConclusionNo case of Cushing’s syndrome was revealed in a large cohort of cCSC patients. Therefore, we advise against screening for Cushing’s syndrome in CSC patients, unless additional clinical features are present. However, our results indicate that cCSC is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis, albeit not accompanied with perception of more psychosocial stress.

  9. Oromandibular reconstruction with chimeric double-skin paddle flap based on peroneal vessel axis for synchronous opposite double oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Tsai; Liu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Synchronous double oral cancer represents the minority of cases of head and neck cancer. After tumor ablation, 2 separate oromandibular defects, even combined with a through-and-through oral defect, pose a serious reconstructive challenge. The ideal method for reconstruction remains controversial. Based on the peroneal vessel axis, a chimeric double-skin paddle peroneal fasciocutaneous or fibular osteomyocutaneous flap could be designed to accomplish the difficult reconstruction. Six male patients, each with 2 separate oromandibular defects after tumor ablation of synchronous double oral cancer, received double-skin paddle flap reconstruction with 3 peroneal fasciocutaneous and 3 fibular osteomyocutaneous flaps. All 6 flaps survived; however, complications included 1 skin paddle lost due to insufficient perfusion of a visible perforator, and 1 superficial necrosis occurring over the tip of a longer skin paddle. One postoperative intraoral infection and 1 donor site infection were also reported. During follow-up, 3 months later, 1 patient succumbed to local recurrence and bony metastasis. One patient developed a new cancer in the maxillary gingiva, and another had osteoradionecrosis 8 months later. Four patients gained acceptable cosmesis with good oral competence. A chimeric flap based on the peroneal artery could provide a segment of fibular bone, 1 or 2 skin paddles, and a cuff of the flexor hallucis longus muscle simultaneously. For 1-stage reconstruction of separate oromandibular defects after tumor ablation of synchronous double oral cancer, this design could provide all components at 1 transfer.

  10. Neuroradiologic Characteristics of Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System According to the Affected Vessel Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Christian; Kaufmann-Bühler, Ann-Katrin; Gansukh, Tserenchunt; Gansukh, Amarjargal; Schuster, Simon; Bachmann, Henrike; Thomalla, Götz; Magnus, Tim; Matschke, Jakob; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-09-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important impact in diagnosing primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). However, neuroradiologic findings may vary immensely, making an easy and definite diagnosis challenging. In this retrospective, single center study, we analyzed neuroradiologic findings of patients with PACNS diagnosed at our hospital between 2009 and 2014. Furthermore, we classified patients according to the affected vessel size and compared imaging characteristics between the subgroups. Thirty-three patients were included (mean age 43 [±15.3] years, 17 females) in this study. Patients with positive angiographic findings were classified as either medium or large vessel PACNS and presented more ischemic lesions (p < 0.001) and vessel wall enhancement (p = 0.017) compared to patients with small vessel PACNS. No significant differences were detected for the distribution of contrast-enhancing lesions (parenchymal or leptomeningeal), hemorrhages, or lesions with mass effect. Twenty-five patients underwent brain biopsy. Patients with medium or large vessel PACNS were less likely to have positive biopsy results. It is essential to differentiate between small and medium/large vessel PACNS since results in MRI, digital subtraction angiography and brain biopsy may differ immensely. Since image quality of MR scanners improves gradually and brain biopsy may often be nonspecific or negative, our results emphasize the importance of MRI/MRA in the diagnosis process of PACNS.

  11. Central regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis: focus on clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, E; Boelen, A; van Trotsenburg, A S P

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamus is the most prominent brain region involved in setpoint regulation of the thyroid axis. It generates the diurnal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) rhythm, and it plays a central role in the adaptation of the thyroid axis to environmental factors such as caloric deprivation or infection. Many studies, including studies in human post-mortem tissue samples, have confirmed a key role for the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neuron in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in thyroid axis regulation. In addition to their negative feedback action on TRH neurons in the hypothalamus, intrahypothalamic thyroid hormones can also modulate metabolism in adipose tissue and the liver via the autonomic nervous system. Congenital or acquired dysfunction of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland may result in central hypothyroidism (CeH). In the Netherlands, the prevalence of permanent congenital CeH as detected by neonatal screening is approximately 1 in 18000. In most neonates congenital CeH is accompanied by additional anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, and many show clear morphological abnormalities such as a small anterior gland, a thin or absent pituitary stalk, or an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Recently, a mutation in the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene was reported as a novel cause of X-linked, apparently isolated CeH occurring in neonates, children and adults. In adults, the most frequent cause of acquired CeH is a pituitary macroadenoma, usually accompanied by other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Central hyperthyroidism is a rare disorder, especially in children. In adults, it is mostly caused by a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Explosion of gaseous ethylene-air mixtures in closed cylindrical vessels with central ignition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movileanu, Codina; Gosa, Vasile; Razus, Domnina

    2012-10-15

    Explosions of gaseous ethylene-air mixtures with various concentrations between 3.0 and 14.0 vol.% and initial pressures between 0.20 and 1.10 bar were experimentally investigated at ambient initial temperature, using several elongated cylindrical vessels with length to diameter ratio between 1.0 and 2.4. The maximum explosion pressures p(max), the explosion times θ(max), the maximum rates of pressure rise, (dp/dt)(max) and the severity factors of centrally ignited explosions K(G) are examined in comparison with similar data obtained in a spherical vessel. The measured deflagration indices are strongly influenced by the length to diameter ratio of the vessels, initial pressure and composition of the flammable mixtures. Even when important heat losses are present, linear correlations p(max)=f(p(0)) and (dp/dt)(max)=f(p(0)) were found for all examined fuel-air mixtures, in all closed vessels. The heat losses appearing in the last stage of explosions occurring in asymmetrical vessels were estimated from the differences between the experimental and adiabatic maximum explosion pressures. These heat losses are higher when the asymmetry ratio L/D is higher and were found to depend linearly on the initial pressure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Central Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Under Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechan, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    TRH is a tripeptide amide that functions as a neurotransmitter but also serves as a neurohormone that has a critical role in the central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons involved in this neuroendocrine process are located in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and secrete TRH into the pericapillary space of the external zone of the median eminence for conveyance to anterior pituitary thyrotrophs. Under basal conditions, the activity of hypophysiotropic TRH neurons is regulated by the negative feedback effects of thyroid hormone to ensure stable, circulating, thyroid hormone concentrations, a mechanism that involves complex interactions between hypophysiotropic TRH neurons and the vascular system, cerebrospinal fluid, and specialized glial cells called tanycytes. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons also integrate other humoral and neuronal inputs that can alter the setpoint for negative feedback regulation by thyroid hormone. This mechanism facilitates adaptation of the organism to changing environmental conditions, including the shortage of food and a cold environment. The thyroid axis is also affected by other adverse conditions such as infection, but the central mechanisms mediating suppression of hypophysiotropic TRH may be pathophysiological. In this review, we discuss current knowledge about the mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of hypophysiotropic TRH neurons under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24423980

  14. Skin under the (Spot)-Light: Cross-Talk with the Central Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozic, Ivan; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Kirsner, Robert S F; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2015-06-01

    UV radiation is among the most prevalent stressors in humans and diurnal rodents, exerting direct and indirect DNA damage, free-radical production, and interaction with specific chromophores that affects numerous biological processes. In addition to its panoply of effects, UVB (290-320 nm) radiation can specifically affect various local neuroendocrine activities by stimulating the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and POMC-derived peptides. Although very little is known about the interplay between the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the skin HPA axis analog, in the current issue Skobowiat and Slominski propose a novel mechanism by which exposure to UVB activates a local HPA axis in skin, which in turn activates the central HPA axis, with the requirement of a functional pituitary gland. This is the first evidence of the local HPA axis in skin contributing to the central neuroendocrine response. This raises intriguing possibilities regarding how local production of cortisol and other HPA axis molecules in skin influence overall systemic levels of cortisol and help regulate local and central HPA axes in the context of homeostasis, skin injury, and inflammatory skin disorders.

  15. Gut-central nervous system axis is a target for nutritional therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Gustavo D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake. Likewise, the advances of physiological and molecular mechanisms for patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, bariatric surgery and anorexia-associated diseases has been greatly appreciated by nutritionists. Therefore, this review highlights the relationship between the gut-central nervous system axis and targets for nutritional therapies.

  16. Axial seamount: An active ridge axis volcano on the Central Juan De Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Embley, Robert W.

    1990-08-01

    Axial Seamount (some of the manuscripts in this special section refer to the edifice with the more precise name of "Axial Volcano"), a large ridge axis volcano, is located on the central segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge approximately 250 nautical miles west of the Washington/Oregon/British Columbia coast. Currently both volcanically and hydrothermally active, Axial lies directly at the intersection of the Cobb-Eickelberg Seamount Chain and the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Figure 1). The volcanic activity associated with the seamount formation strongly interacts with, and is affected by, the normal seafloor spreading processes at the intersection. Because of this unique geologic setting, its proximity to west coast ports and oceanographie institutions, and its shallow depth, Axial has become the focus of a large number of scientific investigations over the past decade.

  17. Gut-central nervous system axis is a target for nutritional therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Gustavo D; Micheletti, Thayana O; Pace, Fernanda; Rosa, José C; Santos, Ronaldo V T; Lira, Fabio S

    2012-04-10

    Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake. Likewise, the advances of physiological and molecular mechanisms for patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, bariatric surgery and anorexia-associated diseases has been greatly appreciated by nutritionists. Therefore, this review highlights the relationship between the gut-central nervous system axis and targets for nutritional therapies.

  18. Boiling water reactor in a prestressed reinforced concrete vessel for an atomic central heating-and-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarev, Yu.I.; Sokolov, I.N.; Skvortsov, S.A.; Sidorov, A.M.; Krauze, L.V.

    1978-04-01

    The possibility of using a boiling water reactor in a prestressed reinforced concrete vessel for an atomic central heating-and-power plant (CHPP) was considered, with design features of the reactor intended for a two-purpose plant. A prestressed reinforced concrete vessel and integral arrangement of the primary circuit ensured reliability of the atomic CHPP using various CHPP flowsheets.

  19. Anatomic deviation between the central hip vertical axis and central sacral vertical line in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Zhen; Qian, Bangping; Zhu, Zezhang; Jiang, Hua; Qiu, Yong

    2012-08-01

    A radiographic and clinical study. To compare the anatomic deviation between the central hip vertical axis (CHVA) and central sacral vertical line (CSVL) in 2 distinct adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) groups (right thoracic vs. left thoracolumbar/lumbar) and normal adolescents. The CSVL was traditionally used as a reference line to assess spinal deformity. Recently, the Scoliosis Research Society 3-dimensional (3D) committee proposed the CHVA as a reference line for the 3D evaluation of scoliosis. However, a previous study showed that the CHVA was on an average 3.2 mm to the right compared with the CSVL in right thoracic AIS patients, generating a shift in evaluation of the coronal plane measurements. Fifty-five AIS girls with right thoracic curves (TC) and 56 AIS girls with left thoracolumbar/lumbar curves (TLC) were recruited. AIS girls who had a Cobb angle >40 degrees were excluded from this study in consideration of the potential pelvic rotation in patients with large curves. Another 57 normal girls were set to be the control group. All girls were between 10 and 18 years old. The deviation between the CHVA and CSVL was measured on each posteroanterior radiograph and compared between the 3 groups. The shift of CHVA relative to CSVL was found to be significantly greater in the TC and TLC groups (2.2±3.3 mm vs. 2.3±4.0 mm, respectively) when compared with the control group (0.1±2.6 mm), but had no statistical difference between the 2 AIS groups. No significant correlations were found between age, Cobb angle, and the CHVA shift in the 3 groups. The CHVA was more commonly found to be at the right side of the CSVL in the TC (50.9%) and TLC (51.8%) groups, whereas superposition of the 2 lines was more commonly found in the control group (52.6%). Anatomic deviation between the CHVA and CSVL was significantly different in the TC and TLC groups when compared with the control group, but was similar between the 2 AIS groups. The CHVA was on an average approximately

  20. A novel technique for ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization under short-axis out-of-plane approach: "stepwise flashing with triangulation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Toshinori; Okuda, Chie; Kurita, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Kitagawa, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Masafumi; Sha, Keiichi; Nagahata, Toshihiro

    2017-10-01

    In ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization, there is no standard technique either for the needle tip visualization or for the adequate needle angle and entry to the skin with short-axis view under out-of-plane technique. In the present study, we propose a novel technique named "stepwise flashing with triangulation", and the efficacy of this technique is assessed. Before and after a didactic session in which the technique was explained, 12 novice residents were asked to position the needle tip on or into the imitation vessels and to avoid deeper penetration by using an agar tissue phantom with ultrasound guidance. "Stepwise flashing" technique was for stepwise visualization of the needle tip, and "triangulation" technique was for adequate needle angle and entry to the skin. After the session, the success rate was increased and a deeper penetration rate was decreased. This technique will help us to facilitate vascular access and to avoid complications in clinical settings.

  1. [Injuries to blood vessels near the heart caused by central venous catheters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, J; Klocker, J; Innerhofer-Pompernigg, N; Mittermayr, M; Freund, M C; Gravenstein, N; Wenzel, V

    2016-11-01

    Injuries to blood vessels near the heart can quickly become life-threatening and include arterial injuries during central venous puncture, which can lead to hemorrhagic shock. We report 6 patients in whom injury to the subclavian artery and vein led to life-threatening complications. Central venous catheters are associated with a multitude of risks, such as venous thrombosis, air embolism, systemic or local infections, paresthesia, hemothorax, pneumothorax, and cervical hematoma, which are not always immediately discernible. The subclavian catheter is at a somewhat lower risk of catheter-associated sepsis and symptomatic venous thrombosis than approaches via the internal jugular and femoral veins. Indeed, access via the subclavian vein carries a substantial risk of pneumo- and hemothorax. Damage to the subclavian vein or artery can also occur during deliberate and inadvertent punctures and result in life-threatening complications. Therefore, careful consideration of the access route is required in relation to the patient and the clinical situation, to keep the incidence of complications as low as possible. For catheterization of the subclavian vein, puncture of the axillary vein in the infraclavicular fossa is a good alternative, because ultrasound imaging of the target vessel is easier than in the subclavian vein and the puncture can be performed much further from the lung.

  2. BuShenYiQi Granule Inhibits Atopic Dermatitis via Improving Central and Skin Hypothalamic -Pituitary -Adrenal Axis Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingwen; Wu, Jingfeng; Lin, Yanhua; Wang, Genfa; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jiaqi; Chen, Meixia; Du, Xin; Sun, Jing; Lin, Jinpei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysfunction of central and skin Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis play important roles in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Our previous studies showed that several Chinese herbs could improve HPA axis function. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of BuShenYiQi granule (BSYQ), a Chinese herbs formula, in AD mice and explored the effective mechanism from regulation of HPA axis. Methods The ovalbumin (OVA) induced AD mice model were established and treated with BSYQ. We evaluated dermatitis score and histology analysis of dorsal skin lesions, meanwhile, serum corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA. The changes of CRH/proopiomelanocortin(POMC) axis elements, corresponding functional receptors and crucial genes of glucocorticosteroidogenesis in the skin were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Results The symptoms and pathological changes in skin of AD mice were significantly improved and several markers of inflammation and allergy descended obviously after BSYQ treatment. We found that AD mice had insufficient central HPA tone, but these conditions were markedly improved after BSYQ treatment. The AD mice also showed a disturbed expression of skin HPA. In lesion skin of AD mice, the mRNA and protein expressions of CRH decreased significantly, on the contrary, POMC and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) increased markedly, meanwhile, NR3C1 (mouse GR), CRHR2 and 11-hydroxylase type 1(CYP11B1) were reduced locally. Most of these tested indexes were improved after BSYQ treatment. Conclusions AD mice displayed the differential expression pattern of central and skin HPA axis and BSYQ treatment significantly alleviated the symptoms of AD mice and presented anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects via regulating the expression of central and skin HPA axis. PMID

  3. BuShenYiQi granule inhibits atopic dermatitis via improving central and skin Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingwen; Wu, Jinfeng; Wu, Jingfeng; Lin, Yanhua; Wang, Genfa; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jiaqi; Chen, Meixia; Du, Xin; Sun, Jing; Lin, Jinpei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of central and skin Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis play important roles in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Our previous studies showed that several Chinese herbs could improve HPA axis function. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of BuShenYiQi granule (BSYQ), a Chinese herbs formula, in AD mice and explored the effective mechanism from regulation of HPA axis. The ovalbumin (OVA) induced AD mice model were established and treated with BSYQ. We evaluated dermatitis score and histology analysis of dorsal skin lesions, meanwhile, serum corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA. The changes of CRH/proopiomelanocortin(POMC) axis elements, corresponding functional receptors and crucial genes of glucocorticosteroidogenesis in the skin were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. The symptoms and pathological changes in skin of AD mice were significantly improved and several markers of inflammation and allergy descended obviously after BSYQ treatment. We found that AD mice had insufficient central HPA tone, but these conditions were markedly improved after BSYQ treatment. The AD mice also showed a disturbed expression of skin HPA. In lesion skin of AD mice, the mRNA and protein expressions of CRH decreased significantly, on the contrary, POMC and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) increased markedly, meanwhile, NR3C1 (mouse GR), CRHR2 and 11-hydroxylase type 1(CYP11B1) were reduced locally. Most of these tested indexes were improved after BSYQ treatment. AD mice displayed the differential expression pattern of central and skin HPA axis and BSYQ treatment significantly alleviated the symptoms of AD mice and presented anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects via regulating the expression of central and skin HPA axis.

  4. Central noradrenergic mechanisms underlying acute stress responses of the Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: adaptations through pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Alison J

    2005-03-01

    Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress are attenuated perinatally, and may contribute towards conservation of energy stores and/or prevention of overexposure to glucocorticoid and its adverse effects in the developing fetus/neonate. Previous work has shown that reduced central drive to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is responsible, since parvocellular paraventricular nucleus neurone responses are reduced. One of the main input pathways to the paraventricular nucleus that is activated by the majority of stressors is the brainstem noradrenergic system. This review outlines key noradrenergic mechanisms that mediate hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute stress, and addresses aspects of their adaptation in pregnancy and lactation that can explain the stress hyporesponsiveness at that time. In summary, reduced noradrenaline release and adrenergic receptor expression in the paraventricular nucleus may lead to reduced sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to adrenergic antagonists and agonists and its responses to stress. While there are subtle differences in these changes between pregnancy and lactation, it would appear that reduced effectiveness of the noradrenergic input can at least partly account for the reduced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responses both pre- and post-natally.

  5. Shrimp Trap Report data collected by NOAA research vessel Townsend Cromwell from 1980 to 1989 in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean and chartered fishing vessel Pesquedot in 1984 in waters off Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shrimp trapping operations were conducted by NOAA research vessel Townsend Cromwell from 1980 to 1989 in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean to determine...

  6. A tachykinin-like neuroendocrine signalling axis couples central serotonin action and nutrient sensing with peripheral lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamiuc, Lavinia; Noble, Tallie; Witham, Emily; Ratanpal, Harkaranveer; Vaughan, Megan; Srinivasan, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin, a central neuromodulator with ancient ties to feeding and metabolism, is a major driver of body fat loss. However, mechanisms by which central serotonin action leads to fat loss remain unknown. Here, we report that the FLP-7 neuropeptide and its cognate receptor, NPR-22, function as the ligand-receptor pair that defines the neuroendocrine axis of serotonergic body fat loss in Caenorhabditis elegans. FLP-7 is secreted as a neuroendocrine peptide in proportion to fluctuations in neural serotonin circuit functions, and its release is regulated from secretory neurons via the nutrient sensor AMPK. FLP-7 acts via the NPR-22/Tachykinin2 receptor in the intestine and drives fat loss via the adipocyte triglyceride lipase ATGL-1. Importantly, this ligand-receptor pair does not alter other serotonin-dependent behaviours including food intake. For global modulators such as serotonin, the use of distinct neuroendocrine peptides for each output may be one means to achieve phenotypic selectivity. PMID:28128367

  7. Adoption of in-vessel retention concept for VVER-440/V213 reactors in Central European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, Peter, E-mail: peter.matejovic@ivstt.sk [Inzinierska Vypoctova Spolocnost (IVS), Jana Holleho 5, 91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Barnak, Miroslav; Bachraty, Milan; Vranka, Lubomir [Inzinierska Vypoctova Spolocnost (IVS), Jana Holleho 5, 91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Berky, Robert [Integrita a Bezpecnost Ocelovych Konstrukcii, Rybnicna 40, 831 07 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Design of in-vessel retention concept for VVER-440/V213 reactors. • Thermal loads acting on the inner reactor surface. • Structural response of reactor pressure vessel. • External reactor vessel cooling. - Abstract: An in-vessel retention (IVR) concept was proposed for standard VVER-440/V213 reactors equipped with confinement made of reinforced concrete and bubbler condenser pressure suppression system. This IVR concept is based on simple modifications of existing plant technology and thus it was attractive for plant operators in Central European Countries. Contrary to the solution that was adopted before at Loviisa NPP in Finland (two units of VVER-440/V213 reactor with steel confinement equipped with ice condenser), the coolant access to the reactor pressure vessel from flooded cavity is enabled via closable hole installed in the centre of thermal shield of the reactor lower head instead of lowering this massive structure in the case of severe accident. As a consequence, the crucial point of this IVR concept is narrow gap between torispherical lower head and thermal and biological shield. Here the highest thermal flux is expected in the case of severe accident. Thus, realistic estimation of thermal load and corresponding deformations of reactor wall and their impact on gap width for coolant flow are of primarily importance. In this contribution the attention is paid especially to the analytical support with emphasis to the following points: 1) {sup ∗}Estimation of thermal loads acting on the inner reactor surface; 2) {sup ∗}Estimation of structural response of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) with emphasis on the deformation of outer reactor surface and its impact on the annular gap between RPV wall and thermal/biological shield; 3) {sup ∗}Analysis of external reactor vessel cooling. For this purpose the ASTEC code was used for performing analysis of core degradation scenarios, the ANSYS code for structural analysis of reactor vessel

  8. Tricuspid Atresia with Normal Axis on ECG Palliated With A Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tricuspid Atresia is the 3rd commonest cyanotic congenital Heart disease .It is characterized by lack of communication between the right atrium and right ventricle. ... Result: Following resuscitation, a central shunt (Ascending Aorta to main Pulmonary Artery) was constructed and the patient did well despite a ...

  9. Circadian activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may affect central, but not peripheral, effect of lithium in conditioned taste aversion learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sang; Yoo, Sang Bae; Ryu, Vitaly; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-09-05

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning induced by lithium chloride. This study investigated if circadian activation of the HPA axis affects the lithium-induced CTA formation. The pairing of conditioned stimulus (sucrose) and unconditioned stimulus (lithium chloride) was performed at night (shortly after light-off) when the HPA activity shows its circadian increase. Intraperitoenal injection of lithium chloride (0.15M, 3ml/kg or 12ml/kg) at night induced CTA formation and the HPA axis activation and increased c-Fos expression in both the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and the nucleus tractus of solitarius (NTS) in a dose dependent manner. However, intracerebroventricular lithium (0.6M, 5µl) at night failed to induce CTA or the HPA axis activation, although it increased c-Fos expression in the PBN and NTS. Results suggest that circadian activation of the HPA axis may affect central, but not peripheral, effect of lithium in CTA formation, and the lithium-induced c-Fos expression in brain regions may not be effective to induce CTA unless it is coupled with the HPA axis activation. It is concluded that the HPA axis activation may play an important role mediating not only peripheral but also central effect of lithium in CTA formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Absence of Lymphatic Vessels in PCNSL May Contribute to Confinement of Tumor Cells to the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Martina; Brunn, Anna; Montesinos-Rongen, Manuel; Siebert, Reiner

    2016-06-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is a mature lymphoma of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) type confined to the CNS. Despite cytomorphological similarities between PCNSL and systemic DLBCL, molecular differences between both entities have been identified. The exclusively topographical restriction of PCNSL to the CNS is an unexplained mystery. To address the question of whether the unique lymphatic drainage system of the CNS, which differs from that of other organs, may play a role for this peculiar behavior, we investigated a series of 20 PCNSLs for the presence of lymphatic vessels by immunohistochemistry for Lyve-1, podoplanin, and Prox-1 expression. All PCNSLs lacked lymphatic vessels and, in this regard, were similar to 20 glioblastoma multiforme samples. In contrast to these tumors, all of which were located in the deep brain parenchyma, dural and meningeal DLBCL harbored lymphatic vessels that expressed Lyve-1 (3/8 tumors), podoplanin (5/8 tumors), and Prox-1 (5/8 tumors) in areas where the tumors had invaded the fibrous tissue of the dura. These data indicate that local topographical characteristics of the specific lymphatic drainage system may contribute to confinement of the tumor cells in PCNSL and malignant gliomas. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-Cimmerian (Jurassic-Cenozoic) paleogeography and vertical axis tectonic rotations of Central Iran and the Alborz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Massimo; Cifelli, Francesca; Muttoni, Giovanni; Rashid, Hamideh

    2015-04-01

    According to previous paleomagnetic analyses, the northward latitudinal drift of Iran related to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean resulted in the Late Triassic collision of Iran with the Eurasian plate and Cimmerian orogeny. The post-Cimmerian paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of Iran is instead less well known. Here we present new paleomagnetic data from the Upper Jurassic Bidou Formation of Central Iran, which we used in conjunction with published paleomagnetic data to reconstruct the history of paleomagnetic rotations and latitudinal drift of Iran during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic inclination values indicate that, during the Late Jurassic, the Central-East-Iranian Microcontinent (CEIM), consisting of the Yazd, Tabas, and Lut continental blocks, was located at low latitudes close to the Eurasian margin, in agreement with the position expected from apparent polar wander paths (APWP) incorporating the so-called Jurassic massive polar shift, a major event of plate motion occurring in the Late Jurassic from 160 Ma to 145-140 Ma. At these times, the CEIM was oriented WSW-ENE, with the Lut Block bordered to the south by the Neo-Tethys Ocean and to the southeast by the Neo-Sistan oceanic seaway. Subsequently, the CEIM underwent significant counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation during the Early Cretaceous. This rotation may have resulted from the northward propagation of the Sistan rifting-spreading axis during Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, or to the subsequent (late Early Cretaceous?) eastward subduction and closure of the Sistan oceanic seaway underneath the continental margin of the Afghan Block. No rotations of, or within, the CEIM occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Oligocene, whereas a second phase of CCW rotation occurred after the Middle-Late Miocene. Both the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and post Miocene CCW rotations are confined to the CEIM and do not seem to extend to other tectonic regions of Iran. Finally, an oroclinal bending

  12. Fetal Programming of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis: Low Birth Weight and Central HPA Regulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ward, Alexandra M. V; Syddall, Holly E; Wood, Peter J; Chrousos, George P; Phillips, David I. W

    2004-01-01

    Fetal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as an intermediary in the association between reduced fetal growth and adult cardiovascular and metabolic diseases...

  13. Comparing an Atomic Model or Structure to a Corresponding Cryo-electron Microscopy Image at the Central Axis of a Helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeil, Stephanie; Kovacs, Julio; Wriggers, Willy; He, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional density maps of biological specimens from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can be interpreted in the form of atomic models that are modeled into the density, or they can be compared to known atomic structures. When the central axis of a helix is detectable in a cryo-EM density map, it is possible to quantify the agreement between this central axis and a central axis calculated from the atomic model or structure. We propose a novel arc-length association method to compare the two axes reliably. This method was applied to 79 helices in simulated density maps and six case studies using cryo-EM maps at 6.4-7.7 Å resolution. The arc-length association method is then compared to three existing measures that evaluate the separation of two helical axes: a two-way distance between point sets, the length difference between two axes, and the individual amino acid detection accuracy. The results show that our proposed method sensitively distinguishes lateral and longitudinal discrepancies between the two axes, which makes the method particularly suitable for the systematic investigation of cryo-EM map-model pairs.

  14. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Pouzoulet, F; Mazal, A

    2016-01-21

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens' model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens' model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens' model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm(-1). These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis.

  15. Long-term effects of early adolescent stress: dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and central corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 expression in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuting; Liu, Yuan; Yin, Shiping; Lu, Cuiyan; Liu, Dexiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang

    2015-07-15

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experiences. Studies have found that exposure to early stressful events is a risk factor for developing PTSD. However, a limited number of studies have explored the effects of traumatic stress in early adolescence on behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, central corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) expression and the relative vulnerability of PTSD in adulthood. The current study aims to explore these issues using inescapable electric foot shock to induce a PTSD model in early adolescent rats. Meanwhile, running on a treadmill for six weeks and administration of the antagonist with 3.2mg/kg/day of CP-154, 526 for 14 consecutive days were used as therapeutic measures. Presently, the stress (S) group showed more anxiety and depression in the open field (OF) test and elevated plus maze (EPM) test, memory damage in the Y maze test, decreased basal CORT level, increased DEX negative feedback inhibition and exacerbated and longer-lasting reaction to CRH challenge in the DEX/CRH test compared with the control group. Central CRFR1 expression was also changed in the S group, as evidenced by the increased CRFR1 expression in the hypothalamus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, treadmill exercise alleviated early adolescent stress-induced behavior abnormalities and improved the functional state of the HPA axis, performing a more powerful effect than the CRFR1 antagonist CP-154, 526. Additionally, this study revealed that the alteration of central CRFR1 expression might play an important role in etiology of PTSD in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelsey; Haynes, David; Talouli, Anthony; Donoghue, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.

  17. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  18. Escitalopram alters gene expression and HPA axis reactivity in rats following chronic overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor from the central amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandreau, Elizabeth I.; Bourke, Chase H.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Vale, Wylie W.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Owens, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We have previously demonstrated that viral-mediated overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) reproduces many of the behavioral and endocrine consequences of chronic stress. The present experiment sought to determine whether administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram reverses the adverse effects of CeA CRF overexpression. In a 2 × 2 design, adult male rats received bilateral infusions of a control lentivirus or a lentivirus in which a portion of the CRF promoter is used to drive increased expression of CRF peptide. Four weeks later, rats were then implanted with an Alzet minipump to deliver vehicle or 10 mg/kg/day escitalopram for a 4-week period of time. The defensive withdrawal (DW) test of anxiety and the sucrose-preference test (SPT) of anhedonia were performed both before and after pump implantation. Additional post-implant behavioral tests included the elevated plus maze (EPM) and social interaction (SI) test. Following completion of behavioral testing, the dexamethasone/CRF test was performed to assess HPA axis reactivity. Brains were collected and expression of HPA axis-relevant transcripts were measured using in situ hybridization. Amygdalar CRF overexpression increased anxiety-like behavior in the DW test at week eight, which was only partially prevented by escitalopram. In both CRF-overexpressing and control groups, escitalopram decreased hippocampal CRF expression while increasing hypothalamic and hippocampal expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These gene expression changes were associated with a significant decrease in HPA axis reactivity in rats treated with escitalopram. Interestingly, escitalopram increased the rate of weight gain only in rats overexpressing CRF. Overall these data support our hypothesis that amygdalar CRF is critical in anxiety-like behavior; because the antidepressant was unable to reverse behavioral

  19. Central injection of exogenous IL-1β in the control activities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in anestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A P; Misztal, T; Romanowicz, K; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of interleukin (IL)-1β on the gene expression, translation and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) gene expression in the hypothalamus of anestrous ewes. In the anterior pituitary gland (AP), the expression of genes encoding: GnRHR, β subunits of luteinizing hormone (LH) and folliculotropic hormone (FSH) was determined as well as the effect of IL-1β on pituitary gonadotropins release. The relative mRNA level was determined by real-time PCR, GnRH concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was assayed by ELISA and the plasma concentration of LH and FSH were determined by radioimmunoassay. Our results showed that icv injection of IL-1β (10 or 50 μg/animal) decreased the GnRH mRNA level in the pre-optic area (POA) (35% and 40% respectively; p ≤ 0.01) and median eminence (ME) (75% and 70% respectively; p ≤ 0.01) and GnRHR gene expression in ME (55% and 50% respectively; p ≤ 0.01). A significant decrease in GnRHR mRNA level in the AP in the group treated with the 50 μg (60%; p ≤ 0.01) but not with the 10 μg dose was observed. The centrally administrated IL-1β lowered also GnRH concentration in the CSF (60%; p ≤ 0.01) and reduced the intensity of GnRH translation in the POA (p ≤ 0.01). It was not found any effect of icv IL-1β injection upon the release of LH and FSH. However, the central injection of IL-1β strongly decreased the LHβ mRNA level (41% and 50%; p ≤ 0.01; respectively) and FSHβ mRNA in the case of the 50 μg dose (49%; p ≤ 0.01) in the pituitary of anestrous ewes. These results demonstrate that the central IL-1β is an important modulator of the GnRH biosynthesis and release during immune/inflammatory challenge. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  1. Combined short- and long-axis ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization is superior to conventional techniques: A cross-over randomized controlled manikin trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takeshita

    Full Text Available Visualizing the needle tip using the short-axis (SA ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization approach can be challenging. It has been suggested to start the process with the SA approach and then switch to the long-axis (LA; however, to our knowledge, this combination has not been evaluated. We compared the combined short- and long-axis (SLA approach with the SA approach in a manikin study.We performed a prospective randomized controlled cross-over study in an urban emergency department and intensive care unit. Resident physicians in post-graduate years 1-2 performed a simulated ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein puncture using the SA and SLA approaches on manikins. Twenty resident physicians were randomly assigned to two equal groups: (1 one group performed punctures using the SA approach followed by SLA; and (2 the other performed the same procedures in the opposite order. We compared the success rate and procedure duration for the two approaches. Procedural success was defined as insertion of the guide-wire into the vein while visualizing the needle tip at the time of anterior wall puncture, without penetrating the posterior wall.Six resident physicians (30% performed both approaches successfully, while 12 (60% performed the SLA approach, but not the SA, successfully. Those who performed the SA approach successfully also succeeded with the SLA approach. Two resident physicians (10% failed to perform both approaches. The SLA approach had a significantly higher success rate than the SA approach (P < 0.001. The median (interquartile range procedure duration was 59.5 [46.0-88.5] seconds and 45.0 [37.5-84.0] seconds for the SLA and SA approaches, respectively. The difference of the duration between the two procedures was 15.5 [0-28.5] seconds. There was no significant difference in duration between the two approaches (P = 0.12.Using the SLA approach significantly improved the success rate of internal jugular vein puncture performed by

  2. DNB heat flux in forced convection of liquid hydrogen for a wire set in central axis of vertically mounted flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Shirai, Y.; Shiotsu, M.; Fujita, K.; Kainuma, T.; Tatsumoto, H.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Inatani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Liquid hydrogen has excellent physical properties, high latent heat and low viscosity of liquid, as a coolant for superconductors like MgB2. The knowledge of Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) heat flux of liquid hydrogen is necessary for designing and cooling analysis of high critical temperature superconducting devices. In this paper, DNB heat fluxes of liquid hydrogen were measured under saturated and subcooled conditions at absolute pressures of 400, 700 and 1100 kPa for various flow velocities. Two wire test heaters made by Pt-Co alloy with the length of 200 mm and the diameter of 0.7 mm were used. And these round heaters were set in central axis of a flow channel made of Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) with inner diameters of 8 mm and 12 mm. These test bodies were vertically mounted and liquid hydrogen flowed upward through the channel. From these experimental values, the correlations of DNB heat flux under saturated and subcooled conditions are presented in this paper.

  3. Plume signatures on- and off-axis of segment 3-1 between 10°S and 11°S, Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, S. J.; Kim, J.; Son, J.; Moon, J. W.; Son, S. K.; Choi, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    In Central Indian Ridge, segment 3-1 between 10°S and 11°S is bounded by well developed fracture zone in northern end of the segment of which middle valley is displaced 109 km-long with right-lateral sense. In the segment, ridge-parallel abyssal hills are mostly recognized at the northern section while the disturbed flank fabrics are limited in the south inside corner where ocean core complex is located. Spreading center represents a narrow and shallow valley floor at the middle of the segment but becomes wide and deep at the ends of segment. The shallow valley in middle of the segment is indicative of abundant magmatic upwelling. The ocean core complex in the southern end of the segment rises to ~1000 m from the valley floor and extends tens km perpendicular to the axial ridge, displaying the gentle dome structure with corrugations well traced. In the axial valley, light scattering anomalies are observed at both the middle and southern end of the segment but the significant methane anomalies are merely detected at the southern end of segment. At off-axis, the ocean core complex reveals both light scattering and methane anomalies. Considering the methane anomalies over the core complex where mantle rocks expose by long detachment faults, plumes at this region seems to be derived by tectonic and amagmatic processes. Whereas the particulate anomalies with few methane anomaly in the middle of segment implies plumes appears to be created by magmatism.

  4. Accuracy of central axis dose calculations for photon external radiotherapy beams in Finland: the quality of local beam data and the use of averaged data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanen, Mika; Sipilä, Petri; Bly, Ritva; Järvinen, Hannu; Tenhunen, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    The accuracy of central axis dose calculation was evaluated for 48 photon beams from 28 linear accelerators at nine centres in Finland. In addition, inter-accelerator consistency of beam data was evaluated for Varian Clinac 600 CDs and 2100 CDs, and averaged data sets were generated for output factors (OFs) and percentage depth doses (PDDs). The averaged data sets obtained were used to identify potential dosimetry reasons for local errors. Agreement between measured and calculated doses was determined at isocentre at 10 cm depth in water for nine different sized open square and rectangular fields. Averaged OFs were determined for nominal energies of 4, 6, 10, 15 and 18 MV both at d(max) and at a 10-cm depth. In order to develop a function for the OF data, OFs for square fields were parameterised through empirical model fitting. The feasibility of a simple equivalent square collimator formula was also evaluated for the presentation of OFs for rectangular fields. Averaged PDDs were determined at a 10-cm depth. The difference between measured and calculated doses exceeded +/-3%, +/-2% and +/-1% for 3, 6 and 35 of the investigated 48 beams, respectively. The differences were due to errors observed in both OFs and depth dose data. When the agreement between dose calculation and measurement was within +/-1%, inter-accelerator differences in OFs were within +/-1.0% at both the depth of dose maximum and at 10 cm for Clinac 600 CDs and also for 2100 CDs. Differences in PDDs were within +/-1.2%. The importance of quality control for beam data was demonstrated by showing significant errors in measured data. For Clinac 600 and 2100 CDs, the quality control can be accurately performed by comparing local data to averaged reference data. Robust averaged data sets were obtained for 6, 15 and 18 MV beams of Clinac 2100 CDs.

  5. Combining retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with individual retinal blood vessel locations allows modeling of central vision loss in glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Mengyu; Baniasadi, Neda; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To assess whether modeling of central vision loss (CVL) due to glaucoma by optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber (RNF) layer thickness (RNFLT) can be improved by including the location of the major inferior temporal retinal artery (ITA), a known correlate of individual RNF geometry. Methods: Pat- tern deviations of the two locations of the Humphrey 24-2 visual field (VF) known to be specifically vulnerable to glaucomatous CVL and OCT RNFLT on the corresponding circumpapillary sector around the optic nerve head within the radius of 1.73mm were retrospectively selected from 428 eyes of 428 patients of a large clinical glaucoma service. ITA was marked on the 1.73mm circle by a trained observer. Linear regression models were fitted with CVL as dependent variable and VF mean deviation (MD) plus either of (1) RNFLT, (2) ITA, and (3) their combination, respectively, as regressors. To assess CVL over all levels of glaucoma severity, the three models were compared to a null model containing only MD. A Baysian model comparison was performed with the Bayes Factor (BF) as measure of strength of evidence (BF20: strong evidence over null model). Results: Neither RNFLT (BF=0.9) nor ITA (BF=1.4) alone provided positive evidence over the null model, but their combination resulted in a model with strong evidence (BF=21.4). Conclusion: While the established circumpapillary RNFLT sector, based on population statistics, could not satisfactorily model CVL, the inclusion of a retinal parameter related to individual eye anatomy yielded a strong structure-function model.

  6. Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venous catheter (KATHeter), also known as a central line or CVC, is long, soft, thin, hollow tube ... into a large vein (blood vessel). A central line is much like an intravenous (IV) catheter that ...

  7. Analysis of heavy metal content of Pb in ballast water tank of commercial vessels in port of Tanjung Emas Semarang, Central Java province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjono, Agus; Bambang, Azis Nur; Anggoro, Sutrisno

    2017-03-01

    Commercial vessels that do not conduct ballast water exchange, in accordance with International Convention Ballast Water Management, will endager the environment of ports. This research is aimed to know the metal content in ballast water tank of commercial vessels that have not performed ballast water exchange, in accordance with regulations of International Maritime Organization (IMO). The research about the heavy metal content of ballast water of commercial vessels, both passenger or cargo vessels, berthing in Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang (PTES), has been conducted by using method of AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Sample was gathered from vessels berthed in PTES, dated on December 18th 2014 to October 21st 2015. Results of the research show that the mean content of Pb in ballast water tank is 0.37192 mg/l. Based on the Decree of Minister of Environment Number 51/2004, the heavy metal content of Pb in ballast water tank has exceeded the quality standards of port waters.

  8. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    by the research vessels RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya are reported. The work carried out by the three charted ships is also recorded. A short note on cruise plans for the study of ferromanganese nodules is added...

  9. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-10-05

    To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  10. Basinal seamounts and seamount chains of the Central Indian Ocean: Probable near-axis origin from a fast-spreading ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Batiza, R.

    Hydrosweep mapping of crust in the Central Indian Ocean Basin reveals abundant volcanoes occurring both as isolated seamounts and linear seamount chains parallel to flow lines. Their shapes, sizes and overall style of occurrence...

  11. Analysis of heavy metal content of Cd and Zn in ballast water tank of commercial vessels in Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang, Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjono, A.; Bambang, A. N.; Anggoro, S.

    2017-02-01

    Commercial vessels that do not conduct ballast water exchange, in accordance with International Convention Ballast Water Management, will endager the environment of ports. This research is aimed to know the metal content in ballast water tank of commercial vessels that have not performed ballast water exchange, in accordance with regulations of International Maritime Organization (IMO). The present research is focused on the heavy metal content of ballast water of commercial vessels, both passenger or cargo vessells, berthing in Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang (PTES). Water sample in ballast tank is collected by method of AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). Results of the research show that the content of Cd is about 0.001-0.46 mg l-1, and Zn is about 0.001-2.464 mg l-1. Based on the Decree of Minister of Environment Number 51/2004, the heavy metal content of Cd and Zn has exceeded quality standards of sea water for port water, which is 0.1 mg l-1 both.

  12. Left axis deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Left axis deviation is one of the most commonly encountered ECG abnormalities. Its presence should alert medical directors and underwriters to the possibility of underlying structural heart disease. Many of the causes of left axis deviation are apparent from the clinical findings. Left anterior fascicular block is one of the commonest causes of left axis deviation and has specific ECG criteria for its diagnosis.

  13. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  14. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  15. Axis instrumentation: surgical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei F. Joaquim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the surgical results of axis screw instrumentation. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of the clinical and radiological data of patients submitted to axis fixation using screws. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were surgically treated. The mean age was 41.8 years (range: 12-73. Spinal cord trauma was the most common cause of instability (8 patients - 47%. Bilateral axis fixation was performed in all cases, except one, with laminar screw (total of 33 axis screws. Seven patients (41.1% underwent bilateral pars screws; laminar screws were used in six cases and pedicular screws were used in two. In two cases, we performed a hybrid construction (laminar + pars and pedicle + pars. There was no neurological worsening or death, nor complications directly related to use axis screws. CONCLUSION: Axis instrumentation was effective and safe, regardless of the technique used for stabilization. Based on our learnt experience, we proposed an algorithm to choose the best technique for axis screw fixation.

  16. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  17. Gut-brain axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Johannes A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.; Havekes, Louis M.; Pijl, Hanno

    2008-01-01

    To summarize recent studies on the regulation and the functions of the gut-brain axis. Visual cues of food and food intake interact with the gut-brain axis at the level of the hypothalamus. However, the hypothalamic response to glucose intake is considerably altered in patients with type 2 diabetes

  18. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  19. Single-Axis Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor); Capo-Lugo, Pedro A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single-axis accelerometer includes a housing defining a sleeve. An object/mass is disposed in the sleeve for sliding movement therein in a direction aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A first piezoelectric strip, attached to a first side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The first piezoelectric strip includes a first strip of a piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A second piezoelectric strip, attached to a second side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The second piezoelectric strip includes a second strip of the piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A voltage sensor is electrically coupled to at least one of the first and second piezoelectric strips.

  20. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  1. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  2. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  3. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  4. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  5. Heat transfer unit and method for prefabricated vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburello, David A.; Kesterson, Matthew R; Hardy, Bruce J.

    2017-11-07

    Vessel assemblies, heat transfer units for prefabricated vessels, and methods for heat transfer prefabricated vessel are provided. A heat transfer unit includes a central rod, and a plurality of peripheral rods surrounding the central rod and connected to the central rod. The plurality of peripheral rods are movable between a first collapsed position and a second bowed position, wherein in the second bowed position a midpoint of each of the plurality of peripheral rods is spaced from the central rod relative to in the first position. The heat transfer unit further includes a heat transfer element connected to one of the plurality of peripheral rods.

  6. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as "oblique type axis body fracture." Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic "oblique...... was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion...

  7. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  8. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  9. Technical aspects of the process of segmentation and packaging of the reactor vessel of Jose Cabrera NPP; Aspectos tecnicos del proceso de segmentacion y embalaje de la vasija del reactor de la central nuclear Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivieso, J. M.; Garcia Castro, R.

    2015-07-01

    Westinghouse is carrying out the segmentation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) within the framework of the Dismantling and Decommissioning Project of the Jose Cabrera NPP. The final concept is based on the comprehensive Westinghouse experience in the field of LWR pressure vessel and internals segmentation, and particularly in previous reactor internals segmentation project for Jose Cabrera NPP. This article shows the development of all the activities included: cutting method selection, preparatory works, cutting activities, waste characterization and packaging activities. (Author)

  10. 77 FR 67580 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of...) apportioned to vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...

  11. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES...

  12. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES...

  13. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local...

  14. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA... allowable catch apportioned to vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES...

  15. 77 FR 65640 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of...) apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs...

  16. New turbomolecular pump with central opening for free axial access

    CERN Document Server

    Mokler, P H

    2004-01-01

    Standard turbomolecular pumps show typically one annular active intake area on the high vacuum flange side (single-flow pumps). The central circular part of the inlet of the compressor turbine is blind for pumping. The new design proposes a central opening of a turbomolecular pump all along the axis. This central bore can be used e.g. for mounting of feed throughs, manipulators, windows or for coupling to further vacuum devices, in particular also for enclosing tube-like vacuum systems. This design allows a multi-use of a pumping port at a vacuum vessel without reducing there the pumping speed. Moreover, the new design is ideal for axial or radial differential pumping arrangements as e.g. needed for all gas jet like set-ups or other pressure reduction stages.

  17. Pancreas Bone Testis Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfidan Coskun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone which has movement and support functions, is the largest organ of the body. Bone is regulated by hormonal signal but it also acts as an endocrine organ. Many peptide hormones such as osteocalcin are secreted from bone. Osteocalcin which is an osteoblast derived hormone, has two forms: and ldquo;carboxylated (inactive osteocalcin and decarboxylated (active osteocalcin and rdquo;. While inactive osteocalcin is found in bone matrix, active osteocalcin is given to blood circulation and acts as a multifunctional hormone. In the past ten years, numerous epidemiological, genetic and biochemical studies have revealed hormonal links between bone and pancreas, adipose tissue, gonads via active osteocalcin. In this review, a newly defined pathway called pancreas-bone-testis axis which stimulates testosterone synthesis independent of hypothalamic hypophyseal testicular axis, is discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 355-367

  18. Support device in a pressure vessel, particularly a reactor pressure vessel, to support against horizontal forces. Abstuetzeinrichtung an einem Druckbehaelter, insbesondere einem Reaktordruckbehaelter, gegen Horizontalkraefte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, H.; Harand, E.; Scholz, M.; Scheler, R.

    1986-04-17

    In a support device on a reactor pressure vessel of a PWR, a guide leading downwards is provided in the vertical pellet cartridge on the floor side of the reactor pressure vessel, which is located in a fixed support pipe. The support pipe is supported on a concreted baseplate in the horizontal direction, and can be screwed to this. The support pipe has a plate-shaped support foot to support it on the baseplate. The reactor pressure vessel, normally resting on its main coolant duct in the plane normal to the axis, can be effectively supported against horizontal forces by this additional support, without preventing thermal movement in the longitudinal axis.

  19. Curvature affects Doppler investigation of vessels: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbis, S; Roatta, S; Guiot, C

    2005-01-01

    In clinical practice, blood velocity estimations from Doppler examination of curved vascular segments are normally different from those of nearby straight segments. The observed "accelerations," sometimes considered as a sort of stochastic disturbances, can actually be related to very specific physical effects due to vessel curvature (i.e., the development of nonaxial velocity [NAV] components) and the spreading of the axial velocity direction in the Doppler sample volume with respect to the insonation axis. The relevant phenomena and their dependence on the radius of curvature of the vessels and on the insonation angle are investigated with a beam-vessel geometry as close as possible to clinical setting, with the simplifying assumptions of steady flow, mild vessel curvature, uniform ultrasonic beam and complete vessel insonation. The insonation angles that minimize the errors are provided on the basis of the study results.

  20. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  1. Information Sharing of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) and Maritime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The marine information system provides a central database with online access to support the monitoring of violating vessels, aid to navigation. The system provides emergency response to increase safety within marine activities. Violating vessels data registered by the VTS is collected as evidence for assessment.

  2. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  3. Breast Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: Semi-Automatic Detection of Vascular Map and Predominant Feeding Vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Antonella; Fusco, Roberta; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Vallone, Paolo; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Sansone, Mario

    2016-01-01

    To obtain breast vascular map and to assess correlation between predominant feeding vessel and tumor location with a semi-automatic method compared to conventional radiologic reading. 148 malignant and 75 benign breast lesions were included. All patients underwent bilateral MR imaging. Written informed consent was obtained from the patients before MRI. The local ethics committee granted approval for this study. Semi-automatic breast vascular map and predominant vessel detection was performed on MRI, for each patient. Semi-automatic detection (depending on grey levels threshold manually chosen by radiologist) was compared with results of two expert radiologists; inter-observer variability and reliability of semi-automatic approach were assessed. Anatomic analysis of breast lesions revealed that 20% of patients had masses in internal half, 50% in external half and the 30% in subareolar/central area. As regards the 44 tumors in internal half, based on radiologic consensus, 40 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (61% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 14% by lateral thoracic vessels, 16% by both thoracic vessels and 9% had no predominant feeding vessel-pfeeding vessel (66% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 11% by lateral thoracic vessels, 9% by both thoracic vessels and 14% had no predominant feeding vessel-pfeeding vessel (25% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 39% by lateral thoracic vessels, 18% by both thoracic vessels and 18% had no predominant feeding vessel-pfeeding vessel (27% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 45% by lateral thoracic vessels, 4% by both thoracic vessels and 24% had no predominant feeding vessel-pfeeding vessel. An excellent reliability for semi-automatic assessment (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96) was reported. Predominant feeding vessel location was correlated with breast lesion location: internal thoracic artery supplied the highest proportion of breasts with tumor in internal half and lateral thoracic

  4. Arbitrary mandibular hinge axis locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J W; Hesby, R A; Pfeifer, D L; Pelleu, G B

    1984-06-01

    This study compared selected arbitrary hinge axis locations with the kinematic axis location. Fifty subjects were studied, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results showed significant differences between the location of experimental arbitrary axis point and those of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom in relation to the kinematic axis. The arbitrary points of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom showed directional tendencies, whereas the experimental arbitrary points were evenly distributed around the kinematic axis. This study indicates that the experimental arbitrary axis point more closely and consistently approximated the kinematic axis than the arbitrary points of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom. The finding suggests that the clinical use of a point on Camper's line, 10 mm from the superior border of the tragus, results in a more accurate transfer of the maxillary cast to the articulator.

  5. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. 2011 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  9. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  10. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  11. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  12. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  13. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  14. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  15. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  16. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  18. Sensitivity of film measured off-axis ratios to film calibration curve using radiochromic film; Sensibilidade das razoes fora do eixo central medidas para a curva de calibracao de filmes usando filme radiocromico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Diana [Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose M. [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Mexico City (Mexico). Unidad de Radioneurocirugia. Lab. de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    Off-axis ratios of conical beams generated with a stereotactic radiosurgery-dedicated Linac were measured with EBT2 film and stereotactic diode. The sensitivity of both full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbras (80-20% and 90-10%, respectively), with respect to the characteristics of the film calibration curve fit, was investigated. In all cases, penumbras resulted to be more sensitive than FWHM. However, these differences were, in general, smaller than the ones found between EBT2 reference values and the stereotactic diode measurements. The larger variation in OAR parameters was found to depend on whether the fit intersected or not the origin. A 1D gamma-index analysis showed this difference can be important in all measured conical beams. (author)

  19. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  20. What are the residual stresses doing in our blood vessels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y C

    1991-01-01

    We show that the residual strain and stress in the blood vessels are not zero, and that the zero-stress state of a blood vessel consists of open-sector segments whose opening angles vary along the longitudinal axis of the vessel. When the homeostatic state of the blood vessel is changed, e.g., by a sudden hypertension, the opening angle will change. The time constant of the opening angle change is a few hours (e.g., in the pulmonary artery) or a few days (e.g., in the aorta). From a kinematic point of view, a change of opening angle is a bending of the blood vessel wall, which is caused by a nonuniformly distributed residual strain. From a mechanics point of view, changes of blood pressure and residual strain cause change of stress in the blood vessel wall. Correlating the stress with the change of residual strain yields a fundamental biological law relating the rate of growth or resorption of tissue with the stress in the tissue. Thus, residual stresses are related to the remodeling of the blood vessel wall. Our blood vessel remodels itself when stress changes. The stress-growth law provides a biomechanical foundation for tissue engineering.

  1. Diaphragmatic lymphatic vessel behavior during local skeletal muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism through which the stresses developed in the diaphragmatic tissue during skeletal muscle contraction sustain local lymphatic function was studied in 10 deeply anesthetized, tracheotomized adult Wistar rats whose diaphragm was exposed after thoracotomy. To evaluate the direct effect of skeletal muscle contraction on the hydraulic intraluminal lymphatic pressures (Plymph) and lymphatic vessel geometry, the maximal contraction of diaphragmatic fibers adjacent to a lymphatic vessel was elicited by injection of 9.2 nl of 1 M KCl solution among diaphragmatic fibers while Plymph was recorded through micropuncture and vessel geometry via stereomicroscopy video recording. In lymphatics oriented perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of muscle fibers and located at 900 μm from the vessel, Dmc enlarged to 131.1 ± 2.3% of Drest. In vessels parallel to muscle fibers, Dmc increased to 122.8 ± 2.9% of Drest. During contraction, Plymph decreased as much as 22.5 ± 2.6 cmH2O in all submesothelial superficial vessels, whereas it increased by 10.7 ± 5.1 cmH2O in deeper vessels running perpendicular to contracting muscle fibers. Hence, the three-dimensional arrangement of the diaphragmatic lymphatic network seems to be finalized to efficiently exploit the stresses exerted by muscle fibers during the contracting inspiratory phase to promote lymph formation in superficial submesothelial lymphatics and its further propulsion in deeper intramuscular vessels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  3. Aged Lymphatic Vessels and Mast Cells in Perilymphatic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sarit; Meininger, Cynthia J; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2017-05-03

    This review provides a comprehensive summary of research on aging-associated alterations in lymphatic vessels and mast cells in perilymphatic tissues. Aging alters structure (by increasing the size of zones with low muscle cell investiture), ultrastructure (through loss of the glycocalyx), and proteome composition with a concomitant increase in permeability of aged lymphatic vessels. The contractile function of aged lymphatic vessels is depleted with the abolished role of nitric oxide and an increased role of lymphatic-born histamine in flow-dependent regulation of lymphatic phasic contractions and tone. In addition, aging induces oxidative stress in lymphatic vessels and facilitates the spread of pathogens from these vessels into perilymphatic tissues. Aging causes the basal activation of perilymphatic mast cells, which, in turn, restricts recruitment/activation of immune cells in perilymphatic tissues. This aging-associated basal activation of mast cells limits proper functioning of the mast cell/histamine/NF-κB axis that is essential for the regulation of lymphatic vessel transport and barrier functions as well as for both the interaction and trafficking of immune cells near and within lymphatic collecting vessels. Cumulatively, these changes play important roles in the pathogenesis of alterations in inflammation and immunity associated with aging.

  4. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  5. Network of endocardial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Hong Bae; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Kim, Ki Woo; Sohn, Jamin; Son, Boram; Chang, Byung-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been reports on threadlike structures inside the heart, they have received little attention. We aimed to develop a method for observing such structures and to reveal their ultrastructures. An in situ staining method, which uses a series of procedures of 0.2-0.4% trypan blue spraying and washing, was applied to observe threadlike structures on the surfaces of endocardia. The threadlike structures were isolated and observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Networks of endocardial vessels (20 μm in thickness) with expansions (40-100 μm in diameter) were visualized; they were movable on the endocardium of the bovine atrium and ventricle. CLSM showed that (1) rod-shaped nuclei were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel and (2) there were many cells inside the expansion. TEM on the endocardial vessel revealed that (1) there existed multiple lumens (1-7 μm in diameter) and (2) the extracellular matrices mostly consisted of collagen fibers, which were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel or were locally organized in reticular structures. We investigated the endocardial circulatory system in bovine cardiac chambers and its ultrastructures, such as nucleic distributions, microlumens, and collagenous extracellular matrices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  7. Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N. Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An organism’s reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero. Clinical studies and experimental data indicate that stress signaling can mediate these effects through direct actions in the brain, gonads, and embryonic tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which stress activation of the HPA axis impacts fertility and fetal development.

  8. Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dana N; Whirledge, Shannon

    2017-10-24

    An organism's reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero. Clinical studies and experimental data indicate that stress signaling can mediate these effects through direct actions in the brain, gonads, and embryonic tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which stress activation of the HPA axis impacts fertility and fetal development.

  9. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of s...

  10. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  11. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  12. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  13. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  16. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  18. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  19. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  1. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  2. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  3. New research vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Two “new” ocean-going research vessels operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will soon begin full-time scientific duties off the coast of California and in the Antarctic, respectively. The 37.5-m Scripps vessel, named Robert Gordon Sprout in honor of the ex-president of the University of California, replaces the smaller ship Ellen B. Scripps, which had served the institution since 1965. The new ship is a slightly modified Gulf Coast workboat. Under the name of Midnight Alaskan, it had been used for high-resolution geophysical surveys in American and Latin American waters by such firms as Arco Oil & Gas, Exxon, Pennzoil, and Racal-Decca before its purchase by Scripps from a Lousiana chartering firm last summer.

  4. Large vessel vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Pukšić, Silva; Gudelj Gračanin, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in y...

  5. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...seating compartment. The sides should also limit wave splash on the deck. The freeboard should contribute reserve buoyancy , increasing large-angle and...Resistance, Powering, and Propulsion Savitsky’s Method Since model testing data or other reliable performance data was unavailable for the proposed

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review...... recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome....

  7. Suppression of the HPA axis during extrahepatic biliary obstruction induces cholangiocyte proliferation in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Matthew; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Pae, Hae Yong; Huang, Li; Frampton, Gabriel; Galindo, Cheryl; Francis, Heather; Horvat, Darijana; McMillin, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Cholestatic patients often present with clinical features suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. In the bile duct-ligated (BDL) model of cholestasis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is suppressed. The consequences of this suppression on cholangiocyte proliferation are unknown. We evaluated 1) HPA axis activity in various rat models of cholestasis and 2) effects of HPA axis modulation on cholangiocyte proliferation. Expression of regulatory molecules of the HPA axis was determined after BDL, partial BDL, and α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) intoxication. The HPA axis was suppressed by inhibition of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression by central administration of CRH-specific Vivo-morpholinos or by adrenalectomy. After BDL, the HPA axis was reactivated by 1) central administration of CRH, 2) systemic ACTH treatment, or 3) treatment with cortisol or corticosterone for 7 days postsurgery. There was decreased expression of 1) hypothalamic CRH, 2) pituitary ACTH, and 3) key glucocorticoid synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands. Serum corticosterone and cortisol remained low after BDL (but not partial BDL) compared with sham surgery and after 2 wk of ANIT feeding. Experimental suppression of the HPA axis increased cholangiocyte proliferation, shown by increased cytokeratin-19- and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cholangiocytes. Conversely, restoration of HPA axis activity inhibited BDL-induced cholangiocyte proliferation. Suppression of the HPA axis is an early event following BDL and induces cholangiocyte proliferation. Knowledge of the role of the HPA axis during cholestasis may lead to development of innovative treatment paradigms for chronic liver disease. PMID:21979757

  8. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  9. Vanishing corneal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Chana, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    We wish to highlight the importance of acknowledging the accompanying effects of topical phenylephrine drops on the eye other than its intended mydriasis. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with a corneal graft who was noted to have superficial corneal vascularisation which was not documented previously. After the instillation of topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5%, for funduscopy, the corneal vascularisation was not visible. When reassessed on another visit, tropicamide had no effect on the vessels and only phenylephrine did. We wish to highlight that when reviewing patients in cornea clinics, instilling phenylephrine prior to being seen may mask important corneal vascularisation. PMID:24121816

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  11. The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-03-01

    Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  13. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  14. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  15. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  16. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  17. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  18. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  19. Gut-Brain Axis in Gastric Mucosal Damage and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgambato, Dolores; Capuano, Annalisa; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Miranda, Agnese; Federico, Alessandro; Romano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The gut-brain axis plays a potential role in numerous physiological and pathological conditions. Several substances link stomach with central nervous system. In particular, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, thyrotropinreleasing factor-containing nerve fibers and capsaicin-sensitive nerves are principal mediators of the harmful and protective central nervous system-mediated effects on gastric mucosa. Also, existing evidence indicates that nitric oxide, prostaglandins and calcitonin gene-related peptide play a role as final effectors of gastric protection. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peerreviewed research literature with the aim of focusing on the role of gut-brain axis in gastric damage and protection. In particular, we examined manuscripts dealing with the role of steroids, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, prostaglandins, melatonin, hydrogen sulfide and peptides influencing food intake (i.e. leptin, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, central glucagon-like peptide-1, and ghrelin). Also, the role of GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways in gastric mucosal protection have been examined. We found and reviewed 61 peer-reviewed papers dealing with the major aspects related to the role of gut brain axis in gastric mucosal damage and protection. A dense neuronal network links stomach with central nervous system and a number of neurotransmitters and peptides functionally and anatomically related to central nervous system play a major role in contributing to gastric mucosal integrity. Exploiting the mechanisms underlying the connection between brain and gut may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of gastric mucosal injury and to an improvement in the prevention and, eventually, management of gastric damage.

  20. A Vessel Active Contour Model for Vascular Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a vessel active contour model based on local intensity weighting and a vessel vector field. Firstly, the energy function we define is evaluated along the evolving curve instead of all image points, and the function value at each point on the curve is based on the interior and exterior weighted means in a local neighborhood of the point, which is good for dealing with the intensity inhomogeneity. Secondly, a vascular vector field derived from a vesselness measure is employed to guide the contour to evolve along the vessel central skeleton into thin and weak vessels. Thirdly, an automatic initialization method that makes the model converge rapidly is developed, and it avoids repeated trails in conventional local region active contour models. Finally, a speed-up strategy is implemented by labeling the steadily evolved points, and it avoids the repeated computation of these points in the subsequent iterations. Experiments using synthetic and real vessel images validate the proposed model. Comparisons with the localized active contour model, local binary fitting model, and vascular active contour model show that the proposed model is more accurate, efficient, and suitable for extraction of the vessel tree from different medical images.

  1. Semi-automated retinal vessel analysis in nonmydriatic fundus photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Alexander Karl-Georg; Fischer, Joachim Ernst; Vossmerbaeumer, Urs

    2014-02-01

    Funduscopic assessment of the retinal vessels may be used to assess the health status of microcirculation and as a component in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors. Typically, the evaluation is restricted to morphological appreciation without strict quantification. Our purpose was to develop and validate a software tool for semi-automated quantitative analysis of retinal vasculature in nonmydriatic fundus photography. matlab software was used to develop a semi-automated image recognition and analysis tool for the determination of the arterial-venous (A/V) ratio in the central vessel equivalent on 45° digital fundus photographs. Validity and reproducibility of the results were ascertained using nonmydriatic photographs of 50 eyes from 25 subjects recorded from a 3DOCT device (Topcon Corp.). Two hundred and thirty-three eyes of 121 healthy subjects were evaluated to define normative values. A software tool was developed using image thresholds for vessel recognition and vessel width calculation in a semi-automated three-step procedure: vessel recognition on the photograph and artery/vein designation, width measurement and calculation of central retinal vessel equivalents. Mean vessel recognition rate was 78%, vessel class designation rate 75% and reproducibility between 0.78 and 0.91. Mean A/V ratio was 0.84. Application on a healthy norm cohort showed high congruence with prior published manual methods. Processing time per image was one minute. Quantitative geometrical assessment of the retinal vasculature may be performed in a semi-automated manner using dedicated software tools. Yielding reproducible numerical data within a short time leap, this may contribute additional value to mere morphological estimates in the clinical evaluation of fundus photographs. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stress and the reproductive axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufexis, D; Rivarola, M A; Lara, H; Viau, V

    2014-09-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For example, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, whereas activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology, as well as behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors such as oestrogen receptor (ER)α that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilised by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine into the ovary, which produces a noncyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increases 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain the heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioural phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hyporesponsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects

  3. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  4. Fourier cross-sectional profile for vessel detection on retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao

    2010-04-01

    Retinal blood vessels are important objects in ophthalmologic images. In spite of many attempts for vessel detection, it appears that existing methodologies are based on edge detection or modeling of vessel cross-sectional profiles in intensity. The application of these methodologies is hampered by the presence of a wide range of retinal vessels. In this paper we define a universal representation for upward and downward vessel cross-sectional profiles with varying boundary sharpness. This expression is used to define a new scheme of vessel detection based on symmetry and asymmetry in the Fourier domain. Phase congruency is utilized for measuring symmetry and asymmetry so that our scheme is invariant to vessel brightness variations. We have performed experiments on fluorescein images and color fundus images to show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm technique. We also have performed a width measurement study, using an optimal medial axis skeletonization scheme as a post-processing step, to compare the technique with the generalized Gaussian profile modeling. The new algorithm technique is promising for automated vessel detection where optimizing profile models is difficult and preserving vessel width information is necessary. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunolocalization of lymphatic vessels in human fetal knee joint tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, James; Little, Christopher B

    2010-08-01

    We immunolocalized lymphatic and vascular blood vessels in 12- and 14-week-old human fetal knee joint tissues using a polyclonal antibody to a lymphatic vascular endothelium specific hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and a monoclonal antibody to podoplanin (mAb D2-40). A number of lymphatic vessels were identified in the stratified connective tissues surrounding the cartilaginous knee joint femoral and tibial rudiments. These tissues also contained small vascular vessels with entrapped red blood cells which were imaged using Nomarsky DIC microscopy. Neither vascular nor lymphatic vessels were present in the knee joint cartilaginous rudiments. The menisci in 12-week-old fetal knees were incompletely demarcated from the adjacent tibial and femoral cartilaginous rudiments which was consistent with the ongoing joint cavitation process at the femoral-tibial junction. At 14 weeks of age the menisci were independent structural entities; they contained a major central blood vessel containing red blood cells and numerous communicating vessels at the base of the menisci but no lymphatic vessels. In contrast to the 12-week-old menisci, the 14-week meniscal rudiments contained abundant CD-31 and CD-34 positive but no lymphatic vessels. Isolated 14-week-old meniscal cells also were stained with the CD-31 and CD 34 antibodies; CD-68 +ve cells, also abundant in the 14-week-old menisci, were detectable to a far lesser degree in the 12-week menisci and were totally absent from the femoral and tibial rudiments. The distribution of lymphatic vessels and tissue macrophages in the fetal joint tissues was consistent with their roles in the clearance of metabolic waste and extracellular matrix breakdown products arising from the rapidly remodelling knee joint tissues.

  6. Dual axis solar collector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiden, G.E.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a solar collector. It comprises: an elongate main boom having a longitudinal axis; a solar collector frame first mounting means for pivotally mounting the solar collector frame to the main boom for pivotal motion about first pivotal axis substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the main boom; and first motor means, separate from the first mounting means a generally horizontal countertop mounted on the frame means adapted for a placement and retention of an ostomy bag thereon during cleaning of the ostomy bag. The countertop having a sink formed therein for draining liquid and waste materials from the ostomy bag and from the countertop; a mirror mounted upright on the frame means; a light source mounted to the frame means for illuminating the countertop, a user and the mirror; and a drainage conduit, having a first end connected to the sink, the drainage conduit being adapted for carrying the waste materials and the liquid from the sink to the disposal location.

  7. 50 CFR 648.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 648.8 Section 648.8... identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this part and over 25 ft (7.6... or ocean quahog vessels licensed under New Jersey law may use the appropriate vessel identification...

  8. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  9. 76 FR 63564 - Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  10. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 Pacific total allowable catch (TAC) apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  11. A systematic comparison of on-axis and off-axis transmission Kikuchi diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niessen, F.; Burrows, A.; Fanta, A. Bastos da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The capabilities of the novel on-axis transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) technique were explored in a systematic comparison with conventional off-axis TKD. The effect of experimental parameters on the appearance of on-axis and off-axis Kikuchi patterns was measured and discussed. In ...... with the determined resolution, whereas off-axis TKD is more sensitive to beam drift. Band detection by the Hough-transform led to indexing of, on average, one additional Kikuchi band when measuring with on-axis TKD compared to off-axis TKD and operated more stable on on-axis patterns....

  12. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang; Forsythe, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e.g., gamma amino butyric acid, and the products of fermentation, e.g., the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Short chain fatty acids, which are pleomorphic, especially butyrate, positively influence host metabolism by promoting glucose and energy homeostasis, regulating immune responses and epithelial cell growth, and promoting the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the future, the composition, diversity, and function of specific probiotics, coupled with similar, more detailed knowledge about gut microbiota, will potentially help in developing more effective diet- and drug-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 2D Fast Vessel Visualization Using a Vessel Wall Mask Guiding Fine Vessel Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Raptis

    2010-01-01

    and then try to approach the ridges and branches of the vasculature's using fine detection. Fine vessel screening looks into local structural inconsistencies in vessels properties, into noise, or into not expected intensity variations observed inside pre-known vessel-body areas. The vessels are first modelled sufficiently but not precisely by their walls with a tubular model-structure that is the result of an initial segmentation. This provides a chart of likely Vessel Wall Pixels (VWPs yielding a form of a likelihood vessel map mainly based on gradient filter's intensity and spatial arrangement parameters (e.g., linear consistency. Specific vessel parameters (centerline, width, location, fall-away rate, main orientation are post-computed by convolving the image with a set of pre-tuned spatial filters called Matched Filters (MFs. These are easily computed as Gaussian-like 2D forms that use a limited range sub-optimal parameters adjusted to the dominant vessel characteristics obtained by Spatial Grey Level Difference statistics limiting the range of search into vessel widths of 16, 32, and 64 pixels. Sparse pixels are effectively eliminated by applying a limited range Hough Transform (HT or region growing. Major benefits are limiting the range of parameters, reducing the search-space for post-convolution to only masked regions, representing almost 2% of the 2D volume, good speed versus accuracy/time trade-off. Results show the potentials of our approach in terms of time for detection ROC analysis and accuracy of vessel pixel (VP detection.

  14. BY FRUSTUM CONFINING VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helical piles are environmentally friendly and economical deep foundations that, due to environmental considerations, are excellent additions to a variety of deep foundation alternatives available to the practitioner. Helical piles performance depends on soil properties, the pile geometry and soil-pile interaction. Helical piles can be a proper alternative in sensitive environmental sites if their bearing capacity is sufficient to support applied loads. The failure capacity of helical piles in this study was measured via an experimental research program that was carried out by Frustum Confining Vessel (FCV. FCV is a frustum chamber by approximately linear increase in vertical and lateral stresses along depth from top to bottom. Due to special geometry and applied bottom pressure, this apparatus is a proper choice to test small model piles which can simulate field stress conditions. Small scale helical piles are made with either single helix or more helixes and installed in fine grained sand with three various densities. Axial loading tests including compression and tension tests were performed to achieve pile ultimate capacity. The results indicate the helical piles behavior depends essentially on pile geometric characteristics, i.e. helix configuration and soil properties. According to the achievements, axial uplift capacity of helical model piles is about equal to usual steel model piles that have the helixes diameter. Helical pile compression bearing capacity is too sufficient to act as a medium pile, thus it can be substituted other piles in special geoenvironmental conditions. The bearing capacity also depends on spacing ratio, S/D, and helixes diameter.

  15. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Vessel list/Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of vessels that have been on the SRHS through time, their owners/operators, marinas/docks and their contact information. This assists in...

  16. The Radical Axis: A Motion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney, Ray; McKim, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Interesting problems sometimes have surprising sources. In this paper we take an innocent looking problem from a calculus book and rediscover the radical axis of classical geometry. For intersecting circles the radical axis is the line through the two points of intersection. For nonintersecting, nonconcentric circles, the radical axis still…

  17. 2013 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. SC/OQ Vessel Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data tables holding information for the Surf Clam/Ocean Quahog vessel and dealer/processor logbooks (negative and positive), as well as individual tag information...

  19. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  20. 2011 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  1. 2013 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  2. 2011 East Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. Integrin binding: Sticking around vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchley, Michael R.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    A study demonstrates that controlled integrin binding on a biomaterial was capable of promoting vascular cell sprouting and formation of a non-leaky blood vessel network in a healthy and diseased state.

  4. Transposition of the great vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessel called the ductus arteriosus open, allowing some mixing of the 2 blood circulations. A procedure using ... they are not already immune. Eating well, avoiding alcohol, and controlling diabetes both before and during pregnancy ...

  5. 2013 West Coast Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  7. 2011 Tug Towing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. Caribbean PR Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in Puerto Rico. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  9. Coastal Discard Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data on the type and amount of marine resources that are discarded or interacted with by vessels that are selected to report to the Southeast...

  10. Mercury's rotation axis and period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    Recent measurements made from high-resolution Mariner 10 photography of the planet Mercury yield a rotation period of 58.6461 + or 0.005 days, in excellent agreement with the period required for a precise 2/3 resonance with its orbital period (58.6462 days). The axis of rotation of the planet was calculated to be offset about 2 deg from the perpendicular to its orbital plane within a 50% probability error ellipse of + or - 2.6 deg by + or - 6.5 deg. Dynamical considerations make it most likely that the true displacement from the orbit normal is less than 1 deg.

  11. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  12. Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-10-07

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alpha-synucleinopathy that affects all levels of the brain-gut axis including the central, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Recently, it has been recognized that the brain-gut axis interactions are significantly modulated by the gut microbiota via immunological, neuroendocrine, and direct neural mechanisms. Dysregulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in PD may be associated with gastrointestinal manifestations frequently preceding motor symptoms, as well as with the pathogenesis of PD itself, supporting the hypothesis that the pathological process is spread from the gut to the brain. Excessive stimulation of the innate immune system resulting from gut dysbiosis and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability may induce systemic inflammation, while activation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells may contribute to the initiation of alpha-synuclein misfolding. Additionally, the adaptive immune system may be disturbed by bacterial proteins cross-reacting with human antigens. A better understanding of the brain-gut-microbiota axis interactions should bring a new insight in the pathophysiology of PD and permit an earlier diagnosis with a focus on peripheral biomarkers within the enteric nervous system. Novel therapeutic options aimed at modifying the gut microbiota composition and enhancing the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in PD patients could influence the initial step of the following cascade of neurodegeneration in PD.

  13. Microbiota-Brain-Gut Axis and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2017-10-17

    The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges. Animal and translational models have incriminated a disturbed gut microbiota in a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson's disease; data from human studies is scanty. While a theoretical basis can be developed for the use of microbiota-directed therapies in neurodegenerative disorders, support is yet to come from high-quality clinical trials. In theory, a role for the microbiota-gut-brain axis is highly plausible; clinical confirmation is awaited.

  14. Microbiota regulation of the Mammalian gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burokas, Aurelijus; Moloney, Rachel D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease has emerged over the past decade. The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. Regulation of the microbiota-brain-gut axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. The routes of this communication are not fully elucidated but include neural, humoral, immune, and metabolic pathways. A number of approaches have been used to interrogate this axis including the use of germ-free animals, probiotic agents, antibiotics, or animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections. Together, it is clear that the gut microbiota can be a key regulator of mood, cognition, pain, and obesity. Understanding microbiota-brain interactions is an exciting area of research which may contribute new insights into individual variations in cognition, personality, mood, sleep, and eating behavior, and how they contribute to a range of neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from affective disorders to autism and schizophrenia. Finally, the concept of psychobiotics, bacterial-based interventions with mental health benefit, is also emerging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear reactor having a polyhedral primary shield and removable vessel insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Orr, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is provided having a generally cylindrical reactor vessel disposed within an opening in a primary shield. The opening in the primary shield is defined by a plurality of generally planar side walls forming a generally polyhedral-shaped opening. The reactor vessel is supported within the opening in the primary shield by reactor vessel supports which are in communication and aligned with central portions of some of the side walls. The reactor vessel is connected to the central portions of the reactor vessel supports. A thermal insulation polyhedron formed from a plurality of slidably insertable and removable generally planar insulation panels substantially surrounds at least a portion of the reactor vessel and is disposed between the reactor vessel and the side walls of the primary shield. The shape of the insulation polyhedron generally corresponds to the shape of the opening in the primary shield. Reactor monitoring instrumentation may be mounted in the corners of the opening in the primary shield between the side walls and the reactor vessel such that insulation is not disposed between the instrumentation and the reactor vessel.

  16. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Joshi

    Full Text Available The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of the dorsal vessel of Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Francisca Sant'Anna Nogueira

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the microanatomy of the dorsal vessel of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus. The organ is a tuble anatomically divided into an anterior aorta anad a posterior heart, connected to the body wall through 8 pairs of alary muscles. The heart is divided in 3 chambers by means of 2 pairs of cardiac valves. a pair of ostia can be observed in the lateral wall of each chamber. A bundle of nerve fibers was found outside the organ, running dorsally along its major axis. A group of longitudinal muscular fibers was found in the ventral portion of the vessel. The vessel was found to be lined both internally and externally by pericardial cells covered by a thin laminar membrane. Inseide the vessel the pericardial cells were disposed in layers and on the outside they formed clusters or rows.

  18. 50 CFR 697.8 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 697.8 Section 697.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....8 Vessel identification. (a) Vessel name and official number. Each fishing vessel issued a limited...

  19. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is responsible for fluid homeostasis, transport of immune cells, inflammatory molecules, and dietary lipids. It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that line lymphatic capillaries present loose overlapping intercellular junctions and anchoring filaments that support fluid drainage. When interstitial fluid accumulates within tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) swells and pulls the anchoring filaments. This results in opening of the LEC junctions and permits interstitial fluid uptake. The absorbed fluid is then transported within collecting lymphatic vessels, which exhibit intraluminal valves that prevent lymph backflow and smooth muscle cells that sequentially contract to propel lymph.Mechanotransduction involves translation of mechanical stimuli into biological responses. LECs have been shown to sense and respond to changes in ECM stiffness, fluid pressure-induced cell stretch, and fluid flow-induced shear stress. How these signals influence LEC function and lymphatic vessel growth can be investigated by using different mechanotransduction assays in vitro and to some extent in vivo.In this chapter, we will focus on the mechanical forces that regulate lymphatic vessel expansion during embryonic development and possibly secondary lymphedema. In mouse embryos, it has been recently shown that the amount of interstitial fluid determines the extent of lymphatic vessel expansion via a mechanosensory complex formed by β1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3). This model might as well apply to secondary lymphedema.

  20. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Emeran A; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana

    2015-03-02

    Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. Limited information is available on how these findings may translate to healthy humans or to disease states involving the brain or the gut/brain axis. Future research needs to focus on confirming that the rodent findings are translatable to human physiology and to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, autism, anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease.

  1. Development and plasticity of meningeal lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Salli; Karaman, Sinem; Nurmi, Harri; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H; Mathivet, Thomas; Chilov, Dmitri; Li, Zhilin; Koppinen, Tapani; Park, Jun-Hee; Fang, Shentong; Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Saarma, Mart; Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Alitalo, Kari

    2017-11-15

    The recent discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels (LVs) has raised interest in their possible involvement in neuropathological processes, yet little is known about their development or maintenance. We show here that meningeal LVs develop postnatally, appearing first around the foramina in the basal parts of the skull and spinal canal, sprouting along the blood vessels and cranial and spinal nerves to various parts of the meninges surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). VEGF-C, expressed mainly in vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGFR3 in lymphatic endothelial cells were essential for their development, whereas VEGF-D deletion had no effect. Surprisingly, in adult mice, the LVs showed regression after VEGF-C or VEGFR3 deletion, administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, or expression of VEGF-C/D trap, which also compromised the lymphatic drainage function. Conversely, an excess of VEGF-C induced meningeal lymphangiogenesis. The plasticity and regenerative potential of meningeal LVs should allow manipulation of cerebrospinal fluid drainage and neuropathological processes in the CNS. © 2017 Antila et al.

  2. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  3. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...

  4. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  5. [Pulmonary blood vessels in goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, H; Hegner, K; Vollmerhaus, B

    1999-05-01

    The blood vessels in the lung of the goat, which until now have received little attention, are described in detail for the first time. With regard to the segments of the lung, blood vessels are bronchovascular units in the lobi craniales, lobus medius and lobus accessorius, but bronchoartery units in the lobi caudales. We investigated the types of branches of the Aa. pulmonales dextra et sinistra, the inter- and intraspecific principles of the outlet of the pulmonary veins and the importance of bronchopulmonary segmentation of the lungs.

  6. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, S M; Clarke, G; Borre, Y E; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-01-15

    The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission. The developing serotonergic system may be vulnerable to differential microbial colonisation patterns prior to the emergence of a stable adult-like gut microbiota. At the other extreme of life, the decreased diversity and stability of the gut microbiota may dictate serotonin-related health problems in the elderly. The mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk require further elaboration but may be related to the ability of the gut microbiota to control host tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway, thereby simultaneously reducing the fraction available for serotonin synthesis and increasing the production of neuroactive metabolites. The enzymes of this pathway are immune and stress-responsive, both systems which buttress the brain-gut axis. In addition, there are neural processes in the gastrointestinal tract which can be influenced by local alterations in serotonin concentrations with subsequent relay of signals along the scaffolding of the brain-gut axis to influence CNS neurotransmission. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota might be a viable treatment strategy for serotonin-related brain-gut axis disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the micro-structural damages by neutronic irradiation of the steel of reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Characterization of the design steel; Analisis de los danos micro-estructurales por irradiacion neutronica del acero de la vasija de los reactores de la Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde. Caracterizacion del acero de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moranchel y Rodriguez, M.; Garcia B, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Luis Enrique Erro s/n, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: mmoranchel@ipn.m [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The vessel of a nuclear reactor is one of the safety barriers more important in the design, construction and operation of the reactor. If the vessel results affected to the grade of to have fracture and/or cracks it is very probable the conclusion of their useful life in order to guarantee the nuclear safety and the radiological protection of the exposure occupational personnel, of the public and the environment avoiding the exposition to radioactive sources. The materials of the vessel of a nuclear reactor are exposed continually to the neutronic irradiation that generates the same nuclear reactor. The neutrons that impact to the vessel have the sufficient energy to penetrate certain depth in function of the energy of the incident neutron until reaching the repose or to be absorbed by some nucleus. In the course of their penetration, the neutrons interact with the nuclei, atoms, molecules and with the same crystalline nets of the vessel material producing vacuums, interstitial, precipitate and segregations among other defects that can modify the mechanical properties of the steel. The steel A533-B is the material with which is manufactured the vessel of the nuclear reactors of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, is an alloy that, among other components, it contains atoms of Ni that if they are segregated by the neutrons impact this would favor to the cracking of the same vessel. This work is part of an investigation to analyze the micro-structural damages of the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde due to the neutronic irradiation which is exposed in a continuous way. We will show the characterization of the design steel of the vessel, what offers a comprehension about their chemical composition, the superficial topography and the crystalline nets of the steel A533-B. It will also allow analyze the existence of precipitates, segregates, the type of crystalline net and the distances inter-plains of the design steel of the vessel. (Author)

  8. Acute injuries of the axis vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.T. (United General Hospital, Sedro Woolley, WA (USA)); Harris, J.H. (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of 165 patients admitted to Hermann Hospital with acute injuries of the axis vertebra revealed 68 (41%) dens fractures, 62 (38%) cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis ('hangman's' fracture), 21 (13%) extension teardrop fractures, 10 (6%) hyperextension dislocations, and 2 (1.0%) fractures each of the laminae and spinous processes. Of the axis injuries 31 (18%) were limited to the axis body alone. Of these, 21 (61%) were hyperextension teardrop fractures and 10 (32%) were hyperextension dislocations. Axis injuries were associated with acute injuries of other cervical vertebrae in 14 (8%) of the patients. (orig./GDG).

  9. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Mancuso, Antonia

    2010-04-15

    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block with onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction in a 65-year-old Italian man. To our knowledge, this is the first report of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen H.

    1987-01-01

    A helical axis stellarator using only noninterlocking planar, non-circular coils, generates magnetic fields having a magnetic well and large rotational transform with resultant large equilibrium beta.

  11. The association of adult Onchocerca volvulus with lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C D; Huntington, M K; Wanji, S; Lovato, R V; Eversole, R R; Geary, T G

    2010-02-01

    Immunocytochemical examination of onchocercal nodule tissues containing adult Onchocerca volvulus using immuno-markers for blood and lymphatic vessels (vWF, D2-40, podoplanin, Prox-1, and Lyve1) shows a distinct pattern of distribution of these vessels within nodules. Blood vessels were commonly seen associated with organized lymphoid cellular aggregates in the both the outer and inner areas of the nodules. In contrast, the majority of the lymphatic vessel positivity was seen in the central zone in close apposition to the adult parasites, and the remainder usually associated with microfilariae in the outer areas of the nodule. These findings suggest an intimate relationship between adult O. volvulus and lymphatic vessels, including the likely proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells (lymphangectasia) akin to that seen with other filariae. These findings indicate that adult O. volvulus may migrate via the lymphatic system, and that clinical manifestations of this disease that involve tissue edema may be the result of the location of these worms in the lymphatic system.

  12. Supernova Remnant Science with AXIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; AXIS Science Team

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of the supernova remnant (SNR) science that will be achieved with the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS). AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band. These capabilities enable major advances in several areas of SNR science. These include, but are not limited to: 1) a more thorough spatial mapping of the ejecta products of both intermediate-mass and iron-group elements in core-collapse and Type Ia SNRs, particularly in remnants with a small diameter. The iron-group elements, specifically Cr, Mn, and Ni, are extremely important for constraining the explosion mechanism for SNe, but are generally weak and difficult to detect with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. 2) Studying the interface of a shock wave with the ambient ISM/CSM to constrain the degree of particle heating and acceleration at shock fronts. Chandra has only provided upper limits on shock precursor emission, and a detailed study of the thermal and nonthermal emission at the shock with greatly increased photon count rates will constrain the properties of the immediate post-shock plasma. 3) A high spatial resolution X-ray observatory will continue to build on the legacy begun by Chandra of studying the proper motion of young remnants. Directly measuring the dynamics of an SNR's evolution is crucial for understanding the explosion mechanism, and with the order of magnitude increase collecting area, we can measure the expansion of individual elemental species in the ejecta. 4) We will greatly increase the statistics of SNRs in nearby galaxies, going much faster and deeper than Chandra's observations. The increased depth of coverage would allow us to do spectroscopy in places where it was previously possible only to do rudimentary statistics. We can compare the local SNR population with the local star-formation rates for galaxies

  13. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  14. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  15. BPC 157 and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Vuletic, Lovorka Batelja; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Misic, Marija; Zenko, Anita; Drmic, Domagoj; Rucman, Rudolf; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidate by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process. Formation of new blood vessels involves two main, partly overlapping mechanisms, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The additional mechanism of arteriogenesis is involved in the formation of collaterals. In conjunction with blood vessel function, we at least have to consider leakage of fluid/proteins/plasma, resulting in edema/exudate formation as well as thrombogenesis. Blood vessels are also strongly involved in tumor biology. In this aspect, we have neoangiogenesis resulting in pathological vascularization, vascular invasion resulting in release of metastatic cells and the phenomenon of homing resulting in formation of secondary tumors--metastases.

  16. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  18. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of watercraft...

  19. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  20. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  1. Acute myocardial infarction with changing axis deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2011-07-01

    Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. Left anterior hemiblock development during acute inferior myocardial infarction can be an indicator of left anterior descending coronary artery lesions, multivessel coronary artery disease, and impaired left ventricular systolic function. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 62-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 13510 - Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Central Regulatory... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) less than 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in length... catch apportioned to CVs less than 50 feet (15.2 m) LOA using hook-and-line gear in the Central...

  3. AFSC/FMA/Vessel Assessment Logging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vessels fishing trawl gear, vessels fishing hook-and-line and pot gear that are also greater than 57.5 feet overall, and shoreside and floating processing facilities...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  5. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  7. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  8. Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165836.html Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation Drug will treat adults with a condition called ... to treat adults with giant cell arteritis, an inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). In a media ...

  9. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  10. PCs and networking for oceanographic research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    This paper, first describes briefly the evolution of data acquisition techniques and different system implementation, on board research vessels. A data acquisition system being developed for a coastal research vessel is then described which is based...

  11. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  12. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein access: Comparison between short axis and long axis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek F Tammam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of real-time ultrasound (US is advantageous in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs in adults, especially in whom difficulties are anticipated for various reasons. The aim of the present study was to compare two different real-time 2-dimensional US-guided techniques [short axis view/out-of-plane approach (SAX OOP approach versus long axis view/in-plane approach (LAX IP approach] for internal jugular vein (IJV cannulation. In this prospective study, 90 critical care and hemodialysis patients were assigned for insertion of CVCs using either the real-time US-guided (SAX OOP approach or LAX IP approach or landmark technique (control group. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization, incidence of central line-associated blood stream infection (CLA-BSI and demographics of each patient were recorded. There were no significant differences in patient′s demographic characteristics, side of cannulation (right or left or presence of risk factors for difficult venous cannulation between the three groups of patients. Cannulation of the IJV was achieved in all patients by using US (SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches and in 27 of the patients (90% by using the landmark technique (P = 0.045. Average access time (skin to vein and number of attempts were comparable between the SAX OOP and the LAX IP approaches while significantly reduced in both US groups of patients compared with the landmark group (P <0.001. In the landmark group, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 16.7% of the patients, hematoma in 23.3% of the patients, pneumothorax in 3.3% of the patients and CLA-BSI in 20% of the patients, which were all significantly increased compared with the US group (P <0.05. The findings of this study suggest that the SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches were comparable for cannulation of IJV in critical

  13. Endocannabinoid Signaling, Glucocorticoid-Mediated Negative Feedback and Regulation of the HPA Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. N.; Tasker, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates the outflow of glucocorticoid hormones under basal conditions and in response to stress. Within the last decade, a large body of evidence has mounted indicating that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the central regulation of the stress response; however, the specific role endocannabinoid signalling plays in phases of HPA axis regulation, or the neural sites of action mediating this regulation, was not mapped out until recently. This review aims to collapse the current state of knowledge regarding the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of the HPA axis to put together a working model of how and where endocannabinoids act within the brain to regulate outflow of the HPA axis. Specifically, we discuss the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of the HPA axis under basal conditions, activation in response to acute stress and glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback. Interestingly, there appears to be some anatomical specificity to the role of the endocannabinoid system in each phase of HPA axis regulation, as well as distinct roles of both anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in these phases. Ultimately, the current level of information indicates that endocannabinoid signalling acts to suppress HPA axis activity through concerted actions within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hypothalamus. PMID:22214537

  14. Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Cécile; Saubaméa, Bruno; Declèves, Xavier; Cohen-Salmon, Martine

    2015-11-10

    In the brain, most of the vascular system consists of a selective barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that regulates the exchange of molecules and immune cells between the brain and the blood. Moreover, the huge neuronal metabolic demand requires a moment-to-moment regulation of blood flow. Notably, abnormalities of these regulations are etiological hallmarks of most brain pathologies; including glioblastoma, stroke, edema, epilepsy, degenerative diseases (ex: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), brain tumors, as well as inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis and sepsis-induced brain dysfunctions. Thus, understanding the signaling events modulating the cerebrovascular physiology is a major challenge. Much insight into the cellular and molecular properties of the various cell types that compose the cerebrovascular system can be gained from primary culture or cell sorting from freshly dissociated brain tissue. However, properties such as cell polarity, morphology and intercellular relationships are not maintained in such preparations. The protocol that we describe here is designed to purify brain vessel fragments, whilst maintaining structural integrity. We show that isolated vessels consist of endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions that are surrounded by a continuous basal lamina. Pericytes, smooth muscle cells as well as the perivascular astrocyte endfeet membranes remain attached to the endothelial layer. Finally, we describe how to perform immunostaining experiments on purified brain vessels.

  15. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  16. 50 CFR 660.305 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.305 Section 660.305 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 660.305 Vessel identification. (a) Display. The operator of a vessel that is over 25 ft (7.6 m...

  17. 50 CFR 660.704 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.704 Section 660.704 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.704 Vessel identification. (a) General. This section only applies to commercial fishing vessels...

  18. 50 CFR 660.504 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 660.504 Section 660.504 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.504 Vessel identification. (a) Official number. Each fishing vessel subject to this subpart must...

  19. 50 CFR 665.16 - Vessel identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel identification. 665.16 Section 665... identification. (a) Applicability. Each fishing vessel subject to this part, except those identified in paragraph (e) of this section, must be marked for identification purposes, as follows: (1) A vessel that is...

  20. Multiple meningeal cysts affecting the whole craniospinal axis. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Yasumoto, Yukimasa; Ito, Masanori

    2009-08-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with multiple meningeal cysts arising along the whole craniospinal axis, manifesting as trigeminal neuralgia, truncal ataxia, and gradually aggravating headache persisting for 2 years. The patient had suspected Sjögren syndrome, but no other contributory medical history such as infection, subarachnoid hemorrhage, trauma, malignancies affecting the central nervous system, or habitual drug use. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging revealed displaced trigeminal root and midbrain, distorted cerebellar hemisphere, and ventriculomegaly, which were relieved by microsurgical resection of the cyst wall. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of arachnoid cysts without concomitant meningeal inflammatory reactions. We thought that the multiple meningeal cysts might have originated from undetected meningitis or undetermined underlying mechanism associated with the autoimmune reactions occurring in the arachnoid membrane covering the central nervous system.

  1. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  2. Changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-07-09

    Changing axis deviation has been reported during acute myocardial infarction also associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 70-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. From Malthus to motive: how the HPA axis engineers the phenotype, yoking needs to wants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Norman; Dallman, Mary F; Warne, James P; Ginsberg, Abigail B; Laugero, Kevin D; la Fleur, Susanne E; Houshyar, Hani; Gomez, Francisca; Bhargava, Aditi; Akana, Susan F

    2006-08-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the critical mediator of the vertebrate stress response system, responding to environmental stressors by maintaining internal homeostasis and coupling the needs of the body to the wants of the mind. The HPA axis has numerous complex drivers and highly flexible operating characterisitics. Major drivers include two circadian drivers, two extra-hypothalamic networks controlling top-down (psychogenic) and bottom-up (systemic) threats, and two intra-hypothalamic networks coordinating behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine outflows. These various networks jointly and flexibly control HPA axis output of periodic (oscillatory) functions and a range of adventitious systemic or psychological threats, including predictable daily cycles of energy flow, actual metabolic deficits over many time scales, predicted metabolic deficits, and the state-dependent management of post-prandial responses to feeding. Evidence is provided that reparation of metabolic derangement by either food or glucocorticoids results in a metabolic signal that inhibits HPA activity. In short, the HPA axis is intimately involved in managing and remodeling peripheral energy fluxes, which appear to provide an unidentified metabolic inhibitory feedback signal to the HPA axis via glucocorticoids. In a complementary and perhaps a less appreciated role, adrenocortical hormones also act on brain to provide not only feedback, but feedforward control over the HPA axis itself and its various drivers, as well as coordinating behavioral and autonomic outflows, and mounting central incentive and memorial networks that are adaptive in both appetitive and aversive motivational modes. By centrally remodeling the phenotype, the HPA axis provides ballistic and predictive control over motor outflows relevant to the type of stressor. Evidence is examined concerning the global hypothesis that the HPA axis comprehensively induces integrative phenotypic plasticity, thus

  4. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium-induced conditioned taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-12-05

    Intraperitoneal injections (ip) of lithium chloride at large doses induce c-Fos expression in the brain regions implicated in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, and also activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increase the plasma corticosterone levels in rats. A pharmacologic treatment blunting the lithium-induced c-Fos expression in the brain regions, but not the HPA axis activation, induced CTA formation. Synthetic glucocorticoids at conditioning, but not glucocorticoid antagonist, attenuated the lithium-induced CTA acquisition. The CTA acquisition by ip lithium was not affected by adrenalectomy regardless of basal corticosterone supplement, but the extinction was delayed in the absence of basal corticosterone. Glucocorticoids overloading delayed the extinction memory formation of lithium-induced CTA. ip lithium consistently induced the brain c-Fos expression, the HPA activation and CTA formation regardless of the circadian activation of the HPA axis. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of lithium at day time also increased the brain c-Fos expression, activated the HPA axis and induced CTA acquisition. However, icv lithium at night, when the HPA axis shows its circadian activation, did not induce CTA acquisition nor activate the HPA axis, although it increased the brain c-Fos expression. These results suggest that the circadian activation of the HPA axis may affect central, but not peripheral, effect of lithium in CTA learning in rats, and the HPA axis activation may be necessary for the central effect of lithium in CTA formation. Also, glucocorticoids may be required for a better extinction; however, increased glucocorticoids hinder both the acquisition and the extinction of lithium-induced CTA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Splenic vessel preservation versus splenic vessel resection in laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baohua; Xiong, Dailan; Chen, Sheng; Ma, Tingting; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Zhou, Yu; Yin, Zi

    2017-11-09

    Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy for low-grade malignant pancreas tumours was recently demonstrated and can be performed with splenic vessel preservation (SVP) or splenic vessel resection (SVR). Whether one approach is superior to another is still a matter of debate. A systematic literature search (PubMed, Embase, Science Citation Index, Springer-Link and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) was performed. Pooled intra- and post-operative outcomes were evaluated. Stratified and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity between studies and to assess the effects of the study qualities. A total of six studies were included. There was no significant difference for SVR and SVP in terms of overall post-operative complications and the pooled odds ratio (OR) was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.38, I2  = 25%). Meta-analysis on the pooled outcome of intraoperative operative time and blood loss favoured SVR; the mean differences were 18.64 min (95% CI 6.91-30.37 min, I2  = 21%) and 65.67 mL (95% CI 18.88-112.45 mL, I2  = 48%), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed a decrease incidences in perigastric varices (OR = 0.07, 95% CI 0.03-0.18, I2  = 29%) and splenic infarction (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.32, I2  = 0%) in SVP. For selected patients who underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, an increased preference for the SVP technique should be suggested considering its short-term benefits. However, in case of large tumours that distort and compress vessel course, SVR could be applied with acceptable splenic ischaemia and perigastric varices. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. [Gut microbiome and psyche: paradigm shift in the concept of brain-gut axis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, Peter C; Zopf, Yurdagül

    2016-05-25

    The concept of the brain-gut axis describes the communication between the central and enteric nervous system. The exchange of information takes place in both directions. The great advances in molecular medicine in recent years led to the discovery of an enormous number of microorganisms in the intestine (gut microbiome), which greatly affect the function of the brain-gut axis. Overview Numerous studies indicate that the dysfunction of the brain-gut axis could lead to both inflammatory and functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it was shown that a faulty composition of the gut microbiota in childhood influences the maturation of the central nervous system and thus may favor the development of mental disorders such as autism, depression, or other. An exact causal relationship between psyche and microbiome must be clarified by further studies in order to find new therapeutic options.

  7. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  8. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  9. 76 FR 80266 - Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore Component of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  10. 75 FR 8839 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allocation of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the offshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  11. 75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allocation of the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod apportioned to vessels catching Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component of the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  12. 76 FR 58414 - Pacific Cod by Non-American Fisheries Act Crab Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by non- American Fisheries Act (AFA) crab vessels that are subject to sideboard limits harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 Pacific cod sideboard limit established for non-AFA crab vessels harvesting Pacific cod for processing by the inshore component in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA.

  13. The neuro-immune axis: Prospect for novel treatments for mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraneveld, Aletta D.; de Theije, Caroline G.M.; van Heesch, Floor; Borre, Yuliya; de Kivit, Sander; Olivier, Berend; Korte, Mechiel; Garssen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Disturbed bidirectional pathways between the (central) nervous system and immune system have been implicated in various mental disorders, including depressive and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this minireview, the role of the neuro-immune axis and its targetability in relation to major depression

  14. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  15. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  16. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  17. "Sausage-string" appearance of arteries and arterioles can be caused by an instability of the blood vessel wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Beierholm, Ulrik; Mikkelsen, Rene

    2002-01-01

    Vascular damage induced by acute hypertension is preceded by a peculiar pattern where blood vessels show alternating regions of constrictions and dilations ("sausages on a string"). The pattern occurs in the smaller blood vessels, and it plays a central role in causing the vascular damage....... A related vascular pattern has been observed in larger vessels from several organs during angiography. In the larger vessels the occurrence of the pattern does not appear to be related to acute hypertension. A unifying feature between the phenomenon in large and small vessels seems to be an increase...... observed experimentally. Most importantly, it suggests that the "sausaging" phenomenon is neither caused by a mechanical failure of the vessel wall due to a high blood pressure nor is it due to standing pressure waves caused by the beating of the heart. Rather, it is the expression of a general instability...

  18. The A/P axis in echinoderm ontogeny and evolution: evidence from fossils and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K. J.; Arenas-Mena, C.; Davidson, E. H.

    2000-01-01

    Even though echinoderms are members of the Bilateria, the location of their anterior/posterior axis has remained enigmatic. Here we propose a novel solution to the problem employing three lines of evidence: the expression of a posterior class Hox gene in the coeloms of the nascent adult body plan within the larva; the anatomy of certain early fossil echinoderms; and finally the relation between endoskeletal plate morphology and the associated coelomic tissues. All three lines of evidence converge on the same answer, namely that the location of the adult mouth is anterior, and the anterior/posterior axis runs from the mouth through the adult coelomic compartments. This axis then orients the animal such that there is but a single plane of symmetry dividing the animal into left and right halves. We tentatively hypothesize that this plane of symmetry is positioned along the dorsal/ventral axis. These axis identifications lead to the conclusion that the five ambulacra are not primary body axes, but instead are outgrowths from the central anterior/posterior axis. These identifications also shed insight into several other evolutionary mysteries of various echinoderm clades such as the independent evolution of bilateral symmetry in irregular echinoids, but do not elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the adult coelomic architecture.

  19. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  20. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  1. Semi-analytic off-axis X-ray source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshad, M.; Anjomrouz, M.; Smithies, D. J.; Largeau, A.; Lu, G.; Atharifard, A.; Vanden Broeke, L.; Aamir, R.; Panta, R. K.; Walsh, M. F.; Goulter, B. P.; Healy, J. L.; Bheesette, S.; Bell, S. T.; Bateman, C. J.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.

    2017-10-01

    Spectral computed tomography (CT) systems are employed with energy-resolving photon counting detectors. Incorporation of a spectrally accurate x-ray beam model in image reconstruction helps to improve material identification and quantification by these systems. Using an inaccurate x-ray model in spectral reconstruction can lead to severe image artifacts, one of the extreme cases of this is the well-known beam-hardening artifacts. An often overlooked spectral feature of x-ray beams in spectral reconstruction models is the angular dependence of the spectrum with reference to the central beam axis. To address these factors, we have developed a parameterized semi-analytical x-ray source model in the diagnostic imaging range (30-120 kVp) by applying regression techniques to data obtained from Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc). This x-ray beam model is generalized to describe the off-axis spectral information within ±17o along θ (vertical direction), ±5o along phi (horizontal direction) of the central axis, and can be parameterized for specific x-ray tube models. Comparisons of our model with those generated by SpekCalc, TOPAS, and IPEM78 at central axis show good agreement (within 2 %). We have evaluated the model with experimental data collected with a small animal spectral scanner.

  2. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  3. NMR study of triglycine sulphate (TGS) in electric field perpendicular to the ferroelectric axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikiel, Krzysztof; Medycki, Wojciech; Stankowski, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The electric field applied perpendicular to the ferroelectric axis bHOP (in Hoshino, Okaya, Pepinsky notation) of the TGS crystal, results new domain structure-striped domains with walls parallel to the cHOP axis. The process is accompanied by changes of the dielectric properties. We present the results of NMR study of TGS crystal with electric field applied parallel to the cHOP or to the cHOP x bHOP directions. After 12 h application of the DC field, a decrease in amplitude of the 1H NMR central line is observed.

  4. A users guide to HPA axis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert L; Deak, Terrence

    2017-09-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol and corticosterone - CORT) are the effector hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neuroendocrine system. CORT is a systemic intercellular signal whose level predictably varies with time of day and dynamically increases with environmental and psychological stressors. This hormonal signal is utilized by virtually every cell and physiological system of the body to optimize performance according to circadian, environmental and physiological demands. Disturbances in normal HPA axis activity profiles are associated with a wide variety of physiological and mental health disorders. Despite numerous studies to date that have identified molecular, cellular and systems-level glucocorticoid actions, new glucocorticoid actions and clinical status associations continue to be revealed at a brisk pace in the scientific literature. However, the breadth of investigators working in this area poses distinct challenges in ensuring common practices across investigators, and a full appreciation for the complexity of a system that is often reduced to a single dependent measure. This Users Guide is intended to provide a fundamental overview of conceptual, technical and practical knowledge that will assist individuals who engage in and evaluate HPA axis research. We begin with examination of the anatomical and hormonal components of the HPA axis and their physiological range of operation. We then examine strategies and best practices for systematic manipulation and accurate measurement of HPA axis activity. We feature use of experimental methods that will assist with better understanding of CORT's physiological actions, especially as those actions impact subsequent brain function. This research approach is instrumental for determining the mechanisms by which alterations of HPA axis function may contribute to pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the gut microbiota influences not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating signalling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the influence exerted by the gut microbiota on brain function and behaviour has become a key research priority. Microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism has become a focal point in this regard, with dual emphasis on the regulation of serotonin synthesis and the control of kynurenine pathway metabolism. Here, we focus in detail on the latter pathway and begin by outlining the structural and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota and the signalling pathways of the brain-gut axis. We summarise preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrating that the gut microbiota influences CNS physiology, anxiety, depression, social behaviour, cognition and visceral pain. Pertinent studies are drawn from neurogastroenterology demonstrating the importance of tryptophan and its metabolites in CNS and gastrointestinal function. We outline how kynurenine pathway metabolism may be regulated by microbial control of neuroendocrine function and components of the immune system. Finally, preclinical evidence demonstrating direct and indirect mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can regulate tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism, with downstream effects on CNS function, is reviewed. Targeting the gut microbiota represents a tractable target to modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism. Efforts to develop this approach will markedly increase our understanding of how the gut microbiota shapes brain and behaviour and provide new insights towards successful translation of microbiota-gut-brain axis research from bench to bedside. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the spin-axis dynamics of a Moonless Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gongjie; Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: gli@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    The variation of a planet's obliquity is influenced by the existence of satellites with a high mass ratio. For instance, Earth's obliquity is stabilized by the Moon and would undergo chaotic variations in the Moon's absence. In turn, such variations can lead to large-scale changes in the atmospheric circulation, rendering spin-axis dynamics a central issue for understanding climate. The relevant quantity for dynamically forced climate change is the rate of chaotic diffusion. Accordingly, here we re-examine the spin-axis evolution of a Moonless Earth within the context of a simplified perturbative framework. We present analytical estimates of the characteristic Lyapunov coefficient as well as the chaotic diffusion rate and demonstrate that even in absence of the Moon, the stochastic change in Earth's obliquity is sufficiently slow to not preclude long-term habitability. Our calculations are consistent with published numerical experiments and illustrate the putative system's underlying dynamical structure in a simple and intuitive manner.

  7. Brain-gut-microbiota axis: challenges for translation in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-05-01

    The accruing data linking the gut microbiome to the development and function of the central nervous system has been proposed as a paradigm shift in neuroscience. The gut microbiota can communicate with the brain via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways comprising the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Dysfunctional neuroimmune pathways are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Using depression as our primary example, we review both the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the possible role played by the gut microbiota in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We consider how this can inform future treatment strategies and outline the challenges and necessary studies for moving the field forward. The role played by the gut microbiota has not been fully elucidated in psychiatric populations. Although tempting to speculate that psychiatric patients may benefit from therapeutic modulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis, the translational applications of the results obtained in rodent studies have yet to be demonstrated. Evidence of altered gut microbiota composition and function in psychiatric patients is limited and cannot be regarded as proven. Moreover the efficacy of targeting the gut microbiota has not yet been established, and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualization of Small-Diameter Vessels by Reduction of Incoherent Reverberation With Coherent Flow Power Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You Leo; Hyun, Dongwoon; Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Willmann, Juergen Karl; Dahl, Jeremy J

    2016-11-01

    Power Doppler (PD) imaging is a widely used technique for flow detection. Despite the wide use of Doppler ultrasound, limitations exist in the ability of Doppler ultrasound to assess slow flow in the small-diameter vasculature, such as the maternal spiral arteries and fetal villous arteries of the placenta and focal liver lesions. The sensitivity of PD in small vessel detection is limited by the low signal produced by slow flow and the noise associated with small vessels. The noise sources include electronic noise, stationary or slowly moving tissue clutter, reverberation clutter, and off-axis scattering from tissue, among others. In order to provide more sensitive detection of slow flow in small diameter vessels, a coherent flow imaging technique, termed coherent flow PD (CFPD), is characterized and evaluated with simulation, flow phantom experiment studies, and an in vivo animal small vessel detection study. CFPD imaging was introduced as a technique to detect slow blood flow. It has been demonstrated to detect slow flow below the detection threshold of conventional PD imaging using identical pulse sequences and filter parameters. In this paper, we compare CFPD with PD in the detection of blood flow in small-diameter vessels. The results from the study suggest that CFPD is able to provide a 7.5-12.5-dB increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over PD images for the same physiological conditions and is less susceptible to reverberation clutter and thermal noise. Due to the increase in SNR, CFPD is able to detect small vessels in high channel noise cases, for which PD was unable to generate enough contrast to observe the vessel.

  9. Vessel classification method based on vessel behavior in the port of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Daamen, W.; Vellinga, T.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    AIS (Automatic Identification System) data have proven to be a valuable source to investigate vessel behavior. The analysis of AIS data provides a possibility to recognize vessel behavior patterns in a waterway area. Furthermore, AIS data can be used to classify vessel behavior into several

  10. A computational algorithm addressing how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Cai; Shuoxin Zhang; Melvin T. Tyree

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this method paper was to examine a computational algorithm that may reveal how vessel length might depend on vessel diameter within any given stem or species. The computational method requires the assumption that vessels remain approximately constant in diameter over their entire length. When this method is applied to three species or hybrids in the...

  11. 76 FR 59660 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...; Permitting, Vessel Identification, and Vessel Monitoring System Requirements for the Commercial Bottomfish... compliance with federal identification requirements and carry and maintain a satellite- based vessel monitoring system (VMS). This collection of information is needed for permit issuance, to identify actual or...

  12. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  13. Horizontal Axis Levitron--A Physics Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Max M.

    2014-01-01

    After a brief history of the Levitron, the first horizontal axis Levitron is reported. Because it is easy to operate, it lends itself to educational physics experiments and analogies. Precession and nutation are visualized by reflecting the beam from a laser pointer off the "spignet". Precession is fundamental to nuclear magnetic…

  14. Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This simple experiment uses an unusual graph straightening exercise to confirm the parallel axis theorem for an irregular object. Along the way, it estimates experimental values for g and the moment of inertia of a tennis racket. We use Excel to find a 95% confidence interval for the true values.

  15. Microbes and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, P; Collins, S M; Verdu, E F

    2012-05-01

    The 'gut-brain' or 'brain-gut axis', depending on whether we emphasize bottom-up or top-bottom pathways, is a bi-directional communication system, comprised of neural pathways, such as the enteric nervous system (ENS), vagus, sympathetic and spinal nerves, and humoral pathways, which include cytokines, hormones, and neuropeptides as signaling molecules. Recent evidence, mainly arising from animal models, supports a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge regarding the role of microbes, including commensals, probiotics and gastrointestinal pathogens, in bottom-up pathways of communication in the gut-brain axis. Although this has clear implications for psychiatric co-morbidity in functional and inflammatory conditions of the gut, the focus of this review will be to discuss the current evidence for a role of bacteria (commensals, probiotics, and pathogens) as key modulators of gut-brain communication. The strongest evidence for a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis currently arises from animal studies and indicate that mechanisms of communication are likely to be multiple. There is need for the concepts generated in animal models to be translated to the human in the future. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. gonadal axis in male Wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    assessed the effect of the single and combined administration of vigabatrin (VIG) and carbamazepine. (CBZ) on the pituitary-gonadal axis of male ..... possible that the active reversal of sperm characteristics that was observed was ... weights, sex hormones and biochemical profiles of male rats. Neuroendocrinology Letters.

  17. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  18. Soundwatch: Eighteen years of monitoring whale watch vessel activities in the Salish Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Seely

    Full Text Available The Soundwatch Boater Education Program is a vessel monitoring and public education outreach program. Soundwatch has been run by The Whale Museum (TWM during the whale watch season (May through September in the Haro Strait Region of the Central Salish Sea since 1993. Data collection has been in a consistent manner since 1998 and is presented here. The program compiles data on vessel types and vessel interactions with marine mammals with a focus on the Southern Resident killer whale (SRKW, Orcinas orca, which was listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA in 2005. The primary goal of the Soundwatch program is to reduce vessel disturbance to SRKWs and other marine wildlife through the education of boaters on regional, local and federal guidelines and regulations and the systematic monitoring of vessel activities around cetaceans. Since 1998, the number of active commercial whale watching vessels has increased over time; ranging from a low of 63 in 1999, to a high of 96 in 2015. In addition, the number of vessel incidents or violation of regulations and guidelines has also increased; ranging from a low of 398 in 1998 to a high of 2621 in 2012. Soundwatch collected data on 23 incident types, some remaining the same over the 18-year data set and some changing over time. The most common incidents over the 18 years were "Within 880 m of Lime Kiln" and "Crossing the path of whales". The numbers of people kayaking near whales also significantly increased since 2004 with the incident "kayaks spread out" with a significantly increasing trend making it difficult for whales to avoid vessels. These results suggest a need for further outreach for effective education and enforcement of whale watching guidelines and regulations in the Central Salish Sea.

  19. ITER vacuum vessel structural analysis completion during manufacturing phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.martinez@live.fr [ITER Organization, Route Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul lez Durance, Cedex (France); Alekseev, A.; Sborchia, C.; Choi, C.H.; Utin, Y.; Jun, C.H.; Terasawa, A.; Popova, E.; Xiang, B.; Sannazaro, G.; Lee, A.; Martin, A.; Teissier, P.; Sabourin, F. [ITER Organization, Route Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul lez Durance, Cedex (France); Caixas, J.; Fernandez, E.; Zarzalejos, J.M. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019, Barcelona (Spain); Kim, H.-S.; Kim, Y.G. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Privalova, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is a part of the first barrier to confine the plasma. • A Nuclear Pressure Equipment necessitates Agreed Notified Body to assure design, fabrication, and conformance testing and quality assurance. • Some supplementary RCC-MR margin targets have been considered to guarantee considerable structural margins in areas not inspected in operation. • Many manufacturing deviation requests (MDR) and project change requests (PCR) impose to re-evaluate the structural margin. • Several structural analyses were performed with global and local models to guarantee the structural integrity of the whole ITER Vacuum Vessel. - Abstract: Some years ago, analyses were performed by ITER Organization Central Team (IO-CT) to verify the structural integrity of the ITER vacuum vessel baseline design fixed in 2010 and classified as a Protection Important Component (PIC). The manufacturing phase leads the ITER Organization domestic agencies (IO-DA) and their contracted manufacturers to propose detailed design improvements to optimize the manufacturing or inspection process. These design and quality inspection changes can affect the structural margins with regards to the Codes&Standards and thus oblige to evaluate one more time the modified areas. This paper proposes an overview of the additional analyses already performed to guarantee the structural integrity of the manufacturing designs. In this way, CT and DAs have been strongly involved to keep the considerable margins obtained previously which were used to fix reasonable compensatory measures for the lack of In Service Inspections of a Nuclear Pressure Equipment (NPE).

  20. Segmenting Retinal Blood Vessels With Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowski, Pawel; Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    The condition of the vascular network of human eye is an important diagnostic factor in ophthalmology. Its segmentation in fundus imaging is a nontrivial task due to variable size of vessels, relatively low contrast, and potential presence of pathologies like microaneurysms and hemorrhages. Many algorithms, both unsupervised and supervised, have been proposed for this purpose in the past. We propose a supervised segmentation technique that uses a deep neural network trained on a large (up to 400[Formula: see text]000) sample of examples preprocessed with global contrast normalization, zero-phase whitening, and augmented using geometric transformations and gamma corrections. Several variants of the method are considered, including structured prediction, where a network classifies multiple pixels simultaneously. When applied to standard benchmarks of fundus imaging, the DRIVE, STARE, and CHASE databases, the networks significantly outperform the previous algorithms on the area under ROC curve measure (up to > 0.99) and accuracy of classification (up to > 0.97 ). The method is also resistant to the phenomenon of central vessel reflex, sensitive in detection of fine vessels ( sensitivity > 0.87 ), and fares well on pathological cases.

  1. ATLAS Supplier Award for the ECT Vacuum Vessels

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    On 12 February the Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech was awarded the ATLAS Supplier Award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ATLAS End- Cap Toroid (ECT) magnets. ATLAS Supplier Award ceremonies have now become something of a tradition. For the third consecutive year, ATLAS has given best supplier awards for the most exceptional contributors to the construction of the detector. The Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech has just received the award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ECTs. With a diameter of 11 metres and a volume of 550 cubic metres, the ECT vacuum vessels are obviously impressive in scale. They consist of large aluminium plates and a stainless steel central bore tube. In order to obtain the required undulations, the firm had to develop a special assembly and welding technique. Despite the chambers' imposing size, a very high degree of precision has been achieved in their geometry. Moreover, the chambers, which were delivered in July 2002 to CERN, were built i...

  2. 15 CFR 970.205 - Vessel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) That any foreign flag vessel whose flag state is party to the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS 74) possesses current valid SOLAS 74 certificates; (2) That any foreign flag vessel whose flag state is not party to SOLAS 74 but is party to the International Convention...

  3. Assessing Vessel Traffic Service Operator Situation Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes my study of situation awareness assessment of Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) operators. VTS operators are the traffic controllers on the water. They are responsible for a safe and efficient handling of vessel traffic. They monitor traffic, provide information on request and

  4. Hereditary cerebral small vessel disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Hansen, Christine Krarup

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this system...

  5. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the United States and in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1, Divisions 1.1 to 1.5 inclusive...

  6. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime

  7. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS ACCESSIBILITY... ``Figure V703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility'' and are added to read as set forth below...

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-09-02

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and it is now evident that irritable bowel syndrome is a multi-factorial complex of changes in microbiota and immunology. The bidirectional neurohumoral integrated communication between the microbiota and the autonomous nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome.

  9. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  10. A two-dimensional matrix correction for off-axis portal dose prediction errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Daniel W. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Podgorsak, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This study presents a follow-up to a modified calibration procedure for portal dosimetry published by Bailey et al. ['An effective correction algorithm for off-axis portal dosimetry errors,' Med. Phys. 36, 4089-4094 (2009)]. A commercial portal dose prediction system exhibits disagreement of up to 15% (calibrated units) between measured and predicted images as off-axis distance increases. The previous modified calibration procedure accounts for these off-axis effects in most regions of the detecting surface, but is limited by the simplistic assumption of radial symmetry. Methods: We find that a two-dimensional (2D) matrix correction, applied to each calibrated image, accounts for off-axis prediction errors in all regions of the detecting surface, including those still problematic after the radial correction is performed. The correction matrix is calculated by quantitative comparison of predicted and measured images that span the entire detecting surface. The correction matrix was verified for dose-linearity, and its effectiveness was verified on a number of test fields. The 2D correction was employed to retrospectively examine 22 off-axis, asymmetric electronic-compensation breast fields, five intensity-modulated brain fields (moderate-high modulation) manipulated for far off-axis delivery, and 29 intensity-modulated clinical fields of varying complexity in the central portion of the detecting surface. Results: Employing the matrix correction to the off-axis test fields and clinical fields, predicted vs measured portal dose agreement improves by up to 15%, producing up to 10% better agreement than the radial correction in some areas of the detecting surface. Gamma evaluation analyses (3 mm, 3% global, 10% dose threshold) of predicted vs measured portal dose images demonstrate pass rate improvement of up to 75% with the matrix correction, producing pass rates that are up to 30% higher than those resulting from the radial correction technique alone

  11. Measurement of ulnar variance and radial inclination on X-rays of healed distal radius fractures. With the axis of the distal radius or ulna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuysbaert, Gilles; Ringburg, Akkie; Petronilia, Steven; Vanden Berghe, Alex; Hollevoet, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    Ulnar variance and radial inclination are radiological parameters frequently used to evaluate displacement of distal radius fractures. In most studies measurements are based on the long central axis of the distal radius, although the axis of the distal ulna can also be used. The purpose of this study was to determine which axis is more reliable. Four observers performed measurements on standard anteroposterior digital wrist X-rays of 20 patients taken 1 and 2 months after sustaining an extra-articular distal radius fracture. Intraobserver reliability was similar with both methods. No difference was found in interobserver reliability between both methods for ulnar variance, but for radial inclination it was better with the axis through the radius. Measurements on two X-rays of the same wrist taken at a different moment were similar with both methods. It can be concluded that the central axis of the distal radius can remain the basis to determine ulnar variance and radial inclination.

  12. AFOCAL SYSTEMS FORMED BY MIRROR OFF-AXIS PARABOLOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artiukhina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror systems make it possible to reduce device dimensions and its weight while preserving high input aperture and these systems are characterized by a number of other advantages. Their significant disadvantage is a central screening of an entrance pupil that leads to lower image quality. The paper contains description of the investigations on afocal systems formed by eccentrically cut-out mirror paraboloids (off-axis mirrors where aperture diaphragm is displaced in the meridian plane for a defined value and a central field point is located on the optical axis. The canonic Mersenne systems are accepted as base schemas (modules for these compositions. The paper considers two types of such systems: visible increases – Г > 0 and Г < 0. Algorithms for calculation of centered afocal systems with two and four reflections have been written in the paper and the systems are free from spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism when an input pupil is located in superimposed focal planes of all parabolic mirrors. An aberration in curvature image has been additionally corrected in three-mirror quart-parabolic scheme which is a combination of two classical telescopic Mersenne systems. The paper presents schemes and calculation results. Two-mirror schemes with non-screened input pupil have been studied in the paper and in this case all the system remains centered and an aperture diaphragm is decentered for the distance Cm which is commensurable with the diaphragm size. The paper contains description of the investigated afocal schemes with four reflections from off-axis mirror paraboloids, a prepared algorithm for calculation, the obtained formulas for making combination of canonic afocal systems formed by two mirrors. Computer simulation in software environment Opal and Zemax has been carried out in the paper. Basic description has been prepared while using two alternative methods for the class of decentered systems and aberration characteristics and

  13. 76 FR 62374 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Recreational Charter Vessel Guide and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... sport fishery in International Pacific Halibut Commission Areas 2C (Southeast Alaska) and 3A (Central... between the guided sport (i.e., the charter sector) and the commercial halibut fishery. To assess the..., information on vessel and crew characteristics, services offered to clients, spatial and temporal aspects of...

  14. Reactor pressure vessel. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, B.J.; Hackett, E.M.; Lee, A.D. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the issues raised as a result of the staffs review of Generic Letter (GL) 92-01, Revision 1, responses and plant-specific reactor pressure vessel (RPV) assessments and the actions taken or work in progress to address these issues. In addition, the report describes actions taken by the staff and the nuclear industry to develop a thermal annealing process for use at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. This process is intended to be used as a means of mitigating the effects of neutron radiation on the fracture toughness of RPV materials. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued GL 92-01, Revision 1, Supplement 1, to obtain information needed to assess compliance with regulatory requirements and licensee commitments regarding RPV integrity. GL 92-01, Revision 1, Supplement 1, was issued as a result of generic issues that were raised in the NRC staff`s reviews of licensee responses to GL 92-01, Revision 1, and plant-specific RPV evaluations. In particular, an integrated review of all data submitted in response to GL 92-01, Revision 1, indicated that licensees may not have considered all relevant data in their RPV assessments. This report is representative of submittals to and evaluations by the staff as of September 30, 1996. An update of this report will be issued at a later date.

  15. 46 CFR 535.312 - Vessel charter party-exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel charter party-exemption. 535.312 Section 535.312... Vessel charter party-exemption. (a) For purposes of this section, vessel charter party shall mean a... operational limitations, if any) under which the vessel will be employed. (b) Vessel charter parties, as...

  16. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001 (UARPE2AXIS2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  17. Brain-gut axis in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Jacek; Kłopocka, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main pathogenic factor for upper digestive tract organic diseases. In addition to direct cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, H. pylori infection may also induce abnormalities indirectly by affecting the brain-gut axis, similar to other microorganisms present in the alimentary tract. The brain-gut axis integrates the central, peripheral, enteric and autonomic nervous systems, as well as the endocrine and immunological systems, with gastrointestinal functions and environmental stimuli, including gastric and intestinal microbiota. The bidirectional relationship between H. pylori infection and the brain-gut axis influences both the contagion process and the host’s neuroendocrine-immunological reaction to it, resulting in alterations in cognitive functions, food intake and appetite, immunological response, and modification of symptom sensitivity thresholds. Furthermore, disturbances in the upper and lower digestive tract permeability, motility and secretion can occur, mainly as a form of irritable bowel syndrome. Many of these abnormalities disappear following H. pylori eradication. H. pylori may have direct neurotoxic effects that lead to alteration of the brain-gut axis through the activation of neurogenic inflammatory processes, or by microelement deficiency secondary to functional and morphological changes in the digestive tract. In digestive tissue, H. pylori can alter signaling in the brain-gut axis by mast cells, the main brain-gut axis effector, as H. pylori infection is associated with decreased mast cell infiltration in the digestive tract. Nevertheless, unequivocal data concerning the direct and immediate effect of H. pylori infection on the brain-gut axis are still lacking. Therefore, further studies evaluating the clinical importance of these host-bacteria interactions will improve our understanding of H. pylori infection pathophysiology and suggest new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24833851

  18. Brain-gut axis in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Jacek; Kłopocka, Maria

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main pathogenic factor for upper digestive tract organic diseases. In addition to direct cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, H. pylori infection may also induce abnormalities indirectly by affecting the brain-gut axis, similar to other microorganisms present in the alimentary tract. The brain-gut axis integrates the central, peripheral, enteric and autonomic nervous systems, as well as the endocrine and immunological systems, with gastrointestinal functions and environmental stimuli, including gastric and intestinal microbiota. The bidirectional relationship between H. pylori infection and the brain-gut axis influences both the contagion process and the host's neuroendocrine-immunological reaction to it, resulting in alterations in cognitive functions, food intake and appetite, immunological response, and modification of symptom sensitivity thresholds. Furthermore, disturbances in the upper and lower digestive tract permeability, motility and secretion can occur, mainly as a form of irritable bowel syndrome. Many of these abnormalities disappear following H. pylori eradication. H. pylori may have direct neurotoxic effects that lead to alteration of the brain-gut axis through the activation of neurogenic inflammatory processes, or by microelement deficiency secondary to functional and morphological changes in the digestive tract. In digestive tissue, H. pylori can alter signaling in the brain-gut axis by mast cells, the main brain-gut axis effector, as H. pylori infection is associated with decreased mast cell infiltration in the digestive tract. Nevertheless, unequivocal data concerning the direct and immediate effect of H. pylori infection on the brain-gut axis are still lacking. Therefore, further studies evaluating the clinical importance of these host-bacteria interactions will improve our understanding of H. pylori infection pathophysiology and suggest new therapeutic approaches.

  19. Voluntary exercise adapts the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Rosa María; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Ramírez-Martínez, Candy; García-Vázquez, Arlene; Romero, Fidelia; Cisneros, Miguel; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Charli, Jean-Louis; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis modulates energy homeostasis. Its activity decreases in conditions of negative energy balance but the effects of chronic exercise on the axis are controversial and unknown at hypothalamic level. Wistar male rats were exposed for up to 14 days to voluntary wheel running (WR), or pair-feeding (PF; 18% food restriction), or to repeated restraint (RR), a mild stressor. WR and RR diminished food intake; body weight gain decreased in the 3 experimental groups, but WAT mass and serum leptin more intensely in the WR group. WR, but not RR, produced a delayed inhibition of central markers of HPT axis activity. At day 14, in WR rats paraventricular nucleus-pro-TRH mRNA and serum TSH levels decreased, anterior pituitary TRH-receptor 1 mRNA levels increased, but serum thyroid hormone levels were unaltered, which is consistent with decreased secretion of TRH and clearance of thyroid hormones. A similar pattern was observed if WR animals were euthanized during their activity phase. In contrast, in PF animals the profound drop of HPT axis activity included decreased serum T3 levels and hepatic deiodinase 1 activity; these changes were correlated with an intense increase in serum corticosterone levels. WR effects on HPT axis were not associated with changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but correlated positively with serum leptin levels. These data demonstrate that voluntary WR adapts the status of the HPT axis, through pathways that are distinct from those observed during food restriction or repeated stress.

  20. Environmental stressors and epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard; Sawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we provide a brief summary of several key studies that broaden our understanding of stress and its epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)-axis function and behavior. Clinical and animal studies suggest a link among exposure to stress, dysregulation of the HPA-axis, and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses. Recent studies have supported the notion that exposure to glucocorticoids and stress in various forms, duration, and intensity during different periods of development leads to long-lasting maladaptive HPA-axis response in the brain. They demonstrate that this maladaptive response is comprised of persistent epigenetic changes in the function of HPA-axis-associated genes that govern homeostatic levels of glucocorticoids. Stressors and/or disruption of glucocorticoid dynamics also target genes such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) that are important for neuronal function and behavior. While a definitive role for epigenetic mechanisms remains unclear, these emerging studies implicate glucocorticoid signaling and its ability to alter the epigenetic landscape as one of the key mechanisms that alter the function of the HPA-axis and its associated cascades. We also suggest some of the requisite studies and techniques that are important, such as additional candidate gene approaches, genome-wide epigenomic screens, and innovative functional and behavioral studies in order to further explore and define the relationship between epigenetics and HPA-axis biology. Additional studies examining stress-induced epigenetic changes of HPA-axis genes, aided by innovative techniques and methodologies are needed to advance our understanding of this relationship and lead to better preventive, diagnostic, and corrective measures. PMID:25427939

  1. Association between Stress and the HPA Axis in the Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-10-12

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the body's neuroendocrine networks that responds to psychological stress (PS). In the skin, there exists a peripheral HPA axis similar to the central axis. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are key effector molecules of the HPA axis and are essential for cutaneous homeostasis. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition typically characterized by a chronic relapsing course that often results in PS. HPA dysfunction is present in AD patients by the decreased response of GCs elevation to stress as compared to those unaffected by AD. Nevertheless, in skin, acute PS activates several metabolic responses that are of immediate benefit to the host. During the acute phase of PS, increased endogenous GCs have been shown to provide benefit rather than by aggravating cutaneous inflammatory dermatoses. However, a chronic T helper cell type 2 (Th2) predominant cytokine profile acts as a negative feedback loop to blunt the HPA axis response in AD. In this article, we reviewed the role of CRF, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, GCs of the HPA, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) in AD, with a discussion of the pathogenetic mechanisms of inflammation and skin barrier functions, including antimicrobial defense, and their association with PS.

  2. Obesity and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, JB; Dorn, LD; Loucks, TL; Berga, SL

    2011-01-01

    Objective Stress and stress-related concomitants, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, are implicated in obesity and its attendant co-morbidities. Little is known about this relationship in adolescents. To begin to address this important knowledge gap, we studied HPA axis activity in 262 healthy adolescent girls aged 11, 13, 15, and 17. We hypothesized that obesity would be correlated with increased HPA axis activity and reactivity. Methods Measures of HPA axis activity included 3 blood samples obtained mid-day (between 1300 and 1400) over the course of 40 minutes and overnight urine free cortisol (UFC), and cortisol levels 0, 20, and 40 min after venipuncture (cortisol reactivity). Measures of adiposity included BMI, BMI-Z, percent body fat, and fat distribution (central adiposity) assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Daytime levels of serum cortisol were inversely associated with BMI-Z and central adiposity (p adolescent girls. The clinical implications of our findings require further investigation. PMID:21944263

  3. Maintenance of Gastrointestinal Glucose Homeostasis by the Gut-Brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiyue; Eslamfam, Shabnam; Fang, Luoyun; Qiao, Shiyan; Ma, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal homeostasis is a dynamic balance under the interaction between the host, GI tract, nutrition and energy metabolism. Glucose is the main energy source in living cells. Thus, glucose metabolic disorders can impair normal cellular function and endanger organisms' health. Diseases that are associated with glucose metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other metabolic syndromes are in fact life threatening. Digestive system is responsible for food digestion and nutrient absorption. It is also involved in neuronal, immune, and endocrine pathways. In addition, the gut microbiota plays an essential role in initiating signal transduction, and communication between the enteric and central nervous system. Gut-brain axis is composed of enteric neural system, central neural system, and all the efferent and afferent neurons that are involved in signal transduction between the brain and gut-brain. Gut-brain axis is influenced by the gut-microbiota as well as numerous neurotransmitters. Properly regulated gut-brain axis ensures normal digestion, absorption, energy production, and subsequently maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms of gut-brain axis involved in gluose homeostasis would enable us develop more efficient means of prevention and management of metabolic disease such as diabetic, obesity, and hypertension. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Modulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by Early Life Stress Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bodegom, Miranda; Homberg, Judith R; Henckens, Marloes J A G

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods in development can have severe long-term consequences, increasing overall risk on psychopathology. One of the key stress response systems mediating these long-term effects of stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; a cascade of central and peripheral events resulting in the release of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands. Activation of the HPA-axis affects brain functioning to ensure a proper behavioral response to the stressor, but stress-induced (mal)adaptation of the HPA-axis' functional maturation may provide a mechanistic basis for the altered stress susceptibility later in life. Development of the HPA-axis and the brain regions involved in its regulation starts prenatally and continues after birth, and is protected by several mechanisms preventing corticosteroid over-exposure to the maturing brain. Nevertheless, early life stress (ELS) exposure has been reported to have numerous consequences on HPA-axis function in adulthood, affecting both its basal and stress-induced activity. According to the match/mismatch theory, encountering ELS prepares an organism for similar ("matching") adversities during adulthood, while a mismatching environment results in an increased susceptibility to psychopathology, indicating that ELS can exert either beneficial or disadvantageous effects depending on the environmental context. Here, we review studies investigating the mechanistic underpinnings of the ELS-induced alterations in the structural and functional development of the HPA-axis and its key external regulators (amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex). The effects of ELS appear highly dependent on the developmental time window affected, the sex of the offspring, and the developmental stage at which effects are assessed. Albeit by distinct mechanisms, ELS induced by prenatal stressors, maternal separation, or the limited nesting model inducing fragmented maternal care, typically results in HPA-axis hyper

  5. Pattern of blood vessels in eyes with coloboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choroidal coloboma, especially with optic disc involvement affects the blood vessel (BV pattern in the fundus. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the observations on the pattern of retinal BVs in eyes with fundus coloboma. Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty four eyes of 19 patients with fundus coloboma and the disc involvement in the coloboma was classified according to a previous publication. Results: Four varieties of BVs were identified in the area of coloboma - BVs that were continuous with those arising from the optic disc; vessels emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery or its branches could be indirectly established; and those emanating from the floor of coloboma whose continuity with central retinal artery could not be established. In addition, extraocular BVs were visible through the thinned sclera. The retinal BVs often traversed the coloboma to reach the normal retina. The disc itself was found to be small and had no physiological cup (if not colobomatous. Conclusions: One should be aware of the major BVs transgressing the coloboma while performing relaxing cuts in the intercalary membrane, during the surgery for retinal detachments in eyes with coloboma. Physiological cup is usually absent (when the disc is not colobomatous. Hence, any cupping in such eyes should be viewed with suspicion.

  6. Recent Advancements in Retinal Vessel Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Srinidhi, Chetan; Aparna, P; Rajan, Jeny

    2017-04-01

    Retinal vessel segmentation is a key step towards the accurate visualization, diagnosis, early treatment and surgery planning of ocular diseases. For the last two decades, a tremendous amount of research has been dedicated in developing automated methods for segmentation of blood vessels from retinal fundus images. Despite the fact, segmentation of retinal vessels still remains a challenging task due to the presence of abnormalities, varying size and shape of the vessels, non-uniform illumination and anatomical variability between subjects. In this paper, we carry out a systematic review of the most recent advancements in retinal vessel segmentation methods published in last five years. The objectives of this study are as follows: first, we discuss the most crucial preprocessing steps that are involved in accurate segmentation of vessels. Second, we review most recent state-of-the-art retinal vessel segmentation techniques which are classified into different categories based on their main principle. Third, we quantitatively analyse these methods in terms of its sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, area under the curve and discuss newly introduced performance metrics in current literature. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the existing segmentation techniques. Finally, we provide an insight into active problems and possible future directions towards building successful computer-aided diagnostic system.

  7. Two-axis joint assembly and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In an embodiment, a two-axis joint that utilizes planar reactions to handle moments applied to the side of the joint thereby allowing the device to remain low profile and compact with minimal intrusion to the mounting surface of the two-axis joint. To handle larger moments, the diameter of the planar member can be increased without increasing the overall height of the joint assembly thereby retaining the low profile thereof. Upper and lower antifriction bearings may be positioned within a housing engage the planar member to reduce rotational friction. The upper and lower bearings and a hub which supports the planar member transfer forces produced by moments applied to the side of the joint so as to spread the forces over the area of the housing.

  8. AXIS - Advanced X-ray Imaging Sarellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; AXIS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS), a probe mission concept under study to the 2020 Decadal survey. AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band over a 15' field of view. These capabilities are designed to attain a wide range of science goals such as (i) measuring the event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the spin of supermassive black holes through monitoring of gravitationally microlensed quasars; (ii) understanding AGN and starburst feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters through direct imaging of winds and interaction of jets and via spatially resolved imaging of galaxies at high-z; (iii) probing the fueling of AGN by resolving the SMBH sphere of influence in nearby galaxies; (iv) investigating hierarchical structure formation and the SMBH merger rate through measurement of the occurrence rate of dual AGN and occupation fraction of SMBHs; (v) advancing SNR physics and galaxy ecology through large detailed samples of SNR in nearby galaxies; (vi) measuring the Cosmic Web through its connection to cluster outskirts. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS benefits from natural synergies with LSST, ELTs, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS utilizes breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, and developments in the fabrication of large format, small pixel, high readout detectors.

  9. A study of reactor vessel integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung; Shin, Chang Ho; Seo, Bo Kyun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The fast neutron fluence at the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) of KNGR designed for 60 years lifetime was calculated by full-scope Monte Carlo simulation for reactor vessel integrity assessment. KNGR core geometry was modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-sixteenth of the reactor in-vessel component. Each fuel assemblies were modeled explicitly, and each fuel pins were axially divided into 5 segments. The maximum flux of 4.3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. sec at the RPV was obtained by tallying neutrons crossing the beltline of inner surface of the RPV.

  10. An important role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in chronic skin inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Zgraggen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory angiogenesis and vascular remodeling play key roles in the chronic inflammatory skin disease psoriasis, but little is known about the molecular mediators of vascular activation. Based on the reported elevated mRNA levels of the angiogenic chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 in psoriasis, we investigated the relevance of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in two experimental models of chronic psoriasis-like skin inflammation. The cutaneous expression of both SDF-1 and CXCR4 was upregulated in the inflamed skin of K14-VEGF-A transgenic mice and in imiquimod-induced skin inflammation, with expression of CXCR4 by blood vessels and macrophages. Treatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 potently inhibited skin inflammation in both models, associated with reduced inflammatory angiogenesis and inflammatory cell accumulation, including dermal CD4+ cells and intraepidermal CD8+ T cells. Similar anti-inflammatory effects were seen after treatment with a neutralizing anti-SDF-1 antibody. In vitro, inhibition of CXCR4 blocked SDF-1-induced chemotaxis of CD11b+ splenocytes, in agreement with the reduced number of macrophages after in vivo CXCR4 blockade. Our results reveal an important role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in skin inflammation and inflammatory angiogenesis, and they indicate that inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis might serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

  11. Protective Role of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 Axis in Cardiovascular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Ocaranza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite reduction in cardiovascular (CV events and end-organ damage with the current pharmacologic strategies, CV disease remains the primary cause of death in the world. Pharmacological therapies based on the renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade are used extensively for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and CV remodeling but in spite of their success the prevalence of end-organ damage and residual risk remain still high. Novel approaches must be discovered for a more effective treatment of residual CV remodeling and risk. The ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis is a new and important target to counterbalance the vasoconstrictive/proliferative RAS axis. Ang-(1–9 is hydrolyzed slower than Ang-(1–7 and is able to bind the Ang II type 2 receptor. We review here the current experimental evidence suggesting that activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1–9 axis protects the heart and vessels (and possibly the kidney from adverse cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension as well as in heart failure.

  12. Smooth muscle–endothelial cell communication activates Reelin signaling and regulates lymphatic vessel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Sophie; Xie, Sherry; Tatin, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Active lymph transport relies on smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractions around collecting lymphatic vessels, yet regulation of lymphatic vessel wall assembly and lymphatic pumping are poorly understood. Here, we identify Reelin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein previously implicated in central nervous system development, as an important regulator of lymphatic vascular development. Reelin-deficient mice showed abnormal collecting lymphatic vessels, characterized by a reduced number of SMCs, abnormal expression of lymphatic capillary marker lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and impaired function. Furthermore, we show that SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels stimulated release and proteolytic processing of endothelium-derived Reelin. Lymphatic endothelial cells in turn responded to Reelin by up-regulating monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) expression, which suggests an autocrine mechanism for Reelin-mediated control of endothelial factor expression upstream of SMC recruitment. These results uncover a mechanism by which Reelin signaling is activated by communication between the two cell types of the collecting lymphatic vessels—smooth muscle and endothelial cells—and highlight a hitherto unrecognized and important function for SMCs in lymphatic vessel morphogenesis and function. PMID:22665518

  13. Caribbean ST Croix Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in St. Croix. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  14. Caribbean ST Thomas trap Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in St. Thomas. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  15. 2013 Gulf of Mexico Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  16. 2013 Tug and Towing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. High Toughness Light Weight Pressure Vessel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is a pressure vessel with 25% better Fracture Strength over equal strength designed Fiberglass to help reduce 10 to 25% weight for aerospace use. Phase I is...

  18. Large Pelagic Logbook Set Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  19. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  20. 2011 Pleasure Craft Sailing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  1. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  2. Large Pelagic Logbook Trip Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  3. 2011 Gulf of Mexico Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. 2013 Pleasure Craft and Sailing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  6. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  7. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  8. Design study: fishing vessel technical information system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, C.H

    1979-01-01

    ... out. This study is primarily concerned with the design of a Fishing Vessel Technical Information System that will meet the requirements of the Department, and the determination of a schedule and means of data collection and management.

  9. LYMPHATIC VESSELS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Cristina T.; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L.; Padera, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature plays vital roles in tissue fluid balance, immune defense, metabolism and cancer metastasis. In adults, lymphatic vessel formation and remodeling occurs primarily during inflammation, development of the corpus luteum, wound healing, and tumor growth. Unlike the blood circulation, where unidirectional flow is sustained by the pumping actions of the heart, pumping actions intrinsic to the lymphatic vessels themselves are important drivers of lymphatic flow. This review summarizes critical components that control lymphatic physiology. PMID:23209022

  10. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Rocha, Nirlando Antonio; Vilela, Jefferson Jose, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the {sup 222}Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  11. Interplay between Inflammatory Responses and Lymphatic Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kihyuk; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2014-08-01

    Lymphatic vessels are routes for leukocyte migration and fluid drainage. In addition to their passive roles in migration of leukocytes, increasing evidence indicates their active roles in immune regulation. Tissue inflammation rapidly induces lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and chemokine production, thereby resulting in lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, lymphatic endothelial cells induce T cell tolerance through various mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge on how inflammatory cytokines affect lymphangiogenesis and the roles of lymphatic vessels in modulating immune responses.

  12. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga; Jason eJacobskind; Jacob eRaber

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure) on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors suc...

  13. Transient evolution of inter vessel gap pressure due to relative thermal expansion between two vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    In a typical liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), a cylindrical sodium filled main vessel, which carries the internals such as reactor core, pumps, intermediate heat exchangers etc. is surrounded by another vessel called safety vessel. The inter vessel gap is filled with nitrogen. During a thermal transient in the pool sodium, because of the relative delay involved in the thermal diffusion between MV and SV, they are subjected to relative thermal expansion or contraction between them. This in turn results in pressurisation and depressurisation of inter vessel gap nitrogen respectively. In order to obtain the external pressurization for the buckling design of MV, transient thermal models for obtaining the evolutions of MV, SV and inter gap nitrogen temperatures and hence their relative thermal expansion and inter vessel gap pressure have been developed. This paper gives the details of the mathematical model, assumptions made in the calculation and the results of the analysis.

  14. Osteoid osteoma - the CT vessel sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaniv, Gal; Shabshin, Noga; Sharon, Michal; Garniack, Alex [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Liberman, Boaz [Sheba Medical Center, Division of Orthopedics, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Rimon, Uri [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Eshed, Iris [Sheba Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv University Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate whether the presence of a feeding vessel in proximity to osteoid osteomas of long bones on multidetector CT (MDCT) can be an adjuvant clue for the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Forty-nine CT scans of patients with radiological and clinical diagnosis of osteoid osteoma of long bones and a control group of 20 CT scans of patients with cortical-based lesions other then osteoid osteoma were analyzed. Two radiologists evaluated the CT images in consensus for the presence of a blood vessel in the same axial slices in which the nidus of osteoid osteoma was seen and to determine the incidence. In 39 cases (79.6%) of osteoid osteoma, a blood vessel either entered the nidus (23 patients) or was seen in proximity to it (16 patients). This was significantly different (P<0.05) from the cortical-based lesions, in which only two CT scans (10%) showed a blood vessel in the lesion's proximity. In the majority of osteoid osteoma lesions in long bones, a blood vessel can be seen on MDCT either entering the nidus itself or in its proximity. The role of this vessel in the lesion pathogenesis and whether it improves diagnostic accuracy need further evaluation. (orig.)

  15. Photoacoustic tomography assessment of vascular targeted therapy to determine vessel regrowth following treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. P.; Ogunlade, O.; Zhang, E.; Laufer, J.; Rajkumar, V.; Walker-Samuel, S.; Lythgoe, M. F.; Pedley, R. B.; Beard P., P.

    2013-06-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is ideally suited to image tissue vasculature and is therefore able to provide functional response data for the pharmacodynamic time course of vascular targeted therapies. We show in a preclinical model of colorectal carcinoma that 40mg/kg of the vascular disrupting agent OXi4503 causes central tumour blood vessel destruction that can be assessed by PAT at 48 hours. This is confirmed with histological haematoxylin and eosin staining. Outward growth of solid tumours is then static until 16 days post-dose whilst vessel regrowth occurs inwardly to repopulate the necrotic core.

  16. Gut-Brain Axis and Metabolism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saydam, Basak Ozgen; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex endocrine disorder, often accompanied and complicated by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and obesity. Gut, brain and metabolism are highly related with each other in obesity and diabetes as well as in PCOS. Central nervous system regulates food intake through complex interactions of homeostatic and hedonic systems while gastrointestinal system contributes to food intake and metabolism via orexigenic and anorexigenic gastrointestinal hormones. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone whereas anorexigenic peptides include glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Compared to healthy women, patients with PCOS show decreased or unaltered fasting ghrelin levels, along with decreased or unaltered postprandial suppression of this hormone. GLP-1, PYY and CCK show unaltered or decreased levels both in fasting and postprandial states in PCOS whereas fasting levels of another gut hormone, GIP is either unaltered or increased. Dietary interventions associated with weight loss or short term oral contraceptive use in PCOS do not alter fasting or postprandial levels of these hormones. However use of metformin is associated with an increase in ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1 and GIP in women with PCOS. GLP-1 agonists and bariatric surgery, both having a significant impact on gut-brain axis, appear to be effective therapeutic options in obese women with PCOS. Finally, alterations in gut microbiota and possible interactions with gut-brain axis in PCOS is a topic of interest. Understanding the relationship between PCOS and homeostatic and hedonic systems, gastrointestinal hormones, and gut microbiota as well as potential effects of different therapeutic interventions on these systems will provide further understanding and novel treatment opportunities for this syndrome.

  17. Gut-Microbiota-Brain Axis and Its Effect on Neuropsychiatric Disorders With Suspected Immune Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petra, Anastasia I; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Stewart, Julia M; Conti, Pio; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2015-05-01

    Gut microbiota regulate intestinal function and health. However, mounting evidence indicates that they can also influence the immune and nervous systems and vice versa. This article reviews the bidirectional relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain, termed the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, and discusses how it contributes to the pathogenesis of certain disorders that may involve brain inflammation. Articles were identified with a search of Medline (starting in 1980) by using the key words anxiety, attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD), autism, cytokines, depression, gut, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, immune system, microbiota, nervous system, neurologic, neurotransmitters, neuroimmune conditions, psychiatric, and stress. Various afferent or efferent pathways are involved in the MGB axis. Antibiotics, environmental and infectious agents, intestinal neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, sensory vagal fibers, cytokines, and essential metabolites all convey information to the central nervous system about the intestinal state. Conversely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the central nervous system regulatory areas of satiety, and neuropeptides released from sensory nerve fibers affect the gut microbiota composition directly or through nutrient availability. Such interactions seem to influence the pathogenesis of a number of disorders in which inflammation is implicated, such as mood disorder, autism-spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder, multiple sclerosis, and obesity. Recognition of the relationship between the MGB axis and the neuroimmune systems provides a novel approach for better understanding and management of these disorders. Appropriate preventive measures early in life or corrective measures such as use of psychobiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and flavonoids are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fetal cardiac axis and congenital heart defects in early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovskaya, Elena S; Chaoui, Rabih; Karl, Katrin; Andreeva, Elena; Zhuchenko, Ludmila; Abuhamad, Alfred Z

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between cardiac axis and fetal congenital heart defects to demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of cardiac axis measurement for detection of congenital heart defect in early gestation. This case-control study was undertaken in three tertiary centers with expertise in fetal imaging in early gestation. Fetal cardiac axis was evaluated between 11 0/7 and 14 6/7 weeks of gestation in 197 fetuses with confirmed congenital heart defects. A control group was selected by matching each fetus with a congenital heart defect with two fetuses in the control group with similar crown-rump length (± 5 mm) and date of study (± 2 months). Cardiac axis was measured on the four-chamber view as the angle between the line that traces the long axis of the heart and the line that bisects the thorax in an anteroposterior direction. In the control group, mean cardiac axis was 44.5 ± 7.4°. The cardiac axis did not significantly change in early pregnancy. In the congenital heart defect group, 25.9% of fetuses had cardiac axis measurements within normal limits. In 74.1%, the cardiac axis was abnormal including 110 fetuses in the case group with left deviation (cardiac axis > 97.5th percentile), 19 fetuses in the case group with right deviation (cardiac axis axis. The performance of cardiac axis measurement in detection of major congenital heart defect was significantly better than enlarged nuchal translucency, tricuspid regurgitation, or reversed A-wave in ductus venosus used alone or in combination. Abnormal cardiac axis is present in two-thirds of fetuses with congenital heart defect in early gestation. Adding cardiac axis assessment to the nuchal translucency measurement is helpful in defining a population at risk for fetal congenital heart defect.

  19. 60 YEARS OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: The hypothalamo-GH axis: the past 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P G; Higham, C E; Clayton, P E

    2015-08-01

    At the time of the publication of Geoffrey Harris's monograph on 'Neural control of the pituitary gland' 60 years ago, the pituitary was recognised to produce a growth factor, and extracts administered to children with hypopituitarism could accelerate growth. Since then our understanding of the neuroendocrinology of the GH axis has included identification of the key central components of the GH axis: GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin (SST) in the 1970s and 1980s and ghrelin in the 1990s. Characterisation of the physiological control of the axis was significantly advanced by frequent blood sampling studies in the 1980s and 1990s; the pulsatile pattern of GH secretion and the factors that influenced the frequency and amplitude of the pulses have been defined. Over the same time, spontaneously occurring and targeted mutations in the GH axis in rodents combined with the recognition of genetic causes of familial hypopituitarism demonstrated the key factors controlling pituitary development. As the understanding of the control of GH secretion advanced, developments of treatments for GH axis disorders have evolved. Administration of pituitary-derived human GH was followed by the introduction of recombinant human GH in the 1980s, and, more recently, by long-acting GH preparations. For GH excess disorders, dopamine agonists were used first followed by SST analogues, and in 2005 the GH receptor blocker pegvisomant was introduced. This review will cover the evolution of these discoveries and build a picture of our current understanding of the hypothalamo-GH axis. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Involvement of Endogenous Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, G; Zussy, C; Tran Van Ba, C; Chevallier, N; Tang, Y-P; Maurice, T; Givalois, L

    2015-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be highly involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation during adulthood, playing an important role in homeostasis maintenance. The present study aimed to determine the involvement of BDNF in HPA axis activity under basal and stress conditions via partial inhibition of this endogenous neurotrophin. Experiments were conducted in rats and mice with two complementary approaches: (i) BDNF knockdown with stereotaxic delivery of BDNF-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the lateral ventricle of adult male rats and (ii) genetically induced knockdown (KD) of BDNF expression specifically in the central nervous system during the first ontogenesis in mice (KD mice). Delivery of siRNA in the rat brain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus (-31%) and hypothalamus (-35%) but not in the amygdala, frontal cortex and pituitary. In addition, siRNA induced no change of the basal HPA axis activity. BDNF siRNA rats exhibited decreased BDNF levels and concomitant altered adrenocortoctrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to restraint stress, suggesting the involvement of BDNF in the HPA axis adaptive response to stress. In KD mice, BDNF levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus were decreased by 20% in heterozygous and by 60% in homozygous animals compared to wild-type littermates. Although, in heterozygous KD mice, no significant change was observed in the basal levels of plasma ACTH and corticosterone, both hormones were significantly increased in homozygous KD mice, demonstrating that robust cerebral BDNF inhibition (60%) is necessary to affect basal HPA axis activity. All of these results in both rats and mice demonstrate the involvement and importance of a robust endogenous pool of BDNF in basal HPA axis regulation and the pivotal function of de novo BDNF synthesis in the establishment of an adapted response to stress. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  2. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, Damian G; Jacobskind, Jason S; Jacosbskind, Jason S; Raber, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure) on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  3. Sustainable Oceanographic Vessels - Setting an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leer, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In response to climate change, global warming and post “peak oil” fuel scarcity, the oceanographic community should consider reducing its carbon foot print. Why should scientists operate inefficient vessels while lecturing the general public on the need to reduce CO2 emissions? We have already seen curtailment of ship schedules and ship lay-ups, due in part to rising fuel costs, following $140/barrel crude oil. When the global recession ends, upward pressure on oil prices will again commence. Who can forecast how high fuel prices may ultimately rise during the typical 25-30 year lifetime of a research vessel? Are we to curtail future work at sea when oceanic climate research is becoming ever more important? A catamaran research vessel has been designed which can be electrically propelled from by a combination of high efficiency generators, photovoltaic panels and/or sails. Sail produced power is transformed with propellers and motor/generators into electric power which is stored in battery banks. This vessel could operate as the first true hybrid oceanographic research vessel. It could even continue operations without fuel in cases of a severe fuel shortage or fueling denial. Since the power produced by any water turbine increases with the cube of the velocity flowing over its propeller, the low fluid friction and high stability of a catamaran, with reasonably slender hulls, provide an important boost to efficient hybrid operation. The author has chartered a 42’ hybrid catamaran sailboat and found it efficient and extremely easy to operate and control. A 79’ motor sailing catamaran research vessel by Lock Crowther Designs will be presented as one example of a sustainable research vessel with excellent speed and sea-keeping. A center well makes operation as a small drilling/coring ship for coastal climate investigation possible. The center well also supports a host of remote sensing and robotic gear handling capabilities.

  4. Vessel discoloration detection in malarial retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Barriga, S.; Soliz, P.; MacCormick, I.; Taylor, T.; Harding, S.; Lewallen, S.; Joshi, V.

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome associated with malarial infection. It affects approximately 200 million people, mostly sub-Saharan African children under five years of age. Malarial retinopathy (MR) is a condition in which lesions such as whitening and vessel discoloration that are highly specific to CM appear in the retina. Other unrelated diseases can present with symptoms similar to CM, therefore the exact nature of the clinical symptoms must be ascertained in order to avoid misdiagnosis, which can lead to inappropriate treatment and, potentially, death. In this paper we outline the first system to detect the presence of discolored vessels associated with MR as a means to improve the CM diagnosis. We modified and improved our previous vessel segmentation algorithm by incorporating the `a' channel of the CIELab color space and noise reduction. We then divided the segmented vasculature into vessel segments and extracted features at the wall and in the centerline of the segment. Finally, we used a regression classifier to sort the segments into discolored and not-discolored vessel classes. By counting the abnormal vessel segments in each image, we were able to divide the analyzed images into two groups: normal and presence of vessel discoloration due to MR. We achieved an accuracy of 85% with sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 67%. In clinical practice, this algorithm would be combined with other MR retinal pathology detection algorithms. Therefore, a high specificity can be achieved. By choosing a different operating point in the ROC curve, our system achieved sensitivity of 67% with specificity of 100%.

  5. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  6. 50 CFR 654.6 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 654.6 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... enforcement vessel or aircraft. (ii) In block arabic numerals permanently affixed to or painted on the vessel... enforcement vessel or aircraft. (ii) In the form of a circle permanently affixed to or painted on the vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 153.9 - Foreign flag vessel endorsement application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign flag vessel endorsement application. 153.9... Foreign flag vessel endorsement application. (a) Application for a vessel whose flag administration is... endorsement from the cognizant Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection and have aboard the vessel copies of IMO...

  8. 46 CFR 356.17 - Annual requirements for vessel owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual requirements for vessel owners. 356.17 Section... DOCUMENTATION Requirements for Vessel Owners § 356.17 Annual requirements for vessel owners. (a) An owner of a... section. The vessel owner does not have to submit duplicate copies of documents that have already been...

  9. 46 CFR 169.307 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Construction and Arrangement Plans § 169.307 Plans for sister vessels. Plans are not required for any vessel which is a sister ship to a vessel, provided that— (a) The approved plans for the original vessels are... new construction; (c) The regulations have not changed since the original plan approval; and (d) There...

  10. 46 CFR 184.115 - Applicability to existing vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability to existing vessels. 184.115 Section 184... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 184.115 Applicability to existing vessels. (a) An existing vessel need not comply with §§ 184.402(c), 184.404, 184.410...

  11. 46 CFR 15.405 - Familiarity with vessel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Familiarity with vessel characteristics. 15.405 Section... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; All Vessels § 15.405 Familiarity with vessel characteristics. Each credentialed individual must become familiar with the relevant characteristics of the vessel on...

  12. Human and nonhuman primate meninges harbor lymphatic vessels that can be visualized noninvasively by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absinta, Martina; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Nair, Govind; Sati, Pascal; Luciano, Nicholas J; Palisoc, Maryknoll; Louveau, Antoine; Zaghloul, Kareem A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Kipnis, Jonathan; Reich, Daniel S

    2017-10-03

    Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents. In primates, meningeal lymphatics display a typical panel of lymphatic endothelial markers by immunohistochemistry. This discovery holds promise for better understanding the normal physiology of lymphatic drainage from the central nervous system and potential aberrations in neurological diseases.

  13. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  14. Lymphatic vessels in osteoarthritic human knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Verghese, P; Cook, G J; McWilliams, D F; Mapp, P I; Ashraf, S; Wilson, D

    2012-05-01

    The distribution and function of lymphatic vessels in normal and diseased human knees are understood incompletely. This study aimed to investigate whether lymphatic density is associated with clinical, histological or radiographic parameters in osteoarthritis (OA). Sections of synovium from 60 knees from patients with OA were compared with 60 post mortem control knees (from 37 individuals). Lymphatic vessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for podoplanin, and quantified as lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) fractional area. Effusion status was determined by clinical examination, radiographs were scored for OA changes, and inflammation grading used haematoxylin and eosin stained sections of synovium. Lymphatic vessels were present in synovia from both disease groups, but were not identified in subchondral bone. Synovial lymphatic densities were independent of radiological severity and age. Synovia from patients with OA displayed lower LVD (z=-3.4, P=0.001) and lower LEC fractional areas (z=-4.5, Plymphatics and OA/effusion appeared to be independent of other measured confounders. Lymphatic vessels are present in lower densities in OA synovia. Abnormalities of synovial fluid drainage may confound the value of effusion as a clinical sign of synovitis in OA. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deaths Related to Vessel Injuries in Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursel Türkmen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lethal or non-lethal extremity injuries are often seen in medico-legal practice. In this study, we planned to investigate medico-legal properties of deaths related to vessel injuries in extremities. In forensic autopsies performed in Bursa, we examined total 4242 autopsy reports between 1996-2003 in included 40 (0,94% cases of deaths caused by vessel injuries in extremities. 90% of cases were male with median age 35.87 (17-66. Stabbing device account for 60% of injuries. Most frequent injuries were in femoral artery and branches. In 82.5% of cases, homicide was the origin of death. In 30% of cases, mean 159.33 mg/dl alcohol blood concentration was detected. In the scene investigation reports, 47.5% of documented incidents were outdoor and 47.5% of the cases died in the scene. As a conclusion, it is observed that alcoholic males of middle age are the risk group for vascular injuries in extremities. In the deaths related to isolated vessel injuries in extremities, the detection of injured vessel, localisation and number of total and lethal wounds would offer a solution for the evil intent; and as in the other violent death cases autopsy is required in the deaths due to vessel injuries in extremities. Key words: Vascular injuries, Extremity, Forensic autopsy.

  16. Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judee Grace Nemeno-Guanzon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient’s conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering.

  17. Modeling the microclimate inside a vessel in in vitro culture : vessel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical simulations show that variations in vessel internal humidity was sensitive to transfer coefficient, climatic conditions within the growth chamber, evaporation and condensation of water vapor on the walls of the vessel. The variations in water vapor pressure deficits (VPD) (low during the nyctiperiod and high during ...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.650 - Exemptions for migratory vessels and auxiliary engines on Category 3 vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Convention for the Protection of Life at Sea (SOLAS). The vessel owner must maintain compliance.... (b) SOLAS exemption. We may approve a permanent exemption from the prohibitions in 40 CFR 1068.101(a... 40 CFR 1042.650 AND IS FOR USE SOLELY IN SOLAS VESSELS. INSTALLATION OR USE OF THIS ENGINE IN ANY...

  19. Smooth muscle cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels requires PDGFB and impacts vessel size but not identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Jin, Yi; Mäe, Maarja Andaloussi; Zhang, Yang; Ortsäter, Henrik; Betsholtz, Christer; Mäkinen, Taija; Jakobsson, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Tissue fluid drains through blind-ended lymphatic capillaries, via smooth muscle cell (SMC)-covered collecting vessels into venous circulation. Both defective SMC recruitment to collecting vessels and ectopic recruitment to lymphatic capillaries are thought to contribute to vessel failure, leading to lymphedema. However, mechanisms controlling lymphatic SMC recruitment and its role in vessel maturation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) regulates lymphatic SMC recruitment in multiple vascular beds. PDGFB is selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of collecting vessels. LEC-specific deletion of Pdgfb prevented SMC recruitment causing dilation and failure of pulsatile contraction of collecting vessels. However, vessel remodelling and identity were unaffected. Unexpectedly, Pdgfb overexpression in LECs did not induce SMC recruitment to capillaries. This was explained by the demonstrated requirement of PDGFB extracellular matrix (ECM) retention for lymphatic SMC recruitment, and the low presence of PDGFB-binding ECM components around lymphatic capillaries. These results demonstrate the requirement of LEC-autonomous PDGFB expression and retention for SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels, and suggest an ECM-controlled checkpoint that prevents SMC investment of capillaries, which is a common feature in lymphedematous skin. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Smooth muscle cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels requires PDGFB and impacts vessel size but not identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Jin, Yi; Mäe, Maarja Andaloussi; Zhang, Yang; Ortsäter, Henrik; Betsholtz, Christer; Mäkinen, Taija

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fluid drains through blind-ended lymphatic capillaries, via smooth muscle cell (SMC)-covered collecting vessels into venous circulation. Both defective SMC recruitment to collecting vessels and ectopic recruitment to lymphatic capillaries are thought to contribute to vessel failure, leading to lymphedema. However, mechanisms controlling lymphatic SMC recruitment and its role in vessel maturation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) regulates lymphatic SMC recruitment in multiple vascular beds. PDGFB is selectively expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of collecting vessels. LEC-specific deletion of Pdgfb prevented SMC recruitment causing dilation and failure of pulsatile contraction of collecting vessels. However, vessel remodelling and identity were unaffected. Unexpectedly, Pdgfb overexpression in LECs did not induce SMC recruitment to capillaries. This was explained by the demonstrated requirement of PDGFB extracellular matrix (ECM) retention for lymphatic SMC recruitment, and the low presence of PDGFB-binding ECM components around lymphatic capillaries. These results demonstrate the requirement of LEC-autonomous PDGFB expression and retention for SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels, and suggest an ECM-controlled checkpoint that prevents SMC investment of capillaries, which is a common feature in lymphedematous skin. PMID:28851707

  1. Impact of Sleep and Its Disturbances on Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Van Cauter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is relatively stable and primarily under the influence of the circadian clock. Nevertheless, several other factors affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Sleep has modest but clearly detectable modulatory effects on HPA axis activity. Sleep onset exerts an inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion while awakenings and sleep offset are accompanied by cortisol stimulation. During waking, an association between cortisol secretory bursts and indices of central arousal has also been detected. Abrupt shifts of the sleep period induce a profound disruption in the daily cortisol rhythm, while sleep deprivation and/or reduced sleep quality seem to result in a modest but functionally important activation of the axis. HPA hyperactivity is clearly associated with metabolic, cognitive and psychiatric disorders and could be involved in the well-documented associations between sleep disturbances and the risk of obesity, diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Several clinical syndromes, such as insomnia, depression, Cushing's syndrome, sleep disordered breathing (SDB display HPA hyperactivity, disturbed sleep, psychiatric and metabolic impairments. Further research to delineate the functional links between sleep and HPA axis activity is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology of these syndromes and to develop adequate strategies of prevention and treatment.

  2. Probiotics normalize the gut-brain-microbiota axis in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carli J; Emge, Jacob R; Berzins, Katrina; Lung, Lydia; Khamishon, Rebecca; Shah, Paarth; Rodrigues, David M; Sousa, Andrew J; Reardon, Colin; Sherman, Philip M; Barrett, Kim E; Gareau, Mélanie G

    2014-10-15

    The gut-brain-microbiota axis is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of intestinal physiology. Exposure to psychological stress causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and causes altered intestinal barrier function, intestinal dysbiosis, and behavioral changes. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of psychological stress on intestinal physiology and behavior, including anxiety and memory, are mediated by the adaptive immune system. Furthermore, we wanted to determine whether treatment with probiotics would normalize these effects. Here we demonstrate that B and T cell-deficient Rag1(-/-) mice displayed altered baseline behaviors, including memory and anxiety, accompanied by an overactive HPA axis, increased intestinal secretory state, dysbiosis, and decreased hippocampal c-Fos expression. Both local (intestinal physiology and microbiota) and central (behavioral and hippocampal c-Fos) changes were normalized by pretreatment with probiotics, indicating an overall benefit on health conferred by changes in the microbiota, independent of lymphocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate a role for adaptive immune cells in maintaining normal intestinal and brain health in mice and show that probiotics can overcome this immune-mediated deficit in the gut-brain-microbiota axis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Modulation of Glucocorticoids in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Natalie G; Webster, Natalia A; Cruz-Topete, Diana

    2017-10-16

    The collective of endocrine organs acting in homeostatic regulation-known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-comprises an integration of the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues. These organs respond to imminent or perceived threats that elicit a stress response, primarily culminating in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation by the adrenal glands. Although the secretion of glucocorticoids serves to protect and maintain homeostasis in the typical operation at baseline levels, inadequate regulation can lead to physiologic and psychologic pathologies. The cardiovascular system is especially susceptible to prolonged dysregulation of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid production. There is debate about whether cardiovascular health risks arise from the direct detrimental effects of stress axis activation or whether pathologies develop secondary to the accompanying metabolic strain of excess glucocorticoids. In this review, we will explore the emerging research that indicates stress does have direct effects on the cardiovascular system via the HPA axis activation, with emphasis on the latest research on the impact of glucocorticoids signaling in the vasculature and the heart.

  4. Retinal vessels caliber assessment in patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Semenova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the diagnostic capability of automated retinal vessels (RV caliber estimation for hypertensive angiopathy.Methods: this study included 146 patients (292 eyes with arterial hypertension. All the subjects underwent fundus photography and RV caliber estimation. the latter was performed using newly developed computer-based method for automated vessel detection and central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalents determination (CRAE & CRVE. Sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the method were estimated.Results: the method of RV caliber assessment showed good reproducibility. the overall specificity and sensitivity were 74% and 80.77%, respectively. Computer-based method of retinal vascular caliber assessment revealed higher predictive value comparing with ophthalmoscopic assessment (AUC = 0.903 and 0.85, respectively. Retinal arteriolar and venular caliber and AVR tend to decrease with age. Higher blood pressure is associated with narrower retinal arterioles.Conclusion: Novel method of RV caliber estimation demonstrated high information value. these findings are in good agreementwith data from major population-based studies.

  5. Synchronization and Random Triggering of Lymphatic Vessel Contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Baish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is responsible for transporting interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream, but unlike the cardiovascular system, lacks a centralized pump-the heart-to drive flow. Instead, each collecting lymphatic vessel can individually contract and dilate producing unidirectional flow enforced by intraluminal check valves. Due to the large number and spatial distribution of such pumps, high-level coordination would be unwieldy. This leads to the question of how each segment of lymphatic vessel responds to local signals that can contribute to the coordination of pumping on a network basis. Beginning with elementary fluid mechanics and known cellular behaviors, we show that two complementary oscillators emerge from i mechanical stretch with calcium ion transport and ii fluid shear stress induced nitric oxide production (NO. Using numerical simulation and linear stability analysis we show that the newly identified shear-NO oscillator shares similarities with the well-known Van der Pol oscillator, but has unique characteristics. Depending on the operating conditions, the shear-NO process may i be inherently stable, ii oscillate spontaneously in response to random disturbances or iii synchronize with weak periodic stimuli. When the complementary shear-driven and stretch-driven oscillators interact, either may dominate, producing a rich family of behaviors similar to those observed in vivo.

  6. Nonlinear retinal image enhancement for vessel detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Jiang, Xudong

    2017-07-01

    Retinal vessel detection is an essential part of the computer-aided diagnosis of eye diseases. Due to non-perfect imaging environment, retinal images often appear with intensity variations and artificial noises. This work proposes a two-step nonlinear retinal image enhancement to compensate for those imperfections of retinal images. The first step reduces intensity fluctuations of the image and the second step attenuates impulsive noise while preserving retinal vessels. Classification on the feature vector extracted from the enhanced retinal images is performed by using a linear SVM classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method of two-step nonlinear image enhancement visibly improves the vessel detection performance, achieving better accuracy than that without enhancement process on the both DRIVE and STARE databases.

  7. [Large vessels vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera Segura, Beatriz; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván

    2015-12-07

    Vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis is a severe, in many cases irreversible, manifestation that can lead to amputation. While the classical clinical manifestations of the disease have to do with the involvement of microcirculation, proximal vessels of upper and lower limbs can also be affected. This involvement of large vessels may be related to systemic sclerosis, vasculitis or atherosclerotic, and the differential diagnosis is not easy. To conduct a proper and early diagnosis, it is essential to start prompt appropriate treatment. In this review, we examine the involvement of large vessels in scleroderma, an understudied manifestation with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. How Do Meningeal Lymphatic Vessels Drain the CNS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Daniel; Louveau, Antoine; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    The many interactions between the nervous and the immune systems, which are active in both physiological and pathological states, have recently become more clearly delineated with the discovery of a meningeal lymphatic system capable of carrying fluid, immune cells, and macromolecules from the central nervous system (CNS) to the draining deep cervical lymph nodes. However, the exact localization of the meningeal lymphatic vasculature and the path of drainage from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the lymphatics remain poorly understood. Here, we discuss the potential differences between peripheral and CNS lymphatic vessels and examine the purported mechanisms of CNS lymphatic drainage, along with how these may fit into established patterns of CSF flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooue, Anna; Sato, Kohei; Hirasawa, Ai; Sadamoto, Tomoko

    2012-11-07

    The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB) and without (EX) vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein) and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein) was calculated using both variables. Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Diminished central command induced by tendon vibration may attenuate the superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during sustained static arm exercise.

  10. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooue Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Methods Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB and without (EX vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein was calculated using both variables. Results Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P P vein in the resting limb at EX decreased during exercise from baseline (P vein at EX + VIB did not change during exercise. CSAvein during exercise at EX was smaller than that at EX + VIB (P vein did not change during the protocol under either condition. The decreases in circulatory response and RPEs during EX + VIB, despite identical muscle tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Conclusion Diminished central command induced by tendon

  11. Ghrelin stimulation by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation depends on increasing cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, I; Gilad, S; Limor, R; Stern, N; Greenman, Y

    2017-11-01

    Ghrelin plasma concentration increases in parallel to cortisol after a standardized psychological stress in humans, but the physiological basis of this interaction is unknown. We aimed to elucidate this question by studying the ghrelin response to pharmacological manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Six lean, healthy male volunteers were examined under four experimental conditions. Blood samples were collected every 30 min for two sequential periods of two hours. Initially, a baseline period was followed by intravenous injection of a synthetic analog of ACTH (250 μg). Subsequently, a single dose of metyrapone was administered at midnight and in the following morning, blood samples were collected for 2 h, followed by an intravenous injection of hydrocortisone (100 mg) with continued sampling. We show that increased cortisol serum levels secondary to ACTH stimulation or hydrocortisone administration are positively associated with plasma ghrelin levels, whereas central stimulation of the HPA axis by blocking cortisol synthesis with metyrapone is associated with decreased plasma ghrelin levels. Collectively, this suggests that HPA-axis-mediated elevations in ghrelin plasma concentration require increased peripheral cortisol levels, independent of central elevation of ACTH and possibly CRH levels. © 2017 The authors.

  12. Arterial thoracic vascularization in some deer species: pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and axis deer (Axis axis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Erdoğan, S

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Academic Research Vessels 1985-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    of them MVC ). Recommnendati ons. * Complete reliance of the academic community on non-academic vessels should be avoided, since such vessels are not...responsible for management of a major fishery on the Bering Sea shelf. This area is covered by ice much of the year. With the spring melting of the ice is...of the group. 5. Meetings of the group shall normally be held four times yearly in- *1 cluding spring and fall semi-annual UNOLS meetings, and at

  14. The Gut-Brain Axis, BDNF, NMDA and CNS Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Raeesah; Stone, Trevor W

    2016-11-01

    Gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota and the 'gut-brain axis' are proving to be increasingly relevant to early brain development and the emergence of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the influence of the GI tract on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its relationship with receptors for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR), as these are believed to be involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. NMDAR may be associated with the development of schizophrenia and a range of other psychopathologies including neurodegenerative disorders, depression and dementias. An analysis of the routes and mechanisms by which the GI microbiota contribute to the pathophysiology of BDNF-induced NMDAR dysfunction could yield new insights relevant to developing novel therapeutics for schizophrenia and related disorders. In the absence of GI microbes, central BDNF levels are reduced and this inhibits the maintenance of NMDAR production. A reduction of NMDAR input onto GABA inhibitory interneurons causes disinhibition of glutamatergic output which disrupts the central signal-to-noise ratio and leads to aberrant synaptic behaviour and cognitive deficits. Gut microbiota can modulate BDNF function in the CNS, via changes in neurotransmitter function by affecting modulatory mechanisms such as the kynurenine pathway, or by changes in the availability and actions of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the brain. Interrupting these cycles by inducing changes in the gut microbiota using probiotics, prebiotics or antimicrobial drugs has been found promising as a preventative or therapeutic measure to counteract behavioural deficits and these may be useful to supplement the actions of drugs in the treatment of CNS disorders.

  15. Melatonin and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Li, N; Bo, L; Xu, Z

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine), a principal product of the pineal gland, is produced mainly during the dark phase of the circadian cycle. This hormone plays a crucial role in the regulation of circadian and seasonal changes in various aspects of physiology and neuroendocrine functions. In mammals, melatonin can influence sexual maturation and reproductive functions via activation of its receptors and binding sites in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This review summarizes current knowledge of melatonin on the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads. We also review recent progress in clinical applications of melatonin or potentials of using melatonin, as a reducer of oxidative stress, to improve reproductive functions for the diseases such as women infertility.

  16. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  17. The proline regulatory axis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ming Phang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies in metabolism and cancer have characterized changes in core pathways involving glucose and glutamine, emphasizing the provision of substrates for building cell mass. But recent findings suggest that pathways previously considered peripheral may play a critical role providing mechanisms for cell regulation. Several of these mechanisms involve the metabolism of nonessential amino acids, for example, the channeling of glycolytic intermediates into the serine pathway for one-carbon transfers. Historically, we proposed that the proline biosynthetic pathway participated in a metabolic interlock with glucose metabolism. The discovery that proline degradation is activated by p53 directed our attention to the initiation of apoptosis by proline oxidase/dehydrogenase. Now, however, we find that the biosynthetic mechanisms and the metabolic interlock may depend on the pathway from glutamine to proline, and it is markedly activated by the oncogene MYC. These findings add a new dimension to the proline regulatory axis in cancer and present attractive potential targets for cancer treatment.

  18. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  19. A Portable Single Axis Magnetic Gradiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Nielsen, Otto V

    2001-01-01

    not provide vector information about the magnetic field. Secondly, one of the sensors measures the ambient magnetic field and is used to compensate for the main field at both sensors. Several methods have been developed for characterization of the 2 gradiometer, and the calibration of the gradient...... measurements is achieved by using a magnetic dipole of strength 2 mAm(2). In a coil facility, the gradient can be determined with an accuracy of 0.3 nT/m(RMS).......The single axis magnetic gradiometer based on two compact detector compensation (CDC) fluxgate ringcore sensors separated 20 cm is described. Despite its high stability and precision better than 1 nT, the calibration procedures are not straightforward. Firstly, the mono-axial measurement does...

  20. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants; Interfase visual para la automatizacion del pendulo instrumentado de pruebas Charpy utilizado en el programa de vigilancia de la vasija de reactores de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Sainz M, E.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km.36.5, Mpio. de Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: asrs@nuclear.inin.mx; esm@nuclear.inin.mx; jare@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  1. DAMP-TLR-cytokine axis dictates the fate of tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Ashok; Selvaraj, Sathishkumar; Sarode, Aditya; Chauhan, Prashant; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Saha, Bhaskar

    2017-10-09

    Random mutations leading to loss of cell cycle control is not a rare occurrence in an organism but the mutated cells are recognized and eliminated preventing the development of a tumor. These potentially tumorigenic cells release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages and dendritic cells. The initial TLR-DAMP interactions lead to different responses such as altered antigen presentation and cytokine release that directly affect T cell activation and removal of the tumorigenic cells. The indirect effects of TLR-DAMP interaction include chemokine-directed altered T cell trafficking, angiogenesis for both T cell infiltration and tumor cell metastasis, and alteration of intra-tumoral milieu contributing to the development of tumor cells heterogeneity. Thus, the initial TLR-DAMP interaction has a set of local effects that modulate tumor cell growth and heterogeneity and a disseminating set of central effects that dynamically affect T cell trafficking and functions. Herein, we argue that the DAMP-TLR-cytokine axis in the tumor microenvironment serves as the mainstay that orchestrates and regulates the pro- and anti-tumor elements which dynamically interact between themselves eventuating in tumor regression or growth. The knowledge of this TLR-based immuno-surveillance framework is a key to developing a novel immunotherapy against cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Desired Turbulence? Gut-Lung Axis, Immunity, and Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingula, Rea; Filaire, Marc; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Bey, Mathieu; Berthon, Jean-Yves; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Filaire, Edith

    2017-01-01

    The microbiota includes different microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa distributed over many human body surfaces including the skin, vagina, gut, and airways, with the highest density found in the intestine. The gut microbiota strongly influences our metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems, as well as both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Recently, a dialogue between the gut and lung microbiota has been discovered, suggesting that changes in one compartment could impact the other compartment, whether in relation to microbial composition or function. Further, this bidirectional axis is evidenced in an, either beneficial or malignant, altered immune response in one compartment following changes in the other compartment. Stimulation of the immune system arises from the microbial cells themselves, but also from their metabolites. It can be either direct or mediated by stimulated immune cells in one site impacting the other site. Additionally, this interaction may lead to immunological boost, assisting the innate immune system in its antitumour response. Thus, this review offers an insight into the composition of these sites, the gut and the lung, their role in shaping the immune system, and, finally, their role in the response to lung cancer.

  3. Desired Turbulence? Gut-Lung Axis, Immunity, and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Bingula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota includes different microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa distributed over many human body surfaces including the skin, vagina, gut, and airways, with the highest density found in the intestine. The gut microbiota strongly influences our metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems, as well as both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Recently, a dialogue between the gut and lung microbiota has been discovered, suggesting that changes in one compartment could impact the other compartment, whether in relation to microbial composition or function. Further, this bidirectional axis is evidenced in an, either beneficial or malignant, altered immune response in one compartment following changes in the other compartment. Stimulation of the immune system arises from the microbial cells themselves, but also from their metabolites. It can be either direct or mediated by stimulated immune cells in one site impacting the other site. Additionally, this interaction may lead to immunological boost, assisting the innate immune system in its antitumour response. Thus, this review offers an insight into the composition of these sites, the gut and the lung, their role in shaping the immune system, and, finally, their role in the response to lung cancer.

  4. Microbiome, probiotics and neurodegenerative diseases: deciphering the gut brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Susan; Lomis, Nikita; Kahouli, Imen; Dia, Si Yuan; Singh, Surya Pratap; Prakash, Satya

    2017-10-01

    The gut microbiota is essential to health and has recently become a target for live bacterial cell biotherapies for various chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disease. Probiotic biotherapies are known to create a healthy gut environment by balancing bacterial populations and promoting their favorable metabolic action. The microbiota and its respective metabolites communicate to the host through a series of biochemical and functional links thereby affecting host homeostasis and health. In particular, the gastrointestinal tract communicates with the central nervous system through the gut-brain axis to support neuronal development and maintenance while gut dysbiosis manifests in neurological disease. There are three basic mechanisms that mediate the communication between the gut and the brain: direct neuronal communication, endocrine signaling mediators and the immune system. Together, these systems create a highly integrated molecular communication network that link systemic imbalances with the development of neurodegeneration including insulin regulation, fat metabolism, oxidative markers and immune signaling. Age is a common factor in the development of neurodegenerative disease and probiotics prevent many harmful effects of aging such as decreased neurotransmitter levels, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis-all factors that are proven aggravators of neurodegenerative disease. Indeed patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases have a high rate of gastrointestinal comorbidities and it has be proposed by some the management of the gut microbiota may prevent or alleviate the symptoms of these chronic diseases.

  5. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos [University of Ioannina, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-11-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  6. The role of CCL21/CCR7 chemokine axis in breast cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutunea-Fatan, Elena; Majumder, Mousumi; Xin, Xiping; Lala, Peeyush K

    2015-02-10

    Tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis facilitates breast cancer progression by generating new lymphatic vessels that serve as conduits for tumor dissemination to lymph nodes and beyond. Given the recent evidence suggesting the implication of C-C chemokine ligand 21/chemokine receptor 7 (CCL21/CCR7) in lymph node metastasis, the aim of our study was to define the role of this chemokine pair in breast cancer-associated lymphangiogenesis. The expression analysis of CCL21/CCR7 pair and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers in breast cancer specimens was performed by means of quantitative real-time PCR. By utilizing CCR7 and CCL21 gene manipulated breast cancer cell implants into orthotopic sites of nude mice, lymphatic vessel formation was assessed through quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Finally, the lymphangiogenic potential of CCL21/CCR7 was assessed in vitro with primary LECs through separate functional assays, each attempting to mimic different stages of the lymphangiogenic process. We found that CCR7 mRNA expression in human breast cancer tissues positively correlates with the expression of lymphatic endothelial markers LYVE-1, podoplanin, Prox-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). We demonstrated that the expression of CCL21/CCR7 by breast cancer cells has the ability to promote tumor-induced lymph-vascular recruitment in vivo. In vitro, CCL21/CCR7 chemokine axis regulates the expression and secretion of lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C and thereby promotes proliferation, migration, as well as tube formation of the primary human LECs. Finally, we showed that protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway is the intracellular mechanism of CCR7-mediated VEGF-C secretion by human breast cancer cells. These results reveal that CCR7 and VEGF-C display a significant crosstalk and suggest a novel role of the CCL21/CCR7 chemokine axis in the promotion of breast cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis.

  7. The Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis: What Role Does It Play in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Ruth Ann; Savidge, Tor C; Williams, Kent C

    2016-03-01

    The brain-gut-microbiome axis refers to the interactions between the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, and microorganisms that live in the gastrointestinal tract. Exploring these interactions provides a rationale for why gastrointestinal disorders commonly occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Signs of altered brain-gut interactions that are closely associated with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) commonly occur in children with ASD. Studies of microbiome in ASD suggest that changes in the gut microbiome may be associated with ASD and with GI disorders in children with ASD. Further studies into the brain-gut-microbiome axis could lead to new techniques for identifying GI disorders in children with ASD and novel therapies for treating ASD behaviors.

  8. Dynamic ultrasound-guided short-axis needle tip navigation technique vs. landmark technique for difficult saphenous vein access in children: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, S; Van Winkle, M T; Subramani, S; Ueda, K

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic ultrasound-guided short-axis needle tip navigation is a novel technique for vascular access. After venipuncture, the needle and catheter are further advanced within the vessel lumen under real-time ultrasound guidance with constant visualisation of the needle tip in the short-axis view. This can minimise the risk of transfixing the cannulated vessel. We compared two techniques for non-visible saphenous vein cannulation under general anaesthesia in children weighing ≥ 3 kg and less than four years of age: dynamic ultrasound-guided short-axis needle tip navigation technique (ultrasound group) vs. landmark technique. Venous cannulation was performed by three experienced anaesthetists. The primary outcome measure was first-attempt success rate. Success rate within 10 min was a secondary outcome. A total of 102 patients were randomly allocated to either the ultrasound group or the landmark group. First-attempt success rate was 90% in the ultrasound group compared with 51% in the landmark group, pdynamic ultrasound-guided short-axis needle tip navigation technique improved non-visible saphenous vein cannulation in children compared with the landmark technique. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A. [ENEP Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ballesteros-Maresma, A. [Radiologia Clinica de Cuernavaca (Mexico); Casian, G.; Hernandez-Martinez, P. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico S. S. (Mexico); Martinez-Lopez, M. [Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    We report calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis. Calcification was observed in the middle cerebral arteries in two patients, and the circle of Willis in two others. The patients with middle cerebral artery calcification underwent CT with inhaled stable xenon and an area of mild hypoperfusion was observed in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. (orig.)

  10. Hereditary cerebral small vessel disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Hansen, Christine Krarup; Christensen, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis. These monogenic disorders are often characterized by early-age stroke, but also by migraine, mood disturbances, vascular dementia and often gait disturbances. Some also present with extra-cerebral manifestations such as microangiopathy of the eyes and kidneys. Many present with clinically recognizable syndromes. Investigations include a thorough family medical history, medical history, neurological examination, neuroimaging, often supplemented by specific examinations e.g of the of vision, retinal changes, as well as kidney and heart function. However molecular genetic analysis is the final gold standard of diagnosis. There are increasing numbers of reports on new monogenic syndromes causing cerebral small vessel disease. Genetic counseling is important. Enzyme replacement therapy is possible in Fabry disease, but treatment options remain overall very limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bilateral Variations of the Testicular Vessels: Embryological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral Variations of the Testicular Vessels: Embryological Background and Clinical Implications. Yogesh Diwan, Rikki Singal1, Deepa Diwan, Subhash Goyal1, Samita Singal2, Mausam Kapil1. Department of Anatomy, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, 1Surgery and 2Radiology, Maharishi Markandeshwer Institute ...

  12. Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-23

    OPERATIONALY throughout the world • EUCOM – Norway to Africa • CENTCOM • PACOM • SOUTHCOM • CONUS • Leased vessels have undergone significant sea trials and... Austral ia to the Persian Gul f to support C E N T C O M t a s k i n g s JOINT VENTURE SWIFT 22 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Acquisition Constraints

  13. Liquid Nitrogen Subcooler Pressure Vessel Engineering Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1997-04-24

    The normal operating pressure of this dewar is expected to be less than 15 psig. This vessel is open to atmospheric pressure thru a non-isolatable vent line. The backpressure in the vent line was calculated to be less than 1.5 psig at maximum anticipated flow rates.

  14. Segmentation of vessels: the corkscrew algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Firle, Evelyn A.

    2004-05-01

    Medical imaging is nowadays much more than only providing data for diagnosis. It also links 'classical' diagnosis to modern forms of treatment such as image guided surgery. Those systems require the identification of organs, anatomical regions of the human body etc., i. e. the segmentation of structures from medical data sets. The algorithms used for these segmentation tasks strongly depend on the object to be segmented. One structure which plays an important role in surgery planning are vessels that are found everywhere in the human body. Several approaches for their extraction already exist. However, there is no general one which is suitable for all types of data or all sorts of vascular structures. This work presents a new algorithm for the segmentation of vessels. It can be classified as a skeleton-based approach working on 3D data sets, and has been designed for a reliable segmentation of coronary arteries. The algorithm is a semi-automatic extraction technique requiring the definition of the start and end the point of the (centerline) path to be found. A first estimation of the vessel's centerline is calculated and then corrected iteratively by detecting the vessel's border perpendicular to the centerline. We used contrast enhanced CT data sets of the thorax for testing our approach. Coronary arteries have been extracted from the data sets using the 'corkscrew algorithm' presented in this work. The segmentation turned out to be robust even if moderate breathing artifacts were present in the data sets.

  15. 50 CFR 300.13 - Vessel permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel undermined the effectiveness of international conservation and management measures, and the new... special product or service. The fee is specified with the application form. The appropriate fee must... applicant of any deficiency in the application. (f) Validity. Permits issued under this subpart are valid...

  16. 78 FR 63235 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... engaged in oil transfer operations? 12. Are there conflicts or areas of improvement with regard to... SECURITY Coast Guard Tank Vessel Oil Transfers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces that it is considering new measures to reduce the risks of oil...

  17. 78 FR 14053 - Vessel Documentation Renewal Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a... effects, distributive impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying... additional costs due to increased need in labor and capital costs, would cost each vessel owner $26 per...

  18. 76 FR 49975 - Inspection of Towing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... related materials. All comments received will be posted, without change, to http://www.regulations.gov and... comments and material received during the comment period and may change this proposed rule based on your... consideration its size, organizational structure, and vessel types and services. Towing Safety Management System...

  19. 78 FR 38102 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... vessels a limited use-limited application elevator (LULA) or platform lift, would be required to connect..., we estimate an elevator to cost $371,000; a LULA to cost $297,400; and a platform lift to cost $108.... See 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq. Title II of the ADA applies to state and local governments and Title III...

  20. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus; Mahir Asif Mohammed; Sanzidur Rahman; Sayedus Salehin; Mohammad Abdul Mannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. Th...

  1. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  2. An automated method for accurate vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Liu, Chaoyue; Le Minh, Hung; Wang, Zhiwei; Chien, Aichi; (Tim Cheng, Kwang-Ting

    2017-05-01

    Vessel segmentation is a critical task for various medical applications, such as diagnosis assistance of diabetic retinopathy, quantification of cerebral aneurysm’s growth, and guiding surgery in neurosurgical procedures. Despite technology advances in image segmentation, existing methods still suffer from low accuracy for vessel segmentation in the two challenging while common scenarios in clinical usage: (1) regions with a low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and (2) at vessel boundaries disturbed by adjacent non-vessel pixels. In this paper, we present an automated system which can achieve highly accurate vessel segmentation for both 2D and 3D images even under these challenging scenarios. Three key contributions achieved by our system are: (1) a progressive contrast enhancement method to adaptively enhance contrast of challenging pixels that were otherwise indistinguishable, (2) a boundary refinement method to effectively improve segmentation accuracy at vessel borders based on Canny edge detection, and (3) a content-aware region-of-interests (ROI) adjustment method to automatically determine the locations and sizes of ROIs which contain ambiguous pixels and demand further verification. Extensive evaluation of our method is conducted on both 2D and 3D datasets. On a public 2D retinal dataset (named DRIVE (Staal 2004 IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23 501-9)) and our 2D clinical cerebral dataset, our approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art methods including a vesselness based method (Frangi 1998 Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention) and an optimally oriented flux (OOF) based method (Law and Chung 2008 European Conf. on Computer Vision). An evaluation on 11 clinical 3D CTA cerebral datasets shows that our method can achieve 94% average accuracy with respect to the manual segmentation reference, which is 23% to 33% better than the five baseline methods (Yushkevich 2006 Neuroimage 31 1116-28; Law and Chung 2008

  3. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: Multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa K Solomon-Lane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis. Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids (GCs, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli, a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.

  4. Miconazole protects blood vessels from MMP9-dependent rupture and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ran; Zhang, Yunpei; Huang, Dandan; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Liangren; Zhu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Zhenming; Han, Jing-Yan; Xiong, Jing-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity worldwide, but its prevention and therapeutic interventions remain a major challenge. Here, we report the identification of miconazole as a hemorrhagic suppressor by a small-molecule screen in zebrafish. We found that a hypomorphic mutant fn40a , one of several known β-pix mutant alleles in zebrafish, had the major symptoms of brain hemorrhage, vessel rupture and inflammation as those in hemorrhagic stroke patients. A small-molecule screen with mutant embryos identified the anti-fungal drug miconazole as a potent hemorrhagic suppressor. Miconazole inhibited both brain hemorrhages in zebrafish and mesenteric hemorrhages in rats by decreasing matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9)-dependent vessel rupture. Mechanistically, miconazole downregulated the levels of pErk and Mmp9 to protect vascular integrity in fn40a mutants. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that miconazole protects blood vessels from hemorrhages by downregulating the pERK-MMP9 axis from zebrafish to mammals and shed light on the potential of phenotype-based screens in zebrafish for the discovery of new drug candidates and chemical probes for hemorrhagic stroke. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  6. Concept of a Programmable Fixture for 3-Axis CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dalloul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available CNC machine is the one of the major reasons for industrial advancement in recent decades for its ability of producing accurate parts. The most commen CNC machines are of 3-axis and adopted widely in the industrial sector. However, for producing more complicated parts 5-axis CNC machines are required. Although the introduction of the 5-axis machine came after the 3-axis CNC machine has established itself and many manufacturers did not make the move toward the newer model and its high pricing compared to the 3-axis model did not help either. In this time the development of a fixture or a platform to help transfer the 3-axis to a 5-axis to some degree. This paper discusses the concept of a programmable fixture that gives 3-axis CNC machine the freedom to act in similar manner as the 5-axis. The paper describes the mechanism with some initial results of the testing. Result showed that the platform moves in translation manner with an average error of 5.58 % and 7.303% average error for rotation movement.

  7. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  8. Role of arginase in vessel wall remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eDurante

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Arginase metabolizes the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. There are two distinct isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, which are encoded by separate genes and display differences in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and molecular regulation. Blood vessels express both arginase I and II but their distribution appears to be cell-, vessel-, and species-specific. Both isoforms of arginase are induced by numerous pathologic stimuli and contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and vessel wall remodeling in several diseases. Clinical and experimental studies have documented increases in the expression and/or activity of arginase I or II in blood vessels following arterial injury and in pulmonary and arterial hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of arginase in animals ameliorates abnormalities in vascular cells and normalizes blood vessel architecture and function in all of these pathological states. The detrimental effect of arginase in vascular remodeling is attributable to its ability to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation, and collagen deposition by promoting the synthesis of polyamines and L-proline, respectively. In addition, arginase adversely impacts arterial remodeling by directing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the proliferative, fibrotic, and inflammatory actions of arginase in the vasculature are further amplified by its capacity to inhibit nitric oxide synthesis by competing with nitric oxide synthase for substrate, L-arginine. Pharmacologic or molecular approaches targeting specific isoforms of arginase represent a promising strategy in treating obstructive fibroproliferative vascular disease.

  9. Suicidal behavior on Axis VI: clinical data supporting a sixth Axis for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Witte, Tracy K; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Oquendo and colleagues (Oquendo, Baca-García, Mann, & Giner, 2008; Oquendo & Currier, 2009) recommend that DSM-V emphasize suicide risk assessment on a sixth axis, thereby increasing regularity of suicide risk assessments. We propose that evidence of nonredundancy with Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is one piece of data that can serve as a starting point for a line of research establishing incremental predictive utility for a separate suicide risk assessment in the DSM framework. A standardized suicide risk assessment protocol, measures of depressive, anxious, and eating disordered symptomatology, as well as an index of comorbidity were administered to a sample of 412 adult outpatients. Our data indicate that data from standardized suicide risk assessments are associated with indices of symptomatology severity as well as comorbidity, controlling for GAF. These results support the nonredundancy of the assessments and suggest the utility of longitudinal investigations of the predictive utility of a sixth DSM axis in the assessment of suicide risk.

  10. Use of optimized ultrasound axis along with marked introducer needle to prevent mechanical complications of internal jugular vein catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Ghatak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein (IJV catheterization is a routine technique in the intensive care unit. Ultrasound (US guided central venous catheter (CVC insertion is now the recommended standard. However, mechanical complications still occur due to non-visualization of the introducer needle tip during US guidance. This may result in arterial or posterior venous wall puncture or pneumothorax. We describe a new technique of (IJV catheterization using US, initially the depth of the IJV from the skin is measured in short-axis and then using real time US long-axis view guidance a marked introducer needle is advanced towards the IJV to the defined depth measured earlier in the short axis and the IJV is identified, assessed and cannulated for the CVC insertion. Our technique is simple and may reduce mechanical complications of US guided CVC insertion.

  11. The right sided great vessels by cardiac multidetector computed tomography: normative reference values among healthy adults free of cardiopulmonary disease, hypertension, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fay Y; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Meng, Joyce; Jow, Veronica M; Simprini, Lauren; Jacobs, Avrum; Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Callister, Tracy Q; Min, James K

    2009-08-01

    We sought to derive normative reference values for the thoracic great vessels using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a healthy normotensive non-obese population free of cardiovascular disease. Non-gated axial computed tomography (CT) of the chest has traditionally been used to evaluate normal great vessel anatomy for prognosis and management. However, non-gated axial chest CT cannot account for the obliquity, systolic expansion, and non-axial motion of the great vessels during the cardiac cycle and may misclassify patients as normal or abnormal for prognostic and management purposes. To date, normative reference values for double-oblique, short-axis great vessel diameters have not been established using current generation electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 64-detector row MDCT. A total of 103 (43% women, age 51 +/- 14 years) consecutive normotensive, non-obese adults free of cardiopulmonary or great vessel structural disease, arrhythmias, or significant coronary artery disease were studied by MDCT. Individuals underwent examination for determination of end-diastolic (ED) pulmonary artery (PA) and superior vena cava (SVC) dimensions in double-oblique short axes for comparison with the ascending aorta and the right-sided cardiac chambers. For right sided great vessels, the 5th to 95th interval was 1.89-3.03 cm for ED PA diameter and 1.08-4.42 cm(2) for SVC cross-sectional area. The pulmonary artery to ascending aortic (PA-to-Ao) ratio was 0.66-1.13. In multivariate analysis, the PA was significantly associated with weight, whereas the PA-to-Ao ratio was inversely associated with age. Axial PA measurements were significantly higher and PA-to-Ao measurements significantly lower than corresponding short axis measurements (P = .04 and P right-sided great vessel dimensions derived from a healthy population of individuals free of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and obesity. The traditional axial PA-to-Ao discriminant value of 1 for pulmonary hypertension is a

  12. Tutorial on off-axis electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Michael; Lichte, Hannes

    2002-12-01

    Through recent years, off-axis electron holography has helped us to understand and to overcome some experimental restrictions in transmission electron microscopy. With development of powerful electron microscopes, slow-scan CCD cameras, and computers, holography is not an academic technique anymore used by specialized laboratories. Holography has proven its wide range of applications in solving real-world problems in materials science and biology. At medium resolution, that is, on nanometer scale, holography allows access to large area phase contrast produced by magnetic fields and electric potentials. In the high-resolution domain, holography unveils its power by unscrambling amplitude and phase of the electron wave, resulting in an improved lateral resolution up to the information limit. Holography is a thoroughly quantitative method, and, in combination with the perfect zero-loss filtering inherent to this method, the interpretation of the reconstructed data is strongly simplified. After outlining the basics of holography, in this tutorial we focus on development of a step-by-step procedure for recording and reconstruction of holograms. At the end, some recent applications are discussed.

  13. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  14. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulle, Robert V.

    1983-10-18

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  15. Multi-axis model predictive contouring control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Denise; Manzie, Chris; Good, Malcolm C.

    2013-08-01

    Contouring systems involve competing control objectives of maximising accuracy while minimising traversal time. A previously developed model predictive contouring controller for biaxial systems is extended to multi-axis systems subject to joint acceleration and jerk constraints. This requires consideration of manipulator forward kinematics and both position and orientation of the end effector. The control design is based on minimising a cost function which reflects the trade-off between the control objectives. A new architecture is proposed where the joint position controllers operate at a sample rate comparable to industrial machines, while the contouring control scheme operates at a slower rate. The proposed approach is applied to a simulation model of an industrial profile cutting machine. A number of implementations are presented requiring varying degrees of modification to the existing machine hardware and sensing capability. Results demonstrate the effect of the cost function weights on contouring accuracy and traversal time, as well as the trade-off between achieving the best contouring performance and minimising modification of the existing system.

  16. Validation of the performance of a practical blood vessel imaging system to facilitate vessel punctures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuper, Natascha J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; de Roode, Rowland

    2009-02-01

    A practical system to visualize vessels underneath the skin has been developed, based on near-infrared (NIR) transillumination. A study in the clinical setting proved the system to be useful as a support in blood withdrawal in young children. During clinical application it was found that performance varied depending on vessel size, depth of vessels and surrounding lighting conditions. To gain more insight on the different variables that determine functioning of the system, we performed phantom studies. A combined liquid/solid phantom was fabricated with similar optical properties as the tissue layers of skin reported in literature at 850 nm. This phantom was used to estimate the depth of visibility in the relation to vessel size and darkness of the skin. Vessel contrast was determined analytically from images and evaluated by 3 independent observers. The knowledge gained from these experiments will be helpful to improve the imaging system and develop a solid phantom to be used as a gold standard to test the system under various clinical lighting conditions. The working range of the system was found to be appropriate to visualize the vessels used for the most procedures, such as blood withdrawal and placement of intravenous lines.

  17. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  18. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  19. Spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without vertical axis of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd [Albuquerque, NM; Aaronson, Gene [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-09

    The symmetry properties of a magnetic levitation arrangement are exploited to produce spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without aligning the rotational axis of the rotor with the direction of the force of gravity. The rotation of the rotor stabilizes perturbations directed parallel to the rotational axis.

  20. Angular momentum projection of tilted axis rotating states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, M.; Onishi, N.; Tajima, N. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Horibata, T.

    1998-03-01

    We applied an exact angular momentum projection to three dimensional cranked HFB (3d-CHFB) states. Tilted axis rotating states (TAR) and principal axis rotating states (PAR) are compared. It is shown that TAR is more adequate than PAR for description of the back bending phenomena driven by tilted rotation or wobbling motion. (author)

  1. The Performance Characteristics of a Closed Loop, One Axis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a closed loop one axis solar tracking device of the polar axis type, which achieves an accurate tracking of the sun with a steady state error of less, than 2%. This prototype uses a photo-sensing system to generate an error signal. This error signal switches on a relay, which actuates an electromechanical ...

  2. Axis: Generating Explanations at Scale with Learnersourcing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph Jay; Kim, Juho; Rafferty, Anna; Heffernan, Neil; Maldonado, Samuel; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Lasecki, Walter S.; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    While explanations may help people learn by providing information about why an answer is correct, many problems on online platforms lack high-quality explanations. This paper presents AXIS (Adaptive eXplanation Improvement System), a system for obtaining explanations. AXIS asks learners to generate, revise, and evaluate explanations as they solve…

  3. Divide and conquer: Segmentation and patterning of the anteroposterior axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peres, João Nuno Borges Baptista

    2005-01-01

    The formation of the anteroposterior (AP) axis is one of the key events that occur during embryogenesis. Here we investigate the dual processes of patterning and segmentation of the AP axis. To study the role of Hox genes in AP patterning, we decided to analyse the function of the PG1 (paralogous

  4. A psychology of the human brain–gut–microbiome axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress‐related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain–gut–microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain–gut–microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain–gut–microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology. PMID:28804508

  5. Wind rotor with vertical axis. Vindrotor med vertikal axel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colling, J.; Sjoenell, B.

    1987-06-15

    This rotor is of dual type i.e. a paddle wheel shaped rotor close to the vertical axis and a second rotor consisting of vertical blades with wing profile and attached to radial spokes which are fixed to the axis together with the paddle wheel rotor. (L.F.).

  6. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  7. Investigation of blade performance of horizontal axis wind turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shape of rotor blade plays an important role in determining the overall aerodynamic performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine. In this work, blade is designed for a 5KW horizontal axis wind turbine which is already in market. For designing blade, blade element momentum theory (BEMT) is used and a computer ...

  8. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  9. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  10. 49 CFR 176.5 - Application to vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (explosive) materials, Class 3 (flammable liquids), or Division 2.1 (flammable gas) materials, in which case... extinguish fire as the Coast Guard may prescribe; (7) A cable vessel, dredge, elevator vessel, fireboat...

  11. Drug Beats Steroids for Controlling Blood Vessel Inflammation in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Drug Beats Steroids for Controlling Blood Vessel Inflammation in Study With tocilizumab's approval, there's an alternative ... treating the most common form of blood vessel inflammation known as giant cell arteritis, a new study ...

  12. Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations data release is taken from the Research Vessel Catch (RVCAT) database curated at the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC)....

  13. 19 CFR 4.60 - Vessels required to clear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contiguous country otherwise than by sea. (c) Vessels which will merely transit the Panama Canal without... of clearance and related papers shall be surrendered. (e) No vessel shall be cleared for the high...

  14. Great Lakes Research Vessel Operations 1958-2016: OP

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data have been collected on various vessel operations on the Great Lakes and select connecting waterways. This vessel operations data set is part of and...

  15. Liver vessel segmentation based on extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ye Zhan; Zhao, Yu Qian; Liao, Miao; Zou, Bei Ji; Wang, Xiao Fang; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Liver-vessel segmentation plays an important role in vessel structure analysis for liver surgical planning. This paper presents a liver-vessel segmentation method based on extreme learning machine (ELM). Firstly, an anisotropic filter is used to remove noise while preserving vessel boundaries from the original computer tomography (CT) images. Then, based on the knowledge of prior shapes and geometrical structures, three classical vessel filters including Sato, Frangi and offset medialness filters together with the strain energy filter are used to extract vessel structure features. Finally, the ELM is applied to segment liver vessels from background voxels. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively segment liver vessels from abdominal CT images, and achieves good accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetics of hereditary large vessel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the study of hereditary large vessel diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS) have not only identified responsible genes but also provided better understanding of the pathophysiology and revealed possible new therapeutic targets. Genes identified for these diseases include FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD3, TGFB2, TGFB3, SKI, EFEMP2, COL3A1, FLNA, ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK and SLC2A10, as well as others. Their dysfunction disrupts the function of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways, as well as that of the extracellular matrix and smooth muscle contractile apparatus, resulting in progression of structural damage to large vessels, including aortic aneurysms and dissections. Notably, it has been shown that the TGF-β signaling pathway has a key role in the pathogenesis of MFS and related disorders, which may be important for development of strategies for medical and surgical treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

  17. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  18. Investigation of impulsively loaded pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.; Cornwell, R.; Hanner, D.; Leichter, H.; Mohr, P.

    1963-10-15

    Explosion containment vessels for containing from 2,000 to 3,000 five ton nuclear explosions are considered. Analysis methods appear adequate and lowest weights using the most advanced materials available in the next five years are projected.None of these materials can be fabricated today and all require extensive development. Present material technology limits the choice of materials and defines the weight. The addition of safety factors and fixtures (nozzles, etc.) will add to this weight considerably, and may well radically alter the vessel response. Improvements in the strength weight ratios of metals and glasses over those considered in this report do not appear reasonable at this time. Winding schemes to utilize the high strength of steel wires and somehow maintain a reasonable thickness appear to offer the most promise. A `ductile` beryllium would of course offer vast improvement, but no indications that this is being developed have appeared and all presently known beryllium is much too brittle.

  19. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem

    2010-01-01

    method is evaluated on 250 low dose computed tomography images from a lung cancer screening trial. Our experiments showed that applying the region growing algorithm on the airway appearance model produces more complete airway segmentations, leading to on average 20% longer trees, and 50% less leakage......This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. This is in contrast to previous works that use either intensity alone or hand crafted models of airway appearance. We show that the appearance model can be trained with a set of easily acquired, incomplete, airway tree segmentations. A vessel orientation...

  20. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities.

  1. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities.

  2. Three-Axis Ground Reaction Force Distribution during Straight Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masataka; Nakai, Akihito; Shimoyama, Isao

    2017-10-24

    We measured the three-axis ground reaction force (GRF) distribution during straight walking. Small three-axis force sensors composed of rubber and sensor chips were fabricated and calibrated. After sensor calibration, 16 force sensors were attached to the left shoe. The three-axis force distribution during straight walking was measured, and the local features of the three-axis force under the sole of the shoe were analyzed. The heel area played a role in receiving the braking force, the base area of the fourth and fifth toes applied little vertical or shear force, the base area of the second and third toes generated a portion of the propulsive force and received a large vertical force, and the base area of the big toe helped move the body's center of mass to the other foot. The results demonstrate that measuring the three-axis GRF distribution is useful for a detailed analysis of bipedal locomotion.

  3. Interplay between Inflammatory Responses and Lymphatic Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kihyuk; Lee, Seung-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are routes for leukocyte migration and fluid drainage. In addition to their passive roles in migration of leukocytes, increasing evidence indicates their active roles in immune regulation. Tissue inflammation rapidly induces lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and chemokine production, thereby resulting in lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, lymphatic endothelial cells induce T cell tolerance through various mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge on h...

  4. Multiscale Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. The method uses a voxel classification based appearance model, which involves the use of a classifier...... is evaluated within EXACT’09 on a diverse set of CT scans. Results show a favorable combination of a relatively large portion of the tree detected correctly with very few false positives....

  5. LQG Dynamic Positioning for a Supply Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott Ron

    The purpose of this study is to merge my on the job marine experience and the control knowledge gathered throughout my studies at University of California San Diego into a practical control design. This thesis creates a Dynamic Positioning (DP) control loop for a supply vessel which utilizes two azimuthal thrusters as actuators. The control loop is designed to also account for external environmental disturbances and sensor measurement noise. The control loop is accomplished using modern control theory which makes use of known vessel dynamics and assumptions associated with the environment and sensor measurement variances. During this thesis research and design period, a testing platform for the control loop was required. Without the ability to retrofit a physical vessel with the proposed azimuthal thrusters it was determined that a simulation model would be required and was designed and implemented in Matlab Simulink to allow for control loop testing and validation. This simulation model is presented as part of the thesis research and design flow as it was a required element of the design and encompasses the knowledge acquired in my marine work and during my period at UCSD. Control loop performance results were obtained through testing on the generated simulation model. These results allowed for validation and optimization during the design phases of the vessel control loop. The principal conclusions were that the simulation model provided sufficient dynamics to properly execute the required tests to the control loop and that the implemented control loop was capable of operating within the determined parameters set forth in the design validation testing.

  6. Pathogenesis, Experimental Models and Contemporary Pharmacotherapy of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Story About the Brain-Gut Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, S W; Auyeung, K K W; Bian, Z X; Ko, J K S

    2016-01-01

    Although the precise pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains unknown, it is generally considered to be a disorder of the brain-gut axis, representing the disruption of communication between the brain and the digestive system. The present review describes advances in understanding the pathophysiology and experimental approaches in studying IBS, as well as providing an update of the therapies targeting brain-gut axis in the treatment of the disease. Causal factors of IBS are reviewed. Following this, the preclinical experimental models of IBS will be introduced. Besides, both current and future therapeutic approaches of IBS will be discussed. When signal of the brain-gut axis becomes misinterpreted, it may lead to dysregulation of both central and enteric nervous systems, altered intestinal motility, increased visceral sensitivity and consequently contributing to the development of IBS. Interference of the brain-gut axis can be modulated by various psychological and environmental factors. Although there is no existing animal experiment that can represent this complex multifactorial disease, these in vivo models are clinically relevant readouts of gastrointestinal functions being essential to the identification of effective treatments of IBS symptoms as well as their molecular targets. Understanding the brain-gut axis is essential in developing the effective therapy for IBS. Therapies include improvement of GI motor functions, relief of visceral hypersensitivity and pain, attenuation of autonomic dysfunctions and suppression of mucosal immune activation. Target-oriented therapies that provide symptomatic, psychological and physiological benefits could surely help to improve the quality of life of IBS patients.

  7. ITER Vacuum Vessel design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Jones, L. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Jun, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC ' Sintez' , Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector -25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J.; Reich, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2012-08-15

    After implementing a few design modifications (referred to as the 'Modified Reference Design') in 2009, the Vacuum Vessel (VV) design had been stabilized. The VV design is being finalized, including interface components such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils. It is necessary to make adjustments to the locations of the blanket supports and manifolds to accommodate design modifications to the in-vessel coils. The VV support design is also being finalized considering a structural simplification. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. The detailed layout of ferritic steel plates and borated steel plates was optimized based on the toroidal field ripple analysis. A dynamic test on the inter-modular key to support the blanket modules was performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An R and D program has started to select and qualify the welding and cutting processes for the port flange lip seal. The ITER VV material 316 L(N) IG was already qualified and the Modified Reference Design was approved by the Agreed Notified Body (ANB) in accordance with the Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  8. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  9. The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Ella A; Dierkes, Tobias; Sprang, Jürgen; Arnold, Wolfgang H

    2013-03-12

    Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application.

  10. Characterization of off-axis fishbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W W; Muscatello, C M; Zhu, Y B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Austin, M E [Institute of Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Fisher, R K; Strait, E J; Van Zeeland, M A [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Garcia-Munoz, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Matsunaga, G; Shinohara, K [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka City, Ibaraki (Japan); McKee, G R [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Moyer, R A [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Okabayashi, M; Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Pace, D C [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Repetitive bursting instabilities with strong frequency chirping occur in high-beta, beam-heated plasmas with safety factor q > 1 in the DIII-D tokamak. Although the mode structures differ, in many ways, the off-axis fishbones are similar to the q = 1 fishbones first observed on the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX). The modes are driven by energetic trapped ions at the fast-ion precession frequency. During a burst, the frequency changes most rapidly as the mode reaches its maximum amplitude. Larger amplitude bursts have larger growth rates and frequency chirps. Unlike PDX fishbones, the decay phase is highly variable and is usually shorter than the growth phase. Also, the waveform is highly distorted by higher harmonics during the latter portion of a burst. The radial mode structure alters its shape during the burst. Like PDX fishbones, the modes expel trapped ions in a 'beacon' with a definite phase relationship relative to the mode. Seven types of loss detectors measure the beacon. The losses scale linearly with mode amplitude. The neutron rate changes most rapidly at maximum mode amplitude but, depending on the loss diagnostic, the losses often peak a few cycles later. The non-ambipolar fast-ion losses cause a sudden change in toroidal rotation frequency across the entire plasma. In addition to an overall drop, the neutron signal oscillates in response to the wave. Unlike the beacon of lost particles, which maintains a fixed phase relative to the mode, the phase of the neutron oscillations steadily increases throughout the burst, with the greatest phase slippage occurring in the highly nonlinear phase near maximum mode amplitude.

  11. 75 FR 74674 - Updates to Vessel Inspection Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    .... commercial vessels required to maintain a Certificate of Inspection and foreign tankships and mobile offshore... owned ferries from payment of vessel inspection fees. The interim rule also revised the existing... covers U.S. vessel inspection fees plus other fees charged for foreign tankships and foreign mobile...

  12. 50 CFR 622.6 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 622.6 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... permanently affixed to or painted on the vessel in contrasting color to the background. (C) At least 18 inches... vessel or aircraft. (B) In the form of a circle permanently affixed to or painted on the vessel. (C) At...

  13. 46 CFR 308.2 - Requirements for eligible vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the characteristics, employment, and general management of the vessel. The Maritime Administrator... breach of the warranty prescribed hereunder as to vessels in all categories with respect to Department of... warranties as to vessels in categories (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section, with respect to maintenance of...

  14. 50 CFR 660.336 - Pacific whiting vessel licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting vessel licenses. 660.336 Section 660.336 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.336 Pacific whiting vessel licenses. (a) Pacific whiting vessel license—(1...

  15. 50 CFR 300.130 - Vessel and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel and gear restrictions. 300.130... gear restrictions. (a) Factory vessels. Factory vessels are prohibited from operating in treaty waters... top of the trap that, when removed, will leave an opening no smaller than the throat or entrance of...

  16. 46 CFR 308.1 - Eligibility for vessel insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for sport fishing. (b) Any vessel, other than a vessel described in paragraph (a) of this section determined by the Maritime Administrator to be engaged in the national defense or the national economy of the... national defense or the national economy of the United States. Vessels in this category are not eligible...

  17. 46 CFR 42.13-10 - Freeboards assigned vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with mechanical means of propulsion, or lighters, barges, or other vessels without independent means of... Commandant under the procedure of paragraph (f) of this section. (d) Vessels of wood or of composite construction, or of other materials the use of which the Commandant has approved, or vessels whose...

  18. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25.26-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of a...

  19. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each coal...

  20. Vessel involvement in giant cell arteritis : an imaging approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Pieter W.; Sandovici, Maria; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Rutgers, Abraham; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    Vasculitis is classified based on the size of the involved vessels. The two major forms are small vessel vasculitis and large vessel vasculitis (LVV). Main forms of LVV are Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis (GCA), isolated aortitis and chronic periaortitis. This manuscript will focus on GCA,

  1. 46 CFR 90.10-16 - Industrial vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-16 Industrial vessel. This term means every vessel which by reason of its special outfit, purpose, design, or function engages in certain industrial... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial vessel. 90.10-16 Section 90.10-16 Shipping...

  2. Page 1 Multiferforate Plates in Xylem Vessels of Monocotyledonous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transverse section of a root of Alocasia indica showing 6 multiperforate plates in the vessel segments of the metaxylem. X46. FIG. 2.-A number of vessel segments from the root of Crinum asiaticum showing the two ends, x 15. FIG. 3.-Figure showing the arrangement of adjacent vessel segments with long oblique ends.

  3. 27 CFR 28.22 - Vessels employed in the fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fisheries. 28.22 Section 28.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Lading for Use on Certain Vessels and Aircraft § 28.22 Vessels employed in the fisheries. Liquors may be... the fisheries, only for use on vessels of the United States documented to engage in the fisheries and...

  4. Prevalence and comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders among treatment refractory adolescents admitted for specialized psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Feenstra (Dineke); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); R. Verheul (Roel); J. Hutsebaut (Joost)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractResearch shows that approximately half of the adolescents in a clinical setting suffer from a personality disorder (PD). This finding has not yet been replicated in Europe. To test whether this finding also applies to Europe, structured diagnostic interviews for both Axis I and Axis II

  5. Response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, S G; Fu, Y; Valentine, J D; Sharp, B M

    1998-02-01

    Nicotine has been shown to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of the stress-responsive hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and prolactin. This paper reviews the findings by our laboratory and others that demonstrate the polysynaptic pathways involved in the neuroendocrine responses to systemic nicotine. It will focus primarily on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the effect of nicotine on ACTH secretion, with supplementary information on prolactin secretion, where relevant. Data are presented demonstrating that nicotine acts via a central mechanism to stimulate indirectly the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary corticotropes. Nicotine does not appear to act directly at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the site of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons crucial to the regulation of ACTH. However, brainstem catecholaminergic regions projecting to the PVN showed a regionally selective and dose-dependent sensitivity to nicotine, particularly the noradrenergic/adrenergic nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). A reduction in the modulatory effect of these catecholamines (by neurotoxic lesion, synthetic enzyme inhibitors or adrenergic receptor antagonists) resulted in an inhibition of nicotine-stimulated ACTH secretion. In addition, blockade of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (NAchRs) in the brainstem by the antagonist, mecamylamine, resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in norepinephrine (NE) release from terminals in the PVN, and a concomitant reduction in plasma ACTH. The differential sensitivity of these receptors to the nicotinic agonists, cytisine and nicotine, reflects the heterogeneity of the NAchR subtypes involved. The desensitization characteristics of the neuroendocrine responses to both acute and chronic nicotine exposure are indicative of an alteration in these NAchRs.

  6. Clinical science workshop: targeting the gut-liver-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vishal C; White, Helen; Støy, Sidsel; Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Shawcross, Debbie L

    2016-12-01

    A clinical science workshop was held at the ISHEN meeting in London on Friday 11th September 2014 with the aim of thrashing out how we might translate what we know about the central role of the gut-liver-brain axis into targets which we can use in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This review summarises the integral role that inter-organ ammonia metabolism plays in the pathogenesis of HE with specific discussion of the roles that the small and large intestine, liver, brain, kidney and muscle assume in ammonia and glutamine metabolism. Most recently, the salivary and gut microbiome have been shown to underpin the pathophysiological changes which culminate in HE and patients with advanced cirrhosis present with enteric dysbiosis with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and translocation of bacteria and their products across a leaky gut epithelial barrier. Resident macrophages within the liver are able to sense bacterial degradation products initiating a pro-inflammatory response within the hepatic parenchyma and release of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 into the systemic circulation. The endotoxemia and systemic inflammatory response that are generated predispose both to the development of infection as well as the manifestation of covert and overt HE. Co-morbidities such as diabetes and insulin resistance, which commonly accompany cirrhosis, may promote slow gut transit, promote bacterial overgrowth and increase glutaminase activity and may need to be acknowledged in HE risk stratification assessments and therapeutic regimens. Therapies are discussed which target ammonia production, utilisation or excretion at an individual organ level, or which reduce systemic inflammation and endotoxemia which are known to exacerbate the cerebral effects of ammonia in HE. The ideal therapeutic strategy would be to use an agent that can reduce hyperammonemia and reduce systemic inflammation or perhaps to adopt a combination of

  7. Microbiota-Liver Axis in Hepatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Gewirtz, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota, long appreciated to be a key determinant of intestinal inflammation, is also playing a key role in chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. Such studies have yielded a general central hypothesis whereby microbiota products activate the innate immune system to drive pro-inflammatory gene expression thus promoting chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. This article reviews the background supporting this hypothesis, outlines how it can potentially explain classic and newly emerging epidemiological chronic inflammatory liver disease, and discusses potential therapeutic means to manipulate the microbiota so as to prevent and/or treat liver disease. PMID:23703735

  8. Skeletonization algorithm-based blood vessel quantification using in vivo 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburger, K. M.; Nam, S. Y.; Chung, E.; Suggs, L. J.; Emelianov, S. Y.; Molinari, F.

    2016-11-01

    Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption. This enables the detection of light absorbing chromophores such as hemoglobin with a greater penetration depth compared to purely optical techniques. We present here a skeletonization algorithm for vessel architectural analysis using non-invasive photoacoustic 3D images acquired without the administration of any exogenous contrast agents. 3D photoacoustic images were acquired on rats (n  =  4) in two different time points: before and after a burn surgery. A skeletonization technique based on the application of a vesselness filter and medial axis extraction is proposed to extract the vessel structure from the image data and six vascular parameters (number of vascular trees (NT), vascular density (VD), number of branches (NB), 2D distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), and sum of angles metric (SOAM)) were calculated from the skeleton. The parameters were compared (1) in locations with and without the burn wound on the same day and (2) in the same anatomic location before (control) and after the burn surgery. Four out of the six descriptors were statistically different (VD, NB, DM, ICM, p  <  0.05) when comparing two anatomic locations on the same day and when considering the same anatomic location at two separate times (i.e. before and after burn surgery). The study demonstrates an

  9. [Morphogenesis, structure and properties of lymphatic vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajska, Anna; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Flaht, Aleksandra; Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota

    2012-11-19

    In this paper, we present literature results related to structure and various manners of lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development and in pathological events, such as tumorigenesis, wound healing, and other diseases. The functions of the lymphatic system include the collection of fluids that enter tissues from the circulation, absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins from the intestine and their subsequent transport, participation in antigen, dendritic cell, and lymphocyte migration. The lymphatic system is also a route for tumor cell and inflammatory cell transport. Native lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries by having an irregular lumen, a discontinuous basement membrane, absence of pericytes, and a strong anchorage of their endothelial cells to the extracellular matrix via microfibrils built of emilin and fibrillin. Lymphatic endothelial cells express surface antigens such as Lyve-1, podoplanin, VEGFR3 (Flk4) and transcription factor Prox-1, as well as molecules which are common for blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (CD31, CD34, Flk-1, Tie-1, Tie-2, neuropilin 2). Lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development starts with the occurrence of lymphatic sacs sprouting from systemic jugular veins and/or by co-option of lymphangioblasts or hematopoietic-derived cells. It can also proceed by dedifferentiation of venous endothelial cells after their detachment from the venous system, migration to the target places within the body and assembly in the lymphatic lumen. Mechanisms of lymphatic vessel formation during embryonic development and in pathological conditions, such as tumorigenesis, wound healing, and metastasis, is regulated by a plethora of growth factors and molecules, among which the most important are VEGF-C, VEGF-D, HGF, FGF, retinoic acid, IL-3, and IL-7. Macrophages and cells bearing CD45 phenotype seem to take part in the formation of lymphatics. Macrophages might act as a source of growth

  10. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Modulation of Glucocorticoids in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie G. Burford

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The collective of endocrine organs acting in homeostatic regulation—known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis—comprises an integration of the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues. These organs respond to imminent or perceived threats that elicit a stress response, primarily culminating in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation by the adrenal glands. Although the secretion of glucocorticoids serves to protect and maintain homeostasis in the typical operation at baseline levels, inadequate regulation can lead to physiologic and psychologic pathologies. The cardiovascular system is especially susceptible to prolonged dysregulation of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid production. There is debate about whether cardiovascular health risks arise from the direct detrimental effects of stress axis activation or whether pathologies develop secondary to the accompanying metabolic strain of excess glucocorticoids. In this review, we will explore the emerging research that indicates stress does have direct effects on the cardiovascular system via the HPA axis activation, with emphasis on the latest research on the impact of glucocorticoids signaling in the vasculature and the heart.

  11. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Modulation of Glucocorticoids in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Natalie G.; Webster, Natalia A.; Cruz-Topete, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The collective of endocrine organs acting in homeostatic regulation—known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis—comprises an integration of the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues. These organs respond to imminent or perceived threats that elicit a stress response, primarily culminating in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation by the adrenal glands. Although the secretion of glucocorticoids serves to protect and maintain homeostasis in the typical operation at baseline levels, inadequate regulation can lead to physiologic and psychologic pathologies. The cardiovascular system is especially susceptible to prolonged dysregulation of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid production. There is debate about whether cardiovascular health risks arise from the direct detrimental effects of stress axis activation or whether pathologies develop secondary to the accompanying metabolic strain of excess glucocorticoids. In this review, we will explore the emerging research that indicates stress does have direct effects on the cardiovascular system via the HPA axis activation, with emphasis on the latest research on the impact of glucocorticoids signaling in the vasculature and the heart. PMID:29035323

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning as predictor of antidepressant response-Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Susanne; Macare, Christine; Cleare, Anthony J

    2017-10-12

    Although antidepressants are effective, around 50% of depressed patients are non-responsive. At the same time, some patients show alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Due to interactions with central monoaminergic systems, these may profit less from antidepressants. To determine whether non-responders and responders differed in pre-treatment HPA axis functioning, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched. Studies using patients with depression being treated with antidepressants, and including both a pre-treatment HPA and a post-treatment response measure were included. Standardised mean differences were calculated for meta-analysis. Thirty-nine studies were included. Non-responders and responders did not differ in pre-treatment corticotropin-releasing hormone or adrenocorticotropic hormone. Meta-regression showed non-responders had comparably higher pre-treatment cortisol in studies measuring cortisol non-invasively, not reporting sample storage, failing to control for age, and excluding patients with comorbidities. Only studies with a specific methodological profile seem to be able to show that the more marked depressed patients' alterations in the HPA axis, the less likely they are to profit from antidepressants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In-vessel core debris retention through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel. State-of-the-art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heel, A.M.J.M. van

    1995-07-01

    An overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the ex-vessel flooding accident management strategy for severe accidents in a NPP has been given. The feasibility has been discussed, as well as the in- and ex-vessel phenomena, which influence the structural integrity of the vessel. Finally, some computer codes with the ability to model the phenomena involved in ex-vessel flooding have been discussed. (orig./HP).

  14. Petrology of seamounts in the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Evidence for near-axis origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Batiza, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    in the Mid Atlantic Ridge rift valley near latitude 36°49'N. Geological Society of America Bulletin 88:556-570 Castillo P, Batiza R and Stern RJ (1985) Petrology and Geochem- istry of Neura basin igneous complex: Large volume, off-ridge eruptions of MORB...

  15. Gut-central nervous system axis is a target for nutritional therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel Gustavo D; Micheletti Thayana O; Pace Fernanda; Rosa José C; Santos Ronaldo VT; Lira Fabio S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake. Likewise, the advances of physiological and molec...

  16. Aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels and impaired lymphatic drainage in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinecke, Anna-Katharina; Nagy, Nadine; Lago, Gabriela D'Amico; Kirmse, Santina; Klose, Ralph; Schrödter, Katrin; Zimmermann, Annika; Helfrich, Iris; Rundqvist, Helene; Theegarten, Dirk; Anhenn, Olaf; Orian-Rousseau, Véronique; Johnson, Randall S; Alitalo, Kari; Fischer, Jens W; Fandrey, Joachim; Stockmann, Christian

    2012-06-14

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease with unknown etiology that is characterized by extensive remodeling of the lung parenchyma, ultimately resulting in respiratory failure. Lymphatic vessels have been implicated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis, but the role of the lymphatic vasculature in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis remains enigmatic. Here we show in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis that lymphatic vessels exhibit ectopic mural coverage and that this occurs early during the disease. The abnormal lymphatic vascular patterning in fibrotic lungs was driven by expression of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) in lymphatic endothelial cells and signaling through platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β in associated mural cells. Because of impaired lymphatic drainage, aberrant mural cell coverage fostered the accumulation of fibrogenic molecules and the attraction of fibroblasts to the perilymphatic space. Pharmacologic inhibition of the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β signaling axis disrupted the association of mural cells and lymphatic vessels, improved lymphatic drainage of the lung, and prevented the attraction of fibroblasts to the perilymphatic space. Our results implicate aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and that the drainage capacity of pulmonary lymphatics is a critical mediator of fibroproliferative changes.

  17. 75 FR 39957 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel/Well Stimulation Vessel BLUE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Vessel BLUE TARPON AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces that a Certificate of Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel BLUE TARPON as required by 33... Title 33, Code of Federal Regulation, Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel...

  18. ITER vacuum vessel fabrication plan and cost study (D 68) for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    ITER Task No. 8, Vacuum Vessel Fabrication Plan and Cost Study (D68), was initiated to assess ITER vacuum vessel fabrication, assembly, and cost. The industrial team of Raytheon Engineers & Constructors and Chicago Bridge & Iron (Raytheon/CB&I) reviewed the current vessel basis and prepared a manufacturing plan, assembly plan, and cost estimate commensurate with the present design. The guidance for the Raytheon/CB&I assessment activities was prepared by the ITER Garching Work Site. This guidance provided in the form of work descriptions, sketches, drawings, and costing guidelines for each of the presently identified vacuum vessel Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements was compiled in ITER Garching Joint Work Site Memo (Draft No. 9 - G 15 MD 01 94-17-05 W 1). A copy of this document is provided as Appendix 1 to this report. Additional information and clarifications required for the Raytheon/CB&I assessments were coordinated through the US Home Team (USHT) and its technical representative. Design details considered essential to the Task 8 assessments but not available from the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) were generated by Raytheon/CB&I and documented accordingly.

  19. Psychiatric (Axis I) and personality (Axis II) disorders and subjective psychiatric symptoms in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlsten, Hanna; Taiminen, Tero; Karukivi, Max; Sjösten, Noora; Nikkilä, Johanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Paavola, Janika; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-11-30

    Chronic tinnitus has been associated with several psychiatric disorders. Only few studies have investigated these disorders using validated diagnostic interviews. The aims were to diagnose psychiatric and personality disorders with structured interviews, to assess self-rated psychiatric symptoms and elucidate temporal relations between psychiatric disorders and tinnitus. Current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of axis-I (psychiatric disorders) and axis-II (personality disorders) were assessed using structured clinical interviews (SCID-I and -II). Current subjective psychiatric symptoms were evaluated via self-rating instruments: the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). 83 patients (mean age 51.7, 59% men) with chronic, disturbing tinnitus and a median Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 32. The rates of lifetime and current major depression were 26.5% and 2.4%. The lifetime rate of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (type C) was 8.4%. None of the patients had cluster B personality disorder or psychotic symptoms. The SCL-90 subscales did not differ from the general population, and median DES score was low, 2.4. Tinnitus patients are prone to episodes of major depression and often also have obsessive-compulsive personality features. Psychiatric disorders seem to be comorbid or predisposing conditions rather than consequences of tinnitus. Clinical trial reference: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT 01929837).

  20. Model Of Navigational Safety Of Fishing Vessels In Polish EEZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przywarty Marcin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the assumptions of a simulation model for assessing the navigational safety of fishing vessels. The model consist of submodels of merchant and fishing vessels traffic, submodel of external condition and submodel of accident consequences. Paper present also a results of simulation experiment which was carried out for Polish EEZ. Model takes into account all Polish fishing vessels operating in the Polish EEZ with length more than 15 meters and the merchant vessels traffic in South Baltic Sea area. As a results positions of simulated collisions of fishing and merchant vessels, positions and sizes of simulated bunker spills and the positions of losses of fishing equipment were achieved.

  1. The passive biomechanics of human pelvic collecting lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Dimitrios; Edgar, Lowell T; Jafarnejad, Mohammad; Nixon, Katherine; Duarte, Delfim; Hawkins, Edwin D; Jamalian, Samira; Cunnea, Paula; Lo Celso, Cristina; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Fotopoulou, Christina; Moore, James E

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic system has a major significance in the metastatic pathways in women's cancers. Lymphatic pumping depends on both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, and the mechanical behavior of lymphatic vessels regulates the function of the system. However, data on the mechanical properties and function of human lymphatics are lacking. Our aim is to characterize, for the first time, the passive biomechanical behavior of human collecting lymphatic vessels removed at pelvic lymph node dissection during primary debulking surgeries for epithelial ovarian cancer. Isolated vessels were cannulated and then pressurized at varying levels of applied axial stretch in a calcium-free Krebs buffer. Pressurized vessels were then imaged using multi-photon microscopy for collagen-elastin structural composition and fiber orientation. Both pressure-diameter and force-elongation responses were highly nonlinear, and axial stretching of the vessel served to decrease diameter at constant pressure. Pressure-diameter behavior for the human vessels is very similar to data from rat mesenteric vessels, though the human vessels were approximately 10× larger than those from rats. Multiphoton microscopy revealed the vessels to be composed of an inner layer of elastin with an outer layer of aligned collagen fibers. This is the first study that successfully described the passive biomechanical response and composition of human lymphatic vessels in patients with ovarian cancer. Future work should expand on this knowledge base with investigations of vessels from other anatomical locations, contractile behavior, and the implications on metastatic cell transport.

  2. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  3. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.

    1982-02-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  4. Risk Assessment for Fishing Vessels at Fishing Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Moyseenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety and efficiency of fishing fleet activity depend largely on the quality of management decisions. Cause-and-effect relationships of accidents involving fishing vessels were identified by means of an analysis of emergencies and fishing incidents. The suggested method of risks calculation is based on the use of statistical methods, fuzzy sets/expert estimations method and the probability theory. The following most common tasks are presented and solved: - there is an impact of two or more independent negative factors/events on the vessel such as failure of a sonar, a vessel operator error, another vessel operator error. - a transport vessel carries out loading and unloading of fishing vessels under different environmental conditions. The value of the risk of an emergency incident is determined. - the fishing vessel navigation performs under various meteorological conditions. A priori probability of incident-free operation is calculated according to expert estimations.

  5. An empirical method for calculating melt compositions produced beneath mid-ocean ridges: for axis and off-axis (seamounts) melting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Rodey

    1991-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating the major element compositions of primary melts parental to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). This model is based on the experimental data of Jaques and Green (1980), Falloon et al. (1988), and Falloon and Green (1987, 1988) which are ideal for this purpose. Our method is empirical and employs solid-liquid partition coefficients (Di) from the experiments. We empirically determine Di=f(P,F) and use this to calculate melt compositions produced by decompression-induced melting along an adiabat (column melting). Results indicate that most MORBs can be generated by 10-20% partial melting at initial pressures (P0) of 12-21 kbar. Our primary MORB melts have MgO=10-12 wt %. We fractionate these at low pressure to an MgO content of 8.0 wt% in order to interpret natural MORB liquids. This model allows us to calculate Po, Pf, To, Tf, and F for natural MORB melts. We apply the model to interpret MORB compositions and mantle upwelling patterns beneath a fast ridge (East Pacific Rise (EPR) 8°N to 14°N), a slow ridge (mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at 26°S), and seamounts near the EPR (Lamont seamount chain). We find mantle temperature differences of up to 50°-60°C over distances of 30-50 km both across axis and along axis at the EPR. We propose that these are due to upward mantle flow in a weakly conductive (versus adiabatic) temperature gradient. We suggest that the EPR is fed by a wide (~100 km) zone of upwelling due to plate separation but has a central core of faster buoyant flow. An along-axis thermal dome between the Siqueiros transform and the 11°45' Overlapping Spreading Center (OSC) may represent such an upwelling; however, in general there is a poor correlation between mantle temperature, topography, and the segmentation pattern at the EPR. For the Lamont seamounts we find regular across-axis changes in Po and F suggesting that the melt zone pinches out off axis. This observation supports the idea that the EPR is fed by a broad

  6. An empirical method for calculating melt compositions produced beneath mid-ocean ridges: Application for axis and off-axis (seamounts) melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaoling; Batiza, Rodey

    1991-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating the major element compositions of primary melts parental to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). This model is based on the experimental data of Jaques and Green (1980), Falloon et al. (1988), and Falloon and Green (1987, 1988) which are ideal for this purpose. Our method is empirical and employs solid-liquid partition coefficients (Di) from the experiments. We empirically determine Di = ƒ(P,F) and use this to calculate melt compositions produced by decompression-induced melting along an adiabat (column melting). Results indicate that most MORBs can be generated by 10-20% partial melting at initial pressures (P0) of 12-21 kbar. Our primary MORB melts have MgO = 10-12 wt %. We fractionate these at low pressure to an MgO content of 8.0 wt % in order to interpret natural MORB liquids. This model allows us to calculate Po, Pƒ, To, Tƒ, and F for natural MORB melts. We apply the model to interpret MORB compositions and mantle upwelling patterns beneath a fast ridge (East Pacific Rise (EPR)8°N to 14°N), a slow ridge (mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) at 26°S), and seamounts near the EPR (Lament seamount chain). We find mantle temperature differences of up to 50°-60°C over distances of 30-50 km both across axis and along axis at the EPR. We propose that these are due to upward mantle flow in a weakly conductive (versus adiabatic) temperature gradient. We suggest that the EPR is fed by a wide (-100 km) zone of upwelling due to plate separation but has a central core of faster buoyant flow. An along-axis thermal dome between the Siqueiros transform and the 11°45' Overlapping Spreading center (OSC) may represent such an upwelling; however, in general there is a poor correlation between mantle temperature, topography, and the segmentation pattern at the EPR. For the Lament seamounts we find regular across-axis changes in Po and F suggesting that the melt zone pinches out off axis. This observation supports the idea that the EPR is fed by a

  7. Gut-brain axis: Role of lipids in the regulation of inflammation, pain and CNS diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberto; Cristiano, Claudia; Avagliano, Carmen; De Caro, Carmen; La Rana, Giovanna; Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Canani, Roberto Berni; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2017-02-16

    The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites. Many studies have focused on delineating a role for this axis in health and disease, ranging from stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, and to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson Disease, Alzheimer Disease etc. Based on this background, and considering the relevance of alteration of the symbiotic state between host and microbiota, this review focuses on the role and the involvement of bioactive lipids, such as the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) family whose main members are N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoilethanolamide (OEA), and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, belonging to a large group of bioactive lipids able to modulate peripheral and central pathologic processes. It is well established their effective role in inflammation, acute and chronic pain, obesity and central nervous system diseases. It has been shown a possible correlation between these lipids and gut microbiota through different mechanisms. Indeed, systemic administration of specific bacteria can reduce abdominal pain through the involvement of cannabinoid receptor 1 in rat; on the other hand, PEA reduces inflammation markers in a murine model of inflammatory bowel

  8. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  9. Hydrothermal alteration studies of gabbros from Northern Central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mylonitic gabbro and altered gabbro were recovered from off-axis high and corner high locations at ridge-transform intersection, adjacent to Vityaz transform fault of the slow spreading (32–35mm/yr, full spreading) Northern Central Indian Ridge. Both the varieties show signatures of extensive alteration caused due to ...

  10. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  11. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and coronary collateral vessel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev; Akyel, Ahmet; Timurkaynak, Timur; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in collateral vessel development. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis may impair the effective coronary collateral vessel development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma ADMA level and coronary collateral vessel development. The patients with a greater than or equal to 95% obstruction in at least one epicardial coronary artery were included in the study. Degree of coronary collateral development was determined according to Rentrop method. Patients with grade 2-3 collateral development were regarded as good collateral group and formed group I. The patients with grade 0-1 collateral development were regarded as poor collateral group and were included in group II. Group III that had been formed as a control group included the patients with a normal coronary angiogram. We compared the plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio among three groups. Seventy-four patients have been included in the study. Patients with good collateral development had lower plasma ADMA level in comparison with patients with poor collateral development (0.41+/-0.25 micromol/l vs. 0.70+/-0.23 micromol/l, P=0.001) and had similar plasma ADMA levels with the patients who have normal coronary arteries. When we compared L-arginine/ADMA ratio between good and poor collateral groups, we found that the patients with higher L-arginine/ADMA ratio have significantly better collateral development (270.8+/-168.0 vs. 120.9+/-92.1, P<0.001). In the analyses comparing Rentrop score with ADMA level and L-arginine/ADMA ratio, there were significant correlations (r=-0.444, P=0.008 and r=0.553, P=0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, ADMA level (odds ratio, 0.009; 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.466, P=0.020) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio (odds ratio, 1.010; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.020, P=0.032) were independent predictors of collateral development. Increased

  12. Kendall Analysis of Cannon Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    Comparisons”, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 123, 271-281. [5] Underwood, J.H., deSwardt, R.R., Venter, A.M., Troiano , E., Hyland...Pressure and Fatigue Life,” ASME PVP Conference, San Antonio, TX, July 22-26, 2007. [6] J.H. Underwood, A.P. Parker, E. Troiano , 2006, “Effect of...Paris and G..R. Irwin, 1985, The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, Paris Productions Inc., St. Louis, MO. [8] E. Troiano , A.P. Parker and J.H

  13. Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This component will be larger than any nuclear reactor pressure vessel presently in service in the United States. The RPV will be taller, larger in diameter, thicker walled, heavier and most likely fabricated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site of multiple subcomponent pieces. The pressure vessel steel can either be a conventional materials already used in the nuclear industry such as listed within ASME A508/A533 specifications or it will be fabricated from newer pressure vessel materials never before used for a nuclear reactor in the US. Each of these characteristics will present a

  14. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States : calendar year 2008. Volume 2 : vessel company summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-16

    The Vessel Company Summary, Volume 2, : is one of three publications for the annual : revision of the WTLUS, which provides a summary : of the vessel companies detailed in the : WTLUS, Vessel Characteristics, Volume 3. : The names of the vessel compa...

  15. The Vagus Nerve at the Interface of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaz, Bruno; Bazin, Thomas; Pellissier, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    The microbiota, the gut, and the brain communicate through the microbiota-gut-brain axis in a bidirectional way that involves the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve (VN), the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is able to sense the microbiota metabolites through its afferents, to transfer this gut information to the central nervous system where it is integrated in the central autonomic network, and then to generate an adapted or inappropriate response. A cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has been described through VN's fibers, which is able to dampen peripheral inflammation and to decrease intestinal permeability, thus very probably modulating microbiota composition. Stress inhibits the VN and has deleterious effects on the gastrointestinal tract and on the microbiota, and is involved in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which are both characterized by a dysbiosis. A low vagal tone has been described in IBD and IBS patients thus favoring peripheral inflammation. Targeting the VN, for example through VN stimulation which has anti-inflammatory properties, would be of interest to restore homeostasis in the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  16. "Y Sign" at the Level of the 3-Vessel and Trachea View: An Effective Fetal Marker of Aortic Dextroposition Anomalies in the First Trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternok, Marcin; Nocun, Agnieszka; Knafel, Anna; Grzesiak, Mariusz; Orzechowski, Maciej; Konarska, Katarzyna; Ludwin, Artur; Ludwin, Inga; Zymroz, Piotr; Parzynska, Anna; Wiechec, Marcin

    2017-12-27

    The "Y sign" at the level of the 3-vessel and trachea view corresponds to thinning of main pulmonary artery and arterial duct and a dilated transverse aortic arch. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Y sign for the diagnosis of aortic dextroposition anomalies at the time of the first-trimester scan and to assess the screening performance of only the Y sign, only abnormal left axis deviation (axis sign), and their combination for the diagnosis of aortic dextroposition anomalies. A prospective evaluation of 6025 pregnant women undergoing first-trimester ultrasonography was conducted. The cardiac axis was measured in all examined patients and considered abnormal (positive axis sign) at greater than 57 °. The frequency of the Y sign and the axis sign was assessed for this population, and their screening performance for the diagnosis of aortic dextroposition anomalies was calculated. A total of 5775 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Aortic dextroposition anomalies were diagnosed in 17 cases (tetralogy of Fallot in 8 and Fallot-like double-outlet right ventricle in 9). The Y sign was found in 18 of 5775 (0.3%) fetuses examined, of which 7 of 18 were confirmed with tetralogy of Fallot, 9 of 18 with a Fallot-like double-outlet right ventricle, and 2 of 18 with pulmonary stenosis. A positive axis sign of greater than 57 ° was found in 20 fetuses, including 4 with normal heart anatomy. The sensitivity values of the Y sign, the axis sign, and their combination were 94%, 76%, and 94%, respectively. Visualization of the Y sign should increase the suspicion of aortic dextroposition anomalies in the late first trimester. The screening performance of the Y sign alone and in combination with an abnormal cardiac axis was high and may aid in the early diagnosis of aortic dextroposition anomalies in the fetus. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  18. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  19. Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.

    2006-06-01

    This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

  20. Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle...

  1. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine....... This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor...

  2. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 1 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 1 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  3. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a "reno-pineal axis." Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the "reno-pineal axis" in greater detail.

  4. Estimates of parabolic cylinder functions on the real axis

    OpenAIRE

    Pokrovski, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    We estimate simple combination of the parabolic cylinder functions and their derivatives. These estimates are important for the spectral analysis of non-analytically perturbed quantum harmonic oscillator. The estimates are valid in rather complicated domains and refine there the classical result of Olver. We determine the part of the real x-axis, which is within the domains of the estimates. This requires a detailed study of the image of the real x-axis in the standard quasiclassical variable.

  5. Improved Controller for a Three-Axis Piezoelectric Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    An improved closed-loop controller has been built for a three-axis piezoelectric positioning stage. The stage can be any of a number of commercially available or custom-made units that are used for precise three-axis positioning of optics in astronomical instruments and could be used for precise positioning in diverse fields of endeavor that include adaptive optics, fabrication of semiconductors, and nanotechnology.

  6. Young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaça, Joana; Molina, Judith; Arrojo e Drigo, Rafael; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Jeon, Won Bae; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic islets secrete hormones that play a key role in regulating blood glucose levels (glycemia). Age-dependent impairment of islet function and concomitant dysregulation of glycemia are major health threats in aged populations. However, the major causes of the age-dependent decline of islet function are still disputed. Here we demonstrate that aging of pancreatic islets in mice and humans is notably associated with inflammation and fibrosis of islet blood vessels but does not affect glucose sensing and the insulin secretory capacity of islet beta cells. Accordingly, when transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye of young mice with diabetes, islets from old mice are revascularized with healthy blood vessels, show strong islet cell proliferation, and fully restore control of glycemia. Our results indicate that beta cell function does not decline with age and suggest that islet function is threatened by an age-dependent impairment of islet vascular function. Strategies to mitigate age-dependent dysregulation in glycemia should therefore target systemic and/or local inflammation and fibrosis of the aged islet vasculature. PMID:25404292

  7. Analisa Greenwater Akibat Gerakan Offshore Security Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidya Octaviani Bustamin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisa  Tugas  Akhir  ini,  terdiri  atas  beberapa  tahapan.  Yang pertama yaitu perancangan struktur Offshore Security Vessel (OSV dengan bantuan software MAXSURF guna mendapatkan Lines Plan. Offset data yang diperoleh digunakan dalam pemodelan menggunakan MOSES,  kemudian  dilakukan  analisa  gerak  OSV  dalam  gelombang  regular  dan dinyatakan dalam grafik RAO. Analisa gerak relatif vertikal  haluan dihitung dari RAO gerakan, dan kemudian melakukan evaluasi perilaku di gelombang acak dengan analisis spektra gelombang. Dari analisa spektra didapatkan parameter greenwater sehingga dapat dihitung peluang, intensitas dan tekanan greenwater. Dari hasil analisa diperoleh RAO gerak vertikal Offshore Security Vessel (OSV pada  gelombang  reguler yang dipengaruhi  oleh  kecepatan,  kondisi  muatan  dan arah gelombang. Peluang terjadinya greenwater terbesar terjadi pada sudut datang gelombang following sea (0o dimana harga terbesar terjadi pada ω = 0.2 rad/sec dengan periode 29 detik mencapai 0.477. Intensitas greenwater terbesar terjadi pada saat sudut datang gelombang following sea (0o adalah sebanyak 59.265 per jam dan 0.378 per detik. Tekanan greenwater terbesar terjadi pada saat sudut datang gelombang head sea (180o sebesar 1678x10-6 MPa. Dengan nilai tersebut, deck mampu menahan beban akibat tekanan greenwater.

  8. Structural integrity of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, John F.

    2013-09-01

    The paper starts from concerns expressed by Sir Alan Cottrell, in the early 1970s, related to the safety of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) proposed at that time for the next phase of electrical power generation. It proceeds to describe the design and operation of nuclear generation plant and gives details of the manufacture of PWR reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). Attention is paid to stress-relief cracking and under-clad cracking, experienced with early RPVs, explaining the mechanisms for these forms of cracking and the means taken to avoid them. Particular note is made of the contribution of non-destructive inspection to structural integrity. Factors affecting brittle fracture in RPV steels are described: in particular, effects of neutron irradiation. The use of fracture mechanics to assess defect tolerance is explained, together with the failure assessment diagram embodied in the R6 procedure. There is discussion of the Master Curve and how it incorporates effects of irradiation on fracture toughness. Dangers associated with extrapolation of data to low probabilities are illustrated. The treatment of fatigue-crack growth is described, in the context of transients that may be experienced in the operation of PWR plant. Detailed attention is paid to the thermal shock associated with a large loss-of-coolant accident. The final section reviews the arguments advanced to justify 'Incredibility of Failure' and how these are incorporated in assessments of the integrity of existing plant and proposed 'new build' PWR pressure vessels.

  9. Using Seasonal Forecasting Data for Vessel Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ray; Kirtman, Ben

    2017-04-01

    We present an assessment of seasonal forecasting of surface wind speed, significant wave height and ocean surface current speed in the North Pacific for potential use of vessel routing from Singapore to San Diego. WaveWatchIII is forced with surface winds and ocean surface currents from the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) retrospective forecasts for the period of 1982-2015. Several lead time forecasts are used from zero months to six months resulting in 2,720 model years, ensuring the findings from this study are robust. July surface wind speed and significant wave height can be skillfully forecast with a one month lead time, with the western North Pacific being the most predictable region. Beyond May initial conditions (lead time of two months) the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Spring predictability barrier limits skill of significant wave height but there is skill for surface wind speed with January initial conditions (lead time of six months). In a separate study of vessel routing between Norfolk, Virginia and Gibraltar we demonstrate the benefit of a multimodel approach using the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME). In collaboration with Charles River Analytics an all-encompassing forecast is presented by using machine learning on the various ensembles which can be using used for industry applications.

  10. Detecting Vessels Carrying Migrants Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfyridis, A.; Cheng, T.; Vespe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  11. DETECTING VESSELS CARRYING MIGRANTS USING MACHINE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sfyridis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  12. Optic axis-driven new horizons for hyperbolic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boardman Allan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad assertion here is that the current hyperbolic metamaterial world is only partially served by investigations that incorporate only some limited version of anisotropy. Even modest deviations of the optic axis from the main propagation axis lead to new phase shifts, which not only compete with those created by absorption but end up dominating them. Some progress has been attempted in the literature by introducing the terms “asymmetric hyperbolic media”, but it appears that this kind of asymmetry only involves an optic axis at an angle to the interface of a uniaxial crystal. From a device point of view, many new prospects should appear and the outcomes of the investigations presented here yield a new general theory. It is emphasised that the orientation of the optic axis is a significant determinant in the resulting optical properties. Whereas for conventional anisotropic waveguides homogeneous propagating waves occur over a limited range of angular dispositions of the optic axis it is shown that for a hyperbolic guide a critical angular setting exists, above which the guided waves are always homogeneous. This has significant implications for metawaveguide designs. The resulting structures are more tolerant to optic axis misalignment.

  13. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  14. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  15. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  16. Diazepam increases the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity by a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M Luisa; Abella, Cristina; Hernandez, Jesus

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that diazepam behaves as a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE 4) inhibitor. It has been reported that PDE-4 inhibitors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in the rat. In the present study we have examined whether activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is involved in the effect of diazepam on basal HPA axis activity. Acute systemic administration of diazepam (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) was found to increase the basal HPA axis activity, increasing the plasma concentrations of corticotrophin (ACTH) and corticosterone 30 min post injection. Diazepam also elevated cyclic AMP content of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment of the animals with dexamethasone (1 mg kg−1 s.c.) for 3 days completely abolished the effect of diazepam on HPA axis activity. The antagonists of central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, flumazenil (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) and PK 11195 (5 mg kg−1 i.p.) did not affect the diazepam induced increase of HPA axis activity nor did they have an effect per se. The increase in ACTH and corticosterone levels was significantly reduced by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, H-89, given either subcutaneously (5 mg kg−1 s.c.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.; 28 μg in 10 μl). The results indicate that diazepam can stimulate basal HPA axis activity in the rat by a cyclic AMP-dependent PKA mediated pathway. PMID:11498522

  17. 77 FR 55439 - Vessel Traffic Service Updates, Including Establishment of Vessel Traffic Service Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... SOLAS Convention since 2004. Because AIS carriage is required by regulation under 33 CFR 164.46 for... Waterway Safety Assessment PAWSS Port and Waterways Safety System PWSA Ports and Waterways Safety Act SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea U.S.C. United States Code VTM Vessel Traffic Management...

  18. Modeling the microclimate inside a vessel in in vitro culture : vessel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    Numerical simulations show that variations in vessel internal humidity was ... Keywords : Agar, in vitro culture, microclimate, modeling, transfer coefficient. ... determining the atmospheric conditions inside .... is a function of air speed was used. .... latent heat of evaporation, R the gas constant and .... mesoscale circulation.

  19. 78 FR 51664 - Vessel Traffic Service Updates, Including Establishment of Vessel Traffic Service Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... pool gauge is at approximately 13.0 feet or above. Lower Mississippi River--0036699952: New Orleans... of Vessel Traffic Service Requirements for Port Arthur, Texas and Expansion of VTS Special Operating... for Port Arthur, Texas and Expansion of VTS Special Operating Area in Puget Sound'' (77 FR 55439). The...

  20. Cognitive profiles in degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology and small vessel vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Antonella; Cipollini, Virginia; Donato, Nicole; Sepe-Monti, Micaela; Orzi, Francesco; Giubilei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Although a large number of studies have examined possible differences in cognitive performance between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), the data in the literature are conflicting. The aims of this study were to analyze the neuropsychological pattern of subjects affected by degenerative dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology (DD) and small vessel VaD subjects in the early stages and to investigate differences in the progression of cognitive impairment. Seventy-five patients with probable VaD and 75 patients with probable DD were included. All the subjects underwent a standard neuropsychological evaluation, including the following test: Visual Search, Attentional matrices, Story Recall, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, Phonological and Semantic Verbal Fluency, Token, and Copying Drawings. The severity of cognitive impairment was stratified according to the MMSE score. Fifteen subjects with probable DD and 10 subjects with probable VaD underwent a 12-month cognitive re-evaluation. No significant difference was found between DD and VaD subjects in any of the neuropsychological tests except Story Recall in the mild cognitive impairment (P dementia without evidence of small vessel pathology from small vessel VaD in the early stages of these diseases.