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Sample records for vessel acid digestion

  1. Determinotion of Apparent and True Amino Acid Digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behrooz

    However, it is recognized that in the diet formulation for chickens the digestibility of amino acids is required rather than the gross amino acid content of the dietary ingredients. The purpose of this study was to determine the digestibility of the amino acids in artemia meal when using the amino acid content of ileal digesta vs.

  2. Toxicity and biodegradability of caffeic acid in anaerobic digesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to treat waste caffeic acid by anaerobic digestion and adsorption of its derivates, in order to reduce the contribution to global warming and to protect the environment. Keywords: anaerobes, anaerobic digestion, biogas, biomass, caffeic acid, graphene, inhibition, polyphenols, renewable energy, toxicity, wastewater ...

  3. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Effects of biopolymer encapsulation on trans fatty acid digestibility in an in vitro human digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan; Chun, Se Chul; Lee, Si Kyung; Keum, Young Soo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of trans fatty acids by using an in vitro human digestion model. We simulated the main components of the human digestive system using a dialysis tubing system that contained synthetic saliva, gastric juice, and digestive enzymes of the small intestine. Trans fatty acid-enriched fat was encapsulated with 1% chitosan, pectin, cellulose, and β-glucan, and passed through the model system. Samples of trans fatty acid-enriched fat that were unencapsulated were more digestible than those that were encapsulated in biopolymers. Moreover, the levels of trans octadecenoic acids (18 : 1t) formed during the digestion of trans fatty acid-enriched fat were decreased upon biopolymer encapsulation. Fat samples enriched with trans fatty acids that were encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid contents and lipid oxidation values than unencapsulated control samples. These findings improve our understanding of the effects of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and trans fatty acids within the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (Poats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  6. Effect of bile acids on digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Stremoukhov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the effects of different bile acids in the body in recent years significantly increased the understanding of their physiological functions. The role of bile acids is to transfer to Striated border of enterocytes lipids in high micellar concentration and subsequent return them to the water layer in the molecular form. The rate of diffusion of molecules or particles is inversely proportional to the square root of the magnitude of their molecular weight. Main components of the glycoprotein complex (GPC allows to preserve the natural structure of mucosa. Previous physicochemical experiments on GPC established presence of bile acids (3,5 to 10 mg/ml, enzymes (amylase and lipase, amino acids (from 10150 to 29500 ug/ml in the complex. Objective. The aim was to study the influence of bile on fat filtration on the model of GPC. Method and Materials. Soaked filters were put on the tubes: with bile - the first, water - the second group, GPC bile at a dose of 25 mg/kg - the third group. Then on each filter was poured 2 ml of liquid fat. 30 minutes after the start of the experiment the amount of liquid fat that passes through the filter was measured. Results and Discussion. As established in the first group (bile medical, the amount of liquid fat, which passed through the filter amounted to 1,85±0,02 ml. In the second group (water - 0,30 ± 0,03 ml. In the third group (GPC 25 mg/kg - 1,75±0,02 ml. After that the impact of GPC bile in emulsification of fats was studied. 1 ml of vegetable oil and 1,5 ml of purified water were contributed in three series of tubes. The first series of test tubes left unchanged. In the other two 2 ml in 2 series - medical bile in 3 series - GPC bile were added. Tubes were shaken in all series. In the first (control series observed the formation of turbid fluid - emulsion. However, in a few seconds instability of the emulsion was detected. In the second and third series of tubes formation of stable emulsions which are

  7. A simple design for microwave assisted digestion vessel with low reagent consumption suitable for food and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Behkami, Shima; Zain, Sharifuddin Md.; Bakirdere, Sezgin

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to prepare a cost-effective, low reagent consumption and high performance polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vessel that is capable to work in domestic microwave for digesting food and environmental samples. The designed vessel has a relatively thicker wall compared to that of commercial vessels. In this design, eight vessels are placed in an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) holder to keep them safe and stable. This vessel needs only 2.0 mL of HNO3 and 1.0 mL H2O2 to digest 100 mg of biological sample. The performance of this design is then evaluated with an ICP-MS instrument in the analysis of the several NIST standard reference material of milk 1849a, rice flour 1568b, spinach leave 1570a and Peach Leaves 1547 in a domestic microwave oven with inverter technology. Outstanding agreement to (SRM) values are observed by using the suggested power to time microwave program, which simulates the reflux action occurring in this closed vessel. Taking into account the high cost of commercial microwave vessels and the volume of chemicals needed for various experiments (8-10 mL), this simple vessel is cost effective and suitable for digesting food and environmental samples.

  8. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases.

  9. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lili; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Huang, Wendong

    2015-03-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases.

  10. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Ding; Li Yang; Zhengtao Wang; Wendong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids(BAs) are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules,which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bileacid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor(FXR), plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid,lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles ofFXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases.

  11. Fatty Acid Profiles of In Vitro Digested Processed Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Digestion of milkfat releases some long-chain (18-carbon fatty acids (FAs that can provide health benefits to the consumer, yet because they are found in small amounts and can be difficult to identify, there is limited information on the effects that common fluid milk processing may have on the digestibility of these FAs. This study provides FA profiles for raw and combinations of homogenized and/or heat-treated (high and ultra-high temperature pasteurization milk, before and after in vitro digestion, in order to determine the effects of processing on the digestibility of these healthy fatty acids. Use of a highly sensitive separation column resulted in improved FA profiles that showed that, when milk was subjected to both pasteurization and homogenization, the release of the 18-carbon FAs, oleic acid, linoleic acid (an omega-6 FA, rumenic acid (a conjugated linoleic acid, CLA, and linolenic acid (an omega-3 FA tended to be higher than with either pasteurization or homogenization, or with no treatment. Milk is noted for containing the omega-3 FAs and CLAs, which are associated with positive health benefits. Determining how processing factors may impact the components in milk will aid in understanding the release of healthy FAs when milk and dairy foods are consumed.

  12. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA...

  13. In vitro fermentation vessel type and method alter fiber digestibility estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M B; Mertens, D R

    2008-01-01

    Selected vessel types and conditions used for in vitro fermentation were compared to evaluate their effects on determinations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) in 2 replicate 48-h fermentations. Treatments included 50-mL polyethylene centrifuge tubes with gas-release valves (treatment 1); 50-mL polyethylene centrifuge tubes with continuous gassing with CO2 (treatment 2); 50-mL polyethylene centrifuge tubes sealed, oriented horizontally, and shaken continuously parallel to the long axis of the tube, with manual gas release (treatment 3); 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks with continuous gassing with CO2 (treatment 4); and 125-mL serum vials sealed with stoppers and crimp seals with (treatment 5) or without (treatment 6) manual gas release. Goering and Van Soest medium and blended ruminal inoculum from 4 lactating cows were used. Substrates were alfalfa hay, corn silage, ryegrass hay, and soyhulls. Gas was released and measured in treatments 3 and 6 at 3.0, 5.5, 9.0, 11.5, 23.5, 29.5, and 47.5 h by using a syringe with a hypodermic needle. Vessels from each treatment were harvested at 0, 6, 12, 24, 30, and 48 h for NDF analysis, with NDFD calculated as 1 - [(residual NDF, g - residual NDF in fermentation blank, g)/sample NDF, g]. Medium pH did not decline below 6.3 for any treatment. Average values for NDFD for 24 through 48 h were 0.576, 0.639, 0.688, 0.668, 0.679, and 0.681 for treatments 1 through 6, respectively (standard error of the difference = 0.008). The lowest NDFD was noted for treatment 1, which differed from all other treatments; treatments 3, 4, 5, and 6 did not differ by treatment or by the interaction of treatment and substrate. Treatments 1 and 2 gave lower NDFD values than the other treatments, but these differences were not consistent and differed by substrate, with alfalfa showing the fewest differences among treatments and soyhulls the most. Net energy of lactation values for substrates, as predicted from differences in 48-h NDFD, were

  14. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (Pprotein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Protein Amino Acids in Tobacco Using Microwave Digestion of Plant Material

    OpenAIRE

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a technique using microwave digestion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which makes possible the analysis of protein amino acids in tobacco. The technique involves first the measurement of free amino acids, a hydrolysis using microwave digestion, and a measurement of total resulting amino acids. The content of protein amino acids is determined from the difference of total and free amino acids. The digestion is performed with aqueous 6 N HCl (with 1% phenol...

  16. Calcium digestibility studies utilizing acid-insoluble ash measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T K; Coon, C N

    1990-12-01

    Laying hens were individually fed diets providing daily calcium intakes ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 g from two sources of limestone. Silica (washed sand) was added to the diets as filler for hens with less than 4.5 g of daily calcium intake. The calcium digestibility data were obtained both by the total collection (TC) method and b y using acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as an indicator. Source effect was not significant (P greater than .7) within each method tested, and data were pooled for analysis. The calcium digestibility values obtained by the TC method for hens with intake of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 g daily were 59.16, 57.31, 54.29, 50.99, 44.63, and 41.76%, respectively. The AIA method consistently yielded higher digestibility values: 73.0, 65.36, 61.78, 54.19, 45.76, and 42.0%. The differences in calcium digestibility values between the two methods were linearly related to the levels of silica consumption (P less than .05).

  17. Influence of phenylacetic acid pulses on anaerobic digestion performance and archaeal community structure in WWTP sewage sludge digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrol, L.; Urra, J.; Rosenkranz, F.; Kroff, P.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Lesty, Y.; Chamy, R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phenylacetic acid (PAA) pulses on anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and archaeal community structure was evaluated in anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Four pilot-scale continuous stirred tank reactors were set up at a full-scale

  18. Inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on digestion of potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Zida; Holmes, Melvin; Orfila, Caroline

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the chlorogenic acid isomer 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) on digestion of potato starch by porcine pancreatic alpha amylase (PPAA) was investigated using isolated starch and cooked potato tuber as substrates. In vitro digestion was performed on five varieties of potato with varying phenolic content. Co- and pre-incubation of PPAA with 5-CQA significantly reduced PPAA activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of about 2mgmL(-1). Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that 5-CQA exerts a mixed type inhibition as km increased and Vmax decreased. The total polyphenol content (TPC) of peeled tuber tissue ranged from 320.59 to 528.94mg 100g(-1)dry weight (DW) in raw tubers and 282.03-543.96mg 100g(-1)DW in cooked tubers. With the exception of Désirée, TPC and 5-CQA levels decreased after cooking. Principle component analysis indicated that digestibility is affected by multiple factors including phenolic, dry matter and starch content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    desalination cell, MDC) was built to realize the on-line measuring the concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA). The correlation between current densities of the biosensor and VFA concentrations was firstly evaluated with synthetic digestate. Two linear relationships were observed between current densities...... measured by GC. The simple MDC-based biosensor showed promising potential for online, inexpensive and reliable measurement of VFA levels. The outcomes offer a powerful tool for cost-effective monitoring and optimization of AD process and expand the application of bioelectrochemical system....

  20. CONSIDERATIONS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LYMPH VESSELS OF UPPER AERO DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND CERVICAL SATELLITE LYMPH NODE GROUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I

    2016-01-01

    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases.

  1. Effect of acid speciation on solid waste liquefaction in an anaerobic acid digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Sandhya; Fukushi, Kensuke; Sitanrassamee, Bunpot

    2004-05-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to evaluate and determine the suitable working conditions for the enhancement of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production with the stabilization of solid pineapple waste (peel) simultaneously when operating two-phase anaerobic digestion. It was found that acid production, enhanced when the digester was operated at neutral pH. VFAs, could be obtained at about 50 g/kg-waste within 14 days when operating at pH 6.5-7.5 compared to 33 g/kg-waste for digester operated at pH 5.0-6.0 for 32 days. The total volatile solid reduction of 42-48% was obtained with a 51-57% volume reduction at neutral pH. The effect of undissociated acids on the activity of acetogenic bacteria was also studied. The inhibitory level of undissociated acids for acidogenesis was found to be about 2300, 650, and 120 mg/L at pH 5, 6, and 7, respectively. The results revealed that at low pH, undissociated acids are inhibitory. It was found that for efficient operation of two-phase anaerobic digestion, both VFAs concentration and pH should be controlled.

  2. Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler chicks (Short communication) ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... to determine the amino acid digestibility of artemia meal, five-week old male broiler chicks were given a semi-purified diet in which artemia meal was the sole source of protein.

  3. Essential fatty acid deficiency in mice impairs lactose digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovac, S; Los, E L; Stellaard, F; Rings, E H H M; Verkade, H J

    2008-09-01

    Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in mice induces fat malabsorption. We previously reported indications that the underlying mechanism is located at the level of the intestinal mucosa. We have investigated the effects of EFA deficiency on small intestinal morphology and function. Mice were fed an EFA-deficient or control diet for 8 wk. A 72-h fat balance, the EFA status, and small intestinal histology were determined. Carbohydrate absorptive and digestive capacities were assessed by stable isotope methodology after administration of [U-(13)C]glucose and [1-(13)C]lactose. The mRNA expression and enzyme activity of lactase, and concentrations of the EFA linoleic acid (LA) were measured in small intestinal mucosa. Mice fed the EFA-deficient diet were markedly EFA-deficient with a profound fat malabsorption. EFA deficiency did not affect the histology or proliferative capacity of the small intestine. Blood [13C6]glucose appearance and disappearance were similar in both groups, indicating unaffected monosaccharide absorption. In contrast, blood appearance of [13C]glucose, originating from [1-(13)C]lactose, was delayed in EFA-deficient mice. EFA deficiency profoundly reduced lactase activity (-58%, P<0.01) and mRNA expression (-55%, P<0.01) in mid-small intestine. Both lactase activity and its mRNA expression strongly correlated with mucosal LA concentrations (r=0.77 and 0.79, respectively, P<0.01). EFA deficiency in mice inhibits the capacity to digest lactose but does not affect small intestinal histology. These data underscore the observation that EFA deficiency functionally impairs the small intestine, which in part may be mediated by low LA levels in the enterocytes.

  4. Gut luminal endogenous protein: implications for the determination of ileal amino acid digestibility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2012-08-01

    The true ileal digestibility assay provides the most informative measure of digestibility to assess bioavailability of amino acids in foods for humans. To determine 'true' estimates of ileal amino acid digestibility, requires that endogenous amino acids present in digesta at the terminal ileum be quantified. The amounts of endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta can be determined after feeding an animal or human a protein-free diet (traditional approach) or by various methods after giving a protein-containing diet. When the protein-free method has been applied with adult human subjects an overall mean value (three separate studies) for endogenous ileal nitrogen flow of 800 mg N/d has been reported. This value is considerably lower than a comparable value obtained after feeding protein of 1852 mg N/d (mean of four separate studies), and thus endogenous ileal N and amino acids should be measured under conditions of protein alimentation. There is some confusion concerning the terminology used to define digestibility, with the term "true" digestibility having different adopted meanings. Here, true amino acid digestibility is defined as apparent amino acid digestibility corrected for the basal amino acid losses determined after giving either a protein-free or a protein-containing diet. Basal losses should be determined at a defined dry-matter and protein intake. The protein-free diet approach to determining endogenous amino acids is considered unphysiological and basal losses refer to ileal endogenous amino acid flows associated with digesta dry-matter flow, and not including "specific" effects of dietary factors such as non starch polysaccharides and anti nutritional factors. Arguments are advanced that the enzyme hydrolysed protein/ultra filtration method may be suitable for routine application with a cannulated pig model, to obtain physiologically-valid basal estimates of ileal endogenous amino acids to allow calculation of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the

  5. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores and digestible indispensable amino acid scores differentially describe protein quality in growing male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Fanning, Aaron C; Miller, Bruce J; Moughan, Paul J

    2015-02-01

    The FAO has recommended replacing the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) with the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). The objective of this study was to compare aspects underlying the calculation of the DIAAS and PDCAAS, including 1) fecal digestibility vs. ileal digestibility, 2) using a single nitrogen digestibility value for all amino acids, and 3) the effect of truncation. Truncated PDCAAS and untruncated DIAAS values calculated as formally defined were also compared and DIAAS data presented for 14 dietary protein sources. Semisynthetic wheat starch-based diets were formulated to contain the test protein (as consumed by humans) source (whey- and soy-protein isolates, milk-, whey-, rice- and pea- protein concentrates, cooked kidney beans, roasted peanuts, cooked peas, corn-based breakfast cereal, cooked rice, cooked rolled oats, and wheat bran) as the sole nitrogen source and with an indigestible marker (titanium dioxide). Growing male rats (∼250 g bodyweight) were given a basal casein-based diet from day 1 to day 7 and then allocated (n = 6) to the test diets for day 8 to day 14 before ileal digesta were collected after the rats were killed. Total feces were collected from day 11 to day 14. True fecal nitrogen digestibility was different (P digestibility for 11 of the 14 protein sources. True ileal nitrogen digestibility was different (P digestibility for almost half of the indispensable and conditionally indispensable amino acids (differences ranged from 0.9% to 400%). DIAAS values ranged from 0.01 for a corn-based cereal to 1.18 for milk protein concentrate. Untruncated PDCAAS values were generally higher than a DIAAS values, especially for the poorer quality proteins; therefore, the reported differences in the scores are of potential practical importance for populations in which dietary protein intake may be marginal. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Anna Kirstine; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance......: RYGB accelerates caseinate digestion and amino acid absorption, resulting in faster and higher but more transient postprandial elevation of plasma amino acids. Changes are likely mediated by accelerated intestinal nutrient entry and clearly demonstrate that protein digestion is not impaired after RYGB...

  7. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. N. Palma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01 of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p0.01 calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01. Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion.

  8. In vitro determination of dietary protein and amino acid digestibility for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Christine A; Monro, John A; Moughan, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    The development, refinement and validation of in vitro digestibility assays for dietary protein and amino acids for single stomached mammals are reviewed. The general principles of in vitro digestibility assays and their limitations are discussed. In vitro protein digestibility assays must be accurate, rapid, cheap, simple, robust, adaptable and relevant to the processes of digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Simple in vitro methods have the potential to give useful measures of in vivo amino acid and protein digestibility for humans. In vitro methods, including the complex multi-component models of digestion simulating the various physical and chemical processes, require independent validation with in vivo data from the target species or an acceptable animal model using the most appropriate in vivo measure of digestibility. For protein sources devoid of anti-nutritional factors or plant fibre, true ileal digestibility is the recommended in vivo baseline, while for plant proteins the recommended in vivo assay is real ileal digestibility. More published comparative studies are required to adequately validate in vitro digestibility assays.

  9. The relation between starch digestion rate and amino acid level for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Enting, H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Digestion coefficients of nutrients give information about the amount of nutrients available to the animal but not about the rate or site of absorption. Gradual digestion of starch may have an amino acid sparing effect and therefore enhance growth efficiency of broiler chickens. A growth trial was

  10. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics - Dry matter digestibility and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry

    2018-01-01

    was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. RESULTS: Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) content of 451 g/kg DM and 530 g/kg DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively and a pulp with CP content of 313 and 374 g....../kg DM from plant and leaves, respectively. The amino acid composition ranged from 4.72 to 6.49 g/16 g nitrogen (N) for lysine, 1.82-2.6 g/16 g N for methionine and cysteine, and 3.66-5.24 g /16 g N for threonine. True faecal digestibility of protein (TDP) varied from 0.81 to 0.88, while DM digestibility...... (DMD) was 0.72-0.80. Methionine and cysteine were found to be limiting in all fractions regardless of reference group used. CONCLUSION: High digestibility of white clover protein irrespective of the physical fractionation was found. Together with a well-balanced amino acid composition, this makes white...

  11. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and metabolisable energy value in grains for broilers

    OpenAIRE

    S. PERTTILÄ; J. VALAJA; T. JALAVA

    2008-01-01

    Using ileal digestible amino acids in feed optimising will intensify feed protein utilizing and decrease nitrogen excretion to the environment. The study determined the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) coefficients of amino acids in barley, wheat, oats, triticale, maize, and dehulled oats in the diets of 180 Ross broiler chickens (aged 2435 days). The birds were fed semi-purified diets that contained grain as the sole protein source and chromium-mordanted straw as an indigestible marker. Th...

  12. Relationship between body weight and level of fat supplementation on fatty acid digestion in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, A; Mendoza, G D; Vásquez, C; Zinn, R A

    2003-11-01

    Eight Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a split-plot design experiment to evaluate the interaction of body weight (175 vs. 370 kg) and level of fat supplementation (0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and feeding value of fat in finishing diets. Dry matter intake was restricted to 2% of BW. There were no interactions between BW and level of fat supplementation (P > 0.10) on ruminal or total-tract digestion. Level of supplemental fat decreased (linear, P effects (P > 0.10) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and N. There tended to be an interaction (P 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal fatty acid digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation decreased (linear, P FAD, %) is a predictable function (r2 = 0.89; P FAD = 87.560 - 8.591FAI. Depressions in fatty acid digestion with increasing level of intake were due primarily to decreased intestinal absorption of palmitic and stearic acid. Level of fatty acids intake did not appreciably affect intestinal absorption of unsaturated fatty acid. Changes in intestinal fatty acid digestion accounted for most of the variation in the NE value of supplemental fat.

  13. Binding of bile acids by pastry products containing bioactive substances during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Szwengiel, Artur; Smoczyńska, Paulina; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Komolka, Patrycja

    2015-03-01

    The modern day consumer tends to choose products with health enhancing properties, enriched in bioactive substances. One such bioactive food component is dietary fibre, which shows a number of physiological properties including the binding of bile acids. Dietary fibre should be contained in everyday, easily accessible food products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine sorption capacities of primary bile acid (cholic acid - CA) and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic - DCA and lithocholic acids - LCA) by muffins (BM) and cookies (BC) with bioactive substances and control muffins (CM) and cookies (CC) in two sections of the in vitro gastrointestinal tract. Variations in gut flora were also analysed in the process of in vitro digestion of pastry products in a bioreactor. Enzymes: pepsin, pancreatin and bile salts: cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were added to the culture. Faecal bacteria, isolated from human large intestine, were added in the section of large intestine. The influence of dietary fibre content in cookies and concentration of bile acids in two stages of digestion were analysed. Generally, pastry goods with bioactive substances were characterized by a higher content of total fibre compared with the control samples. These products also differ in the profile of dietary fibre fractions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the bile acid profile after two stages of digestion depends on the quality and quantity of fibre. The bile acid profile after digestion of BM and BC forms one cluster, and with the CM and CC forms a separate cluster. High concentration of H (hemicellulose) is positively correlated with LCA (low binding effect) and negatively correlated with CA and DCA contents. The relative content of bile acids in the second stage of digestion was in some cases above the content in the control sample, particularly LCA. This means that the bacteria introduced in the 2nd stage of digestion synthesize the LCA.

  14. Crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legume and buckwheat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legumes and buckwheat products. All analyses except the phytic acid contents were performed in the line with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 152/2009. A modified version of Holt’s Method was used for phytic acid (phytate determination. None of all samples contained more than 11% of moisture. Soybeans are rich in crude protein; they contain nearly 40% of this compound. The content of crude protein in buckwheat flours was about 14%. The highest amount of phytate was found in common beans and soybeans-about 2 g/100 g of dry matter. On the other hand, the lowest phytate content was observed in buckwheat pasta (F. esculentum groats was 1.9 g per 100 g of dry matter. In vitro digestibility was determined using an incubator Daisy and pepsin enzymes and the combination of pepsin and pancreatin. The highest coefficient of crude protein digestibility was discovered to be in peels and wholemeal flour. The greatest fibre digestibility coefficients were obtained for peels, which contain about 65% of fibre in their dry matter. When pepsin was used, a higher phytic acid digestibility coefficient for G. max, Ph. vulgaris, peels, flour, groats and broken groats was observed; while when the combination of pepsin and pancreatin was used, higher phytic acid digestibility coefficients for peas, lentil and wholemeal flour were observed.

  15. Available lysine and digestible amino acid contents of proteinaceous foods of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfurd, Shane M; Bains, Kiran; Moughan, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Cereals and legumes are staple foods in India and are limiting in lysine and sulphur amino acids, respectively. Available lysine loss, due to Maillard-type reactions that may occur during food preparation, exacerbates the problem of lysine deficiency particularly in cereals. Consequently, determining the contents of digestible essential amino acids, particularly lysine, is important. True ileal digestibilities of most amino acids (including total and reactive lysine) were determined for ten food ingredients and eleven foods commonly consumed in India. Semi-synthetic diets each containing either an ingredient or the prepared food as the sole protein source were formulated to contain 100 g kg(-1) protein (75 g kg(-1) for rice-based diets) and fed to growing rats. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. Digesta were collected and the amino acid content (including reactive lysine) of diets and ileal digesta determined. Available (digestible reactive) lysine content ranged from 1·9-15·4 g kg(-1) and 1·8-12·7 g kg(-1) across the ingredients and prepared foods respectively. True ileal amino acid digestibility varied widely both across ingredients and prepared foods for each amino acid (on average 60-92 %) and across amino acids within each ingredient and prepared food (overall digestibility 31-96 %). Amino acid digestibility was low for many of the ingredients and prepared foods and consequently digestibility must be considered when assessing the protein quality of poorer quality foods. Given commonly encountered daily energy intakes for members of the Indian population, it is estimated that lysine is limiting for adults in many Indian diets.

  16. Ileal digestibility and endogenous flow of minerals and amino acids: responses to dietary phytic acid in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Cowieson, Aaron J; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2009-08-01

    Effects of phytic acid (PA) on ileal mineral and amino acid (AA) digestibilities and ileal endogenous AA flow in piglets were investigated. Seven ileal-cannulated weanling pigs were fed a casein-maize starch-based diet with PA (as sodium phytate) at 0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg in 4 x 4 Latin square design with three added columns to give seven observations per treatment. The basal diet was formulated to meet National Research Council energy and AA requirements for piglets. The respective digestibility and endogenous lysine loss were determined by indicator and homoarginine methods. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Na, K and P was linearly and quadratically reduced (P 0.05) endogenous AA losses. The results suggest that PA has limited effect on the digestibility and endogenous losses of AA in piglets, but can reduce AID of Mg and Na partly by increasing endogenous losses of these minerals as evidenced by their negative AID values.

  17. The chemical composition, energy and amino acid digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the AA's ranged from 72.8 to 81.0%, with methionine having the highest digestibility and lysine the lowest. Cowpeas appear to be suitable for use in poultry feeds, their composition being equivalent to plant protein sources such as lupins and field peas, but lower in most nutrients compared with soybeans and canola.

  18. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    To determine chemical composition, physical characteristics and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and amino acids (AA) in eight current hulled barley genotypes, an experiment with growing pigs has been conducted. These genotypes included Yool, Campanile, Lomerit, Travira, Anisette...... compared to Yool and Campanile. Standardized ileal digestibility of Lys, Met and Trp (Pdigestible content (cSID) of CP and AA. Furthermore, SID and cSID of CP and most AA linearly decreased (P......digestibility of CP and some AA and cSID of CP and most AA decreased linearly with increasing TW (P

  19. Digestibility of protein and amino acids in selected foods as determined by a rat balance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, G; Peace, R W; Botting, H G; Brulé, D

    1989-01-01

    Values (%) for true digestibility of crude protein and individual amino acids in 20 selected foods were determined by the rat balance (fecal) method. The products were fed as the sole source of protein in diets containing 8% crude protein (N x 6.25). Lowest true protein digestibility values (79-84) were obtained for pinto beans, kidney beans and lentils; intermediate values (89-92) were obtained for chick peas, beef stew, skim milk (over heated), rolled oats, whole wheat cereal, and pea protein concentrate; and highest values (94-100) were obtained for sausage, macaroni-cheese, rice-wheat gluten cereal, skim milk, tuna, soy isolate, peanut butter, chicken frankfurters, beef salami, casein and casein + methionine. In animal foods, peanut butter and soy isolate, the differences between true digestibility of crude protein and most individual amino acids were less than 5%. However, the values for true digestibility of methionine and cystine were up to 44% lower than those of crude protein in pinto beans, kidney beans, lentils, chick peas and pea concentrate. In these legumes, digestibility of crude protein was not a good predictor of digestibility of the limiting amino acids.

  20. A modified acid digestion procedure for extraction of tungsten from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Jones, W T; Chappell, M A; Johnson, D R; Ringelberg, D B

    2010-01-15

    Interest in tungsten occurrence and geochemistry is increasing due to increased use of tungsten compounds and its unknown biochemical effects. Tungsten has a complex geochemistry, existing in most environmental matrices as the soluble and mobile tungstate anion, as well as poly- and heteropolytungstates. Because the geochemistry of tungsten is substantially different than most trace metals, including the formation of insoluble species under acidic conditions, it is not extracted from soil matrices using standard acid digestion procedures. Therefore, the current work describes a modification to a commonly used acid digestion procedure to facilitate quantification of tungsten in soil matrices. Traditional soil digestion procedures, using nitric and hydrochloric acids with hydrogen peroxide yield soil matrix spike samples, whereas the modified method reported here, which includes the addition of phosphoric acid, yields spike recoveries in the 76-98% range. Comparison of the standard and modified digestion procedures on National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials yielded significantly improved tungsten recoveries for the phosphoric acid modified method. The modified method also produces comparable results for other acid extractable metals as the standard methods, and therefore can be used simultaneously for tungsten and other metals of interest.

  1. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in Norhwest Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Caire-Juvera; Francisco A. Vázquez-Ortiz; Maria I. Grijalva-Haro

    2013-01-01

    A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using ...

  2. Analysis of Protein Amino Acids in Tobacco Using Microwave Digestion of Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a technique using microwave digestion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, which makes possible the analysis of protein amino acids in tobacco. The technique involves first the measurement of free amino acids, a hydrolysis using microwave digestion, and a measurement of total resulting amino acids. The content of protein amino acids is determined from the difference of total and free amino acids. The digestion is performed with aqueous 6 N HCl (with 1% phenol for two hours in a microwave at 120°C in sealed vials. The GC-MS analysis is performed after the amino acids are derivatized with N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA. The technique provides reliable results with less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD for most amino acids. Only the determination of very low level amino acids is affected by larger errors. The method provides results for free amino acids that are in very good agreement with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and also results for protein levels in tobacco in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Results are given for several single grade tobaccos and for tobacco blends from four Kentucky reference cigarettes.

  3. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P digestibility (P digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  4. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    :0) (PARF) per day. The total daily fatty acid intake was about 1100 g in rations with the highest fat inclusion. The fatty acid digestibilities were 76% for tallow, 74 and 64% for 500 and 1000 g SARF, respectively, and 87 and 81% for 500 and 1000 g of PARF, respectively. When compared to fatty acid...

  5. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

  6. Effects of various fatty acid amendments on a microbial digester community in batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas O; Malin, Cornelia; Lins, Philipp; Illmer, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Since biogas production is becoming increasingly important the understanding of anaerobic digestion processes is fundamental. However, large-scale digesters often lack online sensor equipment to monitor key parameters. Furthermore the possibility to selectively change fermenting parameter settings in order to investigate methane output or microbial changes is limited. In the present study we examined the possibility to investigate the microbial community of a large scale (750,000 L) digester within a laboratory small-scale approach. We studied the short-term response of the downscaled communities on various fatty acids and its effects on gas production and compared it with data from the original digester sludge. Even high loads of formic acid led to distinct methane formation, whereas high concentrations of other acids (acetic, butyric, propionic acid) caused a marked inhibition of methanogenesis coupled with an increase in hydrogen concentration. Molecular microbial techniques (DGGE/quantitative real-time-PCR) were used to monitor the microbial community changes which were related to data from GC and HPLC analysis. DGGE band patterns showed that the same microorganisms which were already dominant in the original digester re-established again in the lab-scale experiment. Very few microorganisms dominated the whole fermenting process and species diversity was not easily influenced by moderate varying fatty acid amendments--Methanoculleus thermophilus being the most abundant species throughout the variants. MCR-copy number determined via quantitative real-time-PCR--turned out to be a reliable parameter for quantification of methanogens, even in a very complex matrix like fermenter sludge. Generally the downscaled batch approach was shown to be appropriate to investigate microbial communities from large-scale digesters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of chromium concentration in cattle feces using different acid digestion and spectrophotometric quantification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K.P. Souza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate combinations between acid digestion techniques and spectrophotometric quantification to measure chromium concentration in cattle feces. Digestion techniques were evaluated based on the use of nitric and perchloric acids, sulfuric and perchloric acids, and phosphoric acid. The chromium quantification in the solutions was performed by colorimetry and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. When AAS was used, the addition of calcium chloride to the solutions as a releasing agent was also evaluated. Several standard samples containing known chromium contents were produced (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10g of chromium per kg of feces using cattle feces obtained from three different animals to evaluate the accuracy of the different combinations of techniques. The accuracy was evaluated by adjusting a simple linear regression model of the estimated values on the actual values of chromium content in the standard samples. Regardless of the digestion technique, the chromium content estimates in the standard samples obtained by colorimetry were not accurate (P0.05. The use of the digestion technique in phosphoric acid provided incomplete recovery of the fecal chromium (P0.05 fecal chromium contents.

  8. Effects of some organic acids and salts on microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets estimated using an in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used to screen different organic acids (formic, propionic, lactic, citric, and fumaric acid, organic salts (calcium formate, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate, and inorganic phosphoric acid for their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. For the incubation, 40 ml of culture medium (53% buffer, 45% frozen ileal digesta, and 2% fresh faeces was dispensed in vessels containing 5 ml of buffer, 0.5 g of feed, and 20 ìl of liquid or 20 mg of solid acidifiers. Gas production was measured every 15 min during the 24 h incubation at 39°C, and a Gompertz bacterial growth model was applied to the gas production data. Formic acid was the only acid that reduced the maximum rate of gas production (ìm compared to that in the control treatment (P 0.05. When investigating formic-acid-based mixtures that contained 1–5% of potassium sorbate and/or sodium benzoate, the estimated parameters for the Gompertz growth model did not differ from those for treatments with plain formic acid (P > 0.05. However, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, and n-butyric acid were reduced by all the mixtures (P 0.05. In conclusion, organic acids and salts were found to differ in their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. Mixing formic acid with potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate changed fermentation patterns, and the possibility to use them to enhance the antimicrobial effect of formic acid should be investigated further in vivo.;

  9. Prececal amino acid digestibility of soybean cake in fast- and slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, C; Siegert, W; Kluth, H; Bennewitz, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in prececal amino acid digestibility between commonly used slow- and fast-growing broiler strains when the regression approach is applied. ISA J-275 and Ross 308 were selected as common representatives of slow- and fast-growing broiler strains, respectively. The experimental diets with soybean cake at levels of 0, 100, and 200 g/kg were offered for ad libitum consumption between 22 and 29 d post-hatch. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Each treatment was tested with six pens comprising 10 birds each. Digesta samples were collected on a pen basis from the distal two-thirds of the intestine section between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileocecal-colonic junction. The prececal amino acid digestibility of soybean cake was calculated by linear regression simultaneously for both strains. There was no significant interaction between broiler strain and inclusion level of soybean cake with respect to the prececal CP and amino acid digestibility of complete diets; there was a significant strain effect for 5 out of the 16 measured amino acids. The prececal CP and amino acid digestibility of soybean cake did not differ significantly between strains and was numerically almost identical. The results of the present study provide evidence of the transferability between broiler strains of prececal amino acid digestibility data, determined using the regression approach, thus improving the accuracy of diet formulation without drawbacks. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Impact of dietary glutamine on amino acid digestibility values and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nebonid F. Namroud

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... In the first experiment, male chicks were used to study the impact of glutamine ... Three diets based on synthetic AAs were used to obtain nutrient ..... Casein. Glutamic acid. Glutamine. Glutamine + glutamic acid. Dextrose. 220. 220. 220. 220. Purified corn starch. 330. 360. 360. 360. Maltodextrin. 45. 45. 45.

  11. Impact of dietary glutamine on amino acid digestibility values and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three diets based on synthetic AAs were used to obtain nutrient values of the control diet, which were supplemented with a synthetic form of glutamine, glutamic acid and a 50 : 50 ratio of glutamine : glutamic acid. Chickens fed the control diet presented higher average daily weight gain and better FCR. None of the AID ...

  12. Toxicity and biodegradability of caffeic acid in anaerobic digesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Caffeic acid in waste comes from a variety of industries, and its disposal is likely to increase due to emerging processes such as graphene production and use in healthcare products. The current sustainable option to treat waste caffeic acid and prevent its natural transformation in soil to greenhouse gases, ...

  13. Effect of acid detergent fiber in hydrothermally pretreated sewage sludge on anaerobic digestion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Rikiya; Yuan, Lee Chang; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Youichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Hydrothermal treatment is one of the pre-treatment method for anaerobic digestion. The application of hydrothermal treatment to sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant has been succeeded to enhance the biogas production. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on anaerobic digestion process focusing on acid detergent fiber (ADF) in sewage sludge, which is low biodegradability. The hydrothermal treatment experiment was carried out for 15 minutes between 160 °C and 200 °C respectively. The ADF content was decreased after hydrothermal treatment compared with untreated sludge. However, ADF content was increased when raising the treatment temperature from 160 °C to 200 °C. During batch anaerobic digestion experiment, untreated and treated sludge were examined for 10 days under 38 °C, and all samples were fed once based on volatile solids of samples. From batch anaerobic digestion experiment, as ADF content in sewage sludge increased, the total biogas production decreased. It was found that ADF content in sewage sludge influence on anaerobic digestion. Therefore, ADF could be one of the indicator to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment to sewage sludge on anaerobic digestion.

  14. Polymorph-dependent titanium dioxide nanoparticle dissolution in acidic and alkali digestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple polymorphs (anatase, brookite and rutile) of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) with variable structures were quantified in environmental matrices via microwave-based hydrofluoric (HF) and nitric (HNO3) mixed acid digestion and muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium ...

  15. The use of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen to predict digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    result of heat treatment, when ADIN values were below 12-. 15%, but ... of heat damage. Owing to its correlation with heat damage, %o. ADIN may prove usefulto predict digestibility of undegrada- ble protein (UDP-D) in the SI and this study further investi- ..... dry matter, nitrogen and amino acids in wheat-based distillers'.

  16. Rumen degradability and ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids of feedstuffs for cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Maskaľová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the profile of amino acids of the rumen-undegradable protein can help in the formulation of diets to provide amino acids that complement microbial protein as well as supply amino acids, which are most limiting for milk production. Three non-lactating cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used to determine the effect of in situ rumen degradation on crude protein and amino acid profile of rumen-undegraded protein of feedstuffs. The obtained values of rumen degradability of crude protein with significant difference (P in vitro modified 3-step method was used to determine intestinal digestibility. Intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein varied from 54.5 ± 1.4% in raw soybean to 95.2 ± 1.0% in corn gluten feed. The absorbable amino acid profile of rumen-undegraded protein for each feedstuff was compared with profiles of the original feedstuff and the rumen-exposed undegraded protein. Absorbable lysine (9.3 ± 1.1 g/kg of crude protein was higher in products of soybean and sunflower cake. Corn gluten feed and meal supplied more absorbable methionine (3.6 ± 0.6 g/kg of crude protein. This study showed that the digestibility factor of crude protein and amino acid based on in situ and in vitro methods for thermal treatment of protein feeds can be used in models to optimize the amino acid nutrition of dairy cows and expand knowledge about rumen degradability and ileal digestibility of amino acids in feedstuffs.

  17. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavai...

  18. Apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diverse barley cultivars fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Shi, Meng; Piao, Xiangshu

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of barley varieties and to develop equations to predict the AA digestibility based on the chemical characteristics of individual barley. A wide selection of nine barley varieties in the main growing regions of China was used in the experiment. Ten crossbred pigs (30.9 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to a 6 × 10 Youden Square. The treatments included a nitrogen-free diet and nine barley test diets. Considerable variation was observed in the content of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein (CP) and all AAs among the barley samples. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of indispensable AAs with the exception of arginine, phenylalanine and threonine were different (P digestibility of CP and AAs among barley varieties. It is difficult to predict the SID of most of the amino acids in barely based upon chemical characteristics. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amino acid composition, available lysine content and in vitro protein digestibility of selected tropical crop seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzke, K J; Ezeagu, I E; Proll, J; Akinsoyinu, A O; Metges, C C

    1997-01-01

    As the search for alternative sources of food to alleviate hunger continues, this study was undertaken to determine nitrogen and amino acid content, chemical score, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of 8 lesser known, wild tropical seeds, gathered in Nigeria. Results were contrasted with a tropical soybean variety (Glycine max, TGX 1660-15F). The investigated seeds were Millettia thonningii, Gliricidia sepium, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Albizia zygia, Daneillia ogea and Afzella bella from the family of Leguminosae, Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) and Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae). The crude protein content, based on nitrogen determination, was found to be lower in the wild seeds compared to soybean, which was partly due to the relatively high content of non-protein nitrogen. With reference to amino acid requirement and digestibility in most seed samples, lysine, followed by sulphur amino acids and threonine, were the limiting amino acids. It was concluded, that these less familiar wild seed plants may be used as valuable food or feed complements. However, further investigation is necessary to elucidate potential toxic and antinutritional factors.

  1. Commercial laying hen diets formulated according to different recommendations of total and digestible amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Casartelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate different commercial laying hen diets formulated based on recommendations for total and digestible amino acids. One hundred and twenty Lohmann LSL commercial laying hens aged 25 weeks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design involving five replications of six birds in four treatments. Diet formulation on a total amino acid basis followed the recommendations of NRC (1994 and Rostagno et al. (2000, whereas formulation on digestible amino acids basis was according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and Degussa (1997 recommendations. The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass were evaluated for each period, and on the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality parameters (Haugh unit, egg specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness and percentage. Means were compared by orthogonal contrasts. Results on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion and egg specific gravity showed that total amino acid recommendations promoted better bird responses than digestible amino acid recommendations.

  2. Digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in oat protein concentrate measured in 20- to 30-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelilla, Jerubella J; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2018-01-01

    Oat protein concentrate is often used in human food, but the quality of this protein has not been characterized. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in oat protein concentrate and to determine differences in protein quality estimates between the protein digestibility-corrected AA score (PDCAAS) and the digestible indispensable AA score (DIAAS) when using growing pigs for both measurements. For infants, the most limiting AA in oat protein concentrate was the aromatic AA (Phe + Tyr), for which the DIAAS value was 41 and the PDCAAS was 43. For children (6 months to 3 years) and children older than 3 years, the most limiting AA in oat protein concentrate was Lys, for which the DIAAS was 56 and 67 and the PDCAAS was 58 and 69, respectively. The DIAAS value for oat protein concentrate was close to the calculated value for PDCAAS, but below the recommended intake for protein. Therefore, to satisfy the daily human AA requirement, oat protein needs to be complemented by other proteins of higher quality and specifically with greater lysine concentrations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Essential fatty acid deficiency in mice impairs lactose digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovac, S.; Los, E. L.; Stellaard, F.; Rings, E. H. H. M.; Verkade, H. J.

    Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in mice induces fat malabsorption. We previously reported indications that the underlying mechanism is located at the level of the intestinal mucosa. We have investigated the effects of EFA deficiency on small intestinal morphology and function. Mice were fed an

  4. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, John K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for four animal proteins and four plant proteins with values calculated as recommended for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), but determined in pigs instead of in rats. Values for standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of crude protein (CP) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) were calculated for whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soya protein isolate (SPI), soya flour and whole-grain wheat. The PDCAAS-like values were calculated using the STTD of CP to estimate AA digestibility and values for DIAAS were calculated from values for SID of AA. Results indicated that values for SID of most indispensable AA in WPI, WPC and MPC were greater (Pproteins.

  6. Effect of Digestion and Storage of Human Milk on Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). But even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine if stored milk and milk from donor milk banks (DM) could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. Methods We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4 or −20 °C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/ml pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. Results DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4 or −20 °C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at −20 °C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. Conclusions Current storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC. PMID:24840512

  7. THE EFFECT OF BODY WEIGHT OF PIGS ON TRUE AND APPARENT ILEAL AMINO ACIDS DIGESTIBILITY OF RYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrayová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the ability of pigs to digest protein increases with age. However, it has been shown that small pigs excreted more endogenous nitrogen (N than large pigs. Consequently, the apparent amino acids (AA digestibility may be lower in young pigs while true digestibility, which is corrected for endogenous losses, may be comparable with that found in older pigs. To test this hypothesis, six cannulated piglets (mean body weight 20.6 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at terminal ileum were used to estimate apparent and true digestibilities of AA and of total N in a rye-based diet (96 % rye. The digestibility study was repeated on the same pigs fed the same diet when they reached mean body weight 61.7 kg. The apparent ileal digestibilities of total AA and total N were significantly higher in heavier pigs than in piglets. Except for methionine and phenylalanine, the apparent digestibilities of individual AA showed a similar pattern. In contrast, there was no significant difference between piglets and heavier pigs for the true ileal digestibility of total N. True digestibility of most AA was lower in heavier pigs than in piglets, the differences for total and some individual AA being significant. The present results suggest that the higher apparent digestibility values found in heavier pigs as compared to piglets are due to the confounding effect of endogenous N losses rather than the better ability of older pigs to digest protein.

  8. Determination of true digestible amino acids of feedstuffs utilizing cecectomized roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the true digestibility coefficients of amino acids and digestible amino acid values of some poultry feedstuffs. The feedstuffs were: babassu meal, sunflower meal, corn gluten meal, babassu starchy meal, meat and bone meal, common beans, pearl millet and residues of cookies, pasta and bread. The precise feeding method of Sibbald was used with adult cecectomized Leghorn roosters distributed in a completely randomized design, consisting of ten treatments and six replications with a rooster in each. The treatments were represented by the feedstuffs evaluated. The roosters were kept in a period of fasting for 36 hours and then fed 30 grams of feed. Samples were collected during 56 hours. Simultaneously, six roosters were kept fasting to make corrections to the metabolic and endogenous losses of amino acids. At the end of collections, the excreta obtained were weighed, freeze-dried and subsequently processed, so laboratory analyses were carried out and the coefficients of true digestibility of amino acids were determined. The mean values of the coefficients of true digestibility of essential and non-essential amino acids in percentage were respectively: 0.702 and 0.652 for the babassu meal; 0.852 and 0.786 for the sunflower meal; 0.928 and 0.887 for the corn gluten meal; 0.797 and 0.720 for the meat and bone meal; 0.364 and 0.339 for ground raw beans; 0.924 and 0.837 for ground pearl millet; 0.839 and 0.810 for cookie residue; 0.929 and 0.914 for pasta residue; and 0.904 and 0.899 for bread residue.

  9. Developing a vacuum thermal stripping - acid absorption process for ammonia recovery from anaerobic digester effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwuani, Anayo T; Tao, Wendong

    2016-12-01

    To prevent acetoclastic methanogens from ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates, ammonia needs to be removed or recovered from digestate. This paper presents an innovative ammonia recovery process that couples vacuum thermal stripping with acid absorption. Ammonia is stripped out of digestate boiling at a temperature below the normal boiling point due to vacuum. Stripped ammonia is absorbed to a sulfuric acid solution, forming ammonium sulfate crystals as a marketable product. Three common types of digestate were found to have boiling point temperature-vacuum curves similar to water. Seven combinations of boiling temperature and vacuum (50 °C 16.6 kPa, 58 °C 20.0 kPa, 65 °C 25.1 kPa, 70 °C 33.6 kPa, 80 °C 54.0 kPa, 90 °C 74.2 kPa, and 100 °C 101.3 kPa) were tested for batch stripping of ammonia in dairy manure digestate. 93.3-99.9% of ammonia was stripped in 3 h. The Lewis-Whitman model fitted ammonia stripping process well. Ammonia mass transfer coefficient was significantly higher at boiling temperature 65-100 °C and vacuum pressure 25.1-101.3 kPa than 50-58 °C and 16.6-20.0 kPa. The low ammonia saturation concentrations (0-24 mg N/L) suggested a large driving force to strip ammonia. The optimum boiling point temperature - vacuum pressure for ammonia recovery in a recirculation line of a mesophilic digester was 65 °C and 25.1 kPa, at which the ammonia mass transfer coefficient was as high as 37.3 mm/h. Installation of a demister and liquid trap could avoid negative effects of higher stripping temperature and stronger vacuum on formation of ammonium sulfate crystals. Pilot tests demonstrated that high-purity ammonium sulfate crystals could be produced by controlling sulfuric acid content and maintaining acid solution saturated with ammonium sulfate. Although volatile organic compounds such as cyclohexene were found in the final acid solutions, no volatile organic compounds were found in the recovered

  10. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach

  11. Digestibility and supramolecular structural changes of maize starch by non-covalent interactions with gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chengdeng; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Yiping; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin; Wang, Zhijiang

    2017-02-22

    The effects of non-covalent interactions between gallic acid (GA) and starch on starch digestibility and supramolecular structural changes (short-range ordered molecular structure, crystalline structure, lamellar structure and fractal structure) were investigated. The results indicated that the digestibility of both starches was substantially reduced in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content, but resistant starch (RS) was increased after interacting with GA. The RS content of starch-GA complexes ranged from 17.70 to 50.02%, which is much higher than that of high amylose starch (G50) (11.11%) and normal maize starch (NMS) (4.46%). Compared with native starches, starch-GA complexes possess more ordered and compact structures; furthermore, G50-GA complexes possessed more compact scattering objects, thicker crystalline lamellae and thinner amorphous lamellae than those of NMS-GA complexes. This revealed that more ordered multi-scale structures promote the RS formation. Docking studies were conducted to reveal the mechanism of digestibility variations. It showed that GA would non-covalently interact with starch molecules and contribute to ordered structure formation to somewhat extent; meanwhile, GA had higher binding affinities to α-amylase than to starch chains; during the hydrolytic process, GA could be released from the complex and was more likely to occupy the active sites of Asp197, Asp300, His299 and Glu233 by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces, which kept starch out of the active site pocket and reduced starch digestibility. These results demonstrate that the non-covalent interactions between GA and starch could be a promising method of controlling starch structures and starch digestion behaviors.

  12. Modelling inhibitory effects of long chain fatty acids in the anaerobic digestion process

    OpenAIRE

    Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion process has been used to give new insights regarding dynamics of the long chain fatty acids (LCFA) inhibition. Previously published experimental data, including batch tests with clay mineral bentonite additions, were used for parameter identification. New kinetics were considered to describe the bio-physics of the inhibitory process, including: i) adsorption of LCFA over granular biomass and ii) specific LCFA substrate (saturated/unsaturated) a...

  13. Modulation of digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae fed ascorbic acid enriched zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Gopa; Mukhopadhyay, P K; Ayyappan, S

    2008-04-01

    The effect of supplementation of ascorbic acid through enriched zooplankton [10%, 20% and 30% ascorbyl palmitate (AP) inclusion in diet of zooplankton] on different digestive enzyme activities during ontogeny of Labeo rohita larvae was studied from 4 day to 15 day post hatch. Ascorbic acid (AA) content in different groups of unenriched (8.6+/-0.71) and enriched zooplankton were, 750+/-29.3, 1409.1+/-45.5, 2009.21+/-199.2 mug/g respectively on dry matter basis with differences (Pdigestive enzyme activities in response to 10%, 20% and 30% AP enriched zooplankton feeding was evidenced from positive correlations between dietary AA content with magnitude of elevation of enzyme activity in different groups. There were 57, 55, 29.2 and 2 fold increases in amylase activity; 7.35, 7.02, 4.43 and 2.73 fold increases in protease activity; 45.636, 41.50, 19.83 and 13.69 fold increases in lipase activity and 6, 5, 3, and 2 fold increases in alkaline phosphatase activity observed in the 15th day post hatch larvae fed 20%, 30%, 10%AP enriched and normal zooplankton respectively, than 4-day post hatch larvae of the respective groups. Enzyme activities were also positively correlated with specific growth rates of wet weight of rohu larvae at the 15th day post hatch. Increased AA might have played an important role in advancing morphological transformation of the digestive tract, protecting gastric mucosa and accelerating growth by the process of tissue formation, which necessitated the requirement of more nutrient thereby, increasing digestive enzyme activity. The regulatory role of AA in the modulation of different digestive enzymes activity and its physiological consequences of nutrient digestibility and utilization during ontogenesis could be extrapolated for better nutrient management of the larvae.

  14. Reduction of volatile fatty acids and odor offensiveness by anaerobic digestion and solid separation of dairy manure during manure storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Laura H; Ni, Ji-Qin; Zhang, Hao; Heber, Albert J; Mosier, Nathan S; Liu, Xingya; Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M; Harrison, Joseph H

    2015-04-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) play an important role in the biodegradation of organic wastes and production of bioenergy under anaerobic digestion, and are related to malodors. However, little is known about the dynamics of VFA during dairy manure storage. This study evaluated the characteristics of VFA in dairy manure before and after anaerobic co-digestion in a laboratory experiment using eight lab-scale reactors. The reactors were loaded with four different types of dairy manure: (1) liquid dairy manure from a freestall barn, (2) mixture of dairy manure and co-digestion food processing wastes at the inlet of an anaerobic digester, (3) effluent from the digester outlet, and (4) the liquid fraction of effluent from a solid separator. Four VFA (acetic, propionic, butyric, and 2-methylbutyric acids) were identified and quantified in weekly manure samples from all reactors. Results showed that the dominant VFA was acetic acid in all four manure sources. The off-farm co-digestion wastes significantly increased the total VFA concentrations and the proportions of individual VFA in the influent. The dairy manure under storage demonstrated high temporal and spatial variations in pH and VFA concentrations. Anaerobic digestion reduced the total VFA by 86%-96%; but solid-liquid separation did not demonstrate a significant reduction in total VFA in this study. Using VFA as an indicator, anaerobic digestion exhibited an effective reduction of dairy manure odor offensiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of system performance and microbial communities of a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system treating dairy manure: thermophilic digester operated at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-08-01

    A temperature-phased anaerobic digestion system with the thermophilic digester acidified by acidogenesis products (referred to as AT-TPAD) was evaluated to treat high-strength dairy cattle manure at a 15-day retention time. Three temperatures (50, 55, and 60°C) were tested on the thermophilic digester, and 50°C was found to be the optimal temperature for overall performance of the AT-TPAD system, achieving 31% VS removal and 0.22 L methane/g VS fed. The mesophilic digester contributed significantly more to the overall system performance than the thermophilic digester. The thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters had different microbial communities under all conditions, and both microbial communities exhibited dynamic changes in response to different conditions. Certain microbial groups were found significantly correlated with the system performance. Methanosarcina was the most important methanogen genus of the AT-TPAD system and its population abundance was inversely correlated with high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, energy, and amino acid of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, energy, and amino acids of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes treated with solvent plus posterior extrusion, for Nile tilapia. The apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein and gross energy were higher for detoxified than for nontoxic physic nut cake. However, the apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract of the nontoxic physic nut cake was higher than that of the detoxified one. The apparent digestibility coefficient of amino acids of both feed ingredients was superior to 80%, except for glycine, for the nontoxic psychic nut cake, and for threonine, for the detoxified one. Nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes show apparent digestibility coefficient values equivalent to those of the other evaluated oilseeds and potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.

  17. Ingredient classification according to the digestible amino acid profile: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 to classify ingredients according to the digestible amino acid (AA profile; 2 to determine ingredients with AA profile closer to the ideal for broiler chickens; and 3 to compare digestible AA profiles from simulated diets with the ideal protein profile. The digestible AA levels of 30 ingredients were compiled from the literature and presented as percentages of lysine according to the ideal protein concept. Cluster and principal component analyses (exploratory analyses were used to compose and describe groups of ingredients according to AA profiles. Four ingredient groups were identified by cluster analysis, and the classification of the ingredients within each of these groups was obtained from a principal component analysis, showing 11 classes of ingredients with similar digestible AA profiles. The ingredients with AA profiles closer to the ideal protein were meat and bone meal 45, fish meal 60 and wheat germ meal, all of them constituting Class 1; the ingredients from the other classes gradually diverged from the ideal protein. Soybean meal, which is the main protein source for poultry, showed good AA balance since it was included in Class 3. On the contrary, corn, which is the main energy source in poultry diets, was classified in Class 8. Dietary AA profiles were improved when corn and/or soybean meal were partially or totally replaced in the simulations by ingredients with better AA balance.

  18. Relationship between in vitro assays and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of animal protein meals in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Kuhlers, D L; Dozier, W A

    2013-01-01

    Two identical trials were conducted to determine the relationship of a novel digestive enzyme assay, Poultry Complete IDEA (PC IDEA), and the pepsin digestibility assay with standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 20 animal protein meals (APM) fed to broilers from 25 to 30 d of age. Animal protein meals included 10 meat and bone meals (MBM) consisting of bovine, porcine, or mixed bovine and porcine raw materials (BP), and 10 animal protein blends containing animal proteins from various species. Treatments consisted of 20 semi-purified diets containing 1 APM as the sole source of dietary amino acids (AA), and 1 N-free diet to determine endogenous ileal AA flow. With the exception of the N-free diet, diets were formulated to contain 20% CP. In each trial, 756 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were housed in battery cages and randomly assigned to 21 dietary treatments on d 25 (12 birds per cage; 3 replicate cages), and ileal digesta were collected on d 30 for determination of SIAAD. Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were determined for APM samples from each experimental diet (3 replicates per trial; 6 total replicates). Pepsin digestibility and PC IDEA were both correlated (P digestibility on SIAAD resulted in the following equations: % Lys SIAAD = [-9.65 + (0.38 × % PC IDEA predicted Lys digestibility) + (0.69 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Met SIAAD = [-35.95 + (0.62 × % PC IDEA predicted Met digestibility) + (0.75 × % pepsin digestibility)], % Thr SIAAD = [-77.5 + (0.39 × % PC IDEA predicted Thr digestibility) + (1.37 × % pepsin digestibility)]. Values of R(2) were 0.46, 0.47, and 0.55 for Lys, Met, and Thr, respectively. The relatively low R(2) values may have been due to the limited range in SIAAD observed for the 20 APM, and additional data on APM varying in SIAAD are needed.

  19. Research Advances in the Inhibition of Long Chain Fatty Acid to Methanogenic Activity in Anaeroic Digestion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed the inhibition mechanism of long chain fatty acid on the formation of anaerobic system, then thoroughly analyzed the inhibition factors of long chain fatty acid, and summarized the remission method to its inhibition, finally proposed some suggestions to further study on the influence of long chain fatty acid on anaerobic digestion system.

  20. Composition, ileal amino acid digestibility and nutritive value of organically grown legume seeds and conventional rapeseed cakes for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight white-flowered pea (Pisum sativum and two white-flowered field bean (Vicia faba cultivars grown organically were analysed for proximate composition and amino acid content. In vivo ileal amino acid digestibilities and faecal energy digestibility were predicted from the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of nitrogen and organic matter, respectively. The crude protein (CP content of the pea and field bean cultivars ranged from 244 to 279 and from 320 to 347 g/kg dry matter (DM, respectively. The concentrations of several essential amino acids in protein decreased as the CP content increased. In peas, predicted in vivo digestibilities did not correlate with chemical composition, and in field beans were lower than in peas. A digestibility trial was carried out on six cannulated barrows according to a 6 ´ 5 cyclic change-over design to determine the faecal and ileal nutrient digestibilities of organically grown leafed peas (cv. Sohvi, 199 g CP/kg DM, semileafless peas (cv. Karita, 240 g CP/kg DM, field beans (cv. Kontu, 320 g CP/kg DM, narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Pershatsvet, 220 g CP/kg DM, and conventional warm- and cold-pressed rapeseed cakes (360 and 313 g CP/kg DM, respectively. The net energy contents of the leafed and semileafed peas, field beans, lupins, and cold- and warm-pressed rape seed cakes were 10.8, 11.2, 9.8, 9.7, 9.4 and 12.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The apparent ileal digestibilities of lysine and threonine were similar, but the digestibility of methionine was poor in all legume seeds. Cystine digestibility was highest in lupins and lowest in field beans. With the exception of phenylalanine, there was no difference in apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities between rapeseed cakes.;

  1. Digestion of dry matter and amino acids and energy utilization by chicks fed molded corn containing mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T S; Johnson, Z B; Kirby, L K; Beasley, J N

    1982-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ability of chicks to digest dry matter and amino acids and to utilize the energy from uncontaminated corn and contaminated corn containing mycotoxins. The contaminated corn contained either aflatoxin from natural molding, citrinin by artificially molding with a Penicillum spp., or ochratoxin by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus. Compared to uncontaminated corn, none of the criteria measured was affected in corn contaminated with aflatoxin. Dry matter digestibility, amino acid digestibility, and energy utilization were reduced (P less than .05) when corn was artificially molded with the Pencillium spp. and with A. ochraceus.

  2. [Comparative analysis between diatom nitric acid digestion method and plankton 16S rDNA PCR method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-ge; Wang, Cheng-bao; Li, Xing-biao; Fan, Yan-yan; Feng, Xiang-ping

    2013-10-01

    To compare and explore the application value of diatom nitric acid digestion method and plankton 16S rDNA PCR method for drowning identification. Forty drowning cases from 2010 to 2011 were collected from Department of Forensic Medicine of Wenzhou Medical University. Samples including lung, kidney, liver and field water from each case were tested with diatom nitric acid digestion method and plankton 16S rDNA PCR method, respectively. The Diatom nitric acid digestion method and plankton 16S rDNA PCR method required 20 g and 2 g of each organ, and 15 mL and 1.5 mL of field water, respectively. The inspection time and detection rate were compared between the two methods. Diatom nitric acid digestion method mainly detected two species of diatoms, Centriae and Pennatae, while plankton 16S rDNA PCR method amplified a length of 162 bp band. The average inspection time of each case of the Diatom nitric acid digestion method was (95.30 +/- 2.78) min less than (325.33 +/- 14.18) min of plankton 16S rDNA PCR method (P plankton 16S rDNA PCR method was both 80%, higher than 40% and 30% of diatom nitric acid digestion method (P plankton 16S rDNA PCR method has practice values with such advantages as less quantity of samples, huge information and high specificity.

  3. Simultaneous Quantification of Iodine and Other Elements in Infant Formula by ICP-MS Following an Acid Digestion with Nitric Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FUJISAKI, Koji; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; SHIMOKAWA, Yukiko; KIYOTAKI, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    A method for quantifying iodine in infant formula is described. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide converted iodine into iodate in microwave-assisted digestion and prevented iodine volatilization and memory effects...

  4. Impact of α-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanqiao; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoming; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The structure and in vitro digestibility of native waxy rice starch by the combined hydrolysis of α-amylase and hydrochloric acid were investigated in this study. The combined hydrolysis technique generated higher hydrolysis rate and extent than the enzymatic hydrolysis. The granular appearance and chromatograph profile demonstrated that α-amylase and hydrochloric acid exhibited different patterns of hydrolysis. The rise in the ratio of absorbance 1047/1022cm(-1), the melting temperature range (Tc-To), and the melting enthalpy (ΔH) were observed during the combined hydrolysis. These results suggest that α-amylase simultaneously cleaves the amorphous and crystalline regions, whereas the amorphous regions of starch granules are preferentially hydrolyzed during the acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the combined hydrolysis increased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) while decreased slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), indicating that the hydrolysis mode affected the digestion property of native waxy rice starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination and prediction of the amino Acid digestibility of sunflower seed meals in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J D; Li, Q Y; Zeng, Z K; Li, P; Xu, X; Wang, H L; Zhang, S; Piao, X S

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and amino acid (AA) digestibility of sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and to use this data to develop prediction equations for estimating AA digestibility for growing pigs. Ten SFSM were collected from five provinces in China. Twelve barrows (38.8±4.6 kg), fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into two 6×6 Latin square designs. Each of six experimental periods comprised a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The ten test diets contained 50% SFSM as the sole source of AA. Another nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of crude protein (CP) and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an inert marker in each diet. There was considerable variation (CV>10%) among the ten SFSM in chemical composition (dry matter [DM]). The concentration of CP and ether extract (EE) ranged from 29.33% to 39.09% and 0.88% to 11.33%, respectively. Crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre ranged from 21.46% to 36.42%, 38.15% to 55.40%, and 24.59% to 37.34%, respectively. There was variation among the ten SFSM in apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) for lysine and threonine, which ranged from 63.16 to 79.21 and 55.19% to 72.04% for AID and 67.03% to 82.07% and 61.97% to 77.01% for SID, respectively. The variation in CP and methionine ranged from 60.13% to 74.72% and 74.79% to 88.60% for AID and 66.70% to 79.31% and 77.16% to 90.27% for SID, respectively. Methionine was a good indicator to predict AA digestibility. These results indicate that conventional chemical composition of SFSM was variable (CV>10%) among the ten SFSM (DM). The results of AID, SID and prediction equations could be used to evaluate the digestibility of SFSM in growing pigs.

  6. Intake and digestibility of fatty acids in late-lactating dairy cows fed flaxseed hulls supplemented with monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva-Kazama, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zeoula, Lucia M; Santos, Geraldo T D; Petit, Hélène V

    2011-11-01

    Flaxseed hull, a co-product obtained from flax processing, is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids but there is little information on digestibility of its nutrients by dairy cows. Four rumen-cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 665 ± 21 kg of body weight and 190 ± 5 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 28-d experimental periods to determine the effects of feeding monensin and flaxseed hulls on total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients and fatty acids. The four treatments were: (1) diet CO: control with neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin added; (2) diet FH containing 19·8 g flaxseed hulls/100 g dry matter (DM); (3) diet MO with 16 mg monensin/kg DM; (4) diet HM containing 19·8 g flaxseed hulls/100 g DM and 16 mg monensin/kg DM. Diets provided similar amounts of protein and net energy of lactation. Digestibility of crude protein was higher for diets containing flaxseed hulls and for diets supplemented with monensin. Flaxseed hulls supplementation decreased digestibility of acid and neutral detergent fibre. Significantly higher digestibility of ether extract and individual fatty acids was observed for treatments with flaxseed hulls compared with treatments without flaxseed hulls. A combination of flaxseed hulls and monensin did not result in better fatty acid digestibility than when feeding only flaxseed hulls.

  7. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Ullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB, rice polishings (RP, wheat bran (WB, sunflower meal (SFM, cottonseed meal (CSM, guar meal (GM, soybean meal (SBM from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM. The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA (90.1% was similar (p>0.05 to RB (89.0%. Isoleucine (97.8% and lysine (96.9% were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9% was same (p>0.05 as RP (71.9%. Arginine from WB (82.5% and RP (83.2% was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7% and leucine in RP (69.6% were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1% and Indian-SBM (83.4% had higher (p0.05. The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05 SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05 SIAAD among protein meals.

  8. Stability of Rosmarinic Acid in Aqueous Extracts from Different Lamiaceae Species after in vitro Digestion with Human Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zorić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares the gastrointestinal stability of rosmarinic acid in aqueous extracts of thyme, winter savory and lemon balm with the stability of pure rosmarinic acid. The stability of rosmarinic acid was detected after two-phase in vitro digestion process (gastric and duodenal with human gastrointestinal enzymes. The concentration of rosmarinic acid in undigested and digested samples was detected using HPLC-DAD. Results showed that gastrointestinal stability of pure rosmarinic acid was significantly higher than that of rosmarinic acid from plant extracts after both gastric and intestinal phases of digestion. Among plant extracts, rosmarinic acid was the most stable in lemon balm after gastric (14.10 % and intestinal digestion phases (6.5 %. The temperature (37 °C and slightly alkaline medium (pH=7.5 did not aff ect the stability of rosmarinic acid, while acid medium (pH=2.5 significantly decreased its stability (≥50 %. In addition, the stability rate of rosmarinic acid is influenced by the concentration of human gastrointestinal juices.

  9. Stability of Rosmarinic Acid in Aqueous Extracts from Different Lamiaceae Species after in vitro Digestion with Human Gastrointestinal Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Markić, Joško; Pedisić, Sandra; Bučević-Popović, Viljemka; Generalić-Mekinić, Ivana; Grebenar, Katarina; Kulišić-Bilušić, Tea

    2016-03-01

    The present study compares the gastrointestinal stability of rosmarinic acid in aqueous extracts of thyme, winter savory and lemon balm with the stability of pure rosmarinic acid. The stability of rosmarinic acid was detected after two-phase in vitro digestion process (gastric and duodenal) with human gastrointestinal enzymes. The concentration of rosmarinic acid in undigested and digested samples was detected using HPLC-DAD. Results showed that gastrointestinal stability of pure rosmarinic acid was significantly higher than that of rosmarinic acid from plant extracts after both gastric and intestinal phases of digestion. Among plant extracts, rosmarinic acid was the most stable in lemon balm after gastric (14.10%) and intestinal digestion phases (6.5%). The temperature (37 °C) and slightly alkaline medium (pH=7.5) did not affect the stability of rosmarinic acid, while acid medium (pH=2.5) significantly decreased its stability (≥50%). In addition, the stability rate of rosmarinic acid is influenced by the concentration of human gastrointestinal juices.

  10. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; comparison of a nitric acid in-bottle digestion procedure to other whole-water digestion procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, John R.; Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrochloric acid in-bottle digestion procedure is used to partially digest wholewater samples prior to determining recoverable elements by various analytical methods. The use of hydrochloric acid is problematic for some methods of analysis because of spectral interference. The inbottle digestion procedure has been modified to eliminate such interference by using nitric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in the digestion. Implications of this modification are evaluated by comparing results for a series of synthetic whole-water samples. Results are also compared with those obtained by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1994) (USEPA) Method 200.2 total-recoverable digestion procedure. Percentage yields that use the nitric acid inbottle digestion procedure are within 10 percent of the hydrochloric acid in-bottle yields for 25 of the 26 elements determined in two of the three synthetic whole-water samples tested. Differences in percentage yields for the third synthetic whole-water sample were greater than 10 percent for 16 of the 26 elements determined. The USEPA method was the most rigorous for solubilizing elements from particulate matter in all three synthetic whole-water samples. Nevertheless, the variability in the percentage yield by using the USEPA digestion procedure was generally greater than the in-bottle digestion procedure, presumably because of the difficulty in controlling the digestion conditions accurately.

  11. Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Broken Rice Fed to Postweaned Piglets with or without Multicarbohydrase and Phytase Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Dadalt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of amino acid (AA digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using pigs cannulated in the distal ileum. The ileal-cannulated pig model uses pigs older than six weeks due to difficulties related to implanting the T-cannula in distal ileum of younger pigs and complications during the post-surgical recovery. However, to properly formulate the diet of weaned pigs, the nutritive value of feed ingredients should be determined with younger pigs. Thus, 25 weaned pigs were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients, energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID ileal AA digestibility of broken rice (BR, with or without multicarbohydrase (MC and phytase (Phy supplementation. Piglets were weaned at 23 d of age and individually housed in digestibility cages until 45 d of age. The trial consisted of 7 d of adaptation to the experimental diets and 3 d of excreta (feces and urine collection. Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (about 6 weeks of age. A completely randomized experimental design was used to determine the effects of MC and Phy. Reference diets (RD, 5% casein was replaced by 30% of BR with or without MC, Phy, or MC+Phy. The RD was used to quantify endogenous AA losses. BR with Phy supplied had increased the ATTD of dry matter (p<0.05 and SID of histidine (p = 0.05, arginine, leucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and proline (p<0.05. BR with MC had been increased digestible energy and protein and SID for histidine (p<0.05. There was no interaction between Phy and MC on the BR nutrient digestibilities. Standardized amino acid digestibilities of BR, without enzymes, were lower than those values reported in the literature. The MC and Phy improved the digestibility of some nutrients and energy of BR in post-weaned piglet diets.

  12. Monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion using a microbial electrochemical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The bulk substrate was dosed into the middle chamber...... resistances were applied, though linear relationships were always observed. Finally, the biosensor was further explored with real AD effluents and the results did not show significant differences with those measured by GC. The simple and efficient biosensor showed promising potential for online, inexpensive...

  13. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and metabolisable energy value in grains for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PERTTILÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Using ileal digestible amino acids in feed optimising will intensify feed protein utilizing and decrease nitrogen excretion to the environment. The study determined the apparent ileal digestibility (AID coefficients of amino acids in barley, wheat, oats, triticale, maize, and dehulled oats in the diets of 180 Ross broiler chickens (aged 24–35 days. The birds were fed semi-purified diets that contained grain as the sole protein source and chromium-mordanted straw as an indigestible marker. The AID coefficients of the nutrients were assessed using the slaughter technique, and the apparent metabolisable energy (AME was determined using total excreta collection. The ileal digestibility of the dry matter and organic matter were the highest in maize. The AME of maize was higher than that of other cereals. The ileal digestibility of crude protein was higher in wheat than that in barley, oats and dehulled oats. The AME of wheat was similar to that of barley and oats but lower than that of triticale and dehulled oats. The amino acid AID was highest in wheat (0.86 and triticale (0.85 and lowest in oats (0.79 and barley 0.77. The average amino acid AID was 0.81 in dehulled oats. The threonine AID was the same in all tested ingredients. The lysine, methionine, and cystine AID coefficients were 0.81, 0.79, and 0.71 respectively for barley; 0.86, 0.84, and 0.38 respectively for oats; 0.87, 0.86, and 0.53 respectively for dehulled oats; 0.84, 0.90, and 0.66 respectively for maize; 0.89, 0.88, and 0.77 respectively for triticale; and 0.87, 0.85, and 0.71 respectively for wheat. Results indicated that AME –values of domestic grains (barley, oats and wheat are in the same level. Especially, low AME value of wheat needs further investigation.;

  14. Effect of different soybean meal type on ileal digestibility of amino acid in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyuk; Heo, Pil Seung; Jang, Jae Cheol; Jin, Song Shan; Hong, Jin Su; Kim, Yoo Yong

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibilities of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) with 6 soybean products in weaning pigs. A total of 14 weaning barrows with an initial body weight of 6.54 ± 0.34 kg were fitted with T-cannula at the distal ileum and allotted to 7 diets containing various soybean products. The soybean products used in the experiment were conventional soybean meal (CSBM), SBM fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 (FSBMA), SBM fermented by Bacillus subtilis PP6 (FSBMB), UV sterilized SBM fermented by Bacillus subtilis PP6 (UVFSBMB), SBM containing Bacillus subtilis PP6 (PSBM), and soy protein concentrate (SPC). Six corn-based diets were used and each of soybean products was added. All diets contained 5.0 g/kg of chromic oxide as an indigestible indicator and an N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AAs. Ileal CP digestibility did not differ by different soybean products. However, SIDs of Ile, Phe and Val were improved in pigs fed the FSBMB, UVFSBMB and SPC diets and the pigs fed the FSBMA diet showed higher SIDs of Phe and Val compared with those fed the CSBM diet (P Pro, Ser, and Tyr compared with PSBM diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no response of UV-sterilization on the FSBMB in the SIDs of AAs. These results suggest that SIDs of AAs could be improved by the supplementation of fermented soybean products in the diet for weaning pigs but fermentation with Bacillus subtilis is more efficient in improving ileal AA digestibility than that with Aspergillus oryzae. Furthermore, probiotics supplementation in the CSBM and UV-sterilization of the FSBMB had no effects on chemical composition and ileal AA digestibility.

  15. Diagnosis of digestive functional disease by the statistics of continuous monitoring of esophageal acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Landa, Rogelio; Cardenas Cardenas, Eduardo; Fossion, Ruben; Pérez Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-11-01

    Technological advances in the last few decennia allow the monitoring of many physiological observables in a continuous way, which in physics is called a "time series". The best studied physiological time series is that of the heart rhythm, which can be derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG). Studies have shown that a healthy heart is characterized by a complex time series and high heart rate variability (HRV). In adverse conditions, the cardiac time series degenerates towards randomness (as seen in, e.g., fibrillation) or rigidity (as seen in, e.g., ageing), both corresponding to a loss of HRV as described by, e.g., Golberger et. al [1]. Cardiac and digestive rhythms are regulated by the autonomous nervous system (ANS), that consists of two antagonistic branches, the orthosympathetic branch (ONS) that accelerates the cardiac rhythm but decelerates the digestive system, and the parasympathetic brand (PNS) that works in the opposite way. Because of this reason, one might expect that the statistics of gastro-esophageal time series, as described by Gardner et. al. [2,3], reflects the health state of the digestive system in a similar way as HRV in the cardiac case, described by Minocha et. al. In the present project, we apply statistical methods derived from HRV analysis to time series of esophageal acidity (24h pHmetry). The study is realized on data from a large patient population from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán. Our focus is on patients with functional disease (symptoms but no anatomical damage). We find that traditional statistical approaches (e.g. Fourier spectral analysis) are unable to distinguish between different degenerations of the digestive system, such as gastric esophageal reflux disease (GERD) or functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID).

  16. Fast Startup of Semi-Pilot-Scale Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste Acid Hydrolysate for Biogas Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Zhao, Cheng; Guo, Hai-Jun; Wang, Can; Luo, Mu-Tan; Xiong, Lian; Li, Hai-Long; Chen, Xue-Fang; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-12-27

    In this study, a fast startup of semi-pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of food waste acid hydrolysate for biogas production was carried out for the first time. During the period of fast startup, more than 85% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be degraded, and even more than 90% of COD can be degraded during the later stage of anaerobic digestion. During this anaerobic digestion process, the biogas yield, the methane yield, and the CH 4 content in biogas were 0.542 ± 0.056 m 3 /kg COD consumption , 0.442 ± 0.053 m 3 /kg COD consumption , and 81.52 ± 3.05%, respectively, and these values were high and stable. Besides, the fermentation pH was very stable, in which no acidification was observed during the anaerobic digestion process (outlet pH was 7.26 ± 0.05 for the whole anaerobic digestion). Overall, the startup of this anaerobic digestion can be completed in a short period (the system can be stable 2 days after the substrate was pumped into the bioreactor), and anaerobic digestion of food waste acid hydrolysate is feasible and attractive for industrial treatment of food waste and biogas production.

  17. Nucleic acids digestion by enzymes in the stomach of snakehead (Channa argus) and banded grouper (Epinephelus awoara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Pan, Xiaoming; Wu, Wei; Cao, Minjie; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-02-01

    Dietary nucleic acids (NAs) were important nutrients. However, the digestion of NAs in stomach has not been studied. In this study, the digestion of NAs by enzymes from fish stomach was investigated. The snakehead pepsins (SP) which were the main enzymes in stomach were extracted and purified. The purity of SP was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The snakehead pepsin 2 (SP2) which was the main component in the extracts was used for investigating the protein and NAs digestion activity. SP2 could digest NAs, including λ DNA and salmon sperm DNA. Interestingly, the digestion could be inhibited by treatment of alkaline solution at pH 8.0 and pepstatin A, and the digestion could happen either in the presence or absence of hemoglobin (Hb) and BSA as the protein substrates. Similarly, the stomach enzymes of banded grouper also showed the NAs digestion activity. NAs could be digested by the stomach enzymes of snakehead and banded grouper. It may be helpful for understanding both animal nutrition and NAs metabolic pathway.

  18. Fatty Acid Digestion and Deposition in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Either Native or Randomized Palm Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Hovenier, R.; Geelen, M.J.H.; Lobee, H.W.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Beynen, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil.

  19. Insectivorous bats digest chitin in the stomach using acidic mammalian chitinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strobel

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet.

  20. Accurate quantification of tio2 nanoparticles collected on air filters using a microwave-assisted acid digestion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Anthony, T Renée; Grassian, Vicki H; Peters, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles, including nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 100 nm, are used extensively in consumer products. In a 2011 current intelligence bulletin, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended methods to assess worker exposures to fine and ultrafine TiO(2) particles and associated occupational exposure limits for these particles. However, there are several challenges and problems encountered with these recommended exposure assessment methods involving the accurate quantitation of titanium dioxide collected on air filters using acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Specifically, recommended digestion methods include the use of chemicals, such as perchloric acid, which are typically unavailable in most accredited industrial hygiene laboratories due to highly corrosive and oxidizing properties. Other alternative methods that are used typically involve the use of nitric acid or combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which yield very poor recoveries for titanium dioxide. Therefore, given the current state of the science, it is clear that a new method is needed for exposure assessment. In this current study, a microwave-assisted acid digestion method has been specifically designed to improve the recovery of titanium in TiO(2) nanoparticles for quantitative analysis using ICP-OES. The optimum digestion conditions were determined by changing several variables including the acids used, digestion time, and temperature. Consequently, the optimized digestion temperature of 210°C with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid (2:1 v/v) resulted in a recovery of >90% for TiO(2). The method is expected to provide for a more accurate quantification of airborne TiO(2) particles in the workplace environment.

  1. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straarup, E M; Danielsen, V; Høy, C-E; Jakobsen, K

    2006-04-01

    In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of age were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 5 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of apparent faecal nutrient and energy digestibility and nitrogen retention. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved in groups fed interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source.

  2. Macrophages create an acidic extracellular hydrolytic compartment to digest aggregated lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S; Grosheva, Inna; Chiang, Ethan; Buxbaum, Adina R; Baird, Barbara A; Pierini, Lynda M; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2009-12-01

    A critical event in atherogenesis is the interaction of macrophages with subendothelial lipoproteins. Although most studies model this interaction by incubating macrophages with monomeric lipoproteins, macrophages in vivo encounter lipoproteins that are aggregated. The physical features of the lipoproteins require distinctive mechanisms for their uptake. We show that macrophages create an extracellular, acidic, hydrolytic compartment to carry out digestion of aggregated low-density lipoproteins. We demonstrate delivery of lysosomal contents to these specialized compartments and their acidification by vacuolar ATPase, enabling aggregate catabolism by lysosomal acid hydrolases. We observe transient sealing of portions of the compartments, allowing formation of an "extracellular" proton gradient. An increase in free cholesterol is observed in aggregates contained in these compartments. Thus, cholesteryl ester hydrolysis can occur extracellularly in a specialized compartment, a lysosomal synapse, during the interaction of macrophages with aggregated low-density lipoprotein. A detailed understanding of these processes is essential for developing strategies to prevent atherosclerosis.

  3. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  4. Exploring amino acid side chain decomposition using enzymatic digestion and HPLC-MS: combined lysine transformations in chlorinated waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Plewa, Michael J; Mitch, William A

    2009-09-15

    Characterizing the transformations of polypeptides is important across a broad range of scientific disciplines. As polypeptides are an important constituent of dissolved organic matter within seawater and freshwater, it is important to understand their (bio)geochemical fate. Oxidants, formed in blood as part of the immunological response or applied to waters for disinfection, react with polypeptides to form transformation products that may exert toxicity. An analytical method was developed to characterize and quantify modifications to the side chains of amino acid residues within polypeptides. Enzymatic digestion of polypeptides using Pronase E, a protease cocktail, proved preferable to common strong acid digestion techniques, because the circumneutral pH conditions employed during enzymatic digestion prevent artifacts arising from extreme pH conditions. Lysine nitrile, one of the predicted transformation products of lysine residues within polypeptides, was destroyed during strong acid digestion but not enzymatic digestion. Due to the potential variability in enzymatic digestion efficiencies, the liberation of a mass-labeled leucine monomer from an octapeptide spiked standard was employed as a measure of complete digestion efficiency for each sample and enabled quantification of modified amino acid residues within polypeptides. A multivariate statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence on digestion efficiency of Pronase E loadings, salinity, natural organic matter concentration, and pH across the range of conditions relevant to blood, seawater, and concentrated freshwaters and disinfected drinking/recreational waters. At Pronase E loadings of 10 mg, the analysis indicated that digestion efficiencies ranged from 25 to 55% over the range of conditions expected for typical drinking waters concentrated from 1 L to 10 mL. The analytical method was applied to triplicate 1 L samples of a chlorinated tap water and a chlorinated indoor pool water. For the

  5. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixes food with digestive juice Stomach acid and digestive enzymes Proteins Small intestine Peristalsis Small intestine digestive juice ... these digestive juices. Pancreas. Your pancreas makes a digestive juice that has enzymes that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The ...

  6. Comparative ileal amino acid digestibility of distillers' grains for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayiwola Adeola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment reported here was to investigate and compare the amino acid (AA digestibility of distillers' dried grains (DDG, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS, high protein distillers' dried grains (HP-DDG, and high protein distillers' dried grains with solubles (HP-DDGS in growing pigs. Five semi-purified diets consisting of DDG, DDGS, HP-DDG, HP-DDGS, and nitrogen-free diet (NFD were fed to pigs fitted with simple T-cannula for 5 observations per diet. Endogenous losses of AA at the terminal ileum of pigs that received the NFD were used to calculate standardized ileal digestibility (SID of AA from apparent ileal digestibility (AID of AA. The AID of Lys in DDGS was lower (P < 0.05 than that in DDG, which was also lower (P < 0.05 than that in HP-DDG. There were no differences in AID of Met among DDG, DDGS and HP-DDGS, but was greater (P < 0.05 in HP-DDG than in DDG or DDGS. The AID of Thr in HP-DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that in DDGS but not different from that in DDG or HP-DDGS. The branched-chain AA Ile and Leu had greater (P < 0.05 AID in HP-DDG than in DDG, DDGS or HP-DDGS, and there was no difference among DDG, DDGS, and HP-DDGS. The AID of Trp in DDG and DDGS or HP-DDG and HP-DDGS were not different, but the AID of Trp in HP-DDGS was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS. The greatest SID of the indispensable AA was in HP-DDG. Except for Arg and Lys in which DDG had greater (P < 0.05 digestibility, there was no difference between DDG and DDGS in the SID of the indispensable AA. The SID of Lys in DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS but there was no difference between that of DDG and HP-DDGS. Only His, Ile, and Met had lower (P < 0.05 SID in HP-DDGS than HP-DDG within the indispensable AA. The SID of Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Gly, Ser and Tyr were lower (P < 0.05 in DDGS than in HP-DDG. There SID of dispensable AA in DDG was not different from that of HP-DDGS. The current study provided

  7. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (pprotein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (pdigestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (pprotein meals. PMID:26954227

  8. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the amino acid digestibility of different triticale genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Wolfgang; Boguhn, Jeannette; Maurer, Hans Peter; Weiss, Jochen; Zuber, Tobias; Möhring, Jens; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen fertilisation and genotype on the amino acid (AA) digestibility of triticale grain was investigated in caecectomised laying hens. Three genotypes, Grenado, EAW6002 and Lasko, were cultivated with and without nitrogen fertilisation at the end of the heading stage. The six triticale variants as well as a basal diet were each used to feed seven laying hens in a 7 × 7 Latin square design. Nitrogen fertilisation influenced the digestibility of Cys, Glu, Phe and Ser in some triticale genotypes and reduced Ala, Ile, Lys, Met and Val digestibility in all genotypes (P fertilisation increased the concentration of all AAs in the grain. Consequently, the concentration of digestible AAs in the grains was increased for most AAs upon nitrogen fertilisation. Overall, Lys had the lowest digestibility, whereas that of Glu and Pro was the highest. For the triticale genotypes, the level of AA digestibility was highest for EAW6002 followed by Lasko and Grenado, with significant differences (P fertilisation and genotype-specific digestibility data in feed formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on fatty acid digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fatty acids in diets containing 0 or 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 0, 5, or 10% tallow. Barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 25 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs (n = 4/diet) were randomly assigned to diets: corn-soybean meal control (CON), CON plus 5% tallow (5T0D), CON plus 10% tallow (10T0D), CON plus 30% DDGS (0T30D), CON plus 5% tallow and 30% DDGS (5T30D), and CON plus 10% tallow and 30% DDGS (10T30D). Eight replicates per treatment were achieved by randomizing diets among pigs for a second collection period. Each pig was fed their respective diet for a 5-d adaptation period followed by 3-d fecal collection and 2-d ileal digesta collection periods. The AID and ATTD of fatty acids was calculated using the index method and acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. When tallow was added to diets with 0% DDGS, there was no effect on AID of palmitic acid (C16:0) or SFA, while AID of stearic acid (C18:0) was increased (66.87% for CON, 72.06% for 5T0D, and 76.81% for 10T0D; P diets contained 30% DDGS, the AID of all SFA was reduced as levels of tallow increased C16:0 (77.62% for 0T30D, 69.66% for 5T30D, and 68.43% for 10T30D), C18:0 (85.87% for 0T30D, 64.08% for 5T30D, and 61.25% for 10T30D), and SFA (79.88% for 0T30D, 68.23% for 5T30D, and 66.29% for 10T30D). The AID of MUFA was not affected when tallow was added to diets with 30% DDGS but actually increased in 5T0D and 10T0D. The amount of apparent ileal digested fatty acids increased with the addition of DDGS and tallow regardless of their digestibility. Amounts of ileal digested MUFA and PUFA increased when both DDGS (P diet compared to when either ingredient was excluded. For ileal digestible SFA, an interaction (P diets increased the amount of digested SFA, but in diets with DDGS, the increment in amount of ileal digestible

  10. Potassium co-transport and antiport during the uptake of sucrose and glutamic acid from the xylem vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, A.J.E. van; Erven, A.J. van

    Perfusion experiments with excised internodes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Moneymaker) showed that the uptake of glutamic acid and sucrose from the xylem vessels is accompanied with coupled proton co-transport and potassium antiport at low pH (<5.5). At high pH (5.5) both proton and

  11. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nitrogen (N and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID of amino acids (AA and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (p<0.05 the digestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05 in the diet supplemented with CC protease. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.79±1.94 kg, fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were blocked by body weight into 2 groups with 6 pigs each. The diets were the same as those in Exp. 1. The CC protease increased (p<0.05 the AID of crude protein and some essential AA including arginine, isoleucine and leucine. The AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05 by supplemental CC protease, but the hindgut digestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment.

  12. Whole-Grain Fiber Composition Influences Site of Nutrient Digestion, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids, and Whole-Body Energy Utilization in Grower Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouhse, Janelle M; Gao, Jun; Vasanthan, Thava; Izydorczyk, Marta; Beattie, Aaron D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2017-01-01

    Variant chemical composition and physical structure of whole grains may change the site of energy digestion from the small to the large intestine. We determined the site of nutrient digestion, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AAs), and net energy (NE) value of barley cultivars that vary in nutrient composition compared with wheat. Ileal-cannulated barrows (27.7 kg initial body weight) were fed diets containing 800 g whole grains/kg alongside a basal and nitrogen-free diet for calculations in a 6 (period) × 7 (diet) Youden square. Diets included 1 of 5 whole grains-1) high-fermentable, high-β-glucan, hull-less barley (HFB); 2) high-fermentable, high-amylose, hull-less barley (HFA); 3) moderate-fermentable, hull-less barley (MFB); 4) low-fermentable, hulled barley (LFB); and 5) low-fermentable, hard red spring wheat (LFW). Intestine nutrient flow and whole-body energy utilization were tested and explained by using whole-grain and digesta confocal laser scanning. Starch apparent ileal digestibility was 14-29% lower (P value was 18% higher (P value depended on the concentration of fermentable fiber and starch and digestible protein, ranging from 2.12-1.76 Mcal/kg in barley to 1.94 Mcal/kg in wheat. High-fiber whole grains may be used as energy substrates for pigs; however, the reduced SID of AAs requires titration of indispensable AAs to maintain growth. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Profile of organic acid concentrations in the digestive gland and hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata under estivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Clecildo Barreto Bezerra

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis it was possible to determine simultaneously the concentration of organic acids (pyruvate, lactate, succinate, fumarate, malate, acetate, propionate, acetoacetate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate in the digestive gland and the extracellular concentration of these same acids in the hemolymph of estivating Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. After a 7 day period of estivation, there was a significant increase in the tissue levels of lactate, succinate, malate and acetate compared to non-estivating snails. After 14 days of estivation, the levels of lactate and acetate were also significantly elevated. The hemolymph concentrations of pyruvate and acetate increased significantly after 7 days and acetate concentrations continued to be significantly increased up to 14 days of estivation. The other organic acids studied, such as ketone body acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate or the volatile acid propionate, did not accumulate. Their tissue concentrations, however, increased on the 7th day of estivation and reached normal levels within two weeks of estivation for some of them. One should take into consideration how the reduction in metabolism can be handled under aerobic conditions, and what role anaerobic pathways may play in both energy formation and redox balance processes.

  14. Requirement of Digestible Sulfur Amino Acids in Laying Hens Fed Sorghum- and Soybean Meal-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Gomez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were done to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of dietary digestible methionine (Met and Met:cysteine (Met:Cys ratio on the productivity of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets. In Exp. 1, 160 hens from 68 to 75 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary levels of digestible Met (0.20 0.24, 0.28 and 0.32%. The digestible total sulfur amino acids:Lysine (TSAA:Lys ratios were: 62, 68, 76 and 84%. In Exp. 2, 192 hens from 76-83 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios (160, 116.7, 85.7 and 62.5%. The digestible TSAA:Lys ratio was kept constant across diets (80%. Results were subjected to ANOVA and linear regression analyses. In Exp. 1, optimal egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency responses were observed at 0.30 and 0.50% of dietary digestible Met and TSAA, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. Live performance was maximized with digestible Met and TSAA in takes of 288 and 478 mg/hen/d, respectively. In Exp. 2, optimal egg production and feed efficiency responses were observed at 151 and 150% of dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. The digestible Met, Cys and TSAA intake to maximize egg production and feed efficiency were 313, 207 and 510 mg/hen/d, respectively. The requirements for sulfur AA in Hy-Line W-36 hens from 68 to 83 weeks of age fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets fell inside the range of the requirements previously estimated in hens fed corn-soybean meal based diets.

  15. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease ... Polyps Constipation Crohn's Disease Cyclic Vomiting ... and Diverticulitis Dumping Syndrome Foodborne Illnesses Gallstones Gas ...

  16. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P animal proteins in diets for pigs.

  17. Effect of acid hydrolysis on morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchi; Wen, Fanting; Zhang, Shurong; Shen, Ruru; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Effect of acid hydrolysis on the morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight was investigated in this study. The hydrolysis degree of C. auriculatum starch rapidly increased to 63.69% after 4days and reached 78.67% at the end of 9days. Morphology observation showed that the starch granules remained intact during the first 4days of hydrolysis. However, serious erosion phenomenon was observed after 5days and starch granules completely fell into pieces after 7days. During acid hydrolysis process, the crystal type of hydrolyzed starch changed from original CB-type to final A-type. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns showed the semi-crystalline growth rings started to be hydrolyzed after 4days. The proportions of single helix and amorphous components as well as amylose content in starch gradually decreased, whereas the proportion of double helix components continuously increased during acid hydrolysis. However, the contents of rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch were almost constant during acid hydrolysis process, indicating the in vitro digestion property of C. auriculatum starch was not affected by acid hydrolysis. Our results provided novel information on the inner structure of C. auriculatum starch granules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissolution of fluoride complexes following microwave-assisted hydrofluoric acid digestion of marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratli, Jesse M; McManus, James; Mix, Alan; Chase, Zanna

    2012-01-30

    Microwave-assisted, hydrofluoric acid digestion is an increasingly common tool for the preparation of marine sediment samples for analysis by a variety of spectrometric techniques. Here we report that analysis of terrigenous-dominated sediment samples occasionally results in anomalously low values for several elements, including Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, and Sr. Measured concentrations of these elements increased with time between sample preparation and sample analysis, reaching stable values after 8-29 days. This lag is explained by the formation and subsequent dissolution of poorly soluble fluoride phases during digestion. Other elements, such as Fe, Mn, and Ti, showed little or no lag and were quickly measurable at a stable value. Full re-dissolution of the least soluble fluorides, which incorporate Al and Mg, requires up to four weeks at room temperature, and this duration can vary among sedimentary matrices. This waiting time can be reduced to 6 days (or shorter) if the samples are heated to ≈ 60°C for 24h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and validation of a simplified titration method for monitoring volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Guo, Jianbin; Wu, Shubiao; Liu, Fang; Dong, Renjie

    2017-09-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration has been considered as one of the most sensitive process performance indicators in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. However, the accurate determination of VFAs concentration in AD processes normally requires advanced equipment and complex pretreatment procedures. A simplified method with fewer sample pretreatment procedures and improved accuracy is greatly needed, particularly for on-site application. This report outlines improvements to the Nordmann method, one of the most popular titrations used for VFA monitoring. The influence of ion and solid interfering subsystems in titrated samples on results accuracy was discussed. The total solid content in titrated samples was the main factor affecting accuracy in VFA monitoring. Moreover, a high linear correlation was established between the total solids contents and VFA measurement differences between the traditional Nordmann equation and gas chromatography (GC). Accordingly, a simplified titration method was developed and validated using a semi-continuous experiment of chicken manure anaerobic digestion with various organic loading rates. The good fitting of the results obtained by this method in comparison with GC results strongly supported the potential application of this method to VFA monitoring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bio-electrolytic sensor for rapid monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing...... to monitor VFA concentrations in a lab-scale AD reactor for a month. The VFA measurements from the sensor correlated well with those from GC analysis which proved the accuracy of the system. Since hydrogen was produced in the cathode as byproduct during monitoring, the system could be energy self......-sufficient. Considering the high accuracy, short response time, long-term stability and additional benefit of H2 production, this bio-electrolytic sensor could be a simple and cost-effective method for VFA monitoring during AD and other anaerobic processes....

  2. A comparison between the 2N and 4N HCl acid-insoluble ash methods for digestibility trials in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergero, D; Préfontaine, C; Miraglia, N; Peiretti, P G

    2009-12-01

    The digestibility of horse feeds and rations can be determined using different techniques such as calculations based on the chemical composition, in vivo or in vitro methods. The marker methods overcome difficulties like discomfort for the animals and longer experimental times encountered using the ingesta/egesta method. In field conditions, a natural indigestible marker like acid-insoluble ash (AIA), with no changes in the normal ration, could be a very useful tool for digestibility trials. A group of six standardbred horses was used in a set of seven apparent digestibility trials. The diets were based on a first-cut meadow hay added to three different cereals (barley for trials 1 and 2; oats for trials 3 and 5 and corn for trials 6 and 7), the hay : concentrate ratio being 60 : 40 or 70 : 30 on a dry matter basis. Feedstuffs and faeces were analysed to determine the AIA content, using 2N HCl or 4N HCl technique. No differences about AIA concentration were found between the two methods for means and accuracy in each diet. Digestion coefficients for each diet did not differ with AIA method, even if in some trials interfering factors consistently lowered the overall values. Consequently, the AIA 2N HCl can be considered the easier and cheaper method to state apparent digestibility in field conditions, and a good tool for digestibility trials in horses fed hay-based diets.

  3. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  4. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each of ...

  5. Resolving the dependence of Δ47 thermometers on acid digestion temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, A. S.; Olack, G.

    2015-12-01

    Clumped isotope paleothermometry on carbonate minerals has emerged as a leading tool in paleoclimate and paleoaltimetry studies. The utility of Δ47 measurements is especially pronounced when estimating formation temperature of carbonates that precipitated from solutions with unknown water oxygen isotope composition. However, the interpretation of Δ47 values has been hindered by discrepancies among the many published thermometric calibrations. As the number of calibrations grows, it now appears that the slope of the Δ47 vs. inverse temperature relationship clusters into two distinct groupings based on whether the carbonate minerals were digested at low temperature (25°C) vs. high temperature (generally 70 - 90°C). We model the effect that small amounts of oxygen exchange between CO2 liberated to the phosphoric acid solution and trace water in that solution can have on measured Δ47. This can occur with very little shift in δ47 and δ18O of the CO2. The extent and effect of oxygen exchange following CaCO3 dissolution is a complex function of the phosphoric acid's temperature, water content, and viscosity. Conventional approaches to preparation of phosphoric acid (targeting a defined density range at room temperature) are likely inadequate for resolving the details of these dependencies. This stems in part from changes that can occur to the water content and density of phosphoric acid during heating of the acid under vacuum. Secondary effects may also arise that relate to the grain and crystallite size of the carbonate minerals, intercalation of carbonate minerals with siliciclastic matrix in sediments or paleosols, and possibly the reactivity of hydrous components of a siliciclastic rich sample.

  6. Sample size affects 13C-18O clumping in CO2 derived from phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, U.; Fiebig, J.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, clumped isotope analysis of carbonates has become an important tool for terrestrial and marine paleoclimate reconstructions. For this purpose, 47/44 ratios of CO2 derived from phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates are measured. These values are compared to the corresponding stochastic 47/44 distribution ratios computed from determined δ13C and δ18O values, with the deviation being finally expressed as Δ47. For carbonates precipitated in equilibrium with its parental water, the magnitude of Δ47 is a function of temperature only. This technique bases on the fact that the isotopic fractionation associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates is kinetically controlled. In this way, the concentration of 13C-18O bondings in the evolved CO2 remains proportional to the number of corresponding bondings inside the carbonate lattice. A relationship between carbonate growth temperature and Δ47 has recently been determined experimentally by Ghosh et al. (2006)1, who performed the carbonate digestion with 103% H3PO4 at 25°C after precipitating the carbonates inorganically at temperatures ranging from 1-50°C. In order to investigate the kinetic parameters associated with the phosphoric acid digestion reaction at 25°C, we have analyzed several natural carbonates at varying sample sizes. Amongst these are NBS 19, internal Carrara marbel, Arctica islandica and cold seep carbonates. Sample size was varied between 4 and 12mg. All samples exhibit a systematic trend to increasing Δ47 values with decreasing sample size, with absolute variations being restricted to ≤0.10%. Additional tests imply that this effect is related to the phosphoric acid digestion reaction. Most presumably, either the kinetic fractionation factor expressing the differences in 47/44 ratios between evolved CO2 and parental carbonate slightly depends on the concentration of the digested carbonate or traces of water exchange with C-O-bearing species inside the acid, similar to

  7. Ontogeny and distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the digestive system of California halibut larvae (Paralichthys californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias-Soto, Magali; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín; Lazo, Juan P

    2013-10-01

    Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to histochemically detect and quantify some of the enzymes responsible for absorption and intracellular digestion of nutrients in the anterior and posterior intestine of California halibut larvae. Alkaline and acid phosphatases were detected from the first days post-hatch (dph). Alkaline phosphatase maintained a high level of activity during the first 20 dph in both intestinal regions. Thereafter, a clear intestinal regionalization of the activity was observed with the highest levels occurring in the anterior intestine. Acid phosphatase activity gradually increased in both intestinal regions during development, and a regionalization of the activity was not observed until late in development, once the ocular migration began. Highest levels were observed in the anterior intestine at the end of metamorphosis concomitant with the stomach development. The results from this study show some morphological and physiological changes are occurring during larval development and a clear regionalization of the absorption process as the larvae develops. These ontological changes must be considered in the elaboration of diets according to the digestive capacity of the larvae.

  8. Determination and prediction of the energy content and amino acid digestibility of peanut meals fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingyun; Piao, Xiangshu; Liu, Jundi; Zeng, Zhikai; Zhang, Sai; Lei, Xinjian

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the content of digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in peanut meal (PNM) for growing pigs. In Experiment 1, 78 growing pigs (46.8 ± 2.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 13 diets, including a corn-soya bean meal basal diet and 12 PNM test diets. In Experiment 2, 12 growing barrows (48.7 ± 2.8 kg) were allotted to one of two 6 × 6 Latin squares. The treatments include a N-free diet and 10 PNM test diets. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the DE and ME differed (p digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE) was 82.2%. The DE of PNM could be precisely predicted by equations including NDF combined with GE or crude protein (CP) with an R(2) value of 0.91 and 0.92, respectively. For the AID and SID for lysine, the results of Experiment 2 indicated variations among PNM sources ranging from 59.6% to 76.7% and 64.8% to 80.9%, respectively. However, for CP, variations for AID and SID were lower and ranged from 70.2% to 81.9% and 75.7% to 85.6%, respectively. The results indicate that the concentration of lysine was the best single predictor to estimate the digestibility of amino acids. However, further work is needed to investigate the reason for the variation in the digestibility of lysine and avoid processing procedures that are detrimental to lysine digestibility.

  9. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  10. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-01-30

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Mitigation of Volatile Fatty Acid Build-Up by the Use of Soft Carbon Felt Electrodes: Evaluation of Anaerobic Digestion in Acidic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Moreno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion and bioelectrochemical systems have great potential to recover energy from waste streams and help overcome common hurdles associated with this process, as integrated technologies. In this study, the benefit of integrating an electrogen-enriched bioanode in a batch anaerobic digester was explored under ambient temperature conditions associated with organic overloading and reactor acidity. An increase in CH4 production was observed in the electrode-containing reactors (0.56 L CH4 kgVS−1 h−1 in comparison with the conventional anaerobic digester (0.14 L CH4 kgVS−1 h−1 during the initial stages of operation. In addition, the mere presence of electrodes operating in open circuit mode resulted in a delay in volatile fatty acid (VFA build-up. This seems to be associated with the enhancement in VFA consumption due to biomass proliferation on the electrode surface, rather than on electrochemical activity.

  12. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Jin, L.; Wen, Q. N.; Kopparapu, N. K.; Liu, J.; Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Y. G.

    2016-01-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  13. Determination of Copper-Based Fungicides by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Digestion Procedure with Sulfuric and Nitric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Milinović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper-based fungicides can be effectively digested by treatment with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid in exactly 15 minutes for the rapid determination via copper using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Under optimum conditions, the results of copper fungicide analysis were consistent to those obtained by the AOAC’s recommended method. Recovery values ranged from 98.63 to 103.40%. Relative standard deviation values are lower than 2%. The proposed digestion procedure applied for determination of copper ranged from 100 to 594 g Cu kg-1 in different commercial fungicideproducts.

  14. The rat as a model animal for the growing pig in determining ileal amino acid digestibility in soya and milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfurd, S M; Moughan, P J

    2003-08-01

    The growing pig is an established model animal for humans to determine protein digestibility to the end of the small intestine. An ileal amino acid digestibility assay based on the laboratory rat offers an alternative. True ileal amino acid digestibility in high quality refined protein sources was determined and compared between the laboratory rat and the growing pig. Both species of animals were fed their daily ration in nine separate meals. Ileal digesta were collected at slaughter and chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. For several of the amino acids examined, there were no significant (p digestibility, but for aspartic acid, serine, cysteine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine, significant (p digestibility, for all amino acids and all diets, was 95.8% for the pig and 96.1% for the rat. Cysteine digestibility was highly variable between individual animals fed the same diet. The extent of amino acid digestion and absorption appears to be broadly similar across the two species, but some important differences in digestibility were recorded.

  15. Effect of simultaneous cooling on microwave-assisted wet digestion of biological samples with diluted nitric acid and O{sub 2} pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105-900 (Brazil); Nóbrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciência dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Jussiane S.S.; Schmidt, Lucas; Mello, Paola A. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105-900 (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105-900 (Brazil)

    2014-07-21

    Highlights: • Simultaneously cooling during microwave heating for improving digestion efficiency. • Maximum MW power delivered into cavity, improving the temperature in liquid phase. • Temperature gradient increases regeneration reaction of HNO{sub 3} in O{sub 2} rich atmosphere. • Digestion of several matrices using diluted HNO{sub 3} combined with O{sub 2} pressure. - Abstract: The present work evaluates the influence of vessel cooling simultaneously to microwave-assisted digestion performed in a closed system with diluted HNO{sub 3} under O{sub 2} pressure. The effect of outside air flow-rates (60–190 m{sup 3} h{sup −1}) used for cooling of digestion vessels was evaluated. An improvement in digestion efficiency caused by the reduction of HNO{sub 3} partial pressure was observed when using higher air flow-rate (190 m{sup 3} h{sup −1}), decreasing the residual carbon content for whole milk powder from 21.7 to 9.3% (lowest and highest air flow-rate, respectively). The use of high air flow-rate outside the digestion vessel resulted in a higher temperature gradient between liquid and gas phases inside the digestion vessel and improved the efficiency of sample digestion. Since a more pronounced temperature gradient was obtained, it contributed for increasing the condensation rate and thus allowed a reduction in the HNO{sub 3} partial pressure of the digestion vessel, which improved the regeneration of HNO{sub 3}. An air flow-rate of 190 m{sup 3} h{sup −1} was selected for digestion of animal fat, bovine liver, ground soybean, non fat milk powder, oregano leaves, potato starch and whole milk powder samples, and a standard reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), bovine liver (NIST 1577) and whole milk powder (NIST 8435) for further metals determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results were in agreement with certified values and no interferences caused by matrix effects during the determination step

  16. Effect of Digestible Protein and Sulfur Amino Acids in Starter Diet on Performance and Small Intestinal (Jejunum Morphology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avisa Akhavan khaleghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA

  17. Effect of calcium on the kinetics of free fatty acid release during in vitro lipid digestion in model emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Zhu, Xiangqian; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-08-15

    The effects of different calcium salts on in vitro lipid digestion were examined by determining the free fatty acids released from various oil-in-water emulsions. The kinetics of the total and individual free fatty acids released by lipolysis were monitored by the pH-stat method and gas chromatography, respectively. The rate and the extent of free fatty acid release increased with an increase in the added calcium concentration, but the increase was dependent on the emulsifying agent. The effect of calcium was diminished when the emulsion contained phosphate. Soluble calcium salts, such as calcium gluconate, calcium acetate and CaCl2, had greater effects on the rate and extent of free fatty acid release than did insoluble salts, such as CaO and CaSO4, suggesting that the ionic state of calcium plays a critical role in lipid digestion in emulsions. The addition of calcium did not alter the profiles of the individual free fatty acids released. This study provides useful information for food formulation with respect to lipid digestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutral detergent fiber increases endogenous ileal losses but has no effect on ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal-Landín, Gerardo; Reis de Souza, Tércia Cesária; Bayardo Uribe, Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on endogenous amino acids and protein ileal losses; and also apparent ileal digestibility (AID), and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids and crude protein. Sixteen barrows were fed four protein-free diets containing graded NDF levels in Experiment 1. NDF was a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corn leaves (SBCL). Twenty-four barrows were fed diets with soybean protein concentrate (SPC) or casein as protein sources and SBCL or corncobs (CC) as NDF sources in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a linear increase (P protein ileal losses was observed with increased NDF levels, except for arginine, histidine, methionine and proline. In Experiment 2, protein (P Protein and NDF sources significantly affected (P protein, which was higher in casein diets (92.8%) and CC diets (92.7%). NDF source had no effect (P > 0.05) on SID of amino acids. Overall, this study showed that NDF increased endogenous amino acid and protein ileal losses, but did not affect ileal digestibility of amino acids. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effect of extrusion processing of soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, R; Rasouli, E

    2016-12-01

    The present experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of extrusion of inadequately processed soybean meal (SBM) on amino acid (AA) digestibility and performance of broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, 180 day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 6 pen replicates (15 chicks each) of 2 dietary treatments; diets based on SBM or extruded SBM (ESBM) as the main protein sources. Based on the results of Exp. 1 and AA digestibility assay, Exp. 2 was designed using 216 day-old Ross broiler chicks (6 replicates of 18 chicks each), in which dietary SBM content was replaced by 86% using ESBM. This replacement caused about a 9% decrease in dietary crude protein (CP) level. Results showed that coefficients of CP and AA digestibility were greater (P broiler chicks. Using ESBM, one can reduce dietary CP level by about 9% without any detrimental effect on performance parameters of broiler chicks. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Fat digestibility, nitrogen retention, and fatty acid profiles in blood and tissues of post-weaning piglets fed interesterified fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Jakobsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a designer fat as to changes in triacylglycerol structure in dietary fat on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profile of plasma, erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined in four groups of post-weaning piglets. The test...... oil, and R4 rapeseed oil. The piglets were weaned at 28 days of age, and after one week of adaptation faeces and urine were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 7 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of nutrient and energy digestibility and protein...... retention. Fat digestibility and nitrogen retention were improved significantly by feeding the manufactured oils containing 10:0 (R1-R3) compared to rapeseed oil (R4; P...

  1. Determination of basal ileal endogenous losses and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Hanna Katharina; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundBasal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal...... digestible content (cAID) and total crude protein (CP) and AA can be considered as alternative approach to obtain more accurate values for IAAend and SID of AA in cereal grains.MethodsEight hulled barley genotypes were used, with barley being the only source of CP and AA in the assay diets. The diets...... to tabulated values. Moreover, these SID values were greater than those reported in literature, based on correction of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA for their IAAend values. Summarized, the results of the present regression analysis indicate greater IAAend in barley-based diets compared...

  2. Determination of basal ileal endogenous losses and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Hanna Katharina; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    digestible content (cAID) and total crude protein (CP) and AA can be considered as alternative approach to obtain more accurate values for IAAend and SID of AA in cereal grains.MethodsEight hulled barley genotypes were used, with barley being the only source of CP and AA in the assay diets. The diets......BackgroundBasal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal...... to tabulated values. Moreover, these SID values were greater than those reported in literature, based on correction of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA for their IAAend values. Summarized, the results of the present regression analysis indicate greater IAAend in barley-based diets compared...

  3. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2013-01-30

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of particle size distribution of maize and soybean meal on the precaecal amino acid digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, W; Ganzer, C; Kluth, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2017-10-17

    1. Herein, it was investigated whether different particle size distributions of feed ingredients achieved by grinding through a 2- or 3-mm grid would have an effect on precaecal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility. Maize and soybean meal were used as the test ingredients. 2. Maize and soybean meal was ground with grid sizes of 2 or 3 mm. Nine diets were prepared. The basal diet contained 500 g/kg of maize starch. The other experimental diets contained maize or soybean meal samples at concentrations of 250 and 500, and 150 and 300 g/kg, respectively, instead of maize starch. Each diet was tested using 6 replicate groups of 10 birds each. The regression approach was applied to calculate the pc AA digestibility of the test ingredients. 3. The reduction of the grid size from 3 to 2 mm reduced the average particle size of both maize and soybean meal, mainly by reducing the proportion of coarse particles. Reducing the grid size significantly (P size decreased the pc digestibility of all AA numerically, but not significantly (P > 0.050). The mean numerical differences in pc AA digestibility between the grid sizes were 0.045 and 0.055 in maize and soybean meal, respectively. 4. Future studies investigating the pc AA digestibility should specify the particle size distribution and should investigate the test ingredients ground similarly for practical applications.

  5. Protein quality as determined by the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score: evaluation of factors underlying the calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Kim, Il-Young; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently recommended the adoption of a new and improved scoring system (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [DIAAS]) to quantify dietary protein quality. The DIAAS is based on the relative digestible content of the indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the amino acid requirement pattern. Factors involved in calculation of the DIAAS include: use of the content and profile of IAAs as the basis for quality; methods for determination of the protein and amino acid content of the protein source; accuracy of individual requirement values for IAAs; normalization of IAA requirements by the estimated average requirement for protein; and basing the DIAAS on the true ileal digestibility of each IAA in the test protein. This review outlines the rationale for including each of these factors in the calculation of the DIAAS and describes associated potential errors. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Pearl millet utilization in ccommercial laying hen diets formulated on a total or digestible amino acid basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Filardi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with pearl millet in commercial layer diets, formulated according to the minimal requirements for total and digestible amino acids. Two hundred and forty Lohmann LSL laying hens with 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design according to a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 3 replicates of 8 birds. Feed was formulated on two amino acid basis (total or digestible according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and there were five pearl millet inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Performance and egg quality were evaluated during five periods of 21 days.At the end of each period, feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion were evaluated. In the last three days of each period, the following egg quality parameters were evaluated: Haugh Unit, yolk pigmentation index, egg specific weight, shell percentage and shell thickness. Digestible amino acid requirements resulted in decreased feed intake (p<0.01 and increased production costs per mass of eggs (kg or per dozen eggs (p<0.01 compared to total amino acid requirements. There was a linear reduction in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation index with increasing inclusion levels of pearl millet. Therefore, increasing levels of replacement of corn by pearl millet affected bird performance negatively. Besides, production costs were higher with increasing pearl millet levels.

  7. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  8. Digestive absorption of silicon, supplemented as orthosilicic acid-vanillin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcowycz, Aline; Housez, Béatrice; Maudet, Corinne; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Rinaldi, Guiseppe; Croizet, Karine

    2015-08-01

    Silicon (Si) is an abundant element on earth. It is found naturally in water in the form of orthosilicic acid (OSA), however this form is not stable under certain conditions such as in highly concentrated and non-neutral pH solutions, which lead to its polymerization and reduced bioavailability. This study aimed to assess the bioavailability of Si from OSA stabilized by vanillin (OSA-VC). This was a single-center, double-blind, cross-over randomized controlled trial. Fourteen healthy subjects were recruited and consumed either OSA-VC or a placebo on two separate occasions. Blood and urine samples were collected during 6 h following ingestion and analyzed to determine Si absorption and excretion. Plasma Si area under the curve (0-6 h) was significantly higher after OSA-VC ingestion compared to placebo ingestion (p = 0.0002). Significantly higher urinary Si excretion was also reported over the 6-h period after OSA-VC ingestion compared to placebo (p<0.0001). Approximately 21% of ingested Si was excreted in urine during this period. Although many studies have investigated the metabolism and bioavailability of Si supplemented in foods or as a food ingredient, this was the first to investigate and demonstrate the digestibility of OSA administered in a complex form with vanillin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Standardised ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibilities in protein supplements for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaityte, Renata; Mosenthin, Rainer; Eklund, Meike; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Sauer, Nadja; Rademacher, Meike

    2009-01-01

    Standardised ileal digestibilities (SID) of crude protein and amino acids (AA) originating from 24 different feed ingredients, including 11 feed ingredients produced from soybeans, seven by-products of starch processing, four whey products and two fish meals, were determined in piglets by means of the difference method. For the indispensable AA, the highest SID values were obtained in three out of four whey proteins (SID ≥90% for most indispensable AA), one out of two fish meals (SID ≥86%), soy protein concentrate, hydrolysed soy protein isolate (SID ≥86% for most indispensable AA), and by-products of starch processing (SID ≥84% for most indispensable AA). The lowest SID values were obtained in extruded soybeans and microbially fermented soy protein (SID ≤78% for most indispensable AA), whereas the SID values for high-protein soybean meal were intermediate (SID 80-89% for indispensable AA except for Thr). The SID values in the three enzymatically fermented soy proteins (SID 80-94% for most indispensable AA) were similar to those in high-protein soybean meal and soy protein concentrate. The results of the present study indicate that SID values of AA in feed ingredients for piglets differ considerably from those reported for grower-finisher pigs, thus there may be a need for separate feed tables for piglets.

  10. True ileal amino acid digestibility of goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility

  11. Optimal acid digestion for multi-element analysis of different waste matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    matrix preparing four replicates per method. The digestates were subsequently analyzed for 20 elements using ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The measurement results were statistically evaluated using ANOVA and a ranking procedure. The ANOVA shows a significant difference between the digestion methods for 12 elements...

  12. Amino acid digestibility of plant protein feed ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, B; Ragland, D; Thomson, J E; Adeola, O

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the N and AA digestibility of various protein sources (potato protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, linseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal) fed to growing pigs. In each experiment, barrows were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 4 experimental diets and a N-free diet (NFD) on the basis of a replicated 5 × 2 crossover arrangement with 5 diets and 2 periods. For Exp. 1, 20 cannulated 25-kg barrows received potato concentrate, soy concentrate, soy isolate, and linseed meal. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N for potato concentrate, soy concentrate, and soy isolate were similar and greater than that for linseed meal ( protein concentrate than soy concentrate ( digestibility among protein sources ( protein sources ( digestibility of N and AA varies greatly among oilseed meals.

  13. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...

  14. Digestibility and physico-chemical characteristics of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina de Souza Batalha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens on apparent digestibility and energy metabolism. Seventy-two Hisex White hens with 71 weeks of age were assigned to a completely randomized with two treatments (control diet and diet with 3% pirarucu waste acid silage with six replicates of six birds each. The ensiled biomass was light brown in color, showing acidified aroma; creamy consistency; 4.38±0.11 pH; 84.16% dry matter; 40.06% crude protein; 26.82% ether extract; 9.31% mineral matter, 65.16 g kg-1 calcium and 22.90 g kg-1 phosphorus. Differences (p > 0.05 were detected in digestibility of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates (soluble carbohydrates, etherextract, mineral matter, metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy coefficient. Our results indicate that the acid silage mealmade of pirarucu waste can be included up to 3% in diets for laying hens, showing satisfactory nutrient digestibility and potential to be used as an energy source.

  15. Fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria and consequences for starch digestibility of plantain, breadfruit, and sweet potato flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydersah, Julien; Chevallier, Isabelle; Rochette, Isabelle; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Picq, Christian; Marianne-Pépin, Thérèse; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The potential of tropical starchy plants such as plantain (Musa paradisiaca), breadfruit (Artocarpus communis), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) for the development of new fermented foods was investigated by exploiting the capacity of some lactic acid bacteria to hydrolyze starch. The amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) Lactobacillus plantarum A6 and Lactobacillus fermentum Ogi E1 were able to change the consistency of thick sticky gelatinized slurries of these starchy fruits and tubers into semiliquid to liquid products. Consequently, a decrease in apparent viscosity and an increase in Bostwick flow were observed. These changes and the production of maltooligosaccharides confirmed starch hydrolysis. Sucrose in sweet potato was not fermented by strain A6 and poorly fermented by strain Ogi E1, suggesting possible inhibition of sucrose fermentation. In all 3 starchy plants, rapidly digestible starch (RDS) was higher than slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) represented between 17% and 30% dry matter (DM). The digestibility of plantain was not affected by fermentation, whereas the RDS content of breadfruit and sweet potato decreased and the RS content increased after fermentation. The characteristics resulting from different combinations of gluten free starchy plants (plantain, breadfruit, sweet potato) and amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) offer opportunities to develop new functional fermented beverages, mainly for breadfruit and sweet potato, after further investigation of their formulation, sensory attributes, nutritional, and prebiotic characteristics. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  16. Investigation into the effect of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion on methanogenic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H., E-mail: ingrid.whittle@uibk.ac.at [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Walter, Andreas [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ebner, Christian [Abwasserverband Zirl und Umgebung, Meilbrunnen 5, 6170 Zirl (Austria); Insam, Heribert [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Different methanogenic communities in mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. • High VFA levels do not cause major changes in archaeal communities. • Real-time PCR indicated greater diversity than ANAEROCHIP microarray. - Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether differences in the levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic digester plants could result in variations in the indigenous methanogenic communities. Two digesters (one operated under mesophilic conditions, the other under thermophilic conditions) were monitored, and sampled at points where VFA levels were high, as well as when VFA levels were low. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, and the methanogenic diversity was screened using the phylogenetic microarray ANAEROCHIP. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the presence of the different methanogenic genera in the sludge samples. Array results indicated that the archaeal communities in the different reactors were stable, and that changes in the VFA levels of the anaerobic digesters did not greatly alter the dominating methanogenic organisms. In contrast, the two digesters were found to harbour different dominating methanogenic communities, which appeared to remain stable over time. Real-time PCR results were inline with those of microarray analysis indicating only minimal changes in methanogen numbers during periods of high VFAs, however, revealed a greater diversity in methanogens than found with the array.

  17. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  18. Digestion of plastic materials for the determination of toxic metals with a microwave oven for household use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiroki; Noro, Junji; Kawase, Akira; Fujinami, Masanori; Oguma, Koichi

    2006-02-01

    A rapid sample-digestion method for the determination of toxic metals, cadmium, chromium, and lead, in polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride has been developed by using a microwave oven for household use. An appropriate amount of the sample taken in a PTFE decomposition vessel was mixed with nitric acid or nitric and sulfuric acids. The vessel was heated in a microwave oven by a predetermined operating program. The digested sample was diluted to a definite volume with water after evaporating most of the nitric acid. The precipitate, if formed, was filtered off by a membrane filter. The metals were determined by ICP-AES. The sample digestion required 5 min (for 20-mg sample) to 25 min (for 60-mg sample). The analytical results obtained for cadmium, chromium, and lead in a polyethylene certified reference material, BCR-680, digested with nitric acid, were in good agreement with the certified values.

  19. Analysis of testosterone fatty acid esters in the digestive gland of mussels by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercia, Cesare; Cianciullo, Piergiorgio; Porte, Cinta

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have indicated that up to 70% of the total steroids detected in molluscs are in the esterified form and that pollutants, by modifying the esterification of steroids with fatty acids, might act as endocrine disrupters. However, despite the strong physiological significance of this process, there is almost no information on which fatty acids form the steroid esters and how this process is modulated. This study (a) investigates the formation of fatty acid esters of testosterone in digestive gland microsomal fractions of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis incubated with either palmitoly-CoA or CoA and ATP, and (b) assesses whether the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) interferes with the esterification of testosterone. Analysis of testosterone esters was performed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). When microsomal fractions were incubated with testosterone and palmitoly-CoA, the formation of testosterone palmitate was detected. However, when microsomes were incubated with CoA and ATP, and no exogenous activated fatty acid was added, the synthesis of 16:0, 16:1, 20:5 and 22:6 testosterone esters was observed. The presence of 100µM TBT in the incubation mixture did not significantly alter the esterification of testosterone. These results evidence the conjugation of testosterone with the most abundant fatty acids in the digestive gland microsomal fraction of mussels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of antinutritional factors in food proteins on the digestibility of protein and the bioavailability of amino acids and on protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar Gilani, G; Wu Xiao, Chao; Cockell, Kevin A

    2012-08-01

    Dietary antinutritional factors have been reported to adversely affect the digestibility of protein, bioavailability of amino acids and protein quality of foods. Published data on these negative effects of major dietary antinutritional factors are summarized in this manuscript. Digestibility and the quality of mixed diets in developing countries are considerably lower than of those in developed regions. For example, the digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94 %). Poor digestibility of protein in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, is due to the presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fibre, and/or high concentrations of antinutritional factors present endogenously or formed during processing. Examples of naturally occurring antinutritional factors include glucosinolates in mustard and canola protein products, trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, gossypol in cottonseed protein products, and uricogenic nucleobases in yeast protein products. Heat/alkaline treatments of protein products may yield Maillard reaction compounds, oxidized forms of sulphur amino acids, D-amino acids and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural nephrotoxic amino acid derivative). Among common food and feed protein products, soyabeans are the most concentrated source of trypsin inhibitors. The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soyabeans, kidney beans or other grain legumes have been reported to cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibility (up to 50 %) and protein quality (up to 100 %) in rats and/or pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in sorghum and other cereals, fababean and other grain legumes can cause

  1. Bio-electrolytic sensor for rapid monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-03-15

    This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing varying concentrations of VFA. A linear correlation (R(2) = 0.99) between current densities (0.03 ± 0.01 to 2.43 ± 0.12 A/m(2)) and VFA concentrations (5-100 mM) was found. The sensor performance was then investigated under different affecting parameters such as the external voltage, VFA composition ratio, and ionic strength. Linear relationship between the current density and VFA concentrations was always observed. Furthermore, the bio-electrolytic sensor proved ability to handle interruptions such as the presence of complex organic matter, anode exposure to oxygen and low pH. Finally, the sensor was applied to monitor VFA concentrations in a lab-scale AD reactor for a month. The VFA measurements from the sensor correlated well with those from GC analysis which proved the accuracy of the system. Since hydrogen was produced in the cathode as byproduct during monitoring, the system could be energy self-sufficient. Considering the high accuracy, short response time, long-term stability and additional benefit of H2 production, this bio-electrolytic sensor could be a simple and cost-effective method for VFA monitoring during AD and other anaerobic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal microflora and parameters of microbial metabolism in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, H; Broz, J; Eder, K

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and gastrointestinal microflora of piglets, we conducted a performance experiment and a separate balance study. The performance experiment involved four different dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (negative control); (2) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 g/kg; (3) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg; (4) basal diet supplemented with potassium diformate at 12 g/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to nine replicate groups, each consisting of two piglets. Live weight, daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were monitored as performance parameters over a 35-day period. Supplementation of the diet with benzoic acid resulted in a dose-dependent increase in feed intake and body weight gain and an improved feed conversion ratio. Piglets fed the diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg outperformed the control piglets in mean feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio by 9%, 15% and 6% respectively. Growth performance of the piglets fed the diet with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg was similar to that of piglets fed the diet supplemented with potassium diformate. In the balance experiment three groups of six piglets each were fed either a control diet or diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg respectively. Benzoic acid did not significantly affect nutrient digestibility but increased nitrogen retention. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg retained 5% and 6% more nitrogen, respectively, than control piglets. Supplementation of benzoic acid did not influence the pH value or the concentration of ammonia in the gastrointestinal tract but reduced the number of bacteria in the digesta. In the stomach the number of total aerobic, total anaerobic, lactic acid forming and gram-negative bacteria was reduced; in the duodenum the presence of benzoic acid reduced

  3. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  4. Nutritional value of white lupins (Lupinus albus) for broilers: apparent metabolisable energy, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and production performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalle, C L; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of three cultivars (Promore, Kiev mutant and Ultra) of white lupins (Lupinus albus L.) for broilers. In experiment 1, the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients of the three cultivars were determined. The cultivar effects were significant (P 0.05) between cultivars. The AME value of Ultra cultivar was lower (P 0.05) to those fed the maize-soybean meal diet. The performance of birds fed diets containing different cultivars of white lupins was similar (P > 0.05). Several digestive tract parameters were influenced by the dietary inclusion of white lupins. In particular, the relative liver weight and the relative empty weights of small intestine and caeca in birds fed diets containing white lupins were higher (P 0.05) were observed in the excreta quality scores between the birds fed the maize-soybean meal diet and those fed diets containing white lupins.

  5. Removal of volatile fatty acids and ammonia recovery from unstable anaerobic digesters with a microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-11-01

    Continuous assays with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) fed with digested pig slurry were performed to evaluate its stability and robustness to malfunction periods of an anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor and its feasibility as a strategy to recover ammonia. When performing punctual pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the anode compartment of the MEC, simulating a malfunction of the AD process, an increase in the current density was produced (up to 14 times, reaching values of 3500mAm(-2)) as a result of the added chemical oxygen demand (COD), especially when acetate was used. Furthermore, ammonium diffusion from the anode to the cathode compartment was enhanced and the removal efficiency achieved up to 60% during daily basis VFA pulses. An AD-MEC combined system has proven to be a robust and stable configuration to obtain a high quality effluent, with a lower organic and ammonium content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatty acid metabolism and population dynamics in a wet biowaste digester during re-start after revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moertelmaier, Christoph; Li, Chaoran; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) metabolism and population changes during re-start of a wet anaerobic digester for treatment of biowaste suspensions were investigated. Initially acetate and propionate accumulated. However, VFA degradation rates improved within 2 weeks, reaching a balanced metabolism with constantly low VFA concentrations. The total microbial population consisted of 60% acidogenic+acetogenic and 40% methanogenic bacteria. Maximally 5.1% of all bacteria in the digester were propionate-oxidizing bacteria. Pelotomaculum species were dominant, followed by much lower numbers of Smithella species and Syntrophobacter species. Pelotomaculum and Smithella spec. decreased during acetate and propionate accumulation and recovered later on, whereas Syntrophobacter spec. was steadily increasing during start-up. A nearly constant proportion of Methanosaeta spec. was present all time, while Methanosarcina spec. decreased and Methanomicrobiales increased during accumulation and degradation of acetate and propionate. During steady state proportions as in the inoculum were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Keller, J; Angelidaki, I; Kalyuzhnyi, S V; Pavlostathis, S G; Rozzi, A; Sanders, W T M; Siegrist, H; Vavilin, V A

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as physicochemical processes. The biochemical steps include disintegration from homogeneous particulates to carbohydrates, proteins and lipids; extracellular hydrolysis of these particulate substrates to sugars, amino acids, and long chain fatty acids (LCFA), respectively; acidogenesis from sugars and amino acids to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and hydrogen; acetogenesis of LCFA and VFAs to acetate; and separate methanogenesis steps from acetate and hydrogen/CO2. The physico-chemical equations describe ion association and dissociation, and gas-liquid transfer. Implemented as a differential and algebraic equation (DAE) set, there are 26 dynamic state concentration variables, and 8 implicit algebraic variables per reactor vessel or element. Implemented as differential equations (DE) only, there are 32 dynamic concentration state variables.

  8. Effect of calcium on fatty acid bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion of Cheddar-type cheeses prepared with different milk fat fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Britten, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Calcium plays an important role in intestinal lipid digestion by increasing the lipolysis rate, but also limits fatty acid bioaccessibility by producing insoluble Ca soaps with long-chain fatty acids at intestinal pH conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of Ca on the bioaccessibility of milk fat from Cheddar-type cheeses. Three anhydrous milk fats (AMF) with different fatty acid profiles (olein, stearin, or control AMF) were used to prepare Cheddar-type cheeses, which were then enriched or not with Ca using CaCl2 during the salting step. The cheeses were digested in vitro, and their disintegration and lipolysis rates were monitored during the process. At the end of digestion, lipids were extracted under neutral and acidic pH conditions to compare free fatty acids under intestinal conditions in relation to total fatty acids released during the digestion process. The cheeses prepared with the stearin (the AMF with the highest ratio of long-chain fatty acids) were more resistant to disintegration than the other cheeses, owing to the high melting temperature of that AMF. The Ca-enriched cheeses had faster lipolysis rates than the regular Ca cheeses. Chromatographic analysis of the digestion products showed that Ca interacted with long-chain fatty acids, producing Ca soaps, whereas no interaction with shorter fatty acids was detected. Although higher Ca levels resulted in faster lipolysis rates, driven by the depletion of reaction products as Ca soaps, such insoluble compounds are expected to reduce the bioavailability of fatty acids by hindering their absorption. These effects on lipid digestion and absorption are of interest for the design of food matrices for the controlled release of fat-soluble nutrients or bioactive molecules. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutrients, amino acid, fatty acid and non-starch polysaccharide profile and in vitro digestibility of macadamia nut cake in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Utsav P; Jha, Rajesh

    2017-08-01

    The highly variable cost and limited availability of conventional feedstuffs make it imperative to explore alternative feedstuffs to be used in swine. Macadamia nut cake (MNC), a coproduct of the macadamia nut oil industry, has not been well studied. MNC was analyzed for its nutrient profile, gross energy (GE), fibers, amino acids and fatty acids content. Dry matter (DM) and GE digestibility of MNC in swine was determined using an in vitro model. On a DM basis, ash, crude protein, ether extract, NDF, ADF, lignin and GE were found to be 3.7, 25.5, 11.9, 35.8, 28.0, 16.0% and 5581 kcal/kg, respectively. Total and soluble non-starch polysaccharide content were 32.2 and 11.8%, respectively. The concentration of lysine was found to be 0.7%. The DM and GE digestibility were found to be 75.7 and 71.4%, respectively. Gross energy content of MNC is comparable with that of corn and higher than soybean meal, while protein content is twice as high as corn but lower than soybean meal. In conclusion, MNC is not merely a good source of protein and energy but also has fairly high digestibility in swine. Hence, it can be used as a viable alternative source of energy and protein in swine diets. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Effect of the amino acid histidine on the uptake of cadmium from the digestive system of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecon, J.; Powell, E.N.

    1981-07-01

    The digestive tract functions in the storage, metabolism, and excretion of heavy metals in invertebrates. The importance of the digestive tract and the processes governing digestion and absorption of nutrients in heavy metal uptake is becoming increasingly clear. The results of this study suggest that in order to understand the processes controlling heavy metal uptake in invertebrates, it will be necessary to investigate the role that digestion and absorption play in determining the transport rate of metals across the gut wall into the blood. For example, some amino acids increase metal absorption rates, whereas other compounds, such as phytate, decrease metal absorption rates. The results also suggest that experimental designs to investigate metal absorption must include an appreciation of the significant role that the feeding state of the animal (e.g. fed or starved) and the role chelators, particularly those produced by the organisms themselves during digestion, may play in the observed uptake rates of metal ions.

  11. Extraction of microplastic from biota: recommended acidic digestion destroys common plastic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, Kristina; Lenz, Robin; Beer, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    The chemical digestion of tissue from marine biota for microplastic analysis is currently conducted following a variety of protocols published in scientific literature. Often there is a lack of information on whether and to which degree the applied chemicals are destructive to microplastic partic...... microplastic particles while removing organic tissue material. We recommend this method for the development of guidelines for plastic microplastic monitoring in biota......The chemical digestion of tissue from marine biota for microplastic analysis is currently conducted following a variety of protocols published in scientific literature. Often there is a lack of information on whether and to which degree the applied chemicals are destructive to microplastic...

  12. Effect of feed intake level on ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in diets for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, Miriam; Eklund, Meike; Sauer, Nadja; Rademacher, Meike; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Börner, Christiane; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of graded levels of feed intake on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibilities of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in diets for piglets. The piglets were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum. The cornstarch-casein-soybean meal-based diets were fed at three graded levels of feed intake corresponding to 30, 45 and 60 g kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day. The AID and SID of most AA were quadratically affected by the feed intake level (P≤0.05). Initially, both AID and SID of most AA increased up to 1.9 percentage units as the feed intake level was increased from 30 to 45 g kg(-1) BW. Thereafter, these AID and SID values decreased by 2.6 and 2.7 percentage units, respectively, as the feed intake level was further increased from 45 to 60 g kg(-1) BW. Because the voluntary feed intake is highly variable in piglets after weaning, comparison of ileal AA digestibilities between and within studies may be confounded by variations in feed intake level. Thus, when designing digestibility studies with piglets, a standardization of feed intake should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Optimization of an innovative approach involving mechanical activation and acid digestion for the extraction of lithium from lepidolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieceli, Nathália; Nogueira, Carlos A.; Pereira, Manuel F. C.; Durão, Fernando O.; Guimarães, Carlos; Margarido, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    The recovery of lithium from hard rock minerals has received increased attention given the high demand for this element. Therefore, this study optimized an innovative process, which does not require a high-temperature calcination step, for lithium extraction from lepidolite. Mechanical activation and acid digestion were suggested as crucial process parameters, and experimental design and response-surface methodology were applied to model and optimize the proposed lithium extraction process. The promoting effect of amorphization and the formation of lithium sulfate hydrate on lithium extraction yield were assessed. Several factor combinations led to extraction yields that exceeded 90%, indicating that the proposed process is an effective approach for lithium recovery.

  14. Effects of blend of canola oil and palm oil on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Alimon, Abd Rasak; Karim, Roselina; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sabow, Azad Behnan

    2016-09-01

    The study examined the effects of blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil (BCPO) on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids (FA) in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly assigned to diets containing 0, 4 and 8% BCPO on a dry matter basis, fed for 100 days and slaughtered. Diet did not affect feed efficiency, growth performance, intake and digestibility of all nutrients except ether extract. Intakes and digestibilities of ether extract, unsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total FA were higher (P goats than the control goats. Total volatile FA, acetate, butyrate, acetate/propionate ratio and methane decreased (P goats compared with control goats. Dietary BCPO altered muscle lipids without having detrimental effects on nutrient intake and digestibility and growth performance in goats. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Ilex paraguariensis and its main component chlorogenic acid inhibit fructose formation of advanced glycation endproducts with amino acids at conditions compatible with those in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have previously shown that Ilex paraguariensis extracts have potent antiglycation actions. Associations of excess free fructose consumption with inflammatory diseases have been proposed to be mediated through in situ enteral formation of fructose AGEs, which, after being absorbed may contribute to inflammatory diseases via engagement of RAGE. In this proof of principle investigation we show fluorescent AGE formation between amino acids (Arg, Lys, Gly at 10-50mM) and fructose (10-50mM) under time, temperature, pH and concentrations compatible with the digestive system lumen and its inhibition by Ilex paraguariensis extracts. Incubation of amino acids with fructose (but not glucose) leads to a time dependent formation of AGE fluorescence, already apparent after just 1h incubation, a time frame well compatible with the digestive process. Ilex paraguariensis (mate tea) inhibited AGE formation by 83% at 50μl/ml (p<0.001). Its main phenolics, caffeic acid and cholorogenic acid were as potent as aminoguanidine-a specific antiglycation agent: IC50 of 0.9mM (p<0.001). Our results suggest that AGE adducts form between fructose and amino acids at times and concentrations plausibly found in the intestines. The reaction is inhibited by mate tea and its individual phenolics (caffeic acid and chlorogenic acids). The study provides the first evidence for the proposed mechanism to explain epidemiological correlations between excess fructose consumption and inflammatory diseases. Enteral fructose-AGE formation would be inhibited by co-intake of Ilex paraguariensis, and potentially other beverages, fruits and vegetables that contain comparable concentrations of phenolics as in IP (mate tea). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional value of a partially defatted and a highly defatted black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) meal for broiler chickens: apparent nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Achille; De Marco, Michele; Martínez, Silvia; Dabbou, Sihem; Renna, Manuela; Madrid, Josefa; Hernandez, Fuensanta; Rotolo, Luca; Costa, Pierluca; Gai, Francesco; Gasco, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the apparent total tract digestibility coefficients (ATTDC) of nutrients, the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and AMEn) and the amino acid (AA) apparent ileal digestibility coefficients (AIDC) of a partially defatted (BSFp) and a highly defatted (BSFh) black soldier fly larvae meal. The experimental diets were: a basal diet and two diets prepared by substituting 250 g/kg (w/w) of the basal diet with BSFp or BSFh, respectively. Significant differences were found between BSFp and BSFh meals for ATTDC of the nutrients: BSFp resulted more digestible than BSFh, except for ATTDC of CP which did not differed between meals, while a statistical trend was observed for ATTDC of DM and EE. The AME and AMEn values were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the two BSF meals, with higher levels for BSFp (16.25 and 14.87 MJ/kg DM, respectively). The AIDC of the AA in BSFp ranged from 0.44 to 0.92, while in BSFh they ranged from 0.45 to 0.99. No significant differences were observed for the AA digestibility (0.77 and 0.80 for BSFp and BSFh, respectively), except for glutamic acid, proline and serine that were more digestible in the BSFh meal (P < 0.05). Defatted BSF meals can be considered as an excellent source of AME and digestible AA for broilers with a better efficient nutrient digestion. These considerations suggested the effective utilization of defatted BSF larvae meal in poultry feed formulation.

  17. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  18. Apparent and true ileal and total tract digestibility of fat in canola press-cake or canola oil and effects of increasing dietary fat on amino acid and energy digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2017-06-01

    Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal. The 4 CPC and 4 CO test diets were prepared by replacing identical portion of basal diet with 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% CPC, or 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% CO, respectively, to match the fat content of CPC diet with CO diet at each fat level. An N-free diet based on corn starch was prepared to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) were calculated for each diet. True ileal digestibility (TID) and true total tract (TTTD) digestibility of AEE in CPC and CO, and total endogenous losses of AEE were estimated by regressing apparent digestible AEE (g/kg of DMI) against dietary AEE intake (g/kg of DM) at the total tract and distal ileum, respectively. The mean AID and ATTD of AEE in CPC diets were 78.9% and 61.5%, which were lower ( AEE content in CPC and CO diets increased linearly ( AEE intake. Endogenous losses of AEE were greater ( 0.05) total tract or ileal endogenous losses of AEE. The TID and TTTD of AEE in CPC were 92.3% and 94.5%, respectively, lower ( AEE than CO. Dietary fat source did not affect endogenous losses of AEE. The lower digestibility of AEE in CPC than in CO indicates that fat digestibility of CPC should be considered to predict its nutritional value accurately. Dietary inclusion of CO may increase digestibility of CP and energy originating from the balance of the diet.

  19. Comparative energy content and amino acid digestibility of barley obtained from diverse sources fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Liang; Shi, Meng; Xu, Xiao; Ma, Xiao Kang; Liu, Ling; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2017-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the content of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) as well as the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in barley grains obtained from Australia, France or Canada. In Exp. 1, 18 growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 31.5±3.2 kg) were individually placed in stainless-steel metabolism crates (1.4×0.7×0.6 m) and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 test diets. In Exp. 2, eight crossbred pigs (30.9±1.8 kg) were allotted to a replicate 3×4 Youden Square designed experiment with three periods and four diets. Two pigs received each diet during each test period. The diets included one nitrogen-free diet and three test diets. The relative amounts of gross energy (GE), CP, and all AA in the Canadian barley were higher than those in Australian and French barley while higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and β-glucan as well as lower concentrations of GE and ether extract were observed in the French barley compared with the other two barley sources. The DE and ME as well as the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine in Canadian barley were higher (penergy content and the SID and AID of AA were observed among barley sources obtained from three countries. The feeding value of barley from Canada and Australia was superior to barley obtained from France which is important information in developing feeding systems for growing pigs where imported grains are used.

  20. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  1. Effects of dietary water-soaked barley on amino acid digestibility, growth performance, pork quality and Longissimus dorsi muscle fatty acid profiles in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian Ping; Kim, In Ho

    2014-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the feeding value of water-soaked barley (WB) as a replacement for dehulled barley (DB) in pigs. In experiment (Exp.) 1, eight barrows (body weight = 30.56 ± 0.78 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula and allotted to a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design: WB10, 100g/kg WB; WB20, 200 g/kg WB; DB10, 100 g/kg DB; and DB20, 200 g/kg DB. In Exp. 2, 80 barrows (body weight = 70.56 ± 1.29 kg) were used in a 56-day experiment: (i) WB15, 150 g/kg WB; (ii) WBD10, 100 g/kg WB and 50 g/kg DB; (iii) WBD5, 50 g/kg WB and 100 g/kg DB; and (iv) DB15, 150 g/kg DB. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibilities of total essential amino acids were higher (P water-soaked barley improved some amino acid digestibility and the cooking loss and moderate fatty acid profiles in Longissimus dorsi muscle. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  3. Effect of different drying methods on the myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile profile of squid fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun; Luo, Yali; Wang, Yuegang; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-03-15

    The impacts of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (AD), and heat pump drying (HPD) on myosin structure, amino acid composition, protein digestibility and volatile compounds of squid (Todarodes pacificus) fillets were evaluated. Freeze-dried squids showed similar amino acid composition to that of raw squids, but differed from that of AD and HPD samples. The percentage of in vitro digestibility followed the order of FD (76.81%)>HPD (70.51%)>raw (67.99%)>AD (61.47%) samples. AD caused more damage to squid myosin structure than HPD, while FD effectively retained the myosin integrity. Drying decreased total number of volatile compounds, but increased the content of total volatile compounds based on GC × GC-TOFMS results. HPD and AD samples had the highest and lowest total numbers and contents of volatiles, respectively. In general, FD provided squids with the best quality, followed by HPD. Considering the production cost and product quality, HPD demonstrated the potential for industrial application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature and solids retention time control microbial population dynamics and volatile fatty acid production in replicated anaerobic digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D.; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used technology for waste stabilization and generation of biogas, and has recently emerged as a potentially important process for the production of high value volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols. Here, three reactors were seeded with inoculum from a stably performing methanogenic digester, and selective operating conditions (37°C and 55°C 12 day and 4 day solids retention time) were applied to restrict methanogenesis while maintaining hydrolysis and fermentation. Replicated experiments performed at each set of operating conditions led to reproducible VFA production profiles which could be correlated with specific changes in microbial community composition. The mesophilic reactor at short solids retention time showed accumulation of propionate and acetate (42 +/- 2% and 15 +/- 6% of CODhydrolyzed, respectively), and dominance of Fibrobacter and Bacteroidales. Acetate accumulation (>50% of CODhydrolyzed) was also observed in the thermophilic reactors, which were dominated by Clostridium. Under all tested conditions, there was a shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and a reduction in methane production by >50% of CODhydrolyzed. Our results demonstrate that shortening the SRT and increasing the temperature are effective strategies for driving microbial communities towards controlled production of high levels of specific volatile fatty acids.

  5. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p protein source for early weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of dietary lipid source on growth, digestibility and tissue fatty acid composition of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friday Apata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems facing aquaculture is the inadequate supply of fish oil mostly used for fish feed manufacturing. The continued growth in aquaculture production cannot depend on this finite feed resources, therefore, it is imperative that cheap and readily available substitutes that do not compromise fish growth and fillet quality be found. To achieve this, a 12-week feeding trial with Heterobranchus longifilis fed diets differing in lipid source was conducted. Diets were supplemented with 6% lipid as fish oil, soybean oil, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil and melon seed oil. Triplicate groups of 20 H. longifilis were fed the experimental diets two times a day to apparent satiation, over 84 days. Growth, digestibility, and muscle fatty acid profile were measured to assess diet effects. At the end of the study, survival, feed intake and hepatosomatic index were similar for fish fed experimental diets. However, weight gain, SGR and FCR of fish fed soybean oil-based diet was significantly reduced. Apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were significantly lower in fish fed soybean, coconut and groundnut oil-based diets. Fillet and hepatic fatty acid compositions differed and reflected the fatty acid compositions of the diets. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, 20:5n-3 and 20:4n-6 were conserved in vegetable oils-based diets fed fish possibly due to synthesis of HUFA from 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-6. Palm oil diet was the least expensive, and had the best economic conversion ratio. The use of vegetable oils in the diets had positive effect on growth and fillet composition of H. longifilis.

  7. Effects of fatty acid synthase inhibitors on lymphatic vessels: an in vitro and in vivo study in a melanoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Débora C; Paupert, Jenny; Maillard, Catherine; Seguin, Fabiana; Carvalho, Marco A; Agostini, Michelle; Coletta, Ricardo D; Noël, Agnès; Graner, Edgard

    2017-02-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous production of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. Its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in human cancers including melanomas. Our group has previously shown that the inhibition of FASN with orlistat reduces spontaneous lymphatic metastasis in experimental B16-F10 melanomas, which is a consequence, at least in part, of the reduction of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of pharmacological FASN inhibition on lymphatic vessels by using cell culture and mouse models. The effects of FASN inhibitors cerulenin and orlistat on the proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of human lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLEC) were evaluated with in vitro models. The lymphatic outgrowth was evaluated by using a murine ex vivo assay. B16-F10 melanomas and surgical wounds were produced in the ears of C57Bl/6 and Balb-C mice, respectively, and their peripheral lymphatic vessels evaluated by fluorescent microlymphangiography. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor C and D (VEGF-C and -D) by melanoma cells was evaluated by ELISA and conditioned media used to study in vitro lymphangiogenesis. Here, we show that cerulenin and orlistat decrease the viability, proliferation, and migration of HDLEC cells. The volume of lymph node metastases from B16-F10 experimental melanomas was reduced by 39% in orlistat-treated animals as well as the expression of VEGF-C in these tissues. In addition, lymphatic vessels from orlistat-treated mice drained more efficiently the injected FITC-dextran. Orlistat and cerulenin reduced VEGF-C secretion and, increase production of VEGF-D by B16-F10 and SK-Mel-25 melanoma cells. Finally, reduced lymphatic cell extensions, were observed following the treatment with conditioned medium from cerulenin- and orlistat-treated B16-F10 cells. Altogether, our results show that FASN inhibitors have anti-metastatic effects by acting on

  8. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acid Concentration on Anaerobic Degradation Rate from Field Anaerobic Digestion Facilities Treating Food Waste Leachate in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acid concentration on anaerobic degradation rate of food waste leachate in the anaerobic digestion facilities. The anaerobic digestion facilities treating food waste leachate (FWL, codigestion with food leachate and animal manure (A-MIX, and codigestion with food waste leachate and sewage sludge (S-MIX were selected for this study. In accordance with the regulation under Wastes Control Act in South Korea, the guideline of volatile solid removal rate for anaerobic digestion facility is set as 65% for anaerobic degradation efficiency. Highest volatile solids removal rates were achieved from FWL (63.5% than A-MIX (56.4% and S-MIX (41.2%. Four out of eight FWLs met the guidelines. The concentration of volatile fatty acids, therefore, was analyzed to determine the relationship with volatile solid removal rate. The results showed that, in order to meet the Korean guideline of 65% volatile solid removal rate, volatile fatty acid concentrations should remain below 4,000 mg/L on the field anaerobic digestion facilities treating FWL. Volatile fatty acid concentrations should be used along with others as an operational parameter to control and manage the anaerobic digestion process.

  9. Extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth using inexpensive contraptions, and the use of the VFAs as feed supplements in conventional biogas digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar Ganesh, P.; Ramasamy, E.V.; Gajalakshmi, S.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Univ., Pondicherry (India). Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed and a readily available organic waste which can be fermented anaerobically. However, it cannot be fed to conventional biogas digesters because the phytomass is lighter than water and therefore floats on top of the digester contents and clogs the digester. This study used a simple and low-cost apparatus to extract volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth. The VFAs were then used as a supplement feed in cow dung-fed floating dome biogas digesters which are widely used in third World countries. The objective was to provide such digesters with feed derived from phytomass, particularly for times when animal dung is in short supply. The extraction of VFA occurs by aerobic degradation of water hyacinth. Methanogenesis takes place when the VFAs are fed into the biogas digesters, resulting in methane rich biogas. This newly developed VFA extraction method enables phytomass to be used as a feed supplement for biogas digesters without the adverse effects of solid accumulation, frothing or clogging that occurs with phytomass feed. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Use of the mobile nylon bag technique for determination of apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in feedstuffs for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, T; Bornholdt, U; Sauer, W C

    2011-01-01

    Three digestibility experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of determination of apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) by the mobile nylon bag technique (MNBT) using 21 feedstuffs and three mixed diets. In two conventional digestibility...... studies included the feedstuffs (n = 10) from Exp. 1 and 2 as well as 14 further feedstuffs and mixed diets in which AID coefficients had been determined in previous trials. For each feedstuff 60 nylon bags were used. In vitro digestion of the bags was carried out in pepsin-HCl solution with 450 IU pepsin....../l at pH 2.0 and 37°C for 4 h. In the 28-day in vivo experiment, 15 nylon bags per pig and day were inserted through the duodenal cannula and collected through the PVTC cannula after passage through the small intestine. Coefficients of AID were calculated based on the disappearance of CP and AA from...

  11. Rearing conditions affected responses of weaned pigs to organic acids showing a positive effect on digestibility, microflora and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kuang, Yiwen; Zhang, Yalin; Song, Yumo; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Wu, De; Xue, Bai; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2016-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the response of weaned pigs to organic acid SF3, which contains 34% calcium formate, 16% calcium lactate, 7% citric acid and 13% medium chain fatty acids. Dietary treatments had no effect on growth performance of piglets (21-day weaning) fed the commercial prestart diet for 1 week before receiving the experimental diets supplemented with SF3 at 0, 3 or 5 g/kg diet (Exp. 1), whereas diarrhea frequency averaged across a week was decreased by SF3 supplementation (5 g/kg diet) in piglets fed the experimental diets immediately after weaning (Exp. 2). In Exp. 3, piglets (28-day weaning) were fed the control (containing pure colistin sulfate and enramycin, respectively, at 20 mg/kg diet) for 1 week and then were fed the control or SF3-supplemented (5 g/kg diet) diet for 2 weeks. The SF3-fed piglets had greater apparent ileal digestibility of calcium and dry matter, while also demonstrating greater overall gross energy, up-regulated jejunal expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 and transforming growth factor-β, down-regulated jejunal expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, higher ileal Lactobacillus, with lower total bacteria content, lower plasma TNF-α but higher IgG levels than the control-fed piglets. Collectively, SF3 consumption improved diarrhea resistance of weaned pigs by improving nutrient digestibility, piglet immunity and intestinal bacteria profile. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Braun

    Full Text Available Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR, in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing. The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm

  13. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Petersen, G I; Stein, H H

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed and to compare these values with the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and AA in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight growing barrows (initial BW: 82.5 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. Diets contained corn, DDGS, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or hominy feed as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and protein. Pigs were fed experimental diets for eight 7-d periods, with ileal digesta being collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of Lys in corn gluten meal (78.7%) was greater (P bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed (46.0, 48.4, 68.4, and 58.8%, respectively). The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, Leu, and Met in bakery meal were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Arg, His, Leu, and Met in corn gluten feed were less (P bakery meal had SID values of most AA that were less than in corn, but corn gluten meal had SID values for most AA that were greater than the SID of AA in corn, bakery meal, and corn coproducts.

  14. Effects of Acid Digestion on the Peak Decomposition and Impact Sensitivity of Nitrocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    German chemist Schönbein (2). Its discovery made the transition from black powder to smokeless propellants possible and was a tremendous leap forward...mL of ethanol and filtered. It was rinsed twice with 25-mL portions of ethanol and finally with a 25 mL portion of diethyl ether. The filter cake ...0 torr until constant mass is achieved.) The yield on this process was 4.8972 g of white powdered cotton. 3.1.2 Overnight Digested Cotton Balls A

  15. Digestion and deposition of individual fatty acids in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchaothai, J; Everts, H; Yuangklang, C; Wittayakun, S; Vasupen, K; Wongsuthavas, S; Srenanul, P; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C

    2008-08-01

    The apparent digestibility and deposition in carcass of individual dietary fatty acids (FA) were determined in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil. The beef tallow was rich in saturated FA (SFA) and the sunflower oil had a high content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). A total of 39 barrows was used. The experimental diets contained 5% (w/w) of the variable fat source and were fed ad libitum. The dietary fat type had no effect (p > 0.05) on growth performance, even though the apparent digestibilities of crude fat and crude protein were higher (p sunflower oil. The pigs fed the sunflower oil diet showed higher apparent digestibilities (p sunflower oil, but the ratios for oleic acid and linoleic acid were decreased (p sunflower oil instead of beef tallow, the deposition:intake ratio was raised for the SFA (p sunflower oil. It is concluded that the feeding of a diet with sunflower oil instead of beef tallow improved apparent digestibility of SFA, MUFA and PUFA, increased the deposition:digestible intake ratio for SFA, but lowered that for MUFA and PUFA.

  16. Dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in early weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, F G; Liu, Y L; Yin, Y L; Kong, X F; Huang, R L; Li, T J; Wu, G Y; Hou, Yongqing

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA), and their serum concentrations in early weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, 60 pigs were weaned at 21 days of age (BW 7.35 +/- 0.23 kg) and allocated to three treatments (20 pigs/treatment), representing supplementing 0.0% (control), 0.02% colistin (antibiotic), or 0.1% APS to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed/gain ratio (F/G) were measured weekly. Blood samples were obtained from five pigs selected randomly from each treatment for the measurement of serum free AA concentrations on days 7, 14, and 28. In Exp. 2, 12 pigs were weaned at 21 day of age (BW 7.64 +/- 0.71 kg), assigned to three treatment groups as in Exp. 1, and surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. Ileal digesta samples were obtained for the measurement of AID of AA on days 7, 14 and 28. Dietary APS did not affect ADFI, but enhanced (P digestive and absorptive function and regulate AA metabolism to beneficially increase the entry of dietary AA into the systemic circulation, which provide a mechanism to explain the growth-promoting effect of APS in early weaned piglets.

  17. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  18. A bioprocess for the remediation of anaerobically digested molasses spentwash from biogas plant and simultaneous production of lactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibu, A.R.; Kumar, V.; Wati, L.; Chaudhary, K.; Singh, D. [Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India); Nigam, P. [Biotechnology Research Group, University of Ulster (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    A bacterial isolate LAB-1 identified as Lactobacillus casei was cultivated in a fermentation medium containing biogas plant effluent. This effluent was generated after anaerobic digestion of molasses spentwash in biogas fermenters. In the bioremediation process of this very dark coloured effluent through the cultivation of L. casei, decrease in effluent`s colour of 49 and 52% and reduction in COD level up to 54 and 57% were achieved using bacterial cells in free and immobilised system, respectively, in 5 days batch cultivation. During this process of bioremediation, a metabolite lactic acid was produced by this bacterial isolate with the yield of 10.9 and 11.3 mg/ml, in free and immobilised cells fermentation, respectively. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  19. Improvement of glucoamylase production for raw-starch digestion in Aspergillus niger F-01 by maltose stearic acid ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Peng, Ming

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the role of maltose stearic acid ester (MSAE) for improving raw-starch-digesting glucoamylase (RSDG) production by Aspergillus niger F-01 and its regulatory mechanism. RSDG activity was enhanced 8.3-fold by adding 5 g MSAE to 1 l basal medium at the beginning of the culture. RSDG biosynthesis nearly ceased by adding 100 μg actinomycin D/ml or 50 μg cycloheximide/ml in a 48 h culture in the basal medium. RSDG biosynthesis was restarted by adding MSAE in the culture repressed by actinomycin D. No revival of RSDG synthesis was observed by adding MSAE in the culture repressed by cycloheximide. MSAE improved RSDG production in A. niger by inducing the transcription of RSDG.

  20. Mechanism of Human Influenza Virus RNA Persistence and Virion Survival in Feces: Mucus Protects Virions From Acid and Digestive Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Ryohei; Nakaya, Takaaki; Naito, Yuji; Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-07-01

    Although viral RNA or infectious virions have been detected in the feces of individuals infected with human influenza A and B viruses (IAV/IBV), the mechanism of viral survival in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. We developed a model that attempts to recapitulate the conditions encountered by a swallowed virus. While IAV/IBV are vulnerable to simulated digestive juices (gastric acid and bile/pancreatic juice), highly viscous mucus protects viral RNA and virions, allowing the virus to retain its infectivity. Our results suggest that virions and RNA present in swallowed mucus are not inactivated or degraded by the gastrointestinal environment, allowing their detection in feces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Volatile fatty acids platform from thermally hydrolysed secondary sewage sludge enhanced through recovered micronutrients from digested sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi, Philemon J; Henley, Adam; Shana, Achame; Wilson, Victoria; Esteves, Sandra R

    2016-09-01

    The extracellular polymeric substances and microbial cytoplasmic contents seem to hold inorganic ions and organic products, such as proteins and carbohydrates that are of critical importance for the metabolism of hydrolytic and acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms. The addition of soluble microbially recovered nutrients from thermally treated digestate sludge, for the fermentation of thermally hydrolysed waste activated sludge, resulted in higher volatile fatty acids yields (VFAs). The yield of VFAs obtained from the recovered microbial nutrients was 27% higher than the no micronutrients control, and comparable to the yield obtained using a micronutrients commercial recipe. In addition, the use of a low pH resulting from a high sucrose dose to select spore forming acidogenic bacteria was effective for VFA production, and yielded 20% higher VFAs than without the pH shock and this associated with the addition of recovered microbial nutrients would overcome the need to thermally pre-treat the inoculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of food matrix microstructure on stomach emptying rate and apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility of almond lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-10-01

    Almond lipids can be consumed in different forms such as nuts, oil-in-water emulsions or oil. The stomach emptying rate (SER) of almond lipids (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) as a function of the food matrix was studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopy based on the stomach emptying of a marker (AlCl3-6H2O) in the growing rat. Chyme and digesta samples were collected following serial gavaging (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) to study microstructural changes and determine the apparent ileal digestibility of almond fatty acids as a function of the native food matrix. The T(1/2) for the stomach emptying of crushed whole almonds and almond cream (194 ± 17 min and 185 ± 19 min, respectively) were not different (P > 0.05) from that of a gastric-stable Tween-oil emulsion (197 ± 19 min). The T(1/2) values for a sodium caseinate (NaCas)-oil emulsion (145 ± 11 min) and a gastric-unstable Span-oil emulsion (135 ± 7 min) were different (P almond milk and oil emptied at an intermediate rate (157 ± 9 min and 172 ± 11 min, respectively). Extensively coalesced emulsions under gastric conditions (almond oil, almond cream and Span-oil) had lower (P almond milk, NaCas-oil and Tween-oil emulsions (91.0%, 92.2%, 92.1% and 88.7%, respectively). The original food matrix and structural changes occurring within the gastrointestinal tract had an impact on SER and ileal fatty acid digestibility of the almond preparations.

  3. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID of dry matter, crude protein (CP, and amino acids (AA of cottonseed meal (CSM, sunflower seed meal (SFSM and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01. The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01. Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  4. LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL SCREENING FROM GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTIVE TRACT OF NATIVE AND BROILER CHICKEN FOR PROBIOTIC CANDIDATE PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damayanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his research was to obtain lactic acid bacteria (LAB from gastrointestinal digestive tract (GIT of chickens for probiotic candidate purposes. LAB was isolated from GIT of broiler and native chickens on selective medium (MRS+0.2% CaCO3. Screening method based on microbiological and biochemical characteristics, antibacterial properties, growth on various temperature, aeration, and agitation, antibiotic sensitivity, and viability on acid pH, gastric juice and bile salt. Thirty nine of LAB isolates was selected from native chicken and 18 isolates from broiler chicken. The selected LAB inhibited Escherichia coli FNCC 0091 growth and grown on 30, 39 and 45oC of temperature, aerobic, anaerobic and agitation conditions. Biochemical identification using API 50 CHL kit revealed that I72 from native chicken ileum as Lactobacillus salivarius and Db9 from broiler chicken duodenum as Pediococcus pentosaceus. All LAB were resistant to Erythromicin, Penicillin G and Streptomycin as tested antibiotics. Both of them have non significantly different of viability on acid pH (1, 2 and 3, gastric juice pH 2 and bile salt which were 91.78% for L. salivarius I72 and 94.48% for P. pentosaceus Db9 (P<0.05. Based on characteristics, both the selected LAB have potentiality as chicken probiotic candidates.

  5. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  6. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities,

  7. Comparison of two different fecal collection methods for protein digestibility and amino acid availability coefficients of three animal protein sources for sunshine bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for protein and individual amino acid availabilities in menhaden fish meal (MEN) and two grades of poultry by-product meal (PBM) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass using two different fecal collection methods, passive netting (net) or man...

  8. A procedure for ileostomisation of adult roosters to determine apparent ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids of diets : comparison of six diets in roosters and growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tossenberger, J.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure for the ileostomisation of adult roosters has been described with the use of flexible silicon cannulas. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients for dry matter (aDC DM), crude protein (aDC CP) and amino acids (aDC AA) in six diets, formulated with maize, wheat gluten, faba beans,

  9. A procedure for ileostomisation of adult roosters to determine apparent ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids of diets: Comparison of six diets in roosters and growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tossenberger, J.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure for the ileostomisation of adult roosters has been described with the use of flexible silicon cannulas. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients for dry matter (aDC DM), crude protein (aDC CP) and amino acids (aDC AA) in six diets, formulated with maize, wheat gluten, faba beans,

  10. The use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins for determining true ileal amino acid digestibilities is limited by their rapid recycling in the endogenous secretions of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leterme, P.; Théwis, A.; François, E.; Leeuwen, P. van; Wathelet, B.; Huisman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins as a possible tool for the determination of the true ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility in pigs. The first experiment was designed to study the dietary N excretion pattern at the ileum subsequent to the ingestion of a single 15N-labeled meal. In a

  11. Evaluation of vegetable protein in canine diets: Assessment of performance and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility using a broiler model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacco, D C; Lowe, J A; Wiseman, J; White, G A

    2018-02-01

    Recent technological advances in the human food industry with respect to meat processing have decreased the availability of animal proteins to the pet food industry which typically formulates diets with an excess of animal protein. In the long term, this is not sustainable; thus, alternative protein sources need to be investigated. This study examined three canine diets, comparing a typical animal protein-based diet (control) with two experimental diets where the animal protein was substituted in part with vegetable protein (formulated based either on total protein or amino acid content) using a broiler model. Each diet was fed to six cages each containing two birds from day 15, 18 cages in total (36 birds). Excreta were collected from days 19 to 21. On day 23, birds were euthanized and weighed, and their ileal digesta were collected and pooled for each cage. In addition, one leg per cage was collected for evaluation of muscle mass. Results showed no significant difference in animal performance (feed intake or live weight gain) or muscle to leg proportion across the diets. Birds fed the control diet and the diet balanced for amino acid content exhibited the greatest coefficients of apparent metabolizability for nitrogen (p animal with vegetable protein generally had greater ileal digestibility of amino acids compared to birds fed the control (animal protein) diet. Analysis of excreta showed no dietary difference in terms of dry matter content; however, birds fed the diet balanced for total protein and the diet balanced for amino acid content had significantly greater excreta nitrogen than the control (p = .038). Overall, the study suggests vegetable proteins when formulated based on amino acid content are a viable alternative to animal proteins in canine diets. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. ILEAL DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS IN WHEAT GERM - A BY-PRODUCT OF THE MILL INDUILEAL DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS IN WHEAT GERM - A BY-PRODUCT OF THE MILL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Brestenský

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The 6 cannulated gilts, with initial body weight (BW 34.8 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with ileal T-cannula in terminal ileum were used for estimation apparent (AID and standardized (SID ileal digestibility of nitrogen (N and amino acids (AA in wheat germs. Animals were fed twice a day with tested diet in two equal doses at daily rate of 75 - 80 g.kg - 0.75. Water was offered ad libitum. The test feed was the only source of protein in the diet. After the 14 d postoperative period followed 6 d adaptation period during which animals fed postoperative period followed 6 d adaptation period during which animals fed postoperative period followed 6 d adaptation period during which animals fed postoperative period followed 6 d adaptation period during which animals fed an experimental diet, on d 7 we collected ileal digesta continuously for 24 h. Chromium oxide (Cr2O3 was used as an indigestible marker in amount of 0.3 % per kg of diet. We calculat(Cr2O3 was used as an indigestible marker in amount of 0.3 % per kg of diet. We calculat(Cr2O3 was used as an indigestible marker in amount of 0.3 % per kg of diet. We calculat(Cr2O3 was used as an indigestible marker in amount of 0.3 % per kg of diet. We calculated AID and SID of AA and N using analytic estimated values of N, Cr2O3, and AA. The SID of AA in wheat germs ranged from 86.6 % (tyrosine to 97.6 % (proline (P < 0.05. Ileal digestibility for lysine

  13. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  14. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Samet; Khadem, Ahmad F.; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules B.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C) and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid. PMID:28955013

  15. GRASS GERMPLASM FOR DIGESTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulase solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pre-treatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulase solution (APCS). The CSD procedure in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter ...

  16. Microwave-assisted diluted acid digestion for trace elements analysis of edible soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Tiago P; Santos, Clarissa M M; Peralva, Vanessa N; Flores, Erico M M; Korn, Mauro; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Korn, Maria Graças A

    2015-05-15

    A new method for the decomposition of soybean based edible products (soy extract, textured soy protein, transgenic soybeans, and whole soy flour) was developed to essential (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Ba, Cd, Pb, and Sr) trace elements determination by ICP OES and ICP-MS respectively. Effects related to the concentration of HNO3 (2.1-14.5 mol L(-1)) and the use of hydrogen peroxide on the efficiency of decomposition was evaluated based on the residual carbon content (RCC). It was demonstrated that 2.1 mol L(-1) HNO3 plus 1.0 mL H2O2 was suitable for an efficient digestion, since RCC was lower than 18% and the agreement with certified values and spike recoveries were higher than 90% for all analytes. The concentrations of analytes in the samples (minimum-maximum in mgkg(-1)) were: The concentrations of analytes in the samples (minimum-maximum in mgkg(-1)) were: As (foods investigated in this study presented variable composition in terms of essential and potentially toxic elements, which can be attributed to different methods of processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative evaluation of standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in protein supplements for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Hörner, S; Rademacher, M; Mosenthin, R

    2012-12-01

    Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA was determined in 6 protein ingredients for piglets. A basal diet based on corn (Zea mays) starch and casein was supplemented with fluid-bed-dried porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysate, spray-dried porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysate, soy (Glycine max) protein concentrate, 2 batches of soy protein, or full-fat soybeans. The SID of AA did not differ between the 4 soybean products (P > 0.05). Compared to most SID values in the 4 soybean products, SID of AA were lower in the 2 porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysates (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, although the initial trypsin inhibitor contents in the raw soybeans have not been determined, high SID values in the 4 soybean products indicate that the different processing procedures used to manufacture these products were efficient to inactivate trypsin inhibitors. For most AA in the 2 porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysates, drying procedure did not affect SID of AA, but SID values were generally lower compared to the 4 soybean products.

  18. Fatty acids, epicatechin-dimethylgallate, and rutin interact with buckwheat starch inhibiting its digestion by amylase: implications for the decrease in glycemic index by buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2010-12-08

    Glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour are lower than those made from wheat flour. To discuss the mechanism of the buckwheat flour-dependent decrease in glycemic indexes, the formation of a starch-iodine complex and amylase-catalyzed digestion of starch were studied using buckwheat flour itself and buckwheat flour from which fatty acids, rutin, and proanthocyanidins including flavan-3-ols had been extracted. Absorbance due to the formation of a starch-iodine complex was larger in extracted than control flour, and starch in extracted flour was more susceptible to pancreatin-induced digestion than starch in control flour. Fatty acids, which were found in the buckwheat flour extract, bound to amylose in the extracted flour, inhibiting its digestion by pancreatin. Rutin and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were also found in the extract, bound to both amylose and amylopectin in the extracted flour, inhibiting their digestion induced by pancreatin. We discussed from these results that the lower glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour were due to binding of fatty acids, rutin, and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were contained in buckwheat flour, to wheat flour starch.

  19. Effect of Fe(0) addition on volatile fatty acids evolution on anaerobic digestion at high organic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xin; Yu, Shuyao; Xu, Shuang; Fang, Wen; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan

    2017-03-17

    Excessive acidification frequently occurs in the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at high organic loading rates (OLR), due to the accumulation of non-acetic volatile fatty acids (VFA). In this study, the performance of Fe(0) in enhancing various VFA production and metabolism was investigated. The butyric acid concentration in a high OLR reactor with Fe(0) addition decreased from 7200 to 0mg/L after a short lag phase, and the total VFA (TVFA) concentration also decreased substantially. The corresponding dominant acidogenesis type also changed from butyric type to propionic type fermentation. Furthermore, the CH4 yield of the reactor with added Fe(0) was approximately 595ml CH4/g VSadded, which was an increase of 41.7% compared with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test results in controls without added ZVI. A microbial diversity analysis, using high throughput sequencing, showed that Methanofollis and Methanosarcina were dominant in terms of the archaeal structures of the Fe(0) reactor at the butyric converting stage; however, Methanosaeta was predominant in the reactor during the control BMP test. These results suggested that Fe(0) can convert non-acetic VFA to acetic VFA and improve the CH4 yield by enhancing the activity of methanogens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131......Mussels cultured on lines for nine months and harvested in March were boiled to removeshells and processed into a dry meal or a silage acidified by formic acid. Starfish mealwas prepared from starfish caught in May, and a starfish juice fraction was obtained bypressing fresh starfish. Commercial......–162 g CP/kg and 5 g chromicoxide/kg. Endogenous losses of protein and AA were estimated by feeding an N-free diet.On a dry matter (DM) basis, mussel meal contained 605 g, mussel silage 575 g, starfish meal700 g, starfish juice 393 g, and fish silage 776 g CP/kg. The ratio of AA to CP ranged from0...

  1. Contrast-Enhanced Microtomographic Characterisation of Vessels in Native Bone and Engineered Vascularised Grafts Using Ink-Gelatin Perfusion and Phosphotungstic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sutter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Bone ischemia and necrosis are challenging to treat, requiring investigation of native and engineered bone revascularisation processes through advanced imaging techniques. This study demonstrates an experimental two-step method for precise bone and vessel analysis in native bones or vascularised bone grafts using X-ray microtomography (μCT, without interfering with further histological processing. Methods. Distally ligated epigastric arteries or veins of 6 nude rats were inserted in central channels of porous hydroxyapatite cylinders and these pedicled grafts were implanted subcutaneously. One week later, the rats were perfused with ink-gelatin and euthanised and the femurs, tibias, and grafts were explanted. Samples were scanned using μCT, decalcified, incubated with phosphotungstic acid (PTA for contrast enhancement, rescanned, and processed histologically. Results. Contrast-enhanced μCT displayed the course and branching of native bone vessels. Histologically, both central (−17% and epiphyseal vessels (−58% appeared smaller than in μCT scans. Hydroxyapatite cylinders were thoroughly vascularised but did not display bone formation. Grafts with a central artery had more (+58% and smaller (−52% vessel branches compared to grafts with a vein. Conclusions. We present a relatively inexpensive and easy-to-perform two-step method to analyse bone and vessels by μCT, suitable to assess a variety of bone-regenerative strategies.

  2. A combination of acid lactase from Aspergillus oryzae and yogurt bacteria improves lactose digestion in lactose maldigesters synergistically: A randomized, controlled, double-blind cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Laue, Christiane; Offick, Birte; Soeth, Edlyn; Repenning, Frauke; Thoß, Angelika; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Lactose digestion can be improved in subjects with impaired or completely absent intestinal lactase activity by administration of lactase preparations and particularly of acid lactase, which is active in the stomach, or by yogurt containing live lactic acid bacteria. It is the question, if lactose digestion can be further enhanced by combining these two approaches. We investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 5-arm crossover study on 24 lactose malabsorbers with variable degrees of lactase deficiency if different lactase preparations and freeze-dried yogurt culture affect gastrointestinal lactose digestion after consuming moderate amounts of lactose (12.5 g) by assessing hydrogen exhalation over 6 h. Furthermore, symptoms of lactose intolerance (excess gas production, abdominal pain, diarrhoea or nausea) were assessed using validated questionnaires. All preparations increased lactose digestion and reduced peak hydrogen exhalation by -27% (yogurt), -29/-33% (3300/9000 FCC(1) ((1) One FCC hydrolyses about 5 or 1.7-2.5 mg lactose in aquous solution or in (artificial) chyme, respectively, according to the FCC-III method of the Committee on Codex Specifications, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council. Food Chemicals Codex, 3rd edition. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1981 It cannot precisely be defined how much lactose can be hydrolysed in vivo by the consumption of a certain number of FCC units.) units acid lactase from Aspergillus oryzae) or -46%, respectively (3300 FCC units lactase plus yogurt culture combined), as compared with placebo (p lactose digestion more than either freeze-dried yogurt cultures or acid lactase alone, and more lactose malabsorbers benefited from this effect. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. An improved titration model reducing over estimation of total volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion of energy crop, animal slurry and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, B J Jobling; Thai, S-M; Fritz, T; Esteves, S R; Dinsdale, R M; Guwy, A J

    2014-09-15

    Titration methodologies have been used for the many years for low cost routine monitoring of full scale anaerobic digestion plants. These methodologies have been correlated to indicate the carbonate alkalinity and the volatile fatty acids (VFA) content within digesters. Two commonly used two end-point titration methods were compared using a dataset of 154 samples from energy crop and animal slurry digestates and were shown to be inaccurate in the estimation of tVFA. Using this dataset correlated with HPLC VFA analysis, two empirical bivariate linear regression equations were derived, where the validation dataset showed an absolute tVFA mean error improvement from ±3386 and ±3324 mg kg(-1) tVFA to ±410 and ±286 mg kg(-1) tVFA, respectively. The same equation was then applied to a food waste dataset where an absolute tVFA mean error was improved from ±3828 to ±576 mg kg(-1) tVFA. The newly derived titration equations can provide greater confidence in digester performance monitoring and are tools that can improve digester management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculant and beet pulp addition on fermentation characteristics and in vitro ruminal digestion of vegetable residue silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Cai, Y; Takahashi, T; Yoshida, N; Tohno, M; Uegaki, R; Nonaka, K; Terada, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beet pulp (BP) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal dry matter (DM) digestion of vegetable residues, including white cabbage, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, and lettuce. Silage was prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and treatments were designed as control silage without additive or with BP (30% fresh matter basis), LAB inoculant Chikuso-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, 5mg/kg, fresh matter basis), and BP+LAB. In vitro incubation was performed using rumen fluid mixed with McDougall's artificial saliva (at a ratio of 1:4, vol/vol) at 39°C for 6h to determine the ruminal fermentability of the vegetable residue silages. These vegetable residues contained high levels of crude protein (20.6-22.8% of DM) and moderate levels of neutral detergent fiber (22.7-33.6% of DM). In all silages, the pH sharply decreased and lactic acid increased, and the growth of bacilli, coliform bacteria, molds, and yeasts was inhibited by the low pH at the early stage of ensiling. The silage treated with BP or LAB had a lower pH and a higher lactic acid content than the control silage. After 6h of incubation, all silages had relatively high DM digestibility (38.6-44.9%); in particular, the LAB-inoculated silage had the highest DM digestibility and the lowest methane production. The vegetable residues had high nutritional content and high in vitro DM digestibility. Also, both the addition of a LAB inoculant and moisture adjustment with BP improved the fermentation quality of the vegetable residue silages. In addition, LAB increased DM digestibility and decreased ruminal methane production. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of the optimum standardized ileal digestible total sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio in late finishing gilts fed low protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Liu, Xutong; Thacker, Philip; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    A total of 90 gilts were used to investigate the effects of various standard ileal digestible (SID) total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) to lysine (Lys) ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low crude protein (CP) diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAA). Graded levels of crystalline methionine (Met) (0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 or 1.1 g/kg) were added to the basal diet to produce diets providing SID TSAA to Lys ratios of 0.48, 0.53, 0.58, 0.63 or 0.68. At the termination of the experiment, 30 gilts (one pig per pen) with an average body weight (BW) of 120 kg were killed to evaluate carcass traits. Increasing the SID TSAA to Lys ratio increased average daily gain (ADG) (linear and quadratic effect, P gilts. No effects were obtained for carcass traits. The optimum SID TSAA to Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize FCR and SUN levels were 0.57, 0.58 and 0.53 using a linear-break point model and 0.64, 0.62 and 0.61 using a quadratic model. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effects of extrusion of corn on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and short-chain fatty acid profiles in the hindgut of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Songqiao; Li, Defa; Xing, Jianjun; Yongxi, Ma; Huang, Deshi; Li, Jun

    2006-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different inclusion levels of extruded corn on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and short-chain fatty acids profiles in the hindgut of weaned piglets. Ninety weaning piglets (28 d of age; 8.21 +/- 0.69 kg BW) were allotted to one of five dietary treatments only substituted for unprocessed corn at varying levels (0, 1/4, 2/4, 3/4, 4/4) with extruded corn in a 28-d experiment. On day 28, 30 piglets were killed to measure concentrations and molar ratios of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut. From day 0-14, digestibility of DM, N and GE was increased linearly and diarrhea frequency was decreased due to the increasing inclusion levels of extruded corn. From day 14-28, digestibility of GE and N was enhanced linearly due to the increasing proportion of extruded corn. On day 28, as proportion of extruded corn increased, the level of butyrate in the caecum and colon was increased linearly and the relative proportion of propionate was reduced. Results indicated that increasing proportions of extruded corn had no effect on growth performance, but significantly improved digestibility of N and energy at day 10 of trial and may be advantageous to the intestinal health of piglets.

  7. The influence of lupin seed germination on the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilomer, K; Kasprowicz-Potocka, M; Gulewicz, P; Frankiewicz, A

    2013-08-01

    The germination process can modify the chemical composition of nutrients in seeds, which can influence the digestibility and utilization of sprouts in animal diets compared to raw seeds. The aims of research were to provide controlled germination process of lupin seeds, monitor the changes in seed composition and determine the influence of the germination on the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein and amino acids in growing pigs, compared to raw lupin seeds. The seeds of two lupin species were used: yellow (RYL) (Lupinus luteus, cv. Lord) and blue (RBL) (Lupinus angustifolius, cv. Graf). Germination was provided in the dark at 24°C for 4 days. Nutritional and antinutritional compositions of raw and germinated seeds (GYL and GBL, respectively) were analysed. Digestibility study was performed on pigs with an average body weight of 25 kg, and the pigs were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum, with chromic oxide as an indicator. Seed germination increased the crude protein and fibre concentrations, but reduced the levels of the ether extract, nitrogen-free extracts and all amino acids in protein. The content of alkaloids and raffinose family oligosaccharides decreased in both lupin species. Germination had no positive impact (p>0.05) on the SID of crude protein and amino acids. Germination of lupin seeds negatively influenced the SID of lysine and methionine (pdigestibility of protein and amino acids. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. A comparative study of aerobically digested and undigested sludge in preparation of magnetic chars and their application in 1-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Daofang; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping; Zhou, Pin

    2013-05-01

    In this work, two types of sewage-sludges, aerobically digested and undigested sewage sludge, were used as precursors in the preparation of chars with magnetic property. The two solids were characterized to establish their textural and chemical properties. Due to different elemental composition, chars from the digested sludge were found to contain zeolite-like minerals such as NaP1 zeolite, which enables its abilities of anion exchange, while chars from undigested sewage sludge exhibited a well-degreed graphite structure. 1-Diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (1,2,4-Acid) was used as a model pollutant to investigate its adsorption on prepared chars. The adsorption kinetics of 1,2,4-Acid onto both chars followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The simulated Langmuir-Freundlich model illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of 1,2,4-Acid was 102.8 and 105.3mg/g, respectively, at 303 K. The adsorption amount declined on digested chars, whereas kept stable on the other in the presence of sodium chloride, suggesting the diversity in adsorption behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  10. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acids absorbed into the circulation of the animal. Ideally, therefore, the biological value of a feed protein should be determined from the amount and type of amino acid appearing in the portal circulation of the animal, and not simplythe dissappearance of amino acids from the tract. Ruminant digestion may be more easily ...

  11. Abomasal or ruminal administration of flax oil and hulls on milk production, digestibility, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, R; Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Zeoula, L M; Santos, G T D; Petit, H V

    2010-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated primiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of the site of administration (rumen or abomasum) of flax oil and flax hulls on diet digestibility and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. The treatments were 1) oil and hulls administered in the rumen and abomasal infusion of water (RUM/RUM), 2) oil and hulls infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO), 3) oil administered in the rumen and hulls infused in the abomasum (RUM/ABO), and 4) oil infused in the abomasum and hulls placed in the rumen (ABO/RUM). Cows on the ABO/ABO and RUM/RUM treatments had the highest and lowest amounts of basal dry matter eaten, respectively. Higher dry matter digestibility was obtained when flax oil bypassed the rumen (ABO/ABO and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax oil was administered directly in the rumen (RUM/ABO and RUM/RUM). Apparent digestibility of ether extract was higher when flax hulls were administered in the rumen (RUM/RUM and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax hulls were infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO and RUM/ABO). The lowest digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber was obtained when both flax products were added in the rumen, which may be attributed to the high amount of oil present in the rumen (7.8% of total dry matter input). The lowest yield of 4% fat-corrected milk was obtained for cows on the RUM/RUM treatment, probably as a result of lower dry matter intake and digestibility of fiber. Milk concentrations of protein, fat, total solids, and lactose were similar among treatments. Administration of oil and hulls in the rumen resulted in the highest concentrations of intermediate products of biohydrogenation and total trans fatty acids in milk fat compared with the other treatments. All ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in milk fat were lower than the 4 to 1 ratio recommended to improve human health. These results suggest that the presence of both flax oil and flax hulls in

  12. Effects of diets supplemented with organic acids and nucleotides on growth, immune responses and digestive tract development in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D N; Liu, S R; Chen, Y T; Wang, R C; Lin, S Y; Weng, C F

    2007-12-01

    Sixty-eight (Experiment 1, 46 days feeding) and sixteen (Experiment 2, 21 days feeding) 21-days-old weaned pigs were allotted to four dietary treatments including control, 0.6% organic acids (OA), 0.1% nucleotides (NA) and 0.6% OA plus 0.1% NA for determining the dietary effects. In Experiment 1, OA enhanced peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation on day 28 and 46. The plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) A level was elevated by OA (p < 0.06) and NA (p < 0.07), respectively. In Experiment 2, NA increased plasma IgM level, and had an interactive effect with OA on ileal Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph node lymphocyte proliferation, bile and plasma IgA levels, and jejunal crypt depth. NA elevated gastric pepsin and jejunal alkaline phosphatase activities, however, decreased ileal aminopeptidase N, sucrase or maltase activity. These results suggest that OA and NA have synergistically enhanced the gut-associated lymphocyte responses and NA modulates the digestive tract development of weaned pigs.

  13. Investigation of food waste valorization through sequential lactic acid fermentative production and anaerobic digestion of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichelis, Francesca; Pleissner, Daniel; Fiore, Silvia; Mariano, Silvia; Navarro Gutiérrez, Ivette Michelle; Schneider, Roland; Venus, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    This work concerns the investigation of the sequential production of lactic acid (LA) and biogas from food waste (FW). LA was produced from FW using a Streptococcus sp. strain via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Via SHF a yield of 0.33g LA /g FW (productivity 3.38g LA /L·h) and via SSF 0.29g LA /g FW (productivity 2.08g LA /L·h) was obtained. Fermentation residues and FW underwent anaerobic digestion (3wt% TS). Biogas yields were 0.71, 0.74 and 0.90Nm 3 /kg VS for FW and residues from SSF and SHF respectively. The innovation of the approach is considering the conversion of FW into two different products through a biorefinery concept, therefore making economically feasible LA production and valorising its fermentative residues. Finally, a mass balance of three different outlines with the aim to assess the amount of LA and biogas that may be generated within different scenarios is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of Hydrochloric acid on invasion of Ascaris suum; enzyme activity in the digestive system and serum of newborn piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłonowski, Z; Romaniuk, K; Piechocki, D; Zółtowska, K; Lukaszewicz-Babecka, J; Dziekońska-Rynko, I J

    1995-01-01

    The studies were carried out on twenty newborn piglets. They were divided into four groups. The groups no 3 and no 4 were given intragastric 0.18% HCl from the 3th day of experiment. The groups no 2 and no 4 were infected on the 7th day with 10,000 invasive eggs of Ascaris suum. The presence of A. suum larvae in the lungs and liver was examined after one week lasting invasion by Baermann method. The total acidity in the gastric content was measured. The activity of alpha-amylase, lipase and proteases was determined in the extracts from pancreas and in the contents of stomach, duodenum and jejunum. The level of pepsinogens and alpha-amylase in the animals serum was studied. The intensity of Ascaris invasion was slightly higher in the group which was given HCl than in the infected group without HCl. The activity of digestive enzymes in the both groups was similar. Only in the stomach content from the 4th group the activity of pepsin was higher (p < 0.05), and alpha-amylase and lipase were lower (p < 0.01) than in the 2nd and in the 3th group. The level of pepsinogens was always lower and alpha-amylase higher in the serum of infected animals than in uninfected groups.

  15. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in European soya bean and rapeseed products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Mosenthin, R; Nenning, S; Wiltafsky, M; Schäffler, M; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder-Kuon, P

    2017-10-25

    This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) of European soya bean and rapeseed products in pigs. Six soya bean and two rapeseed products were used as the sole dietary source of CP and AA, including raw (FFSB) and roasted full-fat soya beans (FFSBRoasted ), soya bean (SBC) and rapeseed cake (RSC), and rapeseed meal (RSM) from Bavaria (Germany), soya bean meal (SBM) from the Danube region (Austria; SBMAustria ), a commercially available standard SBM (SBMStd ) and an imported genetically modified organism-free SBM (SBMGMO-free ). Eight ileal- cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 32 ± 2 kg were allotted to a row-column design with eight diets and six periods of seven days each. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) ranged from 1.8 in SBMStd to 24.5 mg/g DM in FFSB. The SID of CP and all AA in FFSBRoasted were greater than in FFSB, but lower when compared to SBC and SBMAustria (p soya bean and rapeseed products as influenced by differences in processing conditions. European SBC and SBMAustria can be used as alternative to imported SBMGMO-free and SBMStd in diets for growing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Ethanol-based organosolv treatment with trace hydrochloric acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) by exposing nanofibers on the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideno, Akihiro; Kawashima, Ayato; Endo, Takashi; Honda, Katsuhisa; Morita, Masatoshi

    2013-03-01

    The effects of adding trace acids in ethanol based organosolv treatment were investigated to increase the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress. A high glucose yield (60%) in the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained by treating the sample at 170 °C for 45 min in 50% ethanol liquor containing 0.4% hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the enzymatic digestibility of the treated sample was improved to ∼70% by changing the enzyme from acremonium cellulase to Accellerase1500. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of lignin droplets and partial cellulose nanofibers on the surface of the treated sample. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the treated samples using thermotolerant yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777) was tested. A high ethanol concentration (22.1 g/L) was achieved using the EtOH50/W50/HCl0.4-treated sample compared with samples from other treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of phthalic acid esters during digestion of municipal solid waste under landfilling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsson, J; Meyerson, U; Svensson, B H

    1996-08-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms in municipal solid waste samples from laboratory-scale landfill reactors and a pilot-plant biogas digestor were investigated with the aim of assessing their ability to transform four commercially used phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and phthalic acid (PA). The PAEs studied were diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). No biological transformation of DEHP could be detected in any of the experiments. Together with waste samples from the simulated landfilling conditions, the PAEs (except DEHP) were hydrolytically transformed to their corresponding monoesters. These accumulated as end products, and in most cases they were not further degraded. During incubation with waste from the biogas digestor, the PAEs (except DEHP) were completely degraded to methane and carbon dioxide. The influence of the landfill development phase on the transformations was investigated utilizing PA and DEP as model substances. We found that during both the intense and stable methanogenic (but not the acidogenic) phases, the microorganisms in the samples had the potential to transform PA. A shorter lag phase was observed for the PA transformation in the samples from the stable methanogenic phase as compared with earlier phases. This indicates an increased capacity to degrade PA during the aging phases of the municipal solid waste in landfills. No enhancement of the DEP transformation could be observed as conditions in the methanogenic landfill model changed over a year's time. The results indicate that microorganisms developing in a methanogenic landfill environment have a substantially lower potential to degrade compared with those developing in a biogas reactor.

  18. Investigating the effect of dietary calcium levels on ileal endogenous amino acid losses and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in broilers and laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Pescatore, A J; Ford, M J; Ao, T; Jacob, J P

    2017-10-25

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Ca levels (low, 1% and high, 3%) on ileal endogenous amino acid losses (IEAAL) and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) in broilers (BR) and laying hens (LH) fed nitrogen-free diets (NFD) and distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS)-based diets. A total of 384 male Cobb 500 BR and 288 LH were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 16 (BR) or 12 (LH) replicate cages with 6 birds/replicate. IEAAL and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS appropriate for a CRD while SIAAD values were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS appropriate for a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. For BR, IEAAL and N losses (mg/kg of dry matter intake, DMI) were higher (P < 0.05) when NFD with high Ca level was fed (total AA was 39%, N was 35% higher). For most of the AA, AID was higher (P < 0.05) in BR fed DDGS-based diet with high Ca level. High dietary Ca resulted in higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for all the AA except for Arg, Lys, Met, Cys, and Tyr. For LH, AID of AA was higher (P < 0.05) for the DDGS diet with high Ca level in 13 of the 18 AA evaluated. There was interaction (P < 0.05) between diet Ca level and correction method on LH SIAAD values for Thr, Asp, Gly, and Ser. The SIAAD values for 8 AA were higher (P < 0.05) in birds on high Ca DDGS diet. Correction with low Ca NFD resulted in higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for all the AA. Result from this study showed that high Ca increased total IEAAL in BR by 39% but decreased same by 27% in LH. Finally, SIAAD values were increased in BR fed high Ca DDGS-based diet while SIAAD value in LH was lower when correction was done using values from high Ca-NFD fed birds. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. In vitro bile acid-binding capacity of dietary fibre sources and their effects with bile acid on broiler chicken performance and lipid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati Matin, H R; Shariatmadari, F; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Chiba, L I

    2016-06-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets-containing dietary fibre (DF) sources and a source of bile acid (BA) on growth performance and lipid metabolism. In addition, in vitro BA-binding capacity of fibre sources was investigated. A total of 256 one-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to DF sources [maize-soybean meal (control, C), or 30 g/kg of wheat bran (WB), barley bran (BB) or soybean hulls (SH)] and BA (with or without 1.5 g Na-deoxycholate/kg). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 8 broiler chickens per cage. The highest in vitro BA-binding capacity was observed with BB (8.76 mg/g BB). From 0 to 21 d, with the addition of BA, the average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C, WB or BB diets, while there was no difference with the SH diet. With added BA, the average daily gain decreased in broiler chickens fed on the C or SH diets, but it did not change in those fed on the other diets. The addition of BA decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chickens fed on the BB or WB diets, but it increased in those fed on the C or SH diets. Interaction results indicated that the apparent ileal digestibility of lipid increased in broiler chickens fed the C and other DF diets with BA compared to those fed the diets without BA. The addition of BA decreased the pancreas lipase activity (PLA) in broiler chickens fed on the C diet compared to those fed the C diet without BA, while no changes observed in those fed the DF diets with or without BA. No interaction was observed in total liver bile acid (TLBA). The WB, BB and SH with little Na-deoxycholate-binding capacity (broiler chickens. The magnitude of improvement in digestibility of lipid with the addition of BA depends on the source of fibre used and the addition of BA in DF diets had little effect on growth performance in young broiler chicken diets.

  20. Increases in duodenal glutamic acid supply linearly increase small intestinal starch digestion but not nitrogen balance in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, E J; Anderson, D E; Brake, D W

    2016-12-01

    Small intestinal starch digestion (SISD) in cattle is often limited; however, greater postruminal flow of high-quality protein (e.g., casein) can increase SISD, and Glu can mimic responses to casein for SISD. We evaluated effects of increasing Glu flows to the duodenum on SISD and N retention in cattle. Cattle received (DM basis) continuous duodenal infusion of raw cornstarch (1.5 ± 0.08 kg/d) and 0, 30.9 ± 0.6, 62.4 ± 1.2, or 120.4 ± 3.4 g/d Glu or 387.9 ± 17.5 g/d casein. As expected, the positive control (i.e., casein) increased ( = 0.05) SISD. Interestingly, SISD linearly increased ( = 0.02) with increasing amounts of Glu. Starch flow to the ileum linearly decreased ( = 0.04) in response to greater postruminal Glu and tended to decrease ( = 0.07) with duodenal casein infusion. Ileal flow of ethanol-soluble starch was not affected by duodenal Glu ( = 0.16) or casein ( = 0.42). There was a tendency ( = 0.08) for a quadratic response to Glu for ileal glucose flow with greater flows for intermediate levels of Glu, but casein had no effect ( = 0.81) on glucose flows to the ileum. Greater postruminal supplies of Glu (linear, = 0.05) and casein ( = 0.02) decreased fecal starch flow. Postruminal starch digestion was increased by both casein ( = 0.03) and Glu (linear, = 0.05). Nitrogen intake from feed was not different among treatments ( ≥ 0.23). By design, infusate N increased from 0 to 13 ± 1.5 g/d with greater amounts of Glu, and casein provided 61 ± 1.3 g N/d. Urinary N excretion was not affected ( ≥ 0.30) by postruminal Glu flow, but urine N was increased by casein ( < 0.01). Glutamic acid did not affect N retention ( ≥ 0.34), but casein increased N retention ( < 0.01). However, N retained as a percent of N intake (26.7 ± 1.7%) was not different when cattle were provided Glu ( ≥ 0.16) or casein ( = 0.38).

  1. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

  2. Effect of Coleus tuberosus Flour High Resistant Starch Consumption in Glucose, Lipid, Digest and Short Chain Fatty Acid Profile in Normal Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mutiara Nugraheni; Siti Hamidah; Windarwati

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of processing methods on the resistant starch content of Coleus tuberosus and the influence of consumption of Coleus tuberosus flour toward profiles of glucose, lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL), digest and Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) in normal rats. Processing method affects the levels of resistant starch in the Coleus tuberosus starch. The results showed the levels of resistant starch of Coleus tuberosus with different pro...

  3. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P < 0.05) in broilers than in laying hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values. Standardized ileal AA digestibility values for broilers were higher (P < 0.05) for BBP 1 and 4. Ileal CP digestibility for corn 1 was higher (P < 0.05) for broilers compared to laying hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD values for 4 (histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, and valine) and 6 (histidine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine) indispensable and 3 (cysteine, glutamic acid, and proline) and 4 (cysteine, glutamic acid, proline, and serine) dispensable AA for corn 2 and corn 3, respectively. No difference in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of

  4. GC/MS method for determining carbon isotope enrichment and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids by direct aqueous solution injection of biogas digester samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Feilberg, Anders

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic digestion of organic matter, several metabolic pathways are involved during the simultaneous production and consumption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in general and acetate in particular. Understanding the role of each pathway requires both the determination of the concentration and isotope enrichment of intermediates in conjunction with isotope labeled substrates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid and simple GC/MS method for determining the isotope enrichment of acetate and concentration of underivatized short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in biogas digester samples by direct liquid injection of acidified aqueous samples. Sample preparation involves only acidification, centrifugation and filtration of the aqueous solution followed by direct injection of the aqueous supernatant solution onto a polar column. With the sample preparation and GC/MS conditions employed, well-resolved and sharp peaks of underivatized SCFA were obtained in a reasonably short time. Good recovery (96.6-102.3%) as well as low detection (4-7 µmol/L) and quantification limits (14-22 µmol/L) were obtained for all the 6 SCFA studied. Good linearity was achieved for both concentration and isotope enrichment measurement with regression coefficients higher than 0.9978 and 0.9996, respectively. The method has a good intra- and inter-day precision with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 6% for determining the tracer-to-tracee ratio (TTR) of both [2-(13)C]acetate and [U-(13)C]acetate. It has also a good intra- and inter-day precision with a RSD below 6% and 5% for determining the concentration of standard solution and biogas digester samples, respectively. Acidification of biogas digester samples with oxalic acid provided the low pH required for the protonation of SCFA and thus, allows the extraction of SCFA from the complex sample matrix. Moreover, oxalic acid was the source of formic acid which was produced in the injector set at high temperature. The produced

  5. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  6. Autoradiographic and histopathological studies of boric acid-mediated BNCT in hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits: Specific boron retention and damage in tumor and tumor vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Lin, Y T; Hung, Y H; Liao, J W; Peir, J J; Liu, H M; Lin, Y L; Liu, Y M; Chen, Y W; Chuang, K S; Chou, F I

    2015-12-01

    Hepatoma is a malignant tumor that responds poorly to conventional therapies. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide a better way for hepatoma therapy. In this research, (10)B-enriched boric acid (BA, 99% (10)B) was used as the boron drug. A multifocal hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit model was used to study the mechanisms of BA-mediated BNCT. Autoradiography demonstrated that BA was selectively targeted to tumors and tumor vessels. Histopathological examination revealed the radiation damage to tumor-bearing liver was concentrated in the tumor regions during BNCT treatment. The selective killing of tumor cells and the destruction of the blood vessels in tumor masses may be responsible for the success of BA-mediated BNCT for liver tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and characterization of isomeric N-glycans of human alfa-acid-glycoprotein by stable isotope labelling and ZIC-HILIC-MS in combination with exoglycosidase digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancera-Arteu, Montserrat; Giménez, Estela, E-mail: estelagimenez@ub.edu; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victòria

    2016-10-12

    In this study, a ZIC-HILIC-MS methodology for the analysis of N-glycan isomers was optimized to obtain greater detection sensitivity and thus identify more glycan structures in hAGP. In a second step, this method was combined with glycan reductive isotope labelling (GRIL) through [{sup 12}C{sub 6}]/[{sup 13}C{sub 6}]-aniline and exoglycosidase digestion to characterize the different glycan isomers. The GRIL method allows the peak areas resulting from two different labelled samples to be compared, since neither retention time shifts nor variations in the ionization of glycans between these samples are obtained. First, sialic acid linkage assignations were performed for most hAGP glycan isomers with α2-3 sialidase digestion. Bi-, tri- and tetraantennary glycan isomers with different terminal sialic acid linkages to galactose (α2-3 or α2-6) were assigned, and the potential of this technique for the structural characterization of isobaric isomers was therefore demonstrated. Furthermore, fucose linkage isomers of hAGP glycans were also characterized using this isotope-labelling approach in combination with α1-3,4 fucosidase and β1-4 galactosidase digestion. α1-3 antennary fucoses and α1-6 core fucosylation were detected in hAGP fucosylated glycans. These established methodologies can be extremely useful for patho-glycomic studies to characterize glycoproteins of biomedical interest and find novel glycan isomers that could be used as biomarkers in cancer research. - Highlights: • Enhanced sensitivity is obtained in the detection of glycan isomers. • GRIL strategy with exoglycosidase digestion reliably characterize glycan isomers. • Sialic acids and fucoses linkage-type were assigned in hAGP glycan isomers.

  8. Functional and in vitro gastric digestibility of the whey protein hydrogel loaded with nanostructured lipid carriers and gelled via citric acid-mediated crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Behnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Salami, Maryam

    2017-12-15

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with mean size of 347nm were fabricated and added into a heat-denatured whey protein solution. The subsequent crosslinking of proteins by citric acid or CaCl2 resulted in the formation of cold-set hydrogels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) proposed formation of more hydrogen bonds in gel due to NLC loading or citric acid-mediated gelation. It was also found based on FITR spectroscopy that citric acid crosslinking disordered whey proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed a non-porous and finely meshed microstructure for the crosslinked gels compared to non-crosslinked counterparts. Crosslinking also increased the firmness and water-holding capacity of gels. In pepsin-free fluid, a strong correlation existed between reduction in gel swellability and digestibility over periods up to 60min due to NLC loading and citric acid gelation. However, in peptic fluid, NLC loading and citric acid crosslinking brought about much higher decrease in digestibility than swellability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of closed-pressurized and open-refluxed vessel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of residual fuel oil reference material (SRM 1634c) were mineralized in closed digestion vessels from Milestone Laboratory Systems (MLS) or from PAAR (HPA) or in open-refluxed microwave digestion flasks from Prolabo. The three digestion systems were evaluated in terms of accuracy and precision, reagents ...

  10. Effects of ensiling cereal grains (barley, wheat, triticale and rye) on total and pre-caecal digestibility of proximate nutrients and amino acids in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, W; Pieper, B; Pieper, R; Korn, U; Zeyner, A

    2010-12-01

    Inclemency of weather frequently causes critical water contents in cereal grains above 15%. Ensiling in pre-mature condition may be an alternative to other techniques of preservation. Aim of this study was to compare apparent total tract digestibility (D(t) ; barley, wheat, triticale, rye) of proximate nutrients and pre-caecal digestibility (D(pc); barley, wheat) of amino acids (AA), respectively, from cereal grains in ensiled and almost dry condition. Moistly harvested cereal grains (67-73% dry matter) were milled through a 4-mm sieve and ensiled with lactic acid bacteria (LAB, 3 × 10(5) colony forming units/g Lactobacillus plantarum DSMZ 8862 and 8866). To investigate D(t), two trials were conducted with six Mini-Lewe pigs and four German Landrace pigs, respectively. D(pc) of AA was determined using four German Landrace pigs with ileo-rectal anastomosis. D(t) of proximate nutrients did not differ between cereal grains and their silages, except for ether extract, which was more digestible in ensiled than dry wheat, triticale and rye (p barley and wheat. In barley, ensiling was accompanied by reduced D(pc) of lysine and histidine (p nutritional value as indicated, for example, by the lysine content and the D(pc) of certain AA. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos e valores de aminoácidos digestíveis do milho submetido a diferentes temperaturas de secagem e períodos de armazenamento True digestibility of amino acids and digestible amino acids values of corn samples submitted to different drying temperatures and storage periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristine de Oliveira Carvalho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos de amostras de milho submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de secagem (temperatura ambiente e secagem artificial a 80, 100 e 120°C e períodos de armazenamento (0, 60, 120 e 180 dias. A digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos foi determinada pelo método de "alimentação forçada" utilizando-se galos Leghorn adultos cecectomizados, alojados individualmente em baterias metálicas. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 4 (quatro temperaturas de secagem e quatro períodos de armazenamento com um galo por unidade experimental e oito repetições por temperatura de secagem e período de armazenamento. As perdas endógenas foram determinadas com galos em jejum. O aumento da temperatura de secagem ocasionou redução linear da digestibilidade de metionina + cistina e isoleucina e efeito quadrático sobre a digestibilidade de metionina, treonina, lisina, triptofano e fenilalanina. Os maiores coeficientes de digestibilidade de metionina, treonina, lisina, triptofano e fenilalanina foram observados nas temperaturas 40, 25, 27, 32 e 40°C, respectivamente, obtidas por equação de regressão. Observou-se redução linear da digestibilidade de metionina e treonina com o tempo de armazenamento. A temperatura de secagem e o tempo de armazenamento dos grãos de milho reduzem a digestibilidade da maioria dos aminoácidos.The objective of this experiment was to determine the true digestibility (TD of amino acids from corn samples submitted to different drying temperatures (room temperature and artificial drying at 80, 100 and 120°C, and different storage periods (0, 60, 120 and 180 days. The TD of amino acids was determined by the forced feeding method using cecectomized adult Leghorn roosters, placed in individual cages. A 4 × 4 factorial arrangement was used (four drying temperatures and four storage periods, in a completely randomized design

  12. Different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affects apparent digestibility, tissue deposition, and tissue oxidative stability in growing female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Vagner A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of ω-3 PUFAs on digestibility, tissue deposition, eicosanoid metabolism, and oxidative stability. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 28 d were randomly assigned (n = 10/group to be fed a high fat 12% (wt diet consisting of either corn oil (CO or n-3 PUFA rich flaxseed (FO, krill (KO, menhaden (MO, salmon (SO or tuna (TO oil for 8 weeks. Rats were individually housed in metabolic cages to determine fatty acid digestibility. Diet and tissue fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography and lipid classes using thin layer chromatography. Eicosanoid metabolism was determined by measuring urinary metabolites of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs and thromoboxanes (TXBs using enzyme immunoassays. Oxidative stability was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC using colorimetric assays. Gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Rats fed KO had significantly lower DHA digestibility and brain DHA incorporation than SO and TO-fed rats. Of the n-3 PUFA sources, rats fed SO and TO had the highest n-3 PUFAs digestibility and in turn, tissue accretion. Higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFAs had no significant effect on 2-series PG and TXB metabolites. Despite higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFA deposition, there was no increase in oxidation susceptibility indicated by no significant increase in TBARS or decrease in TAC and gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes, in SO or TO-fed rats. Conclusions On the basis that the optimal n-3 PUFA sources should

  13. Effects of dietary copper and amino acid density on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and nutrient digestibility in Eimeria acervulina-challenged broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Usry, J L; Parr, T M; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of copper supplementation in diets varying in amino acid (AA) density on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (AID), and plasma carotenoids in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina. Ross 308 male broilers (480 total) were housed in battery cages and allotted to 8 experimental treatments in a factorial arrangement of 2 dietary AA densities [1.00% (LAA) or 1.20% (HAA) digestible Lys], 2 supplemental copper concentrations (zero or 116 mg/kg), and 2 E. acervulina infection states (uninfected or infected). Essential AA ratios relative to digestible Lys were similar in both the LAA and HAA diets, and copper was provided by 200 mg/kg of tribasic copper chloride (58% copper). Chicks received experimental diets from 2 to 21 d post hatch and 6 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage were assigned to each treatment. Broilers were inoculated with zero or 6.3 × 105 sporulated E. acervulina oocysts at 15 d and blood and ileal digesta were collected at 21 days. From 2 to 15 d, body weight gain and G:F of broilers were improved (P copper interaction was observed (P copper supplementation interaction was observed (P copper supplementation increased AID of total AA for birds fed the LAA diet and decreased AID of total AA for birds fed the HAA diet. In summary, E. acervulina-induced reductions in nutrient digestibility were dependent on dietary copper and AA status, but changes in digestibility had minimal impact on growth performance of broilers during the E. acervulina infection period. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Dynamics of amino acid redistribution in the carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) after digestion of 13 C/15 N-labelled prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, J; Gao, P; Eibelmeier, M; Alfarraj, S; Rennenberg, H

    2017-11-01

    Amino acids represent an important component in the diet of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), and supply plants with much needed nitrogen resources upon capture of insect prey. Little is known about the significance of prey-derived carbon backbones of amino acids for the success of Dionaea's carnivorous life-style. The present study aimed at characterizing the metabolic fate of 15 N and 13 C in amino acids acquired from double-labeled insect powder. We tracked changes in plant amino acid pools and their δ13 C- and δ15 N-signatures over a period of five weeks after feeding, as affected by contrasting feeding intensity and tissue type (i.e., fed and non-fed traps and attached petioles of Dionaea). Isotope signatures (i.e., δ13 C and δ15 N) of plant amino acid pools were strongly correlated, explaining 60% of observed variation. Residual variation was related to contrasting effects of tissue type, feeding intensity and elapsed time since feeding. Synthesis of nitrogen-rich transport compounds (i.e., amides) during peak time of prey digestion increased 15 N- relative to 13 C- abundances in amino acid pools. After completion of prey digestion, 13 C in amino acid pools was progressively exchanged for newly fixed 12 C. The latter process was most evident for non-fed traps and attached petioles of plants that had received ample insect powder. We argue that prey-derived amino acids contribute to respiratory energy gain and loss of 13 CO2 during conversion into transport compounds (i.e., 2 days after feeding), and that amino-nitrogen helps boost photosynthetic carbon gain later on (i.e., 5 weeks after feeding). © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Transcriptional response after exposure to domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia in the digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio J; Ventoso, Pablo; Martínez-Escauriaza, Roi; Pérez-Parallé, M Luz; Blanco, Juan; Triviño, Juan C; Sánchez, José L

    2017-12-15

    Bivalve molluscs are filter feeding species that can accumulate biotoxins in their body tissues during harmful algal blooms. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) is caused by species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, which produces the toxin domoic acid. The Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland transcriptome was de novo assembled based on the sequencing of 12 cDNA libraries, six obtained from control mussels and six from mussels naturally exposed to domoic acid-producing diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis. After de novo assembly 94,727 transcripts were obtained, with an average length of 1015 bp and a N50 length of 761 bp. The assembled transcripts were clustered (homology > 90%) into 69,294 unigenes. Differential gene expression analysis was performed (DESeq2 algorithm) in the digestive gland following exposure to the toxic algae. A total of 1158 differentially expressed unigenes (absolute fold change > 1.5 and p-value families were found to be significantly (FDR adjusted p-value families (sulfotransferases, aldo/keto reductases, carboxylesterases, C1q domain and fibrinogen C-terminal globular domain) could be putatively involved in detoxification processes, in the response against of the oxidative stress and in immunological processes. Protein network analysis with STRING algorithm found alteration of the Notch signaling pathway under the action of domoic acid-producing Pseudo-nitzschia. In conclusion, this study provides a high quality reference transcriptome of M. galloprovincialis digestive gland and identifies potential genes involved in the response to domoic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formulação de rações para poedeiras com base em aminoácidos totais e digestíveis utilizando diferentes estimativas da composição de aminoácidos em alimentos Diet formulation based on the total and digestible amino acids and different estimates of amino acid ingredient composition, for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire da Silva Filardi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas poedeiras comerciais com 27 semanas de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com três repetições de seis aves por tratamento. Os fatores consistiram de três métodos de estimativa da composição de aminoácidos em ingredientes (tabelas brasileiras, equações de predição e fator para correção de aminoácido em função do teor de proteína do ingrediente e três recomendações de aminoácidos, sendo duas de aminoácidos digestíveis e uma de aminoácidos totais. Os métodos de estimativa da composição de aminoácidos nos ingredientes afetaram apenas a conversão alimentar e a espessura de casca, que apresentaram os melhores resultados com a utilização das tabelas brasileiras. Embora as recomendações de aminoácidos tenham determinado diferenças em todos os parâmetros de desempenho, não afetaram a qualidade dos ovos. O desempenho das aves foi prejudicado pelos níveis de aminoácidos digestíveis, entretanto, ambas as recomendações promoveram desempenho semelhante e inferior ao de aminoácidos totais. O pior desempenho das aves alimentadas com as rações formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis pode ser atribuído à deficiência em nitrogênio para a síntese de aminoácidos não-essenciais, visto que o nível protéico foi reduzido (12,5% PB, ou ainda à deficiência nos aminoácidos arginina, histidina, isoleucina, leucina e valina, cujos requerimentos mínimos não foram considerados na formulação das rações.Twenty-seven week-old commercial laying hens were allotted to a completely randomized design with a 3x3 factorial arrangement with three replicates of six birds per treatment. The factors consisted of hree methods for estimatingamino acid ingredient composition (Brazilian tables, prediction equations and factor for correcting amino acid in function of ingredient protein level and three amino acid recommendations, being two for digestible amino

  17. Evaluation of available energy and total tract digestibility of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract of cottonseed oil for growing pigs by the difference and regression methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion level on the digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy (ME, and total tract digestibility of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE of cottonseed oil when fed to growing pigs. Methods Forty-two barrows (initial body weight = 35.51±2.01 kg were randomly allotted to a completely randomized design with a corn-soybean meal basal diet, five levels of cottonseed oil (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% and a 10% soybean oil diet. Each diet was replicated six times with one pig per replicate. The experiment lasted 19 days, 7 d for cage adaptation, 7 d for diets adaptation and last 5 d for feces and urine collection. The energy values and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of cottonseed oil and soybean oil were calculated by the difference method, and regression equations were established to predict the energy values of cottonseed oil. The apparent digested fat of the entire intestinal tract was also regressed against dietary fat intake to determine the true total tract digestibility (TTTD and endogenous loss of fat for cottonseed oil. Results The results showed that the DE and ME contents of cottonseed oil were not different as the inclusion level increased. The DE and ME values determined by the regression equation were 36.28 MJ/kg and 34.96 MJ/kg, respectively, and the values were similar to the mean DE and ME values calculated by the difference method (36.18 and 35.56 MJ/kg, respectively. The ATTD of cottonseed oil was also not affected by the inclusion level of cottonseed oil, and the TTTD and EFL determined by the regression method were 92.40% and 13.83 g/kg of dry matter intake for corn-soybean basal diet. The DE, ME, and ATTD of AEE in soybean oil determined by the difference method were 35.70 MJ/kg, 35.20 MJ/kg and 92.31%, respectively. There were no differences in the DE, ME, and ATTD between cottonseed oil and soybean oil, although the ratio of unsaturated to saturated

  18. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  19. Systematic cyanobacterial membrane proteome analysis by combining acid hydrolysis and digestive enzymes with nano-liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joseph; Oh, Jeehyun; Park, Chiyoul; Cho, Kun; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, Sunghoon; Bhak, Jong; Norling, Birgitta; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2010-01-15

    The identification of membrane proteins is currently under-represented since the trans-membrane domains of membrane proteins have a hydrophobic property. Membrane proteins have mainly been analyzed by cleaving and identifying exposed hydrophilic domains. We developed the membrane proteomics method for targeting integral membrane proteins by the following sequential process: in-solution acid hydrolysis, reverse phase chromatographic separation, trypsin or chymotrypsin digestion and nano-liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry. When we employed total membrane proteins of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, 155 integral membrane proteins out of a predictable 706 were identified in a single application, corresponding to 22% of a genome. The combined methods of acid hydrolysis-trypsin (AT) and acid hydrolysis-chymotrypsin (AC) identified both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains of integral membrane proteins, respectively. The systematic approach revealed a more concrete data in mapping the repertoire of cyanobacterial membrane and membrane-linked proteome. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons from acidic sludge produced by re-refinery industries of waste oil using in-vessel composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    In Iran, re-refinery industry has been developed many years ago based on the acid-clay treatment. Acidic sludge with high concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) is the final products of some facilities. In this study removal of TPH by aerated in-vessel composting was investigated. In order to microorganisms seeding and nutrient providing, urban immature compost was added as an amendment to acidic sludge. The ratios of acidic sludge (AS) to compost were, 1:0 (as control), 1:5, 1:8, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, 1:75 and 1:100 (as dry basis) at a C: N: P ratio of 100:5:1 and 45-65% moisture content for 70 days. The removal efficiency in all reactors was more than 48%. The highest and lowest TPH removal was observed in 1:5 (71.56%) and 1:100 (48.53%) mixing ratios, respectively. The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. Experimental data was fitted second order kinetic model (R(2) > 0.8006). Degradation of TPH in 1:5 mixing ratio (k2 = 0.0038 gmg (-1)d(-1); half-life = 3.08d) was nearly three times faster than 1:100 mixing ratio (k2 = 0.0238; half-life = 8.96d). The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. The results of this study revealed in-vessel composting with immature urban compost as the amendment maybe recommended as an effective method for TPH remediation.

  2. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days...... interesterified fats or the physical mixtures (R1, R2 and R3) compared with rapeseed oil (R4). Apparent faecal nitrogen digestibility and retention were similar in all four groups in the three periods, but increased with time. Apparent faecal fat digestibilities were significantly improved from the first...

  3. Valores energéticos e aminoácidos digestíveis da semente do capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp para aves Energy values and digestible amino acids of barnyardgrass seeds (Echinochloa spp for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borges Rodrigues

    2004-10-01

    energy value corrected by nitrogen retained (TMEn, using the forced fed method. In this assay six cockerels were forced fed 30 g of the feed and six cockerels were fastened to determinate metabolic and endogenous losses. In the second assay, twelve cecectomized cockerels were used to determine the true digestibility coefficients of the amino acids in the tested feed, using the same metodology. To determinate the apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen retained (AMEn in the thirth assay, the total excreta collection method was used, with 80 growing chicks of commercial strain. The barnyardgrass seed was included in the proportion of 25 percent of the reference diet, which contained 20% CP and 3000 kcal of the ME/kg. The reference and test diets were fed to four replicates of ten birds each. The energy values determined were 1813 Kcal AMEn and 1976 kcal of the TMEn/kg as fed. The true digestibility coefficients of the essential and non essential amino acids were, in average, 78.2 % and 78.3 %, respectively. The threonine and the lysine shown lower digestibility (65.8 and 67.2%, respectively and the phenilalanine (86.4% follow by the methionine (86.0% presented higher values among essential amino acids. The tyrosine (90.5% and cystine (56.3% presented higher and lower digestibility coefficients, respectively, among the non essential amino acids.

  4. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production.

  5. An evaluation of microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion methods for determining elemental impurities in carbon nanostructures using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikant P.

    2015-10-21

    It is common for as-prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene samples to contain remnants of the transition metals used to catalyze their growth; contamination may also leave other trace elemental impurities in the samples. Although a full quantification of impurities in as-prepared samples of carbon nanostructures is difficult, particularly when trace elements are intercalated or encapsulated within a protective layer of graphitic carbon, reliable information is essential for reasons such as quantifying the adulteration of physico-chemical properties of the materials and for evaluating environmental issues. Here, we introduce a microwave-based fusion method to degrade single- and double-walled CNTs and graphene nanoplatelets into a fusion flux thereby thoroughly leaching all metallic impurities. Subsequent dissolution of the fusion product in diluted hydrochloric and nitric acid allowed us to identify their trace elemental impurities using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Comparisons of the results from the proposed microwave-assisted fusion method against those of a more classical microwave-assisted acid digestion approach suggest complementarity between the two that ultimately could lead to a more reliable and less costly determination of trace elemental impurities in carbon nanostructured materials. Graphical abstract A method for the complete digestion of carbon nanostructures has been demonstrated. Photographs (on the left side) show zirconium crucibles containing SWCNTs with flux of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, before and after microwave fusion; (on the right side) the appearance of the final solutions containing dissolved samples, from microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion. These solutions were used for determining the trace elemental impurities by ICP‒OES.

  6. Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, A. O.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.; Olukosi, O. A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace) with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6) kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) that were either adequate (19%) or marginal (15%) in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (pdigestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (pdigestibility of AA was greater (pprotein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs. PMID:26194226

  7. Preparation of high efficiency and low carry-over immobilized enzymatic reactor with methacrylic acid-silica hybrid monolith as matrix for on-line protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huiming; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-12-05

    In this work, a novel kind of organic-silica hybrid monolith based immobilized enzymatic reactor (IMER) was developed. The monolithic support was prepared by a single step "one-pot" strategy via the polycondensation of tetramethoxysilane and vinyltrimethoxysilane and in situ copolymerization of methacrylic acid and vinyl group on the precondensed siloxanes with ammonium persulfate as the thermal initiator. Subsequently, the monolith was activated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) - N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), followed by the modification of branched polyethylenimine (PEI) to improve the hydrophilicity. Finally, after activated by EDC and NHS, trypsin was covalently immobilized onto the monolithic support. The performance of such a microreactor was evaluated by the in sequence digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin, followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Compared to those obtained by traditional in-solution digestion, not only higher sequence coverages for BSA (74±1.4% vs. 59.5±2.7%, n=6) and myoglobin (93±3% vs. 81±4.5%, n=6) were obtained, but also the digestion time was shortened from 24h to 2.5 min, demonstrating the high digestion efficiency of such an IMER. The carry-over of these two proteins on the IMER was investigated, and peptides from BSA could not be found in mass spectrum of myoglobin digests, attributed to the good hydrophilicity of our developed monolithic support. Moreover, the dynamic concentration range for protein digestion was proved to be four orders of magnitude, and the IMER could endure at least 7-day consecutive usage. Furthermore, such an IMER was coupled with nano-RPLC-ESI/MS/MS for the analysis of extracted proteins from Escherichia coli. Compared to formerly reported silica hybrid monolith based IMER and the traditional in-solution counterpart, by our developed IMER, although the identified protein number was similar, the identified distinct peptide number was improved by 7% and 25% respectively

  8. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    by the research vessels RV Gaveshani and ORV Sagar Kanya are reported. The work carried out by the three charted ships is also recorded. A short note on cruise plans for the study of ferromanganese nodules is added...

  9. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  10. The determination of trace element concentrations in fly ash samples using ultrasound-assisted digestion followed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilander, Aki; Väisänen, Ari

    2009-08-01

    A method of ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) used for the determination of trace element (chromium, copper, lead, nickel, vanadium and zinc) concentrations in fly ash samples was developed. All the measurements were performed in robust plasma conditions. Ultrasound-assisted digestion procedures using digestion solutions of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid (HF) resulted in recovery rates of over 80% for all the analyte elements. Ultrasound-assisted two-step digestion with digestion solutions of 6mL of HNO(3) (Step 1) and 3mL of HNO(3)+3mL of HF (Step 2) resulted in recovery rates of over 92% for all the analyte elements with one exception, chromium, which had a recovery of about 85%. The analysis of SRM 1633b showed that the two-step ultrasound-assisted digestion method developed resulted in chromium, copper, nickel and zinc concentrations higher than the microwave digestion method standardized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA method 3052). This is the very first time when a digestion method using ultrasound resulted in higher efficiency than microwave (USEPA method 3052) for chromium and nickel in very hard to dissolve samples. The major advantages of the ultrasound-assisted digestion over microwave digestion is the high treatment rate (about 30 samples simultaneously with a sonication time of 18min) and the possibility to use new sample vessels without a significant increase in costs.

  11. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P digestibility of P, Ca, and Lys. Pigs fed diet RH1000 increased (P digestibility of CP, total AA, indispensable AA, Glu + Gln, His, Gly, Ala, Tyr, Leu, Phe, and Met. Similar to growth trials with increased total tract digestibility of P and Ca, phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  12. Toxicity in anaerobic digestion : with emphasis on the effect of ammonia, sulfide and long-chain fatty acids on methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, I.W.

    1989-01-01

    The dissertation concerns the problem of toxicity in anaerobic digestion, which to a large extent is the problem of inhibition of methanogenic conversions by chemical compounds. The dissertation begins with an extensive literature review in which the

  13. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of soft winter wheat fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfelder, P; Mosenthin, R; Spindler, H K

    2015-01-01

    A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 wheat genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. These genotypes included Tabasco, KWS Erasmus, Tobak, Skalmeje, Mulan, E...... to literature data, digestibility values in actual feed tables for wheat may overestimate their protein values and need to be updated.......A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 wheat genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. These genotypes included Tabasco, KWS Erasmus, Tobak, Skalmeje, Mulan......, and Mulan (69%). Adler had greater SID of Met (88%; P = 0.01) when compared to Tabasco (86%); Tobak, Skalmeje, and Mulan (85%); and Tommi (84%). Among the 8 wheat genotypes, standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP followed total CP content and ranged from 9.1 to 11.3% (as-fed basis). Standardized...

  14. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gastrointestinal tract, and evaluate the changes in antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and .... After standing at room temperature for 10 .... in free amino acid content of CMPHs during sequential in vitro digestion. Amino acid. Undigested. (mg/g protein). After gastric digestion. (mg amino acid/g GI digest powder).

  15. Development of a fluorescence-based microplate method for the determination of volatile fatty acids in anaerobically digested and sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Peillard, F; Palacio-Barco, E; Coulomb, B; Boudenne, J L

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents a simple, accurate and multi-sample method for the determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. A procedure using an activating reagent of the carboxylic function (water-soluble carbodiimide EDC) and a fluorescent amino labeling reagent (N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine, EDAN) allows the formation of an isoindole derivative that needs to be separated from initial fluorescent amine for efficient VFAs determination. Isolation of these fluorescent VFA-derivatives was carried out by use of the fluorescent quenching of EDAN with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA). Quenching was most efficient at pH around 7 and by heating at 40°C within the microplate reader. This optimized procedure has been applied to various carboxylic acids and other organic compounds, demonstrating that VFA exhibit the highest fluorescence responses with homogeneous results for the main ones (acetic, propionic and butyric acid, all mass concentration expressed as acetic acid equivalents). This protocol was calibrated against acetic acid and determination of VFA was thus possible in the range 3.9-2,000 mg L(-1) (acetic acid equivalents). Subsequent application to real samples (sewage sludges or anaerobically digested samples) and comparison to gas chromatography analyses gave accurate results, proving the great potential of our high-throughput microplate-based technique for the analysis of VFA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ffects of different levels of digestible arginine and protein in starter diets containing ideal amino acids ratio on Eperformance, carcass traits and serum parameters in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Gholami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition and health during the first days of life has critical effect on broiler chickens performance. It is well known that diet formulation based on digestible nutrients is superior to formulation based on total nutrients. The suitable supply of essential amino acids in broilers’ diets requires proper knowledge on their metabolic effects in the body. The excessive or unbalanced intake of essential and non-essential amino acids can be harmful to broilers’ metabolism, due to amino acid antagonisms. Arginine is an essential amino acid for broilers since the urea cycle is not functional in birds. Arginine involves in the synthesis of ornithine, a precursor of polyamines that have a key role in cell division, DNA synthesis, nitric oxide (NO synthesis, and cell cycle regulation. Also, arginine increases the release of insulin, growth hormone, and IGF-A and luteinizing hormone (LH in the blood stream. On the other hand, in corn- soybean meal based diets arginine is the fifth limiting amino acid after methionine, lysine, threonine, and valine. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of different digestible arginine (DA and digestible protein (DP levels of starter diets (1-10 d based on ideal amino acids ratio on performance, carcass traits and serum parameters in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Four handed day-old male broiler chickes (Ross 308 were distributed in 10 treatments of 4 replicates (floor pens each. The experiment was designed as a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were formulated with five levels of digestible arginine (1.05, 1.18, 1.31, 1.44 and 1.57% and 2 levels of digestible protein (18 and 20%. Chicken were fed with experimental diets during 1 to 10 days of age, and then received similar diets formulated according to Ross 308 (2009 recommendations. All birds had free access to feed and water during the whole rearing period. Temperature was

  17. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  18. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions of individual

  19. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in vivo digestibility of moist, large rectangular bales of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic acid-based preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Coffey, K P; Young, A N; Bertram, M G

    2013-04-01

    Unstable weather, poor drying conditions, and unpredictable rainfall events often place valuable hay crops at risk. Recent research with large round bales composed of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) has shown that these large-bale packages are particularly sensitive to spontaneous heating and dry matter (DM) losses, as well as other undesirable changes with respect to forage fiber, protein, and energy density. Various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, normally for use on hays that are not desiccated adequately in the field to facilitate safe bale storage. Our objectives for this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of applying a commercial (buffered) propionic acid-based preservative at 3 rates (0, 0.6, and 1.0% of wet-bale weight) to hays baled at 3 moisture concentrations (19.6, 23.8, and 27.4%) on the subsequent storage characteristics and poststorage nutritive value of alfalfa-orchardgrass forages packaged in large rectangular (285-kg) bales, and then (2) evaluate the in vivo digestibility of these hays in growing lambs. Over a 73-d storage period, the preservative was effective at limiting spontaneous heating in these hays, and a clear effect of application rate was observed for the wettest (27.4%) bales. For drier hays, both acid-application rates (1.0 and 0.6%) yielded comparable reductions in heating degree days >30°C relative to untreated controls. Reductions in spontaneous heating could not be associated with improved recovery of forage DM after storage. In this study, most changes in nutritive value during storage were related to measures of spontaneous heating in simple linear regression relationships; this suggests that the modest advantages in nutritive value resulting from acid treatment were largely associated with perturbations of normal heating patterns during bale storage. Although somewhat erratic, apparent digestibilities of both DM (Y=-0.0080x + 55.6; R(2)=0.45) and

  20. Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Ogar, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V. The limits of detection were usually in the low µg L(-1) range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Partial microwave-assisted wet digestion of animal tissue using a baby-bottle sterilizer for analyte determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Wladiana O.; Menezes, Eveline A.; Gonzalez, Mário H.; Costa, Letícia M.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2009-06-01

    A procedure for partial digestion of bovine tissue is proposed using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-vessels inside a baby-bottle sterilizer under microwave radiation for multi-element determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Samples were directly weighed in laboratory-made polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide were added to the uncovered vessels, which were positioned inside the baby-bottle sterilizer, containing 500 mL of water. The hydrogen peroxide volume was fixed at 100 µL. The system was placed in a domestic microwave oven and partial digestion was carried out for the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The single-vessel approach was used in the entire procedure, to minimize contamination in trace analysis. Better recoveries and lower residual carbon content (RCC) levels were obtained under the conditions established through a 2 4-1 fractional factorial design: 650 W microwave power, 7 min digestion time, 50 µL nitric acid and 50 mg sample mass. The digestion efficiency was ascertained according to the residual carbon content determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was checked against two certified reference materials.

  2. Effects of protease, phytase and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial on nutrient and energy digestibility, ileal brush border digestive enzyme activity and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentration in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathi R Murugesan

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of protease and phytase (PP and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial (DFM on dietary energy and nutrient utilization in broiler chickens. In the first experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed diets supplemented with PP and DFM in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The 4 diets (control (CON, CON + PP, CON + DFM, and CON + PP + DFM were fed from 15-21 days of age. In Experiment 1, significant interaction (P≤0.01 between PP and DFM on the apparent ileal digestibility coefficient for starch, crude protein, and amino acid indicated that both additives increased the digestibility. Both additives increased the nitrogen retention coefficient with a significant interaction (P≤0.01. Although no interaction was observed, significant main effects (P≤0.01 for nitrogen-corrected apparent ME (AMEn for PP or DFM indicated an additive response. In a follow-up experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed the same experimental diets from 1-21 days of age. Activities of ileal brush border maltase, sucrase, and L-alanine aminopeptidase were increased (P≤0.01 by PP addition, while a trend (P = 0.07 for increased sucrase activity was observed in chickens fed DFM, in Experiment 2. The proportion of cecal butyrate was increased (P≤0.01 by DFM addition. Increased nutrient utilization and nitrogen retention appear to involve separate but complementary mechanisms for PP and DFM, however AMEn responses appear to have separate and additive mechanisms.

  3. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  4. Trace element analysis of extraterrestrial metal samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: the standard solutions and digesting acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Wu, Yangsiqian; Lin, Yangting

    2016-02-28

    Nearly 99% of the total content of extraterrestrial metals is composed of Fe and Ni, but with greatly variable trace element contents. The accuracy obtained in the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of solutions of these samples can be significantly influenced by matrix contents, polyatomic ion interference, and the concentrations of external standard solutions. An ICP-MS instrument (X Series 2) was used to determine 30 standard solutions with different concentrations of trace elements, and different matrix contents. Based on these measurements, the matrix effects were determined. Three iron meteorites were dissolved separately in aqua regia and HNO3. Deviations due to variation of matrix contents in the external standard solutions were evaluated and the analysis results of the two digestion methods for iron meteorites were assessed. Our results show obvious deviations due to unmatched matrix contents in the external standard solutions. Furthermore, discrepancy in the measurement of some elements was found between the sample solutions prepared with aqua regia and HNO3, due to loss of chloride during sample preparation and/or incomplete digestion of highly siderophile elements in iron meteorites. An accurate ICP-MS analysis method for extraterrestrial metal samples has been established using external standard solutions with matched matrix contents and digesting the samples with HNO3 and aqua regia. Using the data from this work, the Mundrabilla iron meteorite previously classified as IAB-ung is reclassified as IAB-MG. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of individual amino acids in mixed diets with different crude protein levels measured by the modified in vitro three-step and mobile nylon bag technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Lv, Bo; Liu, Chenli; Chen, Daofu

    2016-04-01

    The ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in three total mixed rations with different CP levels were estimated using the modified in vitro three-step procedure (TSP) and mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique on growing lambs. The ruminal effective degradability of DM and CP did not respond with increasing dietary CP level. However, the intestinal digestibility of DM was significantly increased with increasing dietary CP level estimated by TSP (P digestibility coefficients of CP determined by TSP were lower than those of the MNB method. Histidine was extensively degraded by rumen micro-organisms, while tyrosine was the most anti-degradable AA among the samples. The ruminal AA degradability exhibited no significant differences except for threonine, tryptophan, alanine, aspartic acid and proline for the three diets. Similarly, only a few AAs (i.e. histidine, methionine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and cysteine in TSP; histidine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and serine in MNB) had significant differences in their intestinal digestibility; in addition, values of MNB were lower than that of the TSP method, indicating that intestinal digestibility of DM seems to be overestimated in TSP, while that of CP might be overestimated in the MNB method. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementing tannic acid in the ration of beef cattle on rumen fermentation, methane emission, microbial flora and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K; Wei, C; Zhao, G Y; Xu, Z W; Lin, S X

    2017-04-01

    Four adult Simmental male cattle (376 ± 9.0 kg initial BW), fitted with permanent rumen cannulas, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of dietary supplementing tannic acid (TA) on rumen fermentation, methane (CH4 ) production, rumen microbes, nutrient digestibility and plasma biochemical parameters. Four levels of TA, that is 0, 6.5, 13.0 or 26.0 g/kg dry matter (DM), were added to the basal ration (composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture) as experimental treatments respectively. Each experimental period consisted of a 12-day adaptation phase followed by a 3-day sampling phase. The results showed that supplementing TA at 26.0 g/kg DM decreased the relative abundance of protozoa, methanogens and Ruminococcus albus to the total ruminal bacterial 16S rDNA in beef cattle (p < 0.05). The results also showed that supplementing TA at 6.5, 13.0 or 26.0 g/kg DM decreased (p < 0.01) the CH4 production (l/kg DM intake) by 11.1%, 14.7% and 33.6% respectively. Supplementing TA at 13.0 or 26.0 g/kg DM decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) (p < 0.05) and tended to decrease the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration of rumen fluid (p = 0.07). Supplementing TA at 26.0 g/kg DM decreased DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility (p < 0.05), supplementing TA at 6.5, 13.0 or 26.0 g/kg DM decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility by 5.0%, 8.6% and 15.7%, respectively, and supplementing TA at 6.5, 13.0 or 26.0 g/kg DM increased (p < 0.05) the plasma total antioxidant capability. It was concluded that supplementing TA in the ration of beef cattle decreased the CH4 production and digestibility of CP of beef cattle. Supplementing TA could be an effective option to mitigate CH4 emission form cattle, further research is necessary to study the effects of TA on the performance of cattle. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  8. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq. frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was carried out by storing 2 kg samples in airtight glass jars at 25- 30°C for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the silage samples were subjected to proximate analyses, an in vitro digestibility assay and measures on selected indices of fermentation. Fermentation of OPF without additives appeared to be unsuccessful as both pH and ammonia content were too high (4.9 and 9.9%, respectively. In contrast, the use of cellulase or LAB resulted in silages with a pH<4.5 and ammonia fractions <8.4%, but the lowest values were found when both cellulase and LAB were used, i.e. pH=4.1 and ammonia fraction=6.7%. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was significantly higher in the cellulase treated silages. The process of ensiling was associated with both a significant decrease of the fat content of OPF and a significant change of the fatty acid profile. However, the proportions of major fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:2n-6 were not affected by the process of ensiling. In conclusion, the use of cellulase additive appears a practical tool to safeguard the process of fermentation. Using a cellulase enzyme or its combination with LAB improves the fermentation profile and increases the nutritional value of the OPF silage.

  9. Effect of a microbial phytase on growth performance, plasma parameters and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in Youxian Sheldrake fed a low-phosphorus corn-soybean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaoping; Medrano, R. F.; Yu, Qifang; Cai, Yixin; Dai, Qiuzhong; He, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, tibia ash, plasma parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acid (AA) and apparent digestibility of nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes fed with low-phosphorus (P) corn-soybean diets. Methods A total of 350 Youxian Sheldrakes (7d old) were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: positive control (PC) group has adequate available P diet (0.42% and 0.38%, starter and grower), negative control (NC) group were deficient in available P (0.32% and 0.28%, starter and grower) and NC diet was supplemented with 3 levels of microbial phytase (500, 750, and 1,000 U/kg). Results Dietary supplementation of phytase in NC diet improved the average daily gain, increased the levels of serum calcium (Ca), tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of energy and Ca in starter stage (pdigestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy, P and Ca, and reduced (p<0.05) feed to gain ratio (F/G) and the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase in grower stage. Likewise, an increase (p<0.001) in the utilization of P was noticed from 12.6% to 17.2%. Supplement phytase at 750 U/kg improved the AID of His, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser (p<0.05). Conclusion The microbial phytase supplement could improve growth performance, AID of some AA and apparent utilization of other nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes, and reduce excreta P load to environment. PMID:28231702

  10. In situ ruminal degradation of amino acids and in vitro protein digestibility of undegraded CP of dried distillers' grains with solubles from European ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreicher-Kristen, E; Steingass, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the in situ ruminal degradation of CP and amino acids (AAs) of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), and to estimate intestinal digestibility (ID) of undegradable crude protein (UDP) with the in vitro pepsin-pancreatin solubility of CP (PPS), using either DDGS samples (DDGS-s) or DDGS residues (DDGS-r) obtained after 16 h ruminal incubation. Thirteen samples originating from wheat, corn, barley and blends were studied. Lysine and methionine content of DDGS-s varied from 1.4 to 4.0 and 1.3 to 2.0 g/16 g N, respectively. The milk protein score (MPS) of DDGS-s was low and ranged from 0.36 to 0.51, and lysine and isoleucine were estimated to be the most limiting AAs in DDGS-s and DDGS-r. DDGS-r contained slightly more essential AAs (EAAs) than did the DDGS-s. Rumen degradation after 16 h varied from 44% to 94% for CP, from 39% to 90% for lysine and from 35% to 92% for methionine. Linear regressions showed that the ruminal degradation of individual AAs can be predicted from CP degradation. The PPS of DDGS-s was higher than that of DDGS-r and it varied from 70% to 89% and from 47% to 81%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the PPS of DDGS-s and PPS of DDGS-r (R 2=0.31). The estimated intestinally absorbable dietary protein (IADP) averaged 21%. Moderate correlation was found between the crude fibre (CF) content and PPS of DDGS-r (R 2=0.43). This study suggests an overestimation of the contribution of UDP of DDGS to digestible protein supply in the duodenum in some currently used protein evaluation systems. More research is required and recommended to assess the intestinal digestibility of AAs from DDGS.

  11. Zinc (Zn) Analysis in Milk by Microwave Oven Digestion and Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mohineesh; Raina A.; Raj J.; Dogra T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Milk is very important component of human diet. The presence of over limit of heavy metal in milk may create significant health problems. In the present study, the direct determination of Zinc (Zn) heavy metal in milk samples of different brands was carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping Voltammetric technique at Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE). Milk samples were processed by microwave oven digestion using HP/VHP Vessels and TFM Liners and nitric acid (HNO3).Determination of...

  12. Chemical composition and amino acid digestibility of soybean meal produced in the United States, China, Argentina, Brazil, or India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, L V; Stein, H H

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare nutritional composition of soybean meal (SBM) produced in China, Argentina, Brazil, the U.S., or India and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in these SBM when fed to growing pigs. Five sources of SBM from China, Argentina, Brazil, and the U.S., and 4 sources from India were collected for a total of 24 sources of SBM. All samples were analyzed for energy, DM, and nutrients, and each source was included in a cornstarch based diet in which SBM was the only AA contributing ingredient. An N-free diet was also formulated. Twenty-five barrows (initial BW: 30.53 ± 1.73 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a 25 × 8 Youden square design with 25 diets and 8 periods. Results indicate that the concentration of CP was greater ( India (49.3 and 49.5%, respectively) than in SBM from China, Argentina, or the U.S. (45.1, 46.7, and 47.3%, respectively, as-fed basis). The concentration of most indispensable AA followed the same pattern as CP with the exception that SBM from the U.S. contained more ( India contained more ( India, but there were no differences between SBM from the U.S. and SBM from China. However, because of the lower concentration of AA in SBM from China, the concentration of standardized ileal digestible AA in SBM from China was less ( India. In conclusion, the SID of CP and AA is dependent on the country where the SBM is produced. This difference and the variability within each country should be evaluated when formulating diets for pigs.

  13. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in soybean meal, fish meal, spray-dried plasma protein and fermented soybean meal to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether fermentation could increase apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), energy (E) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal (FSBM) greater than that of soybean meal (SBM) in weaned pigs. Four weaned pigs (10.00 ± 0.30 kg) were surgically equipped with T-cannulas and randomly followed a 4 × 4 Latin square design of treatments (SBM, FSBM, fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein). Overall, the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose, in the FSBM diet, which were significantly reduced by 39.4, 92.2, and 92.9%, respectively, as compared to the SBM diet. As a consequence of ANF reduction in FSBM, the AID of DM, N and E as well as AA was significantly greater with FSBM than SBM. Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to improvement of digestibility of AA. As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to reduce diet costs. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Lack of release of bound anthocyanins and phenolic acids from carrot plant cell walls and model composites during simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, Anneline; Netzel, Gabriele; Netzel, Michael; Day, Li; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Separately, polyphenols and plant cell walls (PCW) are important contributors to the health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables. However, interactions with PCW which occur either during food preparation or mastication may affect bioaccessibility and hence bioavailability of polyphenols. Binding interactions between anthocyanins, phenolic acids (PAs) and PCW components, were evaluated using both a bacterial cellulose-pectin model system and a black carrot puree system. The majority of available polyphenols bound to PCW material with 60-70% of available anthocyanins and PAs respectively binding to black carrot puree PCW matter. Once bound, release of polyphenols using acidified methanol is low with only ∼20% of total anthocyanins to ∼30% of PAs being released. Less than 2% of bound polyphenol was released after in vitro gastric and small intestinal (S.I.) digestion for both the model system and the black carrot puree PCW matter. Confocal laser scanning microscopy shows localised binding of anthocyanins to PCW. Very similar patterns of binding for anthocyanins and PAs suggest that PAs form complexes with anthocyanins and polysaccharides. Time dependent changes in extractability with acidified methanol but not the total bound fraction suggests that initial non-specific deposition on cellulose surfaces is followed by rearrangement of the bound molecules. Minimal release of anthocyanins and PAs after simulated gastric and S.I. digestion indicates that polyphenols in fruits and vegetables which bind to the PCW will be transported to the colon where they would be expected to be released by the action of cell wall degrading bacteria.

  15. Evaluation of ultrasonic, acid, thermo-alkaline and enzymatic pre-treatments on anaerobic digestion of Ulva rigida for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Raida; Hamza, Manel; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Pre-treatment of macroalgae has received considerable research globally due to its influence on the technical, economic and environmental sustainability of algae biogas production. Some of the most promising pre-treatment methods require the application of chemicals, enzymatic, and mechanical. This study focused on these pre-treatments of Ulva rigida for biogas production. The evaluation of different pre-treatment in terms of reducing sugar yields demonstrates that 3.62, 2.88, 2.53 and 7.3g/L of reducing sugar was obtained in acid catalysis, thermoalkaline, ultrasonication and enzymatic pre-treatment, respectively. However in crude macroalgae only 0.6g/L of reducing sugar was given. After anaerobic digestion, the enzymatic hydrolysis was demonstrated the best biogas yield than other pre-treatment which reached 626.5mL/gCODint with 62.65% of biodegradability. The best demonstrated method which uses crude broth of Aspergillus niger showed an effective and environmentally friendly strategy for enhancing the biogas production yields after the anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of milk protein glycation and gastrointestinal digestion on the growth of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-Martínez, Marta; Ávila, Marta; Moreno, F Javier; Requena, Teresa; Villamiel, Mar

    2012-02-15

    In this paper, β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and sodium caseinate (SC) have been glycated via Maillard reaction with galactose and lactose and, subsequently, the effect of glycoconjugates hydrolyzed under simulated gastrointestinal digestion on the growth of pure culture of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium has been investigated. Glycopeptides were added to the growth media as the sole carbon source. None of the bacterial strains was able to grow in hydrolysates of native and control heated β-Lg and SC. However, glycopeptides were fermented, in different degree, by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and hardly any effect was detected on the growth of Streptococcus. Digested β-Lg glycoconjugates showed a strain-dependent effect whereas growth profiles of bacteria when hydrolysates of SC glycoconjugates were used as substrates were very similar, regardless of the strain. A general preference towards peptides from β-Lg/SC glycated with galactose, particularly at the state of the reaction in which the highest content in the Amadori compound tagatosyl-lysine is present, was observed. SC glycoconjugates were quickly fermented by some strains, promoting their growth in a greater extent than β-Lg complexes or even glucose. Therefore, from the results obtained in this work it can be concluded that conjugation of both milk proteins with galactose and lactose via the Maillard reaction could be an efficient method to obtain novel food ingredients with a potential prebiotic character. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vivo Clearance of Alpha-1 Acid Glycoprotein Is Influenced by the Extent of Its N-Linked Glycosylation and by Its Interaction with the Vessel Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. McCurdy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP is a highly glycosylated plasma protein that exerts vasoprotective effects. We hypothesized that AGP’s N-linked glycans govern its rate of clearance from the circulation, and followed the disappearance of different forms of radiolabeled human AGP from the plasma of rabbits and mice. Enzymatic deglycosylation of human plasma-derived AGP (pdAGP by Peptide: N-Glycosidase F yielded a mixture of differentially deglycosylated forms (PNGase-AGP, while the introduction of five Asn to Gln mutations in recombinant Pichia pastoris-derived AGP (rAGP-N(5Q eliminated N-linked glycosylation. PNGase-AGP was cleared from the rabbit circulation 9-fold, and rAGP-N(5Q, 46-fold more rapidly than pdAGP, primarily via a renal route. Pichia pastoris-derived wild-type rAGP differed from pdAGP in expressing mannose-terminated glycans, and, like neuraminidase-treated pdAGP, was more rapidly removed from the rabbit circulation than rAGP-N(5Q. Systemic hyaluronidase treatment of mice transiently decreased pdAGP clearance. AGP administration to mice reduced vascular binding of hyaluronic acid binding protein in the liver microcirculation and increased its plasma levels. Our results support a critical role of N-linked glycosylation of AGP in regulating its in vivo clearance and an influence of a hyaluronidase-sensitive component of the vessel wall on its transendothelial passage.

  18. Effect of a microbial phytase on growth performance, plasma parameters and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in Youxian Sheldrake fed a low-phosphorus corn-soybean diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, tibia ash, plasma parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID of amino acid (AA and apparent digestibility of nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes fed with low-phosphorus (P corn-soybean diets. Methods A total of 350 Youxian Sheldrakes (7d old were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: positive control (PC group has adequate available P diet (0.42% and 0.38%, starter and grower, negative control (NC group were deficient in available P (0.32% and 0.28%, starter and grower and NC diet was supplemented with 3 levels of microbial phytase (500, 750, and 1,000 U/kg. Results Dietary supplementation of phytase in NC diet improved the average daily gain, increased the levels of serum calcium (Ca, tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of energy and Ca in starter stage (p<0.05. There was an increased (p<0.001 in the utilization of P from 17.3% to 23.9%. Phytase supplementation (1,000 U/kg has shown that the AID of His, Thr, Val, indispensable AA, Glu, Pro, and dispensable AA was higher (p<0.05 than that of NC. Moreover, phytase supplementation improved (p<0.05 serum and tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy, P and Ca, and reduced (p<0.05 feed to gain ratio (F/G and the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase in grower stage. Likewise, an increase (p<0.001 in the utilization of P was noticed from 12.6% to 17.2%. Supplement phytase at 750 U/kg improved the AID of His, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser (p<0.05. Conclusion The microbial phytase supplement could improve growth performance, AID of some AA and apparent utilization of other nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes, and reduce excreta P load to environment.

  19. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  20. Acidic peptides enhanced genistein-dependent inhibition of human platelet aggregation: potential protective effect of digestible peptides plus genistein against atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgwardt, Kerstin; Bonifatius, Susanne; Gardemann, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    The leading cause of death in the United States and European countries is coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that the ingestion of soy compounds may not only have beneficial effects on atherosclerotic risk by lowering lipid compounds, but also by reducing platelet aggregability. Therefore, we analyzed in vitro the influence of defined and digestible peptides, frequently found in glycinin and beta-conglycinin as important proteins of soy bean, on platelet aggregation of 180 healthy volunteers with or without the isoflavone genistein by aggregometry and flow cytometry. (i) The predominating share of amino acids and acidic, neutral, and basic di- and tripeptides of up to 2 mmol/L did not modify platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, or arachidonic acid. (ii) Genistein inhibited agonist-induced platelet aggregation dose dependently. (iii) In the presence of the acidic peptides glutamate-glutamate and aspartate-aspartate-aspartate (1 mmol/L each), genistein reduced collagen- and ADP-dependent platelet activation stronger than 250 micromol/L of this isoflavone alone. Other peptides were less effective (eg, glutamate-glutamate-glutamate) or ineffective (eg, asparagine-asparagine). (iv) Glutamate-glutamate-glutamate (1 nmol/L), glutamate-glutamate (1 micromol/L), and aspartate-aspartate-aspartate (1 micromol/L) enhanced the inhibition of genistein on platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. Thus, the results of the present in vitro investigation allow the assumption that nutrition with specific compounds of soy--acidic peptides together with genistein--might protect against coronary atherosclerosis by attenuating platelet activity. In vivo studies are warranted to check this assumption.

  1. Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows

  2. Influence of Fermentation with Different Lactic Acid Bacteria and in Vitro Digestion on the Biotransformation of Phenolic Compounds in Fermented Pomegranate Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Cases, Estefanía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Frutos, María José

    2017-08-09

    This study describes the effect of fermentation and the impact of simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD) of four fermented pomegranate juices with different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the biotransformation of phenolic compounds. The changes of the antioxidant capacity (AOC) and of LAB growth and survival in different fermented juices were also studied. Two new phenolic derivatives (catechin and α-punicalagin) were identified only in fermented juices. During SGD, the AOC increased together with the phenolic derivatives concentration mainly in the juices fermented with Lactobacillus. These derivatives were formed due to the LAB metabolism of the ellagitannins, epicatechin, and catechin after fermentation and during SGD. The FRAP assay performance might be associated with the degradation and biotransformation of catechin. The fermented pomegranate juices with these LAB increased the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, ensuring the survival of LAB after SGD, suggesting a possible prebiotic effect of phenolic compounds on LAB.

  3. Urea free and more efficient sample preparation method for mass spectrometry based protein identification via combining the formic acid-assisted chemical cleavage and trypsin digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuaibin; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-10-30

    A formic acid (FA)-assisted sample preparation method was presented for protein identification via mass spectrometry (MS). Detailedly, an aqueous solution containing 2% FA and dithiothreitol was selected to perform protein denaturation, aspartic acid (D) sites cleavage and disulfide linkages reduction simultaneously at 108°C for 2h. Subsequently, FA wiped off via vacuum concentration. Finally, iodoacetamide (IAA) alkylation and trypsin digestion could be performed ordinally. A series of model proteins (BSA, β-lactoglobulin and apo-Transferrin) were treated respectively using such method, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The identified peptide number was increased by ∼ 80% in comparison with the conventional urea-assisted sample preparation method. Moreover, BSA identification was achieved efficiently down to femtomole (25 ± 0 sequence coverage and 16 ± 1 peptides) via such method. In contrast, there were not peptides identified confidently via the urea-assisted method before desalination via the C18 zip tip. The absence of urea in this sample preparation method was an advantage for the more favorable digestion and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The performances of two methods for the real sample (rat liver proteome) were also compared, followed by a nanoflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system analysis. As a result, 1335 ± 43 peptides were identified confidently (false discovery rate method, corresponding to 295 ± 12 proteins (of top match=1 and requiring 2 unique peptides at least). In contrast, there were only 1107 ± 16 peptides (corresponding to 231 ± 10 proteins) obtained from the conventional urea-assisted method. It was serving as a more efficient protein sample preparation method for researching specific proteomes better, and providing assistance to develop other proteomics analysis methods, such as, peptide

  4. Effects of multi-carbohydrase and phytase on standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids and apparent metabolizable energy in canola meal fed to broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Dadalt, J C; Kiarie, E; Trindade Neto, M A

    2017-09-01

    Two assays were conducted to evaluate nutritive value of canola meal (CM) fed to broiler chicks without or with a multi-carbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 30,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and phytase (Phy, 500 FTU per kg of diet). Assay 1 determined apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and metabolizable energy (AME) by the difference method. Assay 2 determined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids by the index method. Two reference diets (RD) - an 85% corn based and a 5% casein-cornstarch diet fortified with vitamins and minerals - were made for assays 1 and 2, respectively. For each assay, the test diets were made by mixing RD and CM 7:3 wt/wt basis and fed without or with MC or Phy or combination. A total of 245 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) was allocated to 5 treatments to give 7 replicates (7 birds/cage). The birds were fed a commercial diet from day zero to 10 followed by assay 1 fed from d 11 to 18 and assay 2 fed from d 19 to 21. Excreta samples were collected on d 15 to18, and all birds were slaughtered on d 21 for ileal digesta. There was an interaction (P  0.05) between MC and Phy on AMEn; however, MC and Phy individually improved AMEn retention. Enzymes interacted (P < 0.05) on SID of Arg, His, Leu, Met, Thr, Ala, Asp, Gln, and Gly. In this context, feeding a combination of MC and Phy resulted in higher (P < 0.05) SID of Arg, His, Met, and Thr relative to single activity or control. Both enzymes improved (P < 0.05) SID of Lys independently. The combination of carbohydrase and Phy may be an effective strategy to improve amino acid utilization in CM for poultry. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Effect of humic acid on anaerobic digestion of cellulose and xylan in completely stirred tank reactors : inhibitory effect, mitigation of the inhibition and the dynamics of the microbial communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azman, Samet; Khadem, A.F.; Plugge, Caroline M.; Stams, Alfons J M; Bec, Sabina; Zeeman, Grietje

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition effect of humic acid (HA) on anaerobic digestion of cellulose and xylan and the mitigation potential of the inhibition were evaluated in controlled fed batch reactors at 30 °C and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. Reactor performances were evaluated by biogas production and

  6. Influence of barley grain particle size and treatment with citric acid on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Salem, A Z M; López, S

    2017-08-01

    Chemical and physical treatments of barley grain increase ruminally resistant starch and can improve the rumen fermentation pattern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemical (addition of citric acid, CA) and physical (grinding to two different particle sizes, PS) treatment of barley grain on performance, rumen fermentation, microbial protein yield in the rumen and selected blood metabolites in growing calves. In all, 28 male Holstein calves (172±5.1 kg initial BW) were used in a complete randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 barley grain particle sizes×2 levels of citric acid. The diets were as follows: (i) small PS (average 1200 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no CA addition); (ii) small PS barley grain soaked in a CA solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley); (iii) large PS (average 2400 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no citric acid addition) and (iv) large PS barley grain soaked in a citric acid solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley). Barley grain was then incorporated at 35% in a total mixed ration and fed to the calves for 11 weeks. Feeding small PS barley decreased feed intake (P=0.02) and average daily weight gain (P=0.01). The addition of CA to barley grain did not affect intake but increased weight gain (P0.05). However, the molar proportion of propionate was increased (P=0.03) when barley was more finely ground, and that of acetate was increased (P=0.04) when CA was added to barley grain. The ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen was increased (Pcitric acid increased fibre digestibility of total mixed rations, attenuated the decrease in ruminal pH, and improved weight gain and feed efficiency in male Holstein growing calves fed a high-cereal diet (550 g cereal grain/kg diet).

  7. Quantifying the digestibility of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, A J; Hodgkinson, S M

    2000-07-01

    The current recommendation, when calculating a protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score, is to determine the digestibility of a dietary protein across the entire digestive tract, using the rat as a model animal for humans. This fecal digestibility value is subsequently corrected for endogenous contributions of protein using a metabolic nitrogen value determined by feeding rats a protein-free diet. The limitations inherent with this method are well recognized, however, and determining the digestibility of a dietary protein to the end of the small intestine is the preferred alternative. Unlike the fecal digestibility assay, which has only one basic methodology, ileal digestibility values can be determined in a number of ways. We discuss the various methods available for determining ileal digestibility values and compare results obtained for dietary proteins using both fecal and ileal digestibility assays. The relative value of using individual amino acid digestibility values as opposed to nitrogen digestibility values is reviewed. In addition, we address issues surrounding measurement of endogenous nitrogen flows, and in particular, the relative merits of determining "true" versus "real" digestibility values.

  8. A noncalibration spectroscopic method to estimate ether extract and fatty acid digestibility of feed and its validation with flaxseed and field pea in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-10-01

    Digestibility of ether extract (EE) or fatty acids (FA) is traditionally measured by chemical analyses for EE or GLC methods for FA combined with marker concentration in diet and digesta or feces. Digestibility of EE or FA may be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of diet and digesta or feces. On the basis of Beer's law, a noncalibration spectroscopic method, which used functional group digestibility (FGD) determined with marker concentration and peak intensity of spectra of diets and undigested residues (digesta or feces), was developed to predict the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total FA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE. To validate, 4 diets containing 30% flaxseed and field pea coextruded with 4 extruder treatments and a wheat and soybean basal diet with predetermined AID of total FA and ATTD of EE were used. Samples of ingredients, diets, and freeze-dried digesta and feces were scanned on a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. The intensity of either the methylene (CH2) antisymmetric stretching peak at 2,923 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.01) or the symmetric stretching peak at 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.01) of ingredients, diet, and digesta spectra was related strongly to the concentration of total FA. The AID of total FA of diets measured using GLC was predicted by the spectroscopic method using FGD at 2,923 and 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.75, P < 0.01) with a bias of 0.54 (SD = 3.78%) and -1.35 (SD = 3.74%), respectively. The accumulated peak intensity in the region between 1,766 and 1,695 cm(-1) of spectra was related to EE concentration in ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.61, P = 0.01) and feces (R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.01). The relation was improved by using second-derivative spectra of the sum of peak intensities at 1,743 and 1,710 cm(-1) for ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.90, P = 0.01) and at 1,735 and 1,710 cm(-1) for feces (R(2) = 0

  9. Altering the ratio of dietary palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in diets with or without whole cottonseed affects nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production responses of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, J; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2017-11-08

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of varying the ratio of dietary palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and oleic (cis-9 C18:1) acids in basal diets containing soyhulls or whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, and production response of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Holstein cows were used in a split-plot Latin square design. Cows were allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, n = 12) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, n = 12) that was fed throughout the experiment. Within each plot a 4 × 4 Latin square arrangement of treatments was used in 4 consecutive 21-d periods. Treatments were (1) control (CON; no supplemental fat), (2) high C16:0 supplement [PA; fatty acid (FA) supplement blend provided ∼80% C16:0], (3) C16:0 and C18:0 supplement (PA+SA; FA supplement blend provided ∼40% C16:0 + ∼40% C18:0), and (4) C16:0 and cis-9 C18:1 supplement (PA+OA; FA supplement blend provided ∼45% C16:0 + ∼35% cis-9 C18:1). Interactions between basal diets and FA treatments were observed for dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield. Among the SH diets, PA and PA+SA increased DMI compared with CON and PA+OA treatments, whereas in the CS diets PA+OA decreased DMI compared with CON. The PA, PA+SA, and PA+OA treatments increased milk yield compared with CON in the SH diets. The CS diets increased milk fat yield compared with the SH diets due to the greater yield of de novo and preformed milk FA. The PA treatment increased milk fat yield compared with CON, PA+SA, and PA+OA due to the greater yield of mixed-source (16-carbon) milk FA. The PA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk compared with CON and tended to increase it compared with PA+SA and PA+OA. The CS diets increased body weight (BW) change compared with the SH diets. Additionally, PA+OA tended to increase BW change compared with CON and PA and increased it in comparison with PA+SA. The PA and PA

  10. Impact of the substrate loading regime and phosphoric acid supplementation on performance of biogas reactors and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic digestion of chicken wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotskiy, Dmitry E; Ziganshina, Elvira E; Siniagina, Maria; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Miluykov, Vasili A; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the effects of increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) as well as phosphoric acid addition on mesophilic reactors' performance and biogas production from chicken wastes. Furthermore, microbial community composition in reactors was characterized by a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing analysis. Each step of increasing OLR impacted on the activity of microorganisms what caused a temporary decrease in biogas production. The addition of phosphoric acid resulted in the increased biogas production with values between 361 and 447 mL g(VS)(-1) from day 61 to day 74 compared to control reactor (309-350 mL g(VS)(-1)). With reactors' operation, Bacteroidetes phylotypes were noticeably replaced with Firmicutes representatives, and significant increase of Clostridium sp. was identified. Within Euryarchaeota, Methanosarcina sp. dominated in all analyzed samples, in which high ammonium levels were detected (3.4-4.9 NH4(+)-N g L(-1)). These results can help in better understanding the anaerobic digestion process of simultaneously ammonium/phosphate-rich substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Corn germ with pericarp in relation to whole corn: nutrient contents, food and protein efficiency, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The germ fraction with pericarp (bran is generated in the industrial processing of corn kernel, and it is used for oil extraction and animal feed. This study evaluated the nutritional and protein quality of this fraction in relation to whole corn. The proximate composition, mineral contents, and amino acid profile of the germ fraction with pericarp and of whole corn were determined. A 4-week experiment was conducted using 36 weanling male Wistar rats, and three 10%-protein diets (reference, germ with 15% lipids and casein with 15% lipids, two 6%-protein diets (whole corn and casein, and a protein-free diet were prepared. The germ showed higher contents of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber (27.8 g.100 g-1, ash, minerals (Fe and Zn- approximately 5 mg.100 g-1, and lysine (57.2 mg.g-1 protein than those of corn. The germ presented good quality protein (Relative Protein Efficiency Ratio-RPER = 80%; Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score-PDCAAS = 86%, higher than that of corn (RPER = 49%; PDCAAS = 60%. The corn germ fraction with pericarp is rich in dietary fiber, and it is a source of good quality protein as well as of iron and zinc, and its use as nutritive raw material is indicated in food products for human consumption.

  12. Oligosaccharides are a key factor in prediction of amino acid digestibility in soybean meal of different origins when fed to growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this experiment was to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID of crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA in 15 sources of soybean meal (SBM produced from soybeans from different countries and subsequently to establish equations for predicting the AID and SID in SBM based on their chemical composition. Methods Eighteen barrows (57.9±6.1 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula were allotted into three 6×6 Latin square designs. Each period comprised a 6-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The 15 test diets included SBM as a sole source of AA in the diet. Another nitrogen-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3% was used as an inert marker in each diet. Results The AID of lysine in SBM from China and USA tended to be greater than in SBM from Brazil (p<0.10. The SID of valine and proline in SBM from China was greater than in SBM from Brazil (p<0.05. The SID of lysine, threonine, cysteine and glycine in SBM from China tended to be greater than in SBM from Brazil (p<0.10. From a stepwise regression analysis, a series of AID and SID prediction equations were generated. The best fit equations for lysine in SBM were: AID lysine = 1.16 sucrose−1.81 raffinose+82.10 (R2 = 0.69, p<0.01 and SID lysine = 1.14 sucrose−1.93 raffinose−0.99 ether extract (EE+85.26 (R2 = 0.77, p<0.01. Conclusion It was concluded that under the conditions of this experiment, the oligosaccharides (such as sucrose and raffinose can be used to predict the AID and SID of AA in SBM with reasonable accuracy.

  13. An Evaluation of Partial Digestion Protocols for the Extraction and Measurement of Trace Metals of Environmental Concern in Marine and Estuarine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, S. J.; Krahforst, C.; Sherman, L.; Kehm, K.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a broad study of the fate and transport of trace metals in estuarine sediments (Krahforst et al., 2013), the efficacy of commonly-used partial digestion protocols, including ISO 11466 (treatment with aqua regia), EPA 3050B (nitric acid followed by H2O2) and a modified rock digestion method ('RD' method- H2O2 followed by nitric), were evaluated for two NIST SRM materials, marine sediment 2702 and estuarine sediment 1646a. Unlike so-called total sediment digestions, the methods studied in this work do not employ hydrofluoric acid and are thought to leave silicates substantially or wholly intact. These methods can in principle compliment studies based on total digestions by providing information about trace metals in phases that are potentially more labile in the marine environment. Samples were digested in ~150 mg aliquots. Application of ISO 11466 and EPA 3050B followed published protocols except that digestions were carried out in trace-metal clean 15 mL capped Teflon vessels in an Al block digester and, at the end of the procedure, the supernatant was decanted from undigested material following repeated centrifugation in 2% nitric acid. Digested solutions were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn and Pb content by ICPMS. All elements were analyzed in collision reaction cell mode to minimize isobaric interferences, except Cd and Ag, which were analyzed in standard mode. Instrument performance was monitored in-run by analyzing the SRM 1643e and several quality-check standards. Two repeated digestions of SRM 2702 and SRM 1646a using EPA 3050B produced identical yields, within the standard deviation of repeated analyses (0 - 5%), for all analyzed elements except Cu, which varied by 30% for SRM 2702. The same was true for ISO 11466, although the standard deviation of repeated analyses for this digestion series tended to be larger (digestions typically range from 5 - 15% higher than EPA 3050B for all studied elements. Comparisons between

  14. The effect of high moisture heat-acid treatment on the structure and digestion property of normal maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liang, Rong; Antoniou, John; Liu, Fei; Shoemaker, Charles F; Li, Yue; Zhong, Fang

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of thermal-acid treatment on the formation of resistant starch (RS). The maximum RS content in citric acid-heat treated starches (CAHT) reached 36.55%, which was 7 times higher of that in native starch. According to HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis, amylopectin was more susceptible to hydrolysis than amylose during citric acid-heat treatment (CAH). X-ray measurement revealed that even though the starch crystalline pattern was changed from A-type to a more resistant B-type after CAH, the fraction of crystalline region decreased from 21.16% to 8.37%. The hydroxyls on the starch chains were substituted by the citric acid anhydrides during CAH according to FT-IR analysis, which led to the formation of ester bond cross-linking structures in starch granules, and it could be the main contribution to the increase of RS content in CAHT samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  16. Application of a fuzzy logic control system for continuous anaerobic digestion of low buffered, acidic energy crops as mono-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, P; Lehmann, K; Schmidt, O; Demirel, B

    2009-02-15

    A fuzzy logic control (FLC) system was developed at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg) for operation of biogas reactors running on energy crops. Three commercially available measuring parameters, namely pH, the methane (CH4) content, and the specific gas production rate (spec. GPR = m(3)/kg VS/day) were included. The objective was to avoid stabilization of pH with use of buffering supplements, like lime or manure. The developed FLC system can cover most of all applications, such as a careful start-up process and a gentle recovery strategy after a severe reactor failure, also enabling a process with a high organic loading rate (OLR) and a low hydraulic retention time (HRT), that is, a high throughput anaerobic digestion process with a stable pH and CH4 content. A precondition for a high load process was the concept of interval feeding, for example, with 8 h of interval. The FLC system was proved to be reliable during the long term fermentation studies over 3 years in one-stage, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with acidic beet silage as mono-input (pH 3.3-3.4). During fermentation of the fodder beet silage (FBS), a stable HRT of 6.0 days with an OLR of up to 15 kg VS/m(3)/day and a volumetric GPR of 9 m(3)/m(3)/day could be reached. The FLC enabled an automatic recovery of the digester after two induced severe reactor failures. In another attempt to prove the feasibility of the FLC, substrate FBS was changed to sugar beet silage (SBS), which had a substantially lower buffering capacity than that of the FBS. With SBS, the FLC accomplished a stable fermentation at a pH level between 6.5 and 6.6, and a volatile fatty acid level (VFA) below 500 mg/L, but the FLC had to interact and to change the substrate dosage permanently. In a further experiment, the reactor temperature was increased from 41 to 50 degrees C. Concomitantly, the specific GPR, pH and CH4 dropped down. Finally, the FLC automatically enabled a complete recovery in 16 days.

  17. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya beans. Increasing doses of whole raw soya

  18. Effects of a molasses-coated cottonseed product on diet digestibility, performance, and milk fatty acid profile of lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C R; Bradford, B J

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a molasses-coated cottonseed product on nutrient digestibility and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of lactating dairy cattle. The effect of a direct-fed microbial (DFM) product was also examined. Twelve Holstein cows (693+/-85kg of body weight, 127+/-39 d in milk, 2.08+/-0.29 lactations; mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to sequence in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Cows were fed 1 of 4 treatments during each of the four 14-d periods: a control diet including 11.4% (dry matter basis) reginned cottonseed (CON), a diet with 14.4% molasses-coated cottonseed to match the cottonseed inclusion rate of the control diet (TC), the control diet with the addition of a liquid form of the cotton coating used to produce molasses-coated cottonseed (LC), and the LC diet with the addition of a DFM (LC+DFM). Diets were formulated for equal concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, ether extract, and macrominerals. Treatments had no effect on dry matter intake, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, or milk production. The molasses coat, in either form, tended to decrease concentrations of odd-chain FA (2.25 and 2.31 vs. 2.35 g/100g of FA for TC, LC, and CON, respectively) and unsaturated FA (31.4 and 31.1 vs. 32.1 g/100g of FA) in milk. This could be indicative of a mild shift in ruminal fermentation away from propionate-producing bacteria toward fiber-digesting bacteria responsible for biohydrogenation of FA. The form of the molasses coating had few effects, but LC significantly decreased concentrations of total trans-C18:1 (2.04 vs. 2.30+/-0.13 g/100g of FA) and polyunsaturated FA (4.81 vs. 5.01+/-0.17) compared with TC, implying that the liquid form slightly enhanced ruminal FA biohydrogenation. Furthermore, adding the DFM to the LC diet tended to increase the proportion of long-chain FA (FA >C16) and significantly increased the proportions of trans-C18:1 (2

  19. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  20. Validação das relações dos aminoácidos metionina, treonina, triptofano e valina com a lisina digestível na proteína ideal em rações para porcas em lactação Validation of the relationships of methionine, threonine, tryptophan and valine amino acids with the digestible lysine in the ideal protein in feedings for lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Haese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de validar as relações de aminoácidos digestíveis com a lisina digestível propostas com base no conceito da proteína ideal, foi realizado um experimento com 120 matrizes suínas em lactação, distribuídas em delineamento em blocos, composto de seis dietas, 20 blocos e uma matriz por unidade experimental. As dietas foram formuladas a partir de uma dieta-referência - contendo 19,5% de proteína bruta (PB e 0,95% de lisina digestível - suplementada com metionina, treonina, triptofano e/ou valina digestíveis para atingir as relações com a lisina digestível determinadas com base na proteína ideal. As dietas não influenciaram a perda e a variação de peso, a espessura e a variação da espessura de toucinho, a proteína e a variação de proteína corporal, a gordura e a variação de gordura corporal nem alteraram o intervalo desmame-estro ou a produção de leite das porcas. As relações dos aminoácidos metionina + cistina, treonina, triptofano e valina digestíveis com a lisina digestível propostas com base na proteína ideal atendem às exigências de porcas em lactação para melhores desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo.This experiment aimed at validating the relationship between digestible amino acids with the digestible lysine proposed on the basis of the ideal protein concept. This experiment used 120 lactating sows distributed in a complete randomized block design with six treatments and 20 repetitions and one sow per experimental unity. The diets were formulated based on a reference diet - which contained 19.5% of crude protein (CP and 0.95% of digestible lysine supplemented with digestible methionine, threonine, tryptophan and/or valine to meet the ideal protein based determined relationships with digestible lysine. The diets did not change weight loss and variation, thickness and thickness variation of backfat, protein and body protein variation, fat and body fat variation, neither they changed the

  1. [Determination of three perfluoro sulfonated chemicals in bivalve shells using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with the pretreatment of mixed inorganic acid digestion coupled with solid-phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Jiao; Sun, Hongwen

    2010-05-01

    For the analysis of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in shells, an extraction method of mixed inorganic acid digestion coupled with solid phase extraction (SPE) was established. The target compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The shell powder was at first digested with the mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, then the digestion solution was adjusted to pH 6 with sodium hydroxide, and cleaned up with Oasis WAX SPE cartridge. The perfluoro sulfonated chemicals were quantified with HPLC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization in negative ion mode with internal standard method. The limits of detection (LODs) were of 0.28 ng/g for PFBS, 0.42 ng/g for PFHxS and 0.43 ng/g for PFOS, and matrix recoveries of the perfluoro sulfonated chemicals were 94.88%-96.24%. The analytical results for the shells of two bivalves from Bohai Bay showed this pretreatment method is suitable for the determination of perfluoro sulfonated acids (PFSAs) in shells. Concentrations of PFSAs in the shells ranged from < LOD-0.70 ng/g, which were an order of magnitude lower than those in the soft tissues of these bivalves.

  2. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria That Produce Protease and Bacteriocin-Like Substance From Mud Crab (Scylla sp. Digestive Tract (Isolasi Bakteri Asam Laktat yang Menghasilkan Protease dan Senyawa Bacteriocin-Like dari Saluran Pencernaan Kepiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Pramono

    2015-03-01

    Kata kunci: Bakteri Asam Laktat, Bakteriosin-like substance, Protease, Scylla  sp. Digestive tract is complex environment consist of large amount of bacteria’s species. Fish intestine bacteria consist of aerobic or facultative anaerob bacteria which can produce antibacterial and enzym. The objectives of this research were to isolated lactic acid bacteria that produce bacteriocin-like and protease from mud crab digestive tract. Isolation and characterization of isolates were conducted employing media MRS.  Neutralized cell free supernatant of isolates were tested using disc diffusion agar of against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria to indicate bacteriocin-like-producing lactic acid bacteria. Protease-producing isolate was tested using disc diffusion method in casein agar. Among a hundred isolates, 96 isolates were showed clear zone in MRS+CaCO3,, catalase negative, and Gram positive bacteria. Thirty four isolates produced protease and only four isolates (i.e. IKP29, IKP30, IKP52, and IKP94 showed strong inhibition against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. There were three patterns of inhibition among three isolates against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Eschericia coli, and Salmonella sp. All three isolates showed potential uses for produce starter culture for fishery product fermentation purpose. This is the first report of isolation lactic acid bacteria that produced protease and bacteriocin-like from digestive tract of mud crab. Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, Bacteriocin-like substance, Protease, Scylla  sp.

  3. Elucidating microbial community adaptation to anaerobic co-digestion of fats, oils, and grease and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amha, Yamrot M; Sinha, Pooja; Lagman, Jewls; Gregori, Matt; Smith, Adam L

    2017-10-15

    Despite growing interest in co-digestion and demonstrated process improvements (e.g., enhanced stability and biogas production), few studies have evaluated how co-digestion impacts the anaerobic digestion (AD) microbiome. Three sequential bench-scale respirometry experiments were conducted at thermophilic temperature (50 °C) with various combinations of primary sludge (PS); thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS); fats, oils, and grease (FOG); and food waste (FW). Two additional runs were then performed to evaluate microbial inhibition at higher organic fractions of FOG (30-60% volatile solids loading (VSL; v/v)). Co-digestion of PS, TWAS, FOG, and FW resulted in a 26% increase in methane production relative to digestion of PS and TWAS. A substantial lag time was observed in biogas production for vessels with FOG addition that decreased by more than half in later runs, likely due to adaptation of the microbial community. 30% FOG with 10% FW showed the highest increase in methane production, increasing 53% compared to digestion of PS and TWAS. FOG addition above 50% VSL was found to be inhibitory with and without FW addition and resulted in volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation. Methane production was linked with high relative activity and abundance of syntrophic fatty-acid oxidizers alongside hydrogenotrophic methanogens, signaling the importance of interspecies interactions in AD. Specifically, relative activity of Syntrophomonas was significantly correlated with methane production. Further, methane production increased over subsequent runs along with methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene expression, a functional gene in methanogens, suggesting temporal adaptation of the microbial community to co-digestion substrate mixtures. The study demonstrated the benefits of co-digestion in terms of performance enhancement and enrichment of key active microbial populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Cholesterol-Lowering Activity from Digestive Tracts of Indonesian Native Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Julendra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the cholesterol-lowering activity of indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from the small intestine, cecum, and colon of Indonesian native chickens and evaluated for bile salt hydrolase (BSH activity in vitro by using MRS media added taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA and CaCl2. The quantitative measurement of cholesterol-lowering activity of LAB was investigated by using soluble cholesterol containing MRS broth (100 µg/mL of cholesterin and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. Cholesterol content in supernatant was analyzed using microplate reader. The highest percentage of cholesterol reduction found in isolates from colon of native chicken with the value of 17.43% and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, this isolate was closely related to L. plantarum strain LGFCP4 (accession number KM199683.1 isolated from GIT of Guinea fowl from India. It could be concluded that L. plantarum AKK-30 had cholesterol-lowering activity.

  5. [Digestive burns by simultaneous oral and rectal self-administration of ingestion sulphuric acid: an unusual mode of suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Kountélé Gona; Attia, Koffi Alain; Coulibaly, Adama; Koffi, Gnangoran Marcelin; Yapo, Patrice; Ehua, Somian Francis; Miessan, Jean-Baptiste Kanga

    2008-01-01

    The authors report an unusual mode of suicide in two patients admitted to the Teaching Hospital of Yopougon. One 26-year-old woman swallowed sulphuric acid and then self-administered more of the same product rectally. She presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, bloody diarrhoea, without fever (T=37,9 degrees C). The abdomen did not appear to require surgery. Endoscopy showed erosive cesophagitis on day 5 (D5) and ulcerated bleeding inflammation of the entire colon and rectum on D26. She died on D30, during generalized convulsions. The second patient, a 31-year-old women, ingested sulphuric acid in the same way. She presented initially with diffuse abdominopelvic pains; clinical examination showed neither guarding nor contraction. Her temperature was 37,8 degrees C. Oesogastric endoscopy observed cesophagitis stage II B and III A and gastritis III A and III B. On D9, acute and generalized peritonitis was discovered, leading to surgical exploration. The patient died at the end of the operation. This unusual mode of suicide induces grave clinical presentations despite their apparent calm. The prognosis is worse because of the double localization of the lesions, the toxicity of the product, and the underestimation of its gravity.

  6. Effect of Ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) on the speciation and bioavailability of Fe2+ in the presence of sulfide in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Minh; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Yan, Zhou; Stuckey, David

    2017-04-01

    The effects of a biodegradable chelating agent, Ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS), on the speciation and bioavailability of iron (Fe2+) in anaerobic digestion were examined. Fe2+ supplementation at 10mg/L increased methane yield, but the presence of 8mg/L sulfide led to the precipitation of Fe2+ as FeS which limited its bioavailability. The results confirmed that the EDDS could replace common chelating agents with low biodegradability (EDTA and NTA), and improve the bioavailability of Fe2+ by forming an Fe-EDDS complex, thereby protecting Fe2+ from sulfide precipitation. Experimental findings from sequential extraction using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) method, and quantification of free EDDS and Fe-EDDS complex using UHPLC, confirmed that 29.82% of Fe2+ was present in bioavailable forms, i.e. soluble and exchangeable, when EDDS was added at 1:1 molar ratio to Fe2+. As a result, the methane production rate increased by 11.17%, and the methane yield increased by 13.25%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vessel Operator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  8. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  9. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  10. Characteristics of dairy cows with a greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis: Volatile fatty acid absorption, rumen digestion, and expression of genes in rumen epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether lactating dairy cows with a greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) have differences in volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption rate, expression of genes involved in VFA metabolism and intracellular pH regulation in rumen epithelial cells, and in situ carbohydrate digestibility in the rumen. We fed 14 ruminally cannulated mid-lactating dairy cows (119±47.2d in milk; body weight 640±47.9kg) a high-grain diet consisting of 30% forage ad libitum, with an 18-d diet adaptation and a 7-d sample and data collection period. Eight cows with the lowest acidosis index [area below pH 5.8 normalized for dry matter intake (DMI); 0.10±0.16 pH × min/kg of DMI] and 5 with the highest acidosis index (3.72±0.19 pH × min/kg of DMI) were classified as animals with lower risk (LS) and higher risk (HS) of SARA, respectively. Minimum (5.75 vs. 5.33) and mean rumen pH (6.33 vs. 5.98) were higher for LS than for HS cows. In addition, the duration and area of rumen pH below 5.8 was lower in LS cows (24.9 vs. 481min/d; 2.94 vs. 102 pH × min/d). Although DMI, milk yield, and milk component yields did not differ, milk fat concentration tended to be higher for LS cows than for HS cows (3.36 vs. 2.93%). However, we observed no difference in VFA absorption rate between LS and HS cows. In situ starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were not different between LS and HS cows, but the relative mRNA abundance of lanosterol synthase (LSS) was higher for LS cows than for HS cows. In addition, the mRNA abundance of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (HMGCS1) tended to be higher for LS cows than for HS cows. These results suggested that VFA absorption rate might not explain the difference in rumen pH between LS and HS cows in the current study, even though expression of some genes related to VFA metabolism in rumen epithelium may be associated with variation in the risk of SARA among lactating cows. This variation in

  11. The effect of supplementary Aspergillus niger phytase in diets for pigs on concentration and apparent digestibility of dry matter, total phosphorus, and phytic acid in different sections of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, A W; Mroz, Z; Kemme, P A

    1992-04-01

    Six barrows of approximately 37 kg BW, fitted with two simple T-cannulas in the duodenum (25 cm posterior to the pylorus) and terminal ileum (12 to 15 cm anterior to the ileocecal junction), were fed two diets containing 2.1 g of P/kg in the form of phytic acid and a low intrinsic phytase activity (corn-soybean meal based diet [Diet A] or a typical Dutch diet [Diet B]) without or with supplementary microbial phytase from Aspergillus niger (var. ficuum) equal to 1,500 phytase units per kilogram of diet, in a crossover design. The apparent duodenal, ileal, and total tract (overall) digestibilities of DM, total P, and phytate P (phytic acid x .282) were calculated using both Cr-NDR (neutral detergent residue mordanted with Cr) and Co-EDTA as dual-phase markers. Concentration of total P in the ileal digesta (P less than .01) and feces (P less than .001) of pigs fed microbial phytase was lower than without this enzyme, irrespective of the diet. Ileal digestibility of total P was 18.5 and 29.8 percentage units higher (which was a 1.7- to 2.9-fold increase) due to added Aspergillus niger phytase (P less than .05). Also, total tract (overall) digestibility increased by 27.0 to 29.7 percentage units (P less than .01). Phytic acid concentration in the duodenal and ileal digesta of pigs receiving microbial phytase was lower (P less than .01 or .001), resulting in its higher ileal digestibility (dephosphorylation rate) by 50.1 percentage units for Diet A and by 75.4 percentage units for Diet B. Irrespective of the treatment, no phytase activity could be detected in the ileal digesta of pigs.

  12. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food: effect on protein and amino acid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernsbekk, M T; Tauson, A-H; Kraugerud, O F; Ahlstrøm, Ø

    2017-10-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein ingredients and extruded foods was determined with mink (Neovison vison). The extruded dog foods included a control diet with protein from PM and grain, and two diets where MSC or SPH provided 25% of the dietary CP. Nutrient composition of the protein ingredients varied, dry matter (DM) was 944.0, 358.0 and 597.4 g/kg, CP was 670.7, 421.2 and 868.9 g/kg DM, crude fat was 141.4, 547.8 and 18.5 g/kg DM and ash was 126.4, 32.1 and 107.0 g/kg DM for PM, MSC and SPH respectively. The content of essential AA (g/100 g CP) was more than 10.0 percentage units lower in SPH than in PM and MSC. The ATTD of CP differed (p  0.05) for MSC and SPH. In the extruded diets, the expected higher ATTD of CP and AA from replacement of PM with MSC or SPH was not observed. The ATTD of CP was determined to be 80.3%, 81.3% and 79.0% for the PM, MSC and SPH extruded foods respectively. Furthermore, the ATTD of several AA was numerically highest for the PM diet. Possibly, extrusion affected ATTD of the diets differently due to different properties and previous processing of the three protein ingredients. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  14. Digestive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Digestive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Digestive System Print A A ... of the body as feces. About the Digestive System Every morsel of food we eat has to ...

  15. Growth performance and digestibility of juvenile Nile tilapia fed diets containing acid silage viscera of surubim catfish - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.14470

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Souza de Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate increasing levels (0, 4, 8 and 12% of acid silage viscera of surubim catfish as an alternative protein source on growth performance and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC for Nile tilapia. Weight gain (WG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and protein efficiency ratio (PER were evaluated. The digestibility for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE and availability of phosphorus (P were also assessed. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four repetitions. The results indicated no difference (p > 0.05 for growth performance parameters. The ADC of CP of treatment containing 8% of silage was lower (p  

  16. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  17. Pepsin-Digestibility of Contaminated Estuarine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A.; Henon, D. N.; Dale, J. L. L.

    2001-11-01

    A standard method for the in vitro digestion of animal protein feeds (2% pepsin in 0·075 N HCl) has been applied to contaminated sediments in order to evaluate a ' bioavailable ' or ' gut-soluble ' fraction of carbon, nitrogen and mineral and trace metals. For most sediment samples, considerably more nitrogen was digested than carbon because of enzymatic digestion of proteinaceous material, and the sequence of metal ' gut-solubility ' was: Cu, Zn>Mn>Fe≫Al. The principal mechanism of metal release appears to be hydrochloric acid digestion of inorganic hydrogenous host phases (e.g. amorphous Fe and Mn oxides), although release of Cu via surface complexation with pepsin molecules may also be significant, and the amount of metal digested enzymatically is restricted to a small and unquantifiable fraction associated with proteinaceous material. Dilute HCl alone does not, however, afford a suitable surrogate for assessing a gut-soluble fraction of metal because enzymatic and acid digestions exhibit synergistic effects, including possible re-adsorption of pepsin-metal complexes under acidic conditions, and exposure and acid attack of otherwise inaccessible hydrogenous material following enzymatic digestion of organic matter.

  18. Standardized ileal digestibilities of crude protein, amino acids, and contents of antinutritional factors, mycotoxins, and isoflavones of European soybean meal imports fed to piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, M; Eklund, M; Sauer, N; Rademacher, M; Piepho, H-P; Mosenthin, R

    2012-12-01

    A study with 3 experiments and 3 periods each was conducted to assess the protein value of soybean meal (SBM) batches that were imported into the European Union (EU) from Argentina, Brazil, or the United States (US). Six random SBM batches from each origin were analyzed for contents of CP, AA, ether extract, crude ash, NDF, ADF, oligosaccharides, isoflavones, mycotoxins, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), and protein dispersibility index. Piglets were used for determination of standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of CP and AA in these 18 SBM batches. In each experiment, 12 piglets (initial BW = 5.6 ± 0.7 kg) were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum. The piglets were randomly allotted to 18 semisynthetic assay diets, which included 1 of the 18 SBM batches from the 3 origins at an inclusion level of 250 g/kg (as-fed). Average content of CP was 480, 505, and 488 g/kg (as-fed) for Argentinean, Brazilian, and US SBM batches, respectively, and was greater for Brazilian SBM (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other 2 origins. Contents of most AA were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in Brazilian compared with Argentinean SBM batches. Amino acid contents in US SBM batches ranged between those from Argentina and Brazil. Average TIA were 3.9, 5.1, and 3.4 mg trypsin inhibitor/g CP for Argentinean, Brazilian, and US SBM batches, and were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for Brazilian SBM compared with the other origins. Mycotoxins were detected in 8 out of 18 SBM batches, but all mycotoxin concentrations were less than their critical benchmarks. The contents of individual isoflavones varied considerably and differed (P ≤ 0.05) among SBM origins. The SID of CP, Arg, Phe, Thr, Trp, Asp, Gly, and Ser were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for US compared with Argentinean SBM batches, with intermediate values for Brazilian SBM batches. The obtained SID values were most variable within Argentinean SBM batches and most homogenous within US SBM batches, as indicated by great and small CV

  19. Response surface and neural network models for performance of broiler chicks fed diets varying in digestible protein and critical amino acids from 11 to 17 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, H; Golian, A

    2011-09-01

    Central composite design (CCD; 5 levels and 4 factors), response surface methodology (RSM), and artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were used to evaluate the response of broiler chicks [ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR)] to dietary standardized ileal digestible protein (dP), lysine (dLys), total sulfur amino acids (dTSAA), and threonine (dThr). A total of 84 battery brooder units of 5 birds each were assigned to 28 diets of CCD containing 5 levels of dP (18-22%), dLys (1.06-1.30%), dTSAA (0.81-1.01%), and dThr (0.66-0.86%) from 11 to 17 d of age. The experimental results of CCD were fitted with the quadratic and artificial neural network models. A ridge analysis (for RSM models) and a genetic algorithm (for ANN-GA models) were used to compute the optimal response for ADG and FCR. For both ADG and FCR, the goodness of fit in terms of R(2) and MS error corresponding to ANN-GA and RSM models showed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction for ANN models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.99; FCR model: R(2) = 0.97) compared with RSM models (ADG model: R(2) = 0.70; FCR model: R(2) = 0.71). The ridge maximum analysis on ADG and minimum analysis on FCR models revealed that the maximum ADG may be obtained with 18.5, 1.10, 0.89, and 0.73% dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be obtained with 19.44, 1.18, 0.90, and 0.75% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The optimization results of ANN-GA models showed the maximum ADG may be achieved with 19.93, 1.06, 0.90, and 0.76% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet, and minimum FCR may be achieved with 18.63, 1.26, 0.84, and 0.69% of dP, dLys, dTSAA, and dThr, respectively, in diet. The results of this study revealed that the platform of CCD (for conducting growth trials with minimum treatments), RSM model, and ANN-GA (for experimental data modeling and optimization) may be used to describe the relationship between dietary nutrient concentrations and broiler

  20. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K M; Stein, H H

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine AA digestibility and the concentration of DE and ME in 5 sources of soybean meal (SBM). The 5 sources included hexane-extracted SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (SBM-HP) and conventional soybeans (SBM-CONV), and mechanically extruded-expelled SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (EE-SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide soybeans (EE-SBM-LO), and conventional soybeans (EE-SBM-CONV). Five diets that each contained 1 source of SBM and a N-free diet were used in Exp. 1 to determine AA digestibility in each meal. Twelve growing barrows (initial BW: 67.7 +/- 1.34 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets in each square. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment showed that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all AA except Trp was similar for SBM-HP and SBM-CONV, but EE-SBM-HP and EE-SBM-LO had greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val than EE-SBM-CONV. The SID of all indispensable AA in EE-SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-HP. The SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe in EE-SBM-CONV was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-CONV, but the SID of Trp was also greater (P < 0.05) in SBM-CONV than in EE-SBM-CONV. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure DE and ME in the same 5 sources of SBM as used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 38.6 +/- 3.46 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicates per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM were formulated. Urine and feces were collected during a 5-d collection period, and values for DE and ME in each source of SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results showed that the ME in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in SBM-CONV (4,074 vs. 3,672 kcal/kg of DM). The ME in EE-SBM-HP also tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in EE-SBM-CONV and

  1. Effects of starch on nitrous acid-induced oxidation of kaempferol and inhibition of α-amylase-catalysed digestion of starch by kaempferol under conditions simulating the stomach and the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2013-11-01

    Kaempferol glycosides can be hydrolyzed to their aglycone kaempferol during cooking under acidic conditions and in the oral cavity and the intestine by glycosidases. Kaempferol was oxidised by nitrite under acidic conditions (pH 2.0) to produce nitric oxide (NO), and the nitrite-induced oxidation of kaempferol was enhanced and inhibited by 10 and 100mg of starch ml(-1), respectively. The opposite effects of starch were discussed by considering the binding of kaempferol to starch and starch-dependent inhibition of the accessibility of nitrous acid to kaempferol. Kaempferol inhibited α-amylase-catalysed starch digestion by forming starch/kaempferol complexes, and the inhibitory effects increased in the order of amylopectinstarchdigestive tract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  4. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  5. Vessel Arrival Info - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Arrival Info is a spreadsheet that gets filled out during the initial stage of the debriefing process by the debriefer. It contains vessel name, trip...

  6. Rapid Microwave Digestion Procedures for the Elemental Analysis of Alloy and Slag Samples of Smelted Ocean Bed Polymetallic Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Smita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave digester for digestion of alloy and slag samples of smelted ocean bed polymetallic nodules has permitted the complete digestion of samples, thereby replacing the tedious classical methods of digestion of samples. The digestion procedure includes two acid-closed digestions of samples in a microwave oven. Owing to the hazardous nature of perchloric acid, it was not used in developed digestion procedure. Digested sample solutions were analyzed for concentrations of various radicals and the effectiveness of the developed digestion methodology was tested using certified reference materials. It was found that the developed method is giving results comparable with that obtained from conventionally digested samples. In this digestion procedure, time required for digestion of samples was reduced to about 1 hour only from 8-9 hours of conventional digestion.

  7. Efeito do nível de ingestão sobre a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos em frangos de corte Effect of the food intake on the amino acids digestibility in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria de Oliveira Borges

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um trabalho com aves cecectomizadas para avaliar o efeito do nível de consumo sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos (coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDAaa e coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira - (CDVaa, utilizando-se a metodologia de alimentação forçada. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (níveis de consumo x alimentos, com quatro repetições. Sete alimentos oriundos do trigo e uma ração-referência foram utilizados. Todas as aves foram submetidas a jejum de 30 horas e forçadas a ingerir 25 e 50 gramas dos alimentos puros de uma única vez. Quatro aves em cada nível de consumo foram deixadas em jejum total para a determinação das perdas metabólica e endógena. Nos alimentos e excretas foram analisadas matéria seca, proteína bruta e aminoácidos. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste de SNK. Os valores de CDAaa para todos tratamentos foram afetados pela quantidade de alimento ingerido, e no nível de consumo menor os valores de CDAaa foram significativamente menores (PThis paper were conducted with the objective of evaluation the effects of feed intake levels on the methodology of forced feeding of caecectomised broilers, on the coefficients of digestibility amino acids (apparent digestibility amino acids coefficients - ADCaa and true digestibility amino acids coefficients - TDCaa, using as feeds tests the wheat and some of its products. The feeds were randomly distributed in factorial outline of 2 x 8, (levels x feeds with four repetitions. Seven wheat grain by-products were used. All broilers were submitted to a fast of 30 hours and forced to ingest 25 and 50 grams of the pure feeds ate the same time. In the two levels a treatment was left in fast, for the determination of the metabolic and endogenous losses. In the feeds and excrete, dry matter, crude protein and amino acids were analyzed. The means were compared by the test of SNK

  8. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  9. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; in-bottle acid digestion of whole-water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G.L.; Fishman, M. J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water samples for trace-metal determinations routinely have been prepared in open laboratories. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey method I-3485-85 (Extraction Procedure, for Water- Suspended Sediment) is performed in a laboratory hood on a laboratory bench without any special precautions to control airborne contamination. This method tends to be contamination prone for several trace metals primarily because the samples are transferred, acidified, digested, and filtered in an open laboratory environment. To reduce trace-metal contamination of digested water samples, procedures were established that rely on minimizing sample-transfer steps and using a class-100 clean bench during sample filtration. This new procedure involves the following steps: 1. The sample is acidified with HCl directly in the original water-sample bottle. 2. The water-sample bottle with the cap secured is heated in a laboratory oven. 3. The digestate is filtered in a class-100 laminar-flow clean bench. The exact conditions used (that is, oven temperature, time of heating, and filtration methods) for this digestion procedure are described. Comparisons between the previous U.S Geological Survey open-beaker method I-3485-85 and the new in-bottle procedure for synthetic and field-collected water samples are given. When the new procedure is used, blank concentrations for most trace metals determined are reduced significantly.

  10. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, T.G.; Bikker, P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, o-methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing

  11. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and the nutritive value of the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PERTTILÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Both digestibility and performance experiments were carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of triticale for growing-finishing pigs.In experiment 1,the apparent ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv.Viiviand two triticale (Tritico secale cultivars, Moreno and Ulrika, were measured using six cannulated barrows with a body weight (BWof 82-107 kg.In experiment 2,132 pigs were used over 25-100 kg BW to study the effects of replacing barley in a barley-soyabean meal-based diet with graded amounts of triticale cv.Moreno (25,50,75,or 100% and cv.Ulrika (50 or 100%.The apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher for both triticale cultivars than for barley (P 0.05.The apparent ileal digestibility of lysine averaged 65.6, 70.8, and 70.5% for barley and triticale cv.Moreno and Ulrika,respectively.The net energy content of triticales (11.5 MJ kg-1 DMwas 0.4 MJ kg -1 DM higher than that of barley.The replacement of barley with the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika exerted a positive quadratic effect on daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio of pigs from 50 to 100 kg and from 25 to 100 kg BW (P

  12. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) - A concept for describing protein quality in foods and food ingredients: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2005-01-01

    Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Score (PDCAAS) is discussed. PDCAAS is now widely used as a routine assay for protein quality evaluation, replacing the more traditional biological methods [e.g., measurement of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in rats]. PDCAAS is based on comparison of the

  13. The effects of added glycerol or unprotected free fatty acids or a combination of the two on silage intake, milk production, rumen fermentation and diet digestibility in cows given grass silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of glycerol or free fatty acids either alone or in combination to concentrate was studied for the effects on feed intake, milk production, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and diet digestibility in dairy cows given grass silage ad libitum. The study was conducted on 12 mid-lactating cows, four of them ruminally cannulated. Barley-based concentrate (control diet, C was given 7 kg/d as fed. In the other three diets, 36 g/kg of barley was replaced by glycerol (G or a mixture of free fatty acids (FA or by a combination of the two, making a total of 72 g/kg (GFA. The experimental design consisted of balanced 4 x 4 Latin squares with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of diets: the effects of G, FA and G*FA interaction. The FA diets significantly decreased silage intake, increased milk yield, decreased milk protein content, increased the concentrations of C 18:0 , C 18:1 , and C 20:1 and decreased those of C 8-16 , and C 18:3 fatty acids in milk fat. The FA diets also increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma, and decreased the digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre but increased that of fat. Glycerol decreased the molar proportion of acetate and increased the molar proportions of propionate and butyrate in the rumen, but the addition of glycerol did not have any effect on silage intake, milk yield or milk composition. Milk yield was highest when glycerol and free fatty acids were given together, showing a positive interaction.;

  14. Note on different digestible energy concentrations and ratios of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of milk, animal and plant protein sources, could result in lower digestibilities of protein and amino acids and therefore higher dietary protein and amino acid require- ments. According to Zhang et al. (1984), there is a progressive improvement of dietary nitrogen digestibility with increasing age in the weaned piglet. This.

  15. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methane production was significantly higher (13-164 %) for the pre-treated substrates compared to the non-treated one. The highest increase was obtained at 100 % .... Reducing sugars: D-fructose 12.46 g/l sucrose 15.97 g/l. D—glucose 7.77 g/l a NDF = neutral detergent fibre b ADF = acid detergent fibre. ° 10: 4. Inoculum.

  16. Effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, faecal shedding of total lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Kim, Yong Min; Park, Jae Hong; Baek, Dong Heon; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Kim, In Ho

    2018-03-01

    The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed has been fully or partially banned in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal shedding of lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, diarrhoea scores, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs. A total of 144 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] were randomly allocated to four diets: corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g kg -1 levan-type fructan during this 42-day experiment. During days 0 to 21 and 0 to 42, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were linearly increased (P bacteria counts were linearly increased (P = 0.001). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with increasing levan-type fructan enhanced growth performance, improved nutrient digestibility, and increased faecal lactic acid bacteria counts in weaning pigs linearly. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Composição química, valores de energia metabolizável e aminoácidos digestíveis de subprodutos do arroz para frangos de corte Chemical composition, metabolizable energy and digestible amino acids values of rice by-products for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Mack Junqueira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar a composição química, os valores de energia e os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos, do farelo de arroz integral (FAI e da quirera de arroz (QA. No primeiro estudo, foram utilizadas 144 aves, com 21 dias de idade, machos, linhagem Cobb, que tiveram suas excretas totalmente coletadas para determinação da energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e seis repetições, com oito aves cada. No segundo experimento, foi utilizado o método de alimentação forçada para a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dois alimentos e um jejum e seis repetições com um galo cada. Os valores de MS, PB, EE, FB, EMA e EMAn foram, respectivamente, para FAI: 88,6%; 11,8%; 15,3%; 10,2%; 2968kcal kg-1 e 2804kcal kg-1 e para QA: 93,5%; 9,1%; 0,73%; 0,45%; 3338kcal kg-1 e 3239kcal kg-1. Os valores médios encontrados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade de aminoácidos essenciais e não essenciais foram, respectivamente, de 75,9% e 73,9%, para FAI, e 77,9% e 76,5%, para QA. Embora tenham apresentado níveis inferiores de energia, FAI e a QA podem ser utilizados nas rações de aves em substituição ao milho, uma vez que tiveram níveis maiores de proteína bruta e aminoácidos digestíveis.Two experiments were conducted to determine the chemical composition, energy and the digestibility coefficients of the amino acids of the whole rice meal (WRM and broken rice (BR. In the first trial, one hundred forty four broilers, 21 days of age, male, of Cobb strain had their excreta totally collected in order to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and six replicates with

  18. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  19. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive. [Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aimed at improving the process operating characteristics of anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization and SNG production, this study evaluates the effects of a lactobacillus additive under normal, variable, and overload conditions. This whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of L. acidophilus fortified with CoCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. Data indicate that the biochemical additive increases methane yield, gas production rate, and volatile solids reduction; decreases volatile acids accumulation; enhances the digester buffer capacity; and improves the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue. Digester capacities could be potentially doubled when the feed is so treated. Results of field tests with six full-scale digesters confirm observations made with bench-scale digesters.

  20. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids and energy content of nine corn coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Kerr, B J; Zijlstra, R T; Patience, J F

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine a best fitting dietary fiber (DF) component to estimate the effect of DF concentration on the digestibility of energy, DF, and AA and energy value of 9 corn coproducts: corn bran (37.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP]); corn bran with solubles (17.1% NSP); cooked corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20.4% NSP); reduced oil DDGS (25.0% NSP); uncooked DDGS (22.0% NSP); high protein distillers dried grains (21.9% NSP); dehulled, degermed corn (1.1% NSP); corn germ meal (44.4% NSP); and corn gluten meal (4.9% NSP). A total of 20 growing pigs (initial BW: 25.9 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 10 dietary treatment groups in a 4-period incomplete block design with 8 observations per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and 9 diets obtained by mixing 70% of the basal diet with 30% of the test ingredient. In tested ingredients, 11 DF components were determined: 1) ADF, 2) NDF, 3) total dietary fiber, 4) hemicellulose, 5) total NSP, 6) NSP arabinose, 7) NSP xylose, 8) NSP mannose, 9) NSP glucose, 10) NSP galactose, and 11) arabinoxylan. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF and the AID of AA of ingredients were measured. A single best fitting DF component was assessed and ranked for each trait, showing that arabinoxylan concentration best explained variance in AID of GE (R(2) = 0.65; cubic, P 0.05) from the DF concentration. In conclusion, the arabinoxylan and NSP xylose residue were the DF components that best explained variation due to DF concentration and, with the exception of AID of Lys, can be used to predict the digestibility of energy and DF and the DE and ME values in corn coproducts.

  1. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M H A; Buchet, A D G; Beltranena, E; Gerrits, W J J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P canola species grown in Canadian prairie land, will increase flexibility in swine feed formulation.

  2. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  3. Comparison of amino acid digestibility in full-fat soybean, two soybean meals, and peanut flour between broiler chickens and growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C S; Helmbrecht, A; Htoo, J K; Adeola, O

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in full-fat soybean (FFSB), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 430 g/kg CP (SBM-43), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 470 g/kg CP (SBM-47), and peanut flour (PNF) fed to broiler chickens and pigs and to compare the digestibility of CP and AA between broiler chickens and pigs. Four diets were prepared to contain FFSB, SBM-43, SBM-47, and PNF as the sole source of N. A N-free diet was formulated to estimate the basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA for broiler chickens and pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of four hundred sixteen 21-d-old male broiler chickens (922.1 ± 79.9 g initial BW) were assigned to 5 experimental diets in a randomized complete block design with BW as a blocking factor. After 5 d of adaptation, ileal digesta samples were collected after birds were euthanized by CO asphyxiation. In Exp. 2, twenty barrows (62.0 ± 6.9 kg initial BW) surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum were allotted to 5 experimental diets with 2 consecutive 7-d experimental periods. After 5 d of adaptation, ileal digesta samples were collected at d 6 and 7. For statistical analysis, treatments were considered a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with effects of species and experimental diets (Exp. 1 vs. Exp. 2). There were no interactions between species and diets for the digestibility of CP and AA except for Cys ( broiler chickens. In both broiler chickens and pigs, the AID of CP and indispensable AA in SBM-47 were greater ( broiler chickens except for Trp. In both broiler chickens and pigs, the SID of Lys in PNF was the least ( broiler chickens, the SID of CP, Ile, Leu, Thr, Trp, and Val in FFSB were less ( broiler chickens than in pigs, but the pattern of differences in the AA digestibility among ingredients was similar between broiler chickens and pigs.

  4. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P < 0.05) than in corn and SBM (DE: 2,854, 2,680, 2,892, and 2,883 vs. 3,324 and 3,784 kcal/kg, respectively; ME: 2,540, 2,251, 2,681, and 2,637 vs. 3,213 and 3,523 kcal/kg, respectively). No differences in the concentrations of DE and ME were observed among the 4 sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P < 0.05) than in the 4 sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys

  5. Microwave-assisted total digestion of sulphide ores for multi-element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Harahsheh, M., E-mail: al-harahsheh@ahu.edu.jo [College of Mining and Environmental Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, P.O. Box 20, Ma' an 71111 (Jordan); Kingman, S.; Somerfield, C. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ababneh, F. [Department of Chemistry, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, P.O. Box 20, Ma' an (Jordan)

    2009-04-06

    A new two-stage microwave-assisted digestion procedure using concentrated HNO{sub 3}, HCl, HF and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} has been developed for the chemical analysis of major and trace elements in sulphide ore samples prior to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis. In the first stage 0.2 g of the certified reference material (CRM) sample was digested with a combination of acids (HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF) in a closed Teflon vessel and heated in the microwave to 200 deg. C for 30 min. After cooling, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} was added and the vessel was reheated to 170 deg. C for 15 min. The precision of the method was checked by comparing the results against six certified reference materials. The analytical results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values, in most cases the recoveries were in the range 95-105%. Based on at least 17 replicates of sample preparation and analysis, the precision of the method was found to be {<=}5%.

  6. Maury Journals - German Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — German vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  7. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  8. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  9. Umbilical vessels of preeclamptic women have low contents of both n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; van der Klis, FRM; van der Dijs, FPL; Muskiet, FAJ

    Background: Preeclampsia is characterized by enhanced platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction and is related to an elevated ratio of thromboxane A(2) to prostacyclin I-2. Objective: We investigated whether altered eicosanoid production in preeclamptic women could be explained by the fatty acid

  10. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  11. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  12. The function of digestive enzymes on Cu, Zn, and Pb release from soil in in vitro digestion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Demisie, Walelign; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2013-07-01

    The bioaccessibility of soil heavy metals is the solubility of soil heavy metals in synthetic human digestive juice, which is usually determined using in vitro digestion test. To reveal the effects of digestive enzymes on soil heavy metals bioaccessibility, three representative in vitro digestion tests, Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET), Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET), and Simple Gastrointestinal Extraction Test (SGET), were chosen. The bioaccessibility of soil Cu, Zn, and Pb in each method were respectively evaluated with and without digestive enzymes, and the differences were compared. The results showed that the effects of digestive enzymes varied with different methods and elements. Because of digestive enzymes addition, the environmental change from acid gastric phase to neutral intestinal phase of PBET did not result in apparently decrease of the bioaccessibility of soil Cu. However, the solubility of soil Zn and Pb were pH-dependent. For SGET, when digestive enzymes were added, its results reflected more variations resulting from soil and element types. The impacts of digestive enzymes on heavy metal dissolution are mostly seen in the intestinal phase. Therefore, digestive enzyme addition is indispensable to the gastrointestinal digestion methods (PBET and SGET), while the pepsin addition is not important for the methods only comprised of gastric digestion (SBET).

  13. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  14. Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, D M D L; Liu, Y; Bruun, T S; Stein, H H

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of processed soybean products, in conventional dehulled soybean meal (SBM-CV), in conventional 00-rapeseed expellers (RSE), and in a fermented coproduct mixture (FCM) that contained rapeseed meal, wheat, soy molasses, and potato peel fed to weanling pigs. The 4 processed soybean products included 2 sources of enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM-1 and ESBM-2), extruded soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC). Twenty-seven weanling barrows (9.29 ± 0.58 kg initial BW) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Pigs were randomly allotted to three 9 × 5 Youden squares with 9 pigs and five 7-d periods in each square. Seven cornstarch-based diets were prepared using each of the protein sources as the sole source of CP and AA. A N-free diet was prepared to calculate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA, and this diet was fed to 2 groups of pigs, which resulted in a total of 9 dietary treatments. Results indicate that the SID of CP was greater ( soybean products, but the SID of total dispensable AA in ESBM-1 was greater ( soybean meal (SBM) products. The SID of most AA in RSE and the SID of all AA in FCM were less ( soybean products.

  15. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected by accumul...... digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio.......An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected...... by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples...

  16. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs...... and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.......5%) (p Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were...

  17. Determination of additivity of apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets containing multiple protein sources fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, P C; Ragland, D; Adeola, O

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to investigate the additivity of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in mixed diets containing multiple protein sources. Using the determined AID or SID for CP and AA in corn, soybean meal (SBM), corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or canola meal (CM), the AID or SID for 4 mixed diets based on corn-SBM, corn-SBM-DDGS, corn-SBM-CM, or corn-SBM-DDGS-CM were predicted and compared with determined AID or SID, respectively. Eighteen growing pigs (initial BW = 61.3 ± 5.5 kg) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas and assigned to a duplicated 9 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 9 diets and 4 periods. The 9 experimental diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) to estimate basal ileal endogenous loss (BEL) of AA, 4 semipurified diets to determine the AID and SID of CP and AA in the 4 ingredients, and 4 mixed diets to test the additivity of AID and SID. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker. Pigs were fed 1 of the 9 diets during each 7-d period, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7, from 0800 to 1800 h. The analyzed AA levels for the mixed diets were close to the calculated values based on the AA composition of each ingredient. The results revealed that the predicted SID were consistent with determined values, except for Leu, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser in the corn-SBM diet and Met and Cys in the corn-SBM-DDGS diet. The determined AID for total AA and Arg, His, Trp, Gly, and Pro in the corn-SBM diet were greater (P digestibility of AA in mixed diets containing multiple protein sources. In addition, the lack of additivity of AID in mixed diets could be attributed to the intrinsic characteristics of the feed ingredient, especially its AA content.

  18. Effects of Adding Super Dose Phytase to the Phosphorus-deficient Diets of Young Pigs on Growth Performance, Bone Quality, Minerals and Amino Acids Digestibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Zeng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of feeding an Escherichia coli (E. coli derived phytase to pigs fed P deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. In Exp. 1, one hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (9.53±0.84 kg were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61% Ca, 0.46% total P and 0.24% non-phytate P supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg E. coli phytase as well as a positive control formulated to be adequate in all nutrients (0.77% Ca, 0.62% total P and 0.42% non-phytate P. The treatments were applied to six pens with four pigs per pen for 28 days. In Exp. 2, ten crossbred pigs (19.66±1.16 kg fitted with ileal T-cannula were used in a nutrient balance study. The pigs were assigned to treatments similar to those used in Exp. 1 in a doubly replicated 5×4 incomplete Latin square design (5 diets with 4 periods. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine and then a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. Supplementation with phytase linearly increased (p<0.05 weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, bone breaking strength and fat-free dry and ash bone weight. There were linear increases (p<0.01 in the apparent ileal digestibility (AID of DM, GE, CP, Ca, total P, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 and some AA with increasing dose of E. coli phytase. Pigs fed 20,000 FTU/kg had a greater (p<0.05 AID of IP6 (80% vs 59% or 64%, respectively than pigs fed diets with 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg phytase. There were linear increases (p<0.05 in the total tract digestibility of Ca, total P, Na, K, Mg, and Zn as well as in the retention of Mg and Zn with increased phytase dose. The retention and utilization of Cu, and the total tract digestibility of CP and Cu quadratic increased (p<0.05 with increased phytase dose. In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in low-P corn-soybean diets for pigs. In

  19. Ionic Liquid Forms of Weakly Acidic Drugs in Oral Lipid Formulations: Preparation, Characterization, in Vitro Digestion, and in Vivo Absorption Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbaz, Yasemin; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Ford, Leigh; McEvoy, Claire L; Williams, Hywel D; Scammells, Peter J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2017-11-06

    This study aimed to transform weakly acidic poorly water-soluble drugs (PWSD) into ionic liquids (ILs) to promote solubility in, and the utility of, lipid-based formulations. Ionic liquids (ILs) were formed directly from tolfenamic acid (Tolf), meclofenamic acid, diclofenac, and ibuprofen by pairing with lipophilic counterions. The drug-ILs were obtained as liquids or low melting solids and were significantly more soluble (either completely miscible or highly soluble) in lipid based, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) when compared to the equivalent free acid. In vivo assessment of a SEDDS lipid solution formulation of Tolf didecyldimethylammonium salt and the same formulation of Tolf free acid at low dose (18 mg/kg, where the free acid was soluble in the SEDDS), resulted in similar absorption profiles and overall exposure. At high dose (100 mg/kg), solution SEDDS formulations of the Tolf ILs (didecyldimethylammonium, butyldodecyldimethylammonium or didecylmethylammonium salts) were possible, but the lower lipid solubility of Tolf free acid dictated that administration of the free acid was only possible as a suspension in the SEDDS formulation or as an aqueous suspension. Under these conditions, total drug plasma exposure was similar for the IL formulations and the free acid, but the plasma profiles were markedly different, resulting in flatter, more prolonged exposure profiles and reduced Cmax for the IL formulations. Isolation of a weakly acidic drug as an IL may therefore provide advantage as it allows formulation as a solution SEDDS rather than a lipid suspension, and in some cases may provide a means of slowing or sustaining absorption. The current studies compliment previous studies with weakly basic PWSD and demonstrate that transformation into highly lipophilic ILs is also possible for weakly acidic compounds.

  20. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  1. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of 3- and 6-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollanoor-Johny, A.; Mattson, T.; Baskaran, S.A.; Amalaradjou, M.A.; Hoagland, T.A.; Darre, M.J.; Khan, M.I.; Schreiber, D.T.; Donoghue, A.M.; Donoghue, D.J.; Venkitanarayanan, K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid (CA), a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In separate 3- and 6-wk trials, 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 70 birds/trial) were

  2. 2013 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  3. 2011 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  4. 2011 Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  5. 2013 Passenger Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  6. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  7. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  8. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  9. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  10. Maury Journals - US Vessels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. vessels observations, after the 1853 Brussels Conference that set International Maritime Standards, modeled after Maury Marine Standard Observations.

  11. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  12. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  13. 2013 Fishing Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  14. Coastal Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels that have been issued a Federal permit for the Gulf of Mexico reef fish,...

  15. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Oystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.5%) (p Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p digestibility level (p digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p < 0.01). Mink ATTD of DM and main nutrients was closest to ACD in dogs. It was concluded that mink is a suitable model for the determination of AID and SID of CP and AA in dogs.

  16. Blood chemistry, haematological indices and nutrient digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result showed that MWM at 15% had the highest values for packed cell volume, red blood cell, white blood cell while values recorded for serum uric acid and creatinine were significantly lower (P<0.05) for the turkeys. The nutrient digestibility coefficient such as crude protein digestibility, nitrogen retention were not affected ...

  17. Estimation of true intestinal digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    True intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), rumen-undegraded dietary protein (UDP) and amino acids of cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and Brachystegia spiciformis (musasa) were estimated. The true intestinal digestibility was calculated as the difference between the content of a bag that was preincubated in the rumen ...

  18. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidative stability of coconut meat protein hydrolysates (CMPHs) in the gastrointestinal tract, and evaluate the changes in antioxidant activity, amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution of CMPHs during gastrointestinal (GI )digestion. Methods: A two-stage in vitro digestion ...

  19. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  20. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  1. Digestibility of energy, amino acids, and phosphorus in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M S; Stein, H H

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, DE and ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in a new source of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and in soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 9 barrows (initial BW: 13.08 ± 1.98 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. A nitrogen-free diet and 2 diets that contained corn starch and SPC or SBM as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID for Ile, Leu, Phe, Pro, and Tyr was greater ( < 0.05) in SPC than in SBM, but for CP and all other AA, no difference between SPC and SBM was observed. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (initial BW: 13.94 ± 1.34 kg) were housed individually in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets. A corn-based diet (96.9% corn) and 2 diets that contained corn and SPC or corn and SBM were formulated. Each diet was fed to 8 pigs. Feces and urine samples were collected using the marker to marker method with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. The DE and ME in SPC and SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results indicated that the ATTD of GE was lower ( < 0.05) in SBM than in corn and the DE and ME in SPC were greater ( < 0.01) than in corn and SBM. In Exp. 3, 40 barrows (initial BW: 14.12 ± 2.08 kg) were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design with 10 pigs per diet. Two diets were based on SPC or SBM as the sole source of P. Two additional diets were formulated by adding microbial phytase to diets that were otherwise similar to the 2 initial diets. Feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period and values for ATTD and STTD of P were calculated. No differences were observed in ATTD and STTD of P between SPC and SBM

  2. Variations in the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, E J P; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the chemical composition, physical characteristics, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 currently available genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs. The genotypes included Grenado, Cando, Agostino, Massimo, Tarzan, HYT Prime, SW Talentro, and Cultivo. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 31 ± 2 kg were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 periods of 7 d each and 8 assay diets. The N-free method was used to determine basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses. The 8 assay diets contained 1 of 8 triticale genotypes as the sole source of CP and AA. The triticale genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site. Among the 8 genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 104.7 to 118.1 g/kg (as-fed basis). The content of total nonstarch polysaccharides and NDF ranged, on an as-fed basis, from 84.6 to 99.5 g/kg and from 88.4 to 149.0 g/kg, respectively. Among the 8 genotypes, SID of CP ranged from 81% in Grenado to 85% in Massimo and Tarzan. The SID of CP and AA did not differ among triticale genotypes except for SID of Arg, Glu, and Gly ( tables. Among the 8 triticale genotypes, standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP followed total CP content and ranged from 84.8 to 98.7 g/kg (as-fed basis), with the lowest ( chemical composition, physical characteristics, and SID of CP and AA of 8 triticale genotypes grown under similar conditions. However, as most of the present SID values are less than those in feed tables, future research is warranted to elaborate whether these differences are caused by experimental conditions or reflect a consistent decrease that needs to be accounted for in feed tables.

  3. Digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de aminoácidos de farinhas de carne e ossos para suínos Apparent and true ileal digestibility of meat and bone meals amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos de seis diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio inicial de 52,5 ± 5,1 kg. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples no íleo terminal, e, após 20 dias de recuperação, foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao término das duas primeiras repetições, os tratamentos foram redistribuídos para evitar que o mesmo animal recebesse a mesma dieta em duas repetições consecutivas. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica as farinhas de carne e ossos. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina, das diferentes farinhas de carne e ossos variaram de 54,87 a 74,80; 62,62 a 81,19 e 72,35 a 85,46%, respectivamente, e a variação entre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira foram de 57,00 a 76,08; 66,26 a 83,07 e 73,76 a 86,39%, respectivamente, para a lisina, treonina e metionina. As farinhas de carne e ossos apresentaram grande variação, em função das diferentes amostras, quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparentes e verdadeiros dos aminoácidos.The experiment was carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids from six different meat and bone meals. Twelvecrossbred swines, castrated males, averaging 52.5 ± 5.1 kg initial weight, were used. The animals were previously submitted to the simple T canula surgery implantation at the terminal ileum and, after twenty days of recovery period, they were allotted to a randomized blocks design, with six treatments, four replicates and one animal per

  4. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Application of fractional factorial design and Doehlert matrix in the optimization of experimental variables associated with the ultrasonic-assisted acid digestion of chocolate samples for aluminum determination by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbani, Nusrat; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jamali, Muhammad Khan; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Sheerazi, Syed T; Ansari, Rehana

    2007-01-01

    A simple and rapid method based on ultrasound energy is described for the determination of aluminum (AI) in complex matrixes of chocolate and candy samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization strategy was carried out using multivariate methodologies. Five variables (temperature of the ultrasonic bath; exposure time to ultrasound energy; volumes of 2 acid mixtures, HNO3-H2SO4-H2O2 (1 + 1 + 1) and HNO3-H2O2 (1 + 1); and sample mass) were considered as factors in the optimization process. Interactions between analytical factors and their optimal levels were investigated using fractional factorial and Doehlert matrix designs. Validation of the ultrasonic-assisted acid digestion procedure was performed against standard reference materials, milk powder (SRM 8435) and wheat flour (SRM 1567a). The proposed procedure allowed Al determination with a detection limit of 2.3 microg/L (signal-to-noise = 3) and a precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, of 2.2% for a set of 10 measurements of certified samples. The recovery of Al by the proposed procedure was close to 100%, and no significant difference at the 95% confidence level was found between determined and certified values of Al. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of Al in chocolate and candy samples. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of Al than milk- and sugar-based chocolates and candies.

  6. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  7. Problems of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS FAQ120 WOMEN’S HEALTH Problems of the Digestive System • What are some common digestive problems? • What is ... hormones during pregnancy can slow down the digestive system. How can constipation be treated? If constipation continues, ...

  8. Acides aminés digestibles dans l’intestin. Utilisation du système AADI dans le rationnement des vaches laitières

    OpenAIRE

    Rulquin, Henri

    2001-01-01

    Apparu en 1992 pour la lysine et la méthionine, le système AADI s’est étendu aux neuf acides aminés indispensables. Dans l’état actuel des connaissances, seuls cinq acides aminés sont susceptibles d’être limitants (lysine, méthionine, leucine, histidine et thréonine). En pratique, pour améliorer le taux protéique du lait, il faut optimiser les apports de deux (lysine et méthionine) ou quatre (lysine, méthionine, leucine, histidine) acides aminés. Pour augmenter la production de lait, il sembl...

  9. Growth responses, excreta quality, nutrient digestibility, bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two AP diets contained fish meal and soybean (SBF) and fish meal with canola (CMF); while the two VP diets contained predominantly soybean (SBM) or canola (CAN) meals. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, and were pelleted, but amino acid levels were formulated on a total and not digestible basis.

  10. Silicate minerals for CO2 scavenging from biogas in Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Ferrer, I.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) is a novel concept that integrates gas upgrading with anaerobic digestion by selective dissolution of CO2 at elevated biogas pressure. However, accumulation of CO2 and fatty acids after anaerobic digestion of glucose resulted in pH 3–5, which is

  11. An attempt to predict protein digestibility of feedstuffs in pigs by using the values for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosenstein, A.M.; Cone, J.W.; Beynen, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The protein value of feedstuffs for pigs depends on the ileal digestibility of amino acids. The measurement of ileal digestibility requires cannulated pigs, which is time consuming and causes discomfort in the animals. We have tested the hypothesis that faecal digestibility of crude protein and

  12. Digestibility of the same

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question is posed of the applicability to cattle feeding, of digestibility data obtained with sheep. An experiment is described where the same high concentrate diet was fed at three levels, equalised per kg body mass between species. In energy and crude fibre cattle showed consistently lower digestibilities than sheep ...

  13. Digestibility of the same

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be of great value for cattle (Moe, Tyrell and Flatt, L974). There are indications that sheep ruminate more effectively and therefore digest grain more efficiently than cattle, while cattle are more efficient in digesting long roughages. In their comprehensive overview of the subject Schneider and Flatt (1975) found published data ...

  14. Profile of digested feed amino acids from untreated and expander treated feeds estimated using in situ methods in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, peas, maize, rye, wheat and barley were subjected to expander treatment at different temperatures (95-150 °C), and effect on amino acid availability was assessed using rumen nylon bag and mobile bagin situ methods. Expander treatment of rapeseed cake at 142...

  15. Long-chain fatty acids inhibition and adaptation process in anaerobic thermophilic digestion: Batch tests, microbial community structure and mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltsi, Jordi; Illa, J.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass samples taken during the continuous operation of thermophilic anaerobic digestors fed with manure and exposed to successive inhibitory pulses of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) were characterized in terms of specific metabolic activities and 16S rDNA DGGE profiling of the microbial communit...

  16. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq.) frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF) can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was

  17. The ileal digestibility of most amino acids is greater in red dog than in wheat middlings when fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 10 sources of wheat middlings and in 1 source of red dog. Ten diets that each contained 1 of the 10 sources of wheat middlings and 1 diet that contained red dog as the only source of protein and AA were formulated. An N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.4%) was added to all diets as an indigestible marker. Twelve pigs (BW: 29.23 ± 1.5 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Pigs were allotted to a 12 × 8 Youden square design with 12 diets and eight 7-d periods. The initial 5 d of each period was the adaptation period, but ileal digesta were collected on the last 2 d of each period. Results indicated that the AID of CP in wheat middlings was 31.1 ± 6.9%, but the AID of CP in red dog (47.0%) was greater ( < 0.05) than the average AID of CP for wheat middlings. The AID of indispensable AA in wheat middlings ranged from 30.1 ± 5.4% for Lys to 67.7 ± 2.2% for His, and the AID of indispensable AA in red dog ranged from 53.7% in Val to 86.2% for Met. The average SID of CP in wheat middlings was 61.5 ± 5.1%, and there were no differences among the 10 sources of wheat middlings, but the SID of CP in red dog (78.5%) was greater ( < 0.05) than in wheat middlings. The SID of Arg, His, and Asp in wheat middlings was 81.4 ± 2.7%, 77.7 ± 2.1%, and 66.4 ± 2.7%, respectively, and no differences among sources of wheat middlings were observed for these AA. The SID of Met (73.6 ± 1.8%) and the SID of Ala (54.8 ± 4.9%) tended ( = 0.071 and = 0.090, respectively) to be different among sources of wheat middlings, and the SID of all other AA was different ( < 0.05) among the 10 sources of wheat middlings. There were no differences between red dog and wheat middlings for the SID of Arg, His, and Ser, and the SID of Cys was less ( < 0.05) in red dog than in wheat

  18. Solid anaerobic digestion batch with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste: Comparison of system performances and identification of microbial guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Barratta, Martino; Bianconi, Francesco; Placidi, Pisana; Passeri, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Solid anaerobic digestion batch (SADB) with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste were experimentally investigated. SADB was operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.55kgVS/m3day, generating about 252NL CH4/kgVS, whereas the wet digester was operated at an OLR of 0.9kgVS/m3day, generating about 320NL CH4/kgVS. The initial total volatile fatty acids concentrations for SADB and wet digestion were about 12,500mg/L and 4500mg/L, respectively. There were higher concentrations of ammonium and COD for the SADB compared to the wet one. The genomic analysis performed by high throughput sequencing returned a number of sequences for each sample ranging from 110,619 to 373,307. More than 93% were assigned to the Bacteria domain. Seven and nine major phyla were sequenced for the SADB and wet digestion, respectively, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria being the dominant phyla in both digesters. Taxonomic profiles suggested a methanogenic pathway characterized by a relevant syntrophic acetate-oxidizing metabolism mainly in the liquid digestate of the SADB. This result also confirms the benefits of liquid digestate recirculation for improving the efficiency of AD performed with high solids (>30%w/w) content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing supply vessel safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A supply-vessel bridge installation consists of a navigating bridge and a control position aft, from which operators control the ship when close to rigs or platforms, and operate winches and other loading equipment. The international Convention for Safety of I Ale at Sea (SOLAS) does not regulate the layout, so design varies to a large degree, often causing an imperfect working environment. As for other types of ships, more than half the offshore service vessel accidents at sea are caused by bridge system failures. A majority can be traced back to technical design, and operational errors. The research and development project NAUT-OSV is a response to the offshore industry's safety concerns. Analysis of 24 incidents involving contact or collision between supply vessels and offshore installations owned or operated by Norwegian companies indicated that failures in the bridge system were often the cause.

  20. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  1. Conservation, fiber digestibility, and nutritive value of corn harvested at 2 cutting heights and ensiled with fibrolytic enzymes, either alone or with a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J P; Baah, J; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-02-01

    did not improve corn silage fermentation or its nutritive value and resulted in some negative effects on these parameters. The effects of using a fibrolytic enzyme product at ensiling, either alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant, did not differ between corn harvested at either NC or HC. Silage made from HC had a greater starch content and lower fiber content than NC silage, whereas cutting height did not affect the in vitro digestibility indices. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WL Bryden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

  3. Ideal digestible isoleucine: digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Cristina da Rocha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred fifty-two Hy-Line W36 laying hens were allotted in a randomized block design with 6 treatments, 7 replicates and 6 hens per experimental unit in order to determine the ideal digestible isoleucine: digestible lysine (Ile:Lys ratio for laying hens aged 24-40 weeks. Experimental diets contained 5.92, 6.33, 6.73, 7.14, 7.54 and 7.95 g/kg of digestible isoleucine, resulting in different Ile:Lys ratios (0.73:1, 0.78:1, 0.83:1, 0.88:1, 0.93:1 and 0.98:1. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous, with different dietary contents of glutamic acid, and made isocaloric by adjusting the levels of cornstarch. All essential amino acids were provided proportionally to digestible lysine. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, albumen, yolk and eggshell content were assessed. Feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were influenced by Ile: Lys ratios quadratically. The egg weight was not affected by Ile: Lys ratio. No differences were observed in the egg quality according to Ile: Lys ratios. The data indicates that the optimum digestible isoleucine: digestible lysine ratio for laying hens aged 24-40 week is 0.84:1, corresponding to the consumption of 681 mg of isoleucine and 811 mg of lysine/hen day-1.

  4. Analytical results for total-digestions, EPA-1312 leach, and net acid production for twenty-three abandoned metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River watershed, northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Desborough, George A.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionMetal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana, have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acid generation and toxic-metal solubilization during snow melt and storm water runoff events. This degradation of water quality is defined chiefly by the “Class 1 Aquatic Life Standards” that give limits for certain dissolved metal concentrations according to water alkalinity.Veins enriched in base- and precious metals were explored and mined in the Basin, Cataract Creek, and High Ore Creek drainages over a period of more than 70 years. Extracted minerals included galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite and arsenopyrite. Most of the metal-mining wastes in the study area were identified and described by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 20 composite samples of mine-dump or tailings waste from ten sites in the Basin and Cataract Creek drainages, and two samples from one site in the High Ore Creek drainage. Desborough and Fey presented data concerning acid generation potential, mineralogy, concentrations of certain metals by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), and trace-element leachability of mine and exploration wastes from the ten sites of the Basin and Cataract Creek drainages. The present report presents total-digestion major- and trace-element analyses, net acid production (NAP), and results from the EPA-1312 synthetic precipitation leach procedure (SPLP) performed on the same composite samples from the ten sites from the Basin and Cataract Creek drainages, and two composite samples from the site in the High Ore Creek drainage.

  5. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with

  6. Li 1- x- yH yCoO 2: Metastable Layered Phases Obtained by Acid Digestion of LiCoO 2(O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhecheva, E.; Stayanova, R.

    1994-03-01

    Metastable layered phases of lithium-containing cobalt oxyhydroxides Li 1- x-- yH yCoO 2( x ≤ 0.55, x + y LiO 2 layers introduces Co 4+ ions in the CoO 2 layers, which, with progressive lithium removal, tend to segregate as demonstrated by EPR and magnetic susceptibility measurements. In addition, lithium extraction enters into competition with exchange of lithium ions with protons, depending on the acid concentration and on the dissolution degree of the samples. The simultaneous presence of Li + and H + in the CoO 2 matrix, as well as the Co 4+ clustering, provokes a certain disorder in the parent layered structure and determines the thermal instability of acid-treated LiCoO 2. On heating, cation redistribution is initiated in the metastable phases, culminating above 230°C in thermal decomposition into a lithium-cobalt spinel.

  7. Determination of the optimum standardised ileal digestible sulphur amino acids to lysine ratio in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, M. M.; Resink, J. W.; Htoo, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) would require a higher sulphur amino acids (SAA) to Lys ratio (SAA:Lys). Pigs (n = 120) weighing 7.4 ± 0.52 kg (mean ± SD) and weaned at 27 d (Pietrain genotype, mixed sex) were stratified...

  8. Improved antioxidant capacity of quercetin and ferulic acid during in-vitro digestion through encapsulation within food-grade electrospun fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Aceituno Medina, Marysol; Mendoza, Sandra; Rodríguez, Beatriz A.; Lagarón Cabello, José María; López Rubio, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Two bioactive compounds, quercetin and ferulic acid, were encapsulated using the electrospinning technique within hybrid amaranth protein isolate (API):pullulan ultrathin fibers. Initially, the composition of the encapsulation structures was optimized, both in terms of matrix components ratio and to maximize the bioactive loading. The morphology and thermal stability of the developed encapsulation structures were evaluated, as well as the encapsulation efficiency and distribution within the f...

  9. Aiming for the complete utilization of sugar-beet pulp: Examination of the effects of mild acid and hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruppen Harry

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomass use for the production of bioethanol or platform chemicals requires efficient breakdown of biomass to fermentable monosaccharides. Lignocellulosic feedstocks often require physicochemical pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis can begin. The optimal pretreatment can be different for different feedstocks, and should not lead to biomass destruction or formation of toxic products. Methods We examined the influence of six mild sulfuric acid or water pretreatments at different temperatures on the enzymatic degradability of sugar-beet pulp (SBP. Results We found that optimal pretreatment at 140°C of 15 minutes in water was able to solubilize 60% w/w of the total carbohydrates present, mainly pectins. More severe treatments led to the destruction of the solubilized sugars, and the subsequent production of the sugar-degradation products furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, acetic acid and formic acid. The pretreated samples were successfully degraded enzymatically with an experimental cellulase preparation. Conclusions In this study, we found that pretreatment of SBP greatly facilitated the subsequent enzymatic degradation within economically feasible time ranges and enzyme levels. In addition, pretreatment of SBP can be useful to fractionate functional ingredients such as arabinans and pectins from cellulose. We found that the optimal combined severity factor to enhance the enzymatic degradation of SBP was between log R'0 = -2.0 and log R'0 = -1.5. The optimal pretreatment and enzyme treatment solubilized up to 80% of all sugars present in the SBP, including ≥90% of the cellulose.

  10. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  11. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products.

  12. Ileal amino acid digestibility in canola meals from yellow- and black-seeded Brassica napus and Brassica juncea fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade Neto, M A; Opepaju, F O; Slominski, B A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-10-01

    Twelve ileal cannulated pigs (30.9 ± 2.7 kg) were used to determine the apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of protein and AA in canola meals (CM) derived from black- (BNB) and yellow-seeded (BNY) Brassica napus canola and yellow-seeded Brassica juncea (BJY). The meals were produced using either the conventional pre-press solvent extraction process (regular meal) or a new, vacuum-assisted cold process of meal de-solventization (white flakes) to provide 6 different meals. Six cornstarch-based diets containing 35% canola meal as the sole source of protein in a 3 (variety) × 2 (processing) factorial arrangement were randomly allotted to pigs in a 6 × 7 incomplete Latin square design to have 6 replicates per diet. A 5% casein diet was fed to estimate endogenous AA losses. Canola variety and processing method interacted for the AID of DM (P = 0.048), N (P = 0.010), and all AA (P Canola variety affected or tended to affect the AID of most AA but had no effect on the AID of Lys, Met, Val, Cys, and Pro, whereas processing method had an effect on only Lys and Asp and tended to affect the AID of Thr, Gly and Ser. The effects of canola variety, processing method, and their interaction on the SID values for N and AA followed a similar pattern as for AID values. For the white flakes, SID of N in BJY (74.2%) was lower than in BNY and BNB, whose values averaged 78.5%; however, among the regular meals, BJY had a greater SID value for N than BNY and BNB (variety × processing, P = 0.015). For the white flakes, the SID of Ile (86.4%), Leu (87.6%), Lys (88.9%), Thr (87.6%) and Val (84.2%) in BNB were greater than BNY and BJY. Opposite results were observed for the regular processing, with SID of Lys (84.1%), Met (89.5%), Thr (84.1%), and Val (83.6%) being greater in BJY, followed by BNB and BNY(variety × processing, P canola variety and the processing method used. Overall, the SID values for Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Thr, and Val averaged across CM types and

  13. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  14. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  15. Network of endocardial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Cheon; Kim, Hong Bae; Sung, Baeckkyoung; Kim, Ki Woo; Sohn, Jamin; Son, Boram; Chang, Byung-Joon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been reports on threadlike structures inside the heart, they have received little attention. We aimed to develop a method for observing such structures and to reveal their ultrastructures. An in situ staining method, which uses a series of procedures of 0.2-0.4% trypan blue spraying and washing, was applied to observe threadlike structures on the surfaces of endocardia. The threadlike structures were isolated and observed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Networks of endocardial vessels (20 μm in thickness) with expansions (40-100 μm in diameter) were visualized; they were movable on the endocardium of the bovine atrium and ventricle. CLSM showed that (1) rod-shaped nuclei were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel and (2) there were many cells inside the expansion. TEM on the endocardial vessel revealed that (1) there existed multiple lumens (1-7 μm in diameter) and (2) the extracellular matrices mostly consisted of collagen fibers, which were aligned along the longitudinal direction of the endocardial vessel or were locally organized in reticular structures. We investigated the endocardial circulatory system in bovine cardiac chambers and its ultrastructures, such as nucleic distributions, microlumens, and collagenous extracellular matrices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Influence of wet heating and autoclaving on chemical composition and standardized ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibility in full-fat soybeans for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, C; Eklund, M; Wiltafsky, M; Piepho, H-P; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, P

    2017-02-01

    One batch each of eight full-fat soybeans (FFSB) was used to determine the effect of different heat treatments including wet heating (WH) and autoclaving (AC) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in growing pigs. The raw FFSB (K0) were either treated by WH at 80°C for 1 min (K1), at 100°C for 6 min (K2), or at 100°C for 16 min (K3). Thereafter, these batches were expanded at 125°C for 15 s. A further heat treatment included AC at 110°C for 15 (Z1), 30 (Z2), 45 (Z3), or 60 (Z4) min of FFSB that were subjected to the same WH treatment as K3. Diets were formulated to contain the respective FFSB as the sole source of CP and AA. A N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA in an additional period at the end of the experiment. Eight ileally cannulated pigs (28 ± 1 kg) were allocated to a row-column design with 8 diets and 6 periods of 7 d each. An increase in the duration of WH had no effect on contents of AA (% of CP) and NDF, but NDIN contents linearly increased ( < 0.05) with increasing time for WH. Autoclaving resulted in a linear decrease ( < 0.05) of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), contents of Arg, Leu, Ala, Asp, Cys, and Gly as well as Lys to CP ratio (Lys:CP), reactive Lys to CP ratio (rLys:CP), and in an increase ( < 0.05) in contents of NDF and NDIN. There was a quadratic response ( < 0.05) of SID of CP and AA as time for WH at 100°C increased from 0 (K0) to 6 (K2) up to 16 (K3) min. Moreover, a quadratic response ( < 0.05) to increasing time of AC was observed for SID of Arg, Phe, and Pro. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA showed a quadratic response ( < 0.05) to decreasing TIA, urease activity, protein solubility in 0.2% potassium hydroxide, protein dispersibility index, Lys:CP, (lightness), and to increasing NDIN and (redness). In addition, there was a linear increase ( < 0.05) in SID values with decreasing rLys:CP and increasing NDF contents. In conclusion, WH proved to be

  17. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  18. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  19. Digestive ripening of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzhak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    A relatively new method of regulating the size distribution function of nanoparticles—digestive ripening— was described. A hypothetical mechanism of dissolution of nanoparticles was proposed. It includes the effect of the ligand layer on the internal stability of the nanoparticle nucleus: the change in the structure of the ligand layer caused by a decrease in the nanoparticle size determines the kinetics of digestive ripening.

  20. Standard test method for the determination of impurities in plutonium metal: acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This Test Method covers the determination of 58 trace elements in plutonium (Pu) metal. The Pu sample is dissolved in acid, and the concentration of the trace impurities are determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). 1.2 This Test Method is specific for the determination of trace impurities in Pu metal. It may be applied to other types of Pu materials, such as Pu oxides, if the samples are dissolved and oxidized to the Pu(IV) state. However, it is the responsibility of the user to evaluate the performance of other matrices. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use of this standard.

  1. Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov., a mesophilic, amino acid-degrading bacterium isolated from an anaerobic sludge digester, pertaining to the phylum Synergistetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Olfa; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Postec, Anne; Bouallagui, Hassib; Hamdi, Moktar; Bonin, Patricia; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-02-01

    A new Gram-staining-positive, non-sporulating, mesophilic, amino acid-degrading anaerobic bacterium, designated strain OTA 102(T), was isolated from an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating wastewater from cooking tuna. The cells were curved rods (0.6-2.5×0.5 µm) and occurred singly or in pairs. The strain was motile by means of one lateral flagellum. Strain OTA 102(T) grew at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C (optimum 40 °C), between pH 6.0 and 8.4 (optimum pH 7.2) and NaCl concentrations between 1 and 5 % (optimum 2 %, w/v). Strain OTA 102(T) required yeast extract for growth. Serine, threonine, glycine, cysteine, citrate, fumarate, α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate were fermented. When co-cultured with Methanobacterium formicicum as the hydrogen scavenger, strain OTA 102(T) oxidized alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate, tyrosine, methionine, histidine and asparagine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain OTA 102(T) was 41.7 mol%. The main fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain OTA 102(T) was related to Aminobacterium colombiense and Aminobacterium mobile (95.5 and 95.2 % similarity, respectively), of the phylum Synergistetes. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic and physiological characteristics, strain OTA 102(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Aminobacterium, Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov. The type strain is OTA 102(T) ( = DSM 27500(T) = JCM 19320(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  3. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  6. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  7. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  8. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  9. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  10. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  11. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  12. For-Hire Vessel Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Vessel Directory is maintained as the sample frame for the For-Hire Survey. I contains data on for-hire vessels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Data include...

  13. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  15. Vessels in Transit - Web Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web tool that provides real-time information on vessels transiting the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Visitors may sort by order of turn, vessel name, or last location in...

  16. [Ultrasound of the large abdominal vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-García, A A; Algaba-Montes, M; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Á

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound has recently become an indispensable tool for the family physician, whether exercised in primary care and emergency department; and likewise it has spread to many other specialties: internal medicine, critical care, neurology, pneumology, digestive, etc. and that ultrasound has proven to be a safe diagnostic tool and have great capacity. We firmly believe that ultrasound done to «bedside» the patient by the family doctor, can greatly complement the physical examination and greatly improve clinical effectiveness, allowing the browser an immediate view of the anatomy and physiology of certain structures. It is within this context is particularly relevant ultrasonography of the Aorta and large abdominal vessels, made by the family doctor or the emergency itself, which will develop along this chapter. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  18. New research vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Two “new” ocean-going research vessels operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will soon begin full-time scientific duties off the coast of California and in the Antarctic, respectively. The 37.5-m Scripps vessel, named Robert Gordon Sprout in honor of the ex-president of the University of California, replaces the smaller ship Ellen B. Scripps, which had served the institution since 1965. The new ship is a slightly modified Gulf Coast workboat. Under the name of Midnight Alaskan, it had been used for high-resolution geophysical surveys in American and Latin American waters by such firms as Arco Oil & Gas, Exxon, Pennzoil, and Racal-Decca before its purchase by Scripps from a Lousiana chartering firm last summer.

  19. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID of amino acids (AA of soybean meal (SBM, soy protein concentrate (SPC and fermented soybean meal (FSBM, and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments’ diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05. The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05. For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05. Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05 and better fecal score (p<0.05 than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC

  20. How does the structure of dairy products affect their digestion mechanisms? Consequences on human health

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Digestion provides nutrients and energy essential to the survival and growth of the organisms. But little is known about the influence of food structure and of interactions between food components during processing on their digestibility and nutritional properties. Our objectives are to understand how dairy products are disintegrated in the gastrointestinal tract, identify the potentially bioactive molecules (peptides, amino acid, fatty acid...) released during digestion and demon...

  1. Large vessel vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Pukšić, Silva; Gudelj Gračanin, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in y...

  2. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    data. This source provides information on aluminum hydrofoil vessels without the added weight of foil structures. The composite armor around the...seating compartment. The sides should also limit wave splash on the deck. The freeboard should contribute reserve buoyancy , increasing large-angle and...Resistance, Powering, and Propulsion Savitsky’s Method Since model testing data or other reliable performance data was unavailable for the proposed

  3. Digestibilidades ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos de farinhas de vísceras para suínos Apparent and true ileal digestibilities of poultry by-products amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar as digestibilidades ileal aparente e verdadeira de cinco diferentes farinhas de vísceras. Foram utilizados 10 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso inicial de 34,11 ± 3,88 kg, previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao final das duas primeiras repetições, os mesmos animais foram redistribuídos e utilizados novamente nas repetições subseqüentes. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica uma das cinco farinhas de vísceras. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina das diferentes farinhas de vísceras apresentaram variação de 63,40 a 74,01; 63,17 a 79,13 e 72,60 a 81,11%, respectivamente, e os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeiros apresentaram variação de 64,38 a 74,88; 64,31 a 80,60 e 73,07 a 81,64%, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out with the objective of determining the apparent and true ileal digestibilities of amino acids from five different poultry by-product. Ten crossbreed swines, castrated males, averaging 31.11 ± 3.88 kg were used in the experiment. The animals were previously submitted to the surgery for simple T canula implantation and, then, allotted to a randomized block design with five treatments, four replicates and one animal per experimental unit. At the end of the first and second replicates, these animals were allotted again to the treatments and used in the third and fourth replicates. The treatments consisted of a free protein diet based on sugar, starch, vegetable oil and rice peel and one of the five poultry by-product as protein source in the diet. The coefficients of apparent ileal

  4. Comparison of digestion methods for the determination of ruthenium in catalyst materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suoranta, Terhi; Niemelä, Matti; Perämäki, Paavo

    2014-02-01

    A fusion method, an acid digestion method with a high pressure asher (HPA) and two microwave (MW)-assisted acid digestion methods were compared to investigate their suitability for the determination of Ru in catalyst materials. Ru contents in the digested samples were determined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Ru powder and three Ru compounds (RuO2 · xH2O, anhydrous RuO2 and RuCl3), possibly present in Ru catalysts, were digested and analyzed to compare the digestion efficiencies of the methods. Significant differences among the digestion efficiencies of the methods were observed; the fusion method having the best digestion efficiency for the compounds studied. The methods were applied for the determination of Ru in alumina- and carbon-supported catalysts. No differences among the methods were observed for these samples. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Protein identification and in vitro digestion of fractions from Tenebrio molitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Liya; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Boeren, Sjef; Lakemond, Catriona M.M.

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional value of insect protein is evaluated not only in amino acid composition, but also in protein digestibility. The general amino acid composition of Tenebrio molitor has been reported before, but limited knowledge is available on its digestibility. The objective of this study was to

  6. Thermal drying of the solid fraction from biogas digestate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Drying of solids produced from digestate is prone to N losses through NH3 volatilisation. The applicability of acidification as an NH3 emission mitigation technique during the drying of solids from digestate was assessed in a drying experiment. Operating conditions comprised four drying temperatu......Drying of solids produced from digestate is prone to N losses through NH3 volatilisation. The applicability of acidification as an NH3 emission mitigation technique during the drying of solids from digestate was assessed in a drying experiment. Operating conditions comprised four drying...... temperatures (70-160°C), two air ventilation rates (natural, 420ml/min) and three pH levels (9.2, 6.5 and 5.5) of the solids, modified by the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid. Acidification of the solids from digestate significantly decreased the NH3 emission during drying, irrespective of the drying...

  7. Aquaporins in Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Ran, Jianhua; Yang, Baoxue; Mei, Zhechuan

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigation is necessary for specific locations and functions of AQPs in digestive system.

  8. Vessel Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Yorker" articles titled Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1963 produced a unifying effect, "the sort of rallying point of the movement to protect the...6232, 92d Cong., 1st. sess., 1971, p. 2. 15. Carson , Rachel L. , The Sea Around Us, New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 195-, p. IV. 16. U.S., Congress...Government Printing Office, 1974. 63. Buhler, L. and Geiger, J., Vessel Traffic Data Extraction MethodoloqX, Silver Spring , Maryland, O6erFae-tns

  9. Vanishing corneal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Chana, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    We wish to highlight the importance of acknowledging the accompanying effects of topical phenylephrine drops on the eye other than its intended mydriasis. We reported a case of a 92-year-old woman with a corneal graft who was noted to have superficial corneal vascularisation which was not documented previously. After the instillation of topical tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 2.5%, for funduscopy, the corneal vascularisation was not visible. When reassessed on another visit, tropicamide had no effect on the vessels and only phenylephrine did. We wish to highlight that when reviewing patients in cornea clinics, instilling phenylephrine prior to being seen may mask important corneal vascularisation. PMID:24121816

  10. Digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelar de Oliveira Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order evaluate digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with 20 ppm of ractopamine on the performance and carcass traits, 64 barrows with high genetic potential at finishing phase were allotted in a completely randomized block design with four digestible lysine levels (0.80, 0.90, 1.00, and 1.10%, eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. Initial body weight and pigs' kinship were used as criteria in the blocks formation. Diets were mainly composed of corn and soybean meal supplemented with minerals, vitamins and amino acids to meet pigs' nutritional requirements at the finishing phase, except for digestible lysine. No effect of digestible lysine levels was observed in animal performance. The digestible lysine intake increased linearly by increasing the levels of digestible lysine in the diets. Carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary levels of digestible lysine. The level of 0.80% of digestible lysine in diets supplemented with 20 ppm ractopamine meets the nutritional requirements of castrated male pigs during the finishing phase.

  11. Anaerobic digestion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.

    2002-01-01

    Centralized biogas plants (CBP) in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste and sewage sludge. Today 22 large scale CBP's are in operation in Denmark and in 2001 they treated approx. 1.2 mio tonnes of manure ...... comprises about 80% of this potential. Special emphasis has been paid to establish good sanitation and pathogen reduction of the digested material, to avoid risk of spreading pathogens when applying the digested manure as fertilizer to agricultural soils....

  12. Ensiling and in vitro digestibility characteristics of Ceratoides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactic acid bacteria can improve C. arborescens silage fermentation quality; cellulase had a positive effect on in vitro digestible of neutral detergent fiber. There was favorable interaction between the addition of lactic acid bacteria and cellulase on the silage fermentation quality and chemical composition of C. arborescens.

  13. Predicting Digestibilities of Alfalfa Hays with Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David H.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-four alfalfa hays from different cuttings, maturities, and locations were fed to sheep in a digestion study. Subsamples of the hays along with corresponding fecal samples were ground and analyzed for dry matter, (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and permanganate lignin. In vivo digestibility (IVDMD) were also determined fro each hay. The hay and fecal samples were scanned with a near infrared reflectance spectrop...

  14. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate...

  15. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  16. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ...

  17. Anaerobic digestion of yard waste with hydrothermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangliang; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Zhikai; Xu, Guangwen

    2014-03-01

    The digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass is limited by its high content of refractory components. The objective of this study is to investigate hydrothermal pretreatment and its effects on anaerobic digestion of sorted organic waste with submerged fermentation. Hydrothermal pretreatment (HT) was performed prior to anaerobic digestion, and three agents were examined for the HT: hot compressed water, alkaline solution, and acidic solution. The concentrations of glucose and xylose were the highest in the sample pretreated in acidic solution. Compared with that of the untreated sample, the biogas yields from digesting the samples pretreated in alkaline solution, acidic solution, and hot water increased by 364, 107, and 79%, respectively. The decrease of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in liquid phase followed the same order as for the biogas yield. The initial ammonia content of the treated samples followed the order sample treated in acidic solution > sample treated in alkaline solution > sample treated in hot water. The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were low, indicating that the anaerobic digestion process was running at continuously stable conditions.

  18. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Yu; Bertozzi, Cara; Zou, Zhiying; Yuan, Lijun; Lee, John S; Lu, MinMin; Stachelek, Stan J; Srinivasan, Sathish; Guo, Lili; Vicente, Andres; Vincente, Andres; Mericko, Patricia; Levy, Robert J; Makinen, Taija; Oliver, Guillermo; Kahn, Mark L

    2012-06-01

    Human vascular malformations cause disease as a result of changes in blood flow and vascular hemodynamic forces. Although the genetic mutations that underlie the formation of many human vascular malformations are known, the extent to which abnormal blood flow can subsequently influence the vascular genetic program and natural history is not. Loss of the SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice. Mesenteric vessels in the position of the congenital lymphatic in mature Slp76-null mice lacked lymphatic identity and expressed a marker of blood vessel identity. Genetic lineage tracing demonstrated that this change in vessel identity was the result of lymphatic endothelial cell reprogramming rather than replacement by blood endothelial cells. Exposure of lymphatic vessels to blood in the absence of significant flow did not alter vessel identity in vivo, but lymphatic endothelial cells exposed to similar levels of shear stress ex vivo rapidly lost expression of PROX1, a lymphatic fate-specifying transcription factor. These findings reveal that blood flow can convert lymphatic vessels to blood vessels, demonstrating that hemodynamic forces may reprogram endothelial and vessel identity in cardiovascular diseases associated with abnormal flow.

  19. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the

  20. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  1. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  2. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  3. Role of arginase in vessel wall remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eDurante

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Arginase metabolizes the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. There are two distinct isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, which are encoded by separate genes and display differences in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and molecular regulation. Blood vessels express both arginase I and II but their distribution appears to be cell-, vessel-, and species-specific. Both isoforms of arginase are induced by numerous pathologic stimuli and contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and vessel wall remodeling in several diseases. Clinical and experimental studies have documented increases in the expression and/or activity of arginase I or II in blood vessels following arterial injury and in pulmonary and arterial hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of arginase in animals ameliorates abnormalities in vascular cells and normalizes blood vessel architecture and function in all of these pathological states. The detrimental effect of arginase in vascular remodeling is attributable to its ability to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation, and collagen deposition by promoting the synthesis of polyamines and L-proline, respectively. In addition, arginase adversely impacts arterial remodeling by directing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the proliferative, fibrotic, and inflammatory actions of arginase in the vasculature are further amplified by its capacity to inhibit nitric oxide synthesis by competing with nitric oxide synthase for substrate, L-arginine. Pharmacologic or molecular approaches targeting specific isoforms of arginase represent a promising strategy in treating obstructive fibroproliferative vascular disease.

  4. The vessel fluence; Fluence cuve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the technical meeting on the reactors vessels fluence. They are grouped in eight sessions: the industrial context and the stakes of the vessels control; the organization and the methodology for the fluence computation; the concerned physical properties; the reference computation methods; the fluence monitoring in an industrial context; vessels monitoring under irradiation; others methods in the world; the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  5. Composição química e aminoacídica e coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos de farinhas de penas e sangue determinados em galos cecectomizados Chemical and amino acid composition and true digestibility coefficients of amino acids of feather and blood meals, determined in cecectomized cocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Eyng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados a composição química e aminoacídica e os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos (CDVaa de farinhas de penas e sangue para aves obtidas de diferentes fornecedores. Utilizaram-se 30 galos cecectomizados distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro farinhas de penas e sangue (farinhas 1, 2, 3 e 4 e um tratamento no qual as aves permaneceram em jejum, seis repetições sendo a unidade experimental composta por um galo. As variações na composição química das farinhas de penas e sangue podem estar relacionadas à falta de padronização no processamento a que são submetidas. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais para as farinhas de penas 1, 2, 3 e 4 são, respectivamente, 75,14 e 68,41; 73,34 e 67,17; 78,99 e 75,41; 78,55 e 73,40%.Chemical and amino acid composition and true digestibility coefficients of amino acids of feather and blood meals for birds from different suppliers were determined. Thirty cecectomized cocks were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 4 different feather and blood meals (meals 1, 2, 3 and 4 and one treatment in which the birds remained fasting, with six replications as the experimental unit composed of one rooster. The variations in the chemical composition of the feather and blood meals can be related to the lack of standardization in the processing to which they are submitted. Mean true digestibility coefficients of essential and non essential amino acid for feather and blood meals 1,2, 3 and 4 are 75.14 and 68.41; 73.34 and 67.17; 78.99 and 75.41; 78.55 and 73.40%, respectively.

  6. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  7. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  8. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  9. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  10. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yinghong; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Suo

    2014-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is promising technology to recover energy from waste activated sludge. However, the sludge digestion is limited by its low efficiency of hydrolysis-acidification. Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing material is expected to enhance anaerobic process including the hydrolysis-acidification process. Considering that, ZVI was added into an anaerobic sludge digestion system to accelerate the sludge digestion in this study. The results indicated that ZVI effectively enhanced the decomposition of protein and cellulose, the two main components of the sludge. Compared to the control test without ZVI, the degradation of protein increased 21.9% and the volatile fatty acids production increased 37.3% with adding ZVI. More acetate and less propionate are found during the hydrolysis-acidification with ZVI. The activities of several key enzymes in the hydrolysis and acidification increased 0.6-1 time. ZVI made the methane production raise 43.5% and sludge reduction ratio increase 12.2 percent points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundances of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms including homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens with ZVI were higher than the control, which reduced the H2 accumulation to create a beneficial condition for the sludge digestion in thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Digestible reactive lysine in selected milk-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfurd, S M; Moughan, P J

    2005-01-01

    Reactive lysine contents, true ileal reactive lysine digestibility, and true ileal digestible reactive lysine contents were determined in a wide range of processed milk products. A previously validated assay based on determining reactive lysine in both food and ileal digesta, after reaction of these materials with O-methylisourea, was applied. Semisynthetic diets containing milk products as the sole sources of protein and including chromic oxide as an indigestible marker were fed to growing rats. Digesta from the terminal ileum were collected posteuthanasia and, with samples of the diets, analyzed for reactive lysine (homoarginine) contents. True reactive lysine digestibility was determined after correcting for endogenous lysine loss at the terminal ileum of rats fed an enzyme hydrolyzed casein-based diet, followed by ultrafiltration (5000 Da) of the digesta. Digestible total lysine (determined using conventional methods) was also determined. The true ileal reactive lysine digestibility was high (>91%) in all the milk products tested, but was highest in the UHT milk (100%) and lowest in the infant formulas (91 to 93%). Total lysine digestibility (conventional measurement) significantly underestimated reactive lysine digestibility for all the products tested. The mean underestimation ranged from 1.3 to 7.1% units. The mean digestible total lysine content was significantly different from the available lysine content for most of the products examined. In some cases this difference was small (milk, whole milk protein, lactose hydrolyzed milk powder, and a sports formula) the difference was greater (6.5 to 14%). This would suggest firstly that total lysine and total lysine digestibility determined using conventional methods were inaccurate when applied to some milk-based foods, and secondly that some of the milk products have undergone lysine modification. In general, milk proteins are a highly digestible source of amino acids and lysine.

  12. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  13. Biochemical, Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Digestion in the Scorpion Tityus serrulatus: Insights into Function and Evolution of Digestion in an Ancient Arthropod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Patane, José S. L.; Juliano, Maria A.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Lopes, Adriana R.

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  14. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe J Fuzita

    Full Text Available Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability, zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also

  15. Nutrient composition, volatile fatty acids production, digestible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VFA concentrations were >19.1±1.8 mM except in CPa,FM and AP (< 12.1±2.9 mM). Coffee pulp (CPu), CL and MP had high total phenolics (123 to 151 g/kg DM) and tannin (42 to 86 g/kg DM). BP had largest amount of phytate. Hemolytic activity (saponin) was detected in FM, potato peels, SW, CPa and CL. The feeds can ...

  16. Speciation analysis, bioavailability and risk assessment of trace metals in herbal decoctions using a combined technique of in Vitro digestion and biomembrane filtration as sample pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun-Xing; Lin, Lu-xiu; Lin, Jing; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Wang, Qing-Xiang; Weng, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Sample preparation is the first crucial step in the speciation analysis, bioavailability and risk assessment of trace metals in plant samples such as herb and vegetables. Two bionic technologies titled 'in vitro digestion' and 'extraction with biomembrane' were developed for pre-treatment of herbal decoction. The decoctions of Aconiteum carmichaeli and Paeonia lactiflora were digested at body temperature, at the acidity of the stomach or intestine and with inorganic and organic materials (digestive enzymes were included for whole-bionic and excluded for semi-bionic) found in the stomach or intestine. Being similar to the biomembrane between the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels, monolayer liposome was used as a biomembrane model. Affinity-monolayer liposome metals and water-soluble metals were used for speciation analysis and bioavailability assessment of copper and zinc in herbal decoction. In the decoction of Aconiteum carmichaeli and Paeonia lactiflora, Zn was mainly absorbed in the intestine and Cu was mainly absorbed by both stomach and intestine. The safe dosage for males and females is below 257.1 g/day Aconiteum carmichaeli and 529.4 g/day Paeonia lactiflora. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Integration of NIRS and PCA techniques for the process monitoring of a sewage sludge anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James P; Devlin, Desmond; Esteves, Sandra R R; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan J

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the use of Hotelling's T(2) control charts as the basis of a process monitor for sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy was used to produce partial least squares regression models of volatile fatty acids, bicarbonate alkalinity and volatile solids. These were utilised in a series of principle component analysis models along with spectral data from digestate and feedstock samples to produce a pseudo steady state model, which was then used with an independent test set to evaluate the system. The system was able to identify disturbances to the digester due to a temporary alteration of the type of feedstock to the digester and separately, halving of the hydraulic retention time of the digester. It could also provide advance warning of disturbances to the digester. This technique could be used to improve the performance of sewage sludge anaerobic digesters by enabling optimisation of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efeito da adição de aminoácidos essenciais à dieta sobre a secreção de enzimas digestivas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae = Effect of dietary essential amino acids addition on digestive enzime secretion in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bernardini Ungar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos realizados com variação no teor de proteína na ração para peixes, foi demonstrado o aumento das atividades de protease alcalina, protease ácida, tripsina e quimiotripsina do trato digestório de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen. Esses fatos sugerem que produtos liberados pela digestão na luz desse trato podem influenciar a síntese e a secreção de enzimas digestivas. A secreção destas enzimas pelo pâncreas, em vertebrados, responde à influência neurale humoral. No presente trabalho, foram testadas quatro concentrações (0, 3, 6 e 12% de uma mistura de aminoácidos (treonina, fenilalanina, leucina, valina, arginina e triptofano em iguaisproporções em dietas isocalóricas contendo 3.500 kcal de energia digestível kg-1 de ração, e dietas isoproteicas contendo 20% de proteína, em juvenis de jundiá. Foram utilizados dez animais portratamento, sendo os peixes estocados num sistema fechado com recirculação de água e temperatura controlada. Os peixes submetidos a estes tratamentos apresentaram atividade da protease alcalina na região anterior do intestino, responsiva aos diferentes níveis aminoácidos da alimentação. Todavia, as atividades protease alcalina do fígado e amilase do fígado e intestino anterior não foram detectadas. Estes resultados sugerem que a atividade protease alcalina do intestino anterior seja induzida por aminoácidos liberados na luz do trato digestório. Studies carried out with variation of protein concentration in the fish feed have shown an increase in the activity of alkaline proteases, acid proteases, trypsin and chimotrypsin from the digestive tract of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. These facts suggest that products released by digestion in the lumen of this tract can influenced the synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes. The secretion of these enzymes by the pancreas in vertebrate responses to neural and humoral influences. In the present study, four concentration (0, 3, 6 and 12% of

  19. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  20. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.