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Sample records for very-low calorie diet

  1. Metabolic effects of fasting and very low calorie diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the mechanism of nitrogen sparing in obese subjects on very low calorie diets (VLC-PS), effects of total fasting (TF) and VLC-PS (380 Kcal/day) supplying protein without carbohydrate on metabolites, hormones, urea nitrogen excretion, and plasma (3-/sup 3/H)glucose turnover, (U-/sup 14/C)lysine flux, and (1-/sup 14/C)leucine flux and oxidation were compared. Subjects with a wide range of relative obesity were studied during a control period and after one week of TF. Urea excretion and lysine flux decreased in all subjects, while 3-methylhistidine excretion was unchanged. Glucagon:insulin ratio and cortisol increased, while triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) decreased and would be expected to be nitrogen-sparing. In a separate study, groups of obese women were studied during a control period and during 14 days of TF or VLC-PS supplying either 80 g (80G) or 40 g (40G) high-quality protein. Increases in branched chain amino acids, ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate, and glucagon:insulin ratio and decrease in T/sub 3/ did not differ among groups. Glucose production decreased to the same extent in all groups. Serum and urinary urea nitrogen were maintained at control values throughout the diet in 80G but decreased to the same extent in TF and 40G. Nitrogen balance estimated from urea nitrogen appearance was negative in all groups.

  2. Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, F; Astrup, A

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-eight consecutive obese persons were treated as outpatients. The treatment commenced with VLCD formula diet NUPO (females 388 kcal, 1600 kJ, 56 g protein; males 446 kcal, 1864 kJ, 69 g protein). VLCD had no untoward effects and was continued for as long as the patient would accept. After...... that the formula diet was supplemented with ordinary items of food and drink to the level of 1000 kcal (4200 kJ) for women and 1100 kcal (4600 kJ) for men. After 5 months the data were analyzed separately according to the duration of VLCD: group 1 (n = 20): VLCD for less than 2 months, and group 2 (n = 18): VLCD...... is an effective and encouraging way of starting a dieting program, and that it should be continued for at least two months, as the length of the initial VLCD period related significantly to the amount of weight eventually lost....

  3. Treatment of Obesity by Behavior Therapy and Very Low Calorie Diet: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Explored the effectiveness of a very low calorie diet to induce rapid weight loss, combined with behavioral techniques to maintain this loss in 17 obese women. Results showed a substantial and sustained weight loss. Subjects did not experience increased anxiety or depression. (JAC)

  4. Very low calorie ketogenic weight reduction diet in patients with cirrhosis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, J C; Friedman, A N

    2013-11-18

    Weight reduction may be necessary in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) before liver transplantation. Although very low calorie diets (VLCDs) are a highly effective weight loss strategy, they risk inducing protein-calorie malnutrition, sarcopenia and hepatic encephalopathy in ESLD patients. We report for the first time on the use of VCLDs in ESLD. Two severely obese individuals with ESLD underwent a modified VLCD to become eligible for liver transplantation. Patients consumed four protein supplements and one lean meal daily, equivalent to 800 kilocalories (kcal) and were closely monitored during the diet period. Subject 1, a 46-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis, lost 44.1 kg after 28 weeks on a modified VLCD. Liver function and MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) scores improved and he currently does not require listing for transplantation. Subject 2, a 64-year-old female with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, lost 39.7 kg after a 30-week modified VLCD. She is awaiting liver transplantation listing with a stable MELD score. VLCDs were well tolerated by both patients without adverse effects. In conclusion, under close medical supervision VLCDs in patients with ESLD can be safe and effective in reducing weight, facilitating liver transplantation listing, and possibly improving liver damage.

  5. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John G; McKenzie, John S; Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Broom, John; Rolland, Catherine; Johnston, Kelly L

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews) of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT), a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women's history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications.

  6. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love JG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available John G Love,1 John S McKenzie,2 Efsevia A Nikokavoura,3 John Broom,3 Catherine Rolland,3 Kelly L Johnston4,5 1School of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Health & Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 2Rowett Institute of Health & Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, St Mary’s, Kings College, Aberdeen, UK; 3Centre for Obesity Research, Faculty of Health & Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 4LighterLife, Harlow, Essex, UK; 5Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Kings College London, London, UK Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT, a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women’s history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications. Keywords: PCOS, obesity, weight loss, diet

  7. Effect of very-low-calorie diets with weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratt, P M; McTier, R F; Findley, L J; Pohl, S L; Wilhoit, S C

    1992-07-01

    To determine the effect of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) with weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we studied eight obese subjects with OSA, five males and three females. Subjects consumed a VLCD of 1760 kJ (420 kcal) (67% protein, 4% fat, 29% carbohydrate) or 3350 kJ (800 cal) (20% protein, 30% fat, 50% carbohydrate) with 100% of the recommended daily allowance of vitamins and minerals. Mean (+/- SD) values of weight and respiration before and after weight loss were, for weight, 153 +/- 37 and 132 +/- 29 kg (P less than 0.05); for BMI (kg/m2), 54 +/- 13 and 46 +/- 10 (P less than 0.05); for desaturations/h sleep, 106 +/- 50 and 52 +/- 45 (P less than 0.05); for apneas + hypopneas/h sleep, 90 +/- 32 and 62 +/- 49; for Pco2, 48 +/- 10 and 42 +/- 4 torr (P less than 0.05). Desaturation episodes/h and apnea + hypopneas/h improved in six patients. The most obese subject (female, BMI 81) who lost the most weight (47 kg) did not improve, nor did the subject who lost the least weight, 7 kg. The number of movements + arousals from sleep decreased in all patients (P less than 0.05). We conclude that VLCD with weight loss can produce improvement in OSA; subjects who lose a small amount of weight or subjects who are extraordinarily obese before and after weight loss may not improve.

  8. Efectiveness and safety of very low calory diets in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sáez Belló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness, safety and adherence of Very Low Calory Diet (VLCD in patients with obesity. Methods: Observational prospective descriptive study. Patients with BMI >30 kg/m2 who started VLCD were included. We arranged 3 pharmacotherapeutical consultations, picking up the variables: age, sex, BMI, side effects and number of VLCD cycles. We defined effectiveness as weight loss in absolute and relative terms and weight loss rate (kg/week; safety as incidence and severity of side effects by the Farmacovigilance Spanish System (SEFV; and adherence by a SMAQ adapted questionnaire. Results: 29 women and 15 men were included, with a mean of 42 years. 5 patients did not complete the follow-up. Effectiveness: weight loss average was 7kg (IQR 9,5 a 5,3 and relative of 6,7%, (p < 0.0005. The weight loss rate was 1,2kg per week (IQR 1,6 a 0,9. Safety: 33% of the patients described side effects. All of them were mild (37% constipation, 16% dizziness, 12% anxiety, 5% headache, 2% gases y 2% epigastrical pain. Adherence: 84% of the patients were adherent by the SMAQ adapted questionnaire: 74% in the first cycle and 92% in the following ones. The relation between the number of cycles and the adherence did not get statistical differences (p = 0,1127. Conclusions: Effectiveness and adherence to the treatment could improve in obese patients by setting interdisciplinary measures in the daily clinical practice.

  9. Insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : effects of a very low calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jazet, Ingrid Maria

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is of major pathogenic importance in obese DM2 and this can be improved by weight loss. Very low calorie diets (VLCDs) are often used for this purpose. This thesis focused on the safety and tolerability of a VLCD and on the short-term and long-term effects of a VLCD on glucose and

  10. Efficacy and safety of very-low-calorie ketogenic diet: a double blind randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colica, C; Merra, G; Gasbarrini, A; De Lorenzo, A; Cioccoloni, G; Gualtieri, P; Perrone, M A; Bernardini, S; Bernardo, V; Di Renzo, L; Marchetti, M

    2017-05-01

    To verify safety respect to weight loss, cardiometabolic diseases of short-term Very low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs, Mass Index (BMI) (Δ%=-11.1%, p=0.00), Total Body Water (TBW) (pMass (AFM) (Δ%=-12.7%, p=0.00); Gynoid Fat Mass (GFM) (Δ%=-6.3%, p=0.01); Intermuscular Adipose Tissue (IMAT) (Δ%= -11.1%, p=0.00); Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Re-sistance (HOMA-IR) (Δ%=-62.1%, p=0.01). After VLCKD1 a significant increase of uricemia, cre-atinine and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (respectively Δ%=35%, p=0.01; Δ%=5.9%, p=0.02; Δ%=25.5%, p=0.03). After VLCKD2 were reduced: BMI (Δ%=-11.2%, p=0.00); AFM (Δ%=-14.3%, p=0.00); GFM (Δ%=-6.3%, p=0.00); Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass Index (ASMMI) (Δ%=-17.5%, p=0.00); HOMA-IR (Δ%=-59,4%, p=0.02). After VLCKD2, uricemia (Δ%=63.1%, p=0.03), and Vitamin D levels (Δ%=25.7%, p=0.02) were increased. No significant changes of car-diovascular disease (CVD) indexes were observed after DTs. No significant changes of PPARγ lev-el in any DTs. 21-days VLCKDs not impair nutritional state; not cause negative changes in global measurements of nutritional state including sarcopenia, bone mineral content, hepatic, renal and lipid profile.

  11. The effect of very low-calorie diets on renal and hepatic outcomes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roll

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland,1 Alexandra Mavroeidi,2 Kelly L Johnston,3 John Broom1,31Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology (CORE, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 2School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 3LighterLife Ltd, Harlow, Essex, UKAbstract: Very low-calorie diets (VLCDs are an effective means by which to induce clinically significant weight loss. However, their acceptance by health care practitioners and the public is generally lower than that for other nonsurgical weight loss methods. Whilst there is currently little evidence to suggest they have any detrimental effect on hepatic and renal health, data assessing these factors remain limited. We carried out a systematic review of the literature on randomized controlled trials that had a VLCD component and that reported outcomes for hepatic and renal health, published between January 1980 and December 2012. Cochrane criteria were followed, and eight out of 196 potential articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 548 participants were recruited across the eight studies. All eight studies reported significant weight loss following the VLCD. Changes in hepatic and renal outcomes were variable but generally led to either no change or improvements in either of these. Due to the heterogeneity in the quality and methodology of the studies included, the effect of VLCDs on hepatic and renal outcomes remains unclear at this stage. Further standardized research is therefore required to fully assess the impact of VLCDs on these outcome measures, to better guide clinical practice.Keywords: obesity, liver, kidney, weight loss, health

  12. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring response to systemic therapy in relapsing plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Galdo, Giovanna; Rotondi Aufiero, Felice; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease associated with overweight/obesity and related cardiometabolic complications. The link between these diseases is likely the inflammatory background associated with adipose tissue, particularly the visceral one. Accordingly, previous studies have demonstrated that in the long-term weight loss may improve the response to systemic therapies. We report a case report of a woman in her 40s suffering from relapsing moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and obesity-related metabolic syndrome, in whom adequate response to ongoing treatment with biological therapy (adalimumab) was restored after only 4 weeks of very low-calorie, carbohydrate-free (ketogenic), protein-based diet. Accordingly, through rapid and consistent weight loss, very low calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring a quick response to systemic therapy in a patient suffering from relapsing psoriasis. This intervention should be considered in overweight/obese patients before the rearrangement of systemic therapy. Nonetheless, studies are required to evaluate whether very low calorie ketogenic diets should be preferred to common low-calorie diets to improve the response to systemic therapy at least in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet with a standard low-calorie diet in the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Basilio; Bellido, Diego; Sajoux, Ignacio; Goday, Albert; Saavedra, Dolores; Crujeiras, Ana B; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-12-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has significantly increased in most industrialized countries. Anti-obesity drugs are scarce, and indications to change their life style are impractical. Therefore, to identify diets able to produce significantly and maintained weight loss is mandatory. The present work evaluated the efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet in obesity. A group of obese patients were randomized into two groups: the VLCK diet group and a standard low-calorie diet (LC group). The follow-up period was 12 months. Both groups received external support, counseling, to perform physical activity and adhered to the diet. The VLCK diet induced a 30-45 days of mild ketosis and significant effects on body weight within 15 days. At 2 months, the weight reductions in the VLCK diet and LC diet groups were 13.6 ± 3.9 and 4.8 ± 2.7 kg, respectively (p weight reductions were 19.9 ± 12.3 and 7.0 ± 5.6 kg, respectively (p diet group lost more of 10 % of their initial weight. Lean mass was practically unaffected. The VLCK diet was well tolerated and the side effects were moderate and transitory. In a group of obese patients, the VLCK diet was significantly more effective than a standard LC diet. At one year follow-up in the group with VLCK diet, most of the patients loss more than 10 % of their initial weight and lean mass was well preserved.

  14. Nutritional alterations after very low-calorie diet before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennasar Remolar, M Ángeles; Martínez Ramos, David; Ortega Serrano, Joaquín; Salvador Sanchís, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    There has been an alarming worldwide increase of obese people in recent years. Currently, there is no consensus on whether patients that are scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery should lose weight before the intervention. The objective of this research is to analyse the influence of pre-surgery loss of weight in the nutritional parameters of patients. Fifty patients that were scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery followed a very low caloric diet during 4 weeks prior to the surgery. The nutritional parameters were analysed at 3 specific moments: before starting the diet, at the moment of surgery (when the diet was concluded) and one month after the surgery. Average values for hemoglobin, albumina and lymphocytes were kept within the range of normal values at all moments, even though the decrease of those parameters was statistically significant throughout the study (P<.05). By following the very low caloric diet, less than 9.5% of the sample suffered anaemia. Loss of weight prior to surgery does not have a significant influence in the nutritional parameters of the patient. These results would support the indication of losing weight for patients that are considered candidates for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effects of a very low calorie diet

    OpenAIRE

    Jazet, Ingrid Maria

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is of major pathogenic importance in obese DM2 and this can be improved by weight loss. Very low calorie diets (VLCDs) are often used for this purpose. This thesis focused on the safety and tolerability of a VLCD and on the short-term and long-term effects of a VLCD on glucose and lipid metabolism in obese DM2 on insulin therapy. Firstly, VLCDs are safe in obese DM2, even for up to 8 months. Secondly, all blood-glucose lowering therapy could be withdrawn simultaneously prov...

  16. Sustained cardiac remodeling after a short-term very low calorie diet in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; Snel, Marieke; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Jazet, Ingrid M; van der Meer, Rutger W; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo; de Roos, Albert; Smit, Johannes W A; Romijn, Johannes A; Lamb, Hildo J

    2014-01-01

    A very low calorie diet (VLCD) results in cardiac remodeling and improved diastolic function. It is unknown how long these effects sustain after reintroduction of a regular diet. We aimed to assess the long-term effects of initial weight loss by VLCD on cardiac dimensions and function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Fourteen insulin-dependent T2DM patients (mean ± SEM: age 53 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg/m(2)) were treated by a VLCD (450 kcal/day) during 16 weeks. Cardiac function and myocardial triglyceride (TG) content were measured by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy at baseline, after a 16-week VLCD and after 14 months of follow-up on a regular diet. BMI decreased from 35 ± 1 to 28 ± 1 kg/m(2) after VLCD and increased again to 32 ± 1 kg/m(2) at 18 months (both P diet.

  17. Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet with aminoacid supplement versus very low restricted-calorie diet for preserving muscle mass during weight loss: a pilot double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merra, G; Miranda, R; Barrucco, S; Gualtieri, P; Mazza, M; Moriconi, E; Marchetti, M; Chang, T F M; De Lorenzo, A; Di Renzo, L

    2016-07-01

    Obesity plays a relevant pathophysiological role in the development of health problems, arising as result of complex interaction of genetic, nutritional and metabolic factors. We conducted a dietary intervention case-control randomized trial, to compare the effectiveness on body composition of two nutritional protocols: a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD), integrated by an aminoacid supplement with whey protein, and very low restricted-calorie diet (VLCD). The clinical study was conducted with a randomized case-control in which twenty-five healthy subjects gave informed consent to participate in the interventional study and were evaluated for their health and nutritional status, by anthropometric, and body composition evaluation. The results of this pilot study show that a diet low in carbohydrates, associated with a decreased caloric intake, is effective in weight loss. After VLCKD, versus VLCD, no significant differences in body lean of the trunk, body lean distribution (android and gynoid), total body lean were observed (p > 0.05). After VLCKD, no increasing of sarcopenia frequency, according ASSMI, was observed. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet on weight loss; even if not know how to work effectively, as some researchers believe that the weight loss is due to reduced calorie intake, satiety could also be induced by the effect of the proteins, rather than the low-carbohydrates. Our pilot study showed that a VLCKD was highly effective in terms of body weight reduction without to induce lean body mass loss, preventing the risk of sarcopenia. Further clinical trials are needed on a larger population and long-term body weight maintenance and risk factors management effects of VLCKD. There is no doubt, however, that a proper dietary approach would impact significantly on the reduction of public expenditure costs, in view of prospective data on increasing the percentage of obese people in our nation.

  18. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille F; Jensen, Frank K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women.......Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women....

  19. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Vaag, A.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether a very-low-calorie dietary intervention (VLCD) may influence composition of skeletal muscle cell membrane phospholipid and composition and concentration of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) in obese subjects. The working hypothesis proposed that a VLCD...

  20. Obesity treatment by very low-calorie-ketogenic diet at two years: reduction in visceral fat and on the burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Basilio; Crujeiras, Ana B; Bellido, Diego; Sajoux, Ignacio; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2016-12-01

    The long-term effect of therapeutic diets in obesity treatment is a challenge at present. The current study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of a very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet on excess adiposity. Especial focus was set on visceral fat mass, and the impact on the individual burden of disease. A group of obese patients (n = 45) were randomly allocated in two groups: either the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet group (n = 22), or a standard low-calorie diet group; (n = 23). Both groups received external support. Adiposity parameters and the cumulative number of months of successful weight loss (5 or 10 %) over a 24-month period were quantified. The very low-calorie-ketogenic diet induced less than 2 months of mild ketosis and significant effects on body weight at 6, 12, and 24 months. At 24 months, a trend to regress to baseline levels was observed; however, the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet induced a greater reduction in body weight (-12.5 kg), waist circumference (-11.6 cm), and body fat mass (-8.8 kg) than the low-calorie diet (-4.4 kg, -4.1 cm, and -3.8 kg, respectively; p ketogenic diet group experienced a reduction in the individual burden of obesity because reduction in disease duration. Very low-calorie-ketogenic diet patients were 500 months with 5 % weight lost vs. the low-calorie diet group (350 months; p ketogenic diet was effective 24 months later, with a decrease in visceral adipose tissue and a reduction in the individual burden of disease.

  1. Body Composition Changes After Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet in Obesity Evaluated by 3 Standardized Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Bellido, Diego; Castro, Ana I; Ordoñez-Mayan, Lucia; Carreira, Jose; Galban, Cristobal; Martinez-Olmos, Miguel A; Crujeiras, Ana B; Sajoux, Ignacio; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Common concerns when using low-calorie diets as a treatment for obesity are the reduction in fat-free mass, mostly muscular mass, that occurs together with the fat mass (FM) loss, and determining the best methodologies to evaluate body composition changes. This study aimed to evaluate the very-low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet-induced changes in body composition of obese patients and to compare 3 different methodologies used to evaluate those changes. Twenty obese patients followed a VLCK diet for 4 months. Body composition assessment was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (MF-BIA), and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) techniques. Muscular strength was also assessed. Measurements were performed at 4 points matched with the ketotic phases (basal, maximum ketosis, ketosis declining, and out of ketosis). After 4 months the VLCK diet induced a -20.2 ± 4.5 kg weight loss, at expenses of reductions in fat mass (FM) of -16.5 ± 5.1 kg (DXA), -18.2 ± 5.8 kg (MF-BIA), and -17.7 ± 9.9 kg (ADP). A substantial decrease was also observed in the visceral FM. The mild but marked reduction in fat-free mass occurred at maximum ketosis, primarily as a result of changes in total body water, and was recovered thereafter. No changes in muscle strength were observed. A strong correlation was evidenced between the 3 methods of assessing body composition. The VLCK diet-induced weight loss was mainly at the expense of FM and visceral mass; muscle mass and strength were preserved. Of the 3 body composition techniques used, the MF-BIA method seems more convenient in the clinical setting.

  2. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    ), and dietary fibre did not improve this result. During VLCD with fibre hunger ratings were significantly lower than during VLCD without fibre (fibre effect, ANOVA; P less than 0.01). Bowel movements decreased from 1.9/day on habitual diet to 0.7/day on VLCD without fibre, but increased to 1.0/day by fibre...... on plasma glucose, cholesterol or triglyceride to that of VLCD. In conclusion, the supplement of dietary fibre to VLCD may improve compliance by reducing hunger and increasing the number of bowel movements, without impairment of absorption of divalent cations....

  3. A very low calorie ketogenic diet improves weight loss and quality of life in patients with adjustable gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taus, Marina; Fumelli, Daniele; Busni, Debora; Borroni, Francesca; Sebastianelli, Sonia; Nicolai, Giulia; Nicolai, Albano

    2017-01-01

    Often, in severe obesity, diet and physical activity are not enough to achieve a healthy BMI. Bariatric surgical approach, in particular laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), has encouraging results in terms of weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. However, several months after LAGB, some patients are enable to lose weight anymore and don't tolerate a further calibration because of its collateral effects (excessive sense of fullness, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting). The aim of this study is to identify the potential role of high protein-low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) in managing weight loss in patients who underwent gastric banding and didn't lose weight anymore. 50 patients underwent LAGB between January 2010 and December 2013. In twenty patients (GROUP A) we observed a stop in weight loss so we divided this patients into two groups. One group (group A1: 10 patients) continued to follow a LCD low calorie diet and underwent a further calibration; the other group (group A2: 10 patients) started to follow a KD for the next 8 weeks. Both group resumed a significant weight loss, however group A1 patients reported collateral effects due to calibration and a higher Impact of Weight on Quality of Life - Lite (IWQOL-Lite) that correlates with a lower quality of life than patients following KD. KD can improve the weight loss and quality of life in patients who underwent LAGB and failed at losing more weight allowing a weight loss comparable to that obtained with a further calibration and it is useful to avoid drastic calibrations and their collateral effects. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric binding, Quality of life, Very low calory ketogenic binding.

  4. Weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program including a very-low-calorie diet, a low-calorie diet, or restricted normal food: observational cohort study 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmingsson, Erik; Johansson, Kari; Eriksson, Jonas; Sundström, Johan; Neovius, Martin; Marcus, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs consisting of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and low-calorie diets (LCDs) is unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to quantify weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program in Sweden (Itrim; cost: $1300/€1000; all participants paid their own fee). Design: This observational cohort study linked commercial weight-loss data with National Health Care Registers. Weight loss was induced with a 500-kcal liquid-...

  5. Long-term beneficial effect of a 16-week very low calorie diet on pericardial fat in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Jonker, J.T.; Hammer, S.; Kerpershoek, G.; Lamb, H.J.; Meinders, A.E.; Pijl, H.; Roos, A. de; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.A.; Jazet, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Pericardial fat accumulation has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. A very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by improving the metabolic profile, heart function, and triglyceride (TG) stores in

  6. Proteomic Analysis in Type 2 Diabetes Patients before and after a Very Low Calorie Diet Reveals Potential Disease State and Intervention Specific Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddering, M.A.; Markvoort, A.J.; Dharuri, H.K.; Jeyakar, S.; Snel, M; Juhasz, P.; Lynch, M.; Hines, W.; Li, X.; Jazet, I.M.; Adourian, A.; Hilbers, P.A.; Smit, J.W.A.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2014-01-01

    Very low calorie diets (VLCD) with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to

  7. An observational study of sequential protein-sparing, very low-calorie ketogenic diet (Oloproteic diet) and hypocaloric Mediterranean-like diet for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Monaco, Luigi; Castaldo, Laura; Galdo, Giovanna; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    The impact of a rehabilitative multi-step dietary program consisting in different diets has been scantily investigated. In an open-label study, 73 obese patients underwent a two-phase weight loss (WL) program: a 3-week protein-sparing, very low-calorie, ketogenic diet (Diet) and a 6-week hypocaloric (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day), low glycemic index, Mediterranean-like diet (hypo-MD). Both phases improved visceral adiposity, liver enzymes, GH levels, blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the hypo-MD was responsible for a re-increase in blood lipids and glucose tolerance parameters. Changes in visceral adiposity and glucose control-related variables were more consistent in patients with metabolic syndrome. However, in these patients the hypo-MD did not result in a consistent re-increase in glucose control-related variables. A dietary program consisting in a ketogenic regimen followed by a balanced MD appeared to be feasible and efficacious in reducing cardiovascular risk, particularly in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Serum growth hormone-binding protein in obesity: effect of a short-term, very low calorie diet and diet-induced weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Ho, K K; Kjems, L

    1996-01-01

    +/-SEM)] before and after an average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg and in 18 age- and sex matched normal subjects (BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and studied the effects of a very low calorie diet over 4 days in 5 normal subjects and a subgroup of obese subjects before (n = 6) and after (n = 5) weight loss...... days of a very low calorie diet, although mean insulin levels fell significantly in the normal subgroup as well as in the obese subgroup studied after weight loss. In summary, GHBP levels are elevated in obesity, are restored to normal by massive weight loss, and are unaffected by short term......GH-binding protein (GHBP) is increased in obesity. It is not known whether the increase in GHBP is reversible with weight loss or modulated by acute changes in nutritional intake. To address these questions, we measured GHBP in 18 obese subjects [body mass index (BMI), 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2 (mean...

  9. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  10. Serum growth hormone-binding protein in obesity: effect of a short-term, very low calorie diet and diet-induced weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Ho, K K; Kjems, L

    1996-01-01

    +/-SEM)] before and after an average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg and in 18 age- and sex matched normal subjects (BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and studied the effects of a very low calorie diet over 4 days in 5 normal subjects and a subgroup of obese subjects before (n = 6) and after (n = 5) weight loss......GH-binding protein (GHBP) is increased in obesity. It is not known whether the increase in GHBP is reversible with weight loss or modulated by acute changes in nutritional intake. To address these questions, we measured GHBP in 18 obese subjects [body mass index (BMI), 40.9 +/- 1.1 kg/m2 (mean....... GHBP was elevated in the obese subjects compared to levels in age- and sex-matched normal controls (1.48 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.1 nmol/L; P

  11. A long-term evaluation of very low calorie semi-synthetic diets: an inpatient/outpatient study with egg albumin as the protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A N; Baird, I M

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-two obese patients were studied initially for two weeks as inpatients on very low calorie diets, containing 0.76-1.34 MJ (180-320 kcal) as 15-40 g egg albumin, 30-40 g oligosaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Patients were seen weekly after discharge from hospital. Forty-one patients were able to continue treatment for more than eight weeks, and 29 for more than 16 weeks. In terms of weight loss, 41 patients lost at least 10 kg body weight, 29 at least 15 kg, and 14 at least 20 kg; 17 patients came within 15 kg of their ideal body weight. With 40 g/day carbohydrate, the quantity of egg albumin required to give nitrogen equilibrium was estimated to be about 25 g/day. All patients were able to resume their normal activities on discharge from hospital and had no major side-effects from treatment. Routine clinical, biochemical and haematological examinations showed no significant changes. In particular, serum proteins, electrolytes, uric acid, cholesterol and blood haemoglobin and haematocrit were unaffected. Ketosis was minimal or absent. It is concluded that the use of very low calorie semi-synthetic diets is a feasible and safe method of weight reduction for obese patients.

  12. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; Garc?a-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-01-01

    Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (

  13. [A case of severe obese patient complicated with type-2 diabetes--transition from Very Low Calorie Diet(VLCD) therapy to Low Calorie Diet(LCD)therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Takeshi; Hata, Akiko; Shinoki, Keiji; Nishijima, Ritsuko; Mito, Saori; Doi, Seiko; Nakashita, Chisako; Komuro, Ryutaro; Iijima, Shohei

    2010-12-01

    A 6 0-year-old woman with severe obese and type-2 diabetes was hospitalized due to poorly controlled glycemia by worsening osteoarthritis of both knees. Although a diet therapy(1,200 kcal/day)was initially offered, but the body weight did not decrease. Thus, we changed VLCD therapy to LCD therapy sequentially. The weight loss made her possible not only to walk with a walker but it also improved a glycemic control. Because it was thought to be necessary to reduce her economic burden in order to continue the LCD therapy after was discharged, an inexpensive LCD menu was devised based on meal and auxiliary nutrients including trace elements. To support the LCD therapy at home, it is important to propose a simple and sustainable approach with a consideration of economic aspects as well as home environment.

  14. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (weight-loss maintenance strategies after a VLCD/LCD period. Two authors performed independent data extraction by using a predefined data template. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Results: Twenty studies with a total of 27 intervention arms and 3017 participants were included with the following treatment categories: anti-obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was −12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3–16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12–36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10–26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3–12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: −1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6–12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: −1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3–14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Conclusion: Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise. PMID:24172297

  15. Effects of very-low-calorie diet on body composition, metabolic state, and genes expression: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merra, G; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Barrucco, S; Perrone, M A; Avolio, E; Bernardini, S; Marchetti, M; Di Renzo, L

    2017-01-01

    Very low-calorie diets (VLCDs, Ketogenic diet (KD) are generally used as part of integrated intervention, medical monitoring and a program of lifestyle modification, to improve a multitude of clinical states. The effect of three different very low calories KD (VLCKD), with (VLCKD1) or without (VLCKD2,3) synthetic amino acid replacement of the 50% protein intake, were analyzed after weight loss. The clinical study used a cross-over randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Obese subjects, who were eligible for the study, were randomly (R) divided into three groups: one intervention group (IG) and two control groups (CG1 and CG2). We comprehensively analyzed body composition, serum metabolites, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NfKB), Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2) gene expression. After VLDKDs a significant decreased in BMI was observed. TBF (kg) significantly decrease after VLCKD1 and VLCKD3. After VLCKD2, a reduction of waist circumference (p = 0.02), FM L2-L5 (p < 0.05) was observed. After VLCKD1 reduction of IMAT (p = 0.00), LDL-C (p = 0.00) and HDL-C (p = 0.00) were observed. No significant changes of GH, ESR, and fibrinogen were highlighted. CRP (p = 0.02) reduced significantly after VLCKD3. Significant modulation of SOD1 expression (p = 0.009), CRP and decrease of glucose levels (p = 0.03) were obtained after VLCKD3. This is the first study that analyzes comprehensively body composition, metabolic profile, and inflammation and oxidative stress genes expression after VLCKD. Our results show the efficacy of VLCKD with synthetic aminoacidic protein replacement, for the reduction of cardiovascular risk, without the development of sarcopenia and activation of inflammatory and oxidative processes.

  16. Very Low-Calorie Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LCD)). VLCDs may be used to promote rapid weight loss among adults who have obesity. Health care providers must review risks and benefits ... with some adolescents who are being treated for obesity. Not much is known ... weight loss among older adults. Some people over age 50 may have medical ...

  17. Effects of short-term very low-calorie diet on intramyocellular lipid and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Newcomer, Bradley R; Rowell, Jennifer; Wallace, Penny; Shaughnessy, Sara M; Munoz, A Julian; Shiflett, Alanna M; Rigsby, Dana Y; Lawrence, Jeannine C; Bohning, Daryl E; Buchthal, Steven; Garvey, W Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects of a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD) on intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), total body fat, and insulin sensitivity in a group of obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Seven untreated type 2 diabetic and 5 obese nondiabetic individuals were studied before and after a 6-day VLCD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify IMCL, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess body fat, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity. In both groups, decrements in total body fat mass and body mass index were small but statistically significant. In contrast, the diet resulted in a pronounced reduction in IMCL compared with baseline values in nondiabetic subjects (56% decrease) and type 2 diabetic subjects (40% decrease) (P increase in maximally stimulated glucose disposal rate (P lipid was significantly correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.69, P insulin sensitivity was related to measures of general adiposity such as body mass index, percentage of body fat, or total body fat (P = not significant). In conclusion, short-term VLCD is accompanied by small decrements in general adiposity, marked decrease in IMCL, and an increase in insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore, rapid amelioration of insulin resistance by VLCD can be partially explained by loss of IMCL both in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects in the absence of substantial changes in total body fat. These observations are consistent with the idea that insulin resistance is more directly related to IMCL rather than to body fat per se.

  18. Proteomic analysis in type 2 diabetes patients before and after a very low calorie diet reveals potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Sleddering

    Full Text Available Very low calorie diets (VLCD with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to uncover possible biomarkers associated with these interventions, blood samples were collected from 27 obese type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 16-week VLCD (Modifast ∼ 450 kcal/day. Thirteen of these patients followed an exercise program in addition to the VCLD. Plasma was obtained from 27 lean and 27 obese controls as well. Proteomic analysis was performed using mass spectrometry (MS and targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM and a large scale isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ approach. After the 16-week VLCD, there was a significant decrease in body weight and HbA1c in all patients, without differences between the two intervention groups. Targeted MRM analysis revealed differences in several proteins, which could be divided in diabetes-associated (fibrinogen, transthyretin, obesity-associated (complement C3, and diet-associated markers (apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-IV. To further investigate the effects of exercise, large scale iTRAQ analysis was performed. However, no proteins were found showing an exercise effect. Thus, in this study, specific proteins were found to be differentially expressed in type 2 diabetes patients versus controls and before and after a VLCD. These proteins are potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN76920690.

  19. Two days of a very low calorie diet reduces endogenous glucose production in obese type 2 diabetic patients despite the withdrawal of blood glucose-lowering therapies including insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jazet, Ingrid M.; Pijl, Hanno; Frölich, Marijke; Romijn, Johannes A.; Meinders, A. Edo

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering effect of a 2-day very low calorie diet (VLCD; 1890 kJ/d) in combination with the cessation of all blood glucose-lowering agents was studied in 12 (7 women, 5 men) obese (body mass index, 36.3 +/- 1.0 kg/m 2 [mean +/- SEM]) type 2 diabetic patients (age,

  20. Serum preadipocyte factor-1 concentrations in females with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the influence of very low calorie diet, acute hyperinsulinemia, and fenofibrate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalkova, P; Touskova, V; Roubicek, T; Trachta, P; Urbanova, M; Drapalova, J; Haluzikova, D; Mraz, M; Novak, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinova, Z; Haluzik, M

    2013-10-01

    Appropriate differentiation capacity of adipose tissue significantly affects its ability to store lipids and to protect nonadipose tissues against lipid spillover and development of insulin resistance. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is an important negative regulator of preadipocyte differentiation. The aim of our study was to explore the changes in circulating Pref-1 concentrations in female subjects with obesity (OB) (n=19), females with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n=22), and sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects (C) (n=22), and to study its modulation by very low calorie diet (VLCD), acute hyperinsulinemia during isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and 3 months' treatment with PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate. At baseline, serum Pref-1 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with T2DM compared to control group, while only nonsignificant trend towards higher levels was observed in OB group. 3 weeks of VLCD decreased Pref-1 levels in both OB and T2DM group, whereas 3 months of fenofibrate treatment had no significant effect. Hyperinsulinemia during the clamp significantly suppressed Pref-1 levels in both C and T2DM subjects and this suppression was unaffected by fenofibrate treatment. In a combined population of all groups, circulating Pref-1 levels correlated positively with insulin, leptin and glucose levels and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) index. We conclude that elevated Pref-1 concentrations in T2DM subjects may contribute to impaired adipose tissue differentiation capacity associated with insulin resistance in obese patients with T2DM. The decrease of Pref-1 levels after VLCD may be involved in the improvement of metabolic status and the amelioration of insulin resistance in T2DM patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-09-19

    Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m(-)(2) participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both Pdiet group (Pdiet group declined at last follow-up. The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients.

  2. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS). PCOS (n=508) and non-PCOS (n=508) participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit) and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit). A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137) and non-PCOS participants (n=137) (-18.5±6.6 kg vs -19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190). Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08). Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight loss in PCOS.

  3. Effect of DHA supplementation in a very low-calorie ketogenic diet in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel; Domingo, Joan Carles; Izaola, Olatz; Casanueva, Felipe F; Bellido, Diego; Sajoux, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    A VLCK diet supplemented with DHA, commercially available, was tested against an isocaloric VLCK diet without DHA. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of DHA supplementation in classic cardiovascular risk factors, adipokine levels, and inflammation-resolving eicosanoids. A total of obese patients were randomized into two groups: a group supplemented with DHA (n = 14) (PnK-DHA group) versus a group with an isocaloric diet free of supplementation (n = 15) (control group). The follow-up period was 6 months. The average weight loss after 6 months of treatment was 20.36 ± 5.02 kg in control group and 19.74 ± 5.10 kg in PnK-DHA group, without statistical differences between both groups. The VLCK diets induced a significant change in some of the biological parameters, such as insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, resistin, TNF alpha, and leptin. Following DHA supplementation, the DHA-derived oxylipins were significantly increased in the intervention group. The ratio of proresolution/proinflammatory lipid markers was increased in plasma of the intervention group over the entire study. Similarly, the mean ratios of AA/EPA and AA/DHA in erythrocyte membranes were dramatically reduced in the PnK-DHA group and the anti-inflammatory fatty acid index (AIFAI) was consistently increased after the DHA treatment (p DHA was significantly superior in the anti-inflammatory effect, without statistical differences in weight loss and metabolic improvement.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight (ID 1410), reduction in the sense of hunger (ID 1411), reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight, reduction in the sense of hunger, reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses, and maintenance of normal blood lipid profile. The scientific substantiation...... is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The diet that is the subject of the claims is "very low calorie diet (VLCD) program". The Panel considers...... that whereas the diet that is the subject of the claim, very low calorie diet, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the following claimed effects: reduction in body weight (ID 1410), reduction in the sense of hunger (ID 1411), and reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass (ID 1412...

  5. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikokavoura EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods: The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS. Results: PCOS (n=508 and non-PCOS (n=508 participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit. A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137 and non-PCOS participants (n=137 (–18.5±6.6 kg vs –19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190. Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08. Conclusion: Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight

  6. Angiopoietin-like protein 6 in patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and anorexia nervosa: The influence of very low-calorie diet, bariatric surgery, and partial realimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinkajzlova, Anna; Lacinova, Zdenka; Klouckova, Jana; Kavalkova, Petra; Trachta, Pavel; Kosak, Mikulas; Haluzikova, Denisa; Papezova, Hana; Mraz, Milos; Haluzík, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 6 (ANGPTL6) is a circulating protein with a potential role in energy homeostasis. The aim of the study was to explore the changes in ANGPTL6 levels in patients with obesity (Body mass index, BMI > 40 kg/m 2 ) with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing dietary intervention (very low calorie diet - VLCD) and in a subgroup of T2DM patients after bariatric surgery. Additionally, we examined changes in ANGPTL6 in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients at baseline and after partial realimentation. We also explored the changes in ANGPTL6 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of obese subjects. The study included 23 non-diabetic obese patients, 40 obese patients with T2DM (27 underwent VLCD and 13 underwent bariatric surgery), 22 patients with AN, and 37 healthy control subjects. ANGPTL6 levels of AN patients were increased relative to the control group (68.6 ± 9.9 ng/ml) and decreased from 110.2 ± 13.3 to 73.6 ± 7.1 ng/ml (p = 0.004) after partial realimentation. Baseline ANGPTL6 levels in patients with obesity and T2DM did not differ from the control group. VLCD decreased ANGPTL6 levels only in obese patients with T2DM. Bariatric surgery induced a transient elevation of ANGPTL6 levels with a subsequent decrease to baseline levels. ANGPTL6 mRNA expression transiently increased after bariatric surgery and returned to baseline levels after 12 months. Collectively, our data suggest that serum ANGPTL6 levels and ANGPTL6 mRNA expression in SAT are affected by metabolic disorders and their treatment but do not appear to directly reflect nutritional status.

  7. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  8. [Results of PROMESA I study; efficacy and safety of a very low calorie diet application and following alimentary reeducation with the PronoKal® method in the treatment of excess of weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Riquelme, Amparo; Sajoux, Ignacio; Fondevila, Joan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy in the reduction of weight with a cetogenic very low calorie diet followed by alimentary reeducation according to the PronoKal® method in patients with overweight and obesity, and the safety during the procedure. Retrospective, observational and multicentre study where the patient's descriptive variables, variables related with the ponderal change, abdominal waist circumference, and general biochemistry were statistically analysed at the end of each treatment stages, and the adverse events referred at each visit during the treatment. From the 426 evaluable cases, 62.3% of the patients were obese. The 16.7% had hyperlipemia, the 2.3% type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the 4.8% arterial hypertension. At the end of treatment, the mean weight lost was 17.1 ± 8.0 kg (p < 0.001), with a BMI reduction of 6.2 ± 3.0 kg/m2. The 54.2% of the patients achieved the status of normoweight (35.9% of obese patients), higher in women than in men (62.5% vs 28.2%, respectively; p < 0.001). Waist perimeter was reduced in 17.3 ± 9.5 cm. There was an improvement in all laboratory variables in diabetic, hypertensive and dyslipemic patients, reaching statistical significance (p < 0.05) in glucose reduction (28.8%) in diabetics, in glucose (12.7%) and cholesterol (14.5%) reduction in hypertensive, and in glucose (11.7%), total cholesterol (14.5%), LDL cholesterol (11.3%) and triglycerides (37.9%) reduction in dyslipemics. The presence of adverse events was reported in 23.7% of patients, mainly constipation (23.9%). The PronoKal® method is an effective and safe method of excess weight approach, when it is done at completion and under a strict multidisciplinary medical control, improving different cardiovascular risk parameters. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Do flavonoid intakes of postmenopausal women with breast cancer vary on very low fat diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna; Peterson, Julia; Winters, Barbara; Liu, Weiqing; Mitchell, Diane C; Atkinson, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In the Women's Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS), a very low-fat eating pattern decreased breast cancer recurrence. We assessed whether the women's flavonoid intakes varied on the very low fat diet. A total of 550 randomly selected WINS participants who had been treated with conventional therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation) for primary breast cancer were randomized to either a very low fat diet (15% of calories from fat, N = 218) or their usual diets (30% calories from fat, N = 332). We compared their intakes of total flavonoids and 6 flavonoid classes (isoflavones, flavones, flavanones, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) for these 2 groups using the U.S. Department of Agriculture food flavonoid database and a flavonoid dietary supplement database on three 24-h dietary recalls at baseline and 12 mo after randomization. At baseline, neither mean fat intakes (31.7% +/- 6.8 SD of calories, n = 332 in the usual diet group and 31.6% +/- 6.8 SD of calories, n = 218 in the very low fat diet group; P = NS) nor flavonoid intakes (218 +/- 283 SD mg/day, n = 332 in the usual diet group and 236 +/- 393 SD mg/day, n = 218 in the very low fat diet group; P = NS) differed. Over half of the women's flavonoid intakes were from the flavan-3-ols. After 12 months of intervention, with 39 participants lost to follow-up, dietary fat intakes were 30.7 +/- 8.4 SD calories (n = 316) among those on their usual diets but were significantly lower among those on the very low fat diet intervention: 21.4 +/- 8.3 SD calories (n = 195), P = flavonoid intakes remained similar in both groups (201 +/- 252 SD mg/day, n = 316 in the usual diet group vs. 235 +/- 425 SD mg/day, n = 195 in the very low fat group; P = NS). In this random sample of WINS participants, neither total flavonoid intakes nor intakes of subclasses of flavonoids differed between those who had dramatically decreased their fat intakes and those who had not. Flavonoid intakes are therefore unlikely to account

  10. Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Emke, Stacey R; Weidner, Gerdi; Pettengill, Elaine B; Marlin, Ruth O; Chi, Christine; Ornish, Dean M

    2005-09-01

    This study assessed the nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. Thirty-nine men (mean age=65 years) with early stage prostate cancer who chose the "watchful waiting" approach to disease management, were instructed by a registered dietitian and a chef on following a very low-fat (10%) vegan diet with the addition of a fortified soy protein powdered beverage. Three-day food diaries, excluding vitamin and mineral supplements, were analyzed and nutrient values were compared against Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mean dietary intake met the recommended DRIs. On the basis of the Adequate Intake standard, a less than adequate intake was observed for vitamin D. This demonstrates that a very low-fat vegan diet with comprehensive nutrition education emphasizing nutrient-fortified plant foods is nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation, especially for those with limited sun exposure, can help assure nutritional adequacy.

  11. A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saslow, Laura R; Kim, Sarah; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, Judith T; Phinney, Stephen D; Goldman, Veronica; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Cox, Rachel M; Moran, Patricia; Hecht, Fredrick M

    2014-01-01

    ...) consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18) or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16...

  12. Skeletal muscle structural lipids improve during weight-maintenance after a very low calorie dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Vaag, Allan; Mu, Huiling

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate in a group of obese subjects the course in skeletal muscle phospholipid (SMPL) fatty acids (FA) during a 24-weeks weight maintenance program, which was preceded by a successful very low calorie dietary intervention (VLCD). Special focus was addressed...... to SMPL omega-3 FA, which is a lipid entity that influences insulin action. METHODS: Nine obese subjects (BMI = 35.7 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2)), who had completed an 8 weeks VLCD (weight-loss = -9.7 +/- 1.6 kg, P ...-maintenance program five subjects received the pancreas lipase inhibitor Orlistat 120 mg t.i.d. versus placebo. RESULTS: HOMA-IR and HbA1c stabilized and SMPL total omega-3 FA, docosahexaenoic acid and ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA increased by 24% (P

  13. LIMITED CARBOHYDRATE REFEEDING INSTRUCTION FOR LONG-TERM WEIGHT MAINTENANCE FOLLOWING A KETOGENIC, VERY-LOW-CALORIE MEAL PLAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Julia J; Bena, James; Kannan, Subramanian; Kim, Jennifer; Burguera, Bartolome; Kashyap, Sangeeta R

    2017-06-01

    Weight-loss maintenance following very-low-calorie meal plans is poorly studied. This report describes weight-loss efficacy and predictors of weight-loss maintenance of a ketogenic, very-low-calorie meal plan (protein-sparing modified fast, PSMF) in people with obesity. A total of 127 consecutive adults in the PSMF meal plan (27.2 ± 19.5 weeks) and 48 adults on a conventional, hypocaloric meal plan (23.6 ± 20.8 weeks) were retrospectively studied for percent weight change from baseline to end of intervention and at 6, 12, and 24 months postintervention. Baseline factors were analyzed for correlations with weight-loss maintenance. At end of intervention, weight loss from baseline was greater for the PSMF group compared to the conventional intervention group (-12.4% vs. -2.6%; Pmaintenance up to 2 years after initial weight loss. BMI = body mass index; PSMF = protein-sparing modified fast.

  14. A Randomized Pilot Trial of a Moderate Carbohydrate Diet Compared to a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet in Overweight or Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus or Prediabetes: e91027

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura R Saslow; Sarah Kim; Jennifer J Daubenmier; Judith T Moskowitz; Stephen D Phinney; Veronica Goldman; Elizabeth J Murphy; Rachel M Cox; Patricia Moran; Fredrick M Hecht

    2014-01-01

    ...) consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18) or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16...

  15. Low calorie dieting increases cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Mann, Traci; Vinas, Danielle; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Dejager, Jill; Taylor, Shelley E

    2010-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting--monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake--on psychological and biological stress indicators. In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) x 2 (restricting vs. not) fully crossed, controlled experiment, 121 female participants were assigned randomly to one of four dietary interventions for 3 weeks. The monitoring + restricting condition tracked their caloric intake and restricted their caloric intake (1200 kcal/day); the monitoring only condition tracked their caloric intake but ate normally; the restricting only condition was provided 1200 kcal/day of food but did not track their calories, and the control group ate normally and did not track their intake. Before and after the interventions, participants completed measures of perceived stress and 2 days of diurnal saliva sampling to test for cortisol. Restricting calories increased the total output of cortisol, and monitoring calories increased perceived stress. Dieting may be deleterious to psychological well-being and biological functioning, and changes in clinical recommendations may be in order.

  16. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary

    2002-02-01

    To demonstrate the effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single-blind dietary intervention study. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: This study evaluated the influence of a 4-week, very low-fat (approximately 10%), vegan diet on 24 free-living subjects with RA, average age, 56 +/- 11 years old. Prestudy and poststudy assessment of RA symptomatology was performed by a rheumatologist blind to the study design. Biochemical measures and 4-day diet data were also collected. Subjects met weekly for diet instruction, compliance monitoring, and progress assessments. There were significant (p 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05). This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.

  17. Counting Calories in Drosophila Diet Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  18. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

    OpenAIRE

    De Paoli, A.; RUBINI, A.; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases...

  19. A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Kim, Sarah; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, Judith T; Phinney, Stephen D; Goldman, Veronica; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Cox, Rachel M; Moran, Patricia; Hecht, Fredrick M

    2014-01-01

    We compared the effects of two diets on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other health-related outcomes in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (HbA1c>6%). We randomized participants to either a medium carbohydrate, low fat, calorie-restricted, carbohydrate counting diet (MCCR) consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18) or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16). We excluded participants receiving insulin; 74% were taking oral diabetes medications. Groups met for 13 sessions over 3 months and were taught diet information and psychological skills to promote behavior change and maintenance. At 3 months, mean HbA1c level was unchanged from baseline in the MCCR diet group, while it decreased 0.6% in the LCK group; there was a significant between group difference in HbA1c change favoring the LCK group (-0.6%, 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.03%, p = 0.04). Forty-four percent of the LCK group discontinued one or more diabetes medications, compared to 11% of the MCCR group (p = 0.03); 31% discontinued sulfonylureas in the LCK group, compared to 5% in the MCCR group (p = 0.05). The LCK group lost 5.5 kg vs. 2.6 kg lost in MCCR group (p = 0.09). Our results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713764.

  20. A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Saslow

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of two diets on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and other health-related outcomes in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (HbA1c>6%. We randomized participants to either a medium carbohydrate, low fat, calorie-restricted, carbohydrate counting diet (MCCR consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18 or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16. We excluded participants receiving insulin; 74% were taking oral diabetes medications. Groups met for 13 sessions over 3 months and were taught diet information and psychological skills to promote behavior change and maintenance. At 3 months, mean HbA1c level was unchanged from baseline in the MCCR diet group, while it decreased 0.6% in the LCK group; there was a significant between group difference in HbA1c change favoring the LCK group (-0.6%, 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.03%, p = 0.04. Forty-four percent of the LCK group discontinued one or more diabetes medications, compared to 11% of the MCCR group (p = 0.03; 31% discontinued sulfonylureas in the LCK group, compared to 5% in the MCCR group (p = 0.05. The LCK group lost 5.5 kg vs. 2.6 kg lost in MCCR group (p = 0.09. Our results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713764.

  1. Low calorie dieting increases cortisol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Mann, Traci; Vinas, Danielle; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Dejager, Jill; Taylor, Shelley E

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain...

  2. Low Calorie Dieting Increases Cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T.; Vinas, D; Hunger, JM; Dejager, J; Taylor, SE

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production-two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting-monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake-on psychological and biological stress indicators. METHODS: In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) × 2 (restricting vs. not) fully ...

  3. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-08-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand.

  4. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, A; Rubini, A; Volek, J S; Grimaldi, K A

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-carbohydrate diets or ketogenic diets have been in use since the 1920s as a therapy for epilepsy and can, in some cases, completely remove the need for medication. From the 1960s onwards they have become widely known as one of the most common methods for obesity treatment. Recent work over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many pathological conditions, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and the amelioration of respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The possibility that modifying food intake can be useful for reducing or eliminating pharmaceutical methods of treatment, which are often lifelong with significant side effects, calls for serious investigation. This review revisits the meaning of physiological ketosis in the light of this evidence and considers possible mechanisms for the therapeutic actions of the ketogenic diet on different diseases. The present review also questions whether there are still some preconceived ideas about ketogenic diets, which may be presenting unnecessary barriers to their use as therapeutic tools in the physician's hand. PMID:23801097

  5. Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During very low carbohydrate intake, the regulated and controlled production of ketone bodies causes a harmless physiological state known as dietary ketosis. Ketone bodies flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues (e.g., brain for use as a fuel; this spares glucose metabolism via a mechanism similar to the sparing of glucose by oxidation of fatty acids as an alternative fuel. In comparison with glucose, the ketone bodies are actually a very good respiratory fuel. Indeed, there is no clear requirement for dietary carbohydrates for human adults. Interestingly, the effects of ketone body metabolism suggest that mild ketosis may offer therapeutic potential in a variety of different common and rare disease states. Also, the recent landmark study showed that a very-low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. Contrary to popular belief, insulin is not needed for glucose uptake and utilization in man. Finally, both muscle fat and carbohydrate burn in an amino acid flame.

  6. State of the science: VLED (Very Low Energy Diet) for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbridge, Elizabeth; Proietto, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    It is often stated, "the faster you lose weight, the faster it is regained ". A review of existing literature does not support such a statement--indeed if anything the reverse is true. The origins of this erroneous view are the misconceptions that weight regain is a simple matter of bad dietary and social habits and that it takes time to change these, that physiological adaptations to rapid weight loss are different to those of gradual weight loss and that weight regain is simply due to a return to old habits. Indeed there are many advantages to rapid weight loss achieved with the use of a modern very low energy diet, including the fact that rapid weight loss is a motivating factor, that the mild ketosis that occurs not only suppresses hunger, but also slows protein loss and that adherence is easier with a structured dietary regime. VLEDs are dietary preparations that provide all nutritional requirements together with between 1845 and 3280 KJ (450 and 800 Kcal) per day. An individual takes this meal replacement three times daily as a substitute for breakfast, lunch and dinner. In addition, a bowl of non-starchy vegetables once daily provides some fibre and helps to satisfy the social aspect of eating. A teaspoon of oil on the vegetables contracts the gall bladder to minimise the risk of gall stone formation. Since weight loss, at whatever rate, results in physiological adaptations leading to weight regain, careful attention must be paid to the period after the VLED regime is completed. Lifestyle modification, diet and exercise are instituted optimally with behaviour modification. If, despite the subject's best efforts, weight regain occurs, an appetite suppressant is advisable to help control the drive to eat.

  7. A 2-Week Course of Enteral Treatment with a Very Low-Calorie Protein-Based Formula for the Management of Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Castaldo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple weight loss failures among obese patients suggest the design of new therapeutic strategies. We investigated the role of 2-week course of enteral treatment with a very low-calorie protein-based formula in the management of severe obesity. Methods. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of 2-week continuous administration of a protein-based formula (1.2 g/kg of ideal body weight/day by nasogastric tube in severely obese adults (body mass index (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. Results. In total, 364 patients (59% women; BMI = 46.6±7.2 kg/m2 were recruited. The intervention was discontinued within 48 hours in 26 patients, due to nasogastric tube intolerance. No serious adverse events occurred. During the first and the second week, 65% and 80% patients, respectively, reported no side effects. All biochemical safety parameters were affected by the intervention, particularly uric acid (+45% and aminotransferases (+48%. In the other cases the change was negligible. We observed significant weight loss (5.7±2.3% and improvement in blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism parameters (P<0.001. Conclusions. A 2-week course of enteral treatment with a very low-calorie protein-based formula appeared a feasible, likely safe, and efficacious therapeutic option to be considered for inclusion into a composite weight loss program for the management of severe obesity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01965990.

  8. Liver and gallbladder disease before and after very-low-calorie diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T

    1992-01-01

    inflammation and fibrosis are prevalent findings, also in the absence of alcohol abuse. The liver plays a key role in the hyperinsulinism and hyperlipidemia, and hepatic drug metabolism is influenced by enhanced glucuronidation and sulphatation. Predisposition to gallstone formation can be ascribed...... of gallstone formation is markedly increased. The deleterious effects described of a rapid weight loss should draw some attention to the liver and biliary tract during VLCD treatment....

  9. The Use of Very Low Calorie Diets in the Management of Type 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glycaemic control can improve without weight loss.13 Arguably, the most pronounced effects of weight loss on glycaemic control are seen following bariatric surgery. Early research showed that the rates of diabetes remission were nearly 90% 10 years after bariatric surgery.14. Research at the time associated diabetes ...

  10. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  11. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damms-Machado, Antje; Weser, Gesine; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2012-01-01

    .... Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals...

  12. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  13. Effects on plasma lipids and fatty acid composition of very low fat diets enriched with fish or kangaroo meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, A J; O'Dea, K; Dunstan, G; Ireland, P D; Niall, M

    1987-07-01

    The effects of very low fat diets (less than 7% energy) enriched with different sources of long chain (C20 and C22) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on plasma lipid levels and plasma fatty acid composition were studied in 13 healthy volunteers. Three diets provided 500 g/day of tropical Australian fish (rich in arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), southern Australian fish (rich in docosahexaenoic acid) or kangaroo meat (rich in linoleic and arachidonic acids). The fourth diet was vegetarian, similarly low in fat but containing no 20- and 22-carbon PUFA. Subjects ate their normal or usual diets on weeks 1 and 4 and the very low fat diets in weeks 2 and 3. Weighed food intake records were kept, and weeks 2, 3 and 4 were designed to be isoenergetic with week 1. Plasma cholesterol levels fell significantly on all diets within one week. There were reductions in both low density (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, with effects on HDL cholesterol being more consistent. There were no consistent or significant effects on total triglyceride levels despite the high carbohydrate content of the diets. On all diets the percentage of linoleic acid fell in the plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fractions, while the percentage of palmitic acid in the phospholipids and cholesteryl esters and palmitoleic acid in the cholesteryl ester fraction rose on all diets. The percentage of arachidonic acid rose in the phospholipid and cholesteryl esters on the two diets that were good sources of this fatty acid (tropical fish and kangaroo meat).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Users of 'diet' drinks who think that sweetness is calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard P J; Booth, David A

    2010-08-01

    We present the first experiment that was based on a novel analysis of the mental processes of choice. Sensed material characteristics such as the sweetness of a drink and symbolic attributes such as the source of sweetness stated on the label are put into the same units of influence on the response. Most users of low-calorie drinks thought about the energy in a drink quite differently from the way they decided how sweet and how low in calories they liked the drink to be. Also the female diet drink users thought about energy content differently from most of the male users of sugar drinks. In both groups' ratings of likelihood of choice and in sugar drink users' estimates of energy content, sweetness and labelled calories were usually treated as separate stimuli or ideas. In contrast, some female diet drink users treated sweetness and perceived calories as the same, whereas no male sugar drink user did. Such findings illustrate how this approach spans the gap between sensory perception and conceptualised knowledge. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Severe hyperparathyroidism in a pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patient treated with a very low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Eriko; Akazawa, Masanobu; Noda, Yumi; Mandai, Shintaro; Naito, Shotaro; Ohta, Akihito; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei

    2012-03-01

    The present report describes a case of a 64-year-old pre-dialysis woman with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5, who developed severe hyperparathyroidism. This patient had been on a very low protein diet (VLPD) to delay the progression of CKD and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Her serum calcium levels were high-normal to slightly high during this time. However, her serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased from 400 to 1160 pg/ml rapidly over a period of 3 months. Serum 1,25-(OH)2D levels were low, and ultrasound of the neck showed three markedly enlarged parathyroid glands exceeding 2 cm. Parathyroidectomy was performed, and all glands showed nodular hyperplasia, which indicated severe secondary hyperparathyroidism leading to tertiary. Severe secondary hyperparathyroidism requiring surgical intervention is usually observed in patients with long-term RRT and is relatively rare in the pre-dialysis patient. In this case, extension of the pre-dialysis period by VLPD may have predisposed this patient to develop severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Thus, careful monitoring of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH may be necessary in patients treated with VLPD even before renal replacement therapy. Furthermore, initiation of dialysis should not be excessively delayed by strict protein restriction dietary therapy.

  16. Effect of a very low-energy diet on moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnoea: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we report two cases from our study in which we investigated the effect of a very low-energy diet (VLED) for 9 weeks followed by a weight maintenance program for a total duration of 1 year in obese men with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. The first case was a 43-year-old man with a body weight of 126 kg and a body mass index (BMI) of 38.8 kg/m(2) at baseline. Over the 1-year treatment program he lost 26% of his initial weight and his apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was improved by 60%. The second case was at baseline a 54-year-old man with a weight of 87 kg and BMI of 32.1 kg/m(2) . Over the 1-year treatment program he lost 10% of his initial weight and his AHI improved by 66%. In summary, treatment with a VLED followed by a weight maintenance program significantly improved obstructive sleep apnea in both cases. © 2011 The Author. Clinical Obesity © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat diet on mood and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Wilson, Carlene J

    2009-11-09

    Very low-carbohydrate (LC) diets are often used to promote weight loss, but the long-term effects on psychological function remain unknown. A total of 106 overweight and obese participants (mean [SE] age, 50.0 [0.8] years; mean [SE] body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 33.7 [0.4]) were randomly assigned either to an energy-restricted (approximately 1433-1672 kcal [to convert to kilojoules, multiply by 4.186]), planned isocaloric, very low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diet or to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (LF) diet for 1 year. Changes in body weight, psychological mood and well-being (Profile of Mood States, Beck Depression Inventory, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory scores), and cognitive functioning (working memory and speed of processing) were assessed. By 1 year, the overall mean (SE) weight loss was 13.7 (1.8) kg, with no significant difference between groups (P = .26). Over the course of the study, there were significant time x diet interactions for Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Profile of Mood States scores for total mood disturbance, anger-hostility, confusion-bewilderment, and depression-dejection (P mood states for the LF diet compared with the LC diet. Working memory improved by 1 year (P mood state and affect in overweight and obese individuals. Both diets had similar effects on working memory and speed of processing. Trial Registration anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12606000203550.

  18. Adherence and Outcomes of the Low and Very Low Protein Diets in Chronic Diabetic Kidney Disease – A Debate that Needs Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoru Ileana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Brenner`s theory of the „workload” in the remnant nephrons, due to the largely available access to the dialysis facilities, many patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD were given low-protein diets (LPDs apparently with great success. Four main diets are today accepted for achieving a balanced intake of 0.6 g protein/kg/day diet and together with a very low-protein diet of 0.3 g protein/kg/day with keto-analogues and amino-acids supplementation, known as keto-diet, are recommended in specific situations. Still, some questions have debatable answers and are waiting for more conclusive studies: are low and very low-protein diets (VLPDs really effective in diabetic CKD?; which LPD should be given? and what strategy should be used in order to get maximum compliance and best outcomes?

  19. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Vaag, Allan; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether a very-lowcalorie dietary intervention (VLCD) may influence composition of skeletal muscle cell membrane phospholipid and composition and concentration of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) in obese subjects. The working hypothesis proposed that a VLCD...

  20. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damms-Machado Antje

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is higher in obese individuals compared to normal-weight people, probably because of inadequate eating habits but also due to increased demands among overweight persons, which are underestimated by dietary reference intakes (DRI intended for the general population. We therefore evaluated the dietary micronutrient intake in obese individuals compared to a reference population and DRI recommendations. Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals. Methods In 104 subjects baseline micronutrient intake was determined by dietary record collection. A randomly assigned subgroup of subjects (n = 32 underwent a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet over a period of three months. Pre- and post-interventional intracellular micronutrient status in buccal mucosa cells (BMC was analyzed, as well as additional micronutrient serum concentrations in 14 of the subjects. Results Prior to dietetic intervention, nutrition was calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor. Baseline deficiencies in serum concentrations were observed for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, vitamin C, selenium, iron, as well as ß-carotene, vitamin C, and lycopene in BMC. After a three-month period of formula diet even more subjects had reduced micronutrient levels of vitamin C (serum, BMC, zinc, and lycopene. There was a significant negative correlation between lipophilic serum vitamin concentrations and body fat, as well as between iron and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The present pilot study shows that micronutrient deficiency occurring in obese individuals is not corrected by protein-rich formula diet containing vitamins and minerals according to DRI. In contrast, micronutrient levels remain low or become even lower, which might be explained by insufficient

  1. Aging, longevity, and diet: historical remarks on calorie intake reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The link between longevity and diet is of great interest to biological and gerontological research. The fact that relevant knowledge has generally been available for many centuries is often not remarked upon. This article examines three aspects of early modern Western medicine which thematize the following links between the elderly, longevity and caloric intake: (1) the question of a diet specifically tailored to old age as background to certain theories of aging; (2) the transfer of these dietetic concepts to younger patients in order to improve health and extend life, and (3) the promotion of dieting in order to avoid the consequences of plethora and to retard the aging process. A number of Latin texts from premodern medical and health literature will be examined and their contents will be analyzed for material relating to diet for the elderly and longevity in their historic contexts. We will clearly indicate fundamental parallels as well as differences between historic and modern scientific thought. We will thereby show that although a modern understanding of hormones and molecular genetics was obviously lacking, basic knowledge of the influence of nutrition on old age was prevalent. In contrast, the early modern lay concept of longevity through calorie reduction was based on coincidental observation. These premodern, but nonetheless rational ideas must be integrated into the socio-cultural setting and the question must be raised as to the link between contemporary research aims and social reality. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet and an isocaloric low-fat diet on bone health in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Wycherley, Thomas P; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Compromised bone health is a frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate (LC) diets, although limited data are available from long-term, well-controlled, randomized studies. This study compared the effects of an energy-restricted LC diet and traditional, higher-carbohydrate, low-fat (LF) diet on bone health after 12 mo. One hundred eighteen abdominally obese adults were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted (∼6-7 MJ/d [∼1450-1650 kcal/d]), planned isocaloric LC, or LF diet for 12 mo. Body weight, total body bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD), and serum bone crosslaps were assessed pre- and postintervention. Sixty-five participants completed the study (LC = 32, LF = 33; age: 51.3 ± 7.1 y; BMI: 33.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2)). Weight loss was similar in both groups (LC: -14.5 ± 9.8 kg, LF: -11.7 ± 7.3 kg; P = 0.26). By 1 y, total body bone mineral content had not changed in either group (LC: 2.84 ± 0.47 to 2.88 ± 0.49 kg, LF: 3.00 ± 0.52 to 3.00 ± 0.51 kg; P = 0.07 time × diet effect). In both groups, total body BMD decreased (LC: 1.26 ± 0.10 to 1.22 ± 0.09 g/cm(2), LF: 1.26 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.08 g/m(2); P Weight loss following a hypocaloric LC diet compared with an LF diet does not differentially affect markers of bone health over 12 mo in overweight and obese adults. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Restricted calorie ketogenic diet for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph; Bost, Jeffrey; Amos, Austin; Zuccoli, Giulio

    2013-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults and generally considered to be universally fatal. Glioblastoma multiforme accounts for 12% to 15% of all intracranial neoplasms and affects 2 to 3 adults per every 100,000 in the United States annually. In children glioblastoma multiforme accounts for only approximately 7% to 9% of central nervous system tumors. The mean survival rate in adults after diagnosis ranges from 12 to 18 months with standard therapy and 3 to 6 months without therapy. The prognosis in children is better compared to adult tumor onset with a mean survival of approximately 4 years following gross total surgical resection and chemotherapy. There have been few advances in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme in the past 40 years beyond surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and corticosteroids. For this reason a restrictive calorie ketogenic diet, similar to that used in children to control drug resistant seizure activity, has been advanced as an alternative adjunctive treatment to help prolonged survival. This article reviews the science of tumor metabolism and discusses the mechanism of calorie restriction, cellular energy metabolism, and how dietary induced ketosis can inhibit cancer cell's energy supply to slow tumor growth.

  4. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  5. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    James Anthony P; Keogh Jennifer B; Foster Paul R; Noakes Manny; Mamo John C; Clifton Peter M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly al...

  6. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity.

  7. Minimization of Food Cost on 2000-Calorie Diabetic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Mercado, J.; Tampis, R. L.

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on minimization of food cost that satisfies the daily nutrients required based on 2000-calorie diet for a diabetic person. This paper attempts to provide a food combination that satisfies the daily nutrient requirements of a diabetic person and its lowest possible dietary food cost. A linear programming diet model is used to determine the cheapest combination of food items that satisfy the recommended daily nutritional requirements of the diabetic persons. According to the findings, a 50 year old and above diabetic male need to spend a minimum of 72.22 pesos for foods that satisfy the daily nutrients they need. In order to attain the minimum spending, the foods must consist of 60.49 grams of anchovy, 91.24 grams of carrot, 121.92 grams of durian, 121.41 grams of chicken egg, 70.82 grams of pork (lean), and 369.70 grams of rice (well-milled). For a 50 year old and above diabetic female, the minimum spending is 64.65 pesos per day and the food must consist of 75.87 grams of anchovy, 43.38 grams of carrot, 160.46 grams of durian, 69.66 grams of chicken egg, 23.16 grams of pork (lean) and 416.19 grams of rice (well-milled).

  8. A randomised-controlled trial of the effects of very low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets on cognitive performance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Zajac, Ian T; Thompson, Campbell H; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Danthiir, Vanessa; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wittert, Gary A; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2016-11-23

    This study compared the longer-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In total, 115 obese adults with T2D (sixty-six males, BMI: 34·6 (sd 4·3) kg/m2, age: 58 (sd 7) years, HbA1c: 7·3 (sd 1·1) %, diabetes duration: 8 (sd 6) years) were randomised to consume either an energy-restricted, very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat (LC) diet or an energy-matched high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet with supervised aerobic/resistance exercise (60 min, 3 d/week) for 52 weeks. Body weight, HbA1c and cognitive performance assessing perceptual speed, reasoning speed, reasoning ability, working memory, verbal fluency, processing speed, short-term memory, inhibition and memory scanning speed were assessed before and after intervention. No differences in the changes in cognitive test performance scores between the diet groups were observed for any of the cognitive function outcomes assessed (P≥0·24 time×diet). Percentage reduction in body weight correlated with improvements with perceptual speed performance. In obese adults with T2D, both LC and HC weight-loss diets combined with exercise training had similar effects on cognitive performance. This suggests that an LC diet integrated within a lifestyle modification programme can be used as a strategy for weight and diabetes management without the concern of negatively affecting cognitive function.

  9. The effects of very low fat diets enriched with fish or kangaroo meat on cold-induced vasoconstriction and platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, L A; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J; Parkin, J D; Smith, I L; Blombery, P

    1990-03-01

    Eighteen healthy volunteers consumed very low fat diets (less than 7% of daily energy) enriched with different sources of long chain (C20 and C22) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Three diets provided 500 g/day of fish caught in the tropical waters of Australia (rich in arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), fish caught in the southern waters of Australia (rich in docosahexaenoic acid), or kangaroo meat (rich in linoleic and arachidonic acids). The fourth diet was vegetarian, similarly low in fat but containing no 20- and 22-carbon PUFA. An increase in the percentage of a particular C20 or C22 PUFA in the plasma phospholipid fraction in subjects consuming these low fat diets corresponded to the dietary PUFA composition. This study examined the effect of dietary modification of the level of arachidonic acid in plasma phospholipids on both traditional measures of platelet function and on cold-induced vasoconstriction. The cold pressor response, measured by venous occlusion plethysmography, was depressed in diets which elevated the levels of arachidonic acid in plasma lipids (kangaroo and tropical fish), enhanced after subjects consumed a diet which increased the levels of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (southern fish diet), and was unchanged by the low fat vegetarian diet. There was no effect on bleeding time or platelet responsiveness.

  10. A very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet improves glucose tolerance in ob/ob mice independently of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badman, Michael K; Kennedy, Adam R; Adams, Andrew C; Pissios, Pavlos; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2009-11-01

    In mice of normal weight and with diet-induced obesity, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) causes weight loss, reduced circulating glucose and lipids, and dramatic changes in hepatic gene expression. Many of the effects of KD are mediated by fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). We tested the effects of KD feeding on ob/ob mice to determine if metabolic effects would occur in obesity secondarily to leptin deficiency. We evaluated the effect of prolonged KD feeding on weight, energy homeostasis, circulating metabolites, glucose homeostasis, and gene expression. Subsequently, we evaluated the effects of leptin and fasting on FGF21 expression in ob/ob mice. KD feeding of ob/ob mice normalized fasting glycemia and substantially reduced insulin and lipid levels in the absence of weight loss. KD feeding was associated with significant increases in lipid oxidative genes and reduced expression of lipid synthetic genes, including stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, but no change in expression of inflammatory markers. In chow-fed ob/ob mice, FGF21 mRNA was elevated 10-fold compared with wild-type animals, and no increase from this elevated baseline was seen with KD feeding. Administration of leptin to chow-fed ob/ob mice led to a 24-fold induction of FGF21. Fasting also induced hepatic FGF21 in ob/ob mice. Thus, KD feeding improved ob/ob mouse glucose homeostasis without weight loss or altered caloric intake. These data demonstrate that manipulation of dietary macronutrient composition can lead to marked improvements in metabolic profile of leptin-deficient obese mice in the absence of weight loss.

  11. Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized trial of a moderate-carbohydrate versus very low-carbohydrate diet in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, Judith T; Kim, Sarah; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Phinney, Stephen D; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Goldman, Veronica; Cox, Rachel M; Mason, Ashley E; Moran, Patricia; Hecht, Frederick M

    2017-12-21

    Dietary treatment is important in management of type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, but uncertainty exists about the optimal diet. We randomized adults (n = 34) with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) > 6.0% and elevated body weight (BMI > 25) to a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (LCK) diet (n = 16) or a moderate-carbohydrate, calorie-restricted, low-fat (MCCR) diet (n = 18). All participants were encouraged to be physically active, get sufficient sleep, and practice behavioral adherence strategies based on positive affect and mindful eating. At 12 months, participants in the LCK group had greater reductions in HbA1c levels (estimated marginal mean (EMM) at baseline = 6.6%, at 12 mos = 6.1%) than participants in MCCR group (EMM at baseline = 6.9%, at 12 mos = 6.7%), p = .007. Participants in the LCK group lost more weight (EMM at baseline = 99.9 kg, at 12 mos = 92.0 kg) than participants in the MCCR group (EMM at baseline = 97.5 kg, at 12 mos = 95.8 kg), p < .001. The LCK participants experienced larger reductions in diabetes-related medication use; of participants who took sulfonylureas or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors at baseline, 6/10 in the LCK group discontinued these medications compared with 0/6 in the MCCR group (p = .005). In a 12-month trial, adults with elevated HbA1c and body weight assigned to an LCK diet had greater reductions in HbA1c, lost more weight, and reduced more medications than those instructed to follow an MCCR diet.

  12. Laser acupuncture and low-calorie diet during visceral obesity therapy after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Piotr; Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Piêta-Doliñska, Agnieszka; Oszukowski, Przemyslaw

    2003-01-01

    To compare the efficiency of low-calorie diet and low-calorie diet applied together with laser acupuncture in the therapy of visceral obesity in postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 74 postmenopausal females with visceral obesity who were divided into two groups according to an employed 6-month slimming procedure. In the first group (n = 36) a low-calorie diet was applied, while women in the second group (n = 38) were on the same kind of diet, having additionally one cycle of laser acupuncture procedure at the same time. At baseline and at the end of the study, body weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were determined in all women. After 6 trial months both groups exhibited a statistically significant drop in body weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The mean reduction of body weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio was significantly higher in the second group of women (laser acupuncture plus low-calorie diet). (1) Our results testify that the combination of a low-calorie diet and laser acupuncture is characterized by a higher efficacy than a low-calorie diet alone in lowering body weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip-ratio. (2) Laser acupuncture is an additional useful healing method in the therapy of visceral postmenopausal obesity.

  13. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schugar, Rebecca C; Huang, Xiaojing; Moll, Ashley R; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) that is very high in fat (~94% kcal), very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal), low in protein (~5% kcal), and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg) provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal) and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg). C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  14. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Schugar

    Full Text Available Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666 that is very high in fat (~94% kcal, very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal, low in protein (~5% kcal, and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg. C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  15. Effect of orlistat on weight regain and cardiovascular risk factors following a very-low-energy diet in abdominally obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richelsen, Bjørn; Tonstad, Serena; Rössner, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of orlistat on the maintenance of weight loss over 3 years following a major weight loss induced by very-low-energy diet (VLED) in obese patients with metabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, and diet-treated type 2 diabetes...... out of 156 subjects) (P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of orlistat to lifestyle intervention was associated with maintenance of an extra 2.4 kg weight loss after VLED for up to 3 years in obese subjects. The combination of orlistat and lifestyle intervention was associated with a reduced...... together with either orlistat 120 mg t.i.d. or matching placebo capsules. Primary end points were the maintenance of > or = 5% weight loss after 3 years. Additionally, differences in the development of type 2 diabetes between orlistat and placebo were analyzed. RESULTS: The VLED induced a mean weight loss...

  16. Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate weight loss diet on exercise capacity and tolerance in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2014-01-01

    Compare the long-term effects of an energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diet with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on exercise tolerance and capacity in overweight and obese adults. Seventy-six adults (25 males; age 49.2 ± 1.1 years; BMI 33.6 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized to either a hypocaloric (6-7 MJ/day) LC diet (35% protein, 4% carbohydrate, 61% fat) or isocaloric HC diet (24% protein, 46% carbohydrate, 30% fat) for 52 weeks. Pre- and postintervention, participants' body weight and composition, handgrip, and isometric knee extensor strength were assessed and participants performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Forty-three participants completed the study (LC = 23; HC = 20). Overall, peak relative oxygen uptake increased (+11.3%) and reductions occurred in body weight (-14.6%), body fat percentage (-6.9% [absolute]), isometric knee extensor strength (-12.4%), handgrip strength (-4.5%), and absolute peak oxygen uptake (-5.2%; p ≤ 0.02 time for all) with no diet effect (p ≥ 0.18). During submaximal exercise, rating of perceived exertion did not change in either group (p = 0.16 time, p = 0.59 Time × Group). Compared to the HC diet, the LC diet had greater reductions in respiratory exchange ratio (LC -0.04 ± 0.01, HC -0.00 ± 0.01; p = 0.03), and increased fat oxidation (LC 15.0 ± 5.3% [of energy expenditure], HC 0.5 ± 3.9%; p = 0.04). In overweight and obese patients, an LC diet promoted greater fat utilization during submaximal exercise. Both an LC diet and an HC diet had similar effects on aerobic capacity and muscle strength, suggesting that long-term consumption of an LC weight loss diet does not adversely affect physical function or the ability to perform exercise.

  17. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Js; Sharman, Mj; Gómez, Al; Judelson, DA; Rubin, Mr; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, Dn; Kraemer, Wj

    2004-11-08

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK) and low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight/obese men and women. DESIGN: Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day) diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%). SUBJECTS: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean +/- s.e.m.: age 33.2 +/- 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 +/- 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 +/- 1.1 kg/m2) and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 +/- 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 +/- 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 +/- 1.1 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and resting energy expenditure (REE) were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. RESULTS: Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28%) and the LF (~58:22:20%) were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day) compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day) diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake). The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the

  18. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  19. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, accounting for 85-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in terms of clinical outcomes on type 2 diabetes patients. However, the molecular events responsible for these improvements still remain unclear in spite of the high amount of knowledge on the primary mechanisms of both the diabetes and the metabolic state of ketosis. Molecular network analysis of conditions, diseases and treatments might provide new insights and help build a better understanding of clinical, metabolic and molecular relationships among physiological conditions. Accordingly, our aim is to reveal such a relationship between a ketogenic diet and type 2 diabetes through systems biology approaches. Methods Our systemic approach is based on the creation and analyses of the cell networks representing the metabolic state in a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. This global view might help identify unnoticed relationships often overlooked in molecule or process-centered studies. Results A strong relationship between the insulin resistance pathway and the ketosis main pathway was identified, providing a possible explanation for the improvement observed in clinical trials. Moreover, the map analyses permit the formulation of some hypothesis on functional relationships between the molecules involved in type 2 diabetes and induced ketosis, suggesting, for instance, a direct implication of glucose transporters or inflammatory processes. The molecular network analysis performed in the ketogenic-diet map, from the diabetes perspective, has provided insights on the potential mechanism of action, but also has opened new possibilities to study the applications of the ketogenic diet in other situations such as CNS or other metabolic dysfunctions. PMID:21143928

  20. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Jordi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, accounting for 85-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in terms of clinical outcomes on type 2 diabetes patients. However, the molecular events responsible for these improvements still remain unclear in spite of the high amount of knowledge on the primary mechanisms of both the diabetes and the metabolic state of ketosis. Molecular network analysis of conditions, diseases and treatments might provide new insights and help build a better understanding of clinical, metabolic and molecular relationships among physiological conditions. Accordingly, our aim is to reveal such a relationship between a ketogenic diet and type 2 diabetes through systems biology approaches. Methods Our systemic approach is based on the creation and analyses of the cell networks representing the metabolic state in a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. This global view might help identify unnoticed relationships often overlooked in molecule or process-centered studies. Results A strong relationship between the insulin resistance pathway and the ketosis main pathway was identified, providing a possible explanation for the improvement observed in clinical trials. Moreover, the map analyses permit the formulation of some hypothesis on functional relationships between the molecules involved in type 2 diabetes and induced ketosis, suggesting, for instance, a direct implication of glucose transporters or inflammatory processes. The molecular network analysis performed in the ketogenic-diet map, from the diabetes perspective, has provided insights on the potential mechanism of action, but also has opened new possibilities to study the applications of the ketogenic diet in other situations such as CNS or other metabolic dysfunctions.

  1. Very low-protein diet plus ketoacids in chronic kidney disease and risk of death during end-stage renal disease: a historical cohort controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Chiodini, Paolo; Cupisti, Adamasco; Viola, Battista Fabio; Pezzotta, Mauro; De Nicola, Luca; Minutolo, Roberto; Barsotti, Giuliano; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Very low-protein intake during chronic kidney disease (CKD) improves metabolic disorders and may delay dialysis start without compromising nutritional status, but concerns have been raised on a possible negative effect on survival during dialysis. This study aimed at evaluating whether a very low-protein diet during CKD is associated with a greater risk of death while on dialysis treatment. This is an historical, cohort, controlled study, enrolling patients at dialysis start previously treated in a tertiary nephrology clinic with a very low-protein diet supplemented with amino acids and ketoacids (s-VLPD group, n = 184) or without s-VLPD [tertiary nephrology care (TNC) group, n = 334] and unselected patients [control (CON) group, n = 9.092]. The major outcome was survival rate during end-stage renal disease associated to s-VLPD treatment during CKD. The propensity score methods and Cox regression model were used to match groups at the start of dialysis to perform survival analysis and estimate adjusted hazard ratio (HR). In s-VLPD, TNC and CON groups, average age was 67.5, 66.0 and 66.3 years, respectively (P = 0.521) and male prevalence was 55, 55 and 62%, respectively (P = 0.004). Diabetes prevalence differed in the three groups (P cardiovascular (CV) disease was found (P < 0.001), being similar in TNC and CON (31 and 25%) and higher in s-VLPD (41%). Median follow-up during renal replacement therapy (RRT) was 36, 32 and 36 months in the three groups. Adjusted HR estimated on matched propensity patients was 0.59 (0.45-0.78) for s-VLPD versus CON. Subgroup analysis showed a lower mortality risk in s-VLPD versus matched-CON in younger patients (<70 years) and those without CV disease. No significant difference in HRs was found between s-VLPD and TNC. s-VLPD during CKD does not increase mortality in the subsequent RRT period. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. The ketogenic diet: initiation at goal calories versus gradual caloric advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Seema; Cramp, Laura; Blalock, Dan; Zelleke, Tesfaye; Carpenter, Jessica; Kao, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Inpatient initiation of the ketogenic diet has historically involved fasting followed by gradual advancement of calories and/or diet ratio. Complications during this initiation period are common. We sought to determine if the initiation of the diet at goal calories would reduce these complications while maintaining efficacy. Sixty patients were admitted to a tertiary care hospital for elective initiation of the ketogenic diet between October 2007 and January 2013. All patients were placed on a ketogenic diet initiation pathway. In 2010, the pathway was modified from gradual caloric advancement to initiation at goal calories. We selected 30 consecutive patients before and after the change for comparison. Each child's record was reviewed for the occurrence of hypoglycemia, number of days to reach full ketosis (defined as 4 + urine ketones), acidosis requiring commencement of sodium citrate, length of admission, and long-term efficacy. Both methods of initiation had similar rates of dehydration, vomiting, lethargy, and irritability. More patients initiated at goal received sodium citrate (P = 0.005); however, mean daily values of carbon dioxide were not significantly different. Onset of ketosis was slightly delayed (P = 0.009) in patients initiated at goal, but length of stay was not affected (P > 0.1). Hypoglycemia was uncommon and rates were similar between the groups. Efficacy at 3 months was better in patients initiated at full calories (P ketogenic diet full calories is a reasonable alternative to the current standard practice of gradual advancement of calories and/or diet ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A predictive model of rats' calorie intake as a function of diet energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Treesukosol, Yada; Igusa, Takeru; Moran, Timothy H

    2018-01-17

    Easy access to high-energy food has been linked to high rates of obesity in the world. Understanding the way that access to palatable (high fat or high calorie) food can lead to overconsumption is essential for both preventing and treating obesity. Although the body of studies focused on the effects of high energy diets is growing, our understanding of how different factors contribute to food choices is not complete. In this study, we present a mathematical model that can predict rats' calorie intake to a high-energy diet based on their ingestive behavior to a standard chow diet. Specifically, we propose an equation that describes the relation between the body weight (W), energy density ( E), time elapsed from the start of diet ( T), and daily calorie intake ( C). We tested our model on two independent data sets. Our results show that the suggested model can predict the calorie intake patterns with high accuracy. Additionally, the only free parameter of our proposed equation ( ρ), which is unique to each animal, has a strong association with their calorie intake.

  4. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The "Nutritional Light Signal" of the Renal Acid Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca; On Behalf Of Ubi Study Group

    2017-01-17

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks-the "acid load dietary traffic light".

  5. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73

  6. High-calorie diet exacerbates prostate neoplasia in mice with haploinsufficiency of Pten tumor suppressor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehnan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: High-calorie diet promotes prostate cancer progression in the genetically susceptible Pten haploinsufficient mouse while preserving insulin sensitivity. This appears to be partly due to increased inflammatory response to high-caloric intake in addition to increased ability of insulin to promote lipogenesis.

  7. [The effectiveness of low-calorie diet or diet with acupuncture treatment in obese peri- and postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Piotr; Oszukowski, Przemysław; Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Szyłło, Krzysztof

    2003-02-01

    Our purpose was to compare the efficacy of low calorie diet and low calorie diet applied together with acupuncture in treatment of obesity in peri- and postmenopausal women. Sixty nine obese peri- and postmenopausal women qualified for hormone replacement therapy were divided into two groups. Women from the first group (n = 33) during six months used a low calorie slimming diet: 1000 kcal below daily energy requirement (1200-1500 kcal per day on the average), 5-6 meals a day, consisted of proteins in 10-15%, fat in 25% and carbohydrates in 60-65%. The second group (n = 36) during this period had the same kind of diet as well as one cycle of six-week acupuncture procedures. Each cycle consisted of 12 procedures (2 per week). Following acupuncture points were applied: -GV 20 (Baihui), CV 12 (Zhongwan), ST 36 (Zusanli), ST 21 (Liangmen), ST 25 (Tianshu), LIV3 (Taichong), LIV 13 (Zhangen), P 6 (Neiguan), H 7 (Shenmen); auriculotherapy--55 (Shenmen), 87 (Stomach). In the first group on the low calorie slimming diet mean body weight decreased from 85.48 +/- 8.48 kg to 77.07 +/- 7.7 kg (BMI dropped from 33.23 +/- 1.90 kg/m2 to 29.95 +/- 1.66 kg/m2) during six-week period (p acupuncture together with a low calorie diet) decreased mean body weight from 85.5 +/- 5.99 kg to 72.68 +/- 6.06 kg (BMI dropped from 33.54 +/- 1.77 kg/m2 to 28.51 +/- 2.00 kg/m2) at the same time (p acupuncture and slimming diet (12.81 +/- 2.85 kg and 5.03 +/- 1.08 kg/m2) than in the low calorie diet group (8.41 +/- 2.02 kg and 3.28 +/- 0.78 kg/m2); p acupuncture treatment in comparison to the low calorie therapy in the lowering of BMI and body weight. 2. Acupuncture seems to be an additional useful healing method in treatment of menopausal obesity.

  8. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Mason, Ashley E; Kim, Sarah; Goldman, Veronica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bayandorian, Hovig; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2017-02-13

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend. The aim was to determine whether an online intervention based on our previous recommendations (an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet with lifestyle factors; "intervention") or an online diet program based on the American Diabetes Associations' "Create Your Plate" diet ("control") would improve glycemic control and other health outcomes among overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this pilot feasibility study, we randomized overweight adults (body mass index ≥25) with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA 1c ] 6.5%-9.0%) to a 32-week online intervention based on our previous recommendations (n=12) or an online diet program based around a plate method diet (n=13) to assess the impact of each intervention on glycemic control and other health outcomes. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by mixed-effects linear regression to compare outcomes by group. At 32 weeks, participants in the intervention group reduced their HbA 1c levels more (estimated marginal mean [EMM] -0.8%, 95% CI -1.1% to -0.6%) than participants in the control group (EMM -0.3%, 95% CI -0.6% to 0.0%; P=.002). More than half of the participants in the intervention group (6/11, 55%) lowered their HbA 1c to less than 6.5% versus 0% (0/8) in the control group (P=.02). Participants in the intervention group lost more weight (EMM -12.7 kg, 95% CI -16.1 to -9.2 kg) than participants in the control group (EMM -3.0 kg

  9. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A

    2016-05-23

    The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ER(T2)-Rosa-STOP(loxP/loxP)-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression of intestinal uroguanylin impairs hypothalamic mechanisms

  10. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the

  11. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000-2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003-2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. We found "prudent" and "breakfast" patterns in Homescan and NHANES, "ready-to-eat meals/fast-food" and "prudent/snacks/LCS desserts" patterns in Homescan, and "protein/potatoes" and "CS desserts/sweeteners" patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS-beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the United States.

  12. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The “Nutritional Light Signal” of the Renal Acid Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Raffaele Di Iorio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2. We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP, inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p < 0.0001, DBP (p < 0.001, plasma urea (p < 0.0001 protein intake (p < 0.0001, calcemia (p < 0.0001, phosphatemia (p < 0.0001, phosphate intake (p < 0.0001, urinary sodium (p < 0.0001, urinary potassium (p < 0.002, and urinary phosphate (p < 0.0001. NEAP and PRAL were significantly reduced in VLPD during follow-up. Conclusion: VLPD reduces intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and

  13. [Low calorie diet influence optimization on body composition at obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A R; Derbeneva, S A; Bogdanova, A A; Feofanova, T B; Panfilova, N V; Nesierova, V E

    2015-01-01

    In open prospective monocentric study in 3 parallel groups we studied the effectiveness of correction of body composition using low calorie diet therapy with inclusion of specialized food products (SFP)--sources of polyphenols and iridoids made on the basis of the juice of Morinda citrifolia L. fruits. We studied 90 patients aged from 30 to 50 years old with grade III obesity and clinically expressed secondary diastolic heart failure. The duration of diet therapy was 42 days. It was shown that low-calorie diet has non-optimal effect on the body composition in morbidly obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure, namely leading to the expressed loss of body fatless (7.2%, p=0.00008) and muscle mass (by 16.6%, p=0.00004); at the same time the reduction of total body weight is noted only by 2.3% (p=0.053), reduction of waist measurement by 1.3% (p=0.028) and reduction of hips measurement by 1.3% (p=0.09), accompanied by the reduction of body fat by 8.5% (p=0.000017) and of liquid by 7.3% (p=0.0018). The introduction of the SFP into the diet optimizes the effect of low calorie diet therapy on the anthropometric parameters and body composition. The most important effect of the SFP is the ability to prevent the excess loss of muscle mass in patients, and this effect is being dose-dependent. The loss of muscle mass in two groups of patients was 3.1-4.1% after 6 weeks of diet therapy, while in the control group it was 8.5% (p=0.0051). We have concluded that the inclusion of the SFP, manufactured on the basis Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) juice to the low calorie diet allows to initiate mainly the loss of the body fat with the simultaneous protection of active cellular mass, which is without doubt can be considered as the advantage compared to the standard low calorie diet.

  14. Calorie or Carbohydrate Restriction? The Ketogenic Diet as Another Option for Supportive Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Klement, Rainer J.

    2013-01-01

    The author agrees with Champ et al. that calorie reduction (CR) is a good supportive intervention for patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However, for those with cachexia or for those who are at risk for cachexia, CR may be problematic. Additionally, less food consumed means fewer nutrients. For these patients, the author suggests the addition of the ketogenic diet, which could be designed to include high-quality foods and could be combined with anticancer neutraceuticals.

  15. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schugar, Rebecca C; Huang, Xiaojing; Moll, Ashley R; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets...

  16. Role of Choline Deficiency in the Fatty Liver Phenotype of Mice Fed a Low Protein, Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet: e74806

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebecca C Schugar; Xiaojing Huang; Ashley R Moll; Elizabeth M Brunt; Peter A Crawford

    2013-01-01

      Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets...

  17. Effect of a low-calorie diet on restoration of normoglycemia in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Amit Bhatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is considered to be an inevitably progressive disease. Complex therapies add to the financial and psychological burden. Very low-calorie diets (LCDs are emerging as an option in the management of type 2 diabetes. Methods: We performed a clinical audit of patients with T2DM who received 12 weeks of LCD. Results: This case series documents that 6 out of 12 participants (median baseline HbA1c 9% achieved HbA1c level in nondiabetes range with LCD despite stopping all antidiabetes medications. There was an improvement in serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, C-Reactive protein, urine microalbumin, liver transaminases, liver fat and the indices of insulin resistance, beta cell secretory capacity, and insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: If long-term follow-up proves sustained benefits, such dietary restriction may be an alternative to more drastic options for reversal of type 2 diabetes. This may also help in changing the treatment perspective of a newly detected T2DM from an incurable and inevitably progressive disease to a potentially reversible disease.

  18. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  20. A multicentre weight loss study using a low-calorie diet over 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of low-calorie diets (LCDs) has not been investigated in large-scale studies or among people from different regions, who are perhaps unaccustomed to such methods of losing weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in obesity measures among overweight/obese adult...... from eight European cities (from Northern, Central and Southern Europe) during the 8-week LCD phase of the DiOGenes study (2006-2007), a family-based, randomised, controlled dietary intervention....

  1. The functional and clinical outcomes of exercise training following a very low energy diet for severely obese women: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Selig, Steve E.; Rice, Toni; Grima, Mariee; Straznicky, Nora E.; Levinger, Itamar; Lambert, Elisabeth A.; van den Hoek, Daniel J.; Dixon, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines globally recommend lifestyle modification including diet and exercise training as first-line treatment for obesity. The clinical benefits of exercise training in adults with obesity is well-documented; however, there is no strong evidence for the effectiveness of exercise training for weight loss in class II and class III obesity. The purpose of the randomised controlled trial described in this protocol article is to examine the effect of exercise train...

  2. The effects on weight loss and gene expression in adipose and hepatic tissues of very-low carbohydrate and low-fat isoenergetic diets in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Okawa, Sumire; Takahashi, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is caused by excessive fat or carbohydrate intake. The improvement of obesity is an important issue, especially in Western societies. Both low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and low-fat diet (LFD) are used to achieve weight loss in humans. To clarify the mechanisms underlying LCD-induced weight loss, especially in early stage, we compared the gene expression in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD)- and LFD-fed diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DIO male ddY mice were divided into high-fat diet (HFD), and isoenergetic VLCD and LFD groups. Pair-feeding was performed in the VLCD and LFD groups. Three weeks later, the body, liver, WAT and BAT were weighed and the serum and hepatic lipids, the mRNA expression levels in each tissue, and energy metabolism were analyzed. The caloric intake of the VLCD-fed mice was initially reduced but was subsequently restored. The total energy intake was similar in the VLCD- and LFD-fed mice. There was a similar decrease in the BW of the VLCD- and LFD-fed mice. The VLCD-fed mice had elevated levels of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and ketone bodies, which are known to increase energy expenditure. The browning of WAT was observed to a greater extent in the VLCD-fed mice. Moreover, in the VLCD-fed mice, BAT activation was observed, the weight of the BAT was decreased, and the expression of G-protein-coupled receptor 120, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, and FGF21 in BAT was extremely increased. Although the energy expenditure of the VLCD- and LFD-fed mice did not differ, that of the VLCD-fed mice was sometimes higher during the dark cycle. Hepatic TG accumulation was reduced in LFD-fed mice due to their decreased fatty acid uptake but not in the VLCD-fed mice. The pro-inflammatory macrophage ratio was increased in the WAT of VLCD-fed mice. After 3 weeks, the isoenergetic VLCD- and LFD-fed DIO mice showed similar weight loss. The VLCD-fed mice increased serum

  3. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  4. Reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates metabolic factors associated with a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahua-Ramos, María Elena; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Chamorro-Cevallos, German; Herrera-Martínez, Julieta; Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced-calorie avocado paste on lipid serum profile, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet. Thirty five male Wistar rats were randomly separated in five groups: Control group (ground commercial diet); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution (HHF group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with avocado pulp (HHF+A group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with reduced-calorie avocado paste (HHF+P group); and hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with a reduced-calorie avocado paste plus fiber (HHF+FP group). The A, P, and FP were supplemented at 2 g/kg/d. The study was carried out for seven weeks. Rats belonging to the HHF group exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels in serum as well as lower insulin sensitivity than the control group. Supplementation with reduced-calorie avocado paste showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (43.1%), low-density lipoprotein (45.4%), and triglycerides (32.8%) in plasma as well as elevated insulin sensitivity compared to the HHF group. Additionally, the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly in the HHF-P group (39.8 and 35.1%, respectively). These results are likely due to biocompounds present in the reduced-calorie avocado paste, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and dietary fibre, which are capable of reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates the effects of a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

  5. Long-term low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and endurance exercise are associated with low cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Meyer, Timothy E; Klein, Samuel; Holloszy, John O

    2007-06-01

    Western diets, which typically contain large amounts of energy-dense processed foods, together with a sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or performing regular endurance exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been on a low-calorie low-protein raw vegan diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 years, (mean age, 53.1 +/- 11 yrs), 21 body mass index (BMI)-matched endurance runners consuming Western diets, and 21 age- and gender-matched sedentary subjects, consuming Western diets. BMI was lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet (21.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2)) and endurance runner (21.1 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (26.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) (p vegan diet and runner groups than in the Western diet group (all p vegan diet group (104 +/- 15 and 62 +/- 11 mm Hg) than in BMI-matched endurance runners (122 +/- 13 and 72 +/- 9 mmHg) and Western diet group (132 +/- 14 and 79 +/- 8 mm Hg) (p vegan diet or regular endurance exercise training is associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, our data suggest that specific components of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet provide additional beneficial effects on blood pressure.

  6. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  7. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Johannes Morscher

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system.Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content.Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention.Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens

  8. Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Talib A; Mathew, Thazhumpal C; Dashti, Ali A; Asfar, Sami; Al-Zaid, Naji; Dashti, Hussein M

    2012-10-01

    Effective diabetic management requires reasonable weight control. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown the beneficial effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes after its long term administration. Furthermore, it favorably alters the cardiac risk factors even in hyperlipidemic obese subjects. These studies have indicated that, in addition to decreasing body weight and improving glycemia, LCKD can be effective in decreasing antidiabetic medication dosage. Similar to the LCKD, the conventional low-calorie, high nutritional value diet is also used for weight loss. The purpose of this study was to understand the beneficial effects of LCKD compared with the low-calorie diet (LCD) in improving glycemia. Three hundred and sixty-three overweight and obese participants were recruited from the Al-Shaab Clinic for a 24-wk diet intervention trial; 102 of them had type 2 diabetes. The participants were advised to choose LCD or LDKD, depending on their preference. Body weight, body mass index, changes in waist circumference, blood glucose level, changes in hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, urea and creatinine were determined before and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 wk after the administration of the LCD or LCKD. The initial dose of some antidiabetic medications was decreased to half and some were discontinued at the beginning of the dietary program in the LCKD group. Dietary counseling and further medication adjustment were done on a biweekly basis. The LCD and LCKD had beneficial effects on all the parameters examined. Interestingly, these changes were more significant in subjects who were on the LCKD as compared with those on the LCD. Changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant. This study shows the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet over the conventional LCD in obese

  9. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Stephen D.; Azumi Hida; Kacey Heekin; Kristen Sowalsky; Christy Karabetian; Heather Mutchie; Christiaan Leeuwenburgh; Manini, Todd M.; Barnett, Tracey E.

    2017-01-01

    The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calori...

  10. Long-term effects of weight loss with a very-low carbohydrate, low saturated fat diet on flow mediated dilatation in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Thompson, Campbell H; Buckley, Jonathan D; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2016-09-01

    Very-low carbohydrate diets can improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, compared to traditional higher carbohydrate, low fat (HighCHO) diets, they have been associated with impaired endothelial function (measured by flow mediated dilatation [FMD]) that is possibly related to saturated fat. This study aimed to examine the effects of a 12-month hypocaloric very-low carbohydrate, low saturated fat (LowCHO) diet compared to an isocaloric HighCHO diet. One hundred and fifteen obese patients with T2DM (age:58.4 ± 0.7 [SEM] yr, BMI:34.6 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), HbA1c:7.33 [56.3 mmol/mol] ± 0.10%) were randomised to consume an energy restricted LowCHO diet (Carb:Pro:Fat:Sat-Fat 14:28:58: < 10% energy; n = 58) or isocaloric HighCHO diet (53:17:30: < 10%; n = 57) whilst undertaking exercise (60 min, 3/wk). Bodyweight, HbA1c and FMD were assessed. Seventy eight participants completed the intervention (LowCHO = 41, HighCHO = 37). Both groups experienced similar reductions in weight and HbA1c (-10.6 ± 0.7 kg, -1.05 ± 0.10%; p < 0.001 time, p ≥ 0.48 time × diet). FMD did not change (p = 0.11 time, p = 0.20 time × diet). In patients with obesity and T2DM, HighCHO diet and LowCHO diet have similar effects on endothelial function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Comparative assessment of efficiency of the low-calorie diets modified by proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhonina, Yu G; Gapparova, K M; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Grigoryan, O N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is comparative assessment of efficiency of a hypocaloric diet with inclusion of proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails at obesity. 90 patients with obesity of the II–III degree at the age of 18–65 years by the principle of casual selection were divided into three groups. Control group (30 patients) received a standard low-calorie diet with an energy value of 1600 kcal/day. The diet of the 1st group (30 patients) was modified by the inclusion of protein-vitamin-mineral cocktail (16 g of dry mixture with the addition of 250 ml of yogurt 1.0% fat) twice a day, diet of the 2nd group (30 patients) – the inclusion of a protein cocktail (16 g of dry mixture with the addition of 250 ml of yogurt 1.0% fat), while excluding from the diet equivalent caloric meals. The 1st group of patients had a decrease in fat mass by 4.2±0.7 kg (pcholesterol, uric acid and glucose (17.7, 28.2 and 18.3%, respectively), which was more pronounced compared with the dynamics in the control group (the decrease by 15, 19.2 and 8.2%, respectively). In the 2nd group of patients the decrease rate of the observed parameters was less pronounced (15, 19.2 and 8.2%, respectively). More appreciable favorable dynamics of biochemical parameters and reduction in body weight in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the control group allow to reasonably apply the protein-vitamin cocktails in a diet therapy at obesity.

  12. Effect of orlistat on weight regain and cardiovascular risk factors following a very-low-energy diet in abdominally obese patients: a 3-year randomized, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richelsen, Bjørn; Tonstad, Serena; Rössner, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of orlistat on the maintenance of weight loss over 3 years following a major weight loss induced by very-low-energy diet (VLED) in obese patients with metabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, and diet-treated type 2 diabetes...... out of 156 subjects) (P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of orlistat to lifestyle intervention was associated with maintenance of an extra 2.4 kg weight loss after VLED for up to 3 years in obese subjects. The combination of orlistat and lifestyle intervention was associated with a reduced...... together with either orlistat 120 mg t.i.d. or matching placebo capsules. Primary end points were the maintenance of > or = 5% weight loss after 3 years. Additionally, differences in the development of type 2 diabetes between orlistat and placebo were analyzed. RESULTS: The VLED induced a mean weight loss...

  13. Long-term low-protein, low-calorie diet and endurance exercise modulate metabolic factors associated with cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel; Holloszy, John O

    2006-12-01

    Western diets, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles are associated with increased cancer risk. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk, however, are not clear. We hypothesized that long-term low protein, low calorie intake and endurance exercise are associated with low concentrations of plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. Plasma growth factors and hormones were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been eating a low-protein, low-calorie diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 y (x +/- SD age: 53.0 +/- 11 y); 21 endurance runners matched by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2); and 21 age- and sex-matched sedentary subjects eating Western diets. BMI was lower in the low-protein, low-calorie diet (21.3 +/- 3.1) and runner (21.6 +/- 1.6) groups than in the Western diet (26.5 +/- 2.7; P runner groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (all P runner (177 +/- 37 ng/mL and 0.044 +/- 0.01, respectively) and sedentary Western (201 +/- 42 ng/mL and 0.046 +/- 0.01, respectively) diet groups (P < 0.005). Exercise training, decreased adiposity, and long-term consumption of a low-protein, low-calorie diet are associated with low plasma growth factors and hormones that are linked to an increased risk of cancer. Low protein intake may have additional protective effects because it is associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I independent of body fat mass.

  14. The Effects of Balanced Low Calorie Diet on Weight Loss and Insulin Resistance among Obese Women in Ardabil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghannadiasl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Obesity is associated with metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. Weight loss is always recommended for meaningful reduction in these abnormalities. Therefore, we examined the effects of balanced low calorie diet on weight loss, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in obese women attending the nutrition clinic. Methods: In this clinical trial, forty five volunteer apparently healthy obese women (body mass index: 33.28 ± 2.90 kg/m2 and age: 28.40 ± 7.98 years were recruited from the nutrition clinic in their first visit. The participants were received a balanced low calorie diet over 6 months after anthropometry measurement and blood sampling for determination of fasting insulin and insulin resistance level. Balanced low calorie diet was an individualized diet with an energy deficit of 500 calories of daily energy intake that was calculated from 3-day food records for every person. At 6 months after intervention, continuous and dichotomous variables were assessed using paired t-test and McNemar test, respectively. Results: The mean recommended energy intake was 2241.78 ± 219.02(kcal. After 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (p=0.003, body mass index (p=0.005, waist and hip circumferences (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. There was also significant improvement in fasting insulin level (13.47 ± 6.55 vs. 11.95 ± 4.17 µU/ml, p=0.01. Whereas, insulin resistance had not significant reduction (p=0.1. Conclusion: In obese women attending the nutrition clinic, the balanced low calorie diet resulted in weight loss and improvement in fasting insulin. These positive changes can help to decrease the risk factor profile in obese individuals.

  15. The effects of a calorie-reduced diet on periodontal inflammation and disease in a non-human primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Mays, Grishondra L; Dawson, Dolphus R; Gunsolley, John C; Reynolds, Mark A; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Novak, Karen F; Mattison, Julie A; Ingram, Donald K; Novak, M John

    2008-07-01

    Low-calorie diets are commonplace for reducing body weight. However, no information is available on the effects of a reduced-calorie diet on periodontal inflammation and disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a long-term calorie-restriction (CR) diet on periodontitis in an animal model of periodontitis. Periodontitis was induced in 55 young, healthy, adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by tying 2.0 silk ligatures at the gingival margins of maxillary premolar/molar teeth. Animals on a CR diet (30% CR; N = 23) were compared to ad libitum diet controls (N = 32). Clinical measures, including the plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), modified gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 months after ligature placement. Significant effects of CR were observed on the development of inflammation and the progression of periodontal destruction in this model. Compared to controls, CR resulted in a significant reduction in ligature-induced GI (P Periodontal destruction, as measured by CAL, progressed significantly more slowly in the CR animals than in the controls (P periodontal breakdown associated with an acute microbial challenge.

  16. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent-Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular diseases among men and women. Thus, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with heart healthy diet plan during weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of individuals with obesity. Methods: The experiment involved 40 adults with obesity (men, n = 21; women, n = 19 and was divided into two phases: (a 12-week high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1 and (b a 1-year (52-week weight loss maintenance comparing high-protein, intermittent-fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2. Body weight, body mass index, blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control, 12 (weight loss, and 64 (12+52 week; weight loss maintenance.Results: At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant with reductions in body weight, body mass index, blood lipids, and arterial compliance was enhanced (p < 0.05. No sex-specific differences were observed. During phase 2, high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie group demonstrated less weight regain and percentage change in aortic pulse wave velocity than heart healthy group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high-protein, intermittent-fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with body weight loss and reduction in blood lipids. This diet also demonstrated a potential advantage in minimizing weight gain relapse as well as enhancing arterial compliance compared to the heart healthy diet in the long term.

  17. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrén Bo

    2010-11-01

    Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a Mediterranean-like diet. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00419497

  18. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfried B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are largely unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration (the Warburg effect, malignant brain cancer can be managed through changes in metabolic environment. In contrast to malignant brain tumors that are mostly dependent on glycolysis for energy, normal neurons and glia readily transition to ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate for energy in vivo when glucose levels are reduced. The transition from glucose to ketone bodies as a major energy source is an evolutionary conserved adaptation to food deprivation that permits the survival of normal cells during extreme shifts in nutritional environment. Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and less metabolically flexible tumor cells. This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Issues of implementation and use protocols are discussed.

  19. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, B Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Marsh, Jeremy; Mukherjee, Purna

    2009-09-01

    Malignant brain tumors are a significant health problem in children and adults and are largely unmanageable. As a metabolic disorder involving the dysregulation of glycolysis and respiration (the Warburg effect), malignant brain cancer can be managed through changes in metabolic environment. In contrast to malignant brain tumors that are mostly dependent on glycolysis for energy, normal neurons and glia readily transition to ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate) for energy in vivo when glucose levels are reduced. The transition from glucose to ketone bodies as a major energy source is an evolutionary conserved adaptation to food deprivation that permits the survival of normal cells during extreme shifts in nutritional environment. Only those cells with a flexible genome, honed through millions of years of environmental forcing and variability selection, can transition from one energy state to another. We propose a different approach to brain cancer management that exploits the metabolic flexibility of normal cells at the expense of the genetically defective and less metabolically flexible tumor cells. This approach to brain cancer management is supported from recent studies in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models and in human pediatric astrocytoma treated with calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Issues of implementation and use protocols are discussed.

  20. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Johannes Morscher; Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari; René Gunther Feichtinger; Johannes Adalbert Mayr; Roland Lang; Daniel Neureiter; Wolfgang Sperl; Barbara Kofler

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer?s oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two ne...

  2. High Fat, High Calorie Diet Promotes Early Pancreatic Neoplasia in the Conditional KrasG12D Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David W.; Hertzer, Kathleen; Moro, Aune; Donald, Graham; Chang, Hui-Hua; Go, Vay Liang; Pandol, Steven J.; Lugea, Aurelia; Gukovskaya, Anna S.; Li, Gang; Hines, Oscar J.; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2013-01-01

    There is epidemiologic evidence that obesity increases the risk of cancers. Several underlying mechanisms, including inflammation and insulin resistance, are proposed. However, the driving mechanisms in pancreatic cancer are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to develop a model of diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer development in a state-of-the-art mouse model, which resembles important clinical features of human obesity, e.g. weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Offspring of Pdx-1-Cre and LSL-KrasG12D mice were allocated to either a diet high in fats and calories (HFCD; ~4,535 kcal/kg; 40% of calories from fats) or control diet (CD; ~3,725 kcal/kg; 12% of calories from fats) for 3 months. Compared to control animals, mice fed the HFCD significantly gained more weight and developed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and elevated levels of IGF-1. The pancreas of HFCD-fed animals showed robust signs of inflammation with increased numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells (macrophages and T-cells), elevated levels of several cytokines and chemokines, increased stromal fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in fats and calories leads to obesity and metabolic disturbances similar to humans and accelerates early pancreatic neoplasia in the conditional KrasG12D mouse model. This model and findings will provide the basis for more robust studies attempting to unravel the mechanisms underlying the cancer-promoting properties of obesity as well as to evaluate dietary- and chemo-preventive strategies targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer development. PMID:23943783

  3. Body Weight Impact on Puberty: Effects of High-Calorie Diet on Puberty Onset in Female Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Terasawa, Ei; Kurian, Joseph R.; Keen, Kim L.; Shiel, Nicholas A.; Colman, Ricki J; Capuano, Saverio V.

    2012-01-01

    Secular trends toward a declining age at puberty onset with correlated changes in body weight have been reported in economically advanced countries. This has been attributed to excess calorie intake along with reduced physical activity in children. However, because the timing of puberty in humans is also influenced by other factors, such as genetic traits, living conditions, geographical location, and environmental chemicals, it is difficult to distinguish the effect of diet and body size fro...

  4. The effects of calorie-matched high-fat diet consumption on spontaneous physical activity and development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Thais Ludmilla; Benfato, Izabelle Dias; de Carvalho, Francine Pereira; Barthichoto, Marcela; Le Sueur-Maluf, Luciana; de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado

    2017-06-15

    To characterize the effects of a calorie matched high-fat diet (HFD) on spontaneous physical activity (SPA), body weight, inflammatory status and expression of genes related to energy homeostasis in hypothalamus of mice. C57Bl/6 mice (n=5 per group) were fed a control diet (16.5% calories from fat) - control group (C), or a calorie matched HFD (60% calories from fat). We evaluated, periodically, body weight and SPA by infrared beam sensors and, at the end of the 12th week, we verified blood glucose levels, fat pads weight, plasma insulin, TNF-α and IL-6 by ELISA and the hypothalamic expression of 84 genes related to energy homeostasis, by quantitative real-time PCR array. Isocaloric HFD reduced SPA already in the first 48h and SPA was kept lower in the HFD compared to C throughout. These changes resulted in an increase in body weight, adiposity, TNF-α and IL-6, blood glucose and hyperinsulinemia in the HFD group when compared to the C group. Expression of the Agrp, Bdnf, Adra2b and Pyy genes were altered in the hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice, highlighting the downregulation of Bdnf, key regulator of energy homeostasis. Dietary macronutrient distribution plays an important part in energy homeostasis that goes beyond its energy content. Despite calorie-matched, the HFD led to increased body weight and adiposity due to decreased SPA, highlighting the key role of SPA on energy balance. The changes in hypothalamic gene expression seem to underlie the reduction in SPA caused by HFD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat, low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR, high-fat diet (HC, 60% fat, high-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (HR, high-fat diet with voluntary running exercise (HE, and high-fat diet with a combination of 30% calorie restriction and exercise (HRE. The impacts of the interventions were assessed by comprehensive metabolic analyses and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Endurance exercise significantly attenuated high-fat diet-induced obesity. CR dramatically prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. A combination of CR and endurance exercise further reduced obesity and insulin resistance under the condition of high-fat diet. CR and endurance exercise each potently suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissues with additive effects when combined, but the effects of diet and exercise interventions in the liver were moderate to minimal. Conclusions CR and endurance exercise share a potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

  6. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Hida, Azumi; Heekin, Kacey; Sowalsky, Kristen; Karabetian, Christy; Mutchie, Heather; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Barnett, Tracey E.

    2017-01-01

    The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. PMID:28758964

  7. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Anton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months and long-term (≥one year weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1 Atkins; (2 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH; (3 Glycemic-Index; (4 Mediterranean; (5 Ornish; (6 Paleolithic; and (7 Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months and long-term (≥one-year weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets.

  8. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M; Pannell, Benjamin K; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year.

  9. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of a low-calorie diet and orlistat for obese persons: modeling long-term health gains through prevention of obesity-related chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter H M; van den Berg, Matthijs; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Vijgen, Sylvia M C; Engelfriet, Peter M

    2008-12-01

    Our study estimated the cost-effectiveness of pharmacologic treatment of obesity in combination with a low-calorie diet in The Netherlands. Costs and effects of a low-calorie diet-only intervention and of a low-calorie diet in combination with 1 year of orlistat were compared to no treatment. The RIVM Chronic Disease Model was used to project the differences in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and lifetime health-care costs because of the effects of the interventions on body mass index (BMI) status. This was done by linking BMI status to the occurrence of obesity-related diseases and by relating quality of life to disease status. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was employed to study the effect of uncertainty in the model parameters. In univariate sensitivity analysis, we assessed how sensitive the results were to several key assumptions. Incremental costs per QALY gained were Euro 17,900 for the low-calorie diet-only intervention compared to no intervention and Euro 58,800 for the low-calorie diet + orlistat compared to the low-calorie diet only. Assuming a direct relation between BMI and quality of life, these ratios decreased to Euro 6000 per QALY gained and Euro 24,100 per QALY gained. Costs per QALY gained were also sensitive to assumptions about long-term weight loss maintenance. Cost-effectiveness ratios of interventions aiming at weight reduction depend strongly on assumptions regarding the relation between BMI and quality of life. We recommend that a low-calorie diet should be the first option for policymakers in combating obesity.

  11. Intermittent calorie restriction largely counteracts the adverse health effects of a moderate-fat diet in aging C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusli, F.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Dijk, van Miriam; Norren, van K.; Menke, Aswin L.; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, W.T.

    2017-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to extend life- and health-span in model species. For most humans, a life-long CR diet is too arduous to adhere to. The aim of this study was to explore whether weekly intermittent CR can 1) provide long-term beneficial effects and 2) counteract diet-induced

  12. Plasticity of lifelong calorie-restricted C57BL/6J mice in adapting to a medium-fat diet intervention at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusli, Fenni; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Borelli, Vincenzo; Sun, Chen; Lute, Carolien; Menke, Aswin L.; Heuvel, van den Joost; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T.

    2017-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen that supports healthy aging. In this study, we investigated the systemic and liver-specific responses caused by a diet switch to a medium-fat (MF) diet in 24-month-old lifelong, CR-exposed mice. This study aimed to increase the knowledge base on dietary

  13. Influence of resveratrol on endoplasmic reticulum stress and expression of adipokines in adipose tissues/adipocytes induced by high-calorie diet or palmitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Ting; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Nuojin; Gui, Li; Dai, Fang; Fang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Qiu; Lu, Yunxia

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether resveratrol treatment alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes the expression of adipokines in adipose tissues and cells. 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-calorie diet (HCD group) or high-calorie diet supplemented with resveratrol (high-calorie diet  + resveratrol group) for 3 months. Insulin resistance, serum lipids and proinflammatory indices, the size and inflammatory cell infiltration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were analyzed. The gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. The induced mature 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with resveratrol and then palmitic acid, and the gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in the high-calorie diet-fed mice exhibited adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammatory activation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Resveratrol alleviated high-calorie diet-induced insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, increased expression of SIRT1, and reversed expression of adipokines in varying degrees in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. The effects of resveratrol on palmitic acid-treated adipocytes were similar to those shown in the tissues. Resveratrol treatment obviously reversed adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation, thus increasing the expression of SIRT1 and inverting the expression of adipokines in vivo and in vitro.

  14. Calorie restricted diet induces alternative pathways of lipid metabolism for support of proliferative processes in regenerating liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, A I; Menzianova, N C

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with quality and quantity lipid composition of blood serum and liver, DNA synthesis activity (incorporation of H3-thymidine) in liver in 24 h after partial hepatectomy (PH) in 22-month-old Wistar rats, maintained for 21 months on calorie restricted diet (CRD) and on standard diet ad libitum (SD). The contain of lipids in blood serum and activity of RA-label incorporation (14C-Na-acetate) in serum lipids in 24 h after PH were the same in CRD-fed and SD-fed animals. Quantitative and qualitative composition of lipids in microsomes of regenerating liver also was the same for both groups of rats. In regenerating liver of CRD-fed animals lipid contain in cytosol was 1,8-fold more, but pool of lipid droplets (LD) was 1.5-fold less than in regenerating liver of SD-fed animals. Activity of RA-label incorporation in lipids of microsomes, cytosol and LD pool of regenerating liver of CRD-fed animals was significantly higher, than in SD-fed ones. Activity of RA-label incorporation in lipid fractions and its distribution among cytosol lipids and LD pool lipids differed significantly between SD- and CRD-fed animals. Activity of DNA synthesis in regenerating liver of 22-month-old animals on CRD and SD was the same. It is supposed that calorie restriction induces alternative pathways of lipid metabolism to support proliferation processes in liver after PH.

  15. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid A. Gibson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS (2008–2011; n = 1590, classified into: (a non-consumers of soft drinks (NC; (b LCB consumers; (c sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumers; or (d consumers of both beverages (BB, based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  16. Differential Effects of Calorie Restriction and Exercise on the Adipose Transcriptome in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karrie E. Wheatley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that obesity reversal by calorie restriction (CR versus treadmill exercise (EX differentially modulates adipose gene expression using 48 female C57BL/6 mice administered a diet-induced obesity (DIO regimen for 8 weeks, then randomized to receive for 8 weeks either: (1 a control (AIN-76A diet, fed ad libitum (DIO control; (2 a 30% CR regimen; (3 a treadmill EX regimen (with AIN-76A diet fed ad libitum; or (4 continuation of the DIO diet. Relative to the DIO controls, both CR and EX reduced adiposity by 35–40% and serum leptin levels by 80%, but only CR increased adiponectin and insulin sensitivity. Gene expression microarray analysis of visceral white adipose tissue revealed 209 genes responsive to both CR and EX, relative to the DIO group. However, CR uniquely altered expression of an additional 496 genes, whereas only 20 were uniquely affected by EX. Of the genes distinctly responsive to CR, 17 related to carbohydrate metabolism and glucose transport, including glucose transporter (GLUT 4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the Glut4 promoter revealed that, relative to the DIO controls, CR significantly increased histone 4 acetylation, suggesting epigenetic regulation may underlie some of the differential effects of CR versus EX on the adipose transcriptome.

  17. The effects of a low-calorie diet or an isocaloric diet combined with metformin on sex hormones In obese women of child-bearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Kujawska-Łuczak, Magdalena; Suliburska, Joanna; Reguła, Julita; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Kręgielska-Narożna, Matylda; Marcinkowska, Emilia; Kanikowska, Alina; Bielas, Marzena; Grzymisławski, Marian; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years) were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC) and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM), for 12 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and serum concentrations of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S) sulfate were evaluated at baseline and after the study. Reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and body fat content with an increase  in lean body percent were significant and comparable between the LC and IM group after the trial. The concentrations of serum FSH, LH, E2, DHEA and T did not change in either group after treatment. A tendency towards an increase in the E2 concentration in both groups and a decrease in the T level in the LC group  was observed. The correlations between a change in BMI, fat content, waist-hip ratio and a change in T were documented in the LC group. A 12-week low-calorie diet and an isocaloric diet combined with metformin produced comparable and significant weight loss with improvements in body composition. Both interventions did not significantly affect FSH, LH and DHEA sulfate serum concentrations, only a trend towards an E2 increase and a T decrease was observed, stronger in LC group. The significant correlations shown between the changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters and T serum levels in women treated with a low-calorie diet alone show the beneficial effect of a lifestyle intervention on the sex hormone in obese premenopausal women.

  18. The therapeutic potential of a calorie-restricted ketogenic diet for the management of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storoni, Mithu; Robert, Matthieu P; Plant, Gordon T

    2017-10-10

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited, bilateral, sequential optic neuropathy that usually affects young males. LHON arises from a defect in complex I of the oxidative phosphorylation chain that generates increased reactive oxygen species and causes a decline in cellular ATP production. There exists no cure at present for LHON. Asymptomatic LHON mutation carriers show signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis that may compensate for the compromise in complex I activity. Partial recovery in LHON is associated with a wider optic disc diameter and a younger age at disease onset, which may allow for greater mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity. Rescuing a mitochondrial bioenergetic deficit soon after disease onset may improve the chances of recovery and reduce visual loss in the second eye. We here propose that a calorie-restricted ketogenic diet has the potential to enhance mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity and should be explored as a potential therapeutic option for treating LHON.

  19. Center-size as a predictor of weight-loss outcome in multicenter trials including a low-calorie diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasteyger, Christoph Rolf; Christensen, Robin; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    It has not been studied yet whether factors such as the number of subjects recruited by specialized centers for multicenter trials may influence weight loss during a low-calorie diet (LCD). This study aimed at determining whether the number of recruited subjects per center might predict relative...... weight loss. This is a post hoc analysis of an existing database: 701 obese subjects (77% women, 23% men, mean BMI: 38.9 kg/m(2)) were enrolled at 22 sites (4-85 subjects/site) in five countries to follow a LCD providing 800-1,000 kcal/day during 8 weeks. The main outcome measure was the percentage...... weight loss after the 8-week LCD. Mean weight loss differed significantly between participating centers (5.8-11.8% of the initial weight; P

  20. Intermittent calorie restriction largely counteracts the adverse health effects of a moderate-fat diet in aging C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusli, Fenni; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Dijk, van Miriam; Norren, van Klaske; Menke, Aswin L.; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to extend life- and health-span in model species. For most humans, a life-long CR diet is too arduous to adhere to. The aim of this study was to explore whether weekly intermittent CR can (1) provide long-term beneficial effects and (2) counteract

  1. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  2. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh Gopalan; Navin Michael; Seigo Ishino; Swee Shean Lee; Adonsia Yating Yang; Bhanu Prakash, K. N.; Jadegoud Yaligar; Suresh Anand Sadananthan; Manami Kaneko; Zhihong Zhou; Yoshinori Satomi; Megumi Hirayama; Hidenori Kamiguchi; Bin Zhu; Takashi Horiguchi

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (...

  3. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  4. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR), Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperand...

  5. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Nikokavoura EA; Johnston KL; Broom J; Wrieden WL; Roll; C

    2015-01-01

    Efsevia A Nikokavoura,1 Kelly L Johnston,2 John Broom,1 Wendy L Wrieden,1 Catherine Rolland1 1Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Institute for Health & Wellbeing Research (IHWR), Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2LighterLife UK Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandroge...

  6. Calorie Restriction with a High-Fat Diet Effectively Attenuated Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress-Related Markers in Obese Tissues of the High Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungae Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity characterized by increased mass of adipose tissue leads to systemic inflammation. Calorie restriction (CR improves parameters associated with immune response and antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that CR with a high fat diet (HFCR regulates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress damage in a high fat diet induced obesity (HF group. We investigated effect of HFCR on inflammation and oxidative stress-related markers in liver and adipose tissues as well as adipokines in plasma. HFCR lowered liver triglyceride levels, total cholesterol levels, and the plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio to normal levels and improved glucose tolerance. HFCR also improved fatty liver and normalized adipocyte size and morphology. HFCR reduced lipid peroxidation and decreased the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthetase, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-E2-related factor, and heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. Moreover, HFCR suppressed the expression levels of C- reactive protein and manganese superoxide dismutase in the adipose tissue in the HF group. These results suggest that HFCR may have beneficial effects on inflammation and oxidative stress as well as lipid profiles in the HF diet induced obesity. Moreover, HFCR may be a good way to increase compliance in obese patients and to prevent obesity induced complications without changes in dietary pattern.

  7. Effects of low calorie diet-induced weight loss on post-exercise heart rate recovery in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Maeng Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) after maximum exercise is a reactivation function of vagus nerve and an independent risk factor that predicts cardiovascular disease and mortality. Weight loss obtained through dietary programs has been employed as a therapy to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Eighteen subjects of middle aged obese men (age 44.8 ± 1.6 yrs, BMI 29.7 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were selected for this study. As a weight loss direction, the nutritional direction of low-calorie diet mainly consisted of carbohydrate, protein, and fat has been conducted for 3 months. Blood pressure was measured after overnight fasting, and blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and after weight loss program. All the pre- and post-exercise 'HRR decay constant's were assessed by using values of HRR (heart recovery rate; 2 minutes) and HR measured after reached to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) exploited the bicycle ergometer. After the completion of weight loss program, body weight and BMI were significantly decreased, but the Heart Rate (HR) after maximum exercise and in steady state were not changed significantly (p > 0.05). The post-exercise HRR after the weight loss did not show significant changes in perspectives of 30 seconds (-16.6 ± 2.3 to -20.2 ± 2.1 beats/min, p > 0.05) and 60 seconds (-33.5 ± 3.4 to -34.6 ± 2.8 beats/min, p > 0.05) respectively but in perspectives of 90 seconds (-40.9 ± 2.6 to -48.1 ± 3.1 beats/min, p < 0.05) and 120 seconds (-48.6 ± 2.6 to -54.3 ± 3.5 beats/min, p < 0.05), they were decreased significantly. Pre-'HRR decay constant's of 0.294 ± 0.02 %/second were significantly increased to post-values of 0.342 ± 0.03 %/second (p = 0.026). Changes in 'HRR decay constant' were significantly correlated with changes in blood glucose (r = -0.471, p < 0.05) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, r = 0.505, p < 0.05) respectively. The low-calorie diet directed to obese middle aged men for 3 months significantly

  8. The influence of calcium supplement on body composition, weight loss and insulin resistance in obese adults receiving low calorie diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and diabetes are the most important problems of public health. Evidence from molecular animal research and epidemiologic investigations indicate that calcium intake may have an influence on body composition, weight and insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of calcium supplementation on body composition, weight, insulin resistance and blood pressure in the face of calorie restriction in obese adults. Methods: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on 40 adults with Body Mass Index > 25kg/m2 was conducted. Subjects were maintained for 24 weeks on a balanced deficit diet (-500 kcal/d deficit and randomly assigned into two groups with 1000 mg ca/d as calcium carbonate or placebo. Results: There were no significant differences in variables at the 12th and 24th week between the two groups. The lean mass showed no significant increase in the calcium group at the 12th week compared to baseline and in placebo group at the 24th week compared to the 12th week. The insulin concentration showed a significant decrease in the calcium group at the 12th week compared to the baseline (p < 0.05. The diastolic blood pressure had a significant decrease at the 24th week compared to the 12th week in both groups (p = 0.013-0.009. Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that 24 weeks of supplementation with 1000 mg ca/d did not have any effect on weight, body composition, insulin resistance and blood pressure beyond what can be achieved in an energy restricted diet in obese adults.

  9. High-fat, high-calorie diet promotes early pancreatic neoplasia in the conditional KrasG12D mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David W; Hertzer, Kathleen; Moro, Aune; Donald, Graham; Chang, Hui-Hua; Go, Vay Liang; Pandol, Steven J; Lugea, Aurelia; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Li, Gang; Hines, Oscar J; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2013-10-01

    There is epidemiologic evidence that obesity increases the risk of cancers. Several underlying mechanisms, including inflammation and insulin resistance, are proposed. However, the driving mechanisms in pancreatic cancer are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to develop a model of diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer development in a state-of-the-art mouse model, which resembles important clinical features of human obesity, for example, weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Offspring of Pdx-1-Cre and LSL-KrasG12D mice were allocated to either a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD; ∼4,535 kcal/kg; 40% of calories from fats) or control diet (∼3,725 kcal/kg; 12% of calories from fats) for 3 months. Compared with control animals, mice fed with the HFCD significantly gained more weight and developed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The pancreas of HFCD-fed animals showed robust signs of inflammation with increased numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells (macrophages and T cells), elevated levels of several cytokines and chemokines, increased stromal fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions. Our results show that a diet high in fats and calories leads to obesity and metabolic disturbances similar to humans and accelerates early pancreatic neoplasia in the conditional KrasG12D mouse model. This model and findings will provide the basis for more robust studies attempting to unravel the mechanisms underlying the cancer-promoting properties of obesity, as well as to evaluate dietary- and chemopreventive strategies targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer development.

  10. Association of metabolic syndrome with low birth weight, intake of high-calorie diets and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Bautista, Marlen; López-Sandoval, Joana Jazmín; González-Hita, Mercedes; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Cabrera-Valencia, Iris Zamihara; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The theory of fetal programming suggests that low birth weight (LBW) predisposes to greater food intake and increases the chance of overweight and obesity, which are in turn associated to conditions such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and acanthosis nigricans. The study objective was to ascertain whether an association exists between MS, LBW, intake of high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A case-control was conducted on 100 children who attended the overweight and obesity outpatient clinic of the OPD Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde". Subjects were stratified in groups with and without MS based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for children aged less than 16 years. Data on LBW, intake of high-calorie diets for 24-hour dietary recalls (average 2 days a week), and acanthosis nigricans (Simone criteria) were obtained by questioning the parents. Frequencies and logistic regression were calculated using SPSS version 22. The results show that 82% of children and adolescents were obese and 18% overweight, and 73% had MS. MS was associated to LBW (OR: 4.83 [95% CI: 1.9-12.47]), high-calorie diets (OR:136.8 [95% CI: 7.7-2434]), and acanthosis nigricans (OR: 1872 [95% CI: 112.9-31028]). In children and adolescents with overweight and obesity, LBW, high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans are associated to a higher probability of MS. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat, calorie-restricted diet on adipokine levels in obese, diabetic participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion L Vetter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion L Vetter1,2,3, Alisha Wade1, Leslie G Womble3, Cornelia Dalton-Bakes1, Thomas A Wadden3, Nayyar Iqbal1,21Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: The effect of dietary macronutrient composition on adipokine concentrations remains unclear. Greater reductions in leptin have been reported in participants who followed low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets, although these studies did not adjust for the important effects of weight loss on adipokines. We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition on adipokine levels in 144 obese, diabetic participants who were randomly assigned to a low-carbohydrate (<30 g/day or low-fat diet (≤30% of calories from fat with a deficit of 500 kcal/day. Weight, adipokines, and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Complete data were available for 79 participants. At month 6, weight, leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-a concentrations did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05 for all variables. However, significant changes in leptin and adiponectin occurred over time (P < 0.001 and P < 0.012, respectively. Modest weight loss, rather than macronutrient composition, likely accounted for the favorable changes observed in leptin and adiponectin over time.Keywords: diet, adipokine, obesity, diabetes, carbohydrate, hormone

  12. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Todoriki, Hidemi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Residents of Okinawa, the southernmost prefecture of Japan, are known for their long average life expectancy, high numbers of centenarians, and accompanying low risk of age-associated diseases. Much of the longevity advantage in Okinawa is thought to be related to a healthy lifestyle, particularly the traditional diet, which is low in calories yet nutritionally dense, especially with regard to phytonutrients in the form of antioxidants and flavonoids. Research suggests that diets associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases are similar to the traditional Okinawan diet, that is, vegetable and fruit heavy (therefore phytonutrient and antioxidant rich) but reduced in meat, refined grains, saturated fat, sugar, salt, and full-fat dairy products. Many of the characteristics of the diet in Okinawa are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, such as the traditional Mediterranean diet or the modern DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. Features such as the low levels of saturated fat, high antioxidant intake, and low glycemic load in these diets are likely contributing to a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other chronic diseases through multiple mechanisms, including reduced oxidative stress. A comparison of the nutrient profiles of the three dietary patterns shows that the traditional Okinawan diet is the lowest in fat intake, particularly in terms of saturated fat, and highest in carbohydrate intake, in keeping with the very high intake of antioxidant-rich yet calorie-poor orange-yellow root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables. Deeper analyses of the individual components of the Okinawan diet reveal that many of the traditional foods, herbs, or spices consumed on a regular basis could be labeled "functional foods" and, indeed, are currently being explored for their potential health-enhancing properties.

  13. Subcutaneous and segmental fat loss with and without supportive supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie high protein diet in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; Vogel, Roxanne M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Griffin, J Daniel; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss benefits of multi-ingredient supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie, high-protein diet in young women are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a three-week low-calorie diet with and without supplementation on body composition. Thirty-seven recreationally-trained women (n = 37; age = 27.1 ± 4.2; height = 165.1 ± 6.4; weight = 68.5 ± 10.1; BMI = 25.1 ± 3.4) completed one of the following three-week interventions: no change in diet (CON); a high-protein, low-calorie diet supplemented with a thermogenic, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a protein gel, and a multi-vitamin (SUP); or the high-protein diet with isocaloric placebo supplements (PLA). Before and after the three-week intervention, body weight, %Fat via dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), segmental fat mass via DXA, %Fat via skinfolds, and skinfold thicknesses at seven sites were measured. SUP and PLA significantly decreased body weight (SUP: PRE, 70.47 ± 8.01 kg to POST, 67.51 ± 8.10 kg; PLA: PRE, 67.88 ± 12.28 kg vs. POST, 66.38 ± 11.94 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with a greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in SUP than PLA or CON. SUP and PLA significantly decreased %Fat according to DXA (SUP: PRE, 34.98 ± 7.05% to POST, 32.99 ± 6.89%; PLA: PRE, 34.22 ± 6.36% vs. POST, 32.69 ± 5.84%; p ≤ 0.05), whereas only SUP significantly decreased %Fat according to skinfolds (SUP: PRE, 27.40 ± 4.09% to POST, 24.08 ± 4.31%; p ≤ 0.05). SUP significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased thicknesses at five skinfolds (chest, waist, hip, subscapular, and tricep) compared to PLA, but not at two skinfolds (axilla and thigh). The addition of a thermogenic, CLA, protein, and a multi-vitamin to a three-week low-calorie diet improved weight loss, total fat loss and subcutaneous fat loss, compared to diet alone.

  14. Frequency selectivity at very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Marquardt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    measurements based on OAE suppression techniques and notched-noise masking data psychophysically measured for centre frequencies in the range 50-125 Hz, this study examines how individual differences in frequency selectivity, as well as in masking, may occur at very low CFs due to individual differences...... in the shape of the METFs, thought to be affected by the helicotrema impedance. Preliminary analysis indicates that individual differences in the METFs might underlay the observed individual differences in frequency selectivity. Main effects predicted by the calculations are a pronounced flattening off...

  15. Opposite effects of a high-fat diet and calorie restriction on ciliary neurotrophic factor signalling in the mouse hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia eSeveri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the mouse hypothalamus, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF is mainly expressed by ependymal cells and tanycytes of the ependymal layer covering the third ventricle. Since exogenously administered CNTF causes reduced food intake and weight loss, we tested whether endogenous CNTF might be involved in energy balance regulation. We thus evaluated CNTF production and responsiveness in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, of ob/ob obese mice, and of mice fed a calorie restriction (CR regimen. RT-PCR showed that CNTF mRNA increased significantly in HFD mice and decreased significantly in CR animals. Western blotting confirmed that CNTF expression was higher in HFD mice and reduced in CR mice, but high interindividual variability blunted the significance of these differences. By immunohistochemistry, hypothalamic tuberal and mammillary region tanycytes stained strongly for CNTF in HFD mice, whereas CR mice exhibited markedly reduced staining. RT-PCR and Western blotting disclosed that changes in CNTF expression were paralleled by changes in the expression of its specific receptor, CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα. Injection of recombinant CNTF and detection of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (P-STAT3 showed that CNTF responsiveness by the ependymal layer, mainly by tanycytes, was higher in HFD than CR mice. In addition, in HFD mice CNTF administration induced distinctive STAT3 signalling in a large neuron population located in the dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei, perifornical area and mammillary body. The hypothalamic expression of CNTF and CNTFRα did not change in the hyperphagic, leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice; accordingly, P-STAT3 immunoreactivity in CNTF-treated ob/ob mice was confined to ependymal layer and arcuate neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that hypothalamic CNTF is involved in controlling the energy balance and that CNTF signalling plays a role in HFD obese mice at specific sites.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise training followed by a low-calorie diet on metabolic syndrome risk factors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T; So, R; Shimojo, N; Tanaka, K

    2015-09-01

    Whether low-volume, high-intensity, interval training (HIIT) is an adequate exercise method for improving metabolic risk factors is controversial. Moreover, it is not known if performing a short-term, low-calorie diet intervention (LCDi) after a HIIT program affects risk factors. This study investigated how an 8-week, 3 times/week exercise intervention (EXi) incorporating either HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) followed by a 4-week LCDi affects risk factors. Twenty-six male workers with metabolic risk factors (47.4 ± 7.1 years; cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2peak) of 28.5 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min) were randomly assigned to either the HIIT (3 sets of 3-min cycling with a 2-min active rest between sets, 180 kcal) or MICT (45 min, 360 kcal) group. After the EXi, all subjects participated in a 4-week LCDi (4 counseling sessions). During the EXi, VO2peak improved more (P HIIT (25.4 ± 14.6%) than through MICT (14.9 ± 12.8%), whereas improvements in body fat and HDL cholesterol were similar. During the LCDi, some risk factors improved further (P HIIT group decreased (P HIIT than with MICT during the EXi despite HIIT having a lower exercise volume than MICT, but this advantage of HIIT promptly disappeared through detraining. An intervention strategy consisting of 8 weeks of either HIIT or MICT followed by a 4-week LCDi has a positive effect on metabolic risk factors. UMIN11352. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermittent calorie restriction largely counteracts the adverse health effects of a moderate-fat diet in aging C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Fenni; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; van Dijk, Miriam; van Norren, Klaske; Menke, Aswin L; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2017-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to extend life- and health-span in model species. For most humans, a life-long CR diet is too arduous to adhere to. The aim of this study was to explore whether weekly intermittent CR can (1) provide long-term beneficial effects and (2) counteract diet-induced obesity in male aging mice. In this study, we have exposed C57Bl/6J mice for 24 months to an intermittent (INT) diet, alternating weekly between CR of a control diet and ad libitum moderate-fat (MF) feeding. This weekly intermittent CR significantly counteracted the adverse effects of the MF diet on mortality, body weight, and liver health markers in 24-month-old male mice. Hepatic gene expression profiles of INT-exposed animals appeared much more comparable to CR- than to MF-exposed mice. At 12 months of age, a subgroup of MF-exposed mice was transferred to the INT diet. Gene expression profiles in the liver of the 24-month-old diet switch mice were highly similar to the INT-exposed mice. However, a small subset of genes was consistently changed by the MF diet during the first phase of life. Weekly intermittent CR largely, but not completely, reversed adverse effects caused by a MF diet. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Influence of the lactose free and lactose containing diet on prevalence of gram-negative sepsis and feeding intolerance in very low birth weight infants: double-blind randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwinta, Przemko; Mitkowska, Zofia; Kruczek, Piotr; Tomasik, Tomasz; Pietrzyk, Jacek J

    2002-01-01

    VLBW infants have a developmental lactase deficiency in the gut. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of lactose containing and lactose free diets on prevalence of feeding intolerance and Gram negative sepsis in VLBW infants. 80 newborns with mean (+/- SEM) birth weight 1091 +/- 25 g and gestational age 28.5 +/- 0.24 wks were randomized into 2 groups fed during 1st month of life with 1) formula containing lactose (Bebilon Nenatal--BN group; n = 40) or 2) lactose free formula (Pregestimil--PG group; n = 40). The end points of the study were: feeding intolerance episodes, Gram negative sepsis, weight gain and the length of parenteral nutrition. The birthweight (1112 vs 1114 g), gestational age (28.8 vs 28.3 wks), 5th min. Apgar score (5 vs 6 pts), sex (52% vs 55% male), type of delivery (65 vs 58% vaginal delivery) did not differ between the groups. Thirty (75%) newborns of the BN group and 31 (77.5%) newborns of the PG group completed the study (RR = 1.11; 95% CI: 0.54-2.44). The prevalence of Gram negative sepsis were similar in both groups (2/40 vs. 3/40; RR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.12-3.78). Also a comparable number of children had at least one episode of feeding intolerance (14/40 vs. 12/40; RR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.69-2.20) The weight gain (11.7 vs 10.9 g/day) and the length of parenteral nutrition did not differ between the groups (16 vs 15 days). The inclusion of lactose into feeding formula does not influence feeding tolerance in VLBW infants.

  19. Low-carbohydrate diets cause obesity, low-carbohydrate diets reverse obesity: a metabolic mechanism resolving the paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Mobbs, Charles V.; Mastaitis, Jason; Yen, Kelvin; Schwartz, Joseph; Mohan, Vinuta; Poplawski, Michal; Isoda, Fumiko

    2006-01-01

    High-fat diets produce obesity in part because, per calorie, glucose produces greater post-prandial thermogenesis than lipids, an effect probably mediated by glucose-sensing neurons. A very low carbohydrate/high-fat/high-protein Atkins-type diet produces obesity but is marginally ketogenic in mice. In contrast, high-sucrose/low-fat diets, and very low carbohydrate/high-fat/low-protein (anti-epileptic) ketogenic diets reverse diet-induced obesity independent of caloric intake. We propose that ...

  20. Evaluation of the usefulness of a low-calorie diet with or without bread in the treatment of overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Fernández-Fernández, Ceila; Pérez-Torres, Almudena; García-Puig, Juan; Bermejo, Laura M

    2012-08-01

    Despite the lack of scientific evidence, bread is one of the most restricted foods in popular hypocaloric diets. The aim of this study was to compare two nutrition strategies (with or without bread) designed to promote weight loss in overweight/obese women. A clinical, prospective and randomised study in which 122 women >18 years, BMI ≥ 25 BREAD, n = 61) and control group (NO BREAD, n = 61). Both groups received a low-calorie diet (with or without bread), nutrition education and physical activity guidelines, and were monitored for 16 weeks. 104 women completed the study (48.4 ± 9 years, 29.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric and biochemical markers improved after the intervention without significant differences between groups. BREAD group significantly increased total cereal consumption (3.2 ± 1.3 to 3.7 ± 0.5 servings/day, P carbohydrates (41.2 ± 6.4 vs. 45.9 ± 5.0% P BREAD group increased the discrepancy with recommended consumption. NO BREAD group had the most dropouts (21.3% vs. 6.6%, P bread inclusion in a low-calorie diet designed for weight loss favoured a better evolution of dietetic parameters and greater compliance with the diet with fewer dropouts. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT01223989. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. REFRIGERATION ESPECIALLY FOR VERY LOW TEMPERATURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P.B.; Smith, H.R. Jr.

    1960-09-13

    A refrigeration system for producing very low temperatures is described. The system of the invention employs a binary mixture refrigerant in a closed constant volume, e.g., Freon and ethylene. Such mixture is compressed in the gaseous state and is then separated in a fractionating column element of the system. Thenceforth, the first liquid to separate is employed stagewise to cool and liq uefy successive portions of the refrigerant at successively lower temperatures by means of heat exchangers coupled between the successive stages. When shut down, all of the volumes of the system are interconnected and a portion of the refrigerant remains liquid at ambient temperatures so that no dangerous overpressures develop. The system is therefore rugged, simple and dependable in operation.

  2. Predictors of diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, K.A.; Mulder, M.T.; Verhoeven, A.J.M.; Wietmarschen, H. van; Boessen, R.; Pellis, L.P.; Spijker, A.T. van; Timman, R.; Ozcan, B.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Methods

  3. Add Fiber without Extra Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166315.html Add Fiber Without Extra Calories How to fill up, not ... 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Are you getting enough fiber in your diet? According to the National Fiber ...

  4. Changing beverage consumption patterns have resulted in fewer liquid calories in the diets of US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesirow, Maurissa S C; Welsh, Jean A

    2015-04-01

    Beverage consumption patterns have been linked to obesity and chronic disease risk. Although the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has decreased recently, little is known about the parallel trends in intake of other beverages. To describe recent trends in consumption of all commonly consumed beverages among US children aged 2 to 19 years. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls from 18,541 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001-2010 were used to assess beverage intake, including SSBs (ie, sodas, fruit-flavored drinks, sport and energy drinks, fruit juices, coffees/teas, and other [nondairy] sugar-sweetened drinks); milks (ie, plain whole, reduced fat, and low-/nonfat, sweetened, other milks/milk-based drinks, and milk alternatives); 100% juices (ie, fruit, and vegetable/mixed without added sugar); low-/no-calorie beverages (ie, unsweetened or artificially sweetened: sodas, coffees/teas, flavored waters, diet sport/energy drinks, and other low/no-calorie drinks); alcohol-containing; and plain water (during 2005-2010 only). Weighted mean intakes (percent total energy and total ounces) and consumption prevalence were estimated. Regression models and analytical procedures that account for the complex sampling methods were used to test trends. Between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010, total daily beverage consumption (excluding water) decreased from 24.4% to 21.1% energy (32.0 to 27.9 oz). Significant decreases (Pcalorie drink consumption also increased, rising from 0.2 to 1.3 oz/day. Changing beverage consumption patterns reflect positive trends in the form of reduced intake of SSBs, whole milk, and total calories from beverages. Although the consumption of sport drinks, energy drinks, and low-calorie beverages have increased, their contribution to total beverage intake remains small. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Very low bit rate video coding standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Qin

    1995-04-01

    Very low bit rate video coding has received considerable attention in academia and industry in terms of both coding algorithms and standards activities. In addition to the earlier ITU-T efforts on H.320 standardization for video conferencing from 64 kbps to 1.544 Mbps in ISDN environment, the ITU-T/SG15 has formed an expert group on low bit coding (LBC) for visual telephone below 64 kbps. The ITU-T/SG15/LBC work consists of two phases: the near-term and long-term. The near-term standard H.32P/N, based on existing compression technologies, mainly addresses the issues related to visual telephony at below 28.8 kbps, the V.34 modem rate used in the existing Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). H.32P/N will be technically frozen in January '95. The long-term standard H.32P/L, relying on fundamentally new compression technologies with much improved performance, will address video telephony in both PSTN and mobile environment. The ISO/SG29/WG11, after its highly visible and successful MPEG 1/2 work, is starting to focus on the next- generation audiovisual multimedia coding standard MPEG 4. With the recent change of direction, MPEG 4 intends to provide an audio visual coding standard allowing for interactivity, high compression, and/or universal accessibility, with high degree of flexibility and extensibility. This paper briefly summarizes these on-going standards activities undertaken by ITU-T/LBC and ISO/MPEG 4 as of December 1994.

  6. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  7. [Total energy value and percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients in the diet of elderly individuals from Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Tarciana Nobre de; Marucci, Maria de Fátima Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Describe the total energy value and percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients in the diet of elderly individuals living in Fortaleza/CE. This is a population-based, cross-sectional domiciliary study, which included 458 elderly individuals (66.6% women). The variables evaluated were total energy value (TEV) and the percentage contribution of calories from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The results are shown as mean, standard deviation, and percentile distribution (P5, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P95). The Student's t-test and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) with LSD post-hoc tests were used to determine the statistical significance of means between two groups and among three or more groups, respectively. When comparing the mean values of TEV among categories of socioeconomic and demographic variables, statistically significant differences were found between women for ethnicity, years of schooling and socioeconomic level. Among men, differences were found for years of schooling and socioeconomic level. The mean energy value of men's diet was significantly higher than that of women (1475.8 kcal and 1236.4 kcal, respectively). The mean values of calorie percentage contribution from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were similar between men and women. The elderly of this study showed significant differences in mean values of TEV between sexes and between the categories years of schooling and socioeconomic level. Women also showed significant differences between the ethnic categories. The mean relative contribution of macronutrients in TEV was similar between genders and age groups.

  8. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2017-05-04

    concerns surrounding allocation concealment. There were no significant differences between people receiving supplements or dietary advice alone for change in weight, height, body mass index, z score or other indices of nutrition or growth. Changes in weight (kg) at three, six and 12 months respectively were: mean difference (MD) 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.09 to 0.72); MD 0.47 (95% CI -0.07 to 1.02 ); and MD 0.16 (-0.68 to 1.00). Total calorie intake was greater in people taking supplements at 12 months, MD 265.70 (95% CI 42.94 to 488.46). There were no significant differences between the groups for anthropometric measures of body composition, lung function, gastro-intestinal adverse effects or activity levels. Moderate quality evidence exists for the outcomes of changes in weight and height and low quality evidence exists for the outcomes of change in total calories, total fat and total protein intake as results are applicable only to children between the ages of 2 and 15 years and many post-treatment diet diaries were not returned. Evidence for the rate of adverse events in the treatment groups was extremely limited and judged to be of very low quality AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Oral calorie supplements do not confer any additional benefit in the nutritional management of moderately malnourished children with cystic fibrosis over and above the use of dietary advice and monitoring alone. While nutritional supplements may be used, they should not be regarded as essential. Further randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the role of short-term oral protein energy supplements in people with cystic fibrosis and acute weight loss and also for the long-term nutritional management of adults with cystic fibrosis or advanced lung disease, or both.

  9. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIAAA College Materials Supporting Research Special Features CollegeAIM College Administrators Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Calculators > Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie ...

  10. Comparison of The Effects of Low Calorie Diet and Lovastatin On Serum Lipoproteins, Apob, Homocysteine and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Hyperlipidemic Obese Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Homayonfar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:obesity is directly related to dyslipidemia which contributes significantly to the risk of coronary heart disease, a major cardiovascular disease and a serious health problem The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low calorie diet and those of lovastatin on serum lipoproteins, apo B,homocysteine and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in hyperlipidemic obese patients.   Methods: In a randomized clinical trial,41 obese patients were stratified by BMI,serum triglyceride(TG and total cholesterol (TC and randomly allocated to one of   these groups: 1- Lovastatin tablet (40mg 2-1200 calorie diet per day according to the   therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC dietary pattern for 8 weeks. Serum lipoprotein,apo B,homocysteine, and TAC were measured enzymatically,immunoturbidometrically,via EIA ,and colorimetrically respectively. Results: There were a significant decrease in mean of the serum TC (P=0.0001,LDL- c(p=0.0001, TG/HDL-c(p=0.03, apoB (p=0.0001 and significant increase in TAC (p=0.0001 in diet group at the end of the study compare to lovastatin group.   TC, LDL-c, TG, LDL-c/HDL-c , TC/HDL-c , TG/HDL-c, homocysteine and apo B   showed significant decrease but TAC showed significant increase in the diet group at   the end of the study compared to beginning values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.0001,   p=0.001, p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively. But   in the lovastatin group only TC,LDL-C, TG,LDL-c/HDL-c,TC/HDL-c and apo B had significant decrease at the end of the study compared to beginning values(P=0.0001, P=0.0001,P=0.0001,P=0.01, P=0.02, P=0.002,respectivelyConclusion:The study revealed that when compared to levostation 1200 kcal diet according to TLC dietary pattern had more beneficial effects on serum lipoproteins,apo B, homocysteine and TAC, so it may decrease CVD risk factors and mortality in hyperlipidemic obese patients.

  11. Low-calorie cocktails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regular beer: 145 calories 12 oz (355 mL) craft beer: 170 calories or more 3.5 oz (104 ... sweet vermouth: 140 calories Keep in mind that "craft" beers often contain more calories than commercial beers. This ...

  12. Transcriptome profiling from adipose tissue during a low-calorie diet reveals predictors of weight and glycemic outcomes in obese, nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armenise, Claudia; Lefebvre, Gregory C; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Background: A low-calorie diet (LCD) reduces fat mass excess, improves insulin sensitivity, and alters adipose tissue (AT) gene expression, yet the relation with clinical outcomes remains unclear.Objective: We evaluated AT transcriptome alterations during an LCD and the association with weight...... and glycemic outcomes both at LCD termination and 6 mo after the LCD.Design: Using RNA sequencing (RNAseq), we analyzed transcriptome changes in AT from 191 obese, nondiabetic patients within a multicenter, controlled dietary intervention. Expression changes were associated with outcomes after an 8-wk LCD (800......-1000 kcal/d) and 6 mo after the LCD. Results were validated by using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 350 subjects from the same cohort. Statistical models were constructed to classify weight maintainers or glycemic improvers.Results: With RNAseq analyses, we identified 1173...

  13. Weight Changes and Metabolic Outcomes in Calorie-Restricted Obese Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Containing Corn or Flaxseed Oil: Physiological Role of Sugar Replacement with Polyphenol-Rich Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Zamaninour, Negar; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Pishva, Hamideh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Dilmaghanian, Aydin; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Shidfar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S). After 11 weeks, 15 mice were sacrificed and another 60 were divided among 4 high-fat diet groups with 30% calorie restriction (CR) for the next 12 weeks. The diets contained corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO) with sugar (S) or grape (G). Despite CR, a weight loss trend was observed only during the first 4 weeks in all groups. CR did not significantly increase SIRT1 gene expression. Higher liver weight was observed in mice consuming FO (p oil with flaxseed oil in obese mice reduced fat mass, but even with no change in adiponectin levels it could not decrease insulin resistance. However, none of the food item combinations facilitated weight reduction in the long-term CR. Therefore, regardless of the total calorie intake, different diet components and fat contents may have unexpected effects on metabolic regulation.

  14. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: a randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tovar, Alma Rosa; Caamaño, María del Carmen; Garcia-Padilla, Sandra; García, Olga Patricia; Duarte, Miguel Angel; Rosado, Jorge L

    2012-01-01

    ...) Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR), 2) Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I) , 3) Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU) and 4) Control group (CON). All groups received a low calorie diet...

  15. Incidence of pancreatic cancer is dramatically increased by a high fat, high calorie diet in KrasG12D mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Hua; Moro, Aune; Takakura, Kazuki; Su, Hsin-Yuan; Mo, Allen; Nakanishi, Masako; Waldron, Richard T; French, Samuel W; Dawson, David W; Hines, O Joe; Li, Gang; Go, Vay Liang W; Sinnett-Smith, James; Pandol, Stephen J; Lugea, Aurelia; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Duff, Michael O; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic data has linked obesity to a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To allow for detailed mechanistic studies in a relevant model mimicking diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer, a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD) was given to P48+/Cre;LSL-KRASG12D (KC) mice carrying a pancreas-specific oncogenic Kras mutation. The mice were randomly allocated to a HFCD or control diet (CD). Cohorts were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months and tissues were harvested for further analysis. Compared to CD-fed mice, HFCD-fed animals gained significantly more weight. Importantly, the cancer incidence was remarkably increased in HFCD-fed KC mice, particularly in male KC mice. In addition, KC mice fed the HFCD showed more extensive inflammation and fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions in the pancreas, compared to age-matched CD-fed animals. Interestingly, we found that the HFCD reduced autophagic flux in PanIN lesions in KC mice. Further, exome sequencing of isolated murine PanIN lesions identified numerous genetic variants unique to the HFCD. These data underscore the role of sustained inflammation and dysregulated autophagy in diet-induced pancreatic cancer development and suggest that diet-induced genetic alterations may contribute to this process. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link in males and females, and will facilitate the development of interventions targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer.

  16. Incidence of pancreatic cancer is dramatically increased by a high fat, high calorie diet in KrasG12D mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Chang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic data has linked obesity to a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To allow for detailed mechanistic studies in a relevant model mimicking diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer, a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD was given to P48+/Cre;LSL-KRASG12D (KC mice carrying a pancreas-specific oncogenic Kras mutation. The mice were randomly allocated to a HFCD or control diet (CD. Cohorts were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months and tissues were harvested for further analysis. Compared to CD-fed mice, HFCD-fed animals gained significantly more weight. Importantly, the cancer incidence was remarkably increased in HFCD-fed KC mice, particularly in male KC mice. In addition, KC mice fed the HFCD showed more extensive inflammation and fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions in the pancreas, compared to age-matched CD-fed animals. Interestingly, we found that the HFCD reduced autophagic flux in PanIN lesions in KC mice. Further, exome sequencing of isolated murine PanIN lesions identified numerous genetic variants unique to the HFCD. These data underscore the role of sustained inflammation and dysregulated autophagy in diet-induced pancreatic cancer development and suggest that diet-induced genetic alterations may contribute to this process. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link in males and females, and will facilitate the development of interventions targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer.

  17. Caloric restriction and diet-induced weight loss do not induce browning of human subcutaneous white adipose tissue in women and men with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane

    2018-01-01

    adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal...... variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent...

  18. Daily physical activity and macronutrient distribution of low-calorie diets jointly affect body fat reduction in obese women.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Fontana, C.M. (Constanza Matilde); Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.; Martinez, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate dietary patterns and sedentary lifestyles are believed to be important factors in predisposing people to obesity. This study analyzed the potential interaction between habitual physical activity and the carbohydrate (CHO)-fat distribution in 2 hypocaloric diets and the impact of such interplay on body composition changes. Forty healthy obese women, 20–50 years old, were randomly assigned to a high- or low-CHO energy-restricted diet, which was low or high in fat, respectively, du...

  19. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  20. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  1. CLINICAL NUTRITION INVOLVING A SPECIALIZED PROTEINAND CALORIE-RICH PEDIATRIC MILK PRODUCT FOR ENTERAL FEEDING OF INFANTS WITH PROTEIN-CALORIE DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Namazova-Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature infants with extremely low and very low birth weight with a severe overlapping perinatal pathology often feature slower growth rate within the first year of life and require special nutritional support.Objective: Our aim was to study physical development of infants with protein-calorie deficiency in the setting of using a specialized protein- and calorie-rich pediatric milk product for enteral feeding.Methods: We analyzed tolerability and efficacy of clinical nutrition within the framework of a prospective two-month-long case series. We assessed actual children’s diets and the chemical composition thereof. We determined body weight and length, body mass index (BMI, adipodermal flap thickness over the triceps. Anabolic effect of clinical nutrition was assessed on the basis of transthyretin concentration dynamics.Results: The study involved 30 infants with protein-calorie deficiency (7 term infants and 23 premature infants with a severe perinatal pathology. High tolerability of the formula under analysis was registered in most patients. Termination of functional gastrointestinal tract disorders (posseting, colics, flatulence, constipations was observed in 23 (87% patients. In most cases, the use of a protein- and calorie-rich formula as a part of a therapeutic diet helped to satisfy children’s protein demand and improve their weight/length parameters: BMI increased in 19 (72% children, body weight — in 16 (63%, body length — in 24 (92%, adipodermal flap thickness over the triceps — in all the children (100%. We observed transthyretin concentration increase from 162 (157; 171 in the beginning of the study to 187 (170; 208 mg/l in the end thereof (p = 0.028.Conclusion: A specialized protein- and calorie-rich product for enteral feeding may be used for feeding infants with protein-calorie deficiency born with a severe a perinatal pathology, including premature infants.

  2. Differential expression of oxidative stress and inflammation related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to a low-calorie diet: a nutrigenomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, Ana B; Parra, Dolores; Milagro, Fermín I; Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Larrarte, Eider; Margareto, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2008-12-01

    Nutrigenomics is a new application of omics technologies in nutritional science. Nutrigenomics aims to identify molecular markers of diet-related diseases and mechanisms of interindividual variability in response to food. The aim of this study was to evaluate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as a model system and readily available source of RNA to discern gene expression signatures in relation to personalized therapy of obesity. PBMC were collected from obese men before and after an 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD) to lose weight. Changes in gene expression before and after the LCD were initially screened using a DNA-microarray platform and validated by qRT-PCR. Global gene expression analysis identified 385 differentially expressed transcripts after the LCD. Further analyses showed a decrease in some specific oxidative stress and inflammation genes. Interestingly, expression of these genes was directly related to body weight, while a lower IL8 gene expression was associated with higher fat mass decrease. Collectively, these observations suggest that PBMCs are a suitable RNA source and model system to perform nutrigenomics studies related to obesity and development of personalized dietary treatments. IL8 gene expression warrant further research as a putative novel biomarker of changes in body fat percentage in response to an LCD.

  3. Calorie restriction in overweight seniors: response of older adults to a dieting study: the CROSSROADS randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marilyn C; Bodner, Eric V; Brown, Cynthia J; Bryan, David; Buys, David R; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Wingo, Brooks C; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling obese older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), and functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article.

  4. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowen, Sarah [Department of Surgery, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah L. [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Hobbs, Gerald [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Statistics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Coad, James [Department of Pathology, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Martin, Karen H. [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Olfert, I. Mark [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Human Performance and Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Vona-Davis, Linda, E-mail: lvdavis@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Surgery, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2015-06-26

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer.

  5. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cowen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer.

  6. High-intensity interval training and calorie restriction promote remodeling of glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel A H; Halbrooks, Jacob E; Watkins, Emily E; Fisher, Gordon; Hunter, Gary R; Nagy, Tim R; Plaisance, Eric P

    2017-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreases adiposity, but the magnitude and defense of weight loss is less than predicted due to reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TEE). The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would increase markers of sympathetic activation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and rescue CR-mediated reductions in EE to a greater extent than moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIT). Thirty-two 5-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on ad libitum HFD for 11 wk, followed by randomization to one of four groups (n = 8/group) for an additional 15 wk: 1) CON (remain on HFD), 2) CR (25% lower energy intake), 3) CR + HIIT (25% energy deficit created by 12.5% CR and 12.5% EE through HIIT), and 4) CR + MIT (25% energy deficit created by 12.5% CR and 12.5% EE through MIT). Markers of adipose thermogenesis (Ucp1, Prdm16, Dio2, and Fgf21) were unchanged in either exercise group in inguinal or epididymal WAT, whereas CR + HIIT decreased Ucp1 expression in retroperitoneal WAT and brown adipose tissue. HIIT rescued CR-mediated reductions in lean body mass (LBM) and resting energy expenditure (REE), and both were associated with improvements in glucose/insulin tolerance. Improvements in glucose metabolism in the CR + HIIT group appear to be linked to a molecular signature that enhances glucose and lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Exercise performed at either moderate or high intensity does not increase markers of adipose thermogenesis when performed in the presence of CR but remodels skeletal muscle metabolic and thermogenic capacity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. A histomorphometric study on the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) combined with a high-calorie diet (HCD) on aortic perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, S; Strijdom, H; Genis, A; Everson, F; Van Wijk, R; Kotzé, S H

    2017-06-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), surrounding arteries is metabolically active. Obesity and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may cause pathophysiological conditions in the aortic wall and surrounding PVAT. The aim of the study was to determine the histological effects on the aortic wall, aortic PVAT adipocyte morphology and leptin staining intensity in obese rats treated with ART. Wistar rats (N=36) were divided into four groups; a lean control (C/ART-), ART control (C/ART+), high-calorie diet (HCD) untreated (HCD/ART-) and HCD and ART experimental (HCD/ART+). The aorta and surrounding PVAT were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and anti-leptin antibodies for immunohistochemistry (IHC). The C/ART+ group had a thinner tunica media compared to the HCD/ART- group. The tunica adventitia was thicker in the ART groups (C/ART+ and HCD/ART+) compared to the lean control group. White adipocytes in the HCD/ART- group was larger in size compared to the other three groups. The high-calorie diet groups (HCD/ART- and HCD/ART+) had increased adipocyte sizes, for both brown and differentiating adipocytes, compared to the control groups (C/ART- and C/ART+). The unilocular and differentiating adipocytes in the C/ART+ group showed intense leptin staining. Unilocular and differentiating adipocytes in the HCD/ART- and HCD/ART+ groups showed weak to no leptin staining intensity. The present study indicated that ART and a HCD, separately and combined, altered both the tunica media and adventitia of the aortic wall, whereas the HCD alone caused adipocytes to increase in size. The leptin staining intensity suggested that ART alone may lead to increased leptin expression, whereas ART combined with a HCD may cause leptin deficiency. Changes seen with ART in a rat model suggest that aortic wall thickness and PVAT adipocyte morphology alterations should be considered by clinicians in obese individuals receiving ART. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Strict vegan, low-calorie diet administered by caregiving daughter to elderly mother--is this elder abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, E L; Fassberg, C Wasserstein; Namestnik, J; Guedj, D; Caine, Y

    2005-06-01

    We present a case in which a 40 year old woman, who was the primary care-giver of her 78 year-old mother, provided a strict vegan diet which caused the mother severe malnutrition. The mother was hospitalized with severe functional deterioration and, while eating a proper diet during hospitalization, gained weight and her condition improved. The case was reported to the Welfare Officer and the mother was released under the supervision of the Welfare Officer. Cases of severe malnutrition and even death of infants who were fed a strict vegan diet have been reported. This case raises some ethical and legal issues. Should a guardian or a caregiver be allowed to make decisions regarding the way of life and medical treatment of the person in his/her charge which are likely to endanger that person's health and when is it appropriate for society to intervene in individual freedom? The paper includes a review of some reported cases of child and elder abuse or neglect which illustrate these issues.

  9. Children's very low food security is associated with increased dietary intakes in energy, fat, and added sugar among Mexican-origin children (6-11 y in Texas border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity among Mexican-origin and Hispanic households is a critical nutritional health issue of national importance. At the same time, nutrition-related health conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are increasing in Mexican-origin youth. Risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes are more common in Mexican-origin children and include increased intakes of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. This study assessed the relationship between children's experience of food insecurity and nutrient intake from food and beverages among Mexican-origin children (age 6-11 y who resided in Texas border colonias. Methods Baseline data from 50 Mexican-origin children were collected in the home by trained promotora-researchers. All survey (demographics and nine-item child food security measure and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected in Spanish. Dietary data were collected in person on three occasions using a multiple-pass approach; nutrient intakes were calculated with NDS-R software. Separate multiple regression models were individually fitted for total energy, protein, dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, sodium, Vitamin C, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugars. Results Thirty-two children (64% reported low or very low food security. Few children met the recommendations for calcium, dietary fiber, and sodium; and none for potassium or vitamin D. Weekend intake was lower than weekday for calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and vitamin C; and higher for percent of calories from fat. Three-day average dietary intakes of total calories, protein, and percent of calories from added sugars increased with declining food security status. Very low food security was associated with greater intakes of total energy, calcium, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugar. Conclusions This paper not only emphasizes the alarming rates of food insecurity for this Hispanic subgroup, but describes the

  10. Children's very low food security is associated with increased dietary intakes in energy, fat, and added sugar among Mexican-origin children (6-11 y) in Texas border Colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Nalty, Courtney; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R

    2012-02-20

    Food insecurity among Mexican-origin and Hispanic households is a critical nutritional health issue of national importance. At the same time, nutrition-related health conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are increasing in Mexican-origin youth. Risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes are more common in Mexican-origin children and include increased intakes of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. This study assessed the relationship between children's experience of food insecurity and nutrient intake from food and beverages among Mexican-origin children (age 6-11 y) who resided in Texas border colonias. Baseline data from 50 Mexican-origin children were collected in the home by trained promotora-researchers. All survey (demographics and nine-item child food security measure) and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected in Spanish. Dietary data were collected in person on three occasions using a multiple-pass approach; nutrient intakes were calculated with NDS-R software. Separate multiple regression models were individually fitted for total energy, protein, dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, sodium, Vitamin C, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugars. Thirty-two children (64%) reported low or very low food security. Few children met the recommendations for calcium, dietary fiber, and sodium; and none for potassium or vitamin D. Weekend intake was lower than weekday for calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and vitamin C; and higher for percent of calories from fat. Three-day average dietary intakes of total calories, protein, and percent of calories from added sugars increased with declining food security status. Very low food security was associated with greater intakes of total energy, calcium, and percentage of calories from fat and added sugar. This paper not only emphasizes the alarming rates of food insecurity for this Hispanic subgroup, but describes the associations for food insecurity and diet among this sample of Mexican

  11. Very low energy electron microscopy of graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikmeková, E; Bouyanfif, H; Lejeune, M; Müllerová, I; Hovorka, M; Unčovský, M; Frank, L

    2013-08-01

    Commercially available graphene samples are examined by Raman spectroscopy and very low energy scanning transmission electron microscopy. Limited lateral resolution of Raman spectroscopy may produce a Raman spectrum corresponding to a single graphene layer even for flakes that can be identified by very low energy electron microscopy as an aggregate of smaller flakes of various thicknesses. In addition to diagnostics of graphene samples at larger dimensions, their electron transmittance can also be measured at very low energies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. Short-term benefits of an unrestricted-calorie traditional Mediterranean diet, modified with a reduced consumption of carbohydrates at evening, in overweight-obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia, Roberto; D'Amore, Simona; Graziano, Giusi; Capobianco, Caterina; Sangineto, Moris; Paparella, Domenico; de Bonfils, Paola; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Vacca, Michele

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MeD) is believed to promote health; nevertheless, changes in the nutritional patterns in the Mediterranean area (increased intake of refined carbohydrates/saturated fats; reduced fibers intake; main calorie load shifted to dinner) led to reduced MeD benefits in recent decades. We retrospectively investigated the effects of a MeD with a low intake of refined carbohydrates in the evening ("MeDLowC") on body weight (BW) and metabolic profile of overweight/obese subjects. According to their adherence to MeDLowC, subjects were classified into 44 (41%) individuals with "excellent" adherence and 63 (59%) with "poor" adherence. Nutritional counseling induced an improvement in BW, glucose metabolism and liver transaminases in both groups, with an increased magnitude of these effects in the "Excellent" adherence group. "Excellent" adherence to MeDLowC improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, MeD with a restriction of carbohydrates in the evening significantly ameliorates obesity and associated metabolic complications.

  13. Increased Postprandial GIP and Glucagon Responses, But Unaltered GLP-1 Response after Intervention with Steroid Hormone, Relative Physical Inactivity, And High-Calorie Diet in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2011-01-01

    is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance on postprandial GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon responses in healthy subjects. Research Design and Methods:A 4-h 2200 KJ-liquid meal test was performed in 10 healthy Caucasian males without family history of diabetes...... [age, 24 ± 3 yr (mean ± sd); body mass index, 24 ± 2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose, 4.9 ± 0.3 mm; hemoglobin A1c, 5.4 ± 0.1%] before and after intervention using high-calorie diet, relative physical inactivity, and administration of prednisolone (37.5 mg/d) for 12 d. Results:The intervention resulted...... in insulin resistance according to the homeostatic model assessment [1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 (mean ± sem) ± 1.3; P = 0.02] and increased postprandial glucose excursions [area under curve (AUC), 51 ± 28 vs. 161 ± 32 mm · 4 h; P = 0.045], fasting plasma insulin (36 ± 3 vs. 61 ± 6 pm; P = 0.02), and postprandial...

  14. The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Janet; Werts, Melanie; Siebelink, Els; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica

    2017-10-02

    Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods-representing the whole Dutch diet-was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk). Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake.

  15. Low glycemic index vegan or low-calorie weight loss diets for women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Billings, Deborah L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized pilot was to assess the feasibility of a dietary intervention among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comparing a vegan to a low-calorie (low-cal) diet. Overweight (body mass index, 39.9 ± 6.1 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS (n = 18; age, 27.8 ± 4.5 years; 39% black) who were experiencing infertility were recruited to participate in a 6-month randomized weight loss study delivered through nutrition counseling, e-mail, and Facebook. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. We hypothesized that weight loss would be greater in the vegan group. Attrition was high at 3 (39%) and 6 months (67%). All analyses were conducted as intention-to-treat and presented as median (interquartile range). Vegan participants lost significantly more weight at 3 months (-1.8% [-5.0%, -0.9%] vegan, 0.0 [-1.2%, 0.3%] low-cal; P = .04), but there was no difference between groups at 6 months (P = .39). Use of Facebook groups was significantly related to percent weight loss at 3 (P Vegan participants had a greater decrease in energy (-265 [-439, 0] kcal/d) and fat intake (-7.4% [-9.2%, 0] energy) at 6 months compared with low-cal participants (0 [0, 112] kcal/d, P = .02; 0 [0, 3.0%] energy, P = .02). These preliminary results suggest that engagement with social media and adoption of a vegan diet may be effective for promoting short-term weight loss among women with PCOS; however, a larger trial that addresses potential high attrition rates is needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro cellular adaptations of indicators of longevity in response to treatment with serum collected from humans on calorie restricted diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne S Allard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR produces several health benefits and increases lifespan in many species. Studies suggest that alternate-day fasting (ADF and exercise can also provide these benefits. Whether CR results in lifespan extension in humans is not known and a direct investigation is not feasible. However, phenotypes observed in CR animals when compared to ad libitum fed (AL animals, including increased stress resistance and changes in protein expression, can be simulated in cells cultured with media supplemented with blood serum from CR and AL animals. Two pilot studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ADF and CR on indicators of health and longevity in humans. In this study, we used sera collected from those studies to culture human hepatoma cells and assessed the effects on growth, stress resistance and gene expression. Cells cultured in serum collected at the end of the dieting period were compared to cells cultured in serum collected at baseline (before the dieting period. Cells cultured in serum from ADF participants, showed a 20% increase in Sirt1 protein which correlated with reduced triglyceride levels. ADF serum also induced a 9% decrease in proliferation and a 25% increase in heat resistance. Cells cultured in serum from CR participants induced an increase in Sirt1 protein levels by 17% and a 30% increase in PGC-1alpha mRNA levels. This first in vitro study utilizing human serum to examine effects on markers of health and longevity in cultured cells resulted in increased stress resistance and an up-regulation of genes proposed to be indicators of increased longevity. The use of this in vitro technique may be helpful for predicting the potential of CR, ADF and other dietary manipulations to affect markers of longevity in humans.

  17. Very low energy electron microscopy of graphene flakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MIKMEKOVÁ, E; BOUYANFIF, H; LEJEUNE, M; MÜLLEROVÁ, I; HOVORKA, M; UNČOVSKÝ, M; FRANK, L

    2013-01-01

    .... Limited lateral resolution of Raman spectroscopy may produce a Raman spectrum corresponding to a single graphene layer even for flakes that can be identified by very low energy electron microscopy...

  18. The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet van den Boer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min. Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods—representing the whole Dutch diet—was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min for chocolate milk. Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake.

  19. The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werts, Melanie; Siebelink, Els; de Graaf, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods—representing the whole Dutch diet—was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk). Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake. PMID:28974054

  20. Knowledge of Recommended Calorie Intake and Influence of Calories on Food Selection Among Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cassondra; Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2016-03-01

    To examine knowledge of recommended daily calorie intake, use of calorie information, and sociodemographic correlates between knowledge and use. Population-based, random digit-dialed phone surveys. Canadian adults (n = 1,543) surveyed between October and December, 2012. Knowledge of recommended calorie intake and use of calorie information when purchasing food. Regression models, adjusting for sociodemographics and diet-related measures. Overall, 24% of participants correctly stated their recommended daily calorie intake; the majority (63%) underestimated it, whereas few (4%) overestimated it. Females, younger participants, those with a higher income and more education, and those who consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily were significantly more likely to state recommended intake correctly. Most respondents (82%) reported considering calories when selecting foods. Respondents considered calories more often if they were female, had a higher income and more education, perceived themselves to be overweight, were actively trying to control their weight, reported a healthier diet, or consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily. Although most Canadians reported using calorie information to guide their food choices, few knew their daily recommended calorie intake. To promote healthy weights, policy initiatives, including education regarding daily calorie intake and changes to the Nutrition Facts table, may help consumers make better choices about food. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diet and exercise in management of obesity and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Kwong Ming; Khoo, Joan

    2013-12-01

    According to World Health Organization, in 2010 there were over 1 billion overweight adults worldwide with 400 million adults who were obese. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and cancers (prostate, colorectal, endometrial, and breast). Obese people may present to the gastroenterologists with gastroesophageal reflux, non-alcoholic fatty liver, and gallstones. It is important, therefore, to recognize and treat obesity. The main cause of obesity is an imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, although in a small number of cases, genetics and diseases such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's disease, depression, and use of medications such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants are responsible for fat accumulation in the body. The main treatment for obesity is dieting, augmented by physical exercise and supported by cognitive behavioral therapy. Calorie-restriction strategies are one of the most common dietary plans. Low-calorie diet refers to a diet with a total dietary calorie intake of 800-1500, while very low-calorie diet has less than 800 calories daily. These dietary regimes need to be balanced in macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Fifty-five percent of the dietary calories should come from carbohydrates, 10% from proteins, and 30% from fats, of which 10% of total fat consist of saturated fats. After reaching the desired body weight, the amount of dietary calories consumed can be increased gradually to maintain a balance between calories consumed and calories expended. Regular physical exercise enhances the efficiency of diet through increase in the satiating efficiency of a fixed meal, and is useful for maintaining diet-induced weight loss. A meta-analysis by Franz found that by calorie restriction and exercise, weight loss of 5-8.5 kg was observed 6 months after intervention. After 48 months, a mean of 3-6 kg was maintained. In conclusion, there is evidence

  2. The Fat-1 Transgene in Mice Increases Antioxidant Potential, Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels, and Enhances PPARγ and SIRT-1 Expression on a Calorie Restricted Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mizanur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both n-3 fatty acids (FA and calorie-restriction (CR are known to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in animals and humans. In this study, we investigated the synergistic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity of n-3 FA and CR using Fat-1 transgenic mice (Fat-1 that are capable of converting n-6 FA to n-3 FA endogenously. Wild type (WT and Fat-1 mice were maintained on ad libitum (AL or CR (40% less than AL AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% corn oil (rich in n-6 FA for 5 months. Significantly lower levels of n-6/n-3 FA ratio were observed in serum, muscle and liver of Fat-1 mice fed AL or CR as compared to that of WT mice fed AL or CR. Muscle catalase (CAT, super oxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, and liver CAT and SOD activities were found higher in Fat-1 mice as compared to that of WT mice. These activities were more pronounced in Fat-1/CR group as compared to other groups. Serum pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 were found lower in Fat-1 mice, as compared to that of WT mice. This anti-inflammatory effect was also more pronounced in Fat-1/CR group as compared to that of other groups. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPA Rgamma and life prolonging gene, sirtuin (SIRT-1 expression were found in liver of Fat-1/CR mice, as compared to that of WT/CR mice. These data suggest that n-3 FA along with moderate CR may prolong lifespan by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress.

  3. Liquid fructose supplementation in LDL-R−/− mice fed a western-type diet enhances lipid burden and atherosclerosis despite identical calorie consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hutter

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: SLF, without changing total calorie intake, increases atherosclerosis, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol burden in a background of overweight LDL receptor knockout mice consuming an unhealthy, Western-type solid rodent chow.

  4. Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants | Ndwiga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. Design: Comparative cohort study. Setting: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during ...

  5. Effects of very low frequency electromagnetic method (VLFEM) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of livestock dung on ground water status in the study area. To achieve this, a very low frequency EM survey was conducted; the aim and objective was to detect fractures in the subsurface. VLF data were acquired at 5m intervals along two profiles, with maximum length of 60m in the ...

  6. Low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C.; Singh, Arashdeep; Yee, Nicholas J.; Chelikani, Prasanth K.

    2016-01-01

    Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and β-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance. PMID:27122299

  7. Low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C; Singh, Arashdeep; Yee, Nicholas J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2016-04-28

    Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and β-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance.

  8. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant. PMID:25662564

  9. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  10. Spectrum sensing by cognitive radios at very low SNR

    CERN Document Server

    Quan, Zhi; Zhang, Wenyi; Sayed, Ali H

    2009-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is one of the enabling functionalities for cognitive radio (CR) systems to operate in the spectrum white space. To protect the primary incumbent users from interference, the CR is required to detect incumbent signals at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we present a spectrum sensing technique based on correlating spectra for detection of television (TV) broadcasting signals. The basic strategy is to correlate the periodogram of the received signal with the a priori known spectral features of the primary signal. We show that according to the Neyman-Pearson criterion, this spectral correlation-based sensing technique is asymptotically optimal at very low SNR and with a large sensing time. From the system design perspective, we analyze the effect of the spectral features on the spectrum sensing performance. Through the optimization analysis, we obtain useful insights on how to choose effective spectral features to achieve reliable sensing. Simulation results show that the prop...

  11. Burning Questions about Calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  12. Propulsion options for very low Earth orbit microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leomanni, Mirko; Garulli, Andrea; Giannitrapani, Antonio; Scortecci, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The growing competitiveness in the commercial space market has raised the interest in operating small spacecraft at very low altitudes. To make this feasible, the space industry has started developing propulsion options tailored specifically to these platforms. This paper presents a review of emerging micropropulsion technologies and evaluates their applicability to microsatellite missions in the altitude range 250-500 km. The results of the proposed analysis are demonstrated on two different remote sensing applications.

  13. Renal Calcification in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of renal calcification in very low birth weight infants in this study was relatively low, and the calcification was transient in one-half of the infants. Extremely premature, sick infants requiring long-term ventilation, and those receiving furosemide or dexamethasone were more likely to have renal calcification. Clinicians should be aware that renal calcification may develop beyond the neonatal stage.

  14. Spectrum sensing by cognitive radios at very low SNR

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Zhi; Shellhammer, Stephen J.; Wenyi ZHANG; Sayed, Ali H.

    2009-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is one of the enabling functionalities for cognitive radio (CR) systems to operate in the spectrum white space. To protect the primary incumbent users from interference, the CR is required to detect incumbent signals at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we present a spectrum sensing technique based on correlating spectra for detection of television (TV) broadcasting signals. The basic strategy is to correlate the periodogram of the received signal with the ...

  15. Human Mobility Monitoring in Very Low Resolution Visual Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyan Bo Bo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels. The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics.

  16. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD......-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, pro-insulin, and blood glucose were measured during habitual energy intake as well as during the hypocaloric diet. Twenty-four-hour GH release profiles and IGFBP-1 were decreased, and insulin as well as proinsulin....... This suggests a reversible defect in GH release, rather than a persistent preexisting disorder. It is hypothesized that enhanced bioavailability of IGF-I, acting in concert with elevated proinsulin and insulin levels, may account for the lack of stimulation of 24-hr GH release by the hypocaloric diet in obese...

  17. Psychophysical tuning curves for very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Moore, Brian C.J.; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2010-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of problems produced by low-frequency noise requires information about frequency selectivity in the low-frequency range. However, there are few data on frequency selectivity for centre frequencies below 100 Hz. To estimate the characteristics of auditory tuning for very...... low frequencies, psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were obtained for centre frequencies of 31.5, 40, and 50 Hz. An equal-loudness-level contour was also obtained using closely spaced frequencies. This was used as a rough estimate of the shape of the individual middle-ear transfer function...

  18. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats progressively decreases the proportion of fat calories selected from a palatable cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Clare M; Letourneau, Chanel; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2016-05-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) decreases caloric intake in both human patients and rodent models. In long-term intake tests, rats decrease their preference for fat and/or sugar after RYGB, and patients may have similar changes in food selection. Here we evaluated the impact of RYGB on intake during a "cafeteria"-style presentation of foods to assess if rats would lower the percentage of calories taken from fat and/or sugar after RYGB in a more complex dietary context. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent either RYGB or sham surgery (Sham) were presurgically and postsurgically given 8-days free access to four semisolid foods representative of different fat and sugar levels along with standard chow and water. Compared with Sham rats, RYGB rats took proportionally fewer calories from fat and more calories from carbohydrates; the latter was not attributable to an increase in sugar intake. The proportion of calories taken from protein after RYGB also increased slightly. Importantly, these postsurgical macronutrient caloric intake changes in the RYGB rats were progressive, making it unlikely that the surgery had an immediate impact on the hedonic evaluation of the foods and strongly suggesting that learning is influencing the food choices. Indeed, despite these dietary shifts, RYGB, as well as Sham, rats continued to select the majority of their calories from the high-fat/high-sugar option. Apparently after RYGB, rats can progressively regulate their intake and selection of complex foods to achieve a seemingly healthier macronutrient dietary composition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Diet-busting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-busting foods; Overweight - diet-busting foods; Weight loss - diet busting foods ... of calories but little nutrition. Many of these diet-busting foods are made with unhealthy saturated or ...

  20. Radio variability survey of very low luminosity protostars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Ten very low luminosity objects were observed multiple times in the 8.5 GHz continuum in search of protostellar magnetic activities. A radio outburst of IRAM 04191+1522 IRS was detected, and the variability timescale was about 20 days or shorter. The results of this survey and archival observations suggest that IRAM 04191+1522 IRS is in active states about half the time. Archival data show that L1014 IRS and L1148 IRS were detectable previously and suggest that at least 20%-30% of very low luminosity protostars are radio variables. Considering the variability timescale and flux level of IRAM 04191+1522 IRS and the previous detection of the circular polarization of L1014 IRS, the radio outbursts of these protostars are probably caused by magnetic flares. However, IRAM 04191+1522 IRS is too young and small to develop an internal convective dynamo. If the detected radio emission is indeed coming from magnetic flares, the discovery implies that the flares may be caused by the fossil magnetic fields of interstellar origin.

  1. The effect of vitamin D supplementation in combination with low-calorie diet on anthropometric indices and androgen hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Sfidvajani, S; Ahangari, R; Hozoori, M; Mozaffari-Khosravi, H; Fallahzadeh, H; Nadjarzadeh, A

    2017-11-06

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is known as the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women. The aim of this studywas to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in combination with low-calorie diet on anthropometric indices, reproductive hormones and menstrual regularity in overweight and obese PCOS women. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 PCOS women with vitamin D insufficiency were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either (1) weight-loss intervention + 50,000 IU/week oral vitamin D3 or (2) weight-loss intervention + placebo. At the beginning and end of the study, the anthropometric indices, body composition, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free androgen index (FAI) were measured and regularity of menses was compared among the two groups. After 12-week intervention, median of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 significantly increased from 18.5 (10.75-20) ng/ml to 42.69 (34-53.25) ng/ml in vitamin D group compared to placebo group (p PCOS, androgen profile did not change with vitamin D supplementation when combined with low-calorie diet, but menstrual frequency significantly improved. IRCT2016062710826N19.

  2. Calorie restriction and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass have opposing effects on circulating FGF21 in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Mirjam A; de Groot, Gerrit H; Berends, Frits J; Wiezer, Renee; van Wagensveld, Bart A; Swank, Dingeman J; Luijten, Arijan; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Pijl, Hanno; Jansen, Peter L M; Schaap, Frank G

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of different weight loss strategies on levels of the metabolic regulator FGF21 in morbidly obese females with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Observational intervention trial. Weight reduction was achieved by Gastric Banding (GB, n = 11) or Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB, n = 16) in subjects with NGT, and by RYGB (n = 15) or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, n = 12) in type 2 diabetics. Fasted and/or postprandial levels of FGF21, FGF19 (an FGF21-related postprandial hormone) and bile salts (implicated in regulation of FGF21 and FGF19 expression) were measured before, and 3 and 12 weeks after intervention. Fasted FGF21 levels were elevated in T2DM subjects. Calorie restriction by either GB or VLCD lowered bile salt and FGF21 levels. In contrast, RYGB surgery was associated with elevated bile salt and FGF21 levels. Calorie restriction and RYGB have opposite effects on serum bile salt and FGF21 levels. Calorie restriction results in FGF21 approaching nonobese control levels, suggesting that this intervention is effective in reducing the "nutritional crisis" that appears to underly FGF21 elevation in obesity. FGF21 elevation after RYGB may contribute to the beneficial effect of this procedure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  4. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors.

  5. A 43-level filterless CMLI with very low harmonics values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Bakry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a 43-level asymmetric uniform step cascaded multilevel inverter (CMLI that consists of four H-bridges per phase, with different dc sources of values E, 2E, 7E and 11E. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP optimization model is applied to determine the switching angles of the CMLI power switches that can minimize the values of any undesired harmonics. Single phase and three phase cases are considered. The results show very low values of all the undesired harmonics over wide voltage ranges, which agree with the IEEE standards 519-1992 for voltage distortion limits for both the values of %THDE and %VHmax so that no output filters are needed.

  6. Preschool temperament of very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraeder, B D; Tobey, G Y

    1989-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the toddler and preschool behavioral characteristics of children who were born with very low birth weights (VLBW; less than or equal to 1,500 grams). The subjects were 40 VLBW children (average birth weight, 1,203 grams) who at birth were appropriate for gestational age and free from congenital anomalies. Data were gathered during home visits when the children were 12, 24, 36 and 48 months and were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation and z tests. Arrhythmicity, low adaptability, and low persistence during the toddler and preschool years characterized the behavioral styles of VLBW children. The temperament dimensions of rhythmicity, adaptability, intensity, mood, and threshold were related to the quality of the child's environment. Clinicians need to be alert to the impact of temperament on the interpersonal milieu of VLBW children and their families.

  7. In Vivo Mutagenic Effect of Very Low Dose Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Pamela J.; Day, Tanya K.; Swinburne, Sarah J.; Lane, Joanne M.; Morley, Alexander A.; Hooker, Antony M.; Bhat, Madhava

    2006-01-01

    Almost all of our knowledge about the mutational effect of radiation has come from high dose studies which are generally not relevant to public exposure. The pKZ1 mouse recombination mutagenesis assay enables study of the mutational effect of very low doses of low LET radiation (μGy to cGy range) in a whole animal model. The mutational end-point studied is chromosomal inversion which is a common mutation in cancer. We have observed 1) a non-linear dose response of induced inversions in pKZ1 mice exposed to a wide dose range of low LET radiation, 2) the ability of low priming doses to cause an adaptive response to subsequent higher test doses and 3) the effect of genetic susceptibility where animals that are heterozygous for the Ataxia Telangiectasia gene (Atm) exhibit different responses to low dose radiation compared to their normal litter-mates. PMID:18648587

  8. The quest for very low-mass planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, M; Udry, S [Geneva Observatory, Geneva University, 51 ch des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)], E-mail: michel.mayor@obs.unige.ch

    2008-08-15

    The statistical results gathered on exoplanet properties over the past decade provide strong constraints for planet-formation models. They now prove to be especially important for the new category of very low-mass solid planets recently revealed by improved radial velocities, obtained mainly with the HARPS spectrograph. We review here the emerging properties of this newly discovered population, in the light of results from state-of-the-art planet-formation models. We also discuss the limitations of the radial-velocity method and the associated optimistic perspectives for the future detection of Earth-like planets in the Habitable Zone of solar-type stars, with radial velocities alone or in complement to space photometry.

  9. European national strategies to move towards very low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    of official subsidies or via private investment organisations. Another possibility is lower taxes for low energy buildings or the introduction of CO2 taxes. Furthermore mandatory certification schemes are expected to promote very low energy buildings by introduction of grades restricted to buildings with very....... A strategy for improved energy efficiency of existing buildings is a necessity if the energy consumption is to be reduced significantly over a limited period of time. The life time of buildings ranges from 50 to 100 years and improvement of the existing building stock will thus have much higher impact than...... is an effective instrument to achieve highly energy efficient buildings, as well as a valuable tool and guideline for the construction sector....

  10. [Gaussian distribution of intelligence in VLBW preterm infants at age 5: very low correlation with very low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baalen, A; Ross, C; Kewitz, G; Mildenberger, E; Berns, M; Bartsch, M; Kössel, H; Kruppa, E; Bohn, R; Versmold, H

    2008-04-01

    Preterm infants with very low birth weight intelligence values, we studied the distribution of intelligence at preschool age in VLBW infants and the risk factors influencing this distribution. A prospective cohort study of 277 VLBW infants intelligence (Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children) at age 5. Statistical methods employed were: explorative data analysis, correlation, chi (2)- and t-tests; the tested variables were: small for gestational age ( 0.21 > or = 36 weeks), intraventricular hemorrhage, ventricular dilation, periventricular leukomalacia, seizures, abnormal acoustic evoked potentials, and hyperexcitability at discharge. The distribution of intelligence in 137 VLBW infants intelligence increased very slightly with birth weight (Pearson correlation: 0.172; p = 0.045) and was significantly lower in children with hypoglycemia after the first day of life (- 13.35; 95 % confidence interval: - 20.08 to - 6.63; p = 0.002), hyperexcitability at discharge (- 16.28; 95 % confidence interval: - 25.26 to - 7.31; p = 0.005), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (- 7.00; 95 % confidence interval - 11.71 to - 2.29; p = 0.039). At preschool age, the intelligence of VLBW infants is normally distributed and correlates only slightly with the very low birth weight. Hypoglycemia after the first day of life and bronchopulmonary dysplasia are risk factors for lower intelligence. Hyperexcitability at discharge seemed to represent a promising prognostic factor for a later intelligence reduction.

  11. Meconium passage in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetze, W H; Palazzolo, V L; Bowling, D; Behnke, M; Burchfield, D J; Neu, J

    1993-01-01

    The timing of the first meconium stool has been considered a marker for proper gastrointestinal functioning in the term infant. There is limited information on the meconium passage patterns of very-low-birth-weight infants of less than 32 weeks' gestation. It is unknown whether feeding practices influence the timing of the first stool in these infants. We retrospectively studied 47 very-low-birth-weight infants with birth weights of 1250 g or less who were previously enrolled in a study of gastrointestinal (GI) priming. Infants whose mothers desired to breast feed (n = 7) were given GI priming with their own mother's milk. The remaining infants had been randomly assigned to receive total parenteral nutrition alone (n = 21) or GI priming with infant formula (n = 19) during the first 14 days of life. We attempted to advance all infants to full enteral nutrition by 21 days of age. There was no statistically significant difference in timing of the first stool among the three groups. The overall median age at first stool was 43 hours, and the 75th percentile was 10 days. The range was 1/2 hour to 27 days. There was no concordance between time of first stool and birth weight within the range studied. There was no concordance between time of first stool and necrotizing enterocolitis, although there was little statistical power to detect this. There was also very little concordance with feeding tolerance. Other than necrotizing enterocolitis, no significant GI disease developed in any of the infants studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. [Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    To develop a homologous additive of human milk for feeding the very low weight infants with an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of fortified human milk with this additive and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45 mL have undergone a lactose removal process, lyophilization and they were diluted in 50 mL of human milk. Doses of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were measured. The composition of the additive milk was lactose 9.22 ± 1.00 g/dL; proteins 2.20 ± 0.36 g/dL; lipids 2.91 ± 0.57 g/dL; calories 71.93 ± 8.69 kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6 ± 32.4 mOsmol/kg H2O; sodium 2.04 ± 0.45 mEq/dL; potassium 1.42 ± 0.15 mEq/dL; calcium 43.44 ± 2.98 mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69 ± 1.24 mg/dL. According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, the human milk with the proposed additive can achieve the nutritional needs of the very low birth weight preterm infant. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Ventriculomegaly in very-low-birthweight infants with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsas, Tammy Z; Spitzer, Alan R; Gewolb, Ira H

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of Down syndrome in infants with fetal ventriculomegaly is 5% to 10%; however, the converse, the prevalence of cerebral ventriculomegaly in live-born infants with Down syndrome, is not well established. Because cranial ultrasounds are performed on most very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants (birthweight Down syndrome, and whether VLBW infants with Down syndrome are at higher risk for cranial ultrasound abnormalities, compared with the already elevated risk in other VLBW infants. This study comprised retrospective analysis of data from Pediatrix BabySteps Clinical Data Warehouse. The study population consisted of 121 736 VLBW infants (61 869 males, 59 867 females), born between 1996 and 2013, of whom 441 had Down syndrome (233 males, 208 females; mean gestational age 30wks, standard deviation [SD] 2.8wks). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds of ventriculomegaly and IVH for Down syndrome. Prevalence of ventriculomegaly in Down syndrome was 5.2% compared with 0.8% in other VLBW infants. Multivariate analysis indicated 5.8× odds (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4-9.7) of ventriculomegaly in Down syndrome and 0.9× odds (95% CI 0.7-1.1) of IVH for Down syndrome. Very preterm infants with Down syndrome are at increased risk for ventriculomegaly (but not for IVH) compared with other infants born very preterm. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  14. A Penning sputter ion source with very low energy spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, Z., E-mail: znouri@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Li, R., E-mail: ruohong@triumf.c [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Holt, R.A., E-mail: rholt@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Rosner, S.D., E-mail: rosner@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a version of the Frankfurt Penning ion source that produces ion beams with very low energy spreads of approx3 eV, while operating in a new discharge mode characterized by very high pressure, low voltage, and high current. The extracted ions also comprise substantial metastable and doubly charged species. Detailed studies of the operating parameters of the source showed that careful adjustment of the magnetic field and gas pressure is critical to achieving optimum performance. We used a laser-fluorescence method of energy analysis to characterize the properties of the extracted ion beam with a resolving power of 1x10{sup 4}, and to measure the absolute ion beam energy to an accuracy of 4 eV in order to provide some insight into the distribution of plasma potential within the ion source. This characterization method is widely applicable to accelerator beams, though not universal. The low energy spread, coupled with the ability to produce intense ion beams from almost any gas or conducting solid, make this source very useful for high-resolution spectroscopic measurements on fast-ion beams.

  15. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting (SC accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006

  16. Growth and development in children born very low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Stroustrup, Annemarie; Conaway, Mark R; DeBoer, Mark D

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationships between growth (birth to age 2 years) and developmental outcomes in children born with very low birthweight (VLBW). Motor and mental development in children born with VLBW were regressed on anthropometric measurements at birth, 9 months and 2 years using multivariable regression. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a longitudinal cohort, community sample, designed to be representative of children born across the USA. 950 children born with VLBW (growth, with length-for-age z-scores -2, children with growth shortfalls in head circumference, length and weight had a higher adjusted OR (aOR) of low Bayley motor scores at 9 months and 2 years (aOR ranging from 1.8 to 3.3, all pgrowth were linked to current and future neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born with VLBW. While careful length measures may be a particularly useful marker, deficits in all anthropometric measures were risk factors for developmental delays. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Respiratory Support for Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkud, Yamini V; Hornik, Christoph P; Benjamin, Daniel K; Laughon, Matthew M; Clark, Reese H; Greenberg, Rachel G; Smith, P Brian

    2017-04-01

    To assess how neonatal intensive care units followed the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for use of dexamethasone in preterm infants by evaluating respiratory support at the time of dexamethasone administration. This is an observational study of infants discharged from one of 290 neonatal intensive care units from 2003 to 2010. The cohort included very low birth weight (dexamethasone. Significant respiratory support was defined as invasive respiratory support (conventional or high-frequency ventilation) with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) > 0.3. Of 81 292 infants; 7093 (9%) received dexamethasone. At the time that dexamethasone was initiated, 4604 (65%) of infants were on significant respiratory support. In accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations, a majority of infants were on significant respiratory support when receiving dexamethasone, yet a substantial number of infants still received dexamethasone on less than significant respiratory support. Further research on reducing dexamethasone use in premature infants is required to decrease the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative source models of very low frequency events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Agnew, D.C.; Schwartz, S.Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present alternative source models for very low frequency (VLF) events, previously inferred to be radiation from individual slow earthquakes that partly fill the period range between slow slip events lasting thousands of seconds and low-frequency earthquakes (LFE) with durations of tenths of a second. We show that VLF events may emerge from bandpass filtering a sum of clustered, shorter duration, LFE signals, believed to be the components of tectonic tremor. Most published studies show VLF events occurring concurrently with tremor bursts and LFE signals. Our analysis of continuous data from Costa Rica detected VLF events only when tremor was also occurring, which was only 7% of the total time examined. Using analytic and synthetic models, we show that a cluster of LFE signals produces the distinguishing characteristics of VLF events, which may be determined by the cluster envelope. The envelope may be diagnostic of a single, dynamic, slowly slipping event that propagates coherently over kilometers or represents a narrowly band-passed version of nearly simultaneous arrivals of radiation from slip on multiple higher stress drop and/or faster propagating slip patches with dimensions of tens of meters (i.e., LFE sources). Temporally clustered LFE sources may be triggered by single or multiple distinct aseismic slip events or represent the nearly simultaneous chance occurrence of background LFEs. Given the nonuniqueness in possible source durations, we suggest it is premature to draw conclusions about VLF event sources or how they scale.

  19. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; /Argonne; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  20. High Sensitivity Very Low Frequency Receiver for Earthquake Data Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, A.; Najmurrokhman, A.

    2017-03-01

    high sensitivity very low frequency (VLF) receiver is developed based on AD744 monolithic operational amplifier (Op-Amp) for earthquake data acquisition. In research related natural phenomena such as atmospheric noise, lightning and earthquake, a VLF receiver particularly with high sensitivity is utterly required due to the low power of VLF wave signals received by the antenna. The developed receiver is intended to have high sensitivity reception for the signals in frequency range of 10-30kHz allocated for earthquake observation. The VLF receiver which is portably designed is also equipped with an output port connectable to the soundcard of personal computer for further data acquisition. After obtaining the optimum design, the hardware realization is implemented on a printed circuit board (PCB) for experimental characterization. It shows that the sensitivity of realized VLF receiver is almost linear in the predefined frequency range for the input signals lower than -12dBm and to be quadratic for the higher level input signals.

  1. Borehole strain observations of very low frequency earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Ghosh, A.; Hutchinson, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the signals of very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) in PBO borehole strain data in central Cascadia. These MW 3.3 - 4.1 earthquakes are best observed in seismograms at periods of 20 to 50 seconds. We look for the strain they produce on timescales from about 1 to 30 minutes. First, we stack the strain produced by 13 VLFEs identified by a grid search moment tensor inversion algorithm by Ghosh et. al. (2015) and Hutchinson and Ghosh (2016), as well as several thousand VLFEs detected through template matching these events. The VLFEs are located beneath southernmost Vancouver Island and the eastern Olympic Peninsula, and are best recorded at co-located stations B005 and B007. However, even at these stations, the signal to noise in the stack is often low, and the records are difficult to interpret. Therefore we also combine data from multiple stations and VLFE locations, and simply look for increases in the strain rate at the VLFE times, as increases in strain rate would suggest an increase in the moment rate. We compare the background strain rate in the 12 hours centered on the VLFEs with the strain rate in the 10 minutes centered on the VLFEs. The 10-minute duration is chosen as a compromise that averages out some instrumental noise without introducing too much longer-period random walk noise. Our results suggest a factor of 2 increase in strain rate--and thus moment rate--during the 10-minute VLFE intervals. The increase gives an average VLFE magnitude around M 3.5, within the range of magnitudes obtained with seismology. Further analyses are currently being carried out to better understand the evolution of moment release before, during, and after the VLFEs.

  2. Rapid separation of very low concentrations of bacteria from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Clara M; Wood, Ryan L; Hoj, Taalin R; Alizadeh, Mahsa; Bledsoe, Colin G; Wood, Madison E; McClellan, Daniel S; Blanco, Rae; Hickey, Caroline L; Ravsten, Tanner V; Husseini, Ghaleb A; Robison, Richard A; Pitt, William G

    2017-08-01

    A rapid and accurate diagnosis of the species and antibiotic resistance of bacteria in septic blood is vital to increase survival rates of patients with bloodstream infections, particularly those with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. The extremely low levels in blood (1 to 100CFU/ml) make rapid diagnosis difficult. In this study, very low concentrations of bacteria (6 to 200CFU/ml) were separated from 7ml of whole blood using rapid sedimentation in a spinning hollow disk that separated plasma from red and white cells, leaving most of the bacteria suspended in the plasma. Following less than a minute of spinning, the disk was slowed, the plasma was recovered, and the bacteria were isolated by vacuum filtration. The filters were grown on nutrient plates to determine the number of bacteria recovered from the blood. Experiments were done without red blood cell (RBC) lysis and with RBC lysis in the recovered plasma. While there was scatter in the data from blood with low bacterial concentrations, the mean average recovery was 69%. The gender of the blood donor made no statistical difference in bacterial recovery. These results show that this rapid technique recovers a significant amount of bacteria from blood containing clinically relevant low levels of bacteria, producing the bacteria in minutes. These bacteria could subsequently be identified by molecular techniques to quickly identify the infectious organism and its resistance profile, thus greatly reducing the time needed to correctly diagnose and treat a blood infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. COMPACT BONE DEFICIENCY IN PROTEIN-CALORIE MALNUTRITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARN, S M; ROHMANN, C G; BEHAR, M; VITERI, F; GUZMAN, M A

    1964-09-25

    Children hospitalized for acute protein-calorie malnutrition in Guatemala City were not delayed in ossification status as compared with Guatemalan Indian children on their customary low-protein diets, but were markedly and often dramatically deficient in cortical bone.

  4. LEO P: AN UNQUENCHED VERY LOW-MASS GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Girardi, Léo, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-20

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H i Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H i and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope to two magnitudes below the red clump in order to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo P to be 1.62 ± 0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ∼0.4 Mpc from Sextans B, the nearest galaxy in the NGC 3109 association of dwarf galaxies of which Leo P is clearly a member. The star responsible for ionizing the H ii region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass ≳25 M{sub ⊙}. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rates as low as ∼10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The best-fitting star formation history (SFH) derived from the resolved stellar populations of Leo P using the latest PARSEC models shows a relatively constant star formation rate over the lifetime of the galaxy. The modeled luminosity characteristics of Leo P at early times are consistent with low-luminosity dSph Milky Way satellites, suggesting that Leo P is what a low-mass dSph would look like if it evolved in isolation and retained its gas. Despite the very low mass of Leo P, the imprint of reionization on its SFH is subtle at best, and consistent with being totally negligible. The isolation of Leo P, and the total quenching of star formation of Milky Way satellites of similar mass, implies that the local environment dominates the quenching of the Milky Way satellites.

  5. Early trophic feeding for very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombell, Sarah; McGuire, William

    2009-07-08

    The introduction of enteral feeds for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is often delayed due to concern that early introduction may not be tolerated and may increase the risk of necrotising enterocolitis. However, enteral fasting may diminish the functional adaptation of the immature gastrointestinal tract and prolong the need for parenteral nutrition with its attendant infectious and metabolic risks. Early trophic feeding, giving infants very small volumes of milk during the first week after birth, may promote intestinal maturation, enhance feeding tolerance and decrease time to reach full enteral feeding independently of parenteral nutrition. To determine the effect of early trophic feeding versus enteral fasting on feed tolerance, growth, and the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, mortality and other morbidities in VLBW infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Group was used. Searches were made of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 - February 2009), EMBASE (1980 - February 2009), CINAHL (1982 - February 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of early trophic feeding (milk volumes up to 24 ml/kg/day introduced before 96 hours postnatal age and continued until at least one week after birth) versus a comparable period of enteral fasting in VLBW infants. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. Data were synthesised using a fixed effects model and reported using typical relative risk, typical risk difference and weighted mean difference. Nine trials, in which a total of 754 VLBW infants participated, were eligible for inclusion. These trials did not provide any evidence that early trophic feeding affected feed tolerance or growth rates in VLBW infants. Meta

  6. A randomized trial of calorie labeling on menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Goodman, Samantha; Hanning, Rhona; Daniel, Samantha

    2013-12-01

    Food consumed outside the home accounts for a growing proportion of the North American diet and has been associated with increased obesity. To examine the effect of nutrition labeling on menus on awareness, use, and food consumption, including the impact of "traffic light" labeling and adding other nutrients. Blinded, randomized trial with 635 Canadian adults conducted in 2010-2011. Participants ordered a free meal from one of four experimental menus: 1) no nutritional information shown, 2) calorie amounts only, 3) calorie amounts in "traffic lights", and 4) calorie, fat, sodium, and sugar shown in "traffic lights". Recall of nutrition information, knowledge of calorie content and nutrient consumption were assessed. Participants in the calorie conditions were more likely to recall the calorie content of meals and to report using nutrition information when ordering. The calorie content of meals was not significantly different across conditions; however, calorie consumption was significantly lower among participants in the Calorie-only condition compared to the No information condition (mean=-96 kcal, p=.048). Menu labeling increased awareness and use of nutrition information and reduced consumption. Adding "traffic lights", fat, sodium, and sugar amounts to menus had little impact compared to calorie-only labeling. © 2013.

  7. [Postnatal growth of very low birth weight infants during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To study the postnatal growth of very low birth weight infant (VLBWI) and its relevant influencing factors during hospitalization. Clinical data of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), who were discharged from July 1(st), 2010 to June 30(th), 2011, were collected retrospectively from 9 NICUs of 9 cities in Pearl River Delta, Guangdong province. A total of 183 cases of VLBW premature infants were enrolled in this research. The incidence of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) at birth and extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) on discharge were assessed. According to IUGR at birth, they were assigned into two groups: IUGR group (n = 63) and non-IUGR group (n = 120). And non-IUGR group were further assigned into EUGR group (n = 71) and non-EUGR group (n = 49). The mean daily growth rate during hospitalization and the incidence of EUGR on discharge were studied comparatively to IUGR group and non-IUGR group. The nutrition intake, mean growth rate and relevant illnesses were studied comparatively to IUGR group and non-IUGR group, EUGR group and non-EUGR group. (1) The incidence of IUGR at birth was 34.4%, while the incidence of EUGR on discharge was 72.1%. The mean daily growth rate to body weight of IUGR group was higher than that of non-IUGR group [(12.5 ± 2.7) g/kg vs (11.3 ± 2.5) g/kg, P = 0.002]. The increasing incidence from IUGR to EUGR, IUGR group was higher than non-IUGR group (96.8% vs 59.2%, P = 0.000). (2) The mean daily energy and protein intake in postnatal time of 1 week [62 (51, 69) kcal/kg vs 56 (45, 64) kcal/kg (1 kcal = 4.1840 kJ), 1.7 (1.3, 2.0) g/kg vs 1.6 (1.2, 1.8) g/kg], 2 weeks [83 (71, 94) kcal/kg vs 76 (66, 88) kcal/kg, 2.6 (2.1, 2.9) g/kg vs 2.3 (1.9, 2.7) g/kg], 4 weeks [107 (94, 120) kcal/kg vs 95 (85, 108) kcal/kg, 3.3 (2.7, 3.6) g/kg vs 2.7 (2.4, 3.2) g/kg], before total enteral nutrition [103 (96, 110) kcal/kg vs 97 (89, 106) kcal/kg, 3.1 (2.6, 3.4) g/kg vs 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) g/kg] and the whole hospitalization [121 (111, 131) kcal

  8. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000887.htm Calorie count - fast food To use the sharing features on this page, ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  9. The effect of reduced calorie diets, with and without fat, and the use of xylanase on performance characteristics of broilers between 0 and 42 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, H V Masey; Mathis, G; Lumpkins, B S; Bedford, M R

    2012-06-01

    When decreasing the energy value of broiler diets, nonstarch polysaccharide degrading enzymes, such as xylanase, are often used. In doing so, they are assigned an energy value and considered to contribute energy to the diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of decreasing energy in a broiler diet by 100 kCal/kg on performance and whether the expected drop in performance could be recovered with the use of xylanase. Two formulations were used to provide decreased energy diets, both with and without supplementary fat. Six hundred 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were placed in a 2 × 3 full factorial design in 5 randomized complete blocks. The treatments were enzyme dose at 0 or 16,000 U/kg, and the 3 different diets [positive control (PC), negative control 1, without fat (NC1), and negative control 2 with fat (NC2)]. At no point were there any interactions between diet type and enzyme inclusion; where there was an effect of xylanase, it was consistent regardless of the diet type. There was a significant effect of diet type on feed intake between d 0 to 35; NC1 and NC2 had significantly increased feed intake compared with the PC (P = 0.006). The feed conversion ratio was significantly increased in birds fed the negative control diets during 0 to 35 d and 0 to 42 d (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively). However, feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by the addition of enzyme during periods 0 to 35 d and 0 to 42 d. There were no significant main effects between d 0 and 21 (all responses P > 0.1). Liveability was not affected by any of the treatments (P > 0.1). Decreasing energy in broiler diets results in worsened performance. The use of xylanase may improve feed conversion ratio. The use of some fat may help, so the whole diet composition should be considered in conjunction with enzyme dose to achieve the best advantage.

  10. Local recruitment experience in a study comparing the effectiveness of a low glycaemic index diet with a low calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiomo, William; Read, Anna; Golding, Mary; Silcocks, Paul; Razali, Nuguelis; Sarkar, Sabitabrata; Hardiman, Paul; Thornton, Jim

    2009-09-01

    Feasibility of a clinical-trial comparing a low-glycaemic diet with a low-calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with PCOS. A pilot Randomised-Controlled-Trial using different recruitment strategies. A University Hospital in the United Kingdom. Women seen at specialist gynaecology clinics over a 12 month period in one University Hospital, and women self identified through a website and posters. Potential recruits were assessed for eligibility, gave informed consent, randomised, treated and assessed as in the definitive trial. Eligibility and recruitment rates, compliance with the allocated diet for 6 months and with clinical assessments, blood tests, pelvic ultrasound scans and endometrial biopsies. 1433 new and 2598 follow up patients were seen in 153 gynaecology clinics for over 12 months. 441 (11%) potentially eligible women were identified, 19 (0.4%) of whom met the trial entry criteria. Eleven consented to take part, of which 8 (73%) completed the study. Planned future trials on over-weight women with PCOS should be multicentre and should incorporate primary care. This data will help other researchers plan and calculate the sample size and potential recruitment rates in future clinical trials in PCOS. The results will also be useful for inclusion in future meta-analyses.

  11. Macronutrients and obesity: revisiting the calories in, calories out framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Crichton, Daniel; Tefft, Nathan

    2014-07-01

    Recent clinical research has studied weight responses to varying diet composition, but the contribution of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to rising population weight remains controversial. Research on the economics of obesity typically assumes a "calories in, calories out" framework, but a weight production model separating caloric intake into carbohydrates, fat, and protein, has not been explored in an economic framework. To estimate the contributions of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to changes in population weight, we conducted dynamic time series and structural VAR analyses of U.S. data between 1974 and 2006 and a panel analysis of 164 countries between 2001 and 2010. Findings from all analyses suggest that increases in carbohydrates are most strongly and positively associated with increases in obesity prevalence even when controlling for changes in total caloric intake and occupation-related physical activity. Our structural VAR results suggest that, on the margin, a 1% increase in carbohydrates intake yields a 1.01 point increase in obesity prevalence over 5 years while an equal percent increase in fat intake decreases obesity prevalence by 0.24 points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-07-12

    Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation) and June 2010 (post-implementation). A difference-in-difference design was used to examine the difference between estimated and actual calories purchased, and the odds of underestimating calories.Participants in both cities, both pre- and post-calorie labeling, tended to underestimate calories purchased, by an average 216-409 calories. Adjusted difference-in-differences in estimated-actual calories were significant for individuals who ordered small meals and those with some college education (accuracy in Philadelphia improved by 78 and 231 calories, respectively, relative to Baltimore, p = 0.03-0.04). However, categorical accuracy was similar; the adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for underestimation by >100 calories was 0.90 (p = 0.48) in difference-in-difference models. Accuracy was most improved for subjects with a BA or higher education (AOR = 0.25, p calories varied by subgroup, suggesting that at some level, consumers may incorporate labeling information.

  13. "A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principle of "a calorie is a calorie," that weight change in hypocaloric diets is independent of macronutrient composition, is widely held in the popular and technical literature, and is frequently justified by appeal to the laws of thermodynamics. We review here some aspects of thermodynamics that bear on weight loss and the effect of macronutrient composition. The focus is the so-called metabolic advantage in low-carbohydrate diets – greater weight loss compared to isocaloric diets of different composition. Two laws of thermodynamics are relevant to the systems considered in nutrition and, whereas the first law is a conservation (of energy law, the second is a dissipation law: something (negative entropy is lost and therefore balance is not to be expected in diet interventions. Here, we propose that a misunderstanding of the second law accounts for the controversy about the role of macronutrient effect on weight loss and we review some aspects of elementary thermodynamics. We use data in the literature to show that thermogenesis is sufficient to predict metabolic advantage. Whereas homeostasis ensures balance under many conditions, as a general principle, "a calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics.

  14. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD......) in 6 obese subjects, 5 obese subjects after weight loss, and 5 normal, age- and sex-matched control subjects. Integrated 20-min samples were obtained over 24-h on two occasions in each subject using a constant blood withdrawal technique. In addition, basal levels of serum insulin-like growth factor...... levels were elevated in obese subjects compared to those in normal age- and sex-matched controls. No differences between obese subjects and normal controls were present regarding IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. In the last 24 h during the 96-h VLCD, an increase in 24-h GH release and basal...

  15. Very Low-Cost Nutritious Diet Plans Designed by Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foytik, Jerry

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedural details of Linear Programing, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to devise a dietary guide for consumers that minimizes food costs without sacrificing nutritional quality. Compares Linear Programming with the Thrifty Food Plan, which has been a basis for allocating coupons under the Food Stamp Program. (CS)

  16. Calorie restriction increases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in healthy humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Civitarese, Anthony E.; Stacy Carling; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Hulver, Mathew H; Barbara Ukropcova; Deutsch, Walter A.; Smith, Steven R.; Eric Ravussin

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Life expectancy (the average life span) greatly increased during the 20th century in most countries, largely due to improved hygiene, nutrition, and health care. One possible approach to further increase human life span is “caloric restriction.” A calorie-restricted diet provides all the nutrients necessary for a healthy life but minimizes the energy (calories) supplied in the diet. This type of diet increases the life span of mice and delays the onset of age-rela...

  17. The effects of intermittent calorie restriction on metabolic health: Rationale and study design of the HELENA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schübel, Ruth; Graf, Mirja E; Nattenmüller, Johanna; Nabers, Diana; Sookthai, Disorn; Gruner, Laura F; Johnson, Theron; Schlett, Christopher L; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Kirsten, Romy; Habermann, Nina; Kratz, Mario; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2016-11-01

    Mechanistic studies suggest benefits of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) in chronic disease prevention that may exceed those of continuous calorie restriction (CCR), even at equal net calorie intake. Despite promising results from first trials, it remains largely unknown whether ICR-induced metabolic alterations reported from experimental studies can also be observed in humans, and whether ICR diets are practicable and effective in real life situations. Thus, we initiated the HELENA Trial to test the effects of ICR (eu-caloric diet on five days and very low energy intake on two days per week) on metabolic parameters and body composition over one year. We will assess the effectiveness of ICR compared to CCR and a control diet over a 12-week intervention, 12-week maintenance phase and 24-week follow-up in 150 overweight or obese non-smoking adults (50 per group, 50% women). Our primary endpoint is the difference between ICR and CCR with respect to fold-changes in expression levels of 82 candidate genes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies (SATb) during the intervention phase. The candidate genes represent pathways, which may link obesity-related metabolic alterations with the risk for major chronic diseases. In secondary and exploratory analyses, changes in metabolic, hormonal, inflammatory and metagenomic parameters measured in different biospecimens (SATb, blood, urine, stool) are investigated and effects of ICR/CCR/control on imaging-based measures of subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat are evaluated. Our study is the first randomized trial over one year testing the effects of ICR on metabolism, body composition and psychosocial factors in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How Many Calories? Look at the Menu!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice, but calorie needs vary.” Menus and menu boards will tell consumers that they may ask for additional written nutrition information, which will include total calories, calories from ...

  19. Sociodemographic disparities among fast-food restaurant customers who notice and use calorie menu labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessie E; Brown, Alan G; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2015-07-01

    As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will soon be required to post calorie information on menus with the aim of helping customers make healthier food choices. To be effective, this policy must affect all customers, especially those most at risk for poor health and diet outcomes. To determine whether noticing or using calorie menu labels was associated with demographic characteristics of customers at a national fast-food chain currently implementing calorie menu labeling. Cross-sectional analysis. Customer receipts and survey data were collected from 329 participants using street-intercept survey methodology at 29 McDonald's restaurant locations in low- and high-income neighborhoods throughout the Phoenix, AZ, metropolitan area. Calorie menu labeling awareness and use were assessed. The total number of calories purchased was evaluated using participants' itemized receipts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds of customers noticing or using calorie menu labels. Approximately 60% of participants noticed calorie menu labels, whereas only 16% reported using the information for food or beverage purchases. Higher-income individuals had twice the odds of noticing calorie labels (P=0.029) and three times the odds of using them (P=0.004). Significant positive associations were found between individuals with a bachelor's degree or higher and use of calorie menu labels (odds ratio 3.25; P=0.023). Noticing calorie menu labels was not associated with purchasing fewer calories; however, those who reported using calorie information purchased 146 fewer calories than those who did not (P=0.001). Using calorie menu labels is associated with purchasing fewer calories. However, there are significant socioeconomic disparities among customers who notice and use calorie menu labels. Targeted education campaigns are needed to improve the use of menu labeling

  20. Effects on Diabetes Medications, Weight and A1C Among Patients with Obesity and Diabetes: 6-month Observations From a Full Meal Replacement, Low-Calorie Diet Weight Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Judy Y; So, Derek Y F; Dent, Robert R

    2017-06-06

    A 6-month weight-management program with full meal replacement, low-calorie diet (full MR-LCD) (900 kcal/day for 6 to 12 weeks) follows a protocol for patients with diabetes for decreasing or discontinuing weight-gaining diabetes medications first (Group WG) and then titrating weight-neutral medications (Group WN). This is a retrospective cohort study (1992 to 2009) of weight, glycemic control and diabetes medications changes in 317 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes who were taking medications. Group WG and Group WN were similar at baseline, except that glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were significantly lower in Group WN (7.5% vs. 6.6%; pmetformin. At 6 months, compared with baseline, A1C levels improved in Group WG and Group WN (6-month A1C levels 6.7% and 5.8%, respectively; pdiabetes medications and had significantly better percentages of weight loss compared with those taking medications (18.6% vs. 16%; p=0.002); both groups had improved glycemic control at 6 months (A1C 6.0% vs. A1C 6.6%; NS). In patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes taking medications, a full MR-LCD program appears to be safe and includes improvement in A1C levels. At 6 months, the percentage of weight loss can be significantly better in patients who no longer require diabetes medications, and A1C levels are best controlled in patients who are on WN medications. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rickets in very-low-birth-weight infants born at Baragwanath Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disturbed mineral and bone metabolism has been reported to occur frequently in very-low-birthweight infants fed breast-milk during the first 3 months of life. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of disturbed mineral homeostasis in a breast-milk-fed very-low-birth-weight population at Baragwanath Hospital and ...

  2. Low-calorie marmalades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Saša R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people suffering from insulin-dependent (Diabetes Melitus type I and insulin-independent (Diabetes Melitus type II is huge, and the number of potential diseased is in permanent rise. For that reason products with reduced amount of sugar have become very popular. Factory "Srbijanka" Valjevo manufactures reduced–sugar marmalades from apricot peach, strawberry, apple and orange. Low–metoxyl pectins and high-grade locust bean gum were used as gelation agents. Sensory evaluation and energy value of these marmalades were determined and all samples were highly graded. All marmalades belonged to the group of low-calorie (dietetic products.

  3. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-02

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. © 2013.

  4. Development of low-cost photoacoustic imaging systems using very low-energy pulsed laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ali; Fatima, Afreen; Mohammadian, Nafiseh; Mahmoodkalayeh, Sadreddin; Ansari, Mohammad Ali; Bely, Nicholas; Avanaki, Mohammad R. N.

    2017-07-01

    With the growing application of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in medical fields, there is a need to make them more compact, portable, and affordable. Therefore, we designed very low-cost PAI systems by replacing the expensive and sophisticated laser with a very low-energy laser diode. We implemented photoacoustic (PA) microscopy, both reflection and transmission modes, as well as PA computed tomography systems. The images obtained from tissue-mimicking phantoms and biological samples determine the feasibility of using a very low-energy laser diode in these configurations.

  5. Growth of very low birth weight infants fed with milk from a human milk bank selected according to the caloric and protein value

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Matta Aprile; Rubens Feferbaum; Nerli Andreassa; Claudio Leone

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth and clinical evolution of very low birth weight infants fed during hospital stay with milk from a human milk bank according to the caloric-protein value. METHOD: Forty very low birth weight infants were included: 10 were fed milk from their own mothers (GI), and 30 were fed human milk bank > 700 cal/L and 2 g/dL of protein. Growth curves were adjusted using nonlinear regression to the measured growth parameters. RESULTS: full enteral diet was reached in 6.3 da...

  6. Life extension by calorie restriction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Arthur V; Le Couteur, David G

    2007-10-01

    Long-term reduction in energy intake in the diet (calorie restriction [CR]) extends the life of the laboratory rat by about 25%. However, in humans there are no life-long studies of CR, but only short-term trials which indicate that 20% CR acting over periods of 2-6 years is associated with reduced body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose--risk factors for the major killer diseases of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In addition, recent research has shown that CR for 6 months is able to improve biomarkers for longevity (deep body temperature and plasma insulin) and thus should increase life expectancy. The magnitude of the life-extension effect of CR in humans can only be estimated. The Okinawans, the longest-lived people on earth, consume 40% fewer calories than the Americans and live only 4 years longer. Similarly, women in United States consume 25% fewer calories than men and live 5 years longer. From the survival studies of overweight and obese people, it is estimated that long-term CR to prevent excessive weight gain could add only 3-13 years to life expectancy. Thus the effects of CR on human life extension are probably much smaller than those achieved by medical and public health interventions, which have extended life by about 30 years in developed countries in the 20th century, by greatly reducing deaths from infections, accidents, and cardiovascular disease.

  7. A Dairy Herd Case Investigation with Very Low Dietary Cation-Anion Difference in Prepartum Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Pedro; Poock, Scott

    2017-01-01

    During the periparturient period, subclinical hypocalcemia (total plasma Ca concentration cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been defined as the difference in milliequivalents of cations (Na, K) and anions (Cl, S) per kilogram of dry matter (DM) and has a direct impact on blood acid-base metabolism. Diets rich in K and Na induce metabolic alkalosis, interfering with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone, and diets rich in Cl and S (anionic salts) cause metabolic acidosis, reducing the risk of hypocalcemia. Consequently, the use of anionic salts has become a popular method to prevent hypocalcemia in dairy cattle. Monitoring diets with anionic salts can be done by measuring urine pH, with optimal values between 6.2 and 6.8 for Holstein cows. The objective of this report is to present a herd case investigation involving a dairy farm feeding a very low DCAD (-143 mEq/kg DM), expecting improved Ca homeostasis. The diet of -143 mEq/kg (urine pH 5.2-5.8) was changed to a diet with -53 mEq/kg DM (urine pH 6.2-6.8). Blood samples were taken at the time of calving for 10 cows that calved before and then for 10 cows that calved after changing the diet. Cows with extremely low DCAD had Ca concentrations of 2.11 ± 0.22 mmol/l and cows with a more moderated DCAD, 2.11 ± 0.16 mmol/l (P > 0.05). Several other blood metabolites (P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, albumin, globulins, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and GGT) were also similar between groups. This very low DCAD during the prepartum period may severely compromise animal physiology unnecessarily, with little advantage over normal calcium concentrations at parturition, when compared with a less negative DCAD (-53 mEq/kg DM). Feeding a less negative DCAD ration (-53 mEq/kg DM) did not decrease plasma Ca levels right after parturition compared to a DCAD ration of -143 mEq/kg DM, reinforcing the lack of benefit of a more negative DCAD.

  8. A Dairy Herd Case Investigation with Very Low Dietary Cation–Anion Difference in Prepartum Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Melendez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the periparturient period, subclinical hypocalcemia (total plasma Ca concentration <2.0 mmol/l is a potential problem for the dairy cow; consequently, its prevention is essential for success of fertility and productive performance. Dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD has been defined as the difference in milliequivalents of cations (Na, K and anions (Cl, S per kilogram of dry matter (DM and has a direct impact on blood acid–base metabolism. Diets rich in K and Na induce metabolic alkalosis, interfering with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone, and diets rich in Cl and S (anionic salts cause metabolic acidosis, reducing the risk of hypocalcemia. Consequently, the use of anionic salts has become a popular method to prevent hypocalcemia in dairy cattle. Monitoring diets with anionic salts can be done by measuring urine pH, with optimal values between 6.2 and 6.8 for Holstein cows. The objective of this report is to present a herd case investigation involving a dairy farm feeding a very low DCAD (−143 mEq/kg DM, expecting improved Ca homeostasis. The diet of −143 mEq/kg (urine pH 5.2–5.8 was changed to a diet with −53 mEq/kg DM (urine pH 6.2–6.8. Blood samples were taken at the time of calving for 10 cows that calved before and then for 10 cows that calved after changing the diet. Cows with extremely low DCAD had Ca concentrations of 2.11 ± 0.22 mmol/l and cows with a more moderated DCAD, 2.11 ± 0.16 mmol/l (P > 0.05. Several other blood metabolites (P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, albumin, globulins, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and GGT were also similar between groups. This very low DCAD during the prepartum period may severely compromise animal physiology unnecessarily, with little advantage over normal calcium concentrations at parturition, when compared with a less negative DCAD (−53 mEq/kg DM. Feeding a less negative DCAD ration (−53 mEq/kg DM did not decrease plasma Ca levels right after

  9. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1 Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR, 2 Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I , 3 Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU and 4 Control group (CON. All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD. Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID

  10. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: a randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alma Rosa; Caamaño, María del Carmen; Garcia-Padilla, Sandra; García, Olga Patricia; Duarte, Miguel Angel; Rosado, Jorge L

    2012-06-18

    Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18-50 y) with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m², were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1) Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR), 2) Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I) , 3) Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU) and 4) Control group (CON). All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD). Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies.

  11. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y) with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1) Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR), 2) Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I) , 3) Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU) and 4) Control group (CON). All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD). Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID NCT01505023 PMID

  12. THE MEXICAN CALORIE ALLOCATION AMONG THE WORKING CLASS IN THE AMERICAN WEST, 1870-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Alan Carson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When measures for material conditions are sparse or unreliable, height and weight measurements are now widely accepted proxies that reflect changing economic conditions. This study uses two biological measurements related to height and weight: the basal metabolic rate (BMR and calorie accounting. BMRs and calories of Mexicans in the American West remained constant, indicating that their diets did not vary with United States economic development, but Mexican BMRs and diets varied with occupations. Farmers and unskilled workers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day than workers in other occupations. During much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mexicans born in Mexico received fewer calories in the US than Mexicans born in the West. Mexican nutrition and diets also did not vary by residence within the US, indicating that Mexican diets were similar across western states.

  13. Calories, carbohydrates, and cancer therapy with radiation: exploiting the five R's through dietary manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J; Champ, Colin E

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive tumors typically demonstrate a high glycolytic rate, which results in resistance to radiation therapy and cancer progression via several molecular and physiologic mechanisms. Intriguingly, many of these mechanisms utilize the same molecular pathways that are altered through calorie and/or carbohydrate restriction. Furthermore, poorer prognosis in cancer patients who display a glycolytic phenotype characterized by metabolic alterations, such as obesity and diabetes, is now well established, providing another link between metabolic pathways and cancer progression. We review the possible roles for calorie restriction (CR) and very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KDs) in modulating the five R's of radiotherapy to improve the therapeutic window between tumor control and normal tissue complication probability. Important mechanisms we discuss include (1) improved DNA repair in normal, but not tumor cells; (2) inhibition of tumor cell repopulation through modulation of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 pathway downstream of insulin and IGF1; (3) redistribution of normal cells into more radioresistant phases of the cell cycle; (4) normalization of the tumor vasculature by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α downstream of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway; (5) increasing the intrinsic radioresistance of normal cells through ketone bodies but decreasing that of tumor cells by targeting glycolysis. These mechanisms are discussed in the framework of animal and human studies, taking into account the commonalities and differences between CR and KDs. We conclude that CR and KDs may act synergistically with radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer patients and provide some guidelines for implementing these dietary interventions into clinical practice.

  14. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Re

    Full Text Available Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25 participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  15. The study of early intravenous nutrition therapy in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongming, Lang; Fengran, Zhou; Zhaojun, Zhang

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the clinical effect of early intravenous nutrition therapy for very low birth weight infants. 80 cases of very low birth weight infants referred to our hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 were randomly and evenly divided into two groups. The infants in group A were treated with early intravenous nutrition, while with late parenteral nutrition for those in group B. The intravenous nutrition time, proportion of body weight loss, time consumption for recovery to birth weight and full enteral nutrition and complication rate between the two groups were compared. We found that there were significant differences in the intravenous nutrition time, proportion of body weight loss, and time consumption for recovery to birth weight and full enteral nutrition between the two groups (Pintravenous nutrition therapy in very low birth weight infants is effective and safe and further promotion and application of this therapy is worthy.

  16. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Bennett, Patrick J; Feinberg, David R

    2012-01-01

    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25) participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  17. Member State approach towards a strategy for passive/very low-energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbøl, Susanne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    . The survey shows that many European countries already have taken national actions towards implementing requirements at the level of very low-energy buildings within a time frame of 5-12 years but only a few European Member States (MS) have plans for strengthening the requirements to the existing buildings...... of the current national approach in this area EuroACE has initiated a survey. The scope was to create an overview of current and planned strategies in the European countries regarding the implementation of requirements towards very low-energy buildings (on passive level or similar) in their national legislation...... by introducing a request to MS to: define very low-energy buildings at national level, to draw up a national strategy towards this level of energy performance, and to put focus on upgrading energy performance of the existing building stock....

  18. IVF results in patients with very low serum AMH are significantly affected by chronological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelli, Alberto; Biasoni, Valentina; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Canosa, Stefano; Dalmasso, Paola; Benedetto, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women with very low circulating anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and to investigate factors affecting their probability of pregnancy. The outcome of 448 IVF cycles in 361 women with circulating AMH IVF results were observed stratifying patients for AMH levels in the range 0.14-0.49 ng/ml. Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that the probability of pregnancy was significantly affected by age, but not by small differences in AMH level. Women with very low (IVF still have reasonable chances of achieving a pregnancy, but their prognosis is significantly affected by chronological age. Very low AMH levels are associated with a relevant risk of cycle cancellation but should not be considered a reason to exclude a couple from IVF.

  19. [Attachment in very low birthweight infants (< 1500 g) and their mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Paul; Walger, Petra; Krischer, Maya; von Gontard, Alexander; Wendrich, Daniela; Kribs, Angela; Roth, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    A long hospital stay, along with the worries about the survival and the possible disabilities the child might suffer from, mark the start into life of very low birth weight premature infants (VLBW). The goal of this trial was to study the stability of the attachment representations of very low birthweight infants (birthweight Bindung (GEV-B) and for the mothers the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) to determine the attachment representation. The attachment representations first corresponded to a normal distribution pattern and shifted over time to a more insecure attachment. We could not determine a significant link between the attachment patterns of the child and their mother.

  20. Preferences for Very Low and Very High Voice Pitch in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel E Re; Jillian J M O'Connor; Bennett, Patrick J.; Feinberg, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. N...

  1. Diet and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can help control your calories by eating: raw vegetables and fruits lean meat, skinned poultry and fish nonfat dairy products sugar-free drinks like diet soda. Controlling your weight will lower your chance ...

  2. Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and improved glucose metabolism in nondiabetic obese women during a very low calorie dietary intervention leading to rapid weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille F; Skovbro, Mette

    2009-01-01

    % weight loss; and measurements of mitochondrial respiration, IMTG, respiratory exchange ratio, citrate synthase activity, mitochondrial DNA copy number, plasma insulin, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, and free fatty acids were performed before and after weight loss. Mitochondrial respiration...... was measured in permeabilized muscle fibers using high-resolution respirometry. Average weight loss was 11.5% (P plasma glucose, plasma insulin homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and insulin sensitivity index (composite) obtained...... during 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test improved significantly. Mitochondrial respiration per milligram tissue decreased by approximately 25% (P

  3. Calorie Restriction in Mammals and Simple Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusi Taormina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR, which usually refers to a 20–40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well.

  4. Assembly of rat hepatic very low density lipoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusiñol, A; Verkade, H; Vance, J E

    1993-01-01

    The intracellular site of assembly of hepatic very low density lipoproteins has been investigated. Two endoplasmic reticulum fractions and Golgi vesicles (relatively free from endosomal contamination) were isolated from rat liver and the luminal contents were released. The apoB-containing entities

  5. Lee-side flow structures of very low aspect ratio cruciform wing–body configurations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tuling, S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and experimental investigation was performed to study the dominant flow structures in the lee side of a cruciform wing–body configuration at supersonic speeds in the + orientation. The wings or strakes are of very low aspect ratio...

  6. Urine gonadotropin and testosterone levels in male very-low-birthweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.; Rotteveel, J.; Heijboer, A. C.; Cranendonk, A.; Twisk, J. W. R.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    The postnatal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is more exaggerated in preterm than in full-term-born infants, and may be important for reproductive function. Our objective was to investigate this activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male very-low-birthweight

  7. On the small-signal capacitance of RF MEMS switches at very low frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Bielen, Jeroen; Salm, Cora; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents on-wafer capacitance measurements of silicon-based RF MEMS capacitive switches down to frequencies below 1 Hz. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve measured at very-low frequency (0.01-10 Hz) deviates from the commonly measured and well-understood high-frequency C-V curve,

  8. Measurement of very low alpha activity in water; Medida de muy baja actividad alfa en aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, M. T.; Acena, M. L.

    1987-07-01

    Measurement of very low levels of alpha-emitting nuclides in water needs substantial improvements. A system based on the adsorbing properties manganese dioxide eliminates the need for transporting very large volumes of water and increases the sensitivity of the measurement. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Learning disabilities in children with very low birthweight: prevalence, neuropsychological correlates, and educational interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan; Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    This study examined achievement, neuropsychological, and intervention outcomes at a mean age of 11 years in children with very low birthweight (VLBW, learning disabilities (LD), the sample was limited to children without neurosensory disorders who had at least low average IQ. Participants included 31 children with learning problems.

  10. Variability of the autoregulation index decreases after removing the effect of the very low frequency band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, J. W.; Maurits, N. M.; Aries, M. J. H.

    Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) estimates show large between and within subject variability. Sources of variability include low coherence and influence of CO2 in the very low frequency (VLF) band, where dCA is active. This may lead to unreliable transfer function and autoregulation index (ARI)

  11. Chlorhexidine-Induced Chemical Burns in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Iria; Ravaioli, Giulia Maria; Faldella, Giacomo; Capretti, Maria Grazia; Arcuri, Santo; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2017-12-01

    Skin disinfection with chlorhexidine gluconate has not been standardized in preterm infants. We present 5 cases of chemical burns that occurred within the first 2 days of life in very low birth weight neonates after skin disinfection with aqueous and alcohol-based chlorhexidine solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The contribution of very low birth weight death to infant mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infant mortality remains high in many developing countries in which the contribution of deaths among infants born very low birth weight (VLBW) may be considerable. This contribution has however not been quantified in most such countries. This paper explores a model that can be used in this respect.

  13. Antibiotic Exposure and Risk for Death or Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Huffman, Landon W; Subramanian, Abirami; Marshall, Anderson S; Ballard, A Rebecca; Lefevre, Cassandra; Sagar, Malvika; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Mallett, Lea H

    2017-02-01

    We assessed the association between antibiotic exposure in the first 2 weeks of life and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a cohort of very low birth weight infants. After controlling for the severity of illness, each additional day of antibiotic therapy was associated with both an increased risk for and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium absorption in very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of early bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on calcium (Ca) metabolism and growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A dual-tracer, stable isotope method was used to assess Ca absorption in VLBW infants. Infants with early BPD received energy-dense feedi...

  15. Film thickness of mechanically worked lubricating grease at very low speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cen, H.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Morales-Espejel, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Several different types of commercially available greases, aged in a roll stability tester, have been tested in a ball-on-disc machine where the film thickness was measured using the interferometry method. The grease film thickness at very low speed is thicker than the base oil film thickness due to

  16. Cytokine Responses in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Glutamine-enriched Enteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeij, Linda; van Zwol, Annelies; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Twisk, Jos Wr; Nieuwenhuis, Edward Es; Fetter, Willem Pf

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may present with a lower infection rate, which may result from enhanced antimicrobial innate or Th1 cytokine responses. We investigated whether glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in VLBW infants

  17. Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants. Objective: Determine ...

  18. Very low cerebral blood volume predicts parenchymal hematoma in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to exp...

  19. Very low food security in the USA is linked with exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana M; Rabinowich, Jenny R; Woolf, Nicholas H

    2014-01-01

    To investigate characteristics of exposure to violence in relation to food security status among female-headed households. Ongoing mixed-method participatory action study. Questions addressed food insecurity, public assistance, and maternal and child health. Grounded theory analysis of qualitative themes related to violence was performed. These themes were then categorized by food security status. Homes of low-income families in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Forty-four mothers of children under 3 years of age participating in public assistance programmes. Forty women described exposure to violence ranging from fear of violence to personal experiences with rape. Exposure to violence affected mental health, ability to continue school and obtain work with living wages, and subsequently the ability to afford food. Exposure to violence during childhood and being a perpetrator of violence were both linked to very low food security status and depressive symptoms. Ten of seventeen (59%) participants reporting very low food security described life-changing violence, compared with three of fifteen (20%) participants reporting low food security and four of twelve (33%) reporting food security. Examples of violent experiences among the very low food secure group included exposure to child abuse, neglect and rape that suggest exposure to violence is an important factor in the experience of very low food security. Descriptions of childhood trauma and life-changing violence are linked with severe food security. Policy makers and clinicians should incorporate violence prevention efforts when addressing hunger.

  20. Properties of concrete at very low temperatures : A survey of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Veen, V.

    1987-01-01

    This literature survey is focussed on the behaviour of concrete at very low temperatures down to -196°C. To give the reader some theoretical background, first the mechanisms of freezing and frost damage are discussed. Based on these mechanisms, reasonable explanations can be given for the

  1. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Lequin, Maarten; van Pul, Carola; Buijs, Jan; Conneman, Nikk; van Goudoever, Johannes; Govaert, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent

  2. Phenotypes of hypertriglyceridemia caused by excess very-low-density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniderman, A.D.; Tremblay, A.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the composition of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles and the proportion of VLDL to total apolipoprotein B (apoB) particles in patients with hypertriglyceridemia caused by excess VLDL. METHODS: Subjects were selected from 2023 consecutive patients attending the

  3. Does calorie information promote lower calorie fast food choices among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A

    2009-01-01

    This experiment evaluated effects of calorie information on college students' fast food choices. Women chose lower calorie meals, lower calorie items, and lower priced meals when calorie information was provided than when it was not. Men's selections were unaffected. Providing calorie information at point of purchase could have positive implications for public health.

  4. High tax on high energy dense foods and its effects on the purchase of calories in a supermarket. An experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Havermans, Remco C; Giesen, Janneke C A H; Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined whether a high tax on high calorie dense foods effectively reduces the purchased calories of high energy dense foods in a web based supermarket, and whether this effect is moderated by budget and weight status. 306 participants purchased groceries in a web based supermarket, with an individualized budget based on what they normally spend. Results showed that relative to the no tax condition, the participants in the tax condition bought less calories. The main reduction was found in high energy dense products and in calories from carbohydrates, but not in calories from fat. BMI and budget did not influence the effectiveness of the tax. The reduction in calories occurred regardless of budget or BMI implying that a food tax may be a beneficial tool, along with other measures, in promoting a diet with fewer calories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: The Hope, Hype, and Science of Calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Scott; Kones, Richard

    2017-08-01

    One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out paradigm." Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain. Evidence concerning this possibility is detailed. The relationship and application of the laws of thermodynamics are then clarified with current primary research. Strong data indicate that energy balance is not materially changed during isocaloric substitution of dietary fats for carbohydrates. Results from a number of sources refute both the theory and effectiveness of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis. Instead, risk for obesity is primarily determined by total calorie intake. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  6. Predictors of total calories purchased at fast-food restaurants: restaurant characteristics, calorie awareness, and use of calorie information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissette, Ian; Lowenfels, Ann; Noble, Corina; Spicer, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To examine purchase patterns at fast-food restaurants and their relation to restaurant characteristics, customer characteristics, and use of calorie information. Cross-sectional survey. Fast-food restaurants in New York State. Adult fast-food restaurant customers (n = 1,094). Restaurant characteristics (fast-food chain type, presence of calorie labels, and poverty of location), participant characteristics (demographics, calorie knowledge, awareness, and use), and customer purchasing patterns (ordering low-calorie or no beverage, small or no fries, or restaurant and customer characteristics, fast-food chain customer age, sex, calorie use, and calorie awareness were independently associated with total calories purchased (all P < .05; model R2 = .19). When 3 purchasing patterns were added to the model, calorie use (P = .005), but not calorie awareness, remained associated with total calories purchased. The 3 purchase patterns collectively accounted for the majority of variance in calorie totals (Δ model R2 = .40). Promoting use of calorie information, purchase strategies, and calorie awareness represents complementary ways to support lower-calorie choices at fast-food chains. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in the very low-birth-weight infant postdischarge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrow, Tammy; Dressler-Mund, Donna; Kowal, Kelly; Dai, Susan; Wilson, Melissa D; Lasby, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms are common challenges for very low-birth-weight infants (Management of symptoms across healthcare disciplines may not be based on current evidence, and inconsistency can result in confusion for families and delayed interventions. The feeding relationship between infant and caregivers may be impaired when symptoms are persistent and poorly managed. An algorithm for managing gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms in very low-birth-weight infants (from hospital discharge to 12 months corrected age) was developed through the formation of a multidisciplinary community of practice and critical appraisal of the literature. A case study demonstrates how the algorithm results in a consistent approach for identifying symptoms, applying appropriate management strategies, and facilitating appropriate timing of medical consultation. Application to managing gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in the neonatal intensive care unit will be briefly addressed.

  8. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  9. Laser fluorescence on radio-active isotopes produced in very low yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, M. P.; Billowes, J.; Grant, I. S.; Evans, D. E.; Griffith, J. A. R.; Wells, S. A.; Eastham, D. A.; Groves, J.; Smith, J. R. H.; Tolfree, D. W. L.; Walker, P. M.

    1990-08-01

    East particle-photon coincidence techniques, developed at Daresbury with strontium isotopes, allow ultrasensitive laser fluorescence spectroscopy of beams of radio-active isotopes which can only be produced in very low yields. The technique has now been applied to neutron-deficient barium isotopes down to120Ba. From measured hyperfine splittings and isotope shifts, nuclear moments and changes in mean square radii have been determined. The work has revealed an abrupt increase in the mean square radius for121Ba large enough to disrupt the systematic staggering of nuclear size seen for the series. In a recent experiment an isomeric state of127Ba with a half-life of about 2 seconds has been produced in a very low yield; nevertheless we have succeeded in obtaining a fluorescence spectrum.

  10. Some Aspects Concerning the Behaviour of Friction Materials at Low and Very Low Sliding Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Stoica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribological aspects concerning the behaviour of friction materials in the range of low and very low sliding speeds (0.2 – 200 mm/min are essentially different of those in the high sliding speeds range. This paper aims to study the stick-slip phenomenon which occurs in the range of low and very low speeds. Typically, for the stick-slip phenomenon to occur, the static friction coefficient between the two contact surfaces of the friction materials must be larger than the kinetic friction coefficient. For disc brakes, the stick-slip phenomenon is mentioned in many specialized scientific papers. The phenomenon is manifested through self-induced vibrations. The experimental results were obtained on a dedicated testing machine where the parasite stick-slip motion is reduced through the use of bearings.

  11. Preschool performance of children with normal intelligence who were very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, N; Hack, M; Gallagher, J; Fanaroff, A A

    1985-03-01

    Children who were very low-birth-weight infants (less than 1,500 g), beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care, are now of school age. To evaluate their school performance 80 children born in 1976 who had very low-birth-weight (mean birth weight 1.2 kg, mean gestational age 30 weeks) were examined at age 5 years. Sixty-five children were neurologically intact and had normal IQ (greater than or equal to 85) on the Stanford-Binet; five children were neurologically abnormal and ten had IQ below 85. Of the 65 children with normal intelligence and no neurologic impairments, 46 were single births and enrolled in preschool. These 46 children were matched by race, sex, and family background with classmate control children who had been born at full term. Outcome measurements included the Slosson Intelligence Test, the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (including subscales of Picture Vocabulary, Spatial Relations, Memory for Sentences, Visual Auditory Learning, Quantitative Concepts, and Blending) and the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. No significant differences in IQ were found between children who were very low-birth-weight infants and control children; however, children who were very low-birth-weight infants performed significantly less well on the Spatial Relations subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson and on the Visual-Motor Integration test. Similar results were found for nine sets of twins and their control children. Recognition of these perceptual and visual-motor problems may permit appropriate early remedial intervention and prevent the compounding of these difficulties.

  12. Growth impairment in very low birthweight children at 12 years: correlation with perinatal and outcome variables.

    OpenAIRE

    Powls, A.; Botting, N; Cooke, R. W.; Pilling, D.; Marlow, N

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) children in early adolescence with that of their normal birthweight peers; to examine the role of factors contributing to growth-parental height, perinatal variables, bone maturity and sexual maturation; to examine the correlation between head growth and cognitive and educational outcome. METHODS: Standing and sitting heights, weight, occipito-frontal circumference (OFC), skinfold thicknesses and pubertal staging were assessed in 137 V...

  13. Altered Heart Rhythm Dynamics in Very Low Birth Weight Infants With Impending Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Volkan; Nas, Selman; Ulusar, Umit; Ugur, Ahmet; Kaiser, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular hemorrhage remains an important problem among very low birth weight infants and may result in long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities. Neonatologists have been unable to accurately predict impending intraventricular hemorrhage. Because alterations in the autonomic nervous system’s control of heart rhythm have been associated with intraventricular hemorrhage after its development, we sought to determine if early subtle alterations of heart rhythm could be predictive of impending intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants. METHODS This case-control study included 10 newborn very low birth weight infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (5 grade IV, 4 grade III, and 1 grade II) and 14 control infants without intraventricular hemorrhage. Heart rhythm data from the first day of life before the development of intraventricular hemorrhage were evaluated. Detrended fluctuation analysis, a nonlinear fractal heart rate variability method, was used to assess the fractal dynamics of the heart rhythm. Fractal scaling exponents were calculated by using this analysis. RESULTS Twenty-four infants (mean ± SD, birth weight: 845 ± 213g: gestational age: 26.1 ± 1.9 weeks) participated in the study. The short-term scaling exponent was significantly larger in infants who later developed intraventricular hemorrhage compared with those who did not (0.60 ± 0.1 vs 0.45 ± 0.1). A value of 0.52 resulted in 70% sensitivity and positive predictive value and 79% specificity and negative predictive value. The short-term scaling exponent was the only significant predictor of intraventricular hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS Fractal dynamics of the heart rhythm is significantly altered in very low birth weight infants before developing intraventricular hemorrhage and may be predictive of impending intraventricular hemorrhage. PMID:19255007

  14. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  15. Glycerin suppository for promoting feeding tolerance in preterm very low birthweight neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Suvarna; Kabra, Nandkishor S; Sharma, Shobha R; Avasthi, Bhupendra S; Ahmed, Javed

    2014-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of glycerin suppository versus no suppository in preterm very-low-birthweight neonates for improving feeding tolerance. Randomized controlled trial. Level III neonatal unit from Mumbai, India. 50 very-low-birthweight (birth weight between 1000 to 1500 grams)preterm (gestational age between 28 to 32 weeks) neonates randomized to glycerine suppository (n=25) or no intervention (n=26). Glycerin suppository (1g) once a day from day-2 to day-14 of life or no suppository, along with intermittent oral feeds and standardized care. Time required to achieve full enteral feeds (180 mL/kg/d). Baseline characteristics of neonates like gestational age, birthweight, gender and age at the time of introduction of feeds were comparable in both groups. The mean (SD) duration to reach full enteral feed was 11.90 (3.1) days in glycerin suppository group and was not significantly different (P=0.58) from control group, [11.33 (3.57) days]. Glycerin suppository group regained birth weight 2 days earlier than control group but this difference was not significant (P=0.16). There was no significant difference in duration of hospital stay or occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis amongst the two study groups. Once daily application of glycerin suppository does not accelerate the achievement of full feeds in preterm very-low-birthweight neonates.

  16. Development of metal oxide gas sensors for very low concentration (ppb) of BTEX vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favard, A.; Aguir, K.; Contaret, T.; Caris, L.; Bendahan, M.

    2017-12-01

    The control and analysis of air quality have become a major preoccupation of the last twenty years. In 2008, the European Union has introduced a Directive (2008/50/EC) to impose measurement obligations and thresholds to not exceed for some pollutants, including BTEX gases, in view of their adverse effects on the health. In this paper, we show the ability to detect very low concentrations of BTEX using a gas microsensor based on metal oxide thin-film. A test bench able to generate very low vapors concentrations has been achieved and fully automated. Thin metal oxides layers have been realized by reactive magnetron sputtering. The sensitive layers are functionalized with gold nanoparticles by thermal evaporation technique. Our sensors have been tested on a wide range of concentrations of BTEX (5 - 500 ppb) and have been able to detect concentrations of a few ppb for operating temperatures below 593 K. These results are very promising for detection of very low BTEX concentration for indoor as well as outdoor application. We showed that the addition of gold nanoparticles on the sensitive layers decreases the sensors operating temperature and increases the response to BTEX gas. The best results are obtained with a sensitive layer based on ZnO.

  17. Failure of erythromycin to eliminate airway colonization with ureaplasma urealyticum in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger Thomas E

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway colonization of mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants (birth weight Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu is associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. While Uu is sensitive to erythromycin in vitro, the efficacy of intravenous (IV erythromycin to eliminate Uu from the airways has not been studied. Methods 17 very low birth weight infants with Uu positive tracheal aspirate (TA cultures were randomized to either 5 (8 infants or 10 days (9 infants of IV erythromycin lactobionate (40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses. Tracheal aspirate cultures for Uu were performed on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. Results Intravenous erythromycin failed to eliminate airway colonization in a large proportion of infants regardless of whether they received 5 or 10 days of treatment. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 4/15 (27% of TAs obtained at 5 days, 5/12 TAs (42% obtained at 10 days and 6/11(55% TAs obtained at 15 days (combined group data. Conclusions Erythromycin administered IV does not eliminate Uu from the airways in a large proportion of infants. Failure of erythromycin to eliminate Uu from the airways may contribute to the lack of efficacy of this drug in reducing the incidence of BPD in very low birth weight infants.

  18. Effect of very low birth weight and subnormal head size on cognitive abilities at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, M; Breslau, N; Weissman, B; Aram, D; Klein, N; Borawski, E

    1991-07-25

    We tested the hypothesis that very-low-birth-weight (less than 1.5 kg) infants with perinatal growth failure whose head size is not normal by eight months of age (corrected for prematurity) have significantly poorer growth and neurocognitive abilities at school age than very-low-birth-weight children with a normal head size at eight months. We also hypothesized that these differences would persist even after control for major neurologic impairment and perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors. We have followed a cohort of very-low-birth-weight children since their birth during the period 1977 to 1979. At eight to nine years of age 249 children were evaluated with a neurologic examination and tests of intelligence; receptive and expressive language skills; speech, reading, mathematics, and spelling aptitude; visual and fine motor abilities; and behavior. Ages were corrected for premature birth. Among these 249 very-low-birth-weight children, head size was subnormal (less than the mean -2 SD for age) at birth in 30 (12 percent), at term in 57 (23 percent), and at eight months in 33 (13 percent). As compared with the 216 children with normal head sizes, the 33 children with subnormal head sizes at the age of eight months had significantly lower mean birth weights (1.1 vs. 1.2 kg) and higher neonatal risk scores (71 vs. 53) and at the age of eight years had a higher incidence of neurologic impairment (21 percent vs. 8 percent) and lower IQ scores (mean verbal, 84 vs. 98). Even among the children without neurologic abnormalities, a subnormal head size at eight months of age was predictive of poorer verbal and performance IQ scores at eight years of age; lower scores for receptive language, speech, reading, mathematics, and spelling; and a higher incidence of hyperactivity. In multiple regression analyses to control for socioeconomic and neonatal risk factors, intrauterine growth failure, birth weight, and neurologic impairment, a subnormal head size at eight months of

  19. Premenstrual symptoms in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight - from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesonen Anu-Katriina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinically significant premenstrual symptoms are common among young women. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is characterized by emotional, behavioural and physical symptoms that consistently occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD is a severe form of PMS. Individual variation in stress responsiveness may be involved in the pathophysiology of premenstrual symptoms. Preterm birth at very low birth weight (VLBW, Methods In this cohort study, we compared 75 VLBW women with 95 women born at term (mean age 22.5. We used a standardized retrospective questionnaire assessing the presence and severity of a variety of symptoms before and after menses. The symptom scores were used both as continuous and as dichotomized variables, with cutoffs based on DSM-IV criteria for PMDD and ACOG criteria for PMS, except prospective daily ratings could not be used. We used multiple linear and logistic regression to adjust for confounders. Results There was no difference in the continuous symptom score before menses (mean difference VLBW-term -18.3%, 95% confidence interval -37.9 to 7.5% or after menses. The prevalence of premenstrual symptoms causing severe impairment to daily life was 13.3% for VLBW women and 14.7% for control women. For PMDD, it was 8.0% and 4.2%, and for PMS, 12.0% and 11.6%, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.1. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the severity of premenstrual symptoms and the prevalence of PMDD and PMS among young women born preterm at VLBW is not higher than among those born at term.

  20. National Roadmaps for promotion of very low-energy house concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvik, Karin

    2012-07-01

    This report is meant to contribute to the preparation of National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAPs), which are tools supporting the implementation of energy efficiency improvement policies. The NEEAPs are considered one of the cornerstones of the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive. Previous publications from the NorthPass project report from studies of existing concepts and building standards in the participating countries, and analyses of main challenges in aiming to increase the market share of very low-energy houses. In this report a short overview of the current situation is given, and measures are proposed to support the implementation of the nearly Zero-Energy Building level, as described in the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive. Necessary steps towards a successful implementation will vary within the participating countries; involving technological, financial and policy implications in various degrees. The eight North European countries, participating in the NorthPass project, have similarities and differences. The four Nordic countries have several similarities regarding market penetration of very low-energy houses, as well as activities implemented by the authorities. Poland and the Baltic States have similarities in terms of market situation which is different from the Nordic countries. In the Nordic countries, the path towards the EU 2020 targets has, to a large extent, been chosen, focusing on step by step tightening of building codes, financial incentives and training of actors in the building sector. A discussion is going on about how to affect changes in customers' preferences, which would lead to a growing demand for very low-energy residential buildings. The situation in Poland and the Baltic countries is more problematic, as only few very low energy houses have been built so far. However, a growing interest in energy savings seems to arise, as the energy consumption is considerably high and the

  1. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG metabolism in women. Methods Eleven healthy women (age: 23.5±2.7 years, BMI: 21.6±1.4 kg/m2) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123±18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06±0.39 MJ (~500 kcal)), ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10±0.41 MJ, and iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Results Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was ~30% lower after the exercise trial compared to the control trial (Pexercise increased the plasma clearance rate of VLDL-TG by 22% (P=0.001) and reduced hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate by ~17% (P=0.042), whereas hypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P>0.2). Conclusion (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction. PMID:23073216

  2. ApoE and the role of very low density lipoproteins in adipose tissue inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was too identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet induced obesity. Male apoE-/- and C57BL/6J wild-type mice fed high fat diets for 12 weeks were assessed for metab...

  3. Why calories count: from science to politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nestle, Marion; Nesheim, Malden C

    2012-01-01

    .... They are also hard to understand. In Why Calories Count, Marion Nestle and Malden Nesheim explain in clear and accessible language what calories are and how they work, both biologically and politically...

  4. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-01-01

    life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a ‘silent’ reformulation strategy, where a retail chain’s private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Methods Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks...

  5. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Lindenmeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7 ± 222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.0035. The mean intraocular pressure (P10-P90 decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.5222.16 at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28-18.92 at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased.

  6. A very low noise, high accuracy, programmable voltage source for low frequency noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Graziella; Giusi, Gino; Ciofi, Carmine

    2014-04-01

    In this paper an approach for designing a programmable, very low noise, high accuracy voltage source for biasing devices under test in low frequency noise measurements is proposed. The core of the system is a supercapacitor based two pole low pass filter used for filtering out the noise produced by a standard DA converter down to 100 mHz with an attenuation in excess of 40 dB. The high leakage current of the supercapacitors, however, introduces large DC errors that need to be compensated in order to obtain high accuracy as well as very low output noise. To this end, a proper circuit topology has been developed that allows to considerably reduce the effect of the supercapacitor leakage current on the DC response of the system while maintaining a very low level of output noise. With a proper design an output noise as low as the equivalent input voltage noise of the OP27 operational amplifier, used as the output buffer of the system, can be obtained with DC accuracies better that 0.05% up to the maximum output of 8 V. The expected performances of the proposed voltage source have been confirmed both by means of SPICE simulations and by means of measurements on actual prototypes. Turn on and stabilization times for the system are of the order of a few hundred seconds. These times are fully compatible with noise measurements down to 100 mHz, since measurement times of the order of several tens of minutes are required in any case in order to reduce the statistical error in the measured spectra down to an acceptable level.

  7. Early trophic feeding versus enteral fasting for very preterm or very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessie; Bombell, Sarah; McGuire, William

    2013-03-28

    The introduction of enteral feeds for very preterm (milk to promote intestinal maturation, may enhance feeding tolerance and decrease the time taken to reach full enteral feeding independently of parenteral nutrition. To determine the effect of early trophic feeding versus enteral fasting on feed tolerance, growth and development, and the incidence of neonatal morbidity (including necrotising enterocolitis and invasive infection) and mortality in very preterm or VLBW infants. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL (1980 until December 2012), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of early trophic feeding (milk volumes up to 24 ml/kg/day introduced before 96 hours postnatal age and continued until at least one week after birth) versus a comparable period of enteral fasting in very preterm or very low birth weight infants. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two authors and synthesis of data using risk ratio, risk difference and mean difference. Nine trials in which a total of 754 very preterm or very low birth weight infants participated were eligible for inclusion. Few participants were extremely preterm (harmful effects of early trophic feeding for very preterm or very low birth weight infants. The applicability of these findings to extremely preterm, extremely low birth weight or growth restricted infants is limited. Further randomised controlled trials would be needed to determine how trophic feeding compared with enteral fasting affects important outcomes in this population.

  8. Early nCPAP versus intubation in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neves Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.

  9. Calories from beverages purchased at 2 major coffee chains in New York City, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-10-01

    Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and 73 Dunkin' Donuts stores during the spring of 2007. For each purchase, we obtained the calorie content from the company's Web site; these values were adjusted to account for self-reported customization of the drink. We included 1,127 beverage purchases at Starbucks and 1,830 at Dunkin' Donuts in our analyses. Brewed coffee or tea averaged 63 kcal, and blended coffee beverages averaged 239 kcal. Approximately two-thirds of purchases at Starbucks and one-fourth of purchases at Dunkin' Donuts were blended coffee beverages. Calories in blended coffee beverages are high; on average, customers bought 12% of a 2,000-kcal diet. Policy changes to provide for calorie posting at the point of purchase could increase customer awareness of the calories in these beverages; modifying standard formulations of blended coffee beverages, such as using low-fat milk or smaller serving sizes, would also reduce calorie content.

  10. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  11. DUAL POLARIZATION ANTENNA ARRAY WITH VERY LOW CROSS POLARIZATION AND LOW SIDE LOBES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an antenna array adapted to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves of one or two polarizations with very low cross polarization and low side lobes. An antenna array comprising many antenna elements, e.g. more than ten antenna elements, is provided in which...... formation of grating lobes are inhibited in selected directions of the radiation and cross polarization within the main lobe is suppressed at least 30 dB below the main lobe peak value. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the antenna elements of the antenna array comprise probe-fed patches...

  12. On the small-signal capacitance of RF MEMS switches at very low frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.; Bielen, Jeroen; Salm, Cora; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents on-wafer capacitance measurements of silicon-based RF MEMS capacitive switches down to frequencies below 1 Hz. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve measured at very-low frequency (0.01-10 Hz) deviates from the commonly measured and well-understood high-frequency C-V curve, especially near the pull-in and pull-out voltages. This behavior is explained from the mechanical action of the top electrode. An electrostatic transducer model is used to express the coupling between mec...

  13. Using cluster analysis to provide new insights into development of very low birthweight (VLBW) premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Gail S; Foran, L M; Barbot, Baptiste; Sossin, K Mark; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Very low birthweight (VLBW) premature infant follow-up studies report on single developmental outcome variables but do not assess profiles of development. To identify developmental profiles of VLBW premature infants based on cognitive and language development and their association with demographic, perinatal, and behavior variables. Retrospective chart review. 117 childrenCluster analysis defined distinct outcome groups in VLBW premature children and provides an informative means of identifying factors related to developmental outcome. This approach may be useful in predicting later outcome and determining which groups of children will require early intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of at-site peak-streamflow frequency analyses for very low annual exceedance probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Kiang, Julie E.; Cohn, Timothy A.

    2017-07-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, has investigated statistical methods for probabilistic flood hazard assessment to provide guidance on very low annual exceedance probability (AEP) estimation of peak-streamflow frequency and the quantification of corresponding uncertainties using streamgage-specific data. The term “very low AEP” implies exceptionally rare events defined as those having AEPs less than about 0.001 (or 1 × 10–3 in scientific notation or for brevity 10–3). Such low AEPs are of great interest to those involved with peak-streamflow frequency analyses for critical infrastructure, such as nuclear power plants. Flood frequency analyses at streamgages are most commonly based on annual instantaneous peak streamflow data and a probability distribution fit to these data. The fitted distribution provides a means to extrapolate to very low AEPs. Within the United States, the Pearson type III probability distribution, when fit to the base-10 logarithms of streamflow, is widely used, but other distribution choices exist. The USGS-PeakFQ software, implementing the Pearson type III within the Federal agency guidelines of Bulletin 17B (method of moments) and updates to the expected moments algorithm (EMA), was specially adapted for an “Extended Output” user option to provide estimates at selected AEPs from 10–3 to 10–6. Parameter estimation methods, in addition to product moments and EMA, include L-moments, maximum likelihood, and maximum product of spacings (maximum spacing estimation). This study comprehensively investigates multiple distributions and parameter estimation methods for two USGS streamgages (01400500 Raritan River at Manville, New Jersey, and 01638500 Potomac River at Point of Rocks, Maryland). The results of this study specifically involve the four methods for parameter estimation and up to nine probability distributions, including the generalized extreme value, generalized

  15. Very low saturation densities in strained InGaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells

    OpenAIRE

    HEGARTY, JOHN

    1994-01-01

    PUBLISHED The saturation of excitonic absorption in strained InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells is systematically measured as a function of strain. By comparison with an unstrained GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well sample a reduction by a factor of up to 9 in the saturation carrier density is observed in strained samples with indium concentrations of 10% `and 15%. Very low saturation densities, as low as 0.82X 1017 cmm3, are reported for the InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with an indium concentra...

  16. INPP Landfill[Disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jan; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2004-06-15

    The objective of this report is to propose the basic design for final disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) produced at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and at other small waste producers in Lithuania. Considering the safety for the environment, as well as the construction costs, it has been decided that the repository will be of a landfill type based on the same design principles as similar authorised facilities in other countries. It has also been decided that the location of the landfill shall be in the vicinity of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP)

  17. Electromagnetic Pollution Assessment in Different Environments with Measurements and Modellings at Very Low Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya ÇALLIALP KUNTER

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A major factor of anxiety and speculation come from electromagnetic fields which represent one of the most common and fastest increasing environmental issues. The purpose of this work is to examine existing electric and magnetic fields’ levels in a typical house and an office at very low frequency, and comparing the measurement results with the prior studies and also with the ICNIRP standard limits. This study also comprises the three phase conductors’ electromagnetic fields analysis at a point. As a result, it is observed that the measured values are approaching to the calculated ones.

  18. RESISTIVITY OF TmSe UNDER PRESSURE AT VERY LOW TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Flouquet, J.; Haen, P.; HOLTZBERG, F; Lapierre, F.; Mignot, Jean; Ribault, M.; Tournier, R.

    1980-01-01

    Resistivity measurements of a nearly stoichiometric sample up to 6 kbar and down to 25 mK are reported. For 6 kbar, the resistivity ρ rises up to 120 mΩ.cm at 30 mK whereas just above the ordering temperature TN at 4.2 K its value is 1.65 mΩ.cm. The increase of ρ is exponential with the pressure at very low temperature and linear in the vicinity of TN. Comparisons are made with the pressure dependence of the sublattice magnetization measured by neutron diffraction and with resistivity of othe...

  19. Human milk feeding protects very low-birth-weight infants from retinopathy of prematurity: a pre-post cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginovart, Gemma; Gich, Ignasi; Verd, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effect of early human milk (HM) feeding on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Observational cohort research in a Level III neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 186 infants were enrolled in this pre-post cohort study (114 infants were included in the HM-fed group and 72 in the formula-fed group). ROP, type of feeding (early exclusive HM versus any formula), and potential confounding variables were measured. Differences between groups were explored. The clinical characteristics of the neonates did not differ between the two groups. By bivariate analysis, HM feeding was associated with 75% lower odds of Stage 2 or 3 ROP (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.091 to 0.705; p = 0.009) At multivariate logistic regression, type of milk feeding retained significance, exclusive HM being protective with p = 0.002. This study found an association between early exposure to formula in VLBW infants and ROP. An initial HM diet, devoid of cow milk-containing products before achieving full enteral feeding, may help prevent ROP.

  20. Postdischarge growth and development in a predominantly Hispanic, very low birth weight population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, George C; Ramamurthy, Rajam; Schoolfield, John; Matula, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    The goals were to assess postdischarge growth and developmental progress of very low birth weight (birth weight: population and to identify predictors for neurodevelopmental impairment at 3 years of age. A cohort of 135 very low birth weight infants (gestational age: 23 to 35 weeks) were monitored to 3 years of age. Maternal and neonatal characteristics, anthropometric z scores, and developmental performance (using corrected age until 24 months) were analyzed collectively and according to gestational age groups. Specific criteria for failure to thrive and microcephaly were used. A characteristic pattern of poor weight gain in the first 12 months was followed by accelerated weight gain starting at 18 months, whereas head growth decreased at 18 months, with recovery beginning at 30 months of age. Infants born at gestational age of growth-impaired at 3 years of age, whereas infants born at gestational age of >or=27 weeks achieved catch-up growth by 30 months of age. Mean developmental scores also decreased in infancy, with improvements in motor development emerging at 18 months and cognitive skills at 30 months. Growth z scores, particularly for head growth, correlated with developmental scores. Infants born at gestational age of growth patterns that coincided with developmental progress in the first 3 years of life. Birth at gestational age of

  1. Vaccine schedule compliance among very low birth weight infants in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Bautista, Rossana; Davila, Carmen; Salazar, José Antonio; Bazán, Carlos; López, Luis; Ecker, Lucie

    2015-01-03

    There is little information about vaccine schedule compliance in very-low-birth-weight infants in developing countries. The aim of the study was to describe the compliance with the vaccine schedule among this population in Lima, Peru. We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima in infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500 g, followed from birth up to 12 months of age every 2 weeks. The date and age at administration of each vaccine was recorded 222 infants were enrolled. The median birth-weight was 1250 g (range 550-1499 g) and the median gestational age was 30.0 weeks (range 23-37 weeks). The mean age for the first pentavalent (DPT, Hib, HepB) and oral polio vaccine administration was 4.3 ± 1.4 months in infants with a birth-weight of vaccine. Only 35% had received the three doses of oral polio and pentavalent vaccine by seven months, although by nine months 81% had received these vaccines. Vaccination of very-low-birth-weight infants in Peru is significantly delayed, especially in infants with a birth-weight of vaccination rates and timing in these high risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  3. A new approach to characterize very-low-level radioactive waste produced at hadron accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffora, Biagio; Magistris, Matteo; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre; Luccioni, Catherine; Saporta, Gilbert; Ulrici, Luisa

    2017-04-01

    Radioactive waste is produced as a consequence of preventive and corrective maintenance during the operation of high-energy particle accelerators or associated dismantling campaigns. Their radiological characterization must be performed to ensure an appropriate disposal in the disposal facilities. The radiological characterization of waste includes the establishment of the list of produced radionuclides, called "radionuclide inventory", and the estimation of their activity. The present paper describes the process adopted at CERN to characterize very-low-level radioactive waste with a focus on activated metals. The characterization method consists of measuring and estimating the activity of produced radionuclides either by experimental methods or statistical and numerical approaches. We adapted the so-called Scaling Factor (SF) and Correlation Factor (CF) techniques to the needs of hadron accelerators, and applied them to very-low-level metallic waste produced at CERN. For each type of metal we calculated the radionuclide inventory and identified the radionuclides that most contribute to hazard factors. The methodology proposed is of general validity, can be extended to other activated materials and can be used for the characterization of waste produced in particle accelerators and research centres, where the activation mechanisms are comparable to the ones occurring at CERN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Uptake of Active Surveillance for Very-Low-Risk Prostate Cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Curnyn, Caitlin; Robinson, David; Bratt, Ola; Stattin, Pär

    2017-10-01

    Active surveillance is an important option to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment, but it remains underutilized in many countries. Models from the United States show that greater use of active surveillance is important for prostate cancer screening to be cost-effective. To perform an up-to-date, nationwide, population-based study on use of active surveillance for localized prostate cancer in Sweden. Cross-sectional study in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden from 2009 through 2014. The NPCR has data on 98% of prostate cancers diagnosed in Sweden and has comprehensive linkages to other nationwide databases. Overall, 32 518 men with a median age of 67 years were diagnosed with favorable-risk prostate cancer, including 4693, 15 403, and 17 115 men with very-low-risk (subset of the low-risk group) (clinical stage, T1c; Gleason score, ≤6; prostate-specific antigen [PSA], Sweden, with the highest rates yet reported and almost complete uptake for very-low-risk cancer. These data should serve as a benchmark to compare the use of active surveillance for favorable-risk disease around the world.

  5. The AGG codon is translated slowly in E. coli even at very low expression levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonekamp, Fons; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented which indicate that AGG codons for arginine are translated significantly more slowly than the CGU codons for the same amino acid even when their expression level from the probe is very low. The two types of codons were inser ted (three in tandem) on a multicopy plasmid in an ar......Data are presented which indicate that AGG codons for arginine are translated significantly more slowly than the CGU codons for the same amino acid even when their expression level from the probe is very low. The two types of codons were inser ted (three in tandem) on a multicopy plasmid...... IPTG. At all induction levels it was found that the frequency of transcription past the pyrE attenuator was approximately nine times lower when the AGG codons were present in the leader than with CGT codons present. This shows that AGG codons decouple translation from transcription in the pyr......E attenuator region even when the concentration of this codon is not increased significantly relative to that in the unperturbed wild type strain. Thus the results indicate that AGG codons are always slowly translated in Eacherichia coli....

  6. Growth of very low birth weight infants and its association with feeding regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faizul Haque Khan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical care of infants with very low birth weight (weighing<1500 gm at birth in developing countries can be labour intensive and is often associated with a prolonged stay in hospital. Although several studies have shown the benefits of early discharge from the hospital for premature infants, it is still a common practice to delay discharge of these infants until they reach a weight of 2000 gm or more. The present study was undertaken to test the assumption that very low birth weight (VLBW infants can attain optimum growth at home and to find its association with feeding regimens. This prospective observational study was conducted at Neonatal Out-patient Department, Dhaka Shishu Hospital over a period of 1 year from January 2010 to December 2010. A total of 92 very low birth weight neonates were enrolled during discahrge in the Neonatal Unit of Dhaka Shisu Hospital. Out of these 92 neonates 16 neonates expired while 7, 4 and 1 neonates dropped out in the first, second and third follow up respectively. The neonates after discharge were fed on three types of feeding regimens at home. The feeding regimens were expressed breast milk (EBM, EBM+ infant formula (mixed feeding and infant formula only.The outcome variable was growth in terms of increase in weight, length and occiputo-frontal circumference (OFC. The other outcome measures were respiratory tract infection (RTI, diarrhoea and anaemia, visit to physician and readmission to hospital for the morbidities they encountered. The neonates were observed up to three consecutive follow-ups from their date of discharge. The median gestational age at birth was 31 weeks. Approximately 57% of the neonates were admitted within 72 hours of birth with median age at admission being 24 hours. Females were slightly higher (54.3% than the males (45.7%. The mean weight, length and OFC at admission were 1208 gm 39.8 cm and 28.3 cm respectively. The study demonstrated a steady increase of weight, length and OFC of

  7. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Barquissau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT. Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity.

  8. Dietary Intake after Weight Loss and the Risk of Weight Regain: Macronutrient Composition and Inflammatory Properties of the Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Freitag Luglio Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty one overweight and obese adults participated in this experimental study. Subjects lost approximately 10% of their initial weight by means of very low-calorie diet for five weeks, or a low calorie diet for 12 weeks. After that, subjects in both groups followed a strict weight maintenance diet based on individual needs for four weeks, which was followed by a nine-month weight maintenance period without dietary counseling. Anthropometrics and dietary intake data were recorded before weight loss (baseline and during the weight maintenance period. On average, participants regained approximately half of their lost weight. We found no evidence that macronutrient composition during the weight maintenance period was associated with weight regain. The dietary inflammatory index (r = 0.304, p = 0.032 was positively correlated with weight regain and remained significant after correction for physical activity (r = 0.287, p = 0.045. Our data suggest that the inflammatory properties of diet play a role in weight regain after weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

  9. MRI of the lung gas-space at very low-field using hyperpolarized noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Arvind K.; Zhang, Adelaide X.; Mansour, Joey; Kubatina, Lyubov; Oh, Chang Hyun; Blasche, Gregory; Selim Unlu, M.; Balamore, Dilip; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Goldberg, Bennett B.; hide

    2003-01-01

    In hyperpolarized (HP) noble-gas magnetic resonance imaging, large nuclear spin polarizations, about 100,000 times that ordinarily obtainable at thermal equilibrium, are created in 3He and 129Xe. The enhanced signal that results can be employed in high-resolution MRI studies of void spaces such as in the lungs. In HP gas MRI the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) depends only weakly on the static magnetic field (B(0)), making very low-field (VLF) MRI possible; indeed, it is possible to contemplate portable MRI using light-weight solenoids or permanent magnets. This article reports the first in vivo VLF MR images of the lungs in humans and in rats, obtained at a field of only 15 millitesla (150 Gauss).

  10. Mutual capture of dipolar molecules at low and very low energies. II. Numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzinsh, M; Dashevskaya, E I; Litvin, I; Nikitin, E E; Troe, J

    2011-05-26

    The low-energy rate coefficients of capture of two identical dipolar polarizable rigid rotors in their lowest nonresonant (j(1) = 0 and j(2) = 0) and resonant (j(1) = 0, 1 and j(2) = 1, 0) states are calculated accurately within the close-coupling (CC) approach. The convergence of the quantum rate coefficients to their quantum-classical counterparts is studied. A comparison of the present accurate numerical with approximate analytical results (Nikitin, E. E.; Troe, J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2010, 114, 9762) indicates a good performance of the previous approach which was based on the interpolation between s-wave fly wheel quantal and all-wave classical adiabatic channel limits. The results obtained apply as well to the formation of transient molecular species in the encounter of two atoms at very low collision energy interacting via resonance dipole-dipole interaction.

  11. Room acoustic enhancement in a small hall with very low natural reverberation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    1996-01-01

    In small multipurpose halls to be equipped with electronic reverberation enhancement systems, selecting a very low natural reverberation time is advantageous for several reasons. It will 1) reduce the risk of feedback, 2) increase the possible range of room acoustic variation and 3) allow for more...... natural combinations of room acoustic properties. Consequently, the natural reverberation time in a newly opened 350 seat multipurpose hall in Denmark was designed as low as 0.7 sec. Two different reverberation enhancement systems were considered and tested in the hall. The objective and subjective...... testing results are reported and compared with previous results obtained in another small hall supplied with a similar enhancement system. The results concerning 'realism' are also compared with acoustic properties found in 'natural' halls of different sizes and reverberation times....

  12. On the Distribution of Orbital Eccentricities for Very Low-mass Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.

    2011-06-01

    We have compiled a sample of 16 orbits for very low-mass stellar (0.6) binaries at orbital periods comparable to our sample suggests that tidal damping due to gas disks may play too large of a role in the simulations. In contrast, the circumstellar disk fragmentation model of Stamatellos & Whitworth predicts only high-e binaries and thus is highly inconsistent with our sample. These discrepancies could be explained if multiple formation processes are responsible for producing the field population. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. A pioneering study: oral clarithromycin treatment for feeding intolerance in very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Selim; Gursoy, Tugba; Tuten, Abdulhamit; Arman, Didem; Karatekin, Guner; Ovali, Fahri

    2017-03-23

    To examine the prokinetic effect of clarithromycin in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. VLBW preterm infants who have not achieved half of the full enteral feeding in the second week of life were enrolled in the study. The infants enrolled in the study were randomized. Twenty infants received oral clarithromycin (7.5 mg/kg, twice a day) and 20 control infants did not receive any treatment. Full enteral feeding was attained earlier in the clarithromycin group than in the control group [7 (6-9) versus 9 (9-11) days, respectively; p days, p = .1) tend to be lower in the clarithromycin group without any statistical significance. We observed no adverse effect of clarithromycin therapy. Clarithromycin treatment in VLBW preterm infants resulted in better toleration of enteral feeding. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to establish routine use of clarithromycin in the treatment of feeding intolerance.

  14. RPW: Very Low Electric Field Measurements for LF Bandwidth (F<20MHZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panh, J.; Fiachetti, C.; Berge, R.; Guilhem, E.; Lourme, E.; Sampl, M.; Kapper, M.

    2016-05-01

    Embedding RPW (Radio Plasma Wave) instrument on Solar Orbiter implies to be able to measure very low level of the electric field from DC to 20MHz. And this low level is required either for RPW antenna calibration or for radiated emission qualification of the other units and instruments of the spacecraft. This document presents the steps in order to define an applicable setup. The first part of this document presents the context of the study and the levels to work with. The second part concerns the characterisations of the performances of the antenna. The last part presents the setups that allow achieving low level and the approach to do an estimation of the field expected in flight.

  15. Development skills of children born premature with low and very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Camila da Costa; Pachelli, Mariane Regina de Oliveira; Amaral, Natalie Camillo de Oliveira; Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin

    2017-01-30

    To compare the performance of children born premature with low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth-weight (VLBW) with that of children born at term, within the age range of one to three years, regarding child development in the gross motor, fine motor-adaptive, personal-social and language domains. This is a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 150 infants born premature (experimental group) and at term (control group) divided into eight groups with respect to weight (low birth weight: social and language domains. In this study, the preterm groups presented different performances, i.e., normative, average, and below average performances were observed within the same group.

  16. Hospital volume and neonatal mortality among very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Dorothee B; Wypij, David; Wenzlaff, Paul; Dammann, Olaf; Poets, Christian F

    2006-06-01

    Very low birth weight infants ( 1000 births per year) and large NICUs, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.94 for neonates for whom both units were small, 1.75 for those from large delivery units but small neonatal units, and 1.16 for those for whom only the NICU was large. Stratification according to gestational age revealed the greatest impact on mortality for infants of < 29 weeks. Results suggest that creating larger perinatal centers may improve perinatal health care. The volume of the NICU was associated more strongly with 28-day mortality than was the volume of the delivery hospital, and it had the largest impact on survival for infants of < 29 weeks.

  17. An audit of caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2012-02-01

    This study reviewed caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies in a tertiary referral maternity hospital. Maternal and neonatal complications were recorded and classified according to uterine incision type. We reviewed medical records of 89 women over a period of 2 years. The indication for the caesarean section influenced the type of uterine incision made (p = 0.004). Women who had antepartum haemorrhage were more likely to need a vertical incision. There was also a higher incidence of vertical incisions for gestations <28 weeks (p = 0.029). Surprisingly, when the computerised discharge summaries were reviewed retrospectively, all the vertical uterine incisions were recorded as lower segment caesarean sections. This would have a clinical impact on those women in future pregnancies, especially in a highly mobile population.

  18. Good growth despite very low levels of insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, J; Siebler, T; Blum, W F; Rascher, W; Kiess, W

    1998-09-01

    A 12.5-year-old girl presented with short stature. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-I) and insulin- like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-3) were below the 0.1 percentile. Growth hormone provocation tests disclosed normal responses to L-arginine and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. A huge benign mesenteric cyst was discovered by abdominal ultrasound and completely removed. Subsequently, the girl showed a marked catch-up growth; however, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 remained below the 0.1 percentile. These observations imply that growth may take place even with very low levels of insulin-like growth factors. The interpretation of low IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in short children still requires good clinical judgement and basic knowledge of their biological action.

  19. Very-low-speed variable-structure control of sensorless induction machine drives without signal injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lascu, Christian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    A sensorless induction machine drive is presented, in which the principles of variable-structure control and direct torque control (DTC) are combined to ensure high-performance operation in the steady state and under transient conditions. The drive employs a new torque and flux controller......, the "linear and variable-structure control", which realizes accurate and robust control in a wide speed range. Conventional DTC transient merits are preserved, while the steady-state behavior is significantly improved. The full-order state observer is a sliding-mode one, which does not require the rotor speed...... adaptation and provides accurate state estimation in the entire speed range. The proposed scheme is a complete variable-structure solution that allows persistent sensorless operation of the drive at very low speeds, including zero and 3 r/min, with full load. Simulations and extensive experimental results...

  20. Foods, obesity, and diabetes-are all calories created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Diet has become one of the top risk factors for poor health. The incidence of cardiometabolic disease in the United Sates, in Mexico, and in most countries is driven fundamentally by changes in diet quality. Weight gain has been typically framed as a problem of excess caloric intake, but, as reviewed in this paper, subtle changes in the quality of diet are associated with long-term weight gain. In order to successfully address obesity and diabetes, researchers and policy makers have to better understand how weight gain in the long term is modulated and to change the focus of research and public policy from one based on counting calories to one based on diet quality and its determinants at various levels. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Growth of very low birth weight infants fed with milk from a human milk bank selected according to the caloric and protein value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Marisa da Matta; Feferbaum, Rubens; Andreassa, Nerli; Leone, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    To describe growth and clinical evolution of very low birth weight infants fed during hospital stay with milk from a human milk bank according to the caloric-protein value. Forty very low birth weight infants were included: 10 were fed milk from their own mothers (GI), and 30 were fed human milk bank > 700 cal/L and 2 g/dL of protein. Growth curves were adjusted using nonlinear regression to the measured growth parameters. full enteral diet was reached in 6.3 days by GI and in 10.8 by GII; a weight of 2 kg was reached in 7.3 weeks for GI and in 7.8 for GII. In GI, 3/10 (33.3%) and in GII, 7/30 (23.3%) developed sepsis. Necrotizing enterocolitis did not occur in GI, but in 3/30 (10.0%) in GII. GI presented with urinary calcium > 4 mg/L in 1/10 (10.0%), urinary phosphorus (Pu) 0.6 ratio in 1/10 (10.0%) of the cases; in GII, no children presented alterations of the urinary calcium or the Ca and Cr ratio, and Pu was Human milk bank allowed a satisfactory growth and good clinical evolution for very low birth weight infants.

  2. Detection of Very Low Frequency Earthquakes in the Mexican Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, J.; Ide, S.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Kostoglodov, V.; Perez-Campos, X.

    2016-12-01

    Tremors have already been detected in three different areas (Jalisco, Guerrero and Oaxaca) of the Mexican subduction zone but their moment tensor is difficult to estimate. However, Very Low Frequency (VLF) earthquakes have been shown to occur at the subduction interface in Guerrero, Mexico at the same time as tremors and their focal mechanisms have been calculated. We try to detect VLF events using the same method in Jalisco and in Oaxaca. With this aim we detect tremors using an envelope correlation method in Oaxaca and use a previously determined tremor catalog in Jalisco [Idehara et al., 2014]. Using the method of Ide and Yabe [2014], we stack waveforms, in the VLF band, at the time of occurrence of tremors. Finally, the stacked waveforms are inverted to better estimate the depth of these events and their moment tensor. This analysis is carried out for different time periods between 2005 and 2015, depending on the deployment of temporary network along the Mexican coast. In addition, permanent broadband stations of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (Mexico) are used. The tremors detected in Oaxaca area are located farther west than previously known probably because of the more eastern location of stations. Our results show the spatial distribution of moment tensor along the Mexican subduction zone. The VLF sources are located at or close to the plate interface in Oaxaca and Jalisco as is observed in Guerrero. These events have magnitudes of about 3 and very low-angle to low-angle thrust mechanisms in agreement with the varying geometry of the subduction interface. The slip directions of VLF earthquakes are also consistent with the plates convergence vectors. In addition, some clear VLF signals are detected without any stacking using correlation methods. These individual detections confirm the results of our statistical analysis.

  3. Trends in Patent Ductus Arteriosus Diagnosis and Management for Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Samantha; Profit, Jochen; Gould, Jeffrey B; Lee, Henry C

    2017-04-01

    To examine yearly trends of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) diagnosis and treatment in very low birth weight infants. In this retrospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (<1500 g) between 2008 and 2014 across 134 California hospitals, we evaluated PDA diagnosis and treatment by year of birth. Infants were either inborn or transferred in within 2 days after delivery and had no congenital abnormalities. Intervention levels for treatment administered to achieve ductal closure were categorized as none, pharmacologic (indomethacin or ibuprofen), both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation, or ligation only. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for PDA diagnosis and treatment. PDA was diagnosed in 42.8% (12 002/28 025) of infants, with a decrease in incidence from 49.2% of 4205 infants born in 2008 to 38.5% of 4001 infants born in 2014. Pharmacologic and/or surgical treatment was given to 30.5% of patients. Between 2008 and 2014, the annual rate of infants who received pharmacologic intervention (30.5% vs 15.7%) or both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation (6.9% vs 2.9%) decreased whereas infants who were not treated (60.5% vs 78.3%) or received primary ligation (2.2% vs 3.0%) increased. There is an increasing trend toward not treating patients diagnosed with PDA compared with more intensive treatments: pharmacologic intervention or both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation. Possible directions for future study include the impact of these trends on hospital-based and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Very-low dose antacid in treatment of duodenal ulcer. Comparison with cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaterka, S; Cordeiro, F; Lyra, L G; Toletino, M M; Miszputen, S J; Jorge, J L; Silva, E P; Vieira, F E; Modena, J L; Massuda, H K

    1991-10-01

    Antacid (AA) in a very low dose (88 mmol/day) was compared to the standard 800-mg dose of cimetidine in healing duodenal ulcers. The influence of sex, age, symptom duration at entry, night pain, smoking, coffee consumption, and alcohol on ulcer healing was studied. The antacid was given in two different schedules: group I--20 ml 1 hr after breakfast and at bedtime; group II--10 ml 1 hr after breakfast and lunch and 20 ml at bedtime. Cimetidine (group III) was given in two divided doses: 400 mg 1 hr after breakfast and 400 mg at bedtime. Endoscopic control was performed after four weeks and, if necessary, after eight weeks of treatment. The healing rate after four weeks of treatment was, respectively, for groups I, II, and III, 45.5%, 55.8%, and 69.4% (group I = group II, and group III different from groups I and II). After eight weeks of treatment the healing rate was 61.5%, 80.8%, and 88.0% for groups I, II, and III, respectively (group II = group III, and group I different from groups II and III). Except for group I, smoking did not influence healing rate. Age, sex, symptoms at entry, night pain, and coffee consumption did not influence the treatment results. The authors concluded that the very low dose of magaldrate (88 mmol/day), when administered in three divided doses (10 ml after breakfast and lunch and 20 ml at bedtime) for eight weeks was as effective as 800 mg of cimetidine (400 mg twice a day) in healing duodenal ulcer.

  5. Vaccine schedule compliance among very low birth weight infants in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Bautista, Rossana; Davila, Carmen; Salazar, José Antonio; Bazán, Carlos; López, Luis; Ecker, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is little information about vaccine schedule compliance in very-low-birth-weight infants in developing countries. The aim of the study was to describe the compliance with the vaccine schedule among this population in Lima, Peru. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima in infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500g, followed from birth up to 12 months of age every 2 weeks. The date and age at administration of each vacccine was recorded. Results 222 infants were enrolled. The median birth-weight was 1,250g (range 550-1,499g) and the median gestational age was 30.0 weeks (range 23-37 weeks). The mean age for the first pentavalent (DPT, Hib, HepB) and oral polio vaccine administration was 4.3 ± 1.4 months in infants with a birth-weight of <1000g vs. 3.1 ± 1.0 in infants with a birth-weight 1000- 1500g (p<0.001); 4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.3 ± 1.1 for rotavirus (p<0.05); and 5.1 ± 2.1 vs. 4.3 ± 1.8 for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine. Only 35% had received the three doses of oral polio and pentavalent vaccine by seven months, although by nine months 81% had received these vaccines. Conclusions Vaccination of very-low-birth-weight infants in Peru is significantly delayed, especially in infants with a birth-weight of <1000g. Urgent educational interventions targeting physicians and nurses should be implemented in order to improve vaccination rates and timing in these high risk populations. PMID:25448091

  6. Leptin and calorie intake among different nicotine dependent groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Muhammad Zulhusni; Sanip, Zulkefli; Jan, Hamid Jan; Yusoff, Harmy Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to nicotine via tobacco smoking may influence leptin release and decrease food intake among smokers. However, the effect of nicotine exposure on leptin and food intake among different nicotine dependent groups is unclear. We aimed to measure leptin and calorie intake among different nicotine dependent groups. Cross-sectional study. Research department in school of medical sciences. Subjects were selected by purposive (non-probability) sampling and categorized as having low, moderate and high nicotine dependency based on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score. Diet was recorded by interview. Anthropometry, blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile, and physical activity level were measured accordingly. Fasting serum leptin was measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Nicotine dependency, 24-hour diet, clinical anthropometric and clinical measurements. In 107 Malay male smokers leptin concentration was inversely correlated with nicotine dependence. However, body weight, smoking period, blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile and physical activity level were not significantly different among low, moderately and highly dependent smoking groups. Leptin concentration and total calorie intake were also not significantly different among these groups. Leptin concentration was inversely correlated with nicotine dependence, but leptin concentration and total calorie intake status were not significantly different among our different nicotine dependency subjects. Purposive sampling for subject recruitment and inaccurate information in the self-administered questionnaire.

  7. History of the calorie in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, James L

    2006-12-01

    The calorie was not a unit of heat in the original metric system. Some histories state that a defined Calorie (modern kcal) originated with Favre and Silbermann in 1852 or Mayer in 1848. However, Nicholas Clément introduced Calories in lectures on heat engines that were given in Paris between 1819 and 1824. The Calorie was already defined in Bescherelle's 1845 Dictionnaire National. In 1863, the word entered the English language through translation of Ganot's popular French physics text, which defined a Calorie as the heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1 degrees C. Berthelot distinguished between g- and kg-calories by 1879, and Raymond used the kcal in a discussion of human energy needs in an 1894 medical physiology text. The capitalized Calorie as used to indicate 1 kcal on U.S. food labels derives from Atwater's 1887 article on food energy in Century magazine and Farmers' Bulletin 23 in 1894. Formal recognition began in 1896 when the g-calorie was defined as a secondary unit of energy in the cm-g-s measurement system. The thermal calorie was not fully defined until the 20th century, by which time the nutritional Calorie was embedded in U.S. popular culture and nutritional policy.

  8. Calories or protein? The effect of dietary restriction on lifespan in rodents is explained by calories alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, J R; Mitchell, S E; Mazidi, M

    2016-12-15

    Almost exactly 100years ago Osborne and colleagues demonstrated that restricting the food intake of a small number of female rats extended their lifespan. In the 1930s experiments on the impact of diet on lifespan were extended by Slonaker, and subsequently McCay. Slonaker concluded that there was a strong impact of protein intake on lifespan, while McCay concluded that calories are the main factor causing differences in lifespan when animals are restricted (Calorie restriction or CR). Hence from the very beginning the question of whether food restriction acts on lifespan via reduced calorie intake or reduced protein intake was disputed. Subsequent work supported the idea that calories were the dominant factor. More recently, however, this role has again been questioned, particularly in studies of insects. Here we review the data regarding previous studies of protein and calorie restriction in rodents. We show that increasing CR (with simultaneous protein restriction: PR) increases lifespan, and that CR with no PR generates an identical effect. None of the residual variation in the impact of CR (with PR) on lifespan could be traced to variation in macronutrient content of the diet. Other studies show that low protein content in the diet does increase median lifespan, but the effect is smaller than the CR effect. We conclude that CR is a valid phenomenon in rodents that cannot be explained by changes in protein intake, but that there is a separate phenomenon linking protein intake to lifespan, which acts over a different range of protein intakes than is typical in CR studies. This suggests there may be a fundamental difference in the responses of insects and rodents to CR. This may be traced to differences in the physiology of these groups, or reflect a major methodological difference between 'restriction' studies performed on rodents and insects. We suggest that studies where the diet is supplied ad libitum, but diluted with inert components, should perhaps be

  9. Respiratory severity score and extubation readiness in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroun J. Mhanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory severity score (RSS is a byproduct of mean airway pressure (MAP and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2. We sought to determine whether RSS could be used as a screening tool to predict extubation readiness in very low birth weight (VLBW infants. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, medical records of all VLBW infants admitted to our unit (6/1/09–2/28/12 were reviewed for infants' demographics, prenatal characteristics, and medication use. Also, records were reviewed for unplanned vs. planned extubation, blood gas, ventilator parameters and signs of severe respiratory failure [RF, defined as partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 > 65, pH  50%, and MAP > 10 cm] on the day of extubation. Results: During the study period 31% (45/147 failed extubation. Overall, infants who failed extubation had a lower birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA, and on the day of extubation had a higher RSS and percentage of having one or more signs of severe RF. In a logistic regression model, adjusting for BW, GA, RSS and RF, RSS remained the only risk factor associated with extubation failure [adjusted OR 1.63 (95% CI: 1.10–2.40; p = 0.01]. RSS had a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–0.94 at a cutoff of 1.26 and a specificity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80–0.94 at a cutoff of 2.5. There was no difference in extubation failure between unplanned vs. planned extubation [41% (9/22 vs. 29% (36/125; p = 0.25]. Conclusion: An elevated RSS is associated with extubation failure. Successful unplanned extubation is common in VLBW infants. Key Words: very low birth weight, extubation, mechanical ventilation, respiratory severity score

  10. Mode of delivery of twin gestation with very low birthweight: is vaginal delivery safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Eran; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Amikam, Uri; de Castro, Hila; Haas, Jigal; Mazkereth, Ram; Sivan, Eyal; Schiff, Eyal; Yinon, Yoav

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether planned vaginal delivery is associated with increased risk of perinatal death and morbidity in twin pregnancies that are complicated by a very low birthweight of the second twin. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of twin pregnancies in which the second twin's birthweight was ≤1500 g. One hundred ninety-three twin gestations met the study criteria; patients were classified into 2 groups according to the planned mode of delivery: (1) cesarean delivery (n = 142) and (2) vaginal delivery (n = 51). In the vaginal delivery group, 21 pairs were in cephalic-cephalic presentation at the time of delivery; 28 pairs were cephalic-noncephalic, and 2 pairs were noncephalic-noncephalic. Composite adverse neonatal outcome was defined as the presence of neonatal death, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, or intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4. Trial of vaginal delivery was successful for both twins in 90.5% of cephalic-cephalic twins and 96.4% in cephalic-noncephalic twins. The rate of intraventricular hemorrhage was significantly higher in the vaginal delivery group (29.4% vs 8.5%, respectively; P = .013; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-10.1). The increased risk of intraventricular hemorrhage in the vaginal delivery groups was evident in both twin A (17.6% vs 7.0%; P = .029) and twin B (15.7% vs 4.9%; P = .014); however, these differences were not significant after adjustment for possible confounders (twin A: adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 0.58-5.55; twin B: adjusted OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 0.63-7.25). In addition, subgroup analysis revealed that both cephalic-cephalic and cephalic-noncephalic twins who were delivered vaginally had increased risk for intraventricular hemorrhage. There were no significant differences between the cesarean and vaginal delivery groups in the rates of Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes, arterial cord pH <7.1, composite adverse neonatal outcome

  11. Effect of acute negative and positive energy balance on basal very-low density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute reduction in dietary energy intake reduces very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG concentration. Although chronic dietary energy surplus and obesity are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of acute overfeeding on VLDL-TG metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute negative and positive energy balance on VLDL-TG metabolism in healthy women. DESIGN: Ten healthy women (AGE: 22.0±2.9 years, BMI: 21.2±1.3 kg/m(2 underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i isocaloric feeding (control ii hypocaloric feeding with a dietary energy restriction of 2.89±0.42 MJ and iii hypercaloric feeding with a dietary energy surplus of 2.91±0.32 MJ. The three diets had the same macronutrient composition. RESULTS: Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations decreased by ∼26% after hypocaloric feeding relative to the control trial (P = 0.037, owing to decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate (by 21%, P = 0.023 and increased VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate (by ∼12%, P = 0.016. Hypercaloric feeding increased plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.042 but had no effect on VLDL-TG concentration and kinetics compared to the control trial. CONCLUSION: Acute dietary energy deficit (∼3MJ leads to hypotriglyceridemia via a combination of decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion and increased VLDL-TG clearance. On the other hand, acute dietary energy surplus (∼3MJ does not affect basal VLDL-TG metabolism but disrupts glucose homeostasis in healthy women.

  12. Attention to Physical Activity-Equivalent Calorie Information on Nutrition Facts Labels: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Graham, Dan J; Bleich, Sara N

    2017-01-01

    Investigate attention to Nutrition Facts Labels (NFLs) with numeric only vs both numeric and activity-equivalent calorie information, and attitudes toward activity-equivalent calories. An eye-tracking camera monitored participants' viewing of NFLs for 64 packaged foods with either standard NFLs or modified NFLs. Participants self-reported demographic information and diet-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants came to the Behavioral Medicine Lab at Colorado State University in spring, 2015. The researchers randomized 234 participants to view NFLs with numeric calorie information only (n = 108) or numeric and activity-equivalent calorie information (n = 126). Attention to and attitudes about activity-equivalent calorie information. Differences by experimental condition and weight loss intention (overall and within experimental condition) were assessed using t tests and Pearson's chi-square tests of independence. Overall, participants viewed numeric calorie information on 20% of NFLs for 249 ms. Participants in the modified NFL condition viewed activity-equivalent information on 17% of NFLs for 231 ms. Most participants indicated that activity-equivalent calorie information would help them decide whether to eat a food (69%) and that they preferred both numeric and activity-equivalent calorie information on NFLs (70%). Participants used activity-equivalent calorie information on NFLs and found this information helpful for making food decisions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  14. Climacteric complaints among very low-income women from a tropical region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Climacteric symptoms may vary between different countries and cultures. Socioeconomic factors and climate may be implicated. The aim of this study was to identify climacteric symptomatology among very low-income Brazilian women, living in a hot and humid region. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Cuiabá, at Júlio Müller University Hospital, a tertiary institution. METHODS: The study enrolled 354 climacteric women. The variables analyzed were social class, symptomatology and abnormal concurrent conditions. The study was approved by the hospital's research ethics committee. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the participants (232/354 were very poor and had had little schooling. The number of symptoms per woman was 8.0 ± 5.7. Hot flushes, nervousness, forgetfulness and fatigue were each found in nearly 60.0%. Tearfulness, depression, melancholy and insomnia were also frequent. Sexual problems were reported by 25%. The most relevant concurrent abnormal conditions reported were hypertension (33.9%, obesity (26.5%, arthritis/arthrosis (15.0% and diabetes mellitus (9.6%. Hot flushes were associated with tearfulness, nervousness and forgetfulness. CONCLUSION: Brazilian climacteric women of low income and low schooling present multiple symptoms. Vasomotor and psychosexual symptoms were the most prevalent disorders. Hot flushes were associated with nervousness, forgetfulness and tearfulness.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam, Zuid-holland (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  16. Daycare attendance and risk for respiratory morbidity among young very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2009-11-01

    Daycare attendance and very low birth weight (VLBW, daycare attendance is associated with even higher risk for respiratory problems among VLBW children. We hypothesized that VLBW children attending daycare, in a private home or daycare center, are at higher risk for respiratory problems than VLBW children not attending daycare. We also investigated whether the effect of daycare is independent or synergistic with respiratory risk resulting from being VLBW, as indicated by having bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as a neonate. We conducted a prospective study of VLBW children followed from birth to age 2-3 (N = 715). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between daycare attendance and respiratory problems, adjusting for known neonatal risk factors for poor respiratory outcomes. Attending daycare in either a private home or in a daycare center was significantly associated with higher risk of lower respiratory infections than never attending. Attending a daycare center was also associated with higher risk for wheezy chest, cough without a cold, and respiratory medication use. While having BPD was associated with increased risk for respiratory problems, daycare attendance and BPD were not found to be synergistic risk factors for respiratory problems among VLBW children, but acted independently to increase risk. This implies that the increase in risk for respiratory problems associated with daycare attendance may be similar among VLBW children and those of normal birth weight.

  17. The Role of Very Low-Reynolds Hydrodynamics on the Transfer of Information Among Active Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosis, Alessandro; Ubertini, Francesco; Ubertini, Stefano; Succi, Sauro

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the decision-making and leader-identification processes within a group of fifty small-size active individuals, immersed in a viscous fluid at very low Reynolds number, {R}e {˜ }10^{-2}. A fraction of the individuals is informed about the spatial location of the target, and moves accordingly along a privileged trajectory. The rest of the group has no access to this information, but may draw indirect benefit by following the trajectory of the informed individuals, through a process of leader-identification. Such process responds to simple behavioral rules ("social" interactions) discussed previously in the literature (Krause and Ruxton in Living in groups, 2002). The above scenario is enriched with two mechanical ingredients: the presence of an obstacle, preventing the informed individuals from following a straight trajectory to the target and hydrodynamic interactions with the surrounding fluid. It is found that hydrodynamic interactions are particularly effective in steering the uninformed individuals towards the target under neutral conditions, i.e. whenever the fraction of informed individuals is around 50 %. At lower fractions, only the informed individuals manage to reach the target, regardless of hydrodynamic interactions. Likewise, at higher fractions, all individuals reach the target, independently of hydrodynamic effects. This shows that, while hydrodynamics is subdominant under most circumstances, it may nonetheless take on a strategic role whenever the informed and uninformed individuals become comparable in number.

  18. CFD Simulation and Optimization of Very Low Head Axial Flow Turbine Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannis Mitiku Tobo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modelling, simulation and optimization of very low head axial flow turbine runner  to be used to drive  a centrifugal pump of turbine-driven pump. The ultimate goal of the optimization is to produce a power of 1kW at head less than 1m from flowing  river to drive centrifugal pump using mechanical coupling (speed multiplier gear directly. Flow rate, blade numbers, turbine rotational speed, inlet angle are parameters used in CFD modeling,  simulation and design optimization of the turbine runner. The computed results show that power developed by a turbine runner increases with increasing flow rate. Pressure inside the turbine runner increases with flow rate but, runner efficiency increases for some flow rate and almost constant thereafter. Efficiency and power developed by a runner drops quickly if turbine speed increases due to higher pressure losses and conversion of pressure energy to kinetic energy inside the runner. Increasing blade number increases power developed but, efficiency does not increase always. Efficiency increases for some blade number and drops down due to the fact that  change in direction of the relative flow vector at the runner exit, which decreases the net rotational momentum and increases the axial flow velocity.

  19. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem; Benda, Paul L; Gillenwater, Patricia S; Negri, M Cristina; Xiong, Hui; Snyder, Seth W

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7bar). However, higher operating pressures (≥34.5bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1±0.0μm to 0.74±0.2μm after UF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of full enteral feeding achievement in very low birth weight infants.

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    Luigi Corvaglia

    Full Text Available To elucidate the role of prenatal, neonatal and early postnatal variables in influencing the achievement of full enteral feeding (FEF in very low birth weight (VLBW infants and to determine whether neonatal intensive care units (NICUs differ in this outcome.Population-based retrospective cohort study using data on 1,864 VLBW infants drawn from the "Emilia-Romagna Perinatal Network" Registry from 2004 to 2009. The outcome of interest was time to FEF achievement. Eleven prenatal, neonatal and early postnatal variables and the study NICUs were selected as potential predictors of time to FEF. Parametric survival analysis was used to model time to FEF as a function of the predictors. Marginal effects were used to obtain adjusted estimates of median time to FEF for specific subgroups of infants.Lower gestational age, exclusive formula feeding, higher CRIB II score, maternal hypertension, cesarean delivery, SGA and PDA predicted delayed FEF. NICUs proved to be heterogeneous in terms of FEF achievement. Newborns with PDA had a 4.2 days longer predicted median time to FEF compared to those without PDA; newborns exclusively formula-fed had a 1.4 days longer time to FEF compared to those fed human milk.The results of our study suggest that time to FEF is influenced by clinical variables and NICU-specific practices. Knowledge of the variables associated with delayed/earlier FEF achievement could help in improving specific aspects of routine clinical management of VLBW infants and to reduce practice variability.

  1. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the urinary retinol excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Bettina; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Loui, Andrea; Bührer, Christoph; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J

    2016-03-01

    Despite high-dose vitamin A supplementation of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, supplementation on the urinary vitamin A excretion in VLBW infants was investigated. Sixty-three VLBW infants were treated with vitamin A (5000 IU intramuscular, 3 times/week for 4 weeks); 38 untreated infants were classified as control group. On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine. On day 3 of life, substantial retinol and RBP4 losses were found in both groups, which significantly decreased until day 28. Notwithstanding, the retinol excretion was higher (P supplementation as compared to infants of the control group. On day 28 of life, the urinary retinol concentrations were predictive for serum retinol concentrations in the vitamin A treated (P supplementation efficacy in VLBW infants. Advanced age and thus postnatal kidney maturation seems to be an important contributor in the prevention of urinary retinol losses.

  2. On the effects of Cosmions upon the structure and evolution of very low mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, E. E.; Griest, K.; Rosner, R.; Wang, J.

    1989-01-01

    A number of recent studies have suggested that cosmions, or WIMPS, may play an important role in the energetics of the solar interior; in particular, it has been argued that these hypothetical particles may transport sufficient energy within the nuclear-burning solar core so as to depress the solar core temperature to the point of resolving the solar neutrino problem. Solutions to the solar neutrino problem have proven themselves to be quite nonunique, so that it is of some interest whether the cosmion solution can be tested in some independent manner. It is argued that if cosmions solve the solar neutrino problem, then they must also play an important role in the evolution of low mass main sequence stars; and, second, that if they do so, then a simple (long mean free path) model for the interaction of cosmions with baryons leads to changes in the structure of the nuclear-burning core which may be in principal observable. Such changes include suppression of a fully-convective core in very low mass main sequence stars; and a possible thermal runaway in the core of the nuclear burning region. Some of these changes may be directly observable, and hence may provide independent constraints on the properties of the cosmions required to solve the solar neutrino problem, perhaps even ruling them out.

  3. Optimization of Vancomycin Dosing in Very Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Theresa; Teng, Christine B.; Koshaish, Jena; Johnson, Kent R.; Graner, Kevin K.; Banerjee, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare vancomycin serum trough concentrations and 24-hour area under the serum concentration-versus-time curve (AUC24) among very low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants before and after implementation of an institution-wide increase in neonatal vancomycin dosing. Study Design We performed a retrospective analysis of vancomycin concentrations among preterm VLBW neonates before (2007–2010) and after (2010–2013) implementation of a new vancomycin dosing protocol consisting of increased vancomycin daily dose and frequency of administration. Results Neonates weighing < 1,500 g and receiving the new vancomycin dosing regimen had lower rates of undetectable trough concentrations (24 vs. 50%, p = 0.04), higher median trough concentrations (10.8 vs. 5.9 µg/mL, p = 0.003), a higher proportion of goal trough concentrations of 10 to 20 µg/mL (35 vs. 4%, p = 0.005), and a significantly higher vancomycin AUC24 (438 vs. 320 mg·h/L, p = 0.004) compared with historical controls. Conclusion Increasing the vancomycin daily dose and dosing frequency led to an increase in vancomycin trough concentrations and AUC24, and a decrease in the proportion of undetectable (< 5.0 µg/mL) troughs, without an increase in toxicity among VLBW premature neonates. PMID:24839147

  4. Size changes in honey bee larvae oenocytes induced by exposure to Paraquat at very low concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Cousin

    Full Text Available The effects of the herbicide Paraquat were investigated in honey bee larvae with attention focused on oenocytes. Honey bee larvae were exposed to Paraquat at different concentrations in the food: 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/kg. In controls, between 24 h and 48 h, oenocytes grew from 630.1 to 1643.8 µm(2 while nuclei changed in size from 124.9 to 245.6 µm(2. At 24 h, Paraquat induced a slight decrease in the size of oenocytes and nuclei. N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant substance, slightly lowered the effects of Paraquat. At 48 h, Paraquat elicited a strong concentration-dependent decrease in the size of oenocytes, even at the lowest concentration. NAC reversed the effect of Paraquat at a concentration of ≥0.01 µg/kg. This reversion suggested different modes of action of Paraquat, with an oxidant action prevalent at concentrations ≥0.01 µg/kg. This study is the first which reports an effect of a pesticide at the very low concentration of 1 ng/kg, a concentration below the detection limits of the most efficient analytic methods. It shows that chemicals, including pesticides, are likely to have a potential impact at such exposure levels. We also suggest that Paraquat could be used as a suitable tool for investigating the functions of oenocytes.

  5. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  6. X-ray micro-CT measurement of large parts at very low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutecký, T.; Zikmund, T.; Glittová, D.; Paloušek, D.; Živčák, J.; Kaiser, J.

    2017-03-01

    At present, the automotive industry, along with other industries, has increasing demands on accuracy of produced parts and assemblies. Besides the regular dimensional and geometrical inspection, in some cases, also a verification at very low temperatures is required. X-ray computed tomography (CT), as a tool for non-destructive testing, is able to examine samples and then determine dimensions for strictly stable temperature conditions necessary for the stability of the CT system. Until now, no system that allows scanning of samples larger than a few millimeters at temperatures much below 0 °C has been presented. This paper presents a cooling system for CT imaging of parts with length up to 300 mm at the extreme temperature conditions of -40 °C, which are based on automotive industry requests. It describes the equipment and conditions under which it is possible to achieve a temperature stability of samples at low temperatures, while keeping an independent temperature regulation of the CT system. The presented system uses a standard industrial CT device and a newly designed cooling stage with passive cooling based on phase-change material. The system is demonstrated on the measurement of plastic part (car door handle) at temperatures of -40 °C and 20 °C. The paper also presents the method of how to interpret the thermal changes using tools of the commercial software VGStudio MAX (Volume Graphics GmbH, Germany).

  7. Very low birth-weight infants: parental visiting and telephoning during initial infant hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L P; York, R; Jacobsen, B; Gennaro, S; Brooten, D

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine visiting and telephoning patterns of families of very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants during their initial hospitalization and to identify factors related to visiting and telephoning. The sample of 65 VLBW infants (less than or equal to 1,500 gm) and their families was followed for 6 weeks in the special care nurseries. Mothers were the primary visitors, with the typical mother visiting the nursery twice per week. Fathers and other family members made most of their visits in the first few weeks with minimal involvement thereafter. During a typical week the number of telephone calls to the nursery from mothers ranged from one to three. Fathers and other family members made minimal calls. Significantly fewer visits were made by families in which the mother was unmarried, the mother was younger, Medicaid was the type of insurance, annual income was less than $10,000, and private transportation was unavailable. There were no significant relationships between total number of telephone calls made and maternal demographic variables.

  8. Computerized working memory training has positive long-term effect in very low birthweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Lähaugen, Gro C C

    2016-02-01

    Working memory deficits are frequently found in children born preterm and have been linked to learning disabilities, and cognitive and behavioural problems. Our aim was to evaluate if a computerized working memory training program has long-term positive effects on memory, learning, and behaviour in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children at age 5 to 6 years. This prospective, intervention study included 20 VLBW preschool children in the intervention group and 17 age-matched, non-training VLBW children in the comparison group. The intervention group trained with the Cogmed JM working memory training program daily for 5 weeks (25 training sessions). Extensive neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaires were performed 4 weeks after intervention and at follow-up 7 months later. For most of the statistical analyses, general linear models were applied. At follow-up, higher scores and increased or equal performance gain were found in the intervention group than the comparison group on memory for faces (p=0.012), narrative memory (p=0.002), and spatial span (p=0.003). No group differences in performance gain were found for attention and behaviour. Computerized working memory training seems to have positive and persisting effects on working memory, and visual and verbal learning, at 7-month follow-up in VLBW preschool children. We speculate that such training is beneficial by improving the ability to learn from the teaching at school and for further cognitive development. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Biochemical Estimation of Non-Compliance with Smoking of Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Nardone, Natalie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Donny, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The reduction of the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addicting levels is a potential federal regulatory intervention to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking and related disease. Many clinical trials on the effects and safety of nicotine reduction are ongoing. An important methodological concern is non-compliance with reduced nicotine content cigarettes in the context of freely available conventional cigarettes. We propose two approaches using biomarkers to estimate non-compliance in smokers of very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes in a clinical trial. Methods Data from 50 subjects in a study of gradual nicotine reduction were analyzed. Using plasma cotinine concentrations measured at baseline and while smoking VLNC cigarettes, we compared within-subject ratios of plasma cotinine comparing usual brand to VLNC in relation to nicotine content of these cigarettes. In another approach we used nicotine pharmacokinetic data to estimate absolute plasma cotinine/cigarettes per day (CPD) threshold values for compliance based on the nicotine content of VLNC. Results The two approaches showed concordance indicating at least 60% non-compliance with smoking VLNC. In a sensitivity analysis assuming extreme compensation and extreme values for nicotine metabolic parameters, non-compliance was still at least 40%, much higher than self-reported non-compliance. Conclusion Biomarker analysis demonstrates a high degree of non-compliance with smoking VLNC cigarettes, indicating that smokers are supplementing these with conventional cigarettes. Impact We propose a practical approach to assessing compliance with smoking VLNC in clinical trials of nicotine reduction. PMID:25416718

  10. Biochemical estimation of noncompliance with smoking of very low nicotine content cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Nardone, Natalie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of the nicotine content of cigarettes to nonaddicting levels is a potential federal regulatory intervention to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking and related disease. Many clinical trials on the effects and safety of nicotine reduction are ongoing. An important methodologic concern is noncompliance with reduced nicotine content cigarettes in the context of freely available conventional cigarettes. We propose two approaches using biomarkers to estimate noncompliance in smokers of very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes in a clinical trial. Data from 50 subjects in a study of gradual nicotine reduction were analyzed. Using plasma cotinine concentrations measured at baseline and while smoking VLNC cigarettes, we compared within-subject ratios of plasma cotinine comparing usual brand to VLNC in relation to nicotine content of these cigarettes. In another approach, we used nicotine pharmacokinetic data to estimate absolute plasma cotinine/cigarettes per day (CPD) threshold values for compliance based on the nicotine content of VLNC. The two approaches showed concordance, indicating at least 60% noncompliance with smoking VLNC. In a sensitivity analysis assuming extreme compensation and extreme values for nicotine metabolic parameters, noncompliance was still at least 40%, much higher than self-reported noncompliance. Biomarker analysis demonstrates a high degree of noncompliance with smoking VLNC cigarettes, indicating that smokers are supplementing these with conventional cigarettes. We propose a practical approach to assessing compliance with smoking VLNC in clinical trials of nicotine reduction. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Creep ductility of iron at very low strain rates: The effects of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sklenicka, V. [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie; Pope, D.P. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1992-12-31

    Creep ductility of iron containing sulfur (200, 20 and 1 wt ppm) was measured as a function of stress and temperature in constant-stress creep tests at 673, 773, 873, and 973 K in H{sub 2}. Failure times ranged from one minute to one year. Creep strengths of the 20 and 1 ppm S material were similar, but the 200 ppm S material was stronger than the other two, especially at very low strain rates. Also, at a given strain rate, a ductility minimum is seen at 873 K, the depth of which increases with sulfur content and is result of increased intergranular failure. The strain rate (or reciprocal of failure time) at which the failure mode changes from transgranular to intergranular fracture decreases with decreasing sulfur content. Intergranular creep cavities were found to nucleate on sulfides in the high-sulfur material, and on unidentified small particles{emdash}presumably oxides{emdash}in the other two. It is concluded that creep cavities nucleate easily on FeS particles but that nucleation on oxide particles is more difficult, especially when the interfacial sulfur content is low. However, it is not possible to totally prevent cavity nucleation even after reducing the sulfur level to 1 ppm. 17 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs.

  12. Disparities in perinatal quality outcomes for very low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Eileen T; Staiger, Douglas; Horbar, Jeffrey; Kenny, Michael J; Patrick, Thelma; Rogowski, Jeannette A

    2015-04-01

    To determine if hospital-level disparities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infant outcomes are explained by poorer hospital nursing characteristics. Nurse survey and VLBW infant registry data. Retrospective study of 8,252 VLBW infants in 98 Vermont Oxford Network hospital neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) nationally. NICUs were classified into three groups based on their percent of infants of black race. Two nurse-sensitive perinatal quality standards were studied: nosocomial infection and breast milk. Primary nurse survey (N = 5,773, 77 percent response rate). VLBW infants born in high-black concentration hospitals had higher rates of infection and discharge without breast milk than VLBW infants born in low-black concentration hospitals. Nurse understaffing was higher and practice environments were worse in high-black as compared to low-black hospitals. NICU nursing features accounted for one-third to one-half of the hospital-level health disparities. Poorer nursing characteristics contribute to disparities in VLBW infant outcomes in two nurse-sensitive perinatal quality standards. Improvements in nursing have potential to improve the quality of care for seven out of ten black VLBW infants who are born in high-black hospitals in this country. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a Brazilian Neonatal Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rugolo, Ligia Maria Suppo; Bentlin, Maria Regina; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco; Lopes, José Maria de Andrade; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Leone, Clea Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine the incidence, risk factors and etiology of LOS. LOS was investigated in a multicenter prospective cohort of infants at eight public university neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Inclusion criteria included inborn, 23-33 weeks of gestational age, 400-1499 g birth weight, who survived >3 days. Of 1507 infants, 357 (24%) had proven LOS and 345 (23%) had clinical LOS. Infants with LOS were more likely to die. The majority of infections (76%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms. Independent risk factors for proven LOS were use of central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation, age at the first feeding and number of days on parenteral nutrition and on mechanical ventilation. LOS incidence and mortality are high in Brazilian VLBW infants. Most risk factors are associated with routine practices at NICU. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Optimization adn Guidance of Very Low-Thrust Transfers to Geostatoinary Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Fernandez, J.; Tarabini, L.; Graziano, M.; Gomez-Tierno, M. A.

    A new hybrid direct-indirect optimization algorithm is presented to compute the minimum-time transfer between two orbits, including the phasing with a desired spacecraft. Very-low thrust means several hundred revolutions to perform the large change in orbital elements. The optimal control solution of the fast-evolution problem combined with a direct method for the secular trajectory avoids the numerical instability arising in very long propagations, decreases the computational time, reduces the sensitivity to the initial guess and provides a feasible transfer at every optimization step. Optimization of transfers from GTO to GEO is presented and two types of trajectories are analysed, sub-synchronous (apogee constrained below GEO altitude) and super-synchronous (free apogee altitude). The optimization of a transfer from LEO to a very high orbit (11 x 23 RE) is presented, showing the applicability of the method to different problems. A guidance algorithm is presented to compensate the deviations of the real trajectory from the optimal one due to off-nominal conditions. The results in closed-loop simulation of the guidance scheme to compensate deterministic perturbations not considered in the optimization show good performances in both analysed missions.

  15. Chemical enrichment in very low metallicity environments: Boötes I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Donatella; Bellazzini, Michele; Starkenburg, Else; Leaman, Ryan

    2015-02-01

    We present different chemical evolution models for the ultrafaint dwarf galaxy Boötes I. We either assume that the galaxy accretes its mass through smooth infall of gas of primordial chemical composition (classical models) or adopt mass accretion histories derived from the combination of merger trees with semi-analytical modelling (cosmologically-motivated models). Furthermore, we consider models with and without taking into account inhomogeneous mixing in the interstellar medium within the galaxy, i.e. homogeneous versus inhomogeneous models. The theoretical predictions are then compared to each other and to the body of the available data. From this analysis, we confirm previous findings that Boötes I has formed stars with very low efficiency but, at variance with previous studies, we do not find a clear-cut indication that supernova explosions have sustained long-lasting galactic-scale outflows in this galaxy. Therefore, we suggest that external mechanisms such as ram pressure stripping and tidal stripping are needed to explain the absence of neutral gas in Boötes I today.

  16. Clinical utility of transcutaneous bilirubinometer (TcB) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Felix K; Bapat, Roopali; Kuch-Kunich, Helen K; Ezeanolue, Kanayo; Keeni, Saraswati; Thomas, Ronald; Callaghan, Joseph; Callaghan, Michael; Cepeda, Eugene; Chouthai, Nitin S

    2016-10-01

    This is a comprehensive study designed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubinometry (TcB) in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns of African American (AA) descent. TcB was conducted at the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), temporal region and sternum within 2 h of total serum bilirubin (TSB) measurements in newborns born at ≤32 weeks' gestation prospectively. Average (AVG) TcB levels were also calculated. The relationships between TSB and TcB levels were analyzed using non-parametric Spearman bivariate correlations, a Bland-Altman plot procedure and a decision tree (DT) analysis. One hundred newborns and 555 TSB data points were available. Eighty-nine percent of the newborns were AA. A significant correlation (P<0.0001) was observed between TSB and TcB values obtained at the ASIS (r=0.73), sternum (0.73), temporal region (0.61) and AVG (0.77). The Bland-Altman plot revealed a good agreement between AVG TcB values and TSB values. A DT analysis indicated that AVG TcB was also found to be the most significant predictor of TSB values in both the no phototherapy (PT) and biliblanket subgroups. TcB can be used reliably in VLBW AA newborns in the absence of overhead PT. The use of TcB in monitoring jaundice in VLBW newborns would help decrease the number of blood draws and cost of care.

  17. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  18. Flight and ground tests of a very low density elastomeric ablative material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G. C.; Chapman, A. J., III

    1972-01-01

    A very low density ablative material, a silicone-phenolic composite, was flight tested on a recoverable spacecraft launched by a Pacemaker vehicle system; and, in addition, it was tested in an arc heated wind tunnel at three conditions which encompassed most of the reentry heating conditions of the flight tests. The material was composed, by weight, of 71 percent phenolic spheres, 22.8 percent silicone resin, 2.2 percent catalyst, and 4 percent silica fibers. The tests were conducted to evaluate the ablator performance in both arc tunnel and flight tests and to determine the predictability of the albator performance by using computed results from an existing one-dimensional numerical analysis. The flight tested ablator experienced only moderate surface recession and retained a smooth surface except for isolated areas where the char was completely removed, probably following reentry and prior to or during recovery. Analytical results show good agreement between arc tunnel and flight test results. The thermophysical properties used in the analysis are tabulated.

  19. Developing a Very Low Vision Orientation and Mobility Test Battery (O&M-VLV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Robert P; Ayton, Lauren N; Deverell, Lil; O'Hare, Fleur; McSweeney, Shane C; Luu, Chi D; Fenwick, Eva K; Keeffe, Jill E; Guymer, Robyn H; Bentley, Sharon A

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the feasibility of an assessment of vision-related orientation and mobility (O&M) tasks in persons with severe vision loss. These tasks may be used for future low vision rehabilitation clinical assessments or as outcome measures in vision restoration trials. Forty legally blind persons (mean visual acuity logMAR 2.3, or hand movements) with advanced retinitis pigmentosa participated in the Orientation & Mobility-Very Low Vision (O&M-VLV) subtests from the Low Vision Assessment of Daily Activities (LoVADA) protocol. Four categories of tasks were evaluated: route travel in three indoor hospital environments, a room orientation task (the "cafe"), a visual exploration task (the "gallery"), and a modified version of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, which assesses re-orientation and route travel. Spatial cognition was assessed using the Stuart Tactile Maps test. Visual acuity and visual fields were measured. A generalized linear regression model showed that a number of measures in the O&M-VLV tasks were related to residual visual function. The percentage of preferred walking speed without an aid on three travel routes was associated with visual field (p orientation, which may be of benefit in vision restoration clinical trials.

  20. Timing of surgical ligation and morbidities in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, YoungAh; Moon, Cheong-Jun; Lee, Jae-Young; Lee, Cheul; Sung, In Kyung

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined whether early patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) surgical ligation at ≤2 weeks of life was associated with increased morbidities and mortality in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) who were diagnosed with hemodynamically significant (hs) PDA. Between December 2013 and December 2015, a total of 407 VLBWIs were admitted, of whom 145 (35.6%) infants were diagnosed with an hs PDA. The clinical data for these infants were retrospectively collected for analysis. Among the 145 VLBWIs with an hs PDA, 58 (40%) infants had surgical ligation for PDA; of these, 29 (50%) infants had early ligation (EL; ligation at ≤2 weeks of life) and 29 (50%) infants had late ligation (LL; ligation at ≥2 weeks of life). The mean gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower in the PDA-ligated group compared with the nonligated group. In addition, pulmonary hypertension at ≤1 week of life and neonatal seizures were significantly more prevalent in the ligated group (P hypertension at ≤1 week of life was significantly associated with LL (P = 0.019), which was consistently a risk factor for hs PDA ligation in our multivariable logistic regression analysis. EL was not significantly associated with increased hospital morbidities and mortality in VLBWIs with hs PDA. Pulmonary hypertension at ≤1 week of life can be a risk factor for the need for surgical ligation of hs PDA.

  1. Decreasing sound and vibration during ground transport of infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, J; McEwen, I; Jeffries, L; Jones, M; Daniels, T; Goshorn, E; Marx, C

    2015-02-01

    To measure the effectiveness of modifications to reduce sound and vibration during interhospital ground transport of a simulated infant with very low birth weight (VLBW) and a gestational age of 30 weeks, a period of high susceptibility to germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage. Researchers measured vibration and sound levels during infant transport, and compared levels after modifications to the transport incubator mattresses, addition of vibration isolators under incubator wheels, addition of mass to the incubator mattress and addition of incubator acoustic cover. Modifications did not decrease sound levels inside the transport incubator during transport. The combination of a gel mattress over an air chambered mattress was effective in decreasing vibration levels for the 1368 g simulated infant. Transport mattress effectiveness in decreasing vibration is influenced by infant weight. Modifications that decrease vibration for infants weighing 2000 g are not effective for infants with VLBW. Sound levels are not affected by incubator covers, suggesting that sound is transmitted into the incubator as a low-frequency vibration through the incubator's contact with the ambulance. Medical transportation can apply industrial methods of vibration and sound control to protect infants with VLBW from excessive physical strain of transport during vulnerable periods of development.

  2. Parenting very low birth weight children at school age: maternal stress and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Lynn T; Fulton, Sarah; Kirchner, H Lester; Eisengart, Sheri; Lewis, Barbara; Short, Elizabeth; Min, Meeyoung O; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Baley, Jill E

    2007-11-01

    To compare severity and determinants of stress and coping in mothers of 8-year-old very low birth weight (VLBW) and term children varying in medical and developmental risk. Three groups of mothers/infants were prospectively compared in a longitudinal study from birth to 8 years (110 high-risk VLBW, 80 low-risk VLBW, and 112 term). Maternal psychological distress, coping, parenting/marital stress, child health, and family impact were measured in the children at age 8 years. Mothers of VLBW children differed from term mothers, reporting less consensus with partners, more concern for their children's health, less parent-child conflict, and fewer years of education attained. Mothers of high-risk VLBW children experienced the greatest family and personal strains and used less denial and disengagement coping. The groups exhibited no differences in the sense of parenting competence, divorce rate, parenting/marital satisfaction, family cohesion, and psychological distress symptoms. Multiple birth, low socioeconomic status, and lower child IQ added to maternal stress. VLBW birth has long-term negative and positive impacts on maternal/family outcomes related to the infant's medical risk.

  3. Very-low speed control of PMSM based on EKF estimation with closed loop optimized parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shaoguang; Liu, Jingmeng

    2013-11-01

    When calculating the speed from the position of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the accuracy and real-time are limited by the precision of the sensor. This problem causes crawling and jitter at very-low speed. Using the angle from the position sensor, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) designed in dq-coordinate is presented to solve this problem. The usage of position sensor simplifies the model and improves the accuracy of speed estimation. Specially, a closed loop optimal (CLO) method is devised to overcome the difficulty to adjust the parameters of the EKF. The EKF is the feedback link of speed control, CLO method is derived from the perspective of the speed step response to optimize the measurement covariance matrix and the system covariance matrix of EKF. Simulation and experimental results, comparing the low-speed performance of the EKF and sensor feedback methods, prove the effectiveness of the method to adjust the parameters of EKF and the advantages in eliminating the low speed jitter. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  4. Probiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis and nosocomial infection in very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberos, J; Aguilera-Rodríguez, E; Jerez-Calero, A; Molina-Oya, M; Molina-Carballo, A; Narbona-López, E

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or Lactobacillus acidophilus +Lactobacillus bifidum is associated with reduced risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC)≥Stage II in preterm neonates born at ≤32 weeks' gestation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on the effect of probiotic supplementation in very low birth weight infants in our neonatal unit by comparing two periods: before and after supplementation. The incidence of NEC≥Stage II, late-onset sepsis and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period 'before' (Period I) and 'after' (Period II) RPS with LGG or L. acidophillus+L. bifidum. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for relevant confounders. The study population was composed of 261 neonates (Period I v. II: 134 v. 127) with comparable gestation duration and birth weights. In benefits in neonates aged ≤27 weeks did not reach statistical significance. RPS with LGG or L. acidophillus+L. bifidum is associated with a reduced risk of NEC≥Stage II, late-onset sepsis and mortality in preterm neonates born at ≤32 weeks' gestation.

  5. Powering autonomous sensors with miniaturized piezoelectric based energy harvesting devices operating at very low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferin, G.; Bantignies, C.; Le Khanh, H.; Flesch, E.; Nguyen-Dinh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations is a smart and efficient way to power autonomous sensors and support innovative developments in IoT (Internet of Things), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and even implantable medical devices. Beyond the environmental operating conditions, efficiency of such devices is mainly related to energy source properties like the amplitude of vibrations and its spectral contain and some of these applications exhibit a quite low frequency spectrum where harvesting surrounding mechanical energy make sense, typically 5-50Hz for implantable medical devices or 50Hz-150Hz for industrial machines. Harvesting such low frequency vibrations is a challenge since it leads to adapt the resonator geometries to the targeted frequency or to use out-off band indirect harvesting strategies. In this paper we present a piezoelectric based vibrational energy harvesting device (PEH) which could be integrated into a biocompatible package to power implantable sensor or therapeutic medical devices. The presented architecture is a serial bimorph laminated with ultra-thinned (ranging from 15μm to 100μm) outer PZT “skins” that could operate at a “very low frequency”, below 25Hz typically. The core process flow is disclosed and performances highlighted with regards to other low frequency demonstrations.

  6. A high-fat, ketogenic diet induces a unique metabolic state in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Adam R; Pissios, Pavlos; Otu, Hasan; Roberson, Russell; Xue, Bingzhong; Asakura, Kenji; Furukawa, Noburu; Marino, Frank E; Liu, Fen-Fen; Kahn, Barbara B; Libermann, Towia A; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2007-06-01

    Ketogenic diets have been used as an approach to weight loss on the basis of the theoretical advantage of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. To evaluate the physiological and metabolic effects of such diets on weight we studied mice consuming a very-low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (KD). This diet had profound effects on energy balance and gene expression. C57BL/6 mice animals were fed one of four diets: KD; a commonly used obesogenic high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HF); 66% caloric restriction (CR); and control chow (C). Mice on KD ate the same calories as mice on C and HF, but weight dropped and stabilized at 85% initial weight, similar to CR. This was consistent with increased energy expenditure seen in animals fed KD vs. those on C and CR. Microarray analysis of liver showed a unique pattern of gene expression in KD, with increased expression of genes in fatty acid oxidation pathways and reduction in lipid synthesis pathways. Animals made obese on HF and transitioned to KD lost all excess body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and increased energy expenditure. Analysis of key genes showed similar changes as those seen in lean animals placed directly on KD. Additionally, AMP kinase activity was increased, with a corresponding decrease in ACC activity. These data indicate that KD induces a unique metabolic state congruous with weight loss.

  7. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691); Moderation des neutrons aux tres basses temperatures (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-04-15

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author) [French] Partant de l'experience de Harwell faite dans une pile de faible puissance, nous nous sommes propose de maintenir une cellule d'hydrogene liquide dans un canal de la pile EL3 de Saclay dont le flux de neutrons thermiques est de 10{sup 14} neutrons par seconde et par cm{sup 2}. Nous avons cherche a realiser une installation donnant un faisceau de neutrons froids important, et pouvant fonctionner d'une maniere aussi automatique que possible, pendant des periodes de plusieurs jours sans arret. Plusieurs circuits aux tres basses temperatures ont deja ete realises, mais

  8. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONTACTLESS MEASUREMENTS IN HYDROGEOLOGY USING VERY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor BURLAN-ROTAR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of groundwater consist in data acquisition, their processing and interpretation. In areas of interest hydrogeological is assumed that there is a network of wells drilled. This network provides a first in the hydrogeological information. Electromagnetic (EM mapping through the use of such areas, using data obtained from existing network of wells drilled, calibration and confirmation. Measurements using the EM can highlight the existence of several layers with different characteristics: clay, limestone, sand, etc. Studies of groundwater interpretation are used for developing a regional hydrogeologic model. The application of electromagnetic techniques for measuring soil resistivity or conductivity has been known for a long time. Conductivity is preferable in inductive techniques, as instrumentation readings are generally directly proportional to conductivity and inversely proportional to resistivity. The operating principle of this method is: a Tx coil transmitter, supplied with alternating current at an audio frequency, is placed on the ground. An Rx coil receiver is located at a short distance, s, away from the Tx coil. The magnetic field varies in time and the Tx coil induces very small currents in the ground. These currents generate a secondary magnetic field, Hs, which is sensed by the Rx receiver coil, together, with primary magnetic field Hp. The ratio of the secondary field, Hs, to the primary magnetic field, Hp, (Hs/Hp is directly proportional to terrain conductivity. Measuring this ratio, it is possible to construct a device which measures the terrain conductivity by contactless, direct-reading electromagnetic technique (linear meter. This technique for measuring conductivity by electromagnetic induction, using Very Low Frequency (VLF, is a non-intrusive, non-destructive sampling method. The measurements can be done quickly and are not expensive. The Electromagnetic induction technology was originally developed for the mining

  9. Symptomatic Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Testing among Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants: Indications and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Meyer, Sarah A; Permar, Sallie R; Puopolo, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the indications for postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) testing among very low-birth-weight (VLBW, birth weight [BW] < 1,500 g) infants, clinical characteristics of infected infants, and adverse outcomes associated with CMV infection. Study Design This is a single-center, retrospective study of 2,132 VLBW infants from 1999 to 2013. Results In this study, 145 (6.8%) infants out of 2,132 were evaluated for postnatal CMV infection and 27 (18.6%) infants out of 145 were infected. CMV-tested infants were of significantly lower gestational age and BW compared with untested VLBW infants (p < 0.001). Respiratory decompensation and thrombocytopenia were the findings most commonly associated with infection. CMV-infected infants had significantly more exposure to mechanical ventilation and longer duration of hospitalization. Adjusting for multiple predictors of respiratory morbidity, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was significantly elevated among infants diagnosed with postnatal CMV infection (odds ratio, 4.0 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-12.4); p, 0.02.) Conclusion Symptomatic postnatal CMV infection was diagnosed in 1.3% of VLBW infants, most commonly among infants with BW < 1,000 g with respiratory instability and thrombocytopenia. Similar to late-onset bacterial infection, symptomatic postnatal CMV infection may be an independent contributor to the development of BPD. This possibility should be addressed in a prospective study of extremely low BW infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. OLED-based physiologically-friendly very low-color temperature illumination for night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Shen, Shih-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Pin-Chu; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ching-Chun; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, Chin-Chiao; Chen, Chien-Tien

    2012-09-01

    Numerous medical research studies reveal intense white or blue light to drastically suppress at night the secretion of melatonin (MLT), a protective oncostatic hormone. Lighting devices with lower color-temperature (CT) possess lesser MLT suppression effect based on the same luminance, explaining why physicians have long been calling for the development of lighting sources with low CT or free from blue emission for use at night to safeguard human health. We will demonstrate in the presentation the fabrication of OLED devices with very-low CT, especially those with CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs (2500K) or even candles (2000K). Without any light extraction method, OLEDs with an around 1800K CT are easily obtainable with an efficacy of 30 lm/W at 1,000 nits. To also ensure high color-rendering to provide visual comfort, low CT OLEDs composing long wavelength dominant 5-spectrum emission have been fabricated. While keeping the color-rendering index as high as 85 and CT as low as 2100K, the resulting efficacy can also be much greater than that of incandescent bulbs (15 lm/W), proving these low CT OLED devices to be also capable of being energy-saving and high quality. The color-temperature can be further decreased to 1700K or lower upon removing the undesired short wavelength emission but on the cost of losing some color rendering index. It is hoped that the devised energy-saving, high quality low CT OLED could properly echo the call for a physiologically-friendly illumination for night, and more attention could be drawn to the development of MLT suppression-less non-white light.

  11. Inguinal Hernia Development in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sezin; Isik, Dilek Ulubas; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Arslan, Zehra; Demirel, Nihal

    2017-08-01

    Introduction The incidence and risk factors for inguinal hernia (IH) is not a thoroughly evaluated issue of preterms. Prematurity is the single most important risk factor. There exists no study in our country which reported the incidence of IH in preterms. The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence and time of diagnosis of IH in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Patients and Methods This retrospective case-control study was conducted in Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women's Health Training and Research Hospital and included discharged VLBW infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks. Control group included gender, birth weight, and gestational age matched VLBW infants without IH. Results The incidence of IH was 10.1% in VLBW infants (70/693) and 16.1% in extremely low-birth-weight infants (19/174). Male/female ratio was found as 3.4:1. Most IH appeared as bilateral (40.0%). Time of diagnosis was 39 (37-42) weeks of postmenstrual age while 68.6% of infants were diagnosed after discharge. IH development increased by 2.3-folds by having respiratory distress syndrome and by 4.5 folds by achieving full enteral feeds on or after the 10th day. Conclusion Preterms with respiratory distress syndrome and those reach full enteral feeding on or after the 10th day should be monitored carefully for IH development. Bearing in mind that a significant amount of IH cases exhibit symptoms after discharge, neonatologists should inform the parents of premature infants of the issue and close attention should be paid in postdischarge follow-up examinations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Controlling factors of tunneling reactions in solid hydrogen at very low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo E-mail: miyamiya@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kumagai, Jun; Kumada, Takayuki

    2001-07-01

    The recent studies on tunneling reactions of our group are auto-reviewed. The local structure around reactants, the new temperature effect, and the impurity effect are pointed out as important controlling factors of tunneling reactions in the solid phase. The distances between H(D) atoms and H{sub 2}(HD, D{sub 2}) molecules in solid hydrogen and solid argon were estimated by ESR, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), and electron spin echo (ESE). The new temperature effects on tunneling reaction were observed in a reaction D+HD{yields}D{sub 2}+H in solid HD. A mechanism of a vacancy-assisted tunneling reaction has been proposed to account for the temperature effect. The strange temperature dependence of a tunneling electron-transfer-reaction H{sub 2}{sup -}+H{sub 2}{yields}H{sub 2}+H{sub 2}{sup -} was explained in terms of the phonon-scattering effect and the impurity effect on the tunneling reaction. The rate constant for a tunneling reaction H+p-H{sub 2}{yields}p-H{sub 2}+H in solid para-H{sub 2} (p-H{sub 2}) decreases with the increase in the concentration of ortho-H{sub 2} (o-H{sub 2}). The results were explained by the model that the orientational defects by o-H{sub 2} molecules affect the tunneling reaction H+p-H{sub 2}. A tunneling reaction at very low temperature gives a surprising example in control of a reaction that a small amount of energy as such 2 cal mol{sup -1} can affect the rate of a reaction. The tunneling reaction in the solid phase, which can be considered as a multidimensional tunneling phenomenon, is affected significantly by the condition surrounding reactants. (author)

  13. Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition in Very Low Birthweight Neonates; A retrospective study from Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha R Aroor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical parameters, weight gain, osteopenia and phosphate supplementation in very low birth weight (VLBW neonates receiving early versus late parenteral nutrition (EPN versus LPN. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken in the level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman: from January 2007 to October 2008 (LPN group, n = 47 and from January 2009 to June 2010 (EPN group, n = 44. Demographic data, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were extracted from the electronic record system. Results: The mean age of PN initiation was LPN = 47.3 hours versus EPN = 14.3 hours. Biochemical parameters analysed during the first week of life revealed a reduction in hypernatraemia (12.7% versus 6.8% and non-oliguric hyperkalemia (12.7% versus 6.8% in EPN, with no significant differences in acidosis and urea levels between the two groups. Hyperglycemia >12 mmol/L in <1000g was higher in EPN. Nutritional parameters in 81 babies who survived/stayed in the unit up to a corrected gestational age (CGA of 34 weeks (40 in LPN and 41 in EPN, revealed a reduction in metabolic bone disease (osteopenia of prematurity [OOP], 17.5% versus 7.3% and the need for phosphate supplementation (22.5% versus 7.3% in the EPN group. There was no increase in acidosis or cholestasis. No difference was noted in albumin levels, time to full feeds, time to regain birthweight and mean weight gain per day till 34 weeks corrected CGA. Conclusion: EPN in VLBW newborns is well tolerated and reduces hypernatraemia, non-oliguric hyperkalemia, OOP and the need for phosphate supplementation.

  14. Apolipoprotein AII is a regulator of very low density lipoprotein metabolism and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Lawrence W; Nguyen, Cara N; Charugundla, Sarada; Weinstein, Michael M; Doan, Chau X; Blaner, William S; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn; Lusis, Aldons J

    2008-04-25

    Apolipoprotein AII (apoAII) transgenic (apoAIItg) mice exhibit several traits associated with the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, including IR, obesity, and a marked hypertriglyceridemia. Because treatment of the apoAIItg mice with rosiglitazone ameliorated the IR and hypertriglyceridemia, we hypothesized that the hypertriglyceridemia was due largely to overproduction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) by the liver, a normal response to chronically elevated insulin and glucose. We now report in vivo and in vitro studies that indicate that hepatic fatty acid oxidation was reduced and lipogenesis increased, resulting in a 25% increase in triglyceride secretion in the apoAIItg mice. In addition, we observed that hydrolysis of triglycerides from both chylomicrons and VLDL was significantly reduced in the apoAIItg mice, further contributing to the hypertriglyceridemia. This is a direct, acute effect, because when mouse apoAII was injected into mice, plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly increased within 4 h. VLDL from both control and apoAIItg mice contained significant amounts of apoAII, with approximately 4 times more apoAII on apoAIItg VLDL. ApoAII was shown to transfer spontaneously from high density lipoprotein (HDL) to VLDL in vitro, resulting in VLDL that was a poorer substrate for hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase. These results indicate that one function of apoAII is to regulate the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, with HDL serving as a plasma reservoir of apoAII that is transferred to the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in much the same way as VLDL and chylomicrons acquire most of their apoCs from HDL.

  15. Successful testing of an emergency diesel generator engine at very low load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killinger, A. [MPR Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (United States); Loeper, St. [Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Inc., Lusby, Maryland (United States)

    2001-07-01

    For more than 30 years, the nuclear power industry has been concerned about the ability of emergency diesel generator sets (EDGs) to operate for extended periods of time at low loads (typically less than 33% of design rating) and still be capable of meeting their design safety requirement. Most diesel engine manufacturers today still caution owners and operators to avoid running their diesel engines for extended periods of time at low loads. At one nuclear power plant, the emergency electrical bus arrangement only required approximately 25% of the EDG's design rating, which necessitated that the plant operators monitor EDG operating hours and periodically increase electrical load. In order to eliminate the plant operations burden of periodically loading the EDGs, the nuclear power plant decided to conduct a low-load test of a ''spare'' diesel engine. A SACM Model UD45V16S5D diesel engine was returned to the factory in Mulhouse, France where the week long testing at rated speed and 3% of design rating was completed. The test demonstrated that the engine was capable of operating for seven days (168 hours) at very low loads, with no loss of performance and no unusual internal wear or degradation. The planning and inspections associated with preparing the diesel engine for the test, the engine monitoring performed during the test, the final test results, and the results and material condition of the engine following the test are described. The successful diesel engine low-load test resulted in the elimination of unnecessary nuclear power plant operation restrictions that were based on old concerns about long-term, low-load operation of diesel engines. The paper describes the significance of this diesel engine test to the nuclear power plant and the entire nuclear power industry. (author)

  16. Identification and classification of very low frequency waves on a coral reef flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Matthijs; van Dongeran, Ap; van Rooijen, Arnold; Storlazzi, Curt; Cheriton, Olivia; Reniers, Ad

    2016-01-01

    Very low frequency (VLF, 0.001–0.005 Hz) waves are important drivers of flooding of low-lying coral reef-islands. In particular, VLF wave resonance is known to drive large wave runup and subsequent overwash. Using a 5 month data set of water levels and waves collected along a cross-reef transect on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the observed VLF motions were categorized into four different classes: (1) resonant, (2) (nonresonant) standing, (3) progressive-growing, and (4) progressive-dissipative waves. Each VLF class is set by the reef flat water depth and, in the case of resonance, the incident-band offshore wave period. Using an improved method to identify VLF wave resonance, we find that VLF wave resonance caused prolonged (∼0.5–6.0 h), large-amplitude water surface oscillations at the inner reef flat ranging in wave height from 0.14 to 0.83 m. It was induced by relatively long-period, grouped, incident-band waves, and occurred under both storm and nonstorm conditions. Moreover, observed resonant VLF waves had nonlinear, bore-like wave shapes, which likely have a larger impact on the shoreline than regular, sinusoidal waveforms. As an alternative technique to the commonly used Fast Fourier Transformation, we propose the Hilbert-Huang Transformation that is more computationally expensive but can capture the wave shape more accurately. This research demonstrates that understanding VLF waves on reef flats is important for evaluating coastal flooding hazards.

  17. Breast Milk-Acquired Cytomegalovirus Infection and Disease in Very Low Birth Weight and Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Josephson, Cassandra D.; Schmid, D. Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Very low birth weight (VLBW) and premature infants are at risk of developing postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, including CMV-related sepsis-like syndrome (CMV-SLS). Estimates of breast milk-acquired CMV infection and disease among these infants in the United States are lacking. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) of VLBW and premature infants born to CMV-seropositive women with breast milk-acquired CMV infection and CMV-SLS. We combined these proportions with population-based rates of CMV seropositivity, breast milk feeding, VLBW and prematurity to estimate annual rates of breast milk-acquired CMV infection and CMV-SLS in the United States. Results In our meta-analysis, among 299 infants fed untreated breast milk, we estimated 19% (11%–32%) acquired CMV infection and 4% (2%–7%) developed CMV-SLS. Assuming these proportions, we estimated a rate of breast milk-acquired CMV infection among VLBW and premature infants in the United States of 6.5% (3.7%–10.9%) and 1.4% (0.7%–2.4%) of CMV-SLS, corresponding to 600 infants with CMV-SLS in 2008. Among 212 infants fed frozen breast milk, our meta-analysis proportions were 13% (7%–24%) for infection and 5% (2%–12%) for CMV-SLS, yielding slightly lower rates of breast milk-acquired CMV infection (4.4%; 2.4%–6.8%) but similar rates of CMV-SLS (1.7%; 0.7%–4.1%). Conclusions Breast milk-acquired CMV infection presenting with CMV-SLS is relatively rare. Prospective studies to better define the burden of disease are needed to refine guidelines for feeding breast milk from CMV-seropositive mothers to VLBW and premature infants. PMID:23713111

  18. Neonatal Nutrition Predicts Energy Balance in Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Hovi, Petteri; Levälahti, Esko; Kaserva, Nina; Silveira, Patricia P; Hemiö, Katri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G; Andersson, Sture; Lindström, Jaana; Männisto, Satu; Kajantie, Eero

    2017-11-24

    Epidemiological studies and animal models suggest that early postnatal nutrition and growth can influence adult health. However, few human studies have objective recordings of early nutrient intake. We studied whether nutrient intake and growth during the first 9 weeks after preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity and food preferences in young adulthood. We collected daily nutritional intakes and weights during the initial hospital stay from hospital records for 127 unimpaired VLBW participants. At an average age 22.5 years, they completed a three-day food record and a physical activity questionnaire and underwent measurements of body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry; n = 115 with adequate data) and REE (n = 92 with adequate data). We used linear regression and path analysis to investigate associations between neonatal nutrient intake and adult outcomes. Higher energy, protein and fat intakes during the first three weeks of life predicted lower relative (=per unit lean body mass) energy intake and relative REE in adulthood, independent of other pre- and neonatal factors. In path analysis, total effects of early nutrition and growth on relative energy intake were mostly explained by direct effects of early life nutrition. A path mediated by early growth reached statistical significance only for protein intake. There were no associations of neonatal intakes with physical activity or food preferences in adulthood. As a conclusion, higher intake of energy and nutrients during first three weeks of life of VLBW infants predicts energy balance after 20 years. This association is partly mediated through postnatal growth.

  19. A review of the effects of very low nicotine content cigarettes on behavioral and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Diana R; Kurti, Allison N; Davis, Danielle R; Zvorsky, Ivori A; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-11-01

    The present systematic review examines whether very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes ameliorate withdrawal-induced impairments in behavioral/cognitive performance. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science were searched for performance effects of VLNC cigarettes. For inclusion, reports had to be in English, published in a peer-reviewed journal through June 2017, examine VLNC cigarettes (performance. 19 of 1243 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria. Poorer performance after smoking VLNC versus normal nicotine content (NNC) cigarettes was observed across 7 of 10 domains, including reaction time (8/11), short-term memory (3/10), sustained attention (4/6), inhibitory control (1/4), long-term memory (3/3 studies), and response variability (2/2). In two studies, combining VLNC smoking with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) resulted in performance that was comparable to performance after NNC smoking. VLNC versus NNC differences were not discerned in motor control/functioning (0/2), visuospatial processing (0/2), learning (0/1), or verbal fluency (0/1). Eleven of nineteen (58%) studies were rated of Good or Excellent quality. Overall, VLNC cigarettes may not fully ameliorate withdrawal-induced disruptions in performance, although this varies by domain, with the strongest evidence for reaction time. Importantly, combining VLNC cigarettes with NRT appears to ameliorate withdrawal that is not reduced by VLNC cigarettes alone. As only 19 studies were identified, many domains are under-investigated. A more thorough evaluation of the extent to which VLNC cigarettes affect withdrawal-impaired performance may be warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  1. Variability of the autoregulation index decreases after removing the effect of the very low frequency band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elting, J W; Maurits, N M; Aries, M J H

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) estimates show large between and within subject variability. Sources of variability include low coherence and influence of CO2 in the very low frequency (VLF) band, where dCA is active. This may lead to unreliable transfer function and autoregulation index (ARI) estimates. We tested whether variability of the ARI could be decreased by suppressing the effect of the VLF band through filtering. We also evaluated whether filtering had any effect on mean group differences between healthy subjects and acute stroke patients. Data from a recent mobilization stroke study were re-analyzed. Middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity (MCA-CBFV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and end tidal PCO2 (PetCO2) were obtained in 16 healthy subjects and 27 acute ischemic stroke patients in the supine position. The ARI index was calculated from the transfer function (TF) by using spontaneous BP fluctuations. Three different filtering strategies were compared; no filtering (NF), a high pass filter at 0.04 Hz (Time Domain Filtering: TDF) and a high pass Transfer Function Filter (TFF) at 0.04 Hz. In addition, a simulation study was done to obtain further insight into the effects of the applied filters. The variability of the ARI index decreased significantly only with TFF in healthy subjects (standard deviation (left vs. right) after NF 2.28 vs. 2.36, after TDF 2.13 vs. 2.31 after TFF 1.09 vs. 1.19, pproperties when using TFA for ARI calculation. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure and properties of barium tin boro-phosphate glass systems with very low photoelastic constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itadani, M.; Tricot, G.; Doumert, B.; Takebe, H.; Saitoh, A.

    2017-08-01

    Glasses in the BaO-SnO-P2O5-B2O3 system were prepared and evaluated in order to formulate preform glasses suitable for the fabrication of fiber cores with a very low photoelastic constant. A first glass system (I: xBaO-(60-x)SnO-40P2O5) was designed with a constant P2O5 content and various BaO contents (0-40 mol. %). Introduction of 3 mol. % of B2O3 to enhance the glass stability leads to the second glass system (II: x'BaO-(57-x')SnO-40P2O5-3B2O3) with 33-38 mol. % BaO. The structure of both systems was investigated by 1D/2D magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. 31P NMR showed the presence of Q2 and Q1 units in the first system and correlation 11B/31P NMR indicated that boron enters into the network as B(OP)4 structural units. The photoelastic constant was determined and the stability of the best formulations as well as their refractive index dispersion was established. The drawing temperature and isothermal heating time (without crystal precipitation) parameters were also accurately measured by using experimental time-temperature-transition. Considering that the refractive indices of the core and the cladding materials must match, detailed core and cladding compositions for a fiber enabling single-mode waveguide transmission were proposed.

  3. Respiratory severity score and extubation readiness in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhanna, Maroun J; Iyer, Narayan P; Piraino, Scott; Jain, Mohit

    2017-12-01

    The respiratory severity score (RSS) is a byproduct of mean airway pressure (MAP) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). We sought to determine whether RSS could be used as a screening tool to predict extubation readiness in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In a retrospective cohort study, medical records of all VLBW infants admitted to our unit (6/1/09-2/28/12) were reviewed for infants' demographics, prenatal characteristics, and medication use. Also, records were reviewed for unplanned vs. planned extubation, blood gas, ventilator parameters and signs of severe respiratory failure [RF, defined as partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) > 65, pH  50%, and MAP > 10 cm] on the day of extubation. During the study period 31% (45/147) failed extubation. Overall, infants who failed extubation had a lower birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA), and on the day of extubation had a higher RSS and percentage of having one or more signs of severe RF. In a logistic regression model, adjusting for BW, GA, RSS and RF, RSS remained the only risk factor associated with extubation failure [adjusted OR 1.63 (95% CI: 1.10-2.40); p = 0.01]. RSS had a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72-0.94) at a cutoff of 1.26 and a specificity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80-0.94) at a cutoff of 2.5. There was no difference in extubation failure between unplanned vs. planned extubation [41% (9/22) vs. 29% (36/125); p = 0.25]. An elevated RSS is associated with extubation failure. Successful unplanned extubation is common in VLBW infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  5. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of neonatal sepsis among very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Ho; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Chu, Shih-Ming; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Yang, Peng-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal sepsis contributes to great mortality and morbidity among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of sepsis in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) vary with time and geographic location. Such information serves as a guide for selection of empirical antibiotics coverage. This is a case series study performed by retrospective chart review of VLBW infants (birth body weight, BBW, <1500 g) in a medical center during a 5-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. Episodes of positive blood cultures, pathogen distribution and related clinical manifestations were described. A total of 158 episodes of sepsis were identified from 1042 VLBW infants. Sepsis rate was 152 per 1000 live births. The vast majority of infections (60.7%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms [G(+)], and overall Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (52.5%) were the most common pathogen identified. Prevalence for early-onset sepsis (EOS) was 1% and for late-onset sepsis (LOS) was 14.2%. Infants with EOS had a much higher case fatality rate than LOS (40% vs. 4.7%). Escherichia coli (40%) were the leading pathogen of EOS while CoNS (54.7%) was the leading pathogens of LOS. Overall, apnea and/or bradycardia and/or cyanosis (65.8%), poor activity (48.7%), and increased respiratory effort (43.0%) were the most common presenting features of sepsis. Unlike term infants, Gram-negative organism and E coli were the leading pathogen of EOS among VLBW infants. Judicious and timely use of antibiotic therapy is crucial in the care of VLBW infants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Timing and outcome of stoma closure in very low birth weight infants with surgical intestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kyoko; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Urushihara, Naoto; Miyake, Hiromu; Yokoi, Akiko; Shiraishi, Jun; Fujinaga, Hideshi; Ohashi, Kensuke; Esumi, Genshiro; Ohfuji, Satoko; Amae, Shintaro; Yanai, Toshihiro; Furukawa, Taizo; Tazuke, Yuko; Minagawa, Kyoko; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2017-08-01

    Very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) are at risk of surgical intestinal disorders including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), focal intestinal perforation (FIP), and meconium-related ileus (MRI). We conducted this study to verify whether the timing of stoma closure and that of enteral nutrition establishment after stoma closure in VLBWIs differ among the most common disorders. A retrospective multicenter study was conducted at 11 institutes. We reviewed the timing of stoma closure and enteral nutrition establishment in VLBWIs who underwent stoma creation for intestinal disorders. We reviewed the medical records of 73 infants: 21 with NEC, 24 with FIP, and 25 with MRI. The postnatal age at stoma closure was 107 (28-359) days for NEC, 97 (25-302) days for FIP, and 101 (15-264) days for MRI (p = 0.793), and the postnatal age at establishment of enteral nutrition was 129 (42-381) days for NEC, 117 (41-325) days for FIP, and 128 (25-308) days for MRI (p = 0.855). The body weights at stoma closure were 1768 (620-3869) g for NEC, 1669 (1100-3040) g for FIP, and 1632 (940-3776) g (p = 0.614) for MRI. There were no significant differences among the three groups. The present study revealed that the time and body weights at stoma closure and the postoperative restoration of bowel function in VLBWIs did not differ among the three diseases.

  7. Benchmarking care for very low birthweight infants in Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, B P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Benchmarking is that process through which best practice is identified and continuous quality improvement pursued through comparison and sharing. The Vermont Oxford Neonatal Network (VON) is the largest international external reference centre for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. This report from 2004-7 compares survival and morbidity throughout Ireland and benchmarks these results against VON. METHODS: A standardised VON database for VLBW infants was created in 14 participating centres across Ireland and Northern Ireland. RESULTS: Data on 716 babies were submitted in 2004, increasing to 796 babies in 2007, with centres caring for from 10 to 120 VLBW infants per year. In 2007, mortality rates in VLBW infants varied from 4% to 19%. Standardised mortality ratios indicate that the number of deaths observed was not significantly different from the number expected, based on the characteristics of infants treated. There was no difference in the incidence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage between all-Ireland and VON groups (5% vs 6%, respectively). All-Ireland rates for chronic lung disease (CLD; 15-21%) remained lower than rates seen in the VON group (24-28%). The rates of late onset nosocomial infection in the all-Ireland group (25-26%) remained double those in the VON group (12-13%). DISCUSSION: This is the first all-Ireland international benchmarking report in any medical specialty. Survival, severe intraventricular haemorrhage and CLD compare favourably with international standards, but rates of nosocomial infection in neonatal units are concerning. Benchmarking clinical outcomes is critical for quality improvement and informing decisions concerning neonatal intensive care service provision.

  8. Hints for Small Disks around Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Nathanial P.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Greenwood, Aaron; Kamp, Inga; Henning, Thomas; Ménard, François; Dent, William R. F.; Evans, Neal J., II

    2017-06-01

    The properties of disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (hereafter VLMOs) provide important boundary conditions on the process of planet formation and inform us about the numbers and masses of planets than can form in this regime. We use the Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectrometer to measure the continuum and [O I] 63 μm line emission toward 11 VLMOs with known disks in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions. We fit radiative transfer models to the spectral energy distributions of these sources. Additionally, we carry out a grid of radiative transfer models run in a regime that connects the luminosity of our sources with brighter T Tauri stars. We find that VLMO disks with sizes 1.3-78 au, smaller than typical T Tauri disks, fit well the spectral energy distributions assuming that disk geometry and dust properties are stellar mass independent. Reducing the disk size increases the disk temperature, and we show that VLMOs do not follow previously derived disk temperature-stellar luminosity relationships if the disk outer radius scales with stellar mass. Only 2 out of 11 sources are detected in [O I] despite a better sensitivity than was achieved for T Tauri stars, suggesting that VLMO disks are underluminous. Using thermochemical models, we show that smaller disks can lead to the unexpected [O I] 63 μm nondetections in our sample. The disk outer radius is an important factor in determining the gas and dust observables. Hence, spatially resolved observations with ALMA—to establish if and how disk radii scale with stellar mass—should be pursued further. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (Play is an important developmental outcome to the extent that child’s play and social communication are related to later development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association

  10. Influence of a combination of probiotics on bacterial infections in very low birthweight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanic, Zlatka; Micetic Turk, Dusanka; Burja, Silva; Kanic, Vojko; Dinevski, Dejan

    2015-12-01

    Late-onset infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. The purpose of our prospective randomised study was to establish whether a combination of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium infantum) affects the incidence of late-onset sepsis and other infections in very low birthweight infants (birthweight under 1500 g, gestational age under 33 weeks). From 80 included infants, one half received probiotics (L. acidophilus, E. faecium and B. infantum) in the ratio 1.5:1:1.5, at a dose of 0.6 × 107 colony-forming units twice daily, given with the first portions of milk until discharge, whereas the other half did not. In the group receiving probiotics, 16 children had late-onset sepsis compared with 29 in the group without probiotics; p = 0.006. The number of late-onset septic events was lower (30) in the group receiving probiotics than in the group that did not receive probiotics (69); p = 0.003. Furthermore, fewer children had at least one late-onset infection (20 infants in the group receiving probiotics compared with 32 in the group without them; p = 0.009). There were less episodes of late-onset infections in the group receiving probiotics (35) than in the group without probiotics (79); p = 0.002. A combination of probiotics at a low dose (1.2 × 107 colony-forming units) decreased the frequency of late-onset sepsis and other infections, as described in previous studies. In addition, children were discharged at a lower postmenstrual age. There were no side effects of probiotics reported.

  11. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  12. Risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Horg-Chin; Su, Bai-Horng

    2003-11-01

    To calculate incidence and evaluate the risk factors of the threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very low birth-weight (VLBW, birth weight less than 1,251 gram) infants. We also compared the incidence of threshold ROP in Taiwan with those of Caucasians and Negros. Additionally, the post-conception age when threshold ROP happened was considered. From February 1995 to February 2000, we enrolled 458 VLBW infants at the China Medical College Hospital. Patients with congenital anomalies and those who survived less than 6 months were excluded. The perinatal and neonatal data of enrolled infants were reviewed. Student's t test and chi-square test were used to evaluate the statistical significance of risk factors. We also used logistic regression test and correct classification rate to evaluate different risk factors. The incidence of threshold ROP in our study was 6.8%. The gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), number of days in using ventilator, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and oxygen supplements, the occurrence of broncopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and the length of hospitalization were statistically different between patients groups with and without threshold ROP (p 0.05). Threshold ROP was noted at an average post-conception age of 34.25 weeks. The incidence of threshold ROP (6.8%) in VLBW Taiwan babies is comparable with the incidence of Caucasian patients in Western countries. Risk factors including PVL, NEC, BPD and RDS should be avoided to prevent the occurrence of threshold ROP. Threshold ROP occurred at an average of 34.3 weeks of post-conception age; the premature baby around this age must be checked carefully.

  13. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  14. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-induced signals mediating aldosterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ying-Ying; Rainey, William E; Bollag, Wendy B

    2017-02-01

    Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retention, thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Excessive production of aldosterone results in high blood pressure and contributes to cardiovascular and renal disease, stroke and visual loss. Hypertension is also associated with obesity, which is correlated with other serious health risks as well. Although weight gain is associated with increased blood pressure, the mechanism by which excess fat deposits increase blood pressure remains unclear. Several studies have suggested that aldosterone levels are elevated with obesity and may represent a link between obesity and hypertension. In addition to hypertension, obese patients typically have dyslipidemia, including elevated serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). VLDL, which functions to transport triglycerides from the liver to peripheral tissues, has been demonstrated to stimulate aldosterone production. Recent studies suggest that the signaling pathways activated by VLDL are similar to those utilized by AngII. Thus, VLDL increases cytosolic calcium levels and stimulates phospholipase D (PLD) activity to result in the induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression. These effects seem to be mediated by the ability of VLDL to increase the phosphorylation (activation) of their regulatory transcription factors, such as the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. Thus, research into the pathways by which VLDL stimulates aldosterone production may identify novel targets for the development of therapies for the treatment of hypertension, particularly those associated with obesity, and other aldosterone-modulated pathologies. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Early Caffeine Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants and Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-01-01

    The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (?3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and Kore...

  16. Calorie Changes in Large Chain Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Jarlenski, Marian P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Large chain restaurants reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items in 2013 by about 60 calories (or 12%) relative to 2012. This paper describes trends in calories available in large U.S. chain restaurants to understand whether previously documented patterns persist. Methods Data (a census of items for included restaurants) were obtained from the MenuStat project. This analysis included 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurants that are available in all three 3 of the data (2012–2014; N=23,066 items). Generalized linear models were used to examine: (1) per-item calorie changes from 2012 to 2014 among items on the menu in all years; and (2) mean calories in new items in 2013 and 2014 compared with items on the menu in 2012 only. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results Overall, calories in newly introduced menu items declined by 71 (or 15%) from 2012 to 2013 (p=0.001) and by 69 (or 14%) from 2012 to 2014 (p=0.03). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (85 fewer calories in 2013 and 55 fewer calories in 2014; p=0.01). Although average calories in newly introduced menu items are declining, they are higher than items common to the menu in all 3 years. No differences in mean calories among items on menus in 2012, 2013, or 2014 were found. Conclusions The previously observed declines in newly introduced menu items among large restaurant chains have been maintained, which suggests the beginning of a trend toward reducing calories. PMID:26163168

  17. Very low sister-chromatid exchange rate in Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, H C; Iversen, A S; Husum, B; Niebuhr, E

    1986-08-01

    42 Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) and 42 controls matched for sex, age and occupation had their sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This was done to examine if the SCE frequency was lower in this group of people, who are known to have a decreased cancer risk compared to the general population. The average SCE/cell in 30 cells from each person was 5.54 +/- 0.07 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) for the SDAs and 8.00 +/- 0.15 for the controls, the difference being statistically significant (p less than 0.00001). No difference in SCE frequency was found between SDAs eating only an ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet and those eating some fish or meat. The mitotic index (MI) was significantly higher and the replication index (RI) was significantly lower in SDAs than in controls. No correlation was found between gamma (a statistical transformation of SCEs/cell) and MI or RI within the groups of SDAs or controls. In the pooled data there was a negative correlation of gamma and MI and a positive correlation of gamma and RI. Of the interpersonal variation in gamma 8% and 14% could be explained by MI and RI. The finding of a lower SCE frequency in a group of SDAs who have a low risk of cancer might indirectly indicate a relation between SCE and cancer and encourages further studies of SCE and diet.

  18. Very low temperature OSL-thermochronometry applied to the Siwalik deposits in Nepal and Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G. E.; Grujic, D.; Coutand, I.; Herman, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt is made of Neogene synorogenic sediments of the Siwalik Group and accommodates a large fraction of the India-Eurasia convergence. This region receives high precipitation and experiences seismic events of M8 and larger. Along the strike of the 2500-km-long orogenic arc, the eastward narrowing of the fold-and-thrust belt has been attributed to increasing annual rainfall and specific stream power, rather than to lateral changes in shortening rates. However, exhumation/erosion rates of this unit remain unknown. Precisely constraining the erosion rates of this unit at the scale of the orogen would allow an estimate of the relative contributions of tectonic and climatic processes to the erosion of the youngest and frontal part of the Himalayan orogen. Thermochronometry enables the cooling, and therefore exhumation/erosion histories of rocks to be determined. However the exhumation histories of the Siwalik Group, which have experienced limited burial heating not exceeding 100-50 °C remain very difficult to constrain using traditional thermochronometers. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)-thermochronometry is a recently developed very low temperature thermochronometer sensitive to temperatures of 30-90 °C. Consequently, its application to the Siwalik deposits may provide insights into their cooling and exhumation histories. K-feldspar extracts from 18 sandstones samples of the Siwalik Group were investigated using a multi-OSL-thermochronometry approach, whereby four different signals, with different thermal stabilities were measured for each sample. The sandstone samples were collected along two traverses across the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt in western Nepal, and eastern Bhutan. Using signals with different thermal sensitivities enables high precision Quaternary cooling histories to be derived. These data were inverted using a Bayesian approach resulting in preliminary cooling rates of 100 °C/Myr during the last 0

  19. Selenium Supplementation for Prevention of Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rahul; Gathwala, Geeta; Yadav, Sudesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-06-01

    Neonatal mortality continues to be a significant problem in the Indian setting, especially in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Selenium (Se) has been shown to possess antioxidant properties, and some recent studies have shown a reduction in the sepsis-attributable neonatal mortality with its use. India is a Se-deficient country. Blood Se concentrations in newborns are lower than those of their mothers and lower still in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy of Se in preventing the first episode of late-onset sepsis in VLBW preterm neonates. Ninety neonates weighing birth and admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) in the first 12 h of birth with no maternal risk factors for sepsis were analyzed in the study. Se or placebo was supplemented orally once daily from 1st to 28th day of life to the test (n = 45) or control (n = 45) groups, respectively, followed by daily clinical assessment for signs or symptoms of sepsis in the hospital and weekly after discharge. Preterm VLBW neonates (mean birth weight 1464.22 ± 50.14 g and mean gestational age 221.75 ± 4 days) are Se deficient at birth, with mean (SD) Se levels 31.1 ± 14.8 µg/l. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day increased serum Se levels significantly (63.9 ± 13.9 µg/l on Day 28 in Se vs. 40.9 ± 17.3 on Day 28 in placebo; p supplementation. [7/45 (15.55%) in Se vs. 22/45 (48.88%) in placebo; p = 0.001]. Preterm VLBW neonates are Se deficient at birth. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day resulted in getting the Se levels into the acceptable normal level and reduced the incidence of the first episode of late-onset sepsis in these neonates. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Perinatal regionalization for very low-birth-weight and very preterm infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Sarah Marie; Barfield, Wanda Denise; Rochat, Roger William; Blackmon, Lillian

    2010-09-01

    For more than 30 years, guidelines for perinatal regionalization have recommended that very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants be born at highly specialized hospitals, most commonly designated as level III hospitals. Despite these recommendations, some regions continue to have large percentages of VLBW infants born in lower-level hospitals. To evaluate published data on associations between hospital level at birth and neonatal or predischarge mortality for VLBW and very preterm (VPT) infants. Systematic search of published literature (1976-May 2010) in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed databases and manual searches of reference lists. Forty-one publications met a priori inclusion criteria (randomized controlled trial, cohort, and case-control studies measuring neonatal or predischarge mortality among live-born infants < or = 1500 g or < or = 32 weeks' gestation delivered at a level III vs lower-level facility). Paired reviewers independently assessed publications for inclusion and extracted data using standardized forms. Discrepancies were decided by a third reviewer. Publications were reviewed for quality by 3 authors based on 2 content areas: adjustment for confounding and description of hospital levels. We calculated weighted, combined odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model and comparative unadjusted pooled mortality rates. We observed increased odds of death for VLBW infants (38% vs 23%; adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-1.83) and VPT infants (15% vs 17%; adjusted OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.21-1.98) born outside of level III hospitals. Consistent results were obtained when restricted to higher-quality evidence (mortality in VLBW infants, 36% vs 21%; adjusted OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.33-1.92 and in VPT infants, 7% vs 12%; adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.06-1.88) and infants weighing less than 1000 g (59% vs 32%; adjusted OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.31-2.46). No significant differences were found through subgroup analysis of study characteristics. Meta

  1. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova,1 Martina Kasparova,2 Daniela Markova,3 Jana Zemankova,4 Stepanka Beranova,1 Tomas Urbanek,5 Michal Hrdlicka1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Charles University First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 5Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Studies of children with very low birth weight (VLBW, 1,000–1,500 g and extremely low birth weight (ELBW, less than 1,000 g indicate that this population seems to be at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Methods: Parents of 101 VLBW and ELBW children (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity agreed to participate in the study and signed informed consents; however, parents of only 75 children (44 boys, 31 girls completed the screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT, Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC, and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP. Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently invited for a detailed assessment. Results: Thirty-two children (42.7% screened positive on at least one of the screening questionnaires. The screening tool with the most positive results was the CSBS-DP-ITC (26 positive screens, followed by the M-CHAT (19 positive screens and the ITSP (11 positive screens. Of the 32 children who tested positive, 19 participated in the detailed follow-up assessment. A

  2. Quantization of Gaussian samples at very low SNR regime in continuous variable QKD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshgaran, Fred; Mondin, Marina

    2016-09-01

    The main problem for information reconciliation in continuous variable Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) at low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is quantization and assignment of labels to the samples of the Gaussian Random Variables (RVs) observed at Alice and Bob. Trouble is that most of the samples, assuming that the Gaussian variable is zero mean which is de-facto the case, tend to have small magnitudes and are easily disturbed by noise. Transmission over longer and longer distances increases the losses corresponding to a lower effective SNR exasperating the problem. This paper looks at the quantization problem of the Gaussian samples at very low SNR regime from an information theoretic point of view. We look at the problem of two bit per sample quantization of the Gaussian RVs at Alice and Bob and derive expressions for the mutual information between the bit strings as a result of this quantization. The quantization threshold for the Most Significant Bit (MSB) should be chosen based on the maximization of the mutual information between the quantized bit strings. Furthermore, while the LSB string at Alice and Bob are balanced in a sense that their entropy is close to maximum, this is not the case for the second most significant bit even under optimal threshold. We show that with two bit quantization at SNR of -3 dB we achieve 75.8% of maximal achievable mutual information between Alice and Bob, hence, as the number of quantization bits increases beyond 2-bits, the number of additional useful bits that can be extracted for secret key generation decreases rapidly. Furthermore, the error rates between the bit strings at Alice and Bob at the same significant bit level are rather high demanding very powerful error correcting codes. While our calculations and simulation shows that the mutual information between the LSB at Alice and Bob is 0.1044 bits, that at the MSB level is only 0.035 bits. Hence, it is only by looking at the bits jointly that we are able to achieve a

  3. Neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcome of very low birth weight babies at corrected age of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Mahajan, Rama; Narang, Anil

    2010-09-01

    Neurodevelopmental and behavioral assessment of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) at corrected age (CA) of 2 years. 127, 110, 99 and 101 babies ≤34 weeks and ≤1500 g were followed at CA of 3, 6, 9, 12 months respectively for developmental and neurological assessment. DASII (Developmental assessment scale for Indian infants) was used at CA of 18 months and preschool behavioural checklist (PBCL) at CA 2 years. Of 101 VLBW babies available for follow up at CA 1 year, 3 (3%) babies had Cerebral Palsy (CP) and 3% (n = 3) had suspect abnormality (mild hypotonia), 11% (n = 11) had gross motor and 8% (n = 8) had language abnormality. Their mean mental (MeDQ) and motor (MoDQ) quotients were 80.4 ± 10.7 and 77.2 ± 13.3 and a score of < 70 was found in 17% (MeDQ) and 25.7% (MoDQ) VLBW babies. High PBCL score (mean 16.8 ± 5.4) was seen in 84%VLBW babies. On subgroup analysis, 2 babies (5%) in subgroup1 ( n = 54, ≤1200 g,) and 1 (1.6%) in subgroup 2 (n = 78, 1201-1500 g) had CP. Twelve (29%) in subgroup 1 had significant language delay (p = 0.004) as compared to 4 (15%) in subgroup 2 at 1 year. BSID and PBCL scores were comparable. Amongst ELBW babies (<1000 g), 6.6% (n = 1) had CP, 25% (n = 3) and 42% (n = 5) had low MeDQ and MoDQ respectively and all of them had high PBCL score. AGA and SGA had similar outcome. VLBW babies need close and longer follow up due to high risk of neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormality.

  4. Glycerin laxatives for prevention or treatment of feeding intolerance in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabrees, Jasim; Shah, Vibhuti S; AlOsaimi, Ahlam; AlFaleh, Khalid

    2015-09-30

    Feeding intolerance is a common clinical problem among preterm infants. It may be an early sign of necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis or other serious gastrointestinal conditions, or it may result from gut immaturity with delayed passage of meconium. Glycerin laxatives stimulate passage of meconium by acting as an osmotic dehydrating agent and increasing osmotic pressure in the gut; they stimulate rectal contraction, potentially reducing the incidence of feeding intolerance. To assess the effectiveness and safety of glycerin laxatives (enemas/suppositories) for prevention or treatment of feeding intolerance in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). We restricted our search to all randomised controlled trials and applied no language restrictions. We searched the references of identified studies and reviews on this topic and handsearched for additional articles. We searched the database maintained by the US National Institutes of Health (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and European trial registries to identify ongoing trials. We considered only randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that enrolled preterm infants glycerin laxatives and measured at least one prespecified clinical outcome. We used standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Group to assess methodological quality of trials, to collect data and to perform analyses. We identified three trials that evaluated use of prophylactic glycerin laxatives in preterm infants. We identified no trials that evaluated therapeutic use of glycerin laxatives for feeding intolerance. Our review showed that prophylactic administration of glycerin laxatives did not reduce the time required to achieve full enteral feeds and did not influence secondary outcomes, including duration of hospital stay, mortality and weight at discharge

  5. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B

  6. A very low power MAC (VLPM) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient's movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient's status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node's ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms

  7. Sulfide-inhibition of mitochondrial respiration at very low oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matallo, J; Vogt, J; McCook, O; Wachter, U; Tillmans, F; Groeger, M; Szabo, C; Georgieff, M; Radermacher, P; Calzia, E

    2014-09-15

    Our aim was to study the ability of an immortalized cell line (AMJ2-C11) to sustain aerobic cell respiration at decreasing oxygen concentrations under continuous sulfide exposure. We assumed that the rate of elimination of sulfide through the pathway linked to the mitochondrial respiratory chain and therefore operating under aerobic conditions, should decrease with limiting oxygen concentrations. Thus, sulfide's inhibition of cellular respiration would occur faster under continuous sulfide exposure when the oxygen concentration is in the very low range. The experiments were performed with an O2K-oxygraph (Oroboros Instruments) by suspending 0.5-1×10(6) cells in 2 ml of continuously stirred respiration medium at 37 °C and calculating the oxygen flux (JO2) as the negative derivative of the oxygen concentration in the medium. The cells were studied in two different metabolic states, namely under normal physiologic respiration (1) and after uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration (2). Oxygen concentration was controlled by means of a titration-injection pump, resulting in average concentration values of 0.73±0.05 μM, 3.1±0.2 μM, and 6.2±0.2 μM. Simultaneously we injected a 2 mM Na2S solution at a continuous rate of 10 μl/s in order to quantify the titration-time required to reduce the JO2 to 50% of the initial respiratory activity. Under the lowest oxygen concentration this effect was achieved after 3.5 [0.3;3.5] and 11.7 [6.2;21.2]min in the uncoupled and coupled state, respectively. This time was statistically significantly shorter when compared to the intermediate and the highest O2 concentrations tested, which yielded values of 24.6 [15.5;28.1]min (coupled) and 35.9 [27.4;59.2]min (uncoupled), as well as 42.4 [27.5;42.4]min (coupled) and 51.5 [46.4;51.7]min (uncoupled). All data are medians [25%, and 75% percentiles]. Our results confirm that the onset of inhibition of cell respiration by sulfide occurs earlier under a continuous exposure when approaching

  8. Dehydration Behavior of Metapelites and Metabasites at Very low to low Grade Metamorphic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonne, H.; Willner, A. P.

    2007-12-01

    Thermodynamic calculations have been undertaken in the system Na-Ca-K-Fe-Mg-Al-Si-Ti-H-O with the PERPLE_X software package (Connolly, 1990 and updates) for a better understanding of the dehydration behavior of metapelites and metabasites during prograde metamorphism. To obtain reasonable results for the temperature range 150-450° C at pressures up to 25 kbar, the subsequent solid solution models were introduced being compatible with the applied thermodynamic data set of Holland & Powell (1998 and updates): a three component model for Mg-Fe2+-Fe3+-pumpellyite, a two component model for Fe2+-Mg- stilpnomelane, a four component amphibole model (tremolite - Fe2+-tremolite - glaucophane - Mg- riebeckite), and a four component Na-pyroxene model (acmite - jadeite - diopside - hedenbergite). The water contents released by prograde metamorphism up to 450° C from MORB and psammopelitic compositions on top of oceanic crust, were obtained by calculating P-T pseudosections. Metabasite contains 6-7 wt% H2O bound to minerals at 150° C depending on the oxidation state. Along geotherms lower than 7° C/km typical for young subduction zones, no water is released up to 400° C. However, reduction of the rock causes release of small amounts of water. Metapsammopelitic rocks also store about 6 wt% H2O in minerals at 150° C. Considerable amounts of water are liberated by mineral reactions already in the temperature range 150-250° C also at the above mentioned low geotherms. This behavior determines the rheological characteristics of the upper oceanic crust during early subduction. If water is exclusively released in the sedimentary portion of the downgoing crust only this material gets weakened to be scraped off to form accretionary wedges. At geotherms of 15-20° C/km both lithologies show significant dehydration at very low metamorphic grade. For instance, in cold frontal paleoaccretionary prisms of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera metapelites by far dominate whereas in hotter

  9. Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gregory J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in patients with lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with high risk of maternal pancreatitis and fetal death. A very low fat diet ( Case presentation A 23 year-old gravida 1 woman with primary lipoprotein lipase deficiency was seen at 7 weeks of gestation in the Lipid Clinic for management of severe hypertriglyceridemia that had worsened with pregnancy. While on her habitual fat intake of 10% of total calories, her pregnancy resulted in an exacerbation of the hypertriglyceridemia, which prompted further restriction of fat intake to Conclusions An extremely low fat diet in combination with topical sunflower oil and gemfibrozil administration was safely implemented in pregnancy associated with the severe hypertriglyceridemia of lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

  10. Growth of very low birth weight infants fed with milk from a human milk bank selected according to the caloric and protein value

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    Marisa Matta Aprile

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe growth and clinical evolution of very low birth weight infants fed during hospital stay with milk from a human milk bank according to the caloric-protein value. METHOD: Forty very low birth weight infants were included: 10 were fed milk from their own mothers (GI, and 30 were fed human milk bank > 700 cal/L and 2 g/dL of protein. Growth curves were adjusted using nonlinear regression to the measured growth parameters. RESULTS: full enteral diet was reached in 6.3 days by GI and in 10.8 by GII; a weight of 2 kg was reached in 7.3 weeks for GI and in 7.8 for GII. In GI, 3/10 (33.3% and in GII, 7/30 (23.3% developed sepsis. Necrotizing enterocolitis did not occur in GI, but in 3/30 (10.0% in GII. GI presented with urinary calcium > 4 mg/L in 1/10 (10.0%, urinary phosphorus (Pu 0.6 ratio in 1/10 (10.0% of the cases; in GII, no children presented alterations of the urinary calcium or the Ca and Cr ratio, and Pu was <1 mg/L in 19/30 (63.3%. In terms of growth the 50th percentile for GI was a weight gain of 12.1 g/day (GI vs. 15.8 g/day (GII, a length gain of 0.75 cm/week (GI vs. 1.02 cm/week (GII, and a head circumference gain of 0.74 cm/week (GI vs. 0.76 cm/week (GII. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk bank allowed a satisfactory growth and good clinical evolution for very low birth weight infants.

  11. The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: Impact on weight management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 years. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary p...

  12. Choice of lard, but not total lard calories, damps adrenocorticotropin responses to restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Fleur, Susanne E.; Houshyar, Hani; Roy, Monica; Dallman, Mary F.

    2005-01-01

    Although rats given the choice of eating high-density calories as concentrated sucrose solutions or lard exhibit reduced responsivity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, rats fed high-fat diets have normal or augmented responses to stressors. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we compared

  13. The Effect of Sex Peptide and Calorie Intake on Fecundity in Female Drosophila melanogaster

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    Blanka Rogina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accessory gland proteins (Acps of the male Drosophila cause changes in the behavior and physiology of female flies. Sex peptide (SP is one of the Acps that initiates many changes, including an increase in egg production. The data presented here show that SP overexpression in transgenic (G-10 female flies increases egg production when females are kept on a standard and high-calorie diet, relative to controls that do not express SP. Particularly, a high increase in egg production observed in G-10 females on a high-calorie diet suggests that SP overexpression magnifies the female response to caloric uptake. However, on a calorie-restricted diet, the fecundity of G-10 females overexpressing SP is lower than control females. On a high-calorie diet, mating increases early egg production in G-10 and control females, but lifelong total egg production is only increased in control females, most likely due to the physiological changes set off by substantial initial egg production in G-10 females.

  14. Desenvolvimento e aceitabilidade de geléia dietética de cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal Development and acceptability of a low calorie cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal jam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki Yuyama

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando o aproveitamento de frutos amazônicos e atender à demanda crescente por novos produtos no mercado, foi formulada e avaliada a aceitabilidade e vida-de-prateleira da geléia de cubiu contendo xilitol em substituição à sacarose. Os frutos procedentes da Estação Experimental do Ariaú do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia foram branqueados, despolpados, triturados, peneirados e acondicionados em embalagens plásticas à temperatura de -20 ± 1 °C até o momento da utilização. Concomitantemente, uma alíquota da polpa foi analisada quanto à umidade, proteínas, lipídios, fibras solúveis e insolúveis, cinza, pH, acidez total, açúcares totais e redutores, e compostos fenólicos. Para a formulação da geléia com uso de xilitol e convencional foi utilizada a proporção de 1:1 (polpa:xilitol e polpa:sacarose, respectivamente. A mistura foi concentrada até a obtenção de 65 °Brix , com ajuste de pH e adição de pectina. As geléias foram avaliadas quanto aos teores de proteínas, lipídios, cinza, pH, acidez, açúcares e compostos fenólicos e a vida-de-prateleira por meio de análises físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial, mensalmente, por um período de 180 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve diferença estatística entre a aceitabilidade das geléias à base de xilitol e convencional, e que ambas apresentaram estabilidade físico-química e microbiológica durante o seu armazenamento. O xilitol pode ser uma alternativa viável em substituição à sacarose para o preparo de geléia de cubiu.With the aim of improving utilization of Amazonian fruits and satisfying the growing demand for new products in the market, we formulated a low calorie cubiu jam with xylitol as a sucrose substitute, and evaluated its shelf life and acceptability. The cubiu fruits from the Experimental Station of the National Research Institute of Amazonia (INPA were harvested, bleached, pealed, ground, sieved, and stored

  15. Very low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in Austrian vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornsteiner, Margit; Singer, Ingrid; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to collect data on dietary fat intake of omnivores, vegetarians, vegans and semi-omnivores as well as its impact on n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in long-term markers such as sphingolipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as well as the calculated sphingo- and phospholipids (SPL) of erythrocytes. The present observational study included 98 Austrian adult volunteers of both genders, of which 23 were omnivores, 25 vegetarians, 37 vegans, and 13 semi-omnivores. Information on anthropometry using measured body weight and height was obtained. The amount and composition of ingested fat were calculated from 24-hour recalls and the fatty acid pattern in the phospholipids was assessed using gas chromatography. The unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratio and the limited dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in vegans and vegetarians led to reductions in C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, C22:6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids in SPL, PC, PS a