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Sample records for verticillata hydrilla ludwigia

  1. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/02/0156-0162. Keywords. Hydrilla verticillata; keystone species; invasive weeds; carbon sequestration; bioremediation; AVM disease. Author Affiliations. Stephen Sumithran1 P J Sanjeeva Raj. Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, KY. 40475 ...

  2. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    His doctoral research was on the Nilgiri Tahr in the. Nilgiris and he has since continued his research into several endangered species both in India and globally. His research interests .... Epizoic Forms: An incredible 2000–3000 species of free- living microbes, like bacteria and diatoms are known to adhere to Hydrilla.

  3. Genetic Relationships among Invasive Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) Biotypes in the US and Their Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    genetic clusters . ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-32 February 2014 3 Benoit (2011) built upon these early studies and conducted a formal cladistic analysis of...Schnell. 1997. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of the phonetic relationships among world-wide accessions of Hydrilla verticillata. Aquatic

  4. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...

  5. Exploration for Natural Enemies of Hydrilla verticillata in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    were for morphological evidence of herbivority ( teeth type, peritoneum color, intestine length) and for actual evidence of hydrilla feeding (stomach...brought to shore for examination for natural enemies and damage. The plants to be examined were normally floated in water-filled white enamel pans. The...sected for evidence of hydrilla feeding and herbivority. All four species were carnivorous. They had silver peritoneums, holding teeth , and short

  6. Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 Progress Report on Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol ...AND SUBTITLE Progress Report on Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...1 Invasion Biology and Biocontrol Lab, Wuhan Botanical Institute, CAS ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 3 named previously as Bagous sp. 3 and

  7. Responses of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to glyphosate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guidi; Wu, Zhonghua; Yin, Jun; Chai, Lulu

    2018-02-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is frequently detected in water bodies and is harmful to aquatic systems. We conducted an experiment to explore the ecological sensitivity of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to glyphosate. Our research focused on the physiological responses of H. verticillata and V. natans after exposure to various concentrations of glyphosate (0, 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 80 mg/L) in hydroponic culture after one day (1D) and seven days (7D). The results show that after 1D, the soluble protein content of H. verticillata was significantly stimulated under low herbicide concentrations. Other indices for H. verticillata and V. natans had no remarkable changes at 1D. After 7D of treatment, the soluble protein content of H. verticillata showed no significant differences, while the malondialdehyde (MDA), pigment contents and catalase (CAT) activity significantly increased at low glyphosate concentrations. Guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity in H. verticillata significantly increased with increasing herbicide concentrations. The chlorophyll a/b ratio of H. verticillata sharply decreased above 10 mg/L. For V. natans, soluble protein, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid content; and CAT activity declined significantly after glyphosate application, while other indicators showed no significant changes. Our results indicate that glyphosate concentrations from 0 to 80 mg/L can induce oxidative stress in H. verticillate and may impede metabolism processes for protein and pigments without causing oxidative stress in V. natans. Taken together, our results suggest that the sensitivity of H. verticillata to glyphosate exposure is higher than that of V. natans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Acclimation of Hydrilla verticillata to sediment anoxia in vegetation restoration in eutrophic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Dai, Yanran; Rui, Shengyang; Cui, Naxin; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2015-12-01

    Sediment anoxia generally results from intense organic enrichment and is a limiting factor in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters. To investigate the effect of sediment anoxia on a typical pollution-tolerant submerged macrophyte species, Hydrilla verticillata, and acclimation mechanisms in the plant, a gradient of sediment anoxia was simulated with additions of sucrose to the sediment, which can stimulate increased concentrations of total nitrogen, NH4(+) and Fe in pore water. H. verticillata growth was significantly affected by highly anoxic conditions, as indicated by reduced total biomass in the 0.5 and 1% sucrose treatments. However, slight anoxia (0.1% sucrose addition) promoted growth, and the shoot biomass was 22.64% higher than in the control. In addition to morphologic alterations, H. verticillata showed physiological acclimations to anoxia, including increased anaerobic respiration and changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in roots. The soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate contents in roots of the 1% treatment were both significantly higher compared with those in the control. The increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate content in the roots suggested that H. verticillata has a well-developed capacity for anaerobic fermentation. This study suggests that highly anoxic sediments inhibit the growth of H. verticillata and the species has a degree of tolerance to anoxic conditions. Further in situ investigations should be conducted on the interactions between sediment conditions and macrophytes to comprehensively evaluate the roles of sediment in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters.

  9. Hydrilla verticillata employs two different ways to affect DNA methylation under excess copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danlu; Zhuang, Kai; Xia, Yan; Zhu, Changhua; Chen, Chen; Hu, Zhubing; Shen, Zhenguo

    2017-12-01

    Because of the accumulation of heavy metals, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, a rooted submerged perennial aquatic herb, is being developed as a potential tool to clean the aquatic ecosystem polluted by heavy metals. However, its physiological responses for heavy metal remain to be elucidated. Here, through employing proteomics approach, we found that excess Cu significantly induced the expressions of four DNA methylation related proteins in H. verticillata, which were the homologues of two domains rearranged methyltransferases (DRM), a methyltransferases chromomethylase (CMT) and a histone H3 lysine-9 specific SUVH6-like (SUVH6). Consistently, a dramatic change in DNA methylation patterns was detected in excess Cu-exposed H. verticillata. Surprisingly, administration of the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and imidazole (IMZ) that block production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could trigger the remethylation of genomic sites that were demethylated by excess Cu, indicating that Cu-induced ROS might be another way to affect DNA methylation. Further analysis suggested this changed DNA methylation may be owing to the ROS-induced DNA damage. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that two different ways to influence DNA methylation in excess Cu-treated H. verticillata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

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    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  11. Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta.

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    Albert D Mercurio

    Full Text Available Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium". Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata, colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB. We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity" was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the

  12. Application of ADM1 for modeling of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xun; Huo, Chan; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Mian

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the application of anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) to simulate biogas production from Hydrilla verticillata. Model simulation was carried out by implementing ADM1 in AQUASIM 2.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the most sensitive parameters for estimation using the absolute-relative sensitivity function. Among all the kinetic parameters, disintegration constant (kdis), hydrolysis constant of protein (khyd_pr), Monod maximum specific substrate uptake rate (km_aa, km_ac, km_h2) and half-saturation constants (Ks_aa, Ks_ac) affect biogas production significantly, which were optimized by fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to well predict the experimental results of daily biogas production and biogas composition. The simulation results of evolution of organic acids, bacteria concentrations and inhibition effects also helped to get insight into the reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A preliminary study on the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using seaweed, Hydrilla verticillata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baral, S.S., E-mail: ss_baral2003@yahoo.co.in [Chemical Engineering Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani - Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa-403726 (India); Das, Namrata; Roy Chaudhury, G.; Das, S.N. [Department of Environment and Sustainability, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar-751013 (India)

    2009-11-15

    The Cr(VI) adsorption efficiency of the seaweed, Hydrilla verticillata, was studied in batches. The adsorbent was characterized using SEM, BET surface area analyzer, Malvern particle size analyzer, EDAX and FT-IR. Cr(VI) removal efficiency of the adsorbent was studied as a function of different adsorption parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, pH, adsorbent dose, particle size, adsorbate concentration, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm equations were used in the equilibrium modeling. The adsorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step. Experimental data follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of the adsorption process were evaluated to find out the feasibility of the adsorption process. The negative values of Gibb's free energy and positive enthalpy values show the feasibility and endothermic nature of the process. The significance of different adsorption parameters along with their combined effect on the adsorption process has been established through a full 2{sup 4} factorial design. Among the different adsorption parameters, pH has the most influential effect on the adsorption process followed by adsorbate concentration and combined effects of all the four parameters were tested. The correlation among different adsorption parameters were studied using multi-variate analysis.

  14. Effect of mercury on some aquatic plants. [Hydrilla verticillata Presl. ; Pistia stratiotes L. ; Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhatre, G.N.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    Three aquatic plants, Hydrilla verticillata Presl, Pistia stratiotes L. and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell, were treated with different concentrations of mercury ranging from 1 to 1000 ..mu..g liter/sup -1/ at three different exposure durations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5 h. All were found to be severely affected by mercury. Foliar injury, chlorophyll content and phytomass showed perceptible effects with increasing exposure to the metal. In the case of floating plants a positive relationship was obtained between Leaf Injury Index (LII) and doses of the metal. The possible use of aquatic plants in general, and floating plants in particular, as simple bioassay material in biomonitoring and toxicity studies is discussed with special reference to LII as a simple biomonitoring parameter.

  15. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacts of residual aluminum from aluminate flocculant on the morphological and physiological characteristics of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Wei; He, Feng; Ma, Jian-Min; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Bi-Yun; Min, Fen-Li; Dai, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-11-01

    Aluminate is generally used as a flocculant in water and wastewater treatment processes, but the residual aluminum (Al) may have toxic effects on aquatic organisms when the concentration accumulates beyond a threshold level. The in situ and laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of residual Al on submerged macrophytes in West Lake, Hangzhou, China, which receives Al flocculant-purified water diverted from the Qiantang River. The responses of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata were investigated based on their morphological and physiological parameters in pot culture and aquarium simulation experiments. In the pot culture experiments, the biomass, seedling number, plant height, stolon number, stolon length, and root weight were significantly higher at a site located 150m from the inlet compared with those at a site located 15m from the inlet (P macrophytes were stressed by residual Al. V. natans and H. verticillata accumulated 0.052-0.227mg of Al per gram of plant biomass (fresh weight, mg/g FW) and 0.045-0.205mg Al/g FW in the in situ experiments, respectively, where the amounts of Al were significantly higher in the plants in the treatment aquaria during the laboratory experiments than those in the controls. These results may have important implications for the restoration of submerged macrophytes and ecological risk assessments in Al-exposed lakes. It is recommended that the Al salt concentration used for the control of lake eutrophication should be reduced to an appropriate level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Packed-bed column biosorption of chromium(VI) and nickel(II) onto Fenton modified Hydrilla verticillata dried biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Tripathi, Brahma Dutt; Rai, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the biosorption potential of Fenton modified Hydrilla verticillata dried biomass (FMB) in removing chromium(VI) and nickel(II) ions from wastewater using up-flow packed-bed column reactor. Effects of different packed-bed column parameters such as bed height, flow rate, influent metal ion concentration and particle size were examined. The outcome of the column experiments illustrated that highest bed height (25cm); lowest flow rate (10mLmin(-1)), lowest influent metal concentration (5mgL(-1)) and smallest particle size range (0.25-0.50mm) are favourable for biosorption. The maximum biosorption capacity of FMB for chromium(VI) and nickel(II) removal were estimated to be 89.32 and 87.18mgg(-1) respectively. The breakthrough curves were analyzed using Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and Thomas models. The experimental results obtained agree to both the models. Column regeneration experiments were also carried out using 0.1M HNO3. Results revealed good reusability of FMB during ten cycles of sorption and desorption. Performance of FMB-packed column in treating secondary effluent was also tested under identical experimental conditions. Results demonstrated significant reduction in chromium(VI) and nickel(II) ions concentration after the biosorption process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Arsenic, zinc, and aluminium removal from gold mine wastewater effluents and accumulation by submerged aquatic plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid; Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  19. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored.

  20. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  1. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-10-15

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Do the U.S. Dioecious and Monoecious biotypes of Hydrilla verticillata L.F. Royle hybridize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical note reports the results of two studies to address the question of whether the two hydrilla biotypes present in the U.S. can hybridize. These include whether hybridization can occur under controlled conditions and in field populations where the two hybrids coexist in close proximity ...

  3. Surveys for Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla verticillata in the People’s Republic of China in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Matching the origin of an invasive weed for selection of a herbivore haplotype for a biological control programme. Molecular Ecology 15:287-297...performance of two candidate biological control agents of Brazilian peppertree in Florida. Biological Control 47:167-171. Monoecious Hydrilla- A

  4. Integrated role of ROS and Ca(+2) in blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement in leaves of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arkajo; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Directional chloroplast photorelocation is a major physio-biochemical mechanism that allows these organelles to realign themselves intracellularly in response to the intensity of the incident light as an adaptive response. Signaling processes involved in blue light (BL)-dependent chloroplast movements were investigated in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle leaves. Treatments with antagonists of actin filaments [2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA)] and microtubules (oryzalin) revealed that actin filaments, but not microtubules, play a pivotal role in chloroplast movement. Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in controlling chloroplast avoidance movement has been demonstrated, as exogenous H2O2 not only accelerated chloroplast avoidance but also could induce chloroplast avoidance even in weak blue light (WBL). Further support came from experiments with different ROS scavengers, i.e., dimethylthiourea (DMTU), KI, and CuCl2, which inhibited chloroplast avoidance, and from ROS localization using specific stains. Such avoidance was also partially inhibited by ZnCl2, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) as well as 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a photosynthetic electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitor at PS II. However, methyl viologen (MV), a PS I ETC inhibitor, rather accelerated avoidance response. Exogenous calcium (Ca(+2)) induced avoidance even in WBL while inhibited chloroplast accumulation partially. On the other hand, chloroplast movements (both accumulation and avoidance) were blocked by Ca(+2) antagonists, La(3+) (inhibitor of plasma membrane Ca(+2) channel) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Ca(+2) chelator) while LiCl that affects Ca(+2) release from endosomal compartments did not show any effect. A model on integrated role of ROS and Ca(+2) (influx from apolastic space) in actin-mediated chloroplast avoidance has been proposed.

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Growth and Rooting Depth Characteristics of Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Myriophyllum Spicatum L. on Fertilized and Unfertilized Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Bremner, J. M. (1965). "Inorganic forms of nitrogen." Methods of soil analy- sis, Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties . C. A. Black, ed... demands of Myriophyllum and Hydrilla were reflected in patterns of N and P removal from low-N sediment (Fig- ures 13 and 14). Depressed concentrations of...Cambridge. Barkham, J. P. (1980). "Population dynamics of the wild daffodil ( Narcissus pseudonarsissus) Il. Oranges in number of shoots and flowers

  6. Eficácia do diquat no controle de Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa e Egeria najas e toxicidade aguda para o Guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of diquat in the control of Hydrylla verticillata, Egeria densa and Egeria najas and its acute toxicity to Phallocerus caudimaculatus, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.P. Henares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as macrófitas aquáticas submersas, Egeria densa e Egeria najas, têm causado prejuízos aos usos múltiplos da água. Hydrilla verticillata foi recentemente introduzida, mas tem histórico como planta problemática nos EUA, no México e na Austrália. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as suscetibilidades relativas dessas três macrófitas aquáticas ao diquat e os riscos da utilização desse herbicida para o guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para isso, foram instalados ensaios em condições de laboratório, a fim de avaliar a suscetibilidade relativa das três macrófitas por meio da manutenção de ponteiros dessas plantas em soluções contendo 0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; e 1,6 mg L-1 de diquat (Reward® por 14 dias. A avaliação foi realizada pela variação do acúmulo de matéria fresca e do comprimento dos ponteiros no período de exposição ao herbicida. H. verticillata mostrou maior sensibilidade ao diquat em comparação com as duas macrófitas do gênero Egeria, mesmo em baixas concentrações do herbicida. Nas maiores concentrações, E. densa mostrou maior sensibilidade que E. najas. O risco da aplicação do diquat para P. caudimaculatus foi estimado pela toxicidade aguda. Alevinos de P. caudimaculatus de 0,4 ± 0,2 mg foram expostos a soluções de 0,0; 1,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0; 20,0; 25,0; e 30,0 mg L-1 de diquat. A concentração letal de 50% (CL(I (50;96h do diquat estimada para P. caudimaculatus foi de 7,17 mg L-1. Para P. caudimaculatus, a toxicidade aguda foi superior à concentração recomendada para o controle de macrófitas aquáticas submersas, indicando risco muito baixo para esse peixe.In Brazil, the submerged plants Egeria densa and Egeria najas have caused damage to multiple uses of water. Hydrilla verticillata has been recently introduced, but it has a history as a problem plant in the U.S., Mexico and Australia. The objectives of this work were to assess the relative susceptibilities of these three

  7. Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) Collected from Hydrilla Verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha- and ß-diversity values indicated that the chironomid communities on aquatic plants from Lake Bisina and Lake Tanganyika (Burundi) were markedly different. Studies of chironomids and other invertebrates associated with macrophytes in other African lakes will add significantly to knowledge of the natural history of ...

  8. Evidence that inducible C-4-type photosynthesis is a chloroplastic CO2-concentrating mechanism in Hydrilla, a submersed monocot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiskind, JB; Madsen, TV; VanGinkel, LC; Bowes, G

    Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle exhibits an inducible C-4- type photosynthetic cycle, but lacks Kranz anatomy. Leaves in the C-4-type state (but not C-3-type) contained up to 5-fold higher internal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIG) concentrations than the medium, indicating that they possessed a

  9. Biological Studies of Bagous Hydrillae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Feed- ing was negligible on the 25 species outside the hydrilla family except on four species: Ceratophyllum demersum L., Cabomba caroliniana A. Grey...Nefa and Cabomba carolinias L were eaten much less in these tests than in Australia. This may be because they were exposed for 7 days compared with m...o day, but declined after 3 days. Minor feeding was also obtained on Nymphoides aquatica (S.G. Gmel.) Kuntze and Sagittaria spp. No more than

  10. Synergistic effects of heavy metal pollutants on senescence in submerged aquatic plants. [Potamogeton pectinatus L. , Vallisneria spiralis L. , Hydrialla Verticillata (L. f. ) Royle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, S.; Choudhuri, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of many combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants, viz., mercuric chloride, lead acetate, cadmium chloride and cupric sulphate, on the senescence of isolated mature leaves of submerged aquatic plants, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Vallisneria spiralis L., and Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle were studied. All of the combinations of heavy metal pollutants caused senescence in all three species by decreasing chlorophyll, DNA, RNA, protein and dry wt, and increasing free amino acid, tissue permeability, the activities of protease and RNase, and the ratio of acid to alkaline pyrophosphatase activity over control values. The effects were highest in Potamogeton and lowest in Hydrilla. The degree of senescence in the three submerged plants by combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants is much higher due to synergism than that by individual heavy metal pollutants.

  11. Recording Fathometer Techniques for Determining Distribution and Biomass of Hydrilla verticillata Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    cover, and distance from the top of vegetation to the water surface, were calculated from the graph paper utilizing a 25-cm ruler, planim- eter, and... Hyacinth Contr. J. 13:48-50. Hestand, R. S., and C. C. Carter. 1974. The effects of a winter draw- down on aquatic vegetation in a shallow water ...reservoir. Hyacinth Contr. J. 12:9-12. 44 Hestand, R. S., B. E. May, D. P. Schultz, and C. R. Walker. 1973. Eco- logical implications of water levels on

  12. Biological Control Agents of Hydrilla Verticillata; Final Report on Surveys in East Africa, 1981-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    unstable and difficult to work from. A weed drag was used in most cases to collect samples. Diving was a much more effective means of collecting plants...a considerable dele- terious effect on African aquatic systems, with increased runoff and erosion leading to heavier sediment loads in rivers and to...outbreaks of Salvinia molesta, limited * . stands of Najas peotinata and Potamogeton spp., especially on eastern and southern shores; L;tricularia

  13. Abietane diterpeniods from Hyptis verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Roy B R; Biggs, Duanne A C; Reynolds, William F

    2009-01-01

    Seven abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Hyptis verticillata (Labiatae). One is a novel natural product, 7-acetoxy-16-benzoxy-12-hydroxyabieta-8,12-diene-11,14-dione (1), while the other six known compounds are 11,14 dihydroxy-12-methoxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-7-one (2), 11,14-dihydroxy-12-methoxy- 18(4-->3betaH) abeo-abieta-4(19),8,11,13-tetraene-7-one (3), 7-acetoxy-12-methoxyabieta-8,12-diene-11,14-dione (4), royleanone (5), 7,6-dehydroroyleanone (6) and 7-acetoxyhorminone (7). All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and mass spectrometric means.

  14. Integrated Weed Management Strategies for Control of Hydrilla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Linda S; Shearer, Judy F

    2009-01-01

    ...), and the fungal pathogen Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Gerd.) Ostazeski, applied alone and in combination with one another, as an integrated weed management strategy against the nuisance aquatic plant, hydrilla...

  15. Biosorption of arsenic in drinking water by submerged plant: Hydrilla verticilata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Shubha; Gopal, Krishna; Vankar, Padma S

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the biosorption efficacy of submerged aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata for arsenic uptake from drinking water. H. verticillata, a submerged aquatic plant was utilized successfully for arsenic uptake from aqueous solution. Batch studies with various parameters viz. pH, sorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were carried out. Data were utilized to plot Lagergren graph along with pseudo-second-order graphs for kinetic studies to estimate the removal efficacy and to determine the nature of reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been performed for characterization of metals on biomass. The study showed 96.35 % maximum absorption of arsenic by H. verticilata at initial concentration of 100 ppb with 0.5 g of biomass/100 ml for 5 h contact time at pH 6.0 with 150 rpm agitation rate. Data followed Langmuir isotherm showing sorption to be monolayer on homogeneous surface of biosorbent. The negative values of ΔG° indicated spontaneous nature; whereas ΔH° indicates exothermic nature of system and negative value of ∆S° entropy change correspond to a decrease in the degree of freedom to the adsorbed species followed by pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics. FTIR and SEM results showed apparent changes in functional group regions after metal chelation and the changes in surface morphology of biosorbent. This is a comparatively more effective, economic, easily available, and environmentally safe source for arsenic uptake from solution due to its high biosorption efficacy than other biosorbents already used.

  16. Composition of the essential oil of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hayta, Sukru; Dogan, Gulden; Yuce, Ebru; Bagci, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The essential oil composition of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) analysed and yield of compositions were analysedMaterial and Methods: The essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus coupled to a 2 L round-bottom flask. A total of 100 g of fresh plant material (aerial parts) and 1 L of water were used for the extraction. Gas chromatography / Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were applied to ext...

  17. Establishing Research and Management Priorities for Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    of several eradication programs. Table 1. An overview of various monoecious eradication projects in northern tier lakes. Lake and State ~ Lake Size...exists regarding competitive traits of dioecious hydrilla (e.g. low light and CO2 compensation points, ability to utilize a C-4-like photosynthesis

  18. Recording Fathometer Techniques for Hydrilla Distribution and Biomass Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    with Panicum, Ceratophyllum, Pontederia, Sagittaria, and Cabomba . Before hydrilla introduction in 1974, the open water pro- fundal zone was approximately...in lakes allows a greater amount of carbon to be available to macrophyte photosynthesis due to the availability of biocarbonate and, depending on

  19. Uptake of cesium and cobalt radionuclides from simulated radioactive wastewater by Ludwigia stolonifera aquatic plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt); Bayoumi, T.A. [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt); Mahmoud, H.H. [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt); Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Aglan, R.F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 (Egypt)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Radioactive contamination is a serious environmental problem. • Phytoremediation is a proper technique for soil and water decontamination. • Aquatic plant, Ludwigia stolonifera, for bioaccumulation of radionuclides. • Factors affecting uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. - Abstract: The article reported herein was conducted as part of comprehensive study considered to evaluate the efficiency of Ludwigia stolonifera as a local aquatic plant located in the Egyptian environment for phytoremediation of hazardous toxic and radioactive elements dissolved in aqueous wastes dispersed from industrial and urban applications through the human activities. Ludwigia stolonifera was immersed in single and binary solution of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. The specific uptake rate of plant was determined at various activity contents of radionuclides, multiplied masses of plant, lighting exposure and different pH values. Accumulation of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in mixture was more than 95% and 65% respectively. pH was less effective than the other evaluated parameters.

  20. Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parts of America and the Caribbean countries. (Picking et al., 2013). Hyptis verticillata has been used medicinally in Mesoamerica since the times of the Aztec and Mayan cultures. (Ocampo and Balick, 2009). It is among the most abundant species of the genus Hyptis and it grows up to the height of one to two meters.

  1. A New Phenolic Amide from the Roots of Paris verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ro Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic amide 8, together with the nine known phenolic compounds 1-7,9 and 10 were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Paris verticillata. Thestructure of the new compound 8 was determined to be 1-N-feruloylaminobutyl-4-ρ-hydroxybenzamide by spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were tested forcytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines using the SRB assay.

  2. Sesquiterpene and acyclic diterpenes from Hyptis verticillata Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duanne A C; Porter, Roy B R; Reynolds, William F

    2009-03-01

    From the methanolic extract of the plant Hyptis verticillata Jacq, was isolated five compounds: the novel compounds cadina-10(15)-en-3-one and 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-1-en-3-ol and the known compounds 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol, 7,11,15-trimethyl-3-methylenehexadecane-1,2-diol and myo-inositol. All structures were established by spectroscopic means.

  3. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  4. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sable N, Gaikwad S, Bonde S, Gade A, Rai M. 2012. Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by using aquatic plant Hydrilla verticilata. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 45-49. In the context of current drive to developed new green technology in nanomaterials, synthesis of nanoparticles is of considerable importance. There has been considerable work done in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology during the last decade due to the introduction of various protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles by using plants and microorganisms. Here we firstly report the extracellular phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs using aquatic plants Hydrilla verticilata. The characterization of the phytosynthesized Ag-NPs was done with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA, Zeta potential and SEM. The SEM micrograph revealed the synthesis of polydispersed spherical nanoparticles, with the average size of 65.55 nm. The phytofabricated Ag-NPs can be used in the field of medicine and agriculture, due to their antimicrobial potential.

  5. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils containing gasoline using Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) in greenhouse pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoory, Asia Fadhile; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Anuar, Nurina

    2017-05-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxic effects on the plant Ludwigia octovalvis in order to assess its applicability for phytoremediation gasoline-contaminated soils. Using plants to degrade hydrocarbons is a challenging task. In this study, different spiked concentrations of hydrocarbons in soil (1, 2, and 3 g/kg) were tested. The results showed that the mean efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal over a 72-day culture period was rather high. The maximum removal of 79.8 % occurred for the 2 g/kg concentration, while the removal rate by the corresponding unplanted controls was only (48.6 %). The impact of gasoline on plants included visual symptoms of stress, yellowing, growth reduction, and perturbations in the developmental parameters. The dry weight and wet weight of the plant slightly increased upon exposure to gasoline until day 42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated change to the root and stem structure in plant tissue due to the direct attachment with gasoline contaminated compared to the control sample. The population of living microorganisms in the contaminated soil was found to be able to adapt to different gasoline concentrations. The results showed that L. octovalvis and rhizobacteria in gasoline-contaminated soil have the potential to degrade organic pollutants.

  6. CRECIMIENTO Y EFICIENCIA FOTOSINTÉTICA DE Ludwigia decurrens Walter (ONAGRACEAE BAJO DIFERENTES CONCENTRACIONES DE NITRÓGENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEÑA ENRIQUE JAVIER

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y la eficiencia fotosintética de Ludwigia decurrens (Onagraceae, a partir de la estimación de la fluorescencia de la clorofila bajo diferentes concentraciones de nitrógeno (0 mg/L, 465 mg/L y 930 mg/L en condiciones de laboratorio. Como parámetros de crecimiento se utilizaron la longitud total del tallo y el área foliar. Durante el periodo de estudio se observó un incremento en el crecimiento y la eficiencia quántica con el aumento en la concentración de nitrógeno. Sin embargo, no se presentaron diferencias significativas (p<0,05 en los valores de fluorescencia de la clorofila entre los tratamientos. Los resultados del comportamiento de la eficiencia fotosintética (Fv/Fm y el crecimiento de las plantas tratadas con diferentes concentraciones de nitrógeno, demuestran que la macrófita Ludwigia decurrens crece en ambientes relativamente altos de nitrógeno.

  7. Novel cytotoxic isolated from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata jacq induces apoptosis and overcomes multidrug resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Yohann; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hachiman, Miho; Kozako, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kakushi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kofune, Hiroki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Arima, Naomichi

    2011-01-01

    ...-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8, 9 - dihydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(5H)-one (4-MTDND) from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata jacq, and its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle and drug resistance were elucidated...

  8. ASPECTOS BOTÂNICOS E DE USOS DE Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis (VITACEAE):INSULINA-VEGETAL

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Fabiano Alves; Neto, Germano Guarim

    2013-01-01

      RESUMO - (Aspectos botânicos e de usos de Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis (Vitaceae): insulina-vegetal). No presente trabalho são apresentados dados botânicos e de usos de uma importante planta usada na medicina popular, denominada de insulina-vegetal, Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis, da familia Vitaceae. Palavras-chave: Cissus, planta medicinal, insulina-vegetal.

  9. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284?bp in length, consisting of 118 unique...

  10. Relation of age-0 largemouth bass abundance to hydrilla coverage and water level at Lochloosa and Orange Lakes, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, W.B.; Allen, M.S.; Myers, R.A.; Nagid, E.J.; Estes, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in electrofishing catch per hour (CPH) of age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were examined in relation to aquatic macrophytes and seasonal water elevation at Lochloosa and Orange lakes, Florida, during the 1990s. At Lochloosa Lake, stepwise multiple regression revealed a significant positive relationship between the mean CPH of age-0 largemouth bass and the percentage of areal coverage by hydrilla Hydrilla verticallata. At Orange Lake, mean CPH was directly associated with the percentage of areal coverage by hydrilla and inversely related to summer water levels. Thus, the influence of vegetation on age-0 largemouth bass abundance was similar at both lakes, but the effects of water levels were not. Further investigations into the effects of fluctuations in water levels on age-0 largemouth bass in natural lakes are needed.

  11. Evaluation of the purified fraction of Wilbrandia (c. f. verticillata for antitumour activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. N. Rao

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbatacins are known to produce cytotoxic and anticancer activities. Two novel norcucurbitacin glucosides (Wvl and Wv2 have recently been isolated from a purified fraction obtained from the rhizome of Wilbrandia verticillata. The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and anti-tumour activities of the norcucurbitacins. We have found a regular cytotoxicity in KB cells (Cy50 = 12µg/ml as well as a significant inhibition in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma growth (approximately 75%.

  12. Hyptis verticillata Jacq: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picking, D; Delgoda, R; Boulogne, I; Mitchell, S

    2013-05-02

    Hyptis verticillata Jacq. (Lamiaceae) (John Charles) is an important medicinal plant with a long history of traditional use, originating in Central America and now extending from Florida to Colombia and across the Caribbean. Records of its earliest use date back to the ancient Mayan and Aztec cultures of Mesoamerica. There is no indication that this plant is being used outside of the Americas. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity and toxicology of Hyptis verticillata and to highlight the opportunities for greater development of the plant's medicinal properties at a local and international level. An extensive and systematic review of the literature was undertaken and all relevant abstracts and full-text articles analysed and included in the review. A wide range of traditional uses are cited in the literature, from internal uses for conditions affecting the respiratory system, digestive tract and gynaecological system to external uses for conditions affecting the skin and musculoskeletal system. Pharmacological studies to date have demonstrated significant activity which support the traditional use of the plant as an antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antisecretory agent and hormone modulator. In addition studies have identified anti-cancer, acaricidal, insecticidal and molluscicidal activity. No clinical trials had been completed at the time of this review. A number of key phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date including: 17 lignans; 4 triterpenes; 11 diterpenes, 3 sesquiterpenes, 3 monoterpenes, 2 flavonoids, 1 polyphenol and 1 alkaloid. Nine of these phytochemicals are novel to Hyptis verticillata. Plant extracts and isolated phytochemicals exhibit a broad range of activities that include: antimitotic; antiproliferative; cytotoxic; antioxidant; antiinflammatory; antibacterial; antifungal; antiviral; anti-HIV; antisecretory; hepatoprotective; insecticidal and

  13. Expanded Simulation Models Version 3.0 for Growth of the Submerged Aquatic Plants American Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, Eurasian Watermilfoil by Elly P. H. Best and William A. Boyd PURPOSE: This technical note describes modifications of...Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...monoecious Potamogeton pectinatus1 ( sago pondweed)-POTAM (Best and Boyd 1996, 1999a, 1999b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, Boyd and Best 1996). These models can

  14. Biological activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Petrea C; Porter, Roy B R; Reese, Paul B; Williams, Lawrence A D

    2005-06-15

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata Jacq. was elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The oil was dominated by the sesquiterpenoids cadina-4,10(15)-dien-3-one (15.1%) (1) and aromadendr-1(10)-en-9-one (squamulosone) (30.7%) (2). The oil exhibited chemosterilant activities against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus Canest., and toxic action against adult Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer, the most destructive pest of sweet potato (Ipomoea species).

  15. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-02-11

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284 bp in length, consisting of 118 unique genes. The S. verticillata cp genome has lost one copy of the canonical inverted repeats and shown distinctive genomic structure comparing with other cupressophytes. Fifty-three simple sequence repeat loci and 18 forward tandem repeats were identified in the S. verticillata cp genome. According to the rearrangement of cupressophyte cp genome, we proposed one mechanism for the formation of inverted repeat: tandem repeat occured first, then rearrangement divided the tandem repeat into inverted repeats located at different regions. Phylogenetic estimates inferred from 59-gene sequences and cpDNA organizations have both shown that S. verticillata was sister to the clade consisting of Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Cephalotaxaceae. Moreover, accD gene was found to be lost in the S. verticillata cp genome, and a nucleus copy was identified from two transcriptome data.

  16. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284 bp in length, consisting of 118 unique genes. The S. verticillata cp genome has lost one copy of the canonical inverted repeats and shown distinctive genomic structure comparing with other cupressophytes. Fifty-three simple sequence repeat loci and 18 forward tandem repeats were identified in the S. verticillata cp genome. According to the rearrangement of cupressophyte cp genome, we proposed one mechanism for the formation of inverted repeat: tandem repeat occured first, then rearrangement divided the tandem repeat into inverted repeats located at different regions. Phylogenetic estimates inferred from 59-gene sequences and cpDNA organizations have both shown that S. verticillata was sister to the clade consisting of Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Cephalotaxaceae. Moreover, accD gene was found to be lost in the S. verticillata cp genome, and a nucleus copy was identified from two transcriptome data. PMID:26865528

  17. Can an aquatic macrophyte bioaccumulate glyphosate? A watershed scale study using a non-target hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Debora; Okada, Elena; Menone, Mirta; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides is widely distributed in South America streams, and therefore, it can be used as a biomonitor for pesticides used in agricultural production. Glyphosate is one of the main pesticides used in Argentina. This has resulted in its occurrence in non-target wetland ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish and validate an extraction and quantification methodology for glyphosate in L.peploides plants, and 2) evaluated the role of this species as a glyphosate biomonitor in the agricultural watershed of the El Crespo stream. For the first objective, we collected plant material in the field. The leaves were dissected and oven dried at 60° C, grinded and sieved through a 0.5 mm mesh. Different solutions were tested for the extraction step. Labeled glyphosate was used as an internal standard to evaluate the recovery rate and the matrix effect of the different extraction methods. Glyphosate was derivatized with FMOC-Cl and then quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a mass tandem spectrometer (MS/MS). The method based on an aqueous phase extraction step 0.01 mg/mL of activated carbon as a clean-up to decrease the matrix interference had a recovery of 117 ± 20% and the matrix effect was less than 20%. This method was used to analyze the glyphosate levels in L.peploides in the El Crespo stream. For the second objective, plants of L.peploides were collected on March 2016 in eight monitoring sites of the stream from the headwaters to the stream mouth. Surface water and sediments samples were collected at the same time to calculate the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and biota-sediment bioaccumulation factors (BSAFs). The BCFs ranged between 28.57 - 280 L/Kg and the BSAFs ranged between 2.52- 30.66 at different sites. These results indicate that L.peploides can bioaccumulated glyphosate in its leaves and the major bioavailability is given mainly by the herbicide molecules present in surface

  18. The bioassay-guided isolation of growth inhibitors of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata, and NMR characterization of hyptoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Toshiyuki; White, Yohann; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Oiso, Yusuke; Fijita, Masaki J; Okamura, Hiroaki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo; Arima, Naomichi

    2012-08-17

    Through bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds with growth inhibitory activity on S1T, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell line, were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata.

  19. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of techniques used to control the development of five invasive amphibious plant species: Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticum. A review. Among rapidly spreading invasive species in Europe, amphibious plants are particularly problematic. These plants are capable of developing a photosynthetic activity both below and above the water surface, and they typically form dense floating populations. Controlling amphibious plants, whether for the purposes of total eradication or for the regulation of their spread, represents an important challenge for managers. A literature review of existing control methods for Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticu was carried out, taking into account efficiency and costs. Of the 87 studies analyzed, a great variation was evident in the research efforts undertaken (number and spatial scale of studies between species and between control methods. However, overall, the different control methods described showed a similar level of efficiency between species. Reports of total eradication of amphibious plants were rare. Such cases resulted from the application of mechanical or chemical methods, most often coupled with complementary methods such as manual finishing. The use of chemical control methods (less laborious and costly than others was found to be frequently documented in the literature. However, except in the case of some active substances, such chemical methods were found to provide low control efficiency. Similarly, to date, biological control has not been found to provide convincing results. In addition, it should be noted that several biological control agents are considered as invasive species in Europe. On the other hand, although little related research has been carried out, methods such as manual or mechanical removal with manual finishing have often

  20. Novel cytotoxic isolated from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata jacq induces apoptosis and overcomes multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yohann; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hachiman, Miho; Kozako, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kakushi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kofune, Hiroki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Arima, Naomichi

    2011-12-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia is an aggressive hematological malignancy with a poor clinical prognosis, and a rapid resistance to chemotherapy is rapid. Cytotoxicity assay-directed fractionation identified a novel lignan-related agent, 4-methoxy-9-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8, 9 - dihydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(5H)-one (4-MTDND) from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata jacq, and its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle and drug resistance were elucidated. The novel agent, 4-MTDND, exhibited cytotoxicity against myriad cancer types, with a wide therapeutic index of 30- to 40-fold, promoted G(2)/M arrest and up-regulated expression of pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and BAX, as well as enhanced activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, consistent with apoptosis induction. Multidrug-resistant cancer cells were as susceptible to 4-MTDND as their non-resistant control counterparts, with 4-MTDND having greater efficacy compared to standard chemotherapy agents etoposide and mitoxantrone. The novel cytotoxic agent 4-MTDND induces G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells possibly due to direct DNA damage or interference with topoisomerase II.

  1. Vegetative propagation of insulin (Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis by cutting

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    C.T.A. CRUZ-SILVA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Propagation techniques may support handling, this way providing an alternative for producers of medicinal plants, thus avoiding indiscriminate collection. We aimed to evaluate the size of cuttings with and without leaves on the seedling production of insulin (Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis. The herbaceous apical cuttings were prepared with diagonal cut at the bottom and straight cut at the apex, with 5, 10 or 15 cm in length, kept with two whole leaves, two leaves cut in half or without leaves, being sterilized with sodium hypochlorite at 0.5% for 15 minutes. The cuttings were planted in plastic containers with 180 mL capacity with vermiculite as substrate and placed in greenhouse at the temperature of 22 ± 2° C. The experimental design was completely randomized and means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. After 60 days, we found that the cutting of 5 cm with whole leaves and with leaves cut in half and the cutting of 10 cm with whole leaves had rates above 70% of rooting with the best means for number and length of roots. There was a high mortality rate for cuttings made without leaves. The callus and the percentage of live cuttings were not significant for the treatments. Therefore, 5 cm long cuttings with whole or half leaves and 10 cm long cuttings with whole leaves are the most suitable for the vegetative propagation of insulin.

  2. Interaction between visiting bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea and flowers of Ludwigia elegans (Camb. hara (Onagraceae during the year in two different areas in São Paulo, Brazil

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    M. Gimenes

    Full Text Available This study was designed to characterize the interactions between Ludwigia elegans flowers and visiting bees during two years in two areas 200 km apart, at the same latitude (approximately 22º48'S but at different altitudes (Alumínio, 600 m, and Campos do Jordão, 1500 m, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. As these flowers open simultaneously in the morning and lose their petals by sunset, interaction with bees occurs only during the photophase. Flowers of L. elegans were mainly visited by bees, the most frequent species being: Tetraglossula anthracina (Michener, 1989 (Colletidae, Rhophitulus sp. (Andrenidae, and Pseudagapostemon spp. (Halictidae, all considered specialized bees for collecting pollen and nectar from these flowers, as well as the generalist bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Apidae. The specialist bees were temporally adjusted to the opening schedule of the flower, which occurs primarily in the morning, but shows a circannual variation. T. anthracina appears in both study areas, but only between December and April. The annual activity patterns of these specialist bees are synchronized to the phenology of L. elegans. Photoperiod and temperature cycles are suggested as the main synchronizers of both bees and plants.

  3. Molecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)+-pulegone and menthone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Yanina Estefanía; Canavoso, Lilián; Palacios, Sara María

    2012-03-01

    Intense applications of synthetic insecticides for the control of adult Musca domestica have led to the insects developing resistance to most of them. In consequence, there is interest in new active ingredients as alternatives to conventional insecticides. Essential oils (EO) are potential tools for controlling M. domestica because of their effectiveness and their minimal environmental effects. In a fumigant assay, M. domestica adults treated with Minthostachys verticillata EO [LC(50)=0.5 mg/dm(3); majority components by SPME-GC: (4R)(+)-pulegone (67.5%), menthone (22.3%) and (4R)(+)-limonene (3.8%)], died within 15 min or less. The terpenes absorbed by the flies and their metabolites, analyzed using SPME fiber, were (4R)(+)-limonene (LC(50)=6.2 mg/dm(3)), menthone (LC(50)=1.9 mg/dm(3)), (4R)(+)-pulegone (LC(50)=1.7 mg/dm(3)) and a new component, menthofuran (LC(50)=0.3 mg/dm(3)), in a relative proportion of 12.4, 6.5, 35.9 and 44.2% respectively. Menthofuran was formed by oxidation of either (4R)(+)-pulegone or menthone mediated by cytochrome P450, as demonstrated by a fumigation assay on flies previously treated with piperonyl butoxide, a P450 inhibitor, which showed a decrease in toxicity of the EO, (4R)(+)-pulegone and of menthone, supporting the participation of the P450 oxidizing system in the formation of menthofuran. The enzymatic reaction of isolated fly microsomes with the EO or the (4R)(+)-pulegone produced menthofuran in both cases. Contrary to expectations, the insect detoxification system contributed to enhance the toxicity of the M. verticillata EO. Consequently, resistant strains overexpressing P450 genes will be more susceptible to either M. verticillata EO or (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata: a native medicinal plant of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Andréia B. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to carry out an anatomical and histochemical analysis of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis, Vitaceae, to contribute for the attest the taxonomic identity of the medicinal plant. Samples from root, stem, leaf and tendril were cleared, dissociated and processed according to the usual methodology for observation under light and scanning electron microscopes. Histochemical tests were performed in order to identify polysaccharides, phenolic and lipid compounds. The C. verticillata root is typically protostelic, and the stem is eustelic with collateral bundles. The tendril presents structural organization similar to the stem, suggesting a common origin for both. The petiole has an epidermis with ornamented cuticle; the cortex is composed of collenchyma and parenchyma, and the vascular tissues are arranged in collateral bundles. The leaf blade is amphistomatic with non-glandular and glandular trichomes, and the mesophyll is dorsiventral. The identification of the idioblasts as secretion site of the phenolic compounds, mucilage and terpenoids as being responsible for the potential activity of the plant is of fundamental importance for future bioprospecting research on this species.

  5. Uncertain diagnosis of fabry disease in patients with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma or cornea verticillata: consensus on the approach to diagnosis and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, L. van der; Cassiman, D.; Houge, G.; Janssen, M.C.; Lachmann, R.H.; Linthorst, G.E.; Ramaswami, U.; Sommer, C.; Tondel, C.; West, M.L.; Weidemann, F.; Wijburg, F.A.; Svarstad, E.; Hollak, C.E.M.; Biegstraaten, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma (AK) and/or cornea verticillata (CV) may be tested for Fabry disease (FD). Classical FD is characterised by a specific pattern of these features. When a patient presents with a non-specific pattern, the pathogenicity of a variant in the

  6. Long-chain alkanes and fatty acids from Ludwigia octovalvis weed leaf surface waxes as short-range attractant and ovipositional stimulant to Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2017-06-01

    The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. Tricosane was predominant n-alkane in young and mature leaves, whilst eicosane predominated in senescent leaves. Heneicosanoic acid, palmitic acid and docosanoic acid were the most abundant free fatty acids in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. A. cyanea females showed attraction to 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes compared with young or senescent leaves in a short glass Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. The insects were attracted to a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, comparable with the proportions as present in 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes. A. cyanea also laid eggs on a filter paper moistened with 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes or a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. This finding could provide a basis for monitoring of the potential biocontrol agent in the field.

  7. Can an aquatic macrophyte bioaccumulate glyphosate? Development of a new method of glyphosate extraction in Ludwigia peploides and watershed scale validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Débora Jesabel; Okada, Elena; Menone, Mirta Luján; Costa, José Luis

    2017-10-01

    Glyphosate is intensively used in agricultural fields and it is frequently detected in non-target wetland ecosystems. The floating hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides is widely distributed in American streams and it is an abundant species. Therefore, our objectives were (1) to establish and validate an extraction and quantification methodology for glyphosate in L. peploides and (2) to evaluate the role of this species as a potential glyphosate biomonitor in an agricultural watershed. We developed a new method of glyphosate extraction from leaves of L. peploides. The method recovery was 117± 20% and the matrix effect 20%. To validate the method using environmental samples, plants of L. peploides were collected in March 2016 from eight monitoring sites of El Crespo stream. Surface water and sediment samples were collected at the same time to measure glyphosate and to calculate bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). Glyphosate was detected in 94.11% in leaves, the concentrations ranging between 4 and 108 μg/kg. Glyphosate was detected in surface water and sediments at 75% and 100% of the samples, at concentrations that varied between 0 and 1.7 μg/L and 5-10.50 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. The mean BCFs and BSAFs were 88.10 L/Kg and 7.61, respectively. These results indicate that L. peploides bioaccumulates glyphosate mainly bioavailable in the surface water. In this sense, L. peploides could be used as a biomonitor organism to evaluate glyphosate levels in freshwater aquatic ecosystems because, in addition to its capacity to bioconcentrate glyphosate, it is easy to sample and it has a restricted mobility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of seasonal change of water level in an estuary on Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P. H. Raven (Onograceae growth Efeitos da variação sazonal do nível da água de um estuário sobre o crescimento de Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P. H. Raven (Onograceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Massaguaçu River estuary is an irregular estuary with sandbar breaching cycles that are irregular and happen several times each year. The species Ludwigia octovalvis is a perennial weed in several places around the world, but it is seasonal in the Massaguaçu River. In this survey we determined the relationship between the rain, estuary water level variation, and the spatial and temporal distribution of this species. In a laboratory we simulated the water level variation in water tanks in order to understand how this species responds to flooding. In the field, we determined the distribution of L. octovalvis in the higher pluviose season and in the lower pluviose season. This species is relatively common in the higher pluviose season and completely absent in the lower one. There is strong evidence that this happens due to the longer and deeper sandbar breaching cycles during the dry season, which induce this species to etiolation, and, therefore, mechanical fragility. The seasonality of species in aquatic environments that do not have a dry biological season is unusual and little studied.O estuário do rio Massaguaçu é um estuário irregular, e seus ciclos da abertura de barra são irregulares e acontecem várias vezes por ano. A espécie Ludwigia octovalvis é perene em vários lugares do mundo, mas aparece de forma sazonal no estuário em questão. Nesse trabalho determinamos a relação entre o índice pluviométrico, o nível do estuário e a distribuição espacial e temporal dessa espécie. Em laboratório simulamos a variação do nível da água do estuário em aquários, de modo a entender como essa espécie responde ao alagamento. Em campo, determinamos a distribuição de L. octovalvis na estação mais chuvosa e menos chuvosa. A espécie é relativamente comum na estação mais chuvosa, mas ausente na menos chuvosa. Existem fortes evidencias de que isso acontece devido aos ciclos de abertura da barra do inverno, mas fundos e

  9. Determinação de massa fresca, massa seca, água e cinzas totais de folhas de Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata e avaliação do processo de secagem em estufa com ventilação forçada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. BRAGA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata (Vitaceae é conhecida popularmente como insulina vegetal, cortina japonesa, uva-brava, anil trepador e cipó-pucá e utilizada na medicina popular na forma de chá das folhas no tratamento da diabetes, como antiinflamatório, antiepilético, antihipertensivo, antitérmico, antireumático, antigripal e contra infecções respiratórias. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de massa fresca, massa seca, percentual de água e percentual de cinzas totais, visando melhoria das condições de secagem, armazenamento, dispensação e uso pela população. As folhas da espécie foram coletadas no bairro Antônio Dias, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram selecionadas, lavadas e secas em estufa com ventilação forçada à 45ºC e determinou-se as cinzas totais e perda por dessecação (através do método gravimétrico, ambos de acordo com a Farmacopéia Brasileira. Os resultados mostraram que as folhas de C. verticillata subsp. verticillata possuem alto teor de água. O processo de secagem em estufa de ventilação forçada, a temperatura de 45ºC, foi eficaz, proporcionando folhas com 11,47% de umidade e 17,99% de cinzas totais. Palavras-chave: Cissus verticillata; insulina vegetal; qualidade; gravimetria.

  10. Marinas may act as hubs for the spread of the pseudo-indigenous bryozoan Amathia verticillata (Delle Chiaje, 1822 and its associates

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    Agnese Marchini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The spaghetti bryozoan Amathia verticillata, formerly known as Zoobotryon verticillatum, was first described in 1822 from Naples, Italy, although this species was already present in 1807 at Cadiz, Spain. This ctenostome has long been considered a native species in the Mediterranean Sea but it has recently been suggested to be of Caribbean origin. It is most likely to have been introduced by vessels as hull fouling. This pseudo-indigenous species, i.e. a non-indigenous species (NIS having been perceived to be native, has been found in several marinas and harbours within the Mediterranean Sea. In November 2014, this bryozoan species was abundant in the La Grande Motte marina on the south coast of France. Several thousand colonies were estimated to be present within this marina attached to the floating pontoon units that supported a floating boardwalk. Of the berthed craft examined, 31% were fouled with this species, and it was occasionally a prominent fouling species. Several macroinvertebrate species were associated with A. verticillata colonies, including some NIS, Paracerceis sculpta, Paranthura japonica and Caprella scaura, that are recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean coast of France. A. verticillata might support their transfer elsewhere by providing a habitat and substrate when attached to vessel hulls.

  11. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene against Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montironi, Ivana D; Cariddi, Laura N; Reinoso, Elina B

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes great economic losses per year, being Streptococcus uberis the main environmental pathogen involved. The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene for S. uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. In addition, the effect of MIC on biofilm formation was analyzed. MIC values for the essential oil ranged from 14.3 to 114.5mg/ml (1.56-12.5%v/v) and MBC between 114.5 and 229mg/ml (12.5-25%v/v). MICs for limonene ranged from 3.3 to 52.5mg/ml (0.39-6.25%v/v) and MBC was 210mg/ml (25%v/v). Both compounds showed antibacterial activity and affected the biofilm formation of most of the strains tested. In conclusion, these compounds could be used as an alternative and/or complementary therapy for bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Sinopsis sobre las Hydrocharitaceae de Colombia

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    Schmidt Mumm Udo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic family Hydrocharitaceae is actually represented in Colombia by seven genera and seven species (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnobium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. A first record of Hydrilla verticillata growing spontaneously in outside conditions is made for this geographical area. A key to genera is presented, with each species briefly commented and illustrated.En Colombia la familia de plantas acuáticas Hydrocharitaceae se encuentra representada por siete géneros y siete especies (Egeria densa, Apalanthe granatensis, Halophila decipiens, Hydrilla verticillata, Limnabium laevigatum, Thalassia testudinum, Vallisneria americana. Para el país se registra por primera vez a Hydrilla verticillata. Adicionalmente se presenta una clave para los géneros, con las especies brevemente comentadas e ilustradas.

  13. AcEST: BP917248 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KSQTVDLVLTAHPTQS+ Sbjct: 153 AEVFDALKSQTVDLVLTAHPTQSV 176 >tr|Q93XG8|Q93XG8_HYDVE Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase OS=Hydrill... Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase OS=Hydrilla verticillata PE=2 SV=2 Length = 970 Score = 134 bits (337), Exp... 182 >tr|Q93XG7|Q93XG7_HYDVE Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase OS=Hydrilla verticillata PE=2 SV=1 Length = 970

  14. A new 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase gene encoding the committed-step enzyme in the MEP pathway from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Rong; Chen, Min; Yang, Chunxian; Wang, Qiang; Gong, Yifu

    2007-01-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR; EC 1.1.1.267) catalyzes a committed step of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) precursors. The full-length cDNA sequence was cloned and characterized from a TIA-producing species, Rauvolfia verticillata, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The new cDNA was named as RvDXR and submitted to GenBank to be assigned with an accession number (DQ779286). The full-length cDNA of RvDXR was 1804 bp containing a 1425 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 51.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.88. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that RvDXR showed extensive homology with DXRs from other plant species and contained a conserved transit peptide for plastids, an extended Pro-rich region and a highly conserved NADPH-binding motif in its N-terminal region owned by all plant DXRs. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that DXRs had two groups including a plant and bacterial group; RvDXR belonged to angiosperm DXRs that were obtained from Synechocystis through gene transfer according to the phylogenetic analysis. The structural modeling of RvDXR showed that RvDXR had the typical V-shaped structure of DXR proteins. The tissue expression pattern analysis indicated that RvDXR expressed in all tissues including roots, stems, leaves, fruits and followers but at different levels. The lowest transcription level was observed in followers and the highest transcription was found in fruits of R. verticillata; the transcription level of RvDXR was a little higher in roots and stems than in leaves. The cloning and characterization of RvDXR will be helpful to understand more about the role of DXR involved in R. verticillata TIA biosynthesis at the molecular level and provides a candidate gene for metabolic engineering of the TIAs pathway in R. verticillata.

  15. Water Quality Management Studies Lake Seminole, April-November 1978. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    srrulata; speckled alder x Bgetula nigra; river birch x Brasenia schreberi; watershield x Cabomba caroliniana; fanwort x Sphencclea zeylandica; chicken spike...crassipes; water hyacinth P Game Management Area Myipyllum spicatur; Eurasian waterrnilfoil 75 aribras iuiensis; parrotfeather 5 Cbma caroliniana; fanwort 5...splitleaf pennywort P Lemna perpusilla; commion duckweed P Fish Pond Drain Area Hydrilla verticillata; Hydrilla 75 Cabomba caroiniia; fanwort P ajps spp

  16. Inventory and Assessment of Aquatic Plant Management Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Paper A-81-3, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. Smith, G. K. 1950. The Freshwater Macrophytes of the United...spicatumi L.) Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata SAM (L.f.) Royle) Glyphosate Giant reed (Phragmites communis SACS (Roundup) (Trin.) Rud.) No chemical -- NCS

  17. Effect of paclobutrazol on three different aquatic macrophytes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aquatic plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] and giant duckweed [Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden], were successfully surface sterilized and cultured on liquid basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium under aseptic conditions. Shoot explants obtained from ...

  18. Effect of paclobutrazol on three different aquatic macrophytes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Three aquatic plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] and giant duckweed [Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden], were successfully surface sterilized and cultured on liquid basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium under aseptic conditions. Shoot.

  19. The Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Growth Inhibitors of Adult T-Cell Leukemia (ATL, from the Jamaican Plant Hyptis verticillata, and NMR Characterization of Hyptoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomichi Arima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds with growth inhibitory activity on S1T, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL cell line, were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata.

  20. Effects of nitric oxide on the growth and antioxidant response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results provided the evidence that 25 - 100 μM SNP increased the growth of H. verticillata by alleviating the oxidative stress and 200 - 400 μM SNP might enhance the oxidative stress in plant cell. The results suggested that NO has dual role on the growth and ROS metabolism of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

  1. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Ng'ambi, Jones W

    2017-06-01

    Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A. karroo and S. verticillata hay. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on nutrient intake of goats. However, a diet × PEG (P goat were optimized at PEG 4000 supplementation levels of 19.62, 19.62, 19.61 and 19.53 g/goat/day, respectively, for diets containing 20% A. karroo leaf meal. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. The dietary inclusion level of A. karroo leaf meal at 20% improved (P goats. Crude protein digestibility was optimized at a PEG 4000 supplementation level of 15.78 g/goat/day. Dietary mixture level and PEG 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on final weights of Pedi goats. Similar results were observed for blood urea and glucose concentrations of yearling male Pedi goats. However, daily body weight gain was higher (P goats fed 50% A. karroo leaf meal than those on 20% inclusion level. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has potential to improve the feeding value of tanninifeorus A. karroo leaf meal.

  2. Immune-stimulating properties of 80% methanolic extract of Ludwigia octovalvis against Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 in Balb/c mice following experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadum Yakob, Haidar; Manaf Uyub, Abd; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida

    2015-08-22

    Ludwigia octovalvis is an aquatic plant widely distributed throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is commonly consumed as a health drink and traditionally used for treating various ailments such as dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, nephritisn and headache. No information is available on its in vivo antibacterial activity against an important foodborne pathogen, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. Male Balb/c mice were orally administered with the extract at doses of 200 or 400mg/kg body weight for one week before the infection with E. coli O157:H7 and continued for 14 consecutive days after infection. Serum antibody (IgA, IgG and IgM) levels were quantified at days 7 and 14 post-challenge by an ADVIA(®) 2400 Clinical Chemistry Auto Analyzer. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and Ceruloplasmin, as nonspecific immune parameters, were determined enzymatically. A significant increase (p400mg/kg of the extract in comparison with other groups. Total IgA serum levels on day 7 post-challenge in groups of PBS negative control, E. coli O157:H7 positive control, E. coli O157:H7+200mg/kg extract group and E. coli O157:H7+400mg/kg extract group were 709.4 ± 149.6, 1655.8 ± 139.7, 1728.6 ± 64.3 and 1971.4 ± 135.6 µg/ml, respectively. Serum IgG and IgM did not significantly change among different groups. The extract administered orally to infected Balb/c mice did not affect the NBT as well as ceruloplasmin levels. The extract of L. octovalvis contains biologically active principles which increased systemic immune response to E. coli O157:H7 via potentiating the synthesis of IgA antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SELEÇÃO DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DA ESPÉCIE Senefeldera verticillata (Vell. CROIZAT EM DOIS FRAGMENTOS FLORESTAIS DO SUL DO ESPIRITO SANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Abreu Rodrigues Vieira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil abriga a flora mais rica do planeta, sendo a Floresta Atlântica um dos sistemas mais diversificados que compõe essa paisagem. Por outro lado, a atuação antrópica desordenada transformou esse bioma, originalmente contínuo, em um mosaico de fragmentos isolados colocando em risco a biodiversidade. A coleta de sementes de alta qualidade é muito importante para qualquer programa de produção de mudas voltado para restauração e conservação dos recursos genéticos. Dessa forma, com esse estudo objetivou-se avaliar indivíduos de Senefeldera verticillata (Vell. Croizat presentes na FLONA de Pacotuba e RPPN Cafundó (Cachoeiro de Itapemirim - Espírito Santo, como matrizes para banco de sementes. O maior DAP foi de 17,6 cm e o menor foi de 5 cm, a média foi de 8,66 cm. Todas as matrizes avaliadas encontravam-se em boas condições de sanidade e aparência fenotípica. A partir dos dados foi possível identificar árvores matrizes que servirão como banco de sementes e empregadas nos projetos de reflorestamento e recuperação de áreas degradadas da própria região.

  4. Structural characterization and molecular identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza morphotypes of Alzatea verticillata (Alzateaceae), a prominent tree in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Adela; Haug, Ingeborg; Oberwinkler, Franz; Kottke, Ingrid

    2007-10-01

    The vast majority of the highly diverse trees in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador form arbuscular mycorrhizas, and previous molecular investigations revealed a high diversity of fungi. In this study, we present a first trial to link fungal DNA-sequences with defined morphotypes characterized on the basis of partly new mycelial features obtained from field material of one tree species, Alzatea verticillata. Fine roots were halved lengthwise to study the mycelium anatomy on one half and to obtain fungal nuclear rDNA coding for the small subunit rRNA of Glomeromycota from the other half. Light microscopy revealed conspicuously large amounts of mycelium attaching to the surface of the rootlets. The mycelium formed fine- or large-branched appressoria-like plates, vesicles of regular or irregular shape, and very fine, multibranched structures ensheathed by septate hyphae. These previously undescribed features of the supraradical mycelia combined with intraradical mycelium structures were used for distinguishing of four main morphogroups and subordinate 14 morphotypes. DNA sequences of Glomus group A, Acaulospora and Gigaspora, were obtained and linked to three morphogroups. Two sequence types within Glomus group A could be tentatively associated to subordinate morphotypes.

  5. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Steud Polygonum spp. smartweed N Emergent Pontederia cordata L. pickerelweed N Emergent Potamogeton illinoensis Illinois pondweed N Submersed Morong...H. verticillata Ludwigia spp. M. spicatum P. cordata Tamarisk spp. Polygonum spp. P. illinoensis Scirpus spp. Above Eagle Pass, boat launch 8/19/03

  6. MEMPELAJARI FISIOLOGI PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DENGAN TEHNIK RADIOISOTOP (Study in the Physiology of Environment Pollution Using Radiotracer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: 1. Perbedaan kemampuan daya serap tumbuhan air Hydrilla verticillata, Enceng gondok (Eichhomia crassipes dan Kangkung terhadap residu Malathion, menggunakan akuarium (diisi dengan air + Hydrilla Verticillata + Enceng Gondok + Kangkung + Malathion radioisotope 14C. 2. Perbandingan kadar malathion dalam jaringan ikan yang mendapat makanan Hydrilla verticilata dengan yang mendapat makanan kangkung, menggunakan: (akuarium pertama diisi air + Hydrilla Vericillata + ikan mas + Malathion radioisotope 14C; akuarium ke dua diisi air + kangkung + ikan mas + malathion radiisotop 14C. 3. Perbandingan ukuran penyerapan pada jaringan mammalia (tikus yang diberi makan jaringan ikan mas dengan yang diberi makan tumbuhan air (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. Jaringan ikan mas dan kangkung dilakukan pengabuan basah, lalu diberikan masing-masing kepada 30 ekor tikus. Kadar Malathion dari semua percobaan satu, dua dan tiga, diketahui dengan menggunakan alat pencacah Sintilator cair (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer, LSC- 753 (ALOKA”. Hasil yang didapat dibandingkan dengan menggunakan uji-t Student. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa: 1. Hydrilla Verticillata lebih efisien dari pada Enceng Gondok dan Kangkung dalam menyerap residu insektisida malathion dalam air. 2. Ikan yang diberi makan Hydrilla verticillata mengkonsentrasikan malathion lebih tinggi dari pada ikan yang diberi makan kangkung. 3. Mammalia (tikus yang mengkonsumsi daging ikan yang terkontaminasi akan mengkonsentrasikan malathion dalam tubuhnya lebih banyak dari pada tikus yang memakan sayuran (kangkung yang terkontaminasi. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine: 1.The comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata, water hyacinth and water spinach of Malathion insecticide residues in water, (aquarium filled with water + Hydrilla verticillata + water hyacinth + water spinach + 20 mci 14C malathion radioisotope; 2

  7. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 100, No 1&2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbivory OF hydrilla verticillata by Cichlid fish in Lake Bisina, Uganda · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Fred Wanda, Brian Gidudu, Silvester Wandera, Robert S Copeland, James P Cuda, William A Overholt. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/028.100.0107 ...

  8. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 101, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from Hydrilla Verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) and other submersed aquatic Macrophytes in Lake Bisina and other Ugandan Lakes · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Robert S Copeland, Brian Gidudu, Fred Wanda, John H Epler, James P Cuda, William A Overholt.

  9. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Chanchal Kumar shows how Legendre polynomials can be obtained by the Gram–Schmidt orthogonalization process. The article on the freshwater weed Hydrilla verticillata points out that its scientific management can be very beneficial to the ecosystem. V V Raman continues his Darsana Jolts, and discusses the nature of ...

  10. Córnea verticilata - marcador clínico da doença de Fabry: relato de caso Cornea verticillata - a clinical marker of Fabry disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Azeredo Cordeiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Fabry é erro inato do metabolismo dos glicoesfingolipídeos (GL, resultante da atividade deficiente da enzima alfa-galactosidase A (a-Gal, com herança ligada ao cromossomo X. O acúmulo progressivo de GL nos tecidos resulta nas manifestações clínicas da doença, mais evidentes em homens hemizigotos, e incluem angioqueratomas, acroparestesias, córnea verticilata, hipo-hidrose, envolvimento cardíaco, renal e manifestações cerebrovasculares. Foi realizada avaliação em família acometida pela doença, sendo dois pacientes do sexo feminino e três do sexo masculino. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame oftalmológico completo e dosagem da atividade da enzima a-Gal. O único achado clínico presente em todos foi a córnea verticilata. Isto demonstra o importante papel que o exame oftalmológico apresenta no diagnóstico da doença, já que as alterações oculares são tão características.Fabry's disease is a rare X-linked lisosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipid (GL metabolism, caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A activity. The progressive accumulation of GL in tissues results in the clinical manifestations of the disease, that are more evident in hemizygous males, and include angiokeratomas, acroparesthesia, cornea verticillata, cardiac and kidney involvement, cerebrovascular manifestations. A family with Fabry's disease including 2 female patients and 3 male patients is reported. The patients were submitted to complete medical history, ophthalmological examination and alpha-galactosidase activity test. Cornea verticillata was a constant finding in all patients. This demonstrates the important role of the ophtalmological examination for the diagnosis of Fabry's disease since the eye findings are so characteristic of the disease.

  11. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and diuretic activity of Ludwigia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2014-10-11

    Oct 11, 2014 ... permanent ink so that the immersion would be uniform in each episode. The average percent increase in paw volume with time was calculated and compared .... increase in loop permeability, inhibition of antidiuretic hormone secretion, or inhibition of the activity of carbonic anhydrase enzyme are the well-‐ ...

  12. Clonal integration in Ludwigia hexapetala under different light regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological integration among ramets of invasive plant species may support their colonization and spread in novel aquatic environments where growth-limiting resources are spatially heterogeneous. Under contrasting light conditions, we investigated how clonal integration influences growth, biomass...

  13. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    plates and transferred to potato dextrose agar (PDA; Difco Inc., Detroit, Michigan) slants (test tubes placed at an angle during cooling to give a...species” was plated onto potato carrot agar (PCA; Dinghra and Sinclair 1985) and PDA and incubated at 25 °C under a grow light for 1 to 3 weeks to...are leaf, stem, and fruit pathogens of a variety of plants (Farr et al. 1989). Venturia inaequalis, for example, causes a serious disease of apples

  14. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Woolfolk. 2007. Microfungi from bark of healthy and damaged American beech, Fraser fir, and Eastern hemlock trees during an all taxa biodiversity ...Biocontrol Science and Technology 12:75-82. Charudattan, R. 2010. Microbial control of weeds. Symposium: Microbial biocontrol of arthropods, weeds and

  15. Culture Methodology for Experimental Investigations Involving Rooted Submersed Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Regrowth of hydrilla from axillary buds . J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 18:27-29. Langeland, K. A., Sutton, D. L. and Canfield, D. E., Jr. 1983. Growth response...Barko, Hardin, and Matthews 1982). Room temperatures (20 -25 C) are adequate for most species; however, some of the more subtropically occurring, exotic...species (e.g. H. verticillata) may benefit from higher temperatures (Van, Hailer, and Garrard 1978; Bowes, Holaday, and Hailer 1979; Barko and Smart

  16. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  17. Evaluation of butachlor for control of some submerged macrophytes along with its impact on biotic components of freshwater system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chattopadhyay, S. Adhikari, S. P. Adhikary, S. Ayyappan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the efficacy of the herbicide butachlor, (N-butoxymethyl-2 chloro-21, 61 diethyl acetanilide was tested against few common submerged macrophytes namely Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L. Royale, Najas (Najas minor All., Nechamandra (Nechamandra alternifolia (Roxb. Thwaites and Ottelia (Ottelia alismoides (L. Pers. of freshwater fish ponds. Almost complete decay of Hydrilla, Nechamandra and Ottelia was achieved at 7.5 L of active ingredient/ha/m butachlor within 15 days while the herbicide showed no negative effect on Najas. However at the same concentration of butachlor, total mortality of zooplankton and water fern Azolla (Azolla caroliniana Lamarck occurred within seven days. In case of few freshwater fish species like Rohu (Labeo rohita, Channa (Channa punctatus, Anabas (Anabas testitudineus and Heteropneustes (Heteropneustes fossilis, total mortality occurred upto 90 days after application of the same dose of butachlor but fish survived beyond 120 days of herbicide application indicating degradation of the herbicides.

  18. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-01-01

    freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO2 from the sediment. Methods: Gross photosynthesis was measured......Background and Aims: Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO2 availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed......, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO2. For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Conclusions: Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize...

  19. Invasive submerged freshwater macrophytes are more plastic in their response to light intensity than to the availability of free CO2 in air-equilibrated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Franziska; Alnoee, Anette B.; Boderskov, Teis

    2015-01-01

    1. The future increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is likely to affect the growth and performance of submerged freshwater macrophytes because of higher concentrations of free CO2 in the water at air equilibrium. We measured the plastic responses to free CO2 and light for several traits...... of four invasive aquatic plants (Elodea canadensis, Egeria densa, Hydrilla verticillata and Ceratophyllum demersum) that use bicarbonate. 2. The plants were grown in standard culture media at either high (HiC, c. 50 lmol L 1) or low concentrations of free CO2 (LowC, c. 19 lmol L 1) combined with high (Hi...

  20. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    were Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Trichoderma harzianum, Pestalotiopsis guepinii, Microsphaeropsis olivacea , Phoma nebulosa, and Phoma leveillei. All...Alternaria alternata x x x Gliocladium sp. x Curvularia lunata x Aposphaeria pulviscula x Microsphaeropsis olivacea x x x... olivacea , Plectosphaerella cucumerina, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, C. cladosporoides, Trichoderma harzianum, Phoma nebulosa, and Emericellopsis

  1. Chromium accumulation in submerged aquatic plants treated with tannery effluent at Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kiran; Gaumat, Sumati; Mishra, Kumkum

    2011-09-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been widely studied because of their capability of absorbing contaminants from water and their subsequent use in biomonitoring. This study presents a comparison of Cr accumulating potential of submerged aquatic plants viz Vallisneria spiralis and Hydrilla verticillata. These plants were treated with various concentrations of treated tannery effluent collected from UASB, Jajmau, Kanpur under repeated exposure in controlled laboratory conditions in order to assess their maximum bioaccumulation potential. The maximum accumulation of 385.6 and 201.6 microg g(-1) dry weight was found in roots of V. spiralis and the whole plants of H. verticillata, respectively at 100% concentration after 9th day of effluent exposure. The chlorophyll and protein content of both species decreased with increase in effluent concentration and duration. At highest concentration and duration a maximum reduction of 67.4 and 62.66% in total chlorophyll content, 9.97 and 4.66% in carotenoid content and 62.66 and 59.36% in protein content was found in V. spiralis and H. verticillata respectively. Anatomical studies in both V. spiralis and H. verticillata was carried out to assess the effects of metal accumulation within the plants. Changes in the anatomical structures of both plants exhibits the capacity of these species to act as indicator of effluent toxicity. The high accumulation potential of Cr by both plants revealed their capability to remove pollutants from effluent.

  2. Establishing Research and Management Priorities for Invasive Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    invasive (Reichard and White 2001). In 1733, English colonists established a plant introduction station and botanical gardens in Savannah, Georgia...City of Eugene Department of Parks and Open Space Division, Eugene, Oregon. 14pp. Cohen, M.F., C. Hare, J. Kozlowski, R.S. McCormick, L. Chen, L...in wetlands of the Sinos River basin. Brazilian Journal of Biology 70:1179-1184. Martins, C. 1866. Sur les racines aérifères ou vessies natatoires

  3. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-05-01

    Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO(2) availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO(2) from the sediment. Gross photosynthesis was measured in two-compartment split chambers with low inorganic carbon availability in leaf compartments and variable CO(2) availability (0 to >8 mmol L(-1)) in root compartments. Photosynthetic rates based on root-supplied CO(2) were compared with maximum rates obtained at saturating leaf CO(2) availability, and (14)C experiments were conducted for two species to localize bottlenecks for utilization of sediment CO(2). All species except Hydrocotyle were able to use sediment CO(2), however, with variable efficiency, and with the isoetid, Lobelia, as clearly the most effective and the elodeid, Ludwigia, as the least efficient. At a water column CO(2) concentration in equilibrium with air, Lobelia, Lilaeopsis and Vallisneria covered >75% of their CO(2) requirements by sediment uptake, and sediment CO(2) contributed substantially to photosynthesis at water CO(2) concentrations up to 1000 micromol L(-1). For all species except Ludwigia, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO(2). For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize sediment CO(2), and small and medium sized elodeids with high root to shoot area in particular may benefit substantially from uptake of sediment CO(2) in low alkaline lakes.

  4. Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    https://doi.org/10.2307/3434847. Gairola S, Shariff NM, Bhatt A, Kala CP. 2010. Influence of climate change on production of secondary chemicals in high altitude medicinal plants: Issues needs immediate attention. J. Med. Plants Res., 4(18): 1825-1829. Griffiths DW, Thomas T A. 1981. Phytate and total phosphorus content ...

  5. Suitability of aquatic biomass from Lake Toba (North Sumatra, Indonesia) for energy generation by combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, A.; Roubík, H.; Herák, D.

    2017-09-01

    Several aquatic plant species were identified as aquatic pollution of Lake Toba, North Sumatra (Indonesia); specifically, water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and aquatic weeds Hydrilla verticillata and Myriophyllum spicatum due to their high biomass yield which causes impenetrable mats at the bottom and surface of the lake. That complicates other vegetation growth and utilization of water areas for fishing or recreation. In attempt to clean the lake and prevent plants expansion, great amount of plants populations are removed from water but subsequent efficient utilization of such aquatic biomass is not ensured. Present research investigated energy potential of aquatic biomass originated from mentioned aquatic plants from Lake Toba and its possible utilization for energy production by direct combustion. Performed chemical analysis contained from determination of moisture, ash and volatile matter contents and calorific values. Evaluation of results proved highest suitability and energy potential of Eichhornia crassipes with gross calorific value (GCV) 16.31 MJ·kg-1, followed by Hydrilla verticillata with GCV 15.24 MJ·kg-1. Samples of Myriophyllum spicatum exhibited unsatisfactory results due to its low GCV (11.27 MJ·kg-1) in combination with high ash content (36.99%) which indicates complications during combustion, thus, low energy production efficiency and overall unsuitability for combustion purposes.

  6. Three invasive species occurring in the diets of fishes in a Neotropical floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Isaac

    Full Text Available The composition of the diets of 66 species of fishes was investigated from September 2009 to June 2010 in three subsystems of the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil, following invasion by the two mollusk species Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774, and the macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle. Limnoperna fortunei was consumed in all three subsystems and occurred in the diet of 15 fish species, with a high proportion in the diet of Leporinus obtusidens. Corbicula flumineawas present in the diet of Pterodoras granulosus caught in the Paraná and Ivinheima subsystems. Hydrilla verticillataoccurred in the diet of Schizodon nasutus caught in the Ivinheima and Paraná subsystems. It is not yet possible to evaluate the potential of these species to control invasive mollusks in the study area or the impact of these species on the structure of the food chain. Omnivorous and herbivorous fishes in the study area may have little impact on the population of H. verticillata.

  7. Biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste: Effect on degradation kinetics, composting physics and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mayur Shirish; Jambhulkar, Rohit; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2018-01-09

    Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process. Owing to addition of 5% biochar as a bulking agent in composting mixture, the final product from composting, total nitrogen increased by 45% compared to the other trials, and air-filled porosity decreased by 39% and was found to be within recommended range from literature studies. Considering temperature, degradation rate and nitrogen transformation the amendment of 5% biochar is recommended for Hydrilla verticillata composting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Field and laboratory evaluation of the influence of copper-diquat on apple snails in southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Imlay, M.J.; McMillan, W.E.; Martin, T.W.; Takekawa, Jean E.; Johnson, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The recent decline of apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) populations in canals surrounding Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southern Florida coincided with the use of copper-diquat for the control of the aquatic weed hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). Field and laboratory studies were designed to assess the effects of copper-diquat on apple snails, which are the primary food of the endangered snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (formerly known as the Everglade kite). Acute toxicities (96-h LC50 values) of Cutrine-Plus and Komeen (chelated formulations of copper) to immature apple snails were 22 and 24 μg/L, respectively. Diquat was toxic at a concentration of 1,800 μg/L and did not increase the toxicity of copper when the chemicals were used in combination. Evaluation of field samples indicated that copper concentrations were higher in detritus than in water, plants and mud, and that there was a gradient of copper concentration from the canal to the interior, the highest residues being in samples from the canal. Copper associated with detritus (up to 150 μg/g) had no effect on growth or survival of apple snails in field cage and tank studies. Also, field applications of copper-diquat to hydrilla had no effect on survival of caged adult and immature snails. Copper from field applications was rapidly taken out of solution by plants and organic material in the water and subsequently incorporated into the bottom detritus. Although the effects of repeated applications of copper-diquat and high body burdens of copper (accumulated during exposure to herbicidal treatment) on survival and reproduction of apple snails are not known, the information available indicates that treatment of hydrilla with copper-diquat was probably not responsible for the decline in the apple snail population. Application at recommended rates should pose no threat to these snails in the organically rich waters of southern Florida.

  9. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites.

  10. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of Reduced Photorespiratory Activity in Submersed and Amphibious Aquatic Macrophytes 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Michael E.; Bowes, George

    1981-01-01

    Incubation under water in a 30 C/14-hour or 12 C/10-hour photoperiod caused the CO2 compensation points of 10 aquatic macrophytes to decrease below 25 or increase above 50 microliters CO2 per liter, respectively. Submerged and aerial leaves of two amphibious angiosperms (Myriophyllum brasiliense and Proserpinaca palustris) maintained high compensation points when incubated in air but, when the submerged or aerial leaves of Proserpinaca were incubated under water, the compensation points dropped as low as 10. This suggests that, in addition to temperature and photoperiod, some factor associated with submergence regulates the compensation point of aquatic plants. In the high-compensation point plants, photorespiration, as a percentage of net photosynthesis, was equivalent to that in terrestrial C3 plants. For Hydrilla verticillata, the decreasing CO2 compensation points (110, 40, and 10) were associated with reduced photorespiration, as indicated by decreased O2 inhibition, decreased rates of CO2 evolution into CO2-free air, and increased net photosynthetic rates. The decrease in the CO2 compensation points of Hydrilla, Egeria densa, and Cabomba caroliniana was accompanied by an increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate, but not of ribulose bisphosphate, carboxylase. In Hydrilla, several C4 enzymes also increased in activity to the following levels (micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour): pyruvate Pi dikinase (35), pyrophosphatase (716), adenylate kinase (525), NAD and NADP malate dehydrogenase (6565 and 30), NAD and NADP malic enzymes (239 and 44), and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (357 and 85), whereas glycolate oxidase (6) and phosphoglycolate and phosphoglycerate phosphatases (76 and 32) showed no change. Glycolate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were undetectable. The reduced photorespiration in these plants may be due to increased CO2 fixation via a C4 acid pathway. However, for three Myriophyllum species, some other

  12. Induction of reduced photorespiratory activity in submersed and amphibious aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, M E; Bowes, G

    1981-02-01

    Incubation under water in a 30 C/14-hour or 12 C/10-hour photoperiod caused the CO(2) compensation points of 10 aquatic macrophytes to decrease below 25 or increase above 50 microliters CO(2) per liter, respectively. Submerged and aerial leaves of two amphibious angiosperms (Myriophyllum brasiliense and Proserpinaca palustris) maintained high compensation points when incubated in air but, when the submerged or aerial leaves of Proserpinaca were incubated under water, the compensation points dropped as low as 10. This suggests that, in addition to temperature and photoperiod, some factor associated with submergence regulates the compensation point of aquatic plants. In the high-compensation point plants, photorespiration, as a percentage of net photosynthesis, was equivalent to that in terrestrial C(3) plants. For Hydrilla verticillata, the decreasing CO(2) compensation points (110, 40, and 10) were associated with reduced photorespiration, as indicated by decreased O(2) inhibition, decreased rates of CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air, and increased net photosynthetic rates.The decrease in the CO(2) compensation points of Hydrilla, Egeria densa, and Cabomba caroliniana was accompanied by an increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate, but not of ribulose bisphosphate, carboxylase. In Hydrilla, several C(4) enzymes also increased in activity to the following levels (micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour): pyruvate Pi dikinase (35), pyrophosphatase (716), adenylate kinase (525), NAD and NADP malate dehydrogenase (6565 and 30), NAD and NADP malic enzymes (239 and 44), and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (357 and 85), whereas glycolate oxidase (6) and phosphoglycolate and phosphoglycerate phosphatases (76 and 32) showed no change. Glycolate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were undetectable. The reduced photorespiration in these plants may be due to increased CO(2) fixation via a C(4) acid pathway. However, for three Myriophyllum

  13. Accumulation of microcystin congeners in different aquatic plants and crops--a case study from lake Amatitlán, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Oliva, Claudia Suseth; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Block, Tobias; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2014-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) fate in natural environments can lead to its transfer into aquatic organisms, e.g. aquatic plants. Moreover, lakes in several countries sustain agriculture activities posing a serious health threat for the public. The case of Lake Amatitlán in Guatemala, was addressed to better understand MCs accumulation of four aquatic plants (Polygonum portoricensis, Eichhornia crassipes, Typha sp. and Hydrilla verticillata) coexisting with Microcystis aeruginosa blooms. These findings were further corroborated with an uptake/accumulation laboratory study. Finally crop products (Solanum lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum) irrigated with lake water were also evaluated for MCs. The obtained results suggest that Lake Amatitlán is highly contaminated with MCs (intra- and extracellular 1931 and 90 µg/L, respectively). In fruits of S. lycopersicum and C. annuum a concentration of 1.16 and 1.03 µg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively could be detected. All four aquatic plants showed a high MCs uptake capacity based on obtained bioconcentration factors (BCF) 165, 18, 16 and 11, respectively. These results were further corroborated in a laboratory study with 30 percent of total MCs taken up by H. verticillata within just 7 days. Additionally it was evidenced that all plants accumulated more MC-LR than other MCs congeners. Monitoring of crop products irrigated with lake water needs further consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the Environmental DNA Method for Estimating Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhashi, Saeko; Doi, Hideyuki; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Watanabe, Sonoko; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method has increasingly been recognized as a powerful tool for monitoring aquatic animal species; however, its application for monitoring aquatic plants is limited. To evaluate eDNA analysis for estimating the distribution of aquatic plants, we compared its estimated distributions with eDNA analysis, visual observation, and past distribution records for the submerged species Hydrilla verticillata. Moreover, we conducted aquarium experiments using H. verticillata and Egeria densa and analyzed the relationships between eDNA concentrations and plant biomass to investigate the potential for biomass estimation. The occurrences estimated by eDNA analysis closely corresponded to past distribution records, and eDNA detections were more frequent than visual observations, indicating that the method is potentially more sensitive. The results of the aquarium experiments showed a positive relationship between plant biomass and eDNA concentration; however, the relationship was not always significant. The eDNA concentration peaked within three days of the start of the experiment in most cases, suggesting that plants do not release constant amounts of DNA. These results showed that eDNA analysis can be used for distribution surveys, and has the potential to estimate the biomass of aquatic plants.

  15. Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent that is toxic to microbes and other aquatic organisms. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are now popular in TCS removal. However, knowledge on the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs is lacking. The effects of TCS (60 μg L(-1)) on bacterial communities in batch-loaded CWs with emergent (Typha angustifolia), submerged (Hydrilla verticillata), and floating plant (Salvinia natans) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing technology. After six periods of experiment, the TCS removal efficiencies were over 90% in CWs, and negative effects of TCS on bacterial community richness and diversity were observed. Moreover, plant species effect existed. Bacterial strains that contributed to TCS biodegradation in CWs were successfully identified. In TCS-treated T. angustifolia and H. verticillata CWs, beta-Proteobacteria increased by 16.63% and 18.20%, respectively. In TCS-treated S. natans CWs, delta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria increased by 9.36%, 19.49%, and 31.37%, respectively, and could relate to TCS biodegradation. TCS affected the development of certain bacteria, and eventually, the bacterial community structures in CWs. This research provided ecologically relevant information on bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs under TCS treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Moneoecious hydrilla in the Potomac River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    2-4 -D 0 wN 0 00 0 04 ,- % r > 0% (7.I$40%% 0 a0 00%07% ON 0., m 4. - 002 -4 -4 -4 -4 O 0 $4a0 4 0 rAf 00% 00 0c0% ON 0% 0 0 f 0 a4 N 00 0 0 IaAI0 0...and sulfide (Singh et al. 1967, Opuszynski 1979, Custer et al. 1978). These fish cease feeding when dissolved oxygen levels reach about 2.5 mg/k. At...Engineer Water- ways Experiment Station, pp 298-304. Custer , P. E., and F. D. Halverson, J. Malone, and C. Von Chong. 1978. The white amur as a

  17. STUDY ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION AND THE EFFECT OF HEATING ON THE MALATHION RESIDUE ANALYZED USING THE RADIOTRACER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine, the comparison of absorption by aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Waterhyacinth (Eichhomia crassipes of malathion insecticide residues in water and comparison of malathion concentrationin tissues of fish fed with of contaminated water plants (Water hyacinth with tissues of fish, which was not fedcontaminated water plant. The effect of heating the contaminated fish tissue, on its level in tissues of rats that consumeit. For the first experiment (aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + H. verticillata 100 gr + Water hyacinth 100 gr + 20uci 14C-labeled malathion; for the second experiment (the first aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + 30 tails ofgoldfish + 20 uci 14C-labeled malathion; second aquarium filled with 3 litre of water + Water hyacinth 100 gr + 30 tailof goldfist + 20 uci 14C –labeled malathion. For the third experiment (most of contaminated fish tissue in the secondexperiment was dried at room temperature and then given to 30 mice and partly heated and then given to another 30mice. Malathion levels were then analyzed by using a liquid scintillation counter LSC-753 (Aloka. The results of alltreatments were compared using the Student t-test. It can be concluded, H. verticillata was more efficient compared tothe enceng gondok in absorbing the insecticide malathion residues in water; malathion concentration in the tissues offish fed Water hyacinth was higher than those of fish not fed Water hyacinth; contaminated fish tissue residues ofmalathion, although be heated, can not be lowered significantly, levels in the tissue.

  18. Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Bankoti, N S; Rai, U N

    2016-03-15

    New system configurations and wide range of treatability make constructed wetland (CW) as an eco-sustainable on-site approach of waste management. Keeping this view into consideration, a novel configured three-stage simulated CW was designed to study its performance efficiency and relative importance of plants and substrate in purification processes. Two species of submerged plant i.e., Potamogeton crispus and Hydrilla verticillata were selected for this study. After 6 months of establishment, operation and maintenance of simulated wetland, enhanced reduction in physicochemical parameters was observed, which was maximum in the planted CW. The percentage removal (%) of the pollutants in three-stage mesocosms was; conductivity (60.42%), TDS (67.27%), TSS (86.10%), BOD (87.81%), NO3-N (81.28%) and PO4-P (83.54%) at 72 h of retention time. Submerged macrophyte used in simulated wetlands showed a significant time dependent accumulation of toxic metals (p ≤ 0.05). P. crispus accumulated the highest Mn (86.36 μg g(-1) dw) in its tissue followed by Cr (54.16 μg g(-1) dw), Pb (31.56 μg g(-1) dw), Zn (28.06 μg g(-1) dw) and Cu (25.76 μg g(-1) dw), respectively. In the case of H. verticillata, it was Zn (45.29), Mn (42.64), Pb (22.62), Cu (18.09) and Cr (16.31 μg g(-1) dw). Thus, results suggest that the application of simulated CW tackles the water pollution problem more efficiently and could be exploited in small community level as alternative and cost effective tools of phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of chronic silver nanoparticles on aquatic system in microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong Sheng; Yin, Liyan; Ren, Na Na; Xian, Ling; Zhao, Suting; Li, Wei; Gontero, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inevitably discharge into aquatic environments due to their abundant use in antibacterial products. It was reported that in laboratory conditions, AgNPs display dose-dependent toxicity to aquatic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, macrophytes, snails and fishes. However, AgNPs could behave differently in natural complex environments. In the present study, a series of microcosms were established to investigate the distribution and toxicity of AgNPs at approximately 500 μg L-1 in aquatic systems. As a comparison, the distribution and toxicity of the same concentration of AgNO3 were also determined. The results showed that the surface layer of sediment was the main sink of Ag element for both AgNPs and AgNO3. Both aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) and animals (Gambusia affinis and Radix spp) significantly accumulated Ag. With short-term treatment, phytoplankton biomass was affected by AgNO3 but not by AgNPs. Chlorophyll content of H. verticillata increased with both AgNPs and AgNO3 short-term exposure. However, the biomass of phytoplankton, aquatic plant and animals was not significantly different between control and samples treated with AgNPs or AgNO3 for 90 d. The communities, diversity and richness of microbes were not significantly affected by AgNPs and AgNO3; in contrast, the nitrification rate and its related microbe (Nitrospira) abundance significantly decreased. AgNPs and AgNO3 may affect the nitrogen cycle and affect the environment and, since they might be also transferred to food web, they represent a risk for health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection of candidate aquatic high plants as producer of closed aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

    Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is very important for long-term manned space flight. Aquatic organism was regarded to be suitable for this study because of their great adaptation to the weightless condition which approximate to their wild condition in water. In order to study of operation of CELSS in space, the first step is to choose good candidate species for study. In this report, we compared the characteristics of nutrient content, growth and suitability with animals among five types of aquatic high plants including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Vallisneria spiralis L., Hydrilla verticillata Royle, Brasenia schreberi, Wolfia arrhiza under control condition. It was found that B. schreberi had the best nutrients content, but it growth depended on gas interface which may be a big problem in microgravity. C. demersum and W. arrhiza had the better nutrient content than other types, and V. spiralis and H. verticillata had the worst nutrient content. The closed aquatic system can provided condition for the growth of other plants than B. schreberi. So we selected C. demersum and W. arrhiza as the candidate of producer for establish Closed Aquatic Ecosystem. We also established a simple system& by housing three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and C. demersum in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The values about pH, oxygen concentration, temperature and light had been acquired by sensors in real time for about 3 month. It was found that plant's biomass increased for several days and then leveled off and the snails survive, and the atmosphere and biomass for food met snails' requirement during experiments.

  1. Biological and Host Range Studies with Bagous affinis, An Indian Weevil that Destroys Hydrilla Tubers. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    measurements of laboratory-reared and field-collected adults were made to determine if colo- nized individuals were smaller and thus perhaps less vigorous ...L. (Griseb.) (Alismataceae); cel- ery, Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Mill.) Pers. (Apiaceae); cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. Capitata Group

  2. Lespedeza cuneata and Asclepias verticillata detection by dogs on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Prairie City, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary:Working Dogs for Conservation deployed two handlers and three dogs to the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (NSNWR), Prairie City, Iowa, for the detection...

  3. Salvia verticillata L. in the Czech Republic – variability of morphological characteristics, seed quality and essential oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Dušek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lilac sage (Whorled sage, as one of the medicinal plants chosen as perspective for the recultivation of flowering meadows in the Czech Republic, was studied for the variability of its morphological cha­rac­ters, seed quality and content of essential oil. Seven particular populations of this genus were stu­died in the Czech Republic and there were found statistically significant differences in morphological characters (height and width of plants, length and width of leaves and length of inflorescences but not in the content of the essential oil. Studied populations reached only between 0.028 and 0.072% of essential oil in dry mass and also the quality of seeds was found very low (germination between 0–52% in the seeds from natural localities but this fact could be influenced by testing method.

  4. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; DE Arruda, Maurício P; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Atallah, Z K; Beissinger, Steven R; Berumen, Michael L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Brown, S D; Bruford, Michael W; Burdine, C; Busch, Jeremiah W; Campbell, Nathan R; Carey, D; Carstens, Bryan C; Chu, K H; Cubeta, Marc A; Cuda, J P; Cui, Zhaoxia; Datnoff, L E; Dávila, J A; Davis, Emily S; Davis, R M; Diekmann, Onno E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Fargallo, J A; Fernandes, Fabiano; Fukuda, Hideo; Gale, L R; Gallagher, Elizabeth; Gao, Yongqiang; Girard, Philippe; Godhe, Anna; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Gouveia, Licinia; Grajczyk, Amber M; Grose, M J; Gu, Zhifeng; Halldén, Christer; Härnström, Karolina; Hemmingsen, Amanda H; Holmes, Gerald; Huang, C H; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hudman, S P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Kanetis, Loukas; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Keyghobadi, Nusha; Klosterman, S J; Klug, Page E; Koch, J; Koopman, Margaret M; Köppler, Kirsten; Koshimizu, Eriko; Krumböck, Susanne; Kubisiak, T; Landis, J B; Lasta, Mario L; Lee, Chow-Yang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liu, M; Liu, Na; Liu, W C; Liu, Yuan; Loiseau, A; Luan, Weisha; Maruthachalam, K K; McCormick, Helen M; Mellick, Rohan; Monnahan, P J; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Murray, Tomás E; Narum, Shawn R; Neufeld, Katie; De Nova, P J G; Ojiambo, Peter S; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Overholt, W A; Pardini, Renata; Paterson, Ian G; Patty, Olivia A; Paxton, Robert J; Planes, Serge; Porter, Carolyn; Pratchett, Morgan S; Püttker, Thomas; Rasic, Gordana; Rasool, Bilal; Rey, O; Riegler, Markus; Riehl, C; Roberts, John M K; Roberts, P D; Rochel, Elisabeth; Roe, Kevin J; Rossetto, Maurizio; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sakamoto, Takashi; Saravanan, V; Sarturi, Cladinara Roberts; Schmidt, Anke; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Schuler, Hannes; Serb, Jeanne M; Serrão, Ester T A; Shi, Yaohua; Silva, Artur; Sin, Y W; Sommer, Simone; Stauffer, Christian; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Subbarao, K V; Syms, Craig; Tan, Feng; Tejedor, Eugenio Daniel; Thorrold, Simon R; Trigiano, Robert N; Trucco, María I; Tsuchiya-Jerep, Mirian Tieko Nunes; Vergara, P; Van De Vliet, Mirjam S; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, R X; Wang, Xinwang; Wang, Yan; Weeks, Andrew R; Wei, Fuwen; Werner, William J; Wiley, E O; Williams, D A; Wilkins, Richard J; Wisely, Samantha M; With, Kimberly A; Wu, Danhua; Yao, Cheng-Te; Yau, Cynthia; Yeap, Beng-Keok; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, S Y; Zhao, Ru; Zhu, Lifeng

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, Fletcherimyia fletcheri, Hydrilla verticillata, Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, Leavenworthia alabamica, Marmosops incanus, Miichthys miiuy, Nasua nasua, Noturus exilis, Odontesthes bonariensis, Quadrula fragosa, Pinctada maxima, Pseudaletia separata, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Podocarpus elatus, Portunus trituberculatus, Rhagoletis cerasi, Rhinella schneideri, Sarracenia alata, Skeletonema marinoi, Sminthurus viridis, Syngnathus abaster, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis, Verticillium dahliae, Wasmannia auropunctata, and Zygochlamys patagonica. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Chaetodon baronessa, Falco columbarius, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Marmosops paulensis, Monodelphis Americana, Odontesthes hatcheri, Podocarpus grayi, Podocarpus lawrencei, Podocarpus smithii, Portunus pelagicus, Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle,Uroteuthis (Photololigo) edulis, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli and Verticillium albo-atrum. This article also documents the addition of nine sequencing primer pairs and sixteen allele specific primers or probes for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; these primers and assays were cross-tested in both species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Dark/light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, J.C.V.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G.

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from light-exposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C/sub 3/); P. maximum (C/sub 4/ phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C/sub 3/); P. miliaceum (C/sub 4/ NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C/sub 4/ NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C/sub 3/ species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. 16 references, 2 tables.

  6. Screening of native plants and algae growing on fly-ash affected areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India for accumulation of toxic heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Dixit, B; Kumar, A; Tripathi, R D

    2008-10-30

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly-ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 17 plants (9 aquatic, 6 terrestrial and 2 algal species) were collected and screened for heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Si, Al, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and As) accumulation. Differential accumulation of various heavy metals by different species of plants was observed. Hydrilla verticillata was found to be the most efficient metal accumulator among 9 aquatic plants, Eclipta alba among 6 terrestrial plants and Phormedium papyraceum between 2 algal species. In general, the maximum levels of most metals were found in terrestrial plants while the lowest in algal species. However, translocation of the metals from root to shoot was found to be higher in aquatic plants than terrestrial ones. These results suggest that various aquatic, terrestrial and algal species of plants may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated areas.

  7. Applicability of drinking water treatment residue for lake restoration in relation to metal/metalloid risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Jiang, Helong

    2016-12-01

    Drinking water treatment residue (DWTR), a byproduct generated during potable water production, exhibits a high potential for recycling to control eutrophication. However, this beneficial recycling is hampered by unclear metal/metalloid pollution risks related to DWTR. In this study, the pollution risks of Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn due to DWTR application were first evaluated for lake water based on human health risk assessment models and comparison of regulatory standards. The risks of DWTR were also evaluated for sediments on the basis of toxicity characteristics leaching procedure and fractionation in relation to risk assessment code. Variations in the biological behaviors of metal/metalloid in sediments caused by DWTR were assessed using Chironomus plumosus larvae and Hydrilla verticillata. Kinetic luminescent bacteria test (using Aliivibrio fischeri) was conducted to analyze the possibility of acute and chronic detrimental effects of sediment with DWTR application. According to the obtained results, we identify a potential undesirable effect of DWTR related to Fe and Mn (typically under anaerobic conditions); roughly present a dosage threshold calculation model; and recommend a procedure for DWTR prescreening to ensure safe application. Overall, managed DWTR application is necessary for successful eutrophication control.

  8. Mesohaline submerged aquatic vegetation survey along the U.S. gulf of Mexico coast, 2001 and 2002: A salinity gradient approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, J.H.; Carter, J.; Merino, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of marine submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV; i.e., seagrass) in the northern Gulf of Mexico coast has been documented, but there are nonmarine submersed or SAV species occurring in estuarine salinities that have not been extensively reported. We sampled 276 SAV beds along the gulf coast in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas in 2001 and 2002 in oligohaline to polyhaline (0 to 36 parts per thousand) waters to determine estuarine SAV species distribution and identify mesohaline SAV communities. A total of 20 SAV and algal species was identified and habitat characteristics such as salinity, water depth, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and sediment composition were collected. Fourteen SAV species occurred two or more times in our samples. The most frequently occurring species was Ruppia maritima L. (n = 148), occurring in over half of SAV beds sampled. Eleocharis sp. (n = 47), characterized with an emergent rather than submerged growth form, was a common genus in the SAV beds sampled. A common marine species was Halodule wrightii Asch. (n = 36). Nonindigenous species Myriophyllum spicatum L. (n = 31) and Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (n = 6) were present only in oligohaline water. Analyzing species occurrence and environmental characteristics using canonical correspondence and two-way indicator species analysis, we identify five species assemblages distinguished primarily by salinity and depth. Our survey increases awareness of nonmarine SAV as a natural resource in the gulf, and provides baseline data for future research. ?? 2009 by the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama.

  9. Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Vieira Borges, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Eutrophication increases methane emission to the atmosphere in tropical lagoons: insights from two Ivory Coast sites. Y J M Koné (1) & A.V. Borges (2) (1) Centre de recherches océanologiques (CRO) d'Abidjan, (Ivory Coast) (2) University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Liège, Belgium (Belgium) Eutrophication is a worldwide environmental problem and a definitive solution is far from being achieved, despite the large number of studies documenting its causes. In small aquatic ecosystems, excessive growth of macrophytes is a well known undesirable consequence of eutrophication. When these plants die and sink to the bottom the decomposing biomass depletes oxygen content in the water column thus leading to anoxia promoting methane (CH4) production. Here, we reported the CH4 data obtained during six campaigns covering the annual cycle in two small lagoons of Ivory Coast (Ono, Kodjoboué) that are contrasted in the degree of eutrophication and the corresponding coverage of macrophytes (e.g. Echinochloa pyramidalis, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata). Our data showed a high spatio-temporal variability of CH4 within the lagoons and between the two systems, with CH4 concentrations in surface waters ranging between 80 to 74,604 nmol L-1. The highest CH4 concentration values were observed in the eutrophic Ono lagoon that is covered by 80% of macrophytes, suggesting that lagoons dominated by macrophytes are significant sources of CH4 toward the atmosphere.

  10. Constructed tropical wetlands with integrated submergent-emergent plants for sustainable water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Norio; Jinadasa, K B S N; Werellagama, D R I B; Mowjood, M I M; Ng, W J

    2006-01-01

    Improvement of primary effluent quality by using an integrated system of emergent plants (Scirpus grossus in the leading subsurface flow arrangement) and submergent plants (Hydrilla verticillata in a subsequent channel) was investigated. The primary effluent was drawn from a septic tank treating domestic sewage from a student dormitory at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Influent and effluent samples were collected once every 2 weeks from May 2004 through July 2005 and analyzed to determine water quality parameters. Both the emergent and submergent plants were harvested at predetermined intervals. The results suggested that harvesting prolonged the usefulness of the system and the generation of a renewable biomass with potential economic value. The mean overall pollutant removal efficiencies of the integrated emergent and submergent plant system were biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 65.7%; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40.8%; ammonium (NH4+-N), 74.8%; nitrate (NO3--N), 38.8%; phosphate (PO43-), 61.2%; total suspended solids (TSS), 65.8%; and fecal coliforms, 94.8%. The submergent plant subsystem improved removal of nutrients that survived the emergent subsystem operated at low hydraulic retention times. The significant improvement in effluent quality following treatment by the submergent plant system indicates the value of incorporating such plants in wetland systems.

  11. Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; Zhang, Yueping; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Danyue; Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment-water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3(-)-N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m(-2) d(-1) at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anaerobic decomposition of a native and an exotic submersed macrophyte in two tropical reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WA Chiba de Castro

    Full Text Available Some aquatic plants have fast metabolism and growth, even at sub-optimal conditions, and become dominant in lentic environments such as large reservoirs, altering the nutrient cycle and impairing their environmental quality. There is great need in the knowledge impact processes of invasive species in aquatic environments, among the major, those related to the decomposition. This study evaluated the anaerobic decomposition of invasive submerged macrophytes Egeria densa Planch, native, and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle, exotic in Porto Primavera and Jupiá reservoirs, Paraná basin. We evaluated the decay of organic matter, humification degree of the leached material, electrical conductivity and pH of the decomposition process. Mathematical models were utilised to describe the decomposition patterns over time. Both species showed the same heterogeneous pattern of decay of organic matter and carbon mineralisation. The models of carbon mineralisation, compared with the experimentally obtained data presented were adequate. Both species show no significant differences in the decomposition processes. Incubations of both species presented rapid t ½ for POC mineralisation and low DOC mineralisation.

  13. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Lower Rio Grande, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    surveys were conducted starting below Amistad Reservoir to immediately below Falcon Reservoir to assess the distribution and expansion of hydrilla... Amistad Reservoir. No hydrilla was discovered immediately south of Laredo; however, hydrilla infestations had dramatically increased below Falcon...Salt cedar encroaching into riparian regions below Amistad Reservoir......................................................................12 Figure

  14. Calibrating Dissimilar Payment Vehicles in Contingent Valuation Studies: An Example of Reducing Hydrilla in Two North Florida Spring-Fed River Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Victoria; Thomas, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Choice of payment vehicle (PV) is important to contingent-valuation practitioners. They are often left using scenarios that may elicit bias responses; for example hypothetical gate fees in open access areas. Utility bills may avoid bias, but introduce a scaling problem. A survey of north-Florida spring-based recreation calibrates these two dissimilar PVs.

  15. Bioavailable phosphorus (P) reduction is less than mobile P immobilization in lake sediment for eutrophication control by inactivating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; He, Rui; Wu, Yu; Lürling, Miquel; Cai, Haiyuan; Jiang, He-Long; Liu, Xin

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) immobilization by inactivating agents in the sediment of eutrophic lakes to reduce immediately available P in lake water is often crucial for mitigating nuisance eutrophication symptoms, such as cyanobacterial blooms. Macrophytes and phytoplankton, however, can directly utilize P from the sediment for growth. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis of the P bioavailability in lake sediment amended with two promising P-inactivation agents, namely Phoslock ® and drinking water treatment residue (DWTR), was investigated in both short- and long-term studies (20 and 180 d). Phosphorus-availability was assessed using six chemical extraction methods and Hydrilla verticillata and Microcystis aeruginosa growth tests. The results showed that Phoslock ® and DWTR significantly reduced mobile P (NH 4 Cl and Na 2 S 2 O 4 /NaHCO 3 extractable P) in lake sediment, while P bioavailability that was assessed by different methods showed considerable deviations. Interestingly, appropriate bioavailable P chemical extraction methods were determined based on linear correlation analysis, and further comparison indicated that reduction of bioavailable P by DWTR (75%) at recommended dosages, which was probably caused by the capability of macrophyte and cyanobacteria to utilize various fractions of P (except the residual P) in amended sediment under proper illumination. Therefore, DWTR and Phoslock ® can effectively reduce P release from lake sediment, but the potential bioavailable P may pose uncertainties for eutrophication control in lakes that typically have regular sediment re-suspension. Overall, an evaluation of the bioavailable P pool in the lake ecosystem should be essential for successful lake geo-engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  17. Assessment of Wetland Water Quality and Avian Diversity of a Human-Modified Floodplain Wetland on River Yamuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma MANRAL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okhla Bird Sanctuary (OBS is an Important Bird Area, which comes under the protected area network of Uttar Pradesh with one-third area lying in the state of Delhi (India. OBS has widest flood plains along the Delhi stretch of river Yamuna and is important in conserving the ecological wealth of floodplains of the river. Rapid urbanization and industrialization and discharge of untreated wastewater into the river have resulted in deteriorated water quality. The present study focused on assessment of water quality, aquatic flora and avifaunal diversity in the OBS. Water quality was analyzed following methods of APHA. For vegetation analysis, sub-merged and free-floating plants were scooped up from five randomly selected sites. Total bird counts were conducted for water birds and species richness, evenness and Shannon-Weaver species diversity indices were calculated. Results indicate that the organic load is very high in the wetland as evident from low levels of dissolved oxygen (2.26 ± 1.62 mg/l and high Biological and Chemical Oxygen Demands (15.20 ± 3.75 mg/l, 44.60 ± 12.07 mg/l. Nine species of free-floating and submerged plants were recorded; Hydrilla verticillata, Vallisneria spiralis, Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum dominated both deep and shallow water areas. 52 species of waterbirds including four near-threatened species viz., Anhinga melanogaster, Mycteria leucocephala, Threskiornis melanocephalus and Aythya nyroca were recorded. OBS provides opportunities for conservation in a metropolitan area, thus, appropriate measures should be taken to maintain its ecological integrity.

  18. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were continued during 1977 to 1978 on the growth and yields in culture of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae. Partial control of epiphytes was achieved by nutrient removal, shading, and/or biological agents. For the first time, a single clone of the alga was grown continuously throughout the year without replacement. Yields in large (2600 1) aluminum tanks averaged 21.4 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day, equivalent to 31 tons/acre.year (15.5 ash-free dry wt tons/acre.year). Growth of Gracilaria and other seaweeds in Vexar-mesh baskets in natural habitats and in the oceanic waters of a power plant cooling water intake canal were unsuccessful. Productivity of the freshwater macrophytes Lemna minor (common duckweed), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), and Hydrilla verticillata have now been measured throughout the year with mean yields of 3.7, 24.2 and 4.2 g dry weight/m/sup 2/.day (5.4, 35.3, and 6.1 dry tons/acre.year) respectively. Yields of duckweed and water hyacinths in the Harbor Branch Foundation culture units have averaged roughly three times those of the same species growing in highly-eutrophic natural environments. The yields of several other species of freshwater plants were investigated. Only the pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) appears to approach the productivity of water hyacinth on the basis of preliminary measurements. Chopped water hyacinths and unprocessed Gracilaria have both been successfully fermented to methane in anaerobic digesters and the liquid digester residues recycled to produce more of the same plants.

  19. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  20. Analyse sensorielle de la viande bovine additionnée aux huiles essentielles Thymus ciliatus ( Zaitra) et Ammoïdes verticillata (Nunkha)

    OpenAIRE

    AISSANI, FETHI

    2015-01-01

    ت ا ه ا % ھ '# ( , ا ر و ت ا ا ت ا ا ! "# ا إن ا را 7, #8 ض، . ا ا %; . 0- ا%. ا 6#( ا ' ) ا '* ا + , ) ا - ا%. ت ا / # ا 01 21 3 اد ' 5 اء * إ 6 . @A ة وا ا 0 ت ا ا ? @ (# ا ت ا ا ت , و # د ا % 1.53 , ر 7) 0 ا ت ا ا ة ت F 78 . 0- # ا )...

  1. La cinétique microbienne et d’acidité du yaourt associé aux huiles essentielles Ammoïdes verticillata et Thymus ciliatus

    OpenAIRE

    ZAHDOUR, MANEL

    2016-01-01

    Les huiles essentielles renferment plusieurs constituants qui sont bénéfiques pour le corps humain. Cependant il est difficile de les consommer directement. Pour cette raison on a étudié leurs effet sur vecteur alimentaire tel que le yaourt. Ce dernier en le préparant, on ajoute l’huile essentielle de Thymus ciliatus et d’ Ammoïdes verticullata avec des concentrations de 0.3 et 0.6%, pour compter le nombre des bactéries lactiques (Streptococcus thermophilus et Lactobacillus bul...

  2. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Gerhold, Richard W; Fischer, John R

    2004-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a cause of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) mortality in 1994 in Arkansas (USA) and has since caused over 90 bald eagle and numerous American coot (Fulica americana) mortalities in five southeastern states. The cause of AVM remains undetermined but is suspected to be a biotoxin. Naturally occurring AVM has been limited to wild waterbirds, raptors, and one species of shorebird, and has been reproduced experimentally in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). In this study, chickens and swine were evaluated for susceptibility to vacuolar myelinopathy with the intent of developing animal models for research and to identify specific tissues in affected coots that contain the causative agent. Additionally, submerged, aquatic vegetation, primarily hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and associated material collected from a reservoir during an AVM outbreak was fed to chickens in an effort to reproduce the disease. In two separate experiments, six 4-wk-old leghorn chickens and ten 5-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed coot tissues. In a third experiment, five 3-mo-old domestic swine and one red-tailed hawk, serving as a positive control, were fed coot tissues. In these experiments, treatment animals received tissues (brain, fat, intestinal tract, kidney, liver, and/or muscle) from coots with AVM lesions collected at a lake during an AVM outbreak. Negative control chickens and one pig received tissues from coots without AVM lesions that had been collected at a lake where AVM has never been documented. In a fourth experiment, eight 3-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed aquatic vegetation material. Four chickens received material from the same lake from which coots with AVM lesions were collected for the previous experiments, and four control chickens were fed material from the lake where AVM has never been documented. Blood was collected and physical and neurologic exams were conducted on animals before and once per week

  3. Improvements in the use of aquatic herbicides and establishment of future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getsinger, K.D.; Netherland, M.D.; Grue, C.E.; Koschnick, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature over the past 20 years identifies significant changes and improvements in chemical control strategies used to manage nuisance submersed vegetation. The invasive exotic plants hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) continue to spread and remain the plant species of greatest concern for aquatic resource managers at the national scale. Emerging exotic weeds of regional concern such as egeria (Egeria densa Planch.), curlyleaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.), and hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders), as well as native plants such as variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx), and cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana Gray) are invasive outside their home ranges. In addition, there is always the threat of new plant introductions such as African elodea (Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss) or narrow-leaf anacharis (Egeria najas Planchon). The registration of the bleaching herbicide fluridone in the mid 1980s for whole-lake and large-scale management stimulated numerous lines of research involving reduction of use rates, plant selectivity, residue monitoring, and impacts on fisheries. In addition to numerous advances, the specificity of fluridone for a single plant enzyme led to the first documented case of herbicide resistance in aquatic plant management. The resistance of hydrilla to fluridone has stimulated a renewed interest by industry and others in the registration of alternative modes of action for aquatic use. These newer chemistries tend to be enzyme-specific compounds with favorable non-target toxicity profiles. Registration efforts have been facilitated by increased cooperation between key federal government agencies that have aquatic weed control and research responsibilities, and regulators within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). We reviewed past and current research efforts to identify areas in need of further investigation and to establish

  4. Occurrence of green alga Ernodesmisverticillata (Kuetzing) Boergesen at Malvan (Maharashtra coast)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.

    of marine algal resources of the Maharashtra Coast, a green marine algal species was collected and identified as E. verticillata. From the literature it was observed that E. verticillata has not so far been reported from the Indian coast...

  5. Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The content of the phenolic compounds was: ascorbic acid (S. suffruticosa: 23.98 % and S. verticillata: 33.53 %), p- hydroxyl benzoic acid (S. suffruticosa 11.50 % and S. verticillata 3.83 %), vanilic acid (S. suffruticosa 5.86% and S. verticillata: 6.55 %), syringic acid (S. suffruticosa 6.29 %), ferulic acid (S. suffruticosa: 6.35 ...

  6. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material Monitoring Program. 1996 Annual report (Base Year Through Fy1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    coccinea and showy species such as Ludwigia decurrens, Ludwigia octovalvis, Bidens frondosa, Aster tenuifolius, and Aster subulatus. There were...fresh or brackish - Baccharis haiimifolia L shrub; elevated sites in fresh to saline marshes groundselbush - Bidens frondosa L - B...perennial; freshwater marsh, pond and stream margins Conyza bonariensis (L) Cronq hairy fleabane (Erigeron bonariensis) winter annual; fields and

  7. Use of foliar and stem anatomical characters in the identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline information on the stem anatomy of the Ludwigia species has been provided; in addition, diagnostic characters for easy identification and classification of the taxa are also reported. The leaf and stem anatomical characters in the Ludwigia species are constant despite their environmental plasticity. Keywords: ...

  8. State of South Carolina Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    of a diquat and copper sulfate pentahydrate herbicide combination for hydrilla control was carried out by Yeo et. al. (1974). The copper was applied at...effective combination to control egeria and hydrilla (Gangstad, 1976). A diquat- copper sulfate combination is more effective in controlling hydrilla than the... copper resulting from the use of algacides or herbicides basic copper carbonate (malachite), copper sulfate , and copper tri- ethanolamine to control

  9. F-15E Beddown at Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    forficatus) "* Carolina lilaeopsis ( Lilaeopsis carolinensis) "* Sensitive joint-vetch (Aeschvnomene virainica) "* Pine barrens treefrog (Hyla andersonii...tomentos) SRS Carolina Lilaeopsis ( Lilaeopsis carolinensis T (=L. attenuata)) Southern Twayblade (Listera australis) SRS Winged Seedbox (Ludwigia alata

  10. Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in 1995 en 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijden, van der Ruud; Holverda, Wout J.; Duistermaat, Leni (H.)

    1997-01-01

    As a result of nature management measures a number of rare and endangered species reappeared, often after many decades of absence on the site: Apium inundatum, Anagallis tenella, Cicendia filiformis, Echinodorus repens, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Juncus tenageia, Ludwigia palustris, Myriophyllum

  11. Ecological Effects of Exotic and Native Aquatic Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    ponds (α=0.05). ..............................................72 Figure 58. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) counts were highest in hydrilla ponds...Anax Odonata Dragonflies & damselflies Baetidae Callibaetis Ephemeroptera Mayflies Caenidae Caenis Notonectidae Buenoa Belastomatidae...nificantly smaller and in poorer condition in the latter. Numbers of ERDC/EL TR-09-10 74 bluegills were low in hydrilla ponds. Odonata November Pond

  12. Environ: E00144 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e), Apoverticine, Peimiphine, Peimidine, Peimitidine, Peiminoside, Fritimine Fritillaria verticillata [TAX:59070] Same as: D06774 Lil...iaceae (lily family) Fritillaria bulb Major component: P

  13. Aquatic macrophytes in the large, sub-tropical Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Paulo Mormul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, rapid assessment surveys have become an important approach for measuring aquatic ecosystem biodiversity. These methods can be used to detect anthropogenic impacts and recognize local or global species extinctions. We present a floristic survey of the aquatic macrophytes along the Brazilian margin of the Itaipu Reservoir conducted in 2008 and compare this with a floristic survey conducted ten years earlier. We used ordination analysis to determine whether assemblage composition differed among reservoir arms. Macrophyte species were sampled in each of the 235 sampling stations using a boat, which was positioned inside three places of each macrophyte stand to record species and search for small plants. We also collected submerged plants using a rake with the boat moving at constant velocity for ten minutes. We assigned individual macrophyte species to life form and identified representative species for each life form. A total of 87 macrophyte taxa were identified. The "emergent" life forms contained the highest number of species, followed by "rooted submerged" life forms. The extensive survey of macrophytes undertaken in September 2008 recorded more species than a survey conducted between 1995 and 1998. This could be due to changes in water physico-chemistry, disturbances due to water drawdown and the long period between surveys, which may have allowed natural colonization by other species. Additionally, differences in the classification systems and taxonomic resolution used in the surveys may account for differences in the number of species recorded. Assemblage composition varied among the arms and was affected by underwater radiation (as measured using a Secchi disk and fetch. Five non-native species were found. Two of these non-native species (Urochloa subquadripara and Hydrilla verticillata are of special concern because they have a high frequency of occurrence and occupy large marginal areas of the reservoir. Future

  14. A synopsis of the genus Enicostema Bl., nom. cons. (Gentianaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1968-01-01

    In 1759 Linnaeus described an American species under Gentiana, as G. verticillata. In 1781 his son recorded (Suppl. 174) a specimen from India leg. D. D. Fabricius under the same name, without reference to the earlier G. verticillata, and gave a full description. Whether this was just a new record

  15. Comparative leaf anatomy of Trigonobalanus Forman (Fagaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1982-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of the recently discovered Neotropical species Trigonobalanus excelsa is described and compared with that of the Old World species T. doichangensis and T. verticillata. Trigonobalanus excelsa appears to be very similar in its leaf anatomy to T. verticillata from Borneo and Sumatra.

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 ref|YP_203357.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [Mortierella vert...icillata] gb|AAW51694.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [Mortierella verticillata] YP_203357.1 1e-25 43% ...

  17. Evaluation in vivo de I'activite FSH et de I'oestrogenicite de I'extrait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation in vivo de I'activite FSH et de I'oestrogenicite de I'extrait aqueux du melange de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus et Justicia insularis chez la rate immature.

  18. Influence de l'extrait aquueux de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence de l'extrait aquueux de feuilles d'Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus et Justicia insularis sur la fertilité et quelques parametres biochemiques de la reproduction chez la rate.

  19. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    grayish white hyssop Agastache cana Sensitive gypsum blazing star Mentzelia perenis Sensitive gypsum wort Pseudoclappia arenaria Sensitive La Jolla...summa Eustoma exaltatus Chrysothamnus pulchellus elatior Aletes filifolius Tetradymia filifolia Agastache verticillata Opuntia wootonil Zephranthes

  20. Isolation and screening of arsenic resistant rhizobacteria of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ludwigia octovalvis was characterized for its potential in arsenic phytoremediation. Epiphyte rhizobacteria from the roots of L. octovalvis were isolated in five different arsenic concentrations (4, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg kg-1) and control after single exposure for 35 days. Results show that 109 colonies were isolated which were ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bachar, SC. Vol 1, No 4 (2014) - Articles Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and diuretic activity of Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 4 (2014) - Articles Comparative pharmacokinetic analysis with two omeprazole formulations “Proceptin®” and “Losec®” in healthy subjects. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1694-2078.

  2. 765-IJBCS-Article-Oziegbe Mathew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    This study investigated the effect of Acicnemis variegatus on reproductive and growth parameters of five Ludwigia spp [L. octovalvis var brevisepala (Jacq.) Raven, L. decurrens Walter, L. hyssopifolia (G.Don). Excell, L. erecta (Linn) Hara and L. leptocarpa (Nutt.) Hara]. The larva of Acicnemis variegatus significantly reduced ...

  3. A Survey of the Invasive Aquatic and Riparian Plants of the Low Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    watermilfoil E Submersed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.ex Steud common reed ? Emergent Polygonum spp. smartweed N Emergent Pontederia cordata L...spicatum Below Del Rio 8/18/03 313582 323531 3245477 3238196 C. demersum H. dubia Hydrocotyle spp. Ludwigia spp. P. cordata Polygonum spp. P

  4. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R.; Esselink, G.; Kodde, L.P.; Duistermaat, H.; Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Marashi, S.H.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to

  5. Mechanical Harvesting of Aquatic Plants. Report 2. Evaluation of Selected Handling Functions of Mechanical Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Test site locations 12 0 a ’-4 0 C𔃾 13 rI a. Topped out hydrilla north of Bonnet Lake (August 1977) b. Topped out hydrilla north of Highway 48 bridge...Towing test in submersed aquatics 25 cut in Bonnet Lake (see Figure 9). The pushing rake mounted on a flat-bottom boat was used in the tests (Figure 11...Laboratory Technical Publications, a facsimile catalog card in Library of Congress MARC format is reproduced below. Smith, Perry A Mechanical harvesting of

  6. Effect of paclobutrazol on three different aquatic macrophytes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... var. tuberosus (Orchidaceae) seedlings from distant populations: implications for assessing ecotopic differentiation. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 433-444. Lembi CA, Chand T (1992). Response of hydrilla and Eurasian watermilfoil to flurprimidol concentrations and exposure time. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 30: 6-9.

  7. Hydrothermal processing of biomass from invasive aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. James Catallo; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hydrothermal (HT) treatment of three invasive aquatic plants (i.e., Lemna sp., Hydrilla sp., and Eichhornia sp.) with respect to the generation of semi-volatile hydrocarbon product mixtures and biomass volume reduction. Identical HT treatments yielded similar semi-...

  8. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  9. Changes in photosynthesis and activities of enzymes involved in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... (OAA) into malic acid (MA), which exists compre- hensively in the nature. Therefore was considered that. NADP-MDH in C3 carbon metabolism had similar role compared to the C4 metabolism. In recent years, it was reported that angiosperms such as Hydrilla verticilata. (Magnin et al., 1997) and Egeria ...

  10. Decomposition characteristics of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes and their potential application as carbon resource in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; He, Shengbing; Zhou, Weili; Gu, Jianya; Huang, Jungchen; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    Decomposition of aquatic macrophytes usually generates significant influence on aquatic environment. Study on the aquatic macrophytes decomposition may help reusing the aquatic macrophytes litters, as well as controlling the water pollution caused by the decomposition process. This study verified that the decomposition processes of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes (water hyacinth, hydrilla and cattail) could exert significant influences on water quality of the receiving water, including the change extent of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, etc. The influence of decomposition on water quality and the concentrations of the released chemical materials both followed the order of water hyacinth > hydrilla > cattail. Greater influence was obtained with higher dosage of plant litter addition. The influence also varied with sediment addition. Moreover, nitrogen released from the decomposition of water hyacinth and hydrilla were mainly NH3-N and organic nitrogen while those from cattail litter included organic nitrogen and NO3(-)-N. After the decomposition, the average carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in the receiving water was about 2.6 (water hyacinth), 5.3 (hydrilla) and 20.3 (cattail). Therefore, cattail litter might be a potential plant carbon source for denitrification in ecological system of a constructed wetland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EUPHRESCO – DeCLAIM: a decision support system, for control of alien invasive macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Newman, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This report contains the result of a research programme on four invasive aquatic macrophytes, Cabomba caroliniana (Fanwort), Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (Floating pennywort) , Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrott’s feather) and Ludwigia grandiflora (Water primrose). The collaborative project was intended to generate a prototype decision support system for optimising control measures for these species, considered to be the four most troublesome invasive alien aquatic weeds at present i...

  12. Germination ecophysiology for three peri-urban ephemeral weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayeli Martínez, D.; Barrera, Erick de la

    2017-01-01

    We determined the environmental requirements leading to germination by three common species found during the summer rainy season in a peri-urban site where construction of a university campus was underway. In particular, we evaluated laboratory responses to low-temperature stratification, day/night air temperature, and water potential for the native Onagraceae Lopezia racemosa and Ludwigia octovalvis, and the exotic Polygonaceae Rumex crispus. Low-temperature stratification had no effect on g...

  13. Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in 1995 en 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Meijden, van der, R.; Holverda, Wout J.; Duistermaat, Leni

    1997-01-01

    As a result of nature management measures a number of rare and endangered species reappeared, often after many decades of absence on the site: Apium inundatum, Anagallis tenella, Cicendia filiformis, Echinodorus repens, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Juncus tenageia, Ludwigia palustris, Myriophyllum alterniflorum, Pilularia globulifera and Viola persicifolia; the latest news (summer 1997) being the rediscovery of the presumably extinct Juncus capitatus. New are the alien species Nonea lutea, Salix ...

  14. A Revision of the African Species of Epilobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Raven

    1967-11-01

    Full Text Available There are in Africa 10 native species of Epilobium, one of Circaea, and between 8 and 12 of Ludwigia (including  Jussiaea, depending upon how many species are considered native. These three genera include all native African species of Onagraceae. Four sections of Ludwigia, cornprising a total of five species, and one fairly distinctive group of Epilobium are the most characteristic African groups. Despite the fact that H. Perrier de la Bathie (in Humb., FI. Madagasc., Oenotheracs : 1-26, 1950 considered all three of the species of Epilobium that he recognized and four of the 11 species of Ludwigia (including  Jussiaea to be endemic to Madagascar, there are in my opinion no Mascarene endemics in the family Onagraceae and nothing to suggest any great antiquity for the family on that island. This observation agrees with the general pattern for the family in Africa in suggesting that plants of this family are relatively recent arrivals on that continent. Indeed this generality could be extended to apply to the Old World as a whole, where there is no endemic genus of the family (as opposed to 16 endemic genera and 2 endemic tribes—Lopezieae and Onagreae—in the New World, principally in Mexico and the western United States and relatively few endemic sections or subgenera. The ten African species and one subspecies of  Epilobium recognized are described, and a key provided.

  15. Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracts of Some Traditionally Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts were obtained from the leaves of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Malva verticillata L. (Malvaceae), Syzygium guineense DC. (Myrtaceae); and from the rhizomes of Ferula communis L. (Apiaceae), and from the aerial part of Ranunculus multifidus Forssk (Ranunculaceae). Except for the extract of F. communis, ...

  16. Use of phosphorus to alleviate stress induced by cadmium and zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, these results suggested that Cd and Zn exerted their toxic effects on the growth of E. nuttallii and H. verticillata, at least in part, by the induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of photosynthesis. Through comparing the response of the two plants to oxidative stress caused by Cd and Zn, it was found that E. nuttallii was ...

  17. Comparison of electrofishing and rotenone for sampling largemouth bass in vegetated areas of two Florida lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, W.B.; Allen, M.S.; Myers, R.A.; Estes, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the sampling precision and efficiency of electrofishing and rotenone for assessing populations of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in vegetated portions of two Florida lakes. Sampling was conducted at Lochloosa and Orange lakes in north-central Florida from 1990 to 1999. Significant differences in length frequencies were determined between the two methods in 5 of 9 years for each lake. In years where differences existed, electrofishing collected larger fish than did rotenone. The maximum deviation between cumulative relative length frequencies for the two methods was not related to total vegetation, native emergent vegetation, or hydrilla Hydrilla verticallata coverage at either lake. Sampling precision was greater for electrofishing than for rotenone; electrofishing also required less sampling effort to detect changes in the abundance of juvenile and adult largemouth bass. Electrofishing was a more precise and cost-effective method than rotenone for estimating largemouth bass abundance.

  18. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  19. Bioassay of Plant Growth Regulator Activity on Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    I COPY AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PROGRAM .q TECHNICAL REPORT A-90-7 >AD-A226 125 BIOASSAY OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR ACTIVITY ON AQUATIC PLANTS... Plant Growth Regulator Activity on Aquatic Plants 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lembi, Carole A.; Netherland, Michael D. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14...OF THIS PAGE 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continued). Aquatic plants Hydrilla Bensulfuron methyl Paclobutrazol Bioassay Plant growth regulator Eurasian

  20. Point Intercept and Surface Observation GPS (SOG): A Comparison of Survey Methods - Lake Gaston, NC/VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    and exhibited low diversity, domi- nated by coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) and muskgrass (Chara spp.), but included traces of a naiad ( Najas ...giant lyngbya N 0.2 0.6 Myriophyllum spicatum Eurasian watermilfoil E 0.3 0.8 Najas guadalupensis southern naiad N 0.5 1.5 Nelumbo lutea American...were observed mixed with hydrilla. Naiads (either southern naiad and/or the exotic brittle naiad, Najas minor All.) were also found in mixed

  1. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Selected Life History Information of Animal Species on Lake Conway, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    of the problem aquatic plant hydrilla. Information developed in this report will1i(Continued) DD FOR W~S13 Enon r mOF N Vs is NossLeftUfn’n ASECURITY...and commercial d. Unknown management potential e. Not sensitive f. Omnivorous , including terres- trial and aquatic insects, macrocrustaceans, fish...threat- ened or endangered lists c. Not recreational or commercial d. Unknown management potential e. Not sensitive f. Largely vegetarian in diet h. i

  2. US Department of Agriculture/Corps of Engineers Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Research. Annual Report for FY 1982. Biological and Chemical Control Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    collections from Lake Jackson, Florida, and Lewis Pond, Georgia (collections (Fla.) 79305; (Ga.) 79390). 16. Tetragoneuria sepia Gloyd 1 nymph from Lake...Munroe 1972). While the larva of 0. callista is unknown, Dr. Habeck believes that these specimens are this species based on unique characteristics which...locations provided an indication of the geographic variability of the fauna associated with hydrilla. Characteristics Inspection of the values listed

  3. Stormwater Discussion Session - Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Jon

    2006-01-01

    The Stormwater panel addressed water quality impacts on the Wakulla springshed stemming from stormwater discharge into the basin; correlation of discharge with precipitation; relationship between land use and the quantity and quality of runoff and use of Florida's stormwater program and BMP's to address these impacts; nutrient loading; local efforts to reduce stormwater pollution; and, the role of phosphorus vs. nitrate concentrations as triggers to eutrophication and Hydrilla and algal growt...

  4. Uso de “wetland” construído para tratamento de resíduos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5002 Constructed wetland in wastewater treatment - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Variáveis físico-químicas da água e do solo foram avaliadas a fim de verificar a eficiência de um “wetland” construído no tratamento de resíduos. Foram escolhidas oito espécies de macrófitas baseadas na capacidade de retenção e disponibilidade no local de estudo. Dentre elas estão: Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxerodos, Heteranthera reniformis, Hydrocotyle umbeliferae, Ludwigia elegan, Ludwigia sericea, Myriophyllum aquaticum e Thypha domingensis. Foram amostrados dois pontos um na entrada e outro na saída de água do “wetland”. Diferenças significativas (p -1 e de condutividade, acima de 80 µS cm-1. As concentrações de clorofila-a decresceram ao passar pelo “wetland”, sendo mais elevadas no período de chuva (período de engorda de peixe. Amônia, fósforo total, DBO5, fósforo e matéria orgânica do sedimento decresceram ao passar pelo “wetland” construído para indicar a eficiência desse sistema. Assim, essa tecnologia biológica (macrófitas aquáticas apresenta-se como uma opção adequada para melhoria de efluentes de aquicultura e de suinocultura.Physical and chemical variables of soil and water were measured to determine the effectiveness of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment. Eight different macrophyte species, namely Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxerodos, Heteranthera reniformis, Hydrocotyle umbeliferae, Ludwigia elegan, Ludwigia sericea, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Thypha domingensis, were transplanted. Inlet water and outlet water were the two sampling sites evaluated. There were significant differences (p -1, and conductivity was high, above 80 µS cm-1. Chlorophyll-a levels generally tended to decrease at the wetland outlet and were higher during the rainy period (fish growth period. Results show that ammonia, total phosphorus, BOD5, phosphorus and organic matter in the sediment removals in the constructed wetland were higher, indicating that macrophytes played an

  5. Constructed wetland in wastewater treatment = Uso de “wetland” construído para tratamento de resíduos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical variables of soil and water were measured todetermine the effectiveness of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment. Eight different macrophyte species, namely Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxerodos, Heteranthera reniformis, Hydrocotyle umbeliferae, Ludwigia elegan, Ludwigia sericea, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Thypha domingensis, were transplanted. Inlet water and outlet water were the two sampling sites evaluated. There were significant differences (p Variáveis físico-químicas da água e do solo foram avaliadas a fim de verificar a eficiência de um “wetland” construído no tratamento de resíduos. Foram escolhidas oito espécies de macrófitas baseadas na capacidade de retenção e disponibilidade no local de estudo. Dentreelas estão: Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxerodos, Heteranthera reniformis, Hydrocotyle umbeliferae, Ludwigia elegan, Ludwigia sericea, Myriophyllum aquaticum e Thypha domingensis.Foram amostrados dois pontos um na entrada e outro na saída de água do “wetland”. Diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 foram observadas entre a entrada e saída do “wetland” em relação às variáveis limnológicas. Em geral, foram observadas concentrações de oxigêniodissolvido acima de 4 mg L-1 e de condutividade, acima de 80 mS cm-1. As concentrações de clorofila-a decresceram ao passar pelo “wetland”, sendo mais elevadas no período de chuva (período de engorda de peixe. Amônia, fósforo total, DBO5, fósforo e matéria orgânica dosedimento decresceram ao passar pelo “wetland” construído para indicar a eficiência desse sistema. Assim, essa tecnologia biológica (macrófitas aquáticas apresenta-se como uma opção adequada para melhoria de efluentes de aquicultura e de suinocultura.

  6. LA FAMILIA APOCYNACEAE S. STR. (APOCYNOIDEAE, RAUVOLFIOIDEAE EN URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento de las Apocynaceae s. str. (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae de Uruguay. Se reconocen diez especies de un total de siete géneros: Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Condylocarpon isthmicum, Forsteronia glabrescens, Mandevilla coccinea, M. emarginata, M. longiflora, M. petraea, Rhabdadenia madida, Tabernaemontana catharinensis, Vinca major. Se incluyen descripciones, claves, datos de distribución y especimenes examinados. Se seleccionan lectotipos para Dipladenia xanthosoma var. major, Echites emarginatus, E. erectus, E. grandiflorus var. minor, E. pinifolius, Laseguea erecta var. guilleminia f. griseo-olivacea , L. erecta var. obliquinervia f. ovata subf. griseofusca y subf. griseo-olivacea, L. guilleminiana, Macrosiphonia verticillata var. intermedia, M. verticillata var. peduncularis, M. pinifolia f. glabrata y M. pinifolia f. setosa Se designa un neotipo para Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco.

  7. Bosques andinos del sur de Ecuador, clasificación, regeneración y uso

    OpenAIRE

    Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2013-01-01

    Few floristic inventories and even less syntaxonomical vegetation descriptions of tropical mountain forests exist. The author presents a syntaxonomical treatment of the vegetation of Reserva Biológica of San Francisco at the northern limit of Podocarpus National Park, Ecuador, together with notes on the corresponding soil types. The Lower Montane Forest (1800-2150 m), grouped in the new order Alzateetalia verticillatae, has a very diverse tree layer 20-35 m tall, and are a typical mosaic-clim...

  8. Activité antifongique de quelques plantes de la flore ivoirienne | Tra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six espèces de plantes de la flore ivoirienne ont été utilisées pour la recherche de leur activité antifongique. Ce sont : Borreria latifolia, Borreria verticillata, Erigeron floribundus, Euphorbia hirta, Turraea heterophylla et Vernonia colorata. Les extraits dichlorométhane, méthanolique et aqueux, réalisés à partir des poudres ...

  9. Ocular signs correlate well with disease severity and genotype in Fabry disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Pitz

    Full Text Available Ocular signs in Fabry disease have generally been regarded to be primarily of diagnostic value. We explored whether ocular findings, alone or in particular in combination with the α-galactosidase A gene mutation, have predictive value for disease severity. Data from the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS, a large, global database sponsored by Shire, were selected for adult patients who had undergone ophthalmological examination. Three ocular signs were assessed: cornea verticillata, tortuous conjunctival and/or retinal vessels, and cataract. Fabry disease severity was measured using FOS Mainz Severity Score Index and modifications thereof. Ophthalmological data were available for 1203 (699 female, 504 male adult patients with eye findings characteristic of Fabry disease in 55.1%. Cornea verticillata had a similar distribution in women (51.1% and men (50.8%, whereas tortuous vessels and Fabry cataract were somewhat more frequent in men than in women. Patients with cornea verticillata, selected as the principal ocular sign for this study, had more severe disease (median score, 20.0 versus those without ocular signs (11.0; P<0.001. This finding could be confirmed by applying age adjusted severity scores. Moreover, the prevalence of cornea verticillata was significantly higher in patients with null (male, 76.9%; female, 64.5% and missense (male, 79.2%; female, 67.4% mutations versus mild missense (male, 17.1%; female, 23.1% and the p.N215S (male, 15.0%; female, 15.6% mutations (P<0.01. Our analyses show a correlation between the prevalence of ocular changes in Fabry disease and disease severity. Consequently, information on ocular findings and α-galactosidase A gene mutation may help assess the risk for more severe Fabry disease. These observed findings are of notable clinical importance, as Fabry disease is characterized by high clinical course variability and only weak genotype-phenotype correlation at the individual patient level. Further confirmatory

  10. Multivariate Numerical Taxonomy of Mentha Species, Hybrids, Varieties and Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ŠARIĆ-KUNDALIĆ, Broza; FIALOVÁ, Silvia; Dobeš, Christoph; ÖLZANT, Silvester; TEKEĽOVÁ, Daniela; GRANČAI, Daniel; Reznicek, Gottfried; Saukel, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Hercegovina and Slovakia is presented. Following a population-based approach and using hierarchical cluster analyses the following basic species and hybrids corresponding to exclusive branches, i.e. groups, in the constructed hierarchies were recognized: Mentha aquatica, M. spicata, M. arvensis, M. longifolia, M. rotundifolia, M. × piperita, M. × villosa, M. × verticillata, M. × gentillis, M. × gracilis and M. pulegium. These groups were independently found by separate analyses of the sampled...

  11. Posthurricane Survey of Experimental Dunes on Padre Island, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    bonariensis), coast brookweed (Samolus ebracteatus), sand rosegentian (Sabatia arenicola), * and longleaf flaveria (Fiaveria oppositifolia ) occurred...and green carpet weed ( Mollugo verticillata). From 152 to 229 meters away from the bare dunes, vegetation cover * increased to 42 percent, and 25... Mollugo verticellata 0 1 8 0 O enothera drwniondii 0 22 0 0 Poipremum procumbens 0 64 6 15 Phyla incisa 0 0 12 0 Sisyrinchiwn biforme 0 0 1 0 Vernonia

  12. Characterization of Essential Oils of Some Salvia Species and Their Antimycobacterial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    activities, Characterization of essential oils of so

    2014-01-01

    The compositions of the essential oils of 5 Turkish Salvia species, namely Salvia aucheri Bentham var. aucheri (endemic for Turkey), Salvia aramiensis Rech. fil., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia tomentosa Mill., and Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn & Bornm.) Bornm., were studied. Water distilled essential oils from the aerial parts of Salvia species from Turkey were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Salvia aucheri var. aucheri, Salvia aramiensis, and Salvia fruticosa oils have t...

  13. Airborne Pollen Records of Shomolu Local Government Area in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwalade A. ADENIYI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the prevalence of pollen in the atmosphere is limited and almost non-existent for Lagos State and Nigeria. Pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and thus they are potential causes of respiratory diseases. To investigate airborne incidence of pollen, so as to construct a pollen calendar and contribute to current trends in the development of aeropalynology/allergy study in Nigeria, three highly populated locations in Shomolu Local Government areas of Lagos State: University of Lagos, Bariga and Gbagada, were sampled. Aero-samplers were harvested monthly from January 2013 to December 2013. After acetolysis treatment and analysis, the total pollen count was 4393, belonging to 38 pollen taxa and 29 families. The main taxa include Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Amaranthaceae, Ludwigia and Alchornea. Monthly pollen counts were highest in October and lowest in June. Almost three-quarters of the total pollen content came from grasses and weeds. This composition reflects the ornamental and grassland flora of the town, as well as the natural vegetation surrounding the urban area. The total pollen concentration correlates positively with the temperature and negatively with the wind, rainfall and relative humidity, which was similar in the dominant taxa Amaranthaceae and Alchornea. Dominant taxa Cyperaceae and Ludwigia have significant positive correlation with wheezing cough. Results from this work will form the basis for a forecast service required to inform and educate the general public and allergy sufferers about pollen distribution in Lagos State.

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (25th) Held in Orlando, Florida on 26-30 November 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    diced it trashed it question: "is there really a dog ?" I must con- hauled it mashed it fess that I came in to the program as some- mauled it thrased it...and colonized. These museums in Japan, Australia, and New Zea - will be evaluated for use in temperate climates land in autumn 1989 on an ARS/USDA...someday introduced into Florida, the greatly from most of our Florida hydrilla. males will be distinguishable, but the females The roots are well developed

  15. Public Preferences for Improving Water Quality in Spring-Fed Recreational Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Thomas, Victoria; Solís, Daniel; Thomas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study uses contingent valuation to determine consumer’s willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing hydrilla in two alternative spring-fed river systems in Northwest Florida - the Wacissa River (an open access park) and the Wakulla Springs (a gated park). Two dissimilar payment vehicles -gate and power bill fees- are used to assess the economic value of reducing the density of this aquatic weed. A total sample of 317 recreational users was used to estimate their WTP for a 50% reduction in the ...

  16. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 1. Baseline Studies. Volume VI. The Water and Sediment Quality of Lake Conway, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Environmental Engineering; the University of Florida Center for Wetlands Research; the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission; and the University of...Macrophyte Content Data Station Water TOC PO4 -P N Cu Date No. Plant Species percent mg/g mg/g mg/g mg/ 7- 1-76 400117 Hydrilla 93 260 1.0 17 70 7- 1-76...of 3) Table 9 (Continued) Station Water TOC PO4 -P N Cu Date No. Plant Species percent mg/g mL8 mg/g mg/g 7-12-77 332385 Nitella -- 330 1.3 31 35 7-12

  17. Observations on the field transmission dynamics of Schistosoma mansoni and S. mattheei in southern Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, F A; Appleton, C C

    1985-10-01

    Cercarial transmission of Schistosoma mansoni and S. mattheei was monitored in two small rivers near Durban, South Africa. The seasonal patterns recorded corresponded to those already documented for these parasites. In the case of S. mansoni, however, this was interrupted at the height of the transmission season. The reason for this was believed to be very low oxygen concentrations in the snail habitat due to unusually extensive growth of the plant Ludwigia stolonifera over the water. The failure of the spring rains, which would normally have flushed the system is seen as contributing to this phenomenon. Infection rates in the snail intermediate hosts were low (less than 10%). A preponderance of male worms of both schistosome species was noted.

  18. The history of the mangrove vegetation in Bénin during the Holocene: A palynological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossou, M. G.; Akoègninou, A.; Ballouche, A.; Sowunmi, M. A.; Akpagana, K.

    2008-11-01

    Pollen analysis of three core samples,YEV-I, GOHO.00 and DO.00, taken in the coastal area of Bénin shows the existence of mangrove during the Holocene. This mangrove underwent many physiognomic changes from the middle to the late Holocene. In the course of the middle Holocene (from 7500 to 2500 years before present (BP)), it stretched over a large area from the littoral inland. It was tightly closed and almost monospecific, dominated by Rhizophora. During the late Holocene, this mangrove started to regress around 3000 years BP and disappeared about 2500 years BP from the studied sites. It has been replaced by swamp meadows dominated by Paspalum vaginatum Sw. and a fresh water environment colonised by taxa such as Persicaria, Typha, Ludwigia, and Nymphaea.

  19. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; González, Violeta; Jaime-Aguilar, Héctor; Martínez, Gisela; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Romero, Irma

    2009-03-18

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiological agent of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is linked to gastric carcinoma. Treatment to eradicate the bacteria failed in many cases, mainly due to antibiotic resistance, hence the necessity of developing better therapeutic regimens. Mexico has an enormous unexplored potential of medicinal plants. This work evaluates the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of 53 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. To test the in vitro antibacterial activity, agar dilution and broth dilution methods were used for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Aqueous extracts of Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana, Cuphea aequipetala, Ludwigia repens,and Mentha x piperita (MIC 125 to Annona cherimola, Guaiacum coulteri, and Moussonia deppeana (MIC <7.5 to 15.6 microg/ml) showed the highest inhibitory effect. The results contribute to understanding the mode of action of the studied medicinal plants and for detecting plants with high anti-Helicobacter pylori activity.

  20. THE ROLE OF HALTICA SP. (COLEOPTERA: HALTICIDAE AS BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT OF POLYGONUM CHINENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN JAY A

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Haltica sp. (Coleoptera: Halticidae with emphasis on host specificity and damage potential in controlling Polygonum chinense was evaluated under laboratory condition. Starvation test of the weevil on 33 weeds and 14 crop plant species indicated that only 6 weed species were attacked: Polygonum chinense, P. nepalense, P. barbatum, P. longisetum, Ludwigia octovalvis and L. parennis with P. chinense as the most preferred host plant. Preliminary damage potential test indicated that a population of 0, 1,2 and 3 pairs of adult weevil reduced the percentage of fresh weight increment of P. chinense by 0; 46.2; 74.7 and 75.5% respectively. Field observations indicated that the larvae as well as adult weevils are potential biological control agents of P. chinense. Further studies are, however, on the host-range of this weevil.

  1. Adsorption of Arsenite by Six Submerged Plants from Nansi Lake, China

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    Zhibin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nansi Lake is the largest and the most important freshwater lake in north China for the South-North Water Transfer Project. Due to long-time and large-scale fish farming of history, the excess fish food and excretion usually release pentavalent arsenic, which is converted into trivalent arsenic (As (III in the lake sediment and released into lake water. Adsorption of arsenite using six submerged plants (Mimulicalyx rosulatus, Potamogeton maackianus, Hydrilla, Watermifoil, Pteris vittata, and Potamogeton crispus as adsorbing materials was investigated. The experimental data obtained have been analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models and the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion kinetics models. According to the results, the As (III equilibrium data agreed well with the Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption capacity of the plants was in the following order: Potamogeton crispus > Pteris vittata > Potamogeton maackianus > Mimulicalyx rosulatus > Hydrilla > Watermifoil. The sorption system with the six submerged plants was better described by pseudo-second-order than by first-order kinetics. Moreover, the adsorption with Potamogeton crispus could follow intraparticle diffusion (IPD model. The initial adsorption and rate of IPD using Potamogeton crispus and Pteris vittata were higher than those using other plants studied.

  2. Terpenes of Salvia species leaf oils: chemosystematic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Coassini Lokar, Laura; Moneghini, Mariarosa

    2017-01-01

    Wild specimens of Salvia L. were collected in three different moments of anthesis and their volatile leaf oils were analyzed by GC/GCMS. The quantitative terpene composition is very variable with the anthesis. S. bertolonii is the richest species in a-thujone. S. officinalis is characterized by high percentages of 1,8 cineole, 4-terpineol, isorboneol and a -bisabolol. In S. verticillata high percentages of borneol and {3-cariophyllene are present. In the three species a-thujone was always mor...

  3. Summer weeds as hosts for Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and as reservoirs for tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Noah D; Walgenbach, J F; Kennedy, G G

    2005-12-01

    In North Carolina, Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) is vectored primarily by the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). TSWV overwinters in winter annual weeds from which it is spread to susceptible crops in spring. Because most susceptible crops are destroyed after harvest before winter weeds emerge in the fall, infected summer weeds are thought to be the principal source for spread of TSWV to winter annual weeds in fall. A survey of summer weeds associated with TSWV-susceptible crops in the coastal plain of North Carolina conducted between May and October revealed that relatively few species were commonly infected with TSWV and supported populations of F. fusca or F. occidentalis. F. occidentalis made up > 75% of vector species collected from 15 summer weed species during 2002. The number of F. occidentalis and F. fusca immatures collected from plant samples varied significantly among plant species. Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Mollugo verticillata L., Cassia obtusifolia L., and Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats supported the largest numbers of immature F. occidentalis. Richardia scabra L., M. verticillata, and Ipomoea hederacea (L.) supported the largest numbers of F. fusca immatures. TSWV was present at 16 of 17 locations, and naturally occurring infections were found in 14 of 29 weed species tested. Five of the TSWV-infected species have not previously been reported as hosts of TSWV (A. palmeri, Solidago altissima L., Ipomoea lacunosa L., I. purpurea, and Phytolacca americana L.). Estimated rates of infection were highest in I. purpurea (6.8%), M. verticillata (5.3%), and I. hederacea (1.9%). When both the incidence of infection by TSWV and the populations of F. occidentalis and F. fusca associated with each weed species are considered, the following summer weed species have the potential to act as significant sources for

  4. Diseño agronómico y estructural de un prototipo de invernadero de bambú

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Méndez, Mauricio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    El uso del bambú en sustitución del acero en la construcción de invernaderos puede aportar ventajas tales como reducir el alto costo de los materiales y el impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Para el presente estudio, se plantearon tres etapas para cada uno de los siguientes objetivos: 1. Determinar las principales propiedades mecánicas y físicas de cuatro variedades de bambú: Bambusa vulgaris var. striata, Bambusa vulgaris "verde", Bambusa oldhamii y Gigantochloa verticillata col...

  5. Qualidade sensorial e fÃsico-quimica de mÃis de abelha melifera (Apis mellifera) produzidos a partir de diferents origens florais no Estado do CearÃ

    OpenAIRE

    Herlene Greyce da Silveira Queiraz

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a qualidade sensorial e fÃsico â quÃmica de mÃis da abelha melÃfera (Apis mellifera) produzidos a partir de diferentes origens florais no Estado do CearÃ. Foram utilizadas cinco amostras (A, B, C, D, E) que, apÃs anÃlises melissopalinolÃgicas, apresentaram-se, respectivamente, com predominÃncia de: Margaridinha (Bidens tinctoria), Vassourinha de botÃo (Borreria verticillata), Cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale), Sabià (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) e amostr...

  6. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  7. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  8. Pollination success following loss of a frequent pollinator: the role of compensatory visitation by other effective pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Allysa C; Mitchell, Randall J; Chamberlain, Evan R; Karron, Jeffrey D

    2017-05-01

    Pollinator abundance is declining worldwide and may lower the quantity and quality of pollination services to flowering plant populations. Loss of an important pollinator is often assumed to reduce the amount of pollen received by stigmas of a focal species (pollination success), yet this assumption has rarely been tested experimentally. The magnitude of the effect, if any, may depend on the relative efficiency of the remaining pollinators, and on whether the loss of one pollinator leads to changes in visitation patterns by other pollinators. To explore how a change in pollinator composition influences pollination of Asclepias verticillata, we excluded bumble bees from plots in large and small populations of this milkweed species. We then quantified pollinator visitation rates, pollen export and pollen receipt for control plots and for plots where bumble bees were experimentally excluded. We found that exclusion of bumble bees did not reduce pollen receipt by A. verticillata flowers. Visitation by Polistes wasps increased markedly following bumble bee exclusion, both in small populations (186 % increase) and in large populations (400 % increase). Because Polistes wasps were as efficient as bumble bees at pollen transfer, increased wasp visitation offset lost bumble bee pollination services. Thus, loss of a frequent pollinator will not necessarily lead to a decline in pollination success. When pollinator loss is followed by a shift in the composition and abundance of remaining pollinators, pollination success will depend on the net change in the quantity and quality of pollination services.

  9. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Herrera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (- menthone, R (+ pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was the most toxic ( LC50: 116.6 µl /L air characterized by a high percentage of menthone (40.1% and pulegone (43.7%. All ketones showed insecticidal activity against S. zeamais. However, pulegone (LC50: 11.8 µl/L air, R- carvone (LC50: 17.5 µl/L air, S-carvone (LC50: 28.1 µl/L air and E-Z-ocimenone (LC50: 42.3 µl/L air were the most toxic. These ketones are a,b-unsaturated carbonyl. This feature could play a fundamental role in the increase of insecticidal activity against S. zeamais.

  10. Remote sensing analysis of Lake Livingston aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, A. R., Jr.; Newman, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results obtained during 1975 to monitor the growth of aquatic plants in the Lake Livingston area, using remote sensing photographic imagery, were described. Sequential total coverage was provided of the Jungle and White Rock Creek, plus coverage of smaller areas of localized infestation downlake, including Brushy Creek, KOA Kampground Marina, Penwaugh Slough, Memorial Point Marina, the Beacon Bay marinas and Pine Island. The imagery was generally good, photographic exposure being increased as the season progressed in order to obtain better pictures of the submerged vegetation. Some very significant differences in growth patterns, species interaction, and species dominance were observed when compared to 1974. Observation of the following plants was discussed: water hyacinth, hydrilla, coontail, potamageton. In general, the level of infestation was lower in 1975 than in 1974, due to the combined effect of more systematic application of herbicides and harsher intervening winter weather conditions.

  11. Checklist das macrófitas aquáticas do Pantanal, Brasil Checklist of the aquatic macrophytes of the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Joana Pott

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pantanal, por ser alagável, é ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento de muitas plantas aquáticas. Para atender demandas de levantamentos florísticos regionais, fez-se a listagem das macrófitas aquáticas do Pantanal, com base em coletas depositadas nos Herbários CPAP (EMBRAPA, COR (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CH (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e K (Kew. Até o momento, foram levantadas 242 espécies, distribuídas em 106 gêneros e 54 famílias. As famílias mais numerosas são Poaceae (22 espécies, Cyperaceae(17, Leguminosae e Scrophulariaceae(14, Alismataceae e Onagraceae(13, Pontederiaceae(11, Lentibulariaceae(10, Characeae(9, emnaceae, Malvaceae e Nymphaeaceae(8. A maioria das demais famílias apresentam uma ou duas espécies cada. Quanto à forma biológica, 39% são plantas emergentes, 28% anfíbias, 11,5% flutuantes fixas, 8% flutuantes livres, 8% submersas fixas, 3,8% submersas livres e 1,7% epífítas. Os principais gêneros em número de espécies são Nymphaea, Utricularia, Echinodorus, Ludwigia, Polygonum, Aeschynomene, Cyperus, Eleocharis e Bacopa.The Pantanal, being a wetland, is a favorable environment for the development of many aquatic plants. This list of aquatic macrophytes of the Pantanal was made based on field collections, deposited at Herbarium CPAP (EMBRAPA, COR (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CH (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso and K (Kew, to support regional floristic surveys. Until present, 242 species were listed, distributed within 106 genera and 54 families. The most numerous families were Poaceae (22 species Cyperaceae(17, Leguminosae and Scrophulariaceae(14, Alismataceae and Onagraceae(13, Pontederiaceae (11, Lentibulariaceae(10, Characeae(9, Lemnaceae, Malvaceae andNymphaeaceae(8. The majority of other families has one or two species each. The life form spectrum includes 39% emergent plants, 28% amphibious, 11,5% rooted floating, 8% free floating, 8% rooted submerged

  12. POTENCIAL DEL BANCO DE SEMILLAS EN LA REGENERACIÓN DE LA VEGETACIÓN DEL HUMEDAL JABOQUE, BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONTENEGRO-S. ALBA L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el banco de semillas germinable (BS en seis parches de vegetación en lazona conservada del humedal Jaboque: 1 Rumex conglomeratus - Polygonum sp. 2Juncus effusus - Polygonum sp. 3 Typha latifolia 4 Juncus effusus 5 Pennisetumclandestinum - Polygonum sp. 6 Pennisetum clandestinum – Holcus lanatus. En cadaparche se evaluó la composición, la densidad de las especies presentes en el BS el tipode BS que poseen algunas de las especies nativas del humedal la similitud entre lacomposición del BS y la vegetación. El BS del humedal Jaboque actualmente presentaun estado de degradación variable en todos los parches, revelado por la alta dominanciade unas pocas especies y la presencia de semillas de especies oportunistas. Por loanterior, si el BS se expresa luego de un disturbio, su potencial para la regeneración delos parches es bastante limitado; bajo las condiciones generadas por el disturbio, lasespecies oportunistas pueden germinar y ser favorecidas conduciendo a la competencia,el reemplazamiento y/o la eliminación de las especies del humedal. Con base en lapresencia de las especies propias del humedal en el BS y en los parches de vegetaciónse evidencian tres tipos de vulnerabilidad a la extinción local, 1 Especies muyvulnerables: son susceptibles a la extinción local, debido a que tienen baja frecuenciaen la vegetación y están ausentes en el BS (Carex luridiformis y Ludwigia peruvianao a que están ausentes en la vegetación y presentes en el BS (Juncus microcephalusy Eleocharis spp., 2 Especies vulnerables: presentan bajas frecuencias en lavegetación y forman algún tipo de BS (Cyperus rufus y 3 Especies no vulnerables:son poco susceptibles a la desaparición local por poseer mecanismos para asegurarsu permanencia, principalmente mediante la regeneración clonal (Ludwigia peploidesy Typha latifolia o combinada con la reproducción sexual, además presentan laformación de BS grandes de tipo persistente, cuyas semillas

  13. New deep-water cnidarian sites in the southern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. ANGELETTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle exploration and bottom sampling in the southern Adriatic Sea (Apulian and Montenegrin margins resulted in the discovery of cnidarian-rich deep-sea habitats in the depth range of ca. 400-700 m. In particular, ROV inspection of Montenegrin canyons reveals the existence of megabenthic communities dominated by a variety of cnidarians, including scleractinians (Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia cornigera, antipatharians (Leiopathes glaberrima and gorgonians (Callogorgia verticillata as major habitat forming taxa, often in association with sponges and, subordinately, serpulids. All such cnidarians are new records for the southeastern side of the Adriatic Sea. Our investigation indicates that an almost continuous belt of patchy cold water coral sites occurs along the entire southwestern margin (Apulian, basically connecting the Adriatic populations with those inhabiting the Ionian margin (Santa Maria di Leuca coral province.

  14. Eco-friendly biosynthesis, anticancer drug loading and cytotoxic effect of capped Ag-nanoparticles against breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M.; Nasiri, N.; Ikram, M.; Nafees, M.; Qureshi, M. Z.; Ali, S.; Tricoli, A.

    2017-10-01

    The work aimed to prepare silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from silver nitrate and various concentrations of the seed extract (Setaria verticillata) by a green synthetic route. The chemical and physical properties of the resulting Ag-NPs were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. Anticancer activity of Ag-NPs (5-20 nm) had dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against breast cancer (MCF7-FLV) cells. The in vitro toxicity was studied on adult earthworms (Lumbricina) resulting in statistically significant (P < 0.05) inhibition. The prepared NPs were loaded with hydrophilic anticancer drugs (ACD), doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DNR), for developing a novel drug delivery carrier having significant adsorption capacity and efficiency to remove the side effects of the medicines effective for leukemia chemotherapy.

  15. Eco-friendly biosynthesis, anticancer drug loading and cytotoxic effect of capped Ag-nanoparticles against breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M.; Nasiri, N.; Ikram, M.; Nafees, M.; Qureshi, M. Z.; Ali, S.; Tricoli, A.

    2017-11-01

    The work aimed to prepare silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from silver nitrate and various concentrations of the seed extract ( Setaria verticillata) by a green synthetic route. The chemical and physical properties of the resulting Ag-NPs were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. Anticancer activity of Ag-NPs (5-20 nm) had dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against breast cancer (MCF7-FLV) cells. The in vitro toxicity was studied on adult earthworms (Lumbricina) resulting in statistically significant ( P < 0.05) inhibition. The prepared NPs were loaded with hydrophilic anticancer drugs (ACD), doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DNR), for developing a novel drug delivery carrier having significant adsorption capacity and efficiency to remove the side effects of the medicines effective for leukemia chemotherapy.

  16. Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leandro De Santis; Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guaratini, Thais; Colepicolo, Pio; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Garla, Ricardo Clapis; Oliveira Filho, Eurico Cabral; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Zucchi, Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues

    2012-01-01

    SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing), Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux), Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne) Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta). Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area. PMID:22505917

  17. A taxonomic survey of the shallow-water (<150 m black corals (Cnidaria: Antipatharia of the Hawaiian Islands

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    Daniel eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water (<150 m antipatharian fauna of the Hawaiian Archipelago is described and illustrated based on a systematic examination of skeletal spine morphology, polyp morphology, colony branching pattern and in situ photographs. A total of 172 black coral specimens were examined, including all available type material of species previously reported from shallow waters off Hawaiʻi. The examined specimens were assigned to three families (Antipathidae, Aphanipathidae and Myriopathidae, six genera (Antipathes, Cirrhipathes, Stichopathes, Aphanipathes, Acanthopathes and Myriopathes, and eight species: Antipathes griggi Opresko, 2009, Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928, Cirrhipathes cf. anguina (Dana, 1846, Stichopathes echinulata Brook, 1889, Stichopathes? sp., Aphanipathes verticillata mauiensis Opresko et al., 2012, Acanthopathes undulata (Van Pesch 1914 andMyriopathes cf. ulex (Ellis and Solander 1786. The biogeographical distribution of Hawaiian shallow-water black corals is presented and discussed.

  18. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

  19. MISTURAS DE HERBICIDAS: EFEITOS DE ADJUVANTES NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS INFESTANTES NA CULTURA DA SOJA

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    VALDEMIR ANTONIO PERESSIN

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se efeitos de misturas de graminicidas com latifolicidas, aplicados em pós-emergência, acrescidos ou não de seus respectivos adjuvantes, no controle de plantas infestantes na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill cv. IAC-8, em condições de campo. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro graminicidas (haloxifop-metil, HM; sethoxydim, S; quizalofop-etil, QE e fluazifop-p-butil, FpB e quatro latifolicidas (chlorimuron-etil, CE; fomesafen, Fom; fluoroglycofen, Flu e lactofen, Lac, aplicados isoladamente e em misturas, além das testemunhas com e sem convivência da cultura com a comunidade infestante. Os resultados mostraram que os adjuvantes, de maneira geral, intensificaram a injúria dos herbicidas. Os graminicidas mais eficazes, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas, no controle de Eleusine indica e de monocotiledôneas, foram HM, QE e FpB. Não houve diferenças significativas no controle de Digitaria horizontalis entre os quatro graminicidas isolados; porém, as melhores misturas foram as que utilizaram os graminicidas QE ou HM. Para controle de Mollugo verticillata, os melhores tratamentos foram obtidos com Lac aplicado isoladamente e com as misturas de QE, S ou HM com Fom e seus respectivos adjuvantes. As misturas de tanque apresentaram efeitos predominantemente antagonísticos no controle de E. indica, D. horizontalis e monocotiledôneas. Efeitos estatis-ticamente antagonísticos e sinergísticos no controle de M. verticillata foram obtidos, respec-tivamente, nas misturas de tanque com Lac e com Fom. Uma possível interação entre os adjuvantes e as misturas de herbicidas ocorreu nas avaliações de controle para E. indica, quando as misturas de S ou de HM foram usadas com ou sem adjuvantes. Os tratamentos com herbicidas não influíram na produção do cultivar de soja IAC-8.Mixtures of narrowleaf and broadleaf herbicides, with or without their respective surfactants, were evaluated as to postemergence selectivity for weed

  20. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

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    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  1. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

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    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  2. The Prevalence of Fabry Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Turkey: The TURKFAB Study

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    Kultigin Turkmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fabry disease is a treatable cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD characterized by a genetic deficiency of α-galactosidase A. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP recommends screening for Fabry disease in CKD patients. However, this is based on expert opinion and there are no reports of the prevalence of Fabry disease in stage 1-5 CKD. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of Fabry disease in CKD patients not receiving renal replacement therapy. Methods: This prospective study assessed α-galactosidase activity in dried blood spots in 313 stage 1-5 CKD patients, 167 males, between ages of 18-70 years whose etiology of CKD was unknown and were not receiving renal replacement therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by GLA gene mutation analysis. Results: Three (all males of 313 CKD patients (0.95% were diagnosed of Fabry disease, for a prevalence in males of 1.80%. Family screening identified 8 aditional Fabry patients with CKD. Of a total of 11 Fabry patients, 7 were male and started enzyme replacement therapy and 4 were female. The most frequent manifestations in male patients were fatigue (100%, tinnitus, vertigo, acroparesthesia, hypohidrosis, cornea verticillata and angiokeratoma (all 85%, heat intolerance (71%, and abdominal pain (57%. The most frequent manifestations in female patients were fatigue and cornea verticillata (50%, and tinnitus, vertigo and angiokeratoma (25%. Three patients had severe episodic abdominal pain attacks and proteinuria, and were misdiagnosed as familial Mediterranean fever. Conclusions: The prevalence of Fabry disease in selected CKD patients is in the range found among renal replacement therapy patients, but the disease is diagnosed at an earlier, treatable stage. These data support the ERBP recommendation to screen for Fabry disease in patients with CKD of unknown origin.

  3. The Prevalence of Fabry Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Turkey: The TURKFAB Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Kultigin; Guclu, Aydın; Sahin, Garip; Kocyigit, Ismail; Demirtas, Levent; Erdur, Fatih Mehmet; Sengül, Erkan; Ozkan, Oktay; Emre, Habib; Turgut, Faruk; Unal, Hilmi; Karaman, Murat; Acıkel, Cengiz; Esen, Hasan; Balli, Ebru; Bıtırgen, Gulfidan; Tonbul, Halil Zeki; Yılmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease is a treatable cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) characterized by a genetic deficiency of α-galactosidase A. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) recommends screening for Fabry disease in CKD patients. However, this is based on expert opinion and there are no reports of the prevalence of Fabry disease in stage 1-5 CKD. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of Fabry disease in CKD patients not receiving renal replacement therapy. This prospective study assessed α-galactosidase activity in dried blood spots in 313 stage 1-5 CKD patients, 167 males, between ages of 18-70 years whose etiology of CKD was unknown and were not receiving renal replacement therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by GLA gene mutation analysis. Three (all males) of 313 CKD patients (0.95%) were diagnosed of Fabry disease, for a prevalence in males of 1.80%. Family screening identified 8 aditional Fabry patients with CKD. Of a total of 11 Fabry patients, 7 were male and started enzyme replacement therapy and 4 were female. The most frequent manifestations in male patients were fatigue (100%), tinnitus, vertigo, acroparesthesia, hypohidrosis, cornea verticillata and angiokeratoma (all 85%), heat intolerance (71%), and abdominal pain (57%). The most frequent manifestations in female patients were fatigue and cornea verticillata (50%), and tinnitus, vertigo and angiokeratoma (25%). Three patients had severe episodic abdominal pain attacks and proteinuria, and were misdiagnosed as familial Mediterranean fever. The prevalence of Fabry disease in selected CKD patients is in the range found among renal replacement therapy patients, but the disease is diagnosed at an earlier, treatable stage. These data support the ERBP recommendation to screen for Fabry disease in patients with CKD of unknown origin. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Estructura, dimensiones y producción de semilla de malezas del trópico húmedo

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    Juan Calder\\u00F3n

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estructura, dimensiones y producción de propágulos sexuales de malezas del trópico húmedo. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar las dimensiones promedio, describir la estructura externa de las semillas, frutos o espiguillas y estimar el número producido por planta y por gramo, de doce especies de malezas. Se elaboraron esquemas de los propágulos. En las dicotiledóneas estudiadas, el número promedio de semillas por planta varió de 1290 en Asclepias curassavica hasta 195008 en Ludwigia sp. La segunda especie con más elevado número promedio de semillas por planta fue Sida rhombifolia (7962 seguida por Ipomoea sp.(2876. Hyptis capitata mostró mayor número promedio de cabezuelas por planta (341 que Bidens pilosa (106 y que Emilia sonchifolia (61. Mimosa pudica produjo un promedio de 3.3 semillas por fruto. En las Poaceae, Paspalum conjugatum y P. Virgatum produjeron mayor número de espiguillas por rama floral (381 y 1185 respectivamente que Ischaemum indicum (81 y que Rottboellia cochinchinensis (14. Se menciona la anemocoria, la hidrocoria y la zoocoria como mecanismos que contribuyen en la dispersión de estas especies

  5. In Vitro Screening of Medicinal Plants Used in Mexico as Antidiabetics with Glucosidase and Lipase Inhibitory Activities

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    Guillermo Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the inhibitory effect on glucosidase and lipase enzymes of 23 medicinal plants described as traditional treatments for diabetes in several Mexican sources. Hydroalcoholic extracts of selected plants were evaluated at 1 mg/mL for glucosidase and 0.25 mg/mL for lipase inhibitory activities, respectively. Camellia sinensis, acarbose, and orlistat were used as positive controls. Dose-response curves were done with the most active species. Sixty percent of all tested extracts inhibited more than 25% of α-glucosidase activity. C. sinensis displayed an inhibition of 85% (IC50 = 299 μg/mL, while Ludwigia octovalvis and Iostephane heterophylla showed the highest inhibition (82.7 %, IC50 = 202 μg/mL and 60.6%, CI50 = 509 μg/mL, resp.. With respect to lipase activity, L. octovalvis and Tecoma stans were the most inhibiting treatments (31.4%, IC50 = 288 μg/mL; 27.2%, IC50 = 320 μg/mL, while C. sinensis displayed 45% inhibition (IC50 = 310 μg/mL. These results indicate that a high proportion of plants used in Mexico as treatment for diabetes displays significant inhibition of these digestive enzymes.

  6. In vitro screening of medicinal plants used in Mexico as antidiabetics with glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Guillermo; Zavala, Miguel; Pérez, Julia; Zamilpa, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    This work shows the inhibitory effect on glucosidase and lipase enzymes of 23 medicinal plants described as traditional treatments for diabetes in several Mexican sources. Hydroalcoholic extracts of selected plants were evaluated at 1 mg/mL for glucosidase and 0.25 mg/mL for lipase inhibitory activities, respectively. Camellia sinensis, acarbose, and orlistat were used as positive controls. Dose-response curves were done with the most active species. Sixty percent of all tested extracts inhibited more than 25% of α-glucosidase activity. C. sinensis displayed an inhibition of 85% (IC(50) = 299 μg/mL), while Ludwigia octovalvis and Iostephane heterophylla showed the highest inhibition (82.7 %, IC(50) = 202 μg/mL and 60.6%, CI(50) = 509 μg/mL, resp.). With respect to lipase activity, L. octovalvis and Tecoma stans were the most inhibiting treatments (31.4%, IC(50) = 288 μg/mL; 27.2%, IC(50) = 320 μg/mL), while C. sinensis displayed 45% inhibition (IC(50) = 310 μg/mL). These results indicate that a high proportion of plants used in Mexico as treatment for diabetes displays significant inhibition of these digestive enzymes.

  7. Floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank in a rice-growing area of Brazil: in situ and ex situ evaluation

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    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the ex situ and in situ floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank of a rice field in northeastern Brazil. In a rice field in the county of Bacabal, located in the state of Maranhão, thirty 25-m² plots were laid out. From 15 plots, soil samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with a soil probe (25 × 16 × 3 cm and placed in aluminum trays in the greenhouse. From the remaining 15 plots, weed samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with the same soil probe. The number of seeds was estimated by germination. We evaluated the numbers of species and individuals, as well as the density, frequency, abundance and importance value (IV for each species. Diversity was computed by the Shannon index (H'. We recorded 13,892 individuals (among 20 families, 40 genera and 60 species, of which 11,530 (among 50 species germinated ex situ and 2,362 (among 34 species germinated in situ. The family Cyperaceae had the highest number of species (16, followed by Poaceae (10. The dominant species, in situ and ex situ, were Schoenoplectus juncoides (IV=47.4% and Ludwigia octovalvis (IV=34.8%, respectively. Floristic diversity was higher ex situ (H'=2.66. The information obtained here could help determine the infestation potential of these species, which could lead to improved management strategies.

  8. Pollen grains in quaternary sediments from the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

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    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe pollen grains extracted from a Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core (BU-91-GL-05; 22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W taken from the Albacora Slope (22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W, located in the Campos Basin of the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis resulted in the identification and morphological description of 46 types of pollen: one of a gymnosperm genus (Podocarpus; and 45 of angiosperm taxa across 27 families-one family of monocotyledons (Poaceae and 26 families (30 types of dicotyledons. The most common angiosperm families were Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium, Amaranthus and Gomphrena; Fabaceae (Fabaceae type, Bauhinia, Inga and Canavalia; Malpighiaceae (Tetrapteris, Heteropteris and Peixotoa; Malvaceae (Sida, Abutilon, Hibiscus and Pseudobombax; Rubiaceae (Faramea, Borreria and Psychotria; Asteraceae (Eupatorium and tribe Vernonieae; Bignoniaceae (Bignoniaceae type, Adenocalymma and Tabebuia; and Onagraceae (Fuchsia and Ludwigia. The palynoflora in this study are associated with dense montane and submontane Atlantic Forest, semideciduous forest and restinga (coastal woodland, all of which are present in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Palynological analysis can provide important data about paleovegetation and paleoclimatic changes in the studied area during the Quaternary, specifically in the last 145,000 years.

  9. MIDDLE JURASSIC BELEMNITES AND AMMONITES (CEPHALOPODA FROM TELMA-DAREH, NORTHERN IRAN

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    HORACIO PARENT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ammonites and belemnites from a Middle Jurassic section at Telma-Dareh (Alborz Mountains, northern Iran are described. The lithology of the studied section consists of an alternation of marls and limestones attributed to the Dalichai Fm., overlying the top of the Shemshak Fm. (sandstones and underlying the Lar Fm. (limestones. Fossils are rather abundant but concentrated in ten scattered levels, ranging from the Aalenian (Scissum-Murchisonae zones up to the Bajocian. Ammonites (Tmetoceras scissum, Leioceras cf. comptum, Ludwigia cf. murchisonae, Onychoceras ? sp., and Leptosphinctes sp., belemnites (Brevibelus breviformis, Holcobelus cf. munieri  and bivalves are the most abundant and well-preserved fossils; accessory elements are scarce brachiopods and gastropods. The palaeobiogeographic affinities of the belemnite fauna is Subboreal-Submediterranean, whereas the ammonites have Submediterranean-Tethyan affinities. The Aalenian age of the lower part of the Dalichai Fm. at Telma-Dareh differs from the Bajocian age attributed by other authors to this formation in other localities. 

  10. Actividad antibacteriana en plantas medicinales de la flora de Entre Ríos (Argentina

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    Eduardo P. Vivot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas utilizadas tradicionalmente con uso medicinal constituyen un recurso para encontrar fármacos ante nuevas afecciones microbiológicas producidas por la resistencia adquirida de los microorganismos y por el aumento de personas inmunodeprimidas. Los antecedentes etnobotánicos de la flora de Entre Ríos identifican numerosas especies utilizadas para la cura de infecciones, de las cuales se seleccionaron para su estudio: Acacia bonariensis; Baccharis articulata; Blepharocalyx salicifolius; Castela tweedii; Eichhornia azurea; Eichhornia crassipes; Erythrina crista-galli; Gaillardia megapotamica var. scabiosoides; Hydrocotyle bonariensis; Ludwigia peploides; Pistia stratiotes; Phytolacca dioica; Porlieria microphylla; Senna scabriuscula; Schinus fasciculatus y Typha latifolia. Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana de los extractos vegetales metanólico, hidroalcohólico y acuoso por el método de difusión en medio sólido, empleándose cepas bacterianas estandarizadas para verificar la sensibilidad a dichos extractos. Los resultados muestran actividad antibacteriana in vitro de numerosos extractos y de la mayoría de las especies, y varios contra una cepa clínica de Streptococcus aureus meticilino resistente.

  11. Kajian Tanaman Inang Nematoda Puru Akar Padi (Meloidogyne graminicola

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    Mulyadi Mulyadi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study host plants or alternate hosts of root-knot nematode of rice (Meloidogyne graminicola. At the first phase research, ten rice cultivars were inoculated with M. graminicola. On the second phase, nineteen species of plants were treated with M. graminicola. Both experiments were done in green house in Completely Randomized Design. The third phase research was conducted as a survey method using “proportional random sampling”, with D.I. Yogyakarta as its survey areas.  The research results indicated that all rice cultivars tested were attacked by M. graminicola. The lowest number of root-gall was found in IR 26. Of the 19 species plants tested, soybean, pea common bean, france bean, cabbage, and sugarcane var. Ps 56 were attacked by M. graminicola. The survey results indicated that 15 species of weeds were invaded by M. graminicola, i.e. Coix lacrymajobi, Comelina nudiflora, Cyperus flavidus, C. iria, Echinochloa colona, Eragrotis amabilis, Fimbristylis pilosa, Ichaimum mutichum, Leersia hexandra, Ludwigia adscendens, L. peruviana, Marsilea crenata, Monochoria vaginalis, Polygonum barbatum, and Stagnima sp. The highest populatiom of M. graminicola was found on E. colona. Key words: host plants, Meloidogyne graminicola

  12. Identifying and classifying water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) using the HyMap sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Sepalika S.; Khanna, Shruti; Andrew, Margaret E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, the impact of aquatic invasive species on biodiversity has become a major global concern. In the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region in the Central Valley of California, USA, dense infestations of the invasive aquatic emergent weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) interfere with ecosystem functioning. This silent invader constantly encroaches into waterways, eventually making them unusable by people and uninhabitable to aquatic fauna. Quantifying and mapping invasive plant species in aquatic ecosystems is important for efficient management and implementation of mitigation measures. This paper evaluates the ability of hyperspectral imagery, acquired using the HyMap sensor, for mapping water hyacinth in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Classification was performed on sixty-four flightlines acquired over the study site using a decision tree which incorporated Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, absorption feature parameters in the spectral region between 0.4 and 2.5μm, and spectral endmembers. The total image dataset was 130GB. Spectral signatures of other emergent aquatic species like pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides) showed close similarity with the water hyacinth spectrum, however, the decision tree successfully discriminated water hyacinth from other emergent aquatic vegetation species. The classification algorithm showed high accuracy (κ value = 0.8) in discriminating water hyacinth.

  13. Evaluated fate and effects of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin in vegetated and unvegetated microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, J L; Farris, J L; Moore, M T; Smith, S; Stephens, W W; Cooper, C M

    2005-10-01

    Contaminants such as nutrients, metals, and pesticides can interact with constructed wetlands and existing drainage ditches used as agricultural best-management practices. Our research has shown that the presence of macrophytes and a hydrologic regime aid in the transfer and transformation of pesticides associated with agricultural runoff. This study consisted of application of both atrazine (triazine herbicide) and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid insecticide) to vegetated and unvegetated microcosms in order to measure the fate and effects of pesticides applied at suggested field application rates. Exposures focused on monocultures of Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) and Juncus effusus (soft rush). Pesticide sorption was evident through concentrations of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin in plant tissue as high as 2461.4 and 86.50 microg/kg, respectively. Toxicity was measured in water from unvegetated microcosms for 28 days and in Chironomus tentans (midge larvae) exposed to sediment collected from 3 h to 56 days in microcosms receiving the pesticide combination. The comparative survival of test organisms in this study suggests that effective mitigation of pesticides from runoff can depend on the macrophyte contact and vegetative attributes associated with ditches. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dinámica de la vegetación y del banco de semillas en un humedal herbáceo lacustrino (Venezuela

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    Elizabeth Gordon

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation and seed banks association with seasonal water depth variations were studied in a herbaceous wetland of a tropical lake in Monagas, Venezuela. The sampling was done in 10x10m² quadrates located at random in two zones of the lagoon. In each sampling four quadrates per zone were analyzed for relative species density, species richness, life forms and water depth. Soil samples were taken simultaneously for ize and composition of the seed banks (seedling emergence method. Soil pH was five. The organic total fraction of the soil varied between 38% and 52%, and the conductivity between 114 and 182 µmhos/cm. 50 species were recorded: 46% perennial herbs, 22% vines, 12% suffrutescents and 10% hydrophytes. The highest species richness was recorded during periods of rain and rain-dry transition. Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Leersia hexandra, Sacciolepis striata and Polygonum acuminatum were among the most important species numerically. The total density of seed bank varied between 5689 and 13936 seedlings/m². In the seed bank there were 58 species: 43% perennial herbs, 22% suffrutescents, 12% vines 9% annual herbs and 9%, hydrophytes. The highest species richness in the seed bank was during periods of dry and dry-rain transition. Cyperus odoratus, Eleocharis interstincta, Ludwigia hyssopifolia, L. lithospermifolia and Polygonum acuminatum had the highest densities. The potential flora of these wetlands included 76 species, but only 33 (43% were common to the seed bank and the vegetation.

  15. Heavy metal (Pb, Zn) uptake and chemical changes in rhizosphere soils of four wetland plants with different radial oxygen loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junxing; Ma, Zuoluo; Ye, Zhihong; Guo, Xueyan; Qiu, Rongliang

    2010-01-01

    Lead and Zn uptake and chemical changes in rhizosphere Soils of four emergent-rooted wetland plants; Aneilema bracteatum, Cyperus alternifolius, Ludwigia hyssopifolia and Veronica serpyllifolia were investigated by two experiments: (1) rhizobag filled with "clean" or metal-contaminated soil for analysis of Pb and Zn in plants and rhizosphere soils; and (2) applied deoxygenated solution for analyzing their rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL). The results showed that the wetland plants with different ROL rates had significant effects on the mobility and chemical forms of Pb and Zn in rhizosphere under flooded conditions. These effects were varied with different metal elements and metal concentrations in the soils. Lead mobility i n rhizosphere of the four plants both in t"clean" and contaminated soils was decreased, while Zn mobility was increased in the rhizosphere of the "clean" soil, but decreased in the contaminated soil. Among the four plants, V serpyllifolia, with the highest ROL, formed the highest degree of Fe plaque on the root surface, immobilized more Zn in Fe plaque, and has the highest effects on the changes of Zn form (EXC-Zn) in rhizosphere under both "clean" and contaminated soil conditions. These results suggested that ROL of wetland plants could play an important role in Fe plaque formation and mobility and chemical changes of metals in rhizosphere soil under flood conditions.

  16. Nahua indian medicinal plants (Mexico): Inhibitory activity on NF-κB as an anti-inflammatory model and antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, P M; Schmitz, M L; Weimann, C; Kist, M; Heinrich, M

    1996-11-01

    Selected plants documented as medicinal in an ethnobotanical study with the Nahua of the Sierra de Zongolica (Veracruz, Mexico) were evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. One of the potential sides of action of anti-inflammatory drugs is the transcription factor NF-κB. This factor is essential for the immune, inflammatory, and acute phase responses. We therefore tested extracts from a total of 28 plants used by the Nahua Indians for their potential effect on the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. The leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray (Asteraceae) was the only extract which showed inhibitory activity. Nonspecific DNA binding activities were not noticably influenced. Phytochemical studies to isolate the active principle and further biochemical studies in order to better understand the mode of action of this NF-κB inhibitor have been initiated. Five plants showed noteworthy antibacterial activity against some pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25933 and Yersinia enterocolitica 03) and nonpathogenic (E. coli DSM 1077, Micrococcus luteus DSM 348) microorganism: Acacia cornigera, Cuscuta tinctoria, Ludwigia octovalvis, Lysiloma divaricata, and Tithonia diversifolia. Copyright © 1996 Gustav Fischer Verlag · Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  17. Emissions of methane and carbon dioxide during anaerobic decomposition of aquatic macrophytes from a tropical lagoon (São Paulo, Brazil Emissões de metano e dióxido de carbono da decomposição de macrófitas aquáticas de uma lagoa tropical (São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Bianchini Jr.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Massive accumulations of aquatic sedimentary plant are the main source of CH4 and CO2 emissions in floodplain lakes. To examine this connection, this study measured CO2 and CH4 formation during anaerobic decomposition of aquatic macrophytes from a floodplain lake; METHODS: Methane formation was determined to the intrinsic characteristics of the debris, and the experimental (physical and chemical conditions. Production of CH4 and CO2 were measured during anaerobic degradation of seven aquatic macrophytes: Cabomba furcata, Cyperus giganteus, Egeria najas, Eichhornia azurea, Ludwigia inclinata, Oxycaryum cubense, and Utricularia breviscapa, all of which inhabit the littoral zone of the lagoon studied; RESULTS: Overall, methanogenesis was more sensitive to temperature variation than gross anaerobic mineralization. Although the metabolic routes that generate CO2 were always predominant, as a competing process methanogenesis was favored by increasing temperature to the detriment of CO2 formation. Although several factors (such as pH, redox potential, salinity and nutrients availability influenced yields of the final degradation products, temperature and detritus chemical composition were, in a first approach, the key factors in CH4 formation. In the oxbow lakes of the Mogi-Guaçu River Floodplain, especially Óleo Lagoon, on average, 10% of the total carbon can be regarded as the yield of CH4 formation derived from aquatic macrophyte decay, while the remaining carbon (90% became CO2.OBJETIVO: Acúmulos intensos de plantas nos sedimentos são importantes fontes de emissões de CH4 e CO2 em lagoas de várzea de inundação. Nesse estudo foram determinadas as formações de CH4 e CO2 da decomposição anaeróbia de macrófitas aquáticas de uma lagoa marginal; MÉTODOS: A formação do metano foi determinada com base nas características intrínsecas dos detritos e das condições experimentais. As produções de CH4 e CO2 foram determinadas durante

  18. Plantas hospederas de Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, vector de virus del melón Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae en Costa Rica

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    M.V. Sánchez

    2001-03-01

    palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia y Corchorus orinocensis.Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families and 72 plant species (40 families were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis.

  19. Descriptions and Seasonal Variations of Various Biotopes and Ecotones of Indus River Bed at Chashma Barrage, Pakistan

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    Tahira Hussain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find the diversity index of flora, investigation of species at pond area and biomass calculation of economic plants at Chashma Barrage, Pakistan. The study area consisted of river Bella, pond area and eastern edge of river bed near Ali Wali Ghandi village at Chashma Barrage. The seasonal variation in the abundance of floral species was also related with the increase in temperature. Cyperus deformus, Phragmites kerka, Saccharum spontaneum were most abundant in the river ‘Bella’ habitat. Persicassia amphibian, Cyperus deformus and Polygonum royleanum were abundant in Aliwali Ghandi habitat. Aquatic plants of families Potamogetonaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Najadaceae and Hydrocharitaceae were most common in pond area . The ecotones were wide and variable between the aquatic biotopes and the river bed biotopes. On the Aliwali Ghandi site the moist soil with puddles and small channels of water were found and Cyperus deformus biotope prevailed. In the river ‘Bella’ site Phragmites, Sacharum was the biotope and in water Hydrilla biotope was recorded. An increase in biomass of Phragmites, Sacharum and Typha was recorded with the passage of time. The species of the area have significant importance in socio economics of the local community of Chashma Barrage.

  20. Phytoplankton community of Lake Baskandi anua, Cachar District, Assam, North East India – An ecological study

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    Devi M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity, relative abundance and dominance of phytoplankton community of the Lake Baskandi anua, an oxbow lake of Assam, North east India were studied during December 2009 to November 2010. Chlorophyll content and biomass of phytoplankton along with physico-chemical properties of water of the lake were also estimated. The lake is covered with Hydrilla and other macrophytes like Eichhornia, Trapa, Altrnenthera, Polygonum, Ludwizia sp., etc. Seasonal fluctuations of 41 genera of phytoplankton, belonging to 5 groups (Chlorophyceae, Cyanobacteria, Bacillariophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Dinophyceae were encountered in the lake. Chlorophyceae was found to be highest in winter, Cyanobacteria and Euglena in monsoon and Bacillariophyceae in pre monsoon. According to Engelmann’s scale, Spirogyra indica was found eudominant followed by 10 dominant, 24 subdominant and 20 recedent species. Chlorophyll- a content of phytoplankton varied from 14.18 to 33.89 μg·L-1, during the study period. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed significant seasonal variation in physico-chemical properties of water like Water temperature, pH, Conductivity, Dissolved oxygen, Free CO2, Total alkalinity, Calcium, Chloride, Nitrate and Ammonia. Relationship between phytoplankton group assemblage and environmental variables were explored by the ordination method CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis.

  1. Cyanobacterial toxin elimination via bioaccumulation of MC-LR in aquatic macrophytes: an application of the "Green Liver Concept".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Wiegand, Claudia; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2008-11-15

    Cyanobacterial blooms and their corresponding toxins are a major concern to human health when surface waters of eutrophicated lakes are the only source for drinking water supply. The aim of the study was to test effective methods for cyanotoxin elimination by using the bioaccumulation potential of aquatic macrophytes in order to reduce microcystin LR (MC-LR) concentrations from raw lake surface water before entering the drinking water plant for further processing. Laboratory assays with aquatic macrophytes were performed in order to assess the most favorable species and optimal biomass for cyanotoxin elimination, where Lemna sp., Myriophyllum sp., and Hydrilla sp. were shown to be the most efficient macrophytes. In a second phase a pilot scale pond system (e.g. replica of the outdoor pond system) was constructed to assess the toxin elimination efficiency of 5.0 g L(-1) biomass of combined macrophytes. The applied macrophytic biomass reduced an initial MC-LR concentration of 12.1 and 9.2 microg L(-1) to values below the WHO guidelines for drinking water of 1.0 microg L(-1) (MC-LR) in only three days. Applying these results in a specially constructed outdoor pond system resulted in > 84% of toxin elimination at an initial concentration of 1.1 microg L(-1) MC-LR within the raw lake water.

  2. Performa Udang Hias Red Cherry (Neocaridina heteropoda pada Fase Pembesaran Melalui Aplikasi Warna Wadah Berbeda

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    I Wayan Subamia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp red cherry shrimp is one of the ornamental potential developed. One of the conservation efforts can be made to increase production by optimizing keragaannya on enlargement phase. This study aims at scaling up the production of red cherry shrimp, especially in the phase of enlargement. Treatment in the form of background color is composed of (A without colors (control, (B white, (C in black, and (D red. Each treatment was repeated three times with a 45-day long research. Container maintenance in the form of an aquarium measuring 14x14x14 cm3 volume of 1 l and equipped with aeration. The prawns used were 10 fish / aquarium with a weighted average of 0.018 ± 0.21 g and the total length of the average of 0.82 ± 0.21 cm. Feeding in the form of an ad bloodworm satiation and include aquatic plant Hydrilla sp. as a source of additional food and shelter in the form of detritus. The results showed that the weight gain and the highest long background color was achieved by treatment D (red which is equal to 0.09 ± 0.3 g and 1.62 ± 0.3 cm. Survival at each treatment reached 100%. The water quality of all treatments during the study period remained within normal limits.

  3. Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Map Changes in Aquatic Invasive Plant Cover in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed a 80% overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  4. LA VEGETACIÓN DEL HUMEDAL DE JABOQUE (BOGOTÁ, D.C.

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    Hernández Juliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con base en los lineamientos metodológicos de la escuela sigmatista-Zurich-Montpellier, se diferenciaron 14 comunidades vegetales que se distribuyen en losdiferentes ambientes que incluye una serie ecológica hídrica en el humedal deJaboque, Bogotá, Colombia. En la vegetación de ribera predominan los juncalesde Schoenoplectus californicus, de Juncus effusus y el totoral de Typha latifolia.En ambientes pantanosos ya sea en las orillas o en zonas que se han terrizado alinterior de la cubeta, arraigan los herbazales de Polypogon elongatum, de Rumexconglomeratus y el cortaderal de Carex luridiformis. En las zonas de transiciónentre los ambientes acuáticos y continentales, se ubican los camalotales, vegetaciónsemiarraigada dominada por Bidens laevis, que se asocia con Ludwigia peploides,Hydrocotyle ranunculoides y Polygonum punctatum. En los reducidos espejos deagua, se establecen las comunidades fl otantes de Eichhornia crassipes, Limnobiumlaevigatum y Lemna gibba. En general la diversidad fl orística de especies y decomunidades es mayor en la parte más amplia y en mejor estado de conservación delhumedal, en cercanías al Parque de La Florida, donde se encuentran representadascasi todas las comunidades vegetales reseñadas en esta contribución. En la zonade mayor transformación (área canalizada, se establecen pocas comunidades,predominan el camalotal de Bidens laevis, el herbazal de Polygonum punctatum(barbasco y los pastizales con Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyo y Polypogonelongatus. La mayoría de las comunidades vegetales registradas en Jaboque tienendistribución amplia en lagos, lagunas y pantanos andinos, con especial signifi canciaen la sabana de Bogotá y en el altiplano cundi-boyacense.

  5. Active season microhabitat and vegetation selection by giant gartersnakes associated with a restored marsh in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Valcarcel, Patricia; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Rosenberg, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of habitat selection can reveal important patterns to guide habitat restoration and management for species of conservation concern. Giant gartersnakes Thamnophis gigas are endemic to the Central Valley of California, where >90% of their historical wetland habitat has been converted to agricultural and other uses. Information about the selection of habitats by individual giant gartersnakes would guide habitat restoration by indicating which habitat features and vegetation types are likely to be selected by these rare snakes. We examined activity patterns and selection of microhabitats and vegetation types by adult female giant gartersnakes with radiotelemetry at a site composed of rice agriculture and restored wetlands using a paired case-control study design. Adult female giant gartersnakes were 14.7 (95% credible interval [CRI] = 9.4–23.7) times more likely to be active (foraging, mating, or moving) when located in aquatic habitats than when located in terrestrial habitats. Microhabitats associated with cover—particularly emergent vegetation, terrestrial vegetation, and litter—were positively selected by giant gartersnakes. Individual giant gartersnakes varied greatly in their selection of rice and rock habitats, but varied little in their selection of open water. Tules Schoenoplectus acutus were the most strongly selected vegetation type, and duckweed Lemna spp., water-primrose Ludwigia spp., forbs, and grasses also were positively selected at the levels of availability observed at our study site. Management practices that promote the interface of water with emergent aquatic and herbaceous terrestrial vegetation will likely benefit giant gartersnakes. Given their strong selection of tules, restoration of native tule marshes will likely provide the greatest benefit to these threatened aquatic snakes.

  6. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Holocene climatic fluctuations from Lower Brahmaputra flood plain of Assam, northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Swati; Bera, S. K.

    2012-02-01

    Pollen analysis of a 3.2-m deep sedimentary profile cored from the Dabaka Swamp, Nagaon District, Lower Brahmaputra flood plain, Assam has revealed persistent fluvial activity during 14,120-12,700 cal years BP which may be attributed to the paucity of pollen and spores with encounterance of fluvial marker taxa like Ludwigia octavalvis and Botryococcus. Later, fluvial activity was succeeded by the tropical tree savanna under cool and dry climate between 12,700 and 11,600 cal years BP corresponding to that of global Younger Dryas. Between 11,600 and 8310 cal years BP, relatively less cool and dry climate prevailed with inception of tropical mixed deciduous taxa like Shorea robusta and Lagerstroemia parviflora. This phase is further followed by a fluvial activity between 8310 and 7100 cal years BP as evidenced by trace values of pollen and spores. Fluvial activity was further succeeded by enrichment of tropical mixed deciduous forest under warm and humid climatic regime between 7100 and 1550 cal years BP which is well-matched with the peak period of the Holocene climatic optimum. However, during 1550-768 cal years BP, final settlement of tropical mixed deciduous forest occurred under increased warm and humid climate followed by deterioration in tropical mixed deciduous forest under warm and relatively dry climatic regime since 768 cal years BP onwards due to acceleration in human settlement as evidenced by Cerealia. Increase in Melastoma, Ziziphus and Areca catechu imply forest clearance at this phase. The occurrence of degraded pollen-spore along with adequate fungal elements especially, Xylaria, Nigrospora and Microthyriaceous fruiting body is suggestive of aerobic microbial digenesis of rich organic debris during sedimentation.

  8. Selenium concentration in compartments of aquatic ecosystems in Central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinochet, H.; Gregori, I. de; Cavieres, M.F. [Catholic University of Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile). Chemical Institute

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted during 1995-96 to evaluate Se concentration in water, sediment, and plants from aquatic ecosystems of central Chile, an area particularly affected by mining activities. Samples were collected from Panquehue, Chagres, and Ocoa along the Acongua River (presumably receives discharges from a copper refinery and a copper mine). Samples were also collected from one site on the Puchuncavi Stream (directly contaminated by both a coal power plant and a copper refinery). In addition, samples were also collected from one site on the Limache Stream (an urban area with no Se-contaminating sources). The sediment and plant samples collected in Puchuncavi had higher Se levels, which were statistically different to the concentration in samples from other sites. Sediments from Puchuncavi and Ocoa had the highest levels of Se (520 plus or minus 46 and 440 plus or minus 10 {mu} g/kg, respectively) while the plant (Jussiaea repens (Ludwigia repens)) collected in Puchuncavi had an Se concentration 6.5 times higher than the sample collected in Panquehue (116 plus or minus 154 and 182 plus or minus 54 {mu} g/kg, respectively). Puchuncavi water had more acidic pH than water from the other sites thus decreasing Se solubility. Se concentrations in sediment and water collected in Chagres were lower than the concentration determined in sediment and water from either Ocoa or Panquehue. Plant/water and plant/sediment accumulation factors and a sediment/water distribution factor were similar for all sampling sites, except Puchuncavi (accumulation and distribution factors are higher than at the other sites). Hydrocotyle ranunculoides had practically the same plant/sediment accumulation factor at all sites while the accumulation factor for J. repens varied according to site. The samples collected in the Limache stream had Se at equal or even higher concentration than the other samples collected from presumably contaminated sites (except Puchuncavi). 19 refs.

  9. Instability in newly-established wetlands? Trajectories of floristic change in the re-flooded Hula peatland, northern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kaplan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Drainage of the 6,000 ha Hula Lake and peatland in northern Israel in the late 1950s caused the loss of a very diverse and rare ecosystem and an important phytogeographic meeting zone for Holarctic and Palaeotropical species. Draining the Hula peatland was only partially successful in creating a large fertile area for cultivation, and in 1994 this led the authorities to re-flood 100 ha of the valley—the Agamon (Agmon—with the aim of rehabilitating the diverse wetland landscape, promoting ecotourism and creating a clear-water body that would contribute to the purification of Lake Kinneret. The vegetation of the restored wetland was monitored for ten years (1997–2006, recording the establishment and abundance of vascular plant species. More than 20 emergent, submerged and riparian species became established. Like a number of other shallow-water wetlands, the Agmon is characterised by considerable ecological fluctuations. This has been expressed in prominent floristic changes in the Agamon since it was created. An increased abundance of Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas minor and a decline in Potamogeton spp., Najas delilei and filamentous algae have been observed. A long-term decline in water level and sediment accumulation has brought about a significant rise in the incidence of Phragmites australis, Typha domingensis and Ludwigia stolonifera in the south-eastern area. A GIS analysis of changes in species dominance shows fluctuations over the years, with only a partial trend of succession towards a P. australis, T. domingensis and L. stolonifera community.

  10. Microcosm wetlands for wastewater treatment with different hydraulic loading rates and macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lin, Ying-Feng; Wang, Tze-Wen; Lee, Der-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CW) usually require large land areas for treating wastewater. This study evaluated the feasibility of applying CW with less land requirement by operating a group of microcosm wetlands at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of less than 4 d in southern Taiwan. An artificial wastewater, simulating municipal wastewater containing 200 mg L(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 20 mg L(-1) of NH4+-N (AN), and 20 mg L(-1) of PO4(3-)-P (OP), was the inflow source. Three emergent plants [reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.; water primrose, Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven; and dayflower, Commelina communis L.] and two floating plants [water spinach, Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.; and water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L.] plants were tested. The planted systems showed more nutrient removal than unplanted systems; however, the type of macrophytes in CW did not make a major difference in treatment. At the HRTs of 2 to 4 d, the planted system maintained greater than 72,80, and 46% removal for COD, AN, and OP, respectively. For AN and OP removal, the highest efficiencies occurred at the HRT of 3 d, whereas maximum removal rates for AN and OP occurred at the HRT of 2 d. Both removal rates and efficiencies were reduced drastically at the HRT of 1 d. Removals of COD, OP, and AN followed first-order reactions within the HRTs of 1 to 4 d. The efficient removals of these constituents obtained with HRT between 2 and 4 d indicated the possibility of using a CW system for wastewater treatment with less land requirement.

  11. Analysis of Satellite and Airborne Imagery for Detection of Water Hyacinth and Other Invasive Floating Macrophytes and Tracking of Aquatic Weed Control Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Waterways of the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta have recently become infested with invasive aquatic weeds such as floating water hyacinth (Eichhoria crassipes) and water primrose (Ludwigia peploides). These invasive plants cause many negative impacts, including, but not limited to: the blocking of waterways for commercial shipping and boating; clogging of irrigation screens, pumps and canals; and degradation of biological habitat through shading. Zhang et al. (1997, Ecological Applications, 7(3), 1039-1053) used NASA Landsat satellite imagery together with field calibration measurements to map physical and biological processes within marshlands of the San Francisco Bay. Live green biomass (LGB) and related variables were correlated with a simple vegetation index ratio of red and near infra-red bands from Landsat images. More recently, the percent (water area) cover of water hyacinth plotted against estimated LGB of emergent aquatic vegetation in the Delta from September 2014 Landsat imagery showed an 80 percent overall accuracy. For the past two years, we have partnered with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Plant Sciences, University of California at Davis to conduct new validation surveys of water hyacinth and water primrose coverage and LGB in Delta waterways. A plan is underway to transfer decision support tools developed at NASA's Ames Research Center based on Landsat satellite images to improve Delta-wide integrated management of floating aquatic weeds, while reducing chemical control costs. The main end-user for this application project will be the Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) of the California Department of Parks and Recreation, who has the responsibility for chemical control of water hyacinth in the Delta.

  12. Clorofíceas marinhas bentônicas da Praia de Serrambi, Pernambuco, Brasil Benthic marine Chlorophyceae from Serrambi Beach, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Barreto Pereira

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o levantamento florístico sobre as clorofíceas marinhas bentônicas encontradas na Praia de Serrambi, litoral Sul do Estado de Pernambuco. O material estudado foi coletado em três estações, as quais foram visitadas mensalmente durante o período de abril de 1986 a setembro de 1987. As clorofíceas foram representadas na flora local por 39 espécies, três variedades e uma forma, pertencentes às ordens Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Siphonocladales, Cladophorales, Caulerpales e Dasycladales. Acetabularia calyculus Quoy & Gaimard. In Freycinet, Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux, Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson C. Agardh, Caulerpa ambigua Okamura, Caulerpa serrulata (Forsskål J. Agardh emend Børgesen, Chaetomorpha brachygona Harvey, Cladophora coelothrix Kützing, Cladophoropsis membranacea (C. Agardh Børgesen, Codium intertextum Collins & Hervey, Ernodesmis verticillata (Kützing Børgesen são novas referências para a flora do litoral de Pernambuco. Pringsheimiella scutata (Reinke von Höhnel ex Marchewianka o é também para o litoral continental do Brasil. Halimeda opuntia (L. Lamouroux foi hospedeira de maior número de epífitas, enquanto Bryopsis plumosa, quando epífita, foi a que cresceu sobre maior número de hospedeiros.This survey presents studies about benthics marine chlorophyceae found in the Serrambi Beach, South coast of Pernambuco. The material studied was collected in three stations, which were visited monthly during the period from April, 1986 to September, 1987. The chlorophyceae were represented in this flora by 39 species, three varieties and one form, from orders Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Siphonocladales, Cladophorales, Caulerpales and Dasycladales. Acetabularia calyculus Quoy & Gaimard. In Freycinet, Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux, Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson C. Agardh, Caulerpa ambigua Okamura, Caulerpa serrulata (Forsskål J. Agardh emend Børgesen, Chaetomorpha brachygona Harvey, Cladophora coelothrix Kützing, Cladophoropsis

  13. Diversidad de Agaricomycetes clavarioides en la Estación de Biología de Chamela, Jalisco, México Diversity of clavarioid Agaricomycetes at the Chamela Biological Station, Jalisco, Mexico

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    Itzel Ramírez-López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio es una contribución al conocimiento de la diversidad y estructura de los Agaricomycetes clavarioides que se desarrollan en los bosques tropicales de la Estación de Biología de Chamela, Jalisco, México. Las recolecciones se realizaron durante la temporada de lluvias de los años 2005 a 2008; se registraron datos de hábitat y morfología de los basidiomas, tipo de vegetación y sustrato donde se desarrollan, así como del patrón de crecimiento, área de distribución, abundancia y orientación e inclinación de las laderas donde se localizaron. Los 86 ejemplares registrados corresponden a 17 especies, de las cuales Physalacria changensis, P. inflata, Pterula verticillata y Scytinopogon scaber son nuevos registros para México. Scytinopogon pallescens, Pterula sp. 2 y Thelephora sp. fueron las más abundantes y 6 especies se registraron sólo 1 vez. Los datos obtenidos indican que la frecuencia con la que se hallan los basidiomas de los clavarioides en los distintos hábitats no es aleatoria, sino que su producción se da preferentemente en las laderas sur con inclinación de 21° a 30° y en el bosque tropical subperennifolio.This study is a contribution to the biodiversity and community structure of clavarioid Agaricomycetes in the tropical forests of the Chamela Biological Station, in Jalisco, Mexico. The collections were made during the rainy seasons from 2005 to 2008 during which we recorded the morphological and ecological information, including basidiocarp morphology and patterns of growth. Likewise, records were also taken for habitat preferences, types of substrate, orientation, slope inclination, range of distribution and abundance. The 86 specimens recorded, corresponded to 17 different species, from which Physalacria changensis, P. inflata, Pterula verticillata and Scytinopogon scaber are new records for Mexico. The species S. pallescens, Pterula sp. 2 and Thelephora sp. were the most abundant, while other 6 species

  14. Composição florística de plantas daninhas em agrossistemas de cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum e pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Floristic composition of weeds in agrosystems of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum and peach palm (Bactris gasipaes

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    L.S.A. Souza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A interferência das plantas daninhas nos sistemas agroflorestais varia com a espécie e a densidade de infestação da planta daninha. Este trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, em monocultivo de cupuaçuzeiro e pupunheira e em sistema agroflorestal (SAF com estas duas espécies. Havia seis espécies de monocotiledôneas e 15 de dicotiledôneas, e as cinco famílias com maior n��mero de espécies, em ordem decrescente, foram Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Cyperaceae e Verbenaceae. As espécies Desmodium incanun, Cyperus rotundus, Clidemia sp. e Spermacoce verticillata ocorreram nos três cultivos. O maior coeficiente de similaridade de plantas daninhas ocorreu entre os cultivos de cupuaçuzeiro e pupunheira (54,5% e o menor entre o sistema agroflorestal e a pupunha (32,0%. Quanto à freqüência, Stachytarpheta cayennensis apresentou 33% de freqüência na área de SAF; Eclipta alba, 44% de freqüência na área de cultivo de cupuaçuzeiro e na área de cultivo de pupunheira; e D. incanun, C. rotundus e Clidemia sp. apresentaram 44% de freqüência.The interference of weeds in agro-forestry systems production factors varies according to species and infestation density. This assay was conducted at the Federal University of Amazonas Experimental Farm, using separate cupuaçu and peach palm plantations and an agro-forestry system (AFS of both species. Six monocotyledonous and fifteen dicotyledonous species were identified. The major five families with the most number of species were Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Cyperaceae and Verbenaceae, in decreasing order. Desmodium incanun, Cyperus rotundus, Clidemia sp. and Spermacoce verticillata were found in the tree cropping systems. The highest weed similarity coefficient was found between the cupuaçu and peach palm plantations (54.50% and the lowest between the AFS and peach palm plantation (32.00%. Starchytapheta cayennensis frequency was 33

  15. Use of solaria to predict weed density and floristic composition in no-till cropping systems Uso de solaria na predição da densidade de ervas daninhas e da composição florística no sistema de semeadura direta

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    Pablo Antonio Calviño

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a new method, developed for predicting density and floristic composition of weed communities in field crops. Based on the use of solaria (100 mm transparent plastic tarps lying on the soil to stimulate weed seedlings emergence, the method was tested in Tandil, Argentina, from 1998 to 2001. The system involved corn and sunflower in commercial no-till system. Major weeds in the experiments included Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata and S. viridis, which accounted for 98% of the weed community in the three years of experiments since 1998. Large numbers of Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album and Ammi majus were present in 2001. Comparison of weed communities under solaria with communities in field crops indicated that the method is useful for predicting the presence and density of some major weed species, at both high and low densities, of individuals in areas of 10 ha using only five solaria. Low density of weed species makes the method particularly useful to help deciding the time for herbicide applications to avoid soil contamination.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de novo método, desenvolvido para predizer a densidade e a composição florística das comunidades de plantas daninhas. O método é baseado no uso de solaria (plástico transparente de 100 mm sobre o solo, a fim de estimular o aparecimento de ervas daninhas, e foi testado em Tandil, Argentina, de 1998 a 2001. O sistema envolve milho e girassol, em cultivos comerciais em semeadura direta. As principais espécies experimentadas foram Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata e S. viridis, que responderam por 98% da comunidade nos três anos de experiência. Números altos de Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album e Ammi majus estavam presentes em 2001. A comparação de comunidades de ervas daninhas sob solaria com comunidades fora de solaria indicou que o método é útil para predizer a presença e

  16. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

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    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  17. Effect of the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) on ovarian folliculogenesis and fertility of female rats.

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    Telefo, Phelix Bruno; Tagne, Simon Richard; Koona, Olga Elodie Sandrine; Yemele, Didiane M; Tchouanguep, Félicité M

    2012-01-01

    Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant whose leaves and those of three other plants are mixed for the preparation of a concoction used to improve fertility and to reduce labour pains in women of the Western Region of Cameroon. Previous studies have demonstrated the inducing potential on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis of the aqueous extract of the leaf mixture (ADHJ) of four medicinal plants (Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis) among which the later represented the highest proportion. This study was aimed at evaluating the ovarian inducing potential of J. insularis in immature female rats. Various doses of the aqueous extract of J. insularis were daily and orally given, for 20 days, to immature female rats distributed into four experimental groups of twenty animals each. At the end of the experimental period some biochemical and physiological parameters of ovarian function were assayed. The administration of the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis significantly induced an early vaginal opening in all treated groups (P Justicia insularis induces ovarian folliculogenesis thus justifying its high proportion in the leaf mixture of ADHJ.

  18. Update of alien fauna and new records from Tunisian marine waters

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    K. OUNIFI- BEN AMOR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine fauna in coastal and offshore Tunisian waters is presented. Records were compiled from scientific and ‘grey’ publications, presentations at scientific meetings, theses presented in fulfillment of requirements towards MSc and PhD degrees, websites and personal observations. 136 alien species were recorded in Tunisian waters, 60 records in northern coasts, West Mediterranean and 76 in central and southern coasts, Central Mediterranean. Nearly half of the first sightings in Tunisian waters took place in the Gulf of Gabès. The dominant taxa are Crustancean (24%, Molluscs (23%, Fishes (19% and Annelida (13%. Twenty one species previously reported as aliens, were upon consideration, reclassified as range-expanding Atlantic species. Amathia verticillata, previously considered native to the Mediterranean, is reclassified as pseudoindigenous. Twenty one alien species are newly recorded from Tunisia, including 5 fish species, 5 polychaetes, 4 crustaceans, 4 molluscs, and one each schyphozoan, bryozoan and tunicate. The findings of Gibberulus gibberulus albus, Morula aspera and Calcinus latens, three species new to the Mediterranean, and of Actaedoes tomentosus, reported for the second time in the basin, are described. Species were classified according to their establishment status and their origins. This contribution highlights the dual origin of biological invasion in Tunisian waters (Red Sea and Atlantic, with slightly more species of Red Sea and Indo-Pacific origin (61,76%.  The impact of the alien species in Tunisian waters was discussed.

  19. Photodynamic inactivation of Gram-positive bacteria employing natural resources.

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    Mamone, L; Di Venosa, G; Gándara, L; Sáenz, D; Vallecorsa, P; Schickinger, S; Rossetti, M V; Batlle, A; Buzzola, F; Casas, A

    2014-04-05

    The aim of this paper was to investigate a collection of plant extracts from Argentina as a source of new natural photosensitizers (PS) to be used in Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) of bacteria. A collection of plants were screened for phototoxicity upon the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus epidermidis. Three extracts turned out to be photoactive: Solanum verbascifolium flower, Tecoma stans flower and Cissus verticillata root. Upon exposure to a light dose of 55J/cm(2), they induced 4, 2 and 3logs decrease in bacterial survival, respectively. Photochemical characterisation of S. verbascifolium extract was carried out. PDI reaction was dependent mainly on singlet oxygen and to a lesser extent, on hydroxyl radicals, through type II and I reactions. Photodegradation experiments revealed that the active principle of the extract was not particularly photolabile. It is noticeable that S. verbascifolium -PDI was more efficient under sunlight as compared to artificial light (total eradication vs. 4 logs decrease upon 120min of sunlight). The balance between oxidant and antioxidant compounds is likely to be masking or unmasking potential PS of plant extracts, but employing the crude extract, the level of photoactivity of S. verbascifolium is similar to some artificial PS upon exposure to sunlight, demonstrating that natural resources can be employed in PDI of bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

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    MARENCO RICARDO ANTONIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W, MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness. The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl. Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

  1. Mosaic uniparental disomy results in GM1 gangliosidosis with normal enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kenneth A; Bennett, Mark F; Chow, Chung W; Carden, Susan M; Mandelstam, Simone A; Bahlo, Melanie; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2018-01-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders are traditionally diagnosed using broad and expensive panels of screening tests, often including invasive skin and muscle biopsy. Proponents of next-generation genetic sequencing have argued that replacing these screening panels with whole exome sequencing (WES) would save money. Here, we present a complex patient in whom WES allowed diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis, caused by homozygous GLB1 mutations, resulting in β-galactosidase deficiency. A 10-year-old girl had progressive neurologic deterioration, macular cherry-red spot, and cornea verticillata. She had marked clinical improvement with initiation of the ketogenic diet. Comparative genomic hybridization microarray showed mosaic chromosome 3 paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). GM1 gangliosidosis was suspected, however β-galactosidase assay was normal. Trio WES identified a paternally-inherited pathogenic splice-site GLB1 mutation (c.75+2dupT). The girl had GM1 gangliosidosis; however, enzymatic testing in blood was normal, presumably compensated for by non-UPD cells. Severe neurologic dysfunction occurred due to disruptive effects of UPD brain cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Phytochemical composition of fractions isolated from ten Salvia species by supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2017-06-01

    Ten Salvia species, S. amplexicaulis, S. austriaca, S. forsskaolii S. glutinosa, S. nemorosa, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea, S. stepposa and S. verticillata were fractionated using supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid (ethanol and water) extractions. Fifteen phytochemicals were identified using commercial standards (some other compounds were identified tentatively), 11 of them were quantified by ultra high pressure chromatography (UPLC) with quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF, TQ-S). Lipophilic CO 2 extracts were rich in tocopherols (2.36-10.07mg/g), while rosmarinic acid was dominating compound (up to 30mg/g) in ethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide, caffeic and carnosic acids were quantitatively important phytochemicals in the majority other Salvia spp. Antioxidatively active constituents were determined by using on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis combined with 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (HPLC-DPPH). Development of high pressure isolation process and comprehensive characterisation of phytochemicals in Salvia spp. may serve for their wider applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences Improves Phylogenetic Resolution in Paris (Melanthiaceae)

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    Huang, Yuling; Li, Xiaojuan; Yang, Zhenyan; Yang, Chengjin; Yang, Junbo; Ji, Yunheng

    2016-01-01

    The genus Paris in the broad concept is an economically important group in the monocotyledonous family Melanthiaceae (tribe Parideae). The phylogeny of Paris was controversial in previous morphology-based classification and molecular phylogeny. Here, the complete cp genomes of eleven Paris taxa were sequenced, to better understand the evolutionary relationships among these plants and the mutation patterns in their chloroplast (cp) genomes. Comparative analyses indicated that the overall cp genome structure among the Paris taxa is quite similar. The triplication of trnI-CAU was found only in the cp genomes of P. quadrifolia and P. verticillata. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete cp genomes did not resolve Paris as a monophyletic group, instead providing evidence supporting division of the twelve taxa into two segregate genera: Paris sensu strict and Daiswa. The sister relationship between Daiswa and Trillium was well supported. We recovered two fully supported lineages with divergent distribution in Daiswa; however, none of the previously recognized sections in Daiswa was resolved as monophyletic using plastome data, suggesting that the infrageneric relationships and biogeography of Daiswa species require further investigation. Ten highly divergent DNA regions, suitable for species identification, were detected among the 12 cp genomes. This study is the first successful attempt to provide well-supported evolutionary relationships in Paris based on phylogenomic analyses. The findings highlight the potential of the whole cp genomes for improving resolution in phylogeny as well as species identification in phylogenetically and taxonomically difficult plant genera. PMID:27965698

  4. Analysis of Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences Improves Phylogenetic Resolution in Paris (Melanthiaceae

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    Yuling Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Paris in the broad concept is an economically important group in the monocotyledonous family Melanthiaceae (tribe Parideae. The phylogeny of Paris was controversial in previous morphology-based classification and molecular phylogeny. Here, the complete cp genomes of eleven Paris taxa were sequenced, to better understand the evolutionary relationships among these plants and the mutation patterns in their chloroplast (cp genomes. Comparative analyses indicated that the overall cp genome structure among the Paris taxa is quite similar. The triplication of trnI-CAU was found only in the cp genomes of P. quadrifolia and P. verticillata. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete cp genomes did not resolve Paris as a monophyletic group, instead providing evidence supporting division of the twelve taxa into two segregate genera: Paris sensu strict and Daiswa. The sister relationship between Daiswa and Trillium was well supported. We recovered two fully supported lineages with divergent distribution in Daiswa; however, none of the previously recognized sections in Daiswa was resolved as monophyletic using plastome data, suggesting that the infrageneric relationships and biogeography of Daiswa species require further investigation. Ten highly divergent DNA regions, suitable for species identification, were detected among the twelve cp genomes. This study is the first successful attempt to provide well-supported evolutionary relationships in Paris based on phylogenomic analyses. The findings highlight the potential of the whole cp genomes for improving resolution in phylogeny as well as species identification in phylogenetically and taxonomically difficult plant genera.

  5. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

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    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  6. KARAKTERISTIK ANATOMI DAUN DARI SEPULUH SPESIES Hoya SUKULEN SERTA ANALISIS HUBUNGAN KEKERABATANNYA

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    Putra Hafiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoya has two types of leaves, succulent and non succulent. Succulent plant adapted well in extreme conditions, especially during dry period. Anatomical characters can be used to identify, classify, and determine plant relationship. The aims of this research were to identify anatomical character of succulent Hoya’s leaf and to determine their relationship. Ten examined species Hoya spp. (H. diversifolia, H. latifolia, H. dolichosparte, H. bilobata, H. lacunosa, H. verticillata, H. purpureofusca, H. kuhlii, H. oblanceolata, and H. micrantha showed anatomical similarity in their epidermal layer, hipodermal, mesophyl, and the absence of sponge tissue at mesophyl. However, there are diversities among the species. Based on paradermal section of the leaf,  two types of stomata were only found at the abaxial side, individual stomata and both individual and stomatal cluster. Hoya diversifolia has the smallest stomatal size, while Hoya latifolia has the biggest. Hoya lacunosa has the lowest stomatal density, while Hoya bilobata has the highest. Hoya diversifolia, Hoya lacunosa, and Hoya oblanceolata have the lowest stomatal index, while Hoya bilobata has the highest. Observation on transversal section showed that Hoya purpureofusca has the lowest leaf thickness, while Hoya kuhlii has the highest. The hierarchical cluster analysis based on anatomical leaf characters showed different patterns of relationship which diversed as three groups at relationship scale 15.

  7. Vertical distribution of benthic marine organisms on rocky coasts of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago (Brazil

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    Verena Rapp de Eston

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative samples of flora and fauna were collected in several points, from the supralittoral fringe down to 30 m, using mainly aqualungs. Species distribution and abundance were determined along four transects, up to 200 m long, in selected places. Samples were taken from 25 x 25 cm quadrats positioned at fixed intervals along the transects down to a variable depth, depending on algal percentage cover and their substrate. The intertidal zone was populated essentially by molluscs. The subtidal was covered predominantly by macroalgae. Montastrea cavernosa, Siderastrea stellata and Mussismillia hispida were the only animal species with a significant percentage cover within the quadrats. Dictyopteris justii, D. plagiograma, Dictyota cervicornis, D. linearis, D. mertensii, Sargassum platycarpum, Sargassum sp, and Stypopodium zonale were the plants with the highest biomass and/or percentage cover, along with Amphiroa fragilissima, Caulerpa verticillata, and crustose corallines. The scarcity of sea urchins, along with the dominance of algae known to produce chemical feeding deterrents or to have a calcareous nature, points towards a strong pressure by predators, with fishes probably playing a key role in the maintenance of the structure of this subtidal community.

  8. A review of the genus Mirostenella Bayer, 1988 (Octocorallia: Primnoidae) with a description of a new subgenus and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Guardiola, Rebeca; López-González, Pablo J.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, the genus Mirostenella Bayer (Proc Biol Soc Wash 101:251-256, 1988) is revised. We add to knowledge of the type species of the genus M. articulata Bayer (Proc Biol Soc Wash 101:251-256, 1988) from newly collected material from the Antarctic cruise Polarstern ANT XIX/5, and an illustrated description of this species is included. Cairns and Bayer (Smithson Contrib Zool 629:1-79, 2009) included Dicholaphis delicatula Thomson and Rennet (Sci Rept C Zool Bot 9(3):1-46, 1931) in the genus Mirostenella but after the examination of the type material, it is proposed to include the species in the recently described Plumarella subgenus, Faxiella (Zapata-Guardiola and López-González in Sci Mar 76:357-380, 2012). In addition, a new species of Plumarella, Plumarella castellviae sp. nov. from SubAntarctic waters is also described and illustrated. The species has similarities to Mirostenella but differs from it in the absence of organic nodes at bifurcation points and the presence of a sympodial branching pattern. Moreover, a new subgenus, Verticillata, is also proposed to include Plumarella species with polyps arranged in whorls around branchlets.

  9. The mutation p.D313Y is associated with organ manifestation in Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Moulin, M; Koehn, A F; Golsari, A; Dulz, S; Atiskova, Y; Patten, M; Münch, J; Avanesov, M; Ullrich, K; Muschol, N

    2017-11-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene. The clinical significance of the mutation p.D313Y is still under debate. Retrospective chart analysis of clinical (neurological, cardiac, renal, and ophthalmological), genetic, and biochemical (lyso-globotriaosylsphingosine, lyso-Gb3; enzyme activity) data was performed in all our patients carrying the p.D313Y mutation. Fourteen patients from 5 families (10 female, 4 male; age range 10-51) were included. Symptoms and organ manifestations compatible with FD could be identified in 10 patients. Cerebrovascular events occurred in 4 females. Seven patients reported pain or acroparaesthesia. Cornea verticillata was found in 1 patient, mild retinal vascular tortuosity in 5 patients. Lyso-Gb3 was elevated in 2 females with cerebrovascular involvement. Classical cardiac, renal or skin manifestations could not be identified. The mutation p.D313Y in the GLA gene may lead to organ manifestations and elevation of the Fabry-specific biomarker lyso-Gb3. Neurological symptoms (stroke and pain) and ocular manifestations seem to be the leading findings. Annual routine visits are recommended for patients carrying the p.D313Y mutation. Enzyme replacement therapy might be considered in symptomatic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  11. Botanical Survey in Moyo Island, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia: Inventory of Flora Collection at Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimanto Trimanto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nusa Tenggara consists of some small islands, one of them is Moyo Island. The diversity of plant species in this island is not really known for certain. This research was determined to observe the diversity of plant spe-cies in Moyo Island forest. The research was conducted in April 2013 by using floristic analysis method. The characteristic of Moyo Island forest is lowland evergreen rain forest. The results showed there were 60 tree species recorded in Moyo Island forest. There were many fruiting trees and seedling from the trees which show healthy growth, indicated that the plant regeneration in this forest is went well. The diversity of Pteri-dophytes and orchids were not high. Epiphytic fern which often found in the forest were Drynaria quersifolia and Platycerium bifurcatum and terrestrial orchid that dominated in the forest was Nervilia aragoana. Tuber plant was often found in this forest and grew prolifically were Tacca, Dioscorea and Amorphophallus. In coastal area lived a population of Pandanus tectorius. There were three new record plants found. The first was epiphytic orchid: Pteroceras javanica, the second was the epiphytic plant: Hoya verticillata and wild tuber plant: Tacca leontopetaloides.

  12. Ultrastructural deposits appearing as "zebra bodies" in renal biopsy: Fabry disease?- comparative case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Neves, Precil Diego Miranda; Machado, Juliana Reis; Custódio, Fabiano Bichuette; Dos Reis Monteiro, Maria Luíza Gonçalves; Iwamoto, Shigueo; Freire, Marlene; Ferreira, Marisa França; Dos Reis, Marlene Antônia

    2017-05-12

    Fabry Disease (FD) is a genetic disorder caused by alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. Certain drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, can produce renal deposits that mimic morphological findings seen in FD, characterizing a type of drug-induced renal phospholipidosis. Case 1: A 28-year-old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who had been using hydroxychloroquine for 14 months presented subnephrotic proteinuria. Renal biopsy showed deposits compatible with FD. Neither activity analysis of alpha-galactosidase A nor genetic analysis were available and were not performed. These deposits were not detected in a subsequent renal biopsy three years after withdrawal of the medication, characterizing a possible hydroxychloroquine-induced renal phospholipidosis. Case 2: A 29-year-old male patient presented with acroparesthesia, angiokeratomas, cornea verticillata and subnephrotic proteinuria. Deposits compatible with FD were detected upon renal biopsy. The evaluation of alpha-galactosidase A showed no activity in both blood and leukocytes. Genetic analysis identified an M284 T mutation in exon 6, and such mutation was also found in other family members. Clinical investigation is necessary in suspected cases of Fabry Disease upon renal biopsy in order to confirm diagnosis. Drug-induced renal phospholipidosis should be considered in differential diagnosis in cases with intracellular osmiophilic, lamellar inclusions in electron microscopy.

  13. Pyrolysis of wetland biomass waste: Potential for carbon sequestration and water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; He, Zhenli; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-05-15

    Management of biomass waste is crucial to the efficiency and sustainable operation of constructed wetlands. In this study, biochars were prepared using the biomass of 22 plant species from constructed wetlands and characterized by BET-N2 surface area analysis, FTIR, TGA, SEM, EDS, and elemental compositions analysis. Biochar yields ranged from 32.78 to 49.02%, with mesopores dominating the pore structure of most biochars. The biochars had a R50 recalcitrance index of class C and the carbon sequestration potential of 19.4-28%. The aquatic plant biomass from all the Chinese constructed wetlands if made into biochars has the potential to sequester 11.48 Mt carbon yr(-1) in soils over long time periods, which could offset 0.4% of annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in China. In terms of adsorption capacity for selected pollutants, biochar derived from Canna indica plant had the greatest adsorption capacity for Cd(2+) (98.55 mg g(-1)) and NH4(+) (7.71 mg g(-1)). Whereas for PO4(3-), Hydrocotyle verticillata derived biochar showed the greatest adsorption capacities (2.91 mg g(-1)). The results from this present study demonstrated that wetland plants are valuable feedstocks for producing biochars with potential application for carbon sequestration and contaminant removal in water remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of 10 Salvia Species Using High Pressure Methods for the Isolation of Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Plant Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-03-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a well-known source of antioxidants and other bioactive compounds, while many other species within the Salvia genus have been poorly studied. The total content of phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity indicators were evaluated for the extracts of 10 Salvia spp. consecutively isolated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) and pressurized liquid extraction with ethanol and water. Antioxidant properties of solid plant material were evaluated by the direct antioxidant capacity measurement by the so-called QUENCHER method. Total antioxidant capacity values were calculated by integrating the results obtained for all extracts and the whole plant material. TPC and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were greatly dependent on the plant species and extraction solvent. Ethanol extracts possessed significantly higher antioxidant capacity and TPC comparing to the extracts isolated with other solvents. In general, all studied Salvia species demonstrated strong antioxidant capacity; however, the antioxidant potential of such species as S. forsskaolii and S. verticillata was the highest and comparable with that of S. officinalis. The majority of studied Salvia species may be considered as promising sources of functional ingredients to be used in human nutrition for functional food and nutraceutical formulations.

  15. Molecular docking and ex vivo and in vitro anticholinesterase activity studies of Salvia sp. and highlighted rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirezer, Lütfiye Ömür; Gürbüz, Perihan; Kelicen Uğur, Emine Pelin; Bodur, Mine; Özenver, Nadire; Uz, Ayse; Güvenalp, Zühal

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of the major molecule from Salvia sp., rosmarinic acid, as a drug candidate molecule for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). The AChE inhibitory activity of different extracts from Salvia trichoclada, Salvia verticillata, and Salvia fruticosa was determined by the Ellman and isolated guinea pig ileum methods, and the antioxidant capacity was determined with DPPH. The AChE inhibitory activity of the major molecule rosmarinic acid was determined by in silico docking and isolated guinea pig ileum methods. The methanol extract of Salvia trichoclada showed the highest inhibition on AChE. The same extract and rosmarinic acid showed significant contraction responses on isolated guinea pig ileum. All the extracts and rosmarinic acid showed high radical scavenging capacities. Docking results of rosmarinic acid showed high affinity to the selected target, AChE. In this study in vitro and ex vivo studies and in silico docking research of rosmarinic acid were used simultaneously for the first time. Rosmarinic acid showed promising results in all the methods tested.

  16. Flies as pollinators of melittophilous Salvia species (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Ferhat; Atalay, Zeynep; Dikmen, Fatih; Doğan, Musa; Classen-Bockhoff, Regıne

    2014-12-01

    • Floral adaptation to a functional pollinator group does not necessarily mean close specialization to a few pollinator species. For the more than 950 species of Salvia, only bee and bird pollinations are known. Restriction to these pollinators is mainly due to the specific flower construction (lever mechanism). Nevertheless, it has been repeatedly suggested that Salvia flowers might also be pollinated by flies. Are flies able to handle the lever mechanism? Are they functionally equivalent pollinators? In this study, we compared and quantified pollen transfer by bees and flies to test whether flies are true pollinators in Salvia.• We identified pollinators using field observations and photos. Video documentation of the visitation rate and the site of pollen placement on the pollinator body, morphometric measurements, quantification of pollen placement, pollen load, handling time, and stigma contact ratio were analyzed.• Field investigations revealed that 19 insect species pollinated S. virgata and four pollinated S. verticillata, including 16 bee species from seven genera of the Apidae and three fly species from three genera of the Nemestrinidae and Tabanidae.• Flies have been found to be pollinators in primarily bee-pollinated Salvia species. This result demonstrates the potential of a given "melittoid" flower construction to broaden the range of pollinators to guarantee successful pollination and seed production. Though bees, particularly Bombus terrestris, were more efficient than flies, the study shows that flies significantly contribute to pollen transfer in Salvia. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Research was divided between basic physiological studies of the growth and nutrient-uptake kinetics of macroscopic marine algae and the more applied problems involved in the selection of species and the development of inexpensive, non-energy intensive culture methods for growing seaweeds and freshwater plants as a biomass source for conversion to energy. Best growth of the seaweeds occurs at low (0.1 to 1.0 ..mu..molar) concentration of major nutrients, with ammonia as a nitrogen source, with rapid exchange of the culture medium (residence time of 0.05 days or less). Of 43 species of seaweeds evaluated, representatives of the large red alga genus Gracilaria appear most promising with potential yields, in a highly intensive culture system under optimal conditions, of some 129 metric dry tons per hectare per year (about half of which is organic). Non-intensive culture methods have yielded one-third to one-half that figure. Unexplained periodicity of growth and overgrowth by epiphytes remain the most critical constraint to large-scale seaweed culture. Freshwater weed species in culture include water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna minor), and Hydrilla vertecillata, with yields to date averaging 15, 4, and 8 g dry wt/m/sup 2//day, respectively. However, these plants have not yet been grown through the winter, so average annual yields are expected to be lower. In contrast to the seaweeds, the freshwater plants grow well at high nutrient concentrations and slow culture volume exchange rates (residence time ca. 20 days or more). Experiments were initiated on the recycling of digester residues from the fermentation of the freshwater and marine plants as a possible nutrient source for growth of the same species.

  18. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Yun; Chen, Jin-Ming; Gituru, Robert Wahiti; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2012-03-10

    Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite) and divergence time estimates (BEAST) resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma). Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges) probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Our study has shed light on the previously controversial

  19. LLUVIA DE POLEN DEL SEDIMENTO SUPERFICIAL EN CIÉNAGAS CONTINENTALES DE LOS DEPARTAMENTOS DEL CESAR Y CÓRDOBA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNIFER GARCÍA-M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron análisis palinológicos de los sedimentos superficiales depositados en ciénagas continentales de tierras bajas de los departamentos de Córdoba y Cesar (Caribe colombiano. En los espectros palinológicos se encontraron taxones de todos los grupos de vegetación incluidos en la serie hídrica, así: acuático-gramalotal como Poaceae tipo Paspalum, de pantano como Cyperus sp., Ludwigia helminthorrhiza, Eclipta prostrata, Cyathula achyranthoides y Polygonum densiflorum, del playón Ambrosia peruviana y Alternanthera paronychioides y de los grupos de bosques de llanura aluvial y de tierra firme representados por elementos como Margaritaria nobilis, Jacquemontia y Codiaeum sp. En los espectros polínicos de los sedimentos de la mayoría de las ciénagas estuvieron representados todos los grupos de la serie hídrica (acuáticos, de pantano, de ribera y de la llanura aluvial. No se detectó una relación directa entre riqueza de la vegetación acuática y representación en el espectro palinológico de los sedimentos superficiales. En las ciénagas del Cesar el número de taxones en los sedimentos varió entre 6 y 20, mientras que en la vegetación local oscilo entre 11 y 19. En las ciénagas de Córdoba el número de taxones registrados en los sedimentos varió entre 3 -12 y el de la vegetación local fue de 16 a 39. Se comprobó la relación directa entre la profundidad de la cubeta receptora (ciénagas y la presencia de polen regional en sus sedimentos. En las ciénagas del Cesar (que registraron la mayor profundidad, se encontró mayor cantidad de palinomorfos pertenecientes a la vegetación regional (extra local.

  20. La vegetación del humedal “Abras de mantequilla”. Composición florística. Bases para su restauración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Cuasquer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Las principales agrupaciones vegetales del humedal de Abras de Mantequilla y su entorno se obtuvieron a partir de una matriz de 61 inventarios (Two-way Indicator Species Analysis; TWINSPAN  que evidenció la existencia de cuatro asociaciones características de biotopos más importantes, devenida de la fuerte eutrofización de las aguas (bajos valores de oxígeno disuelto (DO ppm y altos para sólidos totales disueltos (Tsd mg/L. La vegetación acuática flotante o enraizada (VAG es de mayor extensión, con dos especies dominantes, Ludwigia helminthorrhyza y Eichornia crassipes, propias de hábitats acuáticos con un alto grado de eutrofización y tres variantes que dependen del nivel del agua de las praderas flotantes (VAPF - compuesta por gramíneas (Panicum maximum, P. mertensii, y Paspalum repens con largos rizomas que se entretejen para evitar la disgregación. La formación periférica, sometida a periodos de inundación recurrente (VBSI, se caracteriza por la presencia de arbustos y árboles del bosque seco (Xylosma benthamii, Hematoxylum campechianum, tolerantes a la inundación prolongada, y restos arvense asociada en los cultivos durante la época seca. El análisis de componentes principales (PCA pone de manifiesto la fuerte alteración de origen antrópico. Los dos primeros factores con valores de 10.28 y 5.11, asumen sólo el 25.60% de la varianza. De los índices de biodiversidad obtenidos, la vegetación palustre natural (Albidella nymphaeifolia, Sagittaria sagittifolia, S. lancifolia es la que se destaca en las áreas con acuíferos subterráneos emergentes. La vegetación del bosque seco circundante (VBS presenta una relativa homogeneidad florística y bajo índice de biodiversidad.

  1. La vegetación del humedal “Abras de mantequilla”. Composición florística. Bases para su restauración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Cuasquer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Las principales agrupaciones vegetales del humedal de Abras de Mantequilla y su entorno se obtuvieron a partir de una matriz de 61 inventarios (Two-way Indicator Species Analysis; TWINSPAN que evidenció la existencia de cuatro asociaciones características de biotopos más importantes, devenida de la fuerte eutrofización de las aguas (bajos valores de oxígeno disuelto (DO ppm y altos para sólidos totales disueltos (Tsd mg/L. La vegetación acuática flotante o enraizada (VAG es de mayor extensión, con dos especies dominantes, Ludwigia helminthorrhyza y Eichornia crassipes, propias de hábitats acuáticos con un alto grado de eutrofización y tres variantes que dependen del nivel del agua de las praderas flotantes (VAPF - compuesta por gramíneas (Panicum maximum, P. mertensii, y Paspalum repens con largos rizomas que se entretejen para evitar la disgregación. La formación periférica, sometida a periodos de inundación recurrente (VBSI, se caracteriza por la presencia de arbustos y árboles del bosque seco (Xylosma benthamii, Hematoxylum campechianum, tolerantes a la inundación prolongada, y restos arvense asociada en los cultivos durante la época seca. El análisis de componentes principales (PCA pone de manifiesto la fuerte alteración de origen antrópico. Los dos primeros factores con valores de 10.28 y 5.11, asumen sólo el 25.60% de la varianza. De los índices de biodiversidad obtenidos, la vegetación palustre natural (Albidella nymphaeifolia, Sagittaria sagittifolia, S. lancifolia es la que se destaca en las áreas con acuíferos subterráneos emergentes. La vegetación del bosque seco circundante (VBS presenta una relativa homogeneidad florística y bajo índice de biodiversidad.

  2. LES PROLIFÉRATIONS VÉGÉTALES AQUATIQUES EN FRANCE : CARACTÈRES BIOLOGIQUES ET ÉCOLOGIQUES DES PRINCIPALES ESPÈCES ET MILIEUX PROPICES. I. BILAN D’UNE SYNTHÈSE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PELTRE M. C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available La gestion des milieux aquatiques touchés par des proliférations végétales rencontre de nombreuses difficultés liées à l’appréciation des déséquilibres induits. Parmi celles-ci figure l’évaluation de l’intensité des phénomènes, tant à l’échelle spatiale que temporelle, et celle des nuisances qui réduisent la satisfaction des usages. Un inventaire des principaux groupes de végétaux concernés, considérés comme des « espèces à risque de prolifération » a été dressé après examen de divers constats recensés sur le territoire français. Ce sont notamment des macro-algues, des cyanobactéries, des phanérogames hydrophytes autochtones comme Ranunculus sp., Potamogeton sp., Myriophyllum sp., Ceratophyllum sp., Lemna sp., et des hydrophytes introduits comme Elodea sp., Lagarosiphon sp., Ludwigia sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, certains hélophytes et deux espèces rivulaires exotiques (Fallopia japonica et Impatiens glandulifera. Leurs potentialités importantes de développement et de propagation s’expliquent par leurs stratégies biologiques, dont certaines adaptations morphologiques et physiologiques et divers moyens de multiplication végétative. Les milieux propices aux proliférations présentent des conditions environnementales particulières : fort éclairement souvent lié à une faible profondeur et à un échauffement des eaux, conditions hydrologiques stables, minéralisation moyenne à forte, niveau trophique souvent élevé. La conjonction de ces deux composantes (espèce à risque et milieu propice, crée ainsi les conditions d’une prolifération et définit des situations à risque minimal ou maximal. Ces connaissances concourent à une meilleure définition des situations de risque de prolifération et peuvent fournir des informations utiles quant aux conditions et aux limites d’application des techniques de gestion et de contrôle de ces phénomènes.

  3. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in different trophic levels from a shallow lake in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sagrario, María de los A; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Aizpún de Moreno, Julia E; Moreno, Víctor J; Escalante, Alicia H

    2002-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in a aquatic community from Los Padres Lake, Argentina. Twenty four PCB congeners from tri- to octa-chlorinated isomers were detected and quantified using conventional gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of PCBs in freshwater organisms from a shallow lake of Argentina. Stems of bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), whole tissues of false loosestrife (Ludwigia sp.) and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes argentinus), and liver, gonads, muscle and mesenteric fat (if present) of fish species (Rhamdia sapo) and (Oligosarcus jenynsi) were analyzed. Two areas were selected to macrophytes sampling: the input area, main PCB source of the lake (Station 1), and the output area, a potential anoxic zone (Station 2). Macrophytes from Station I bioconcentrated higher total PCB levels than Station 2, showing that the former have received PCBs washed down from upstream areas. Penta- and hexa-congeners were enriched relative to other congeners in animal biota and macrophytes from Station 1, consistent with commercial mixture of Aroclor 1254 used in this region. In bulrush from Station 2 a predominance of tri- and tetra-chlorinated congeners was observed. Grass shrimp showed the lowest PCB values among animal biota. PCB concentrations in fish tissues varied with the species and the gonadal development. Mesenteric fat, only present in post-spawning organisms of R. sapo, had the highest values of PCBs relative to other tissues. A clearance of total PCBs in ovaries of post-spawning females of R. sapo was observed, but not in testes. O. jenynsil P. argentinus biomagnification factor (BMF) had a mean value of 18.7. Congeners 44, 52 and 151, showed the highest BMF values, being 64, 66 and 62, respectively. These values would be a consequence of the low depuration rate of 44 and 52 congeners with orthochlorine substitution conducted by O. jenynsi and the high

  5. Dinâmica de populações e fitossociologia de plantas daninhas no cultivo do feijão-caupi e mandioca no sistema corte e queima com o uso de arado Phytosociology of weeds in cowpea and cassava crops under the slash-and-burn with plow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.P Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a composição florística das plantas daninhas em área queimada durante três anos agrícolas. A pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Zé Doca, Maranhão. O preparo da área no primeiro ano agrícola (2006/2007 foi realizado com corte e queima da vegetação para o cultivo de milho seguido do feijão-caupi. No segundo e no terceiro ano agrícola, o preparo da área consistiu de aração para o cultivo do milho seguido de mandioca (2007/2008 e depois para o feijão-caupi em sucessão à cultura de mandioca (2008/2009. A coleta das plantas daninhas ocorreu nas culturas de feijão-caupi e mandioca aos 30 e 60 dias após a semeadura (DAS, no primeiro e no segundo ano agrícola, respectivamente, e no feijão-caupi aos 30 DAS do terceiro ano agrícola, com retângulo (0,5 x 0,3 m lançado 10 vezes ao acaso na área cultivada. A cada lançamento, as plantas daninhas foram colhidas, para contagem, identificação, secagem e, assim, obter os índices fitossociológicos. O fogo reduziu a diversidade e o número das plantas daninhas. As espécies com maior valor de IVI foram Imperata brasiliensis, Sida glomerata e Corchorus argutus, após o fogo na cultura do feijãocaupi; e Juncus sp., Spermacoce verticillata, Aeschynomene americana e Cyperus sp., após preparo da área com aração nas culturas de mandioca e feijão-caupi. As plantas de capoeira ocorreram depois da queima, porém sua importância foi reduzida com o passar do tempo.This study investigated the floristic composition of weeds in a burnt area in Zé Doca, Maranhão, during three agricultural years. The preparation of the area at the first crop year (2006/ 2007 was by slash-and-burn for maize cultivation, followed by cowpea. In the second and third crop years, the preparation of the area consisted of plowing for maize cultivation, followed by cassava (2007/2008 and later, by cowpea in rotation with cassava (2008/2009. Weed collection in the cowpea and cassava crops

  6. Study of the Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn dynamics in soil, plants and bee pollen from the region of Teresina (PI, Brazil

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    Aline S. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize native bee plants regarding their capacity to extract and accumulate trace elements from the soil and its consequences to the sanity of the produced pollen. The trace elements Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in soil, plants and bee pollen from Teresina region (PI, Brazil, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Considering the studied plant species, Cu and Pb metals presented in the highest levels in the roots of B. platypetala with 47.35 and 32.71 μg.mL-1 and H. suaveolens with 39.69 and 17.06 μg.mL-1, respectively, while in the aerial parts Mn and Zn metals presented the highest levels in S. verticillata with 199.18 and 85.73 μg.mL-1. In the pollen, the levels of Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn vary from 5.44 to 11.75 μg.mL-1; 34.31 to 85.75 μg.mL-1; 13.98 to 18.19 μg.mL-1 and 50.19 to 90.35 μg.mL-1, respectively. These results indicate that in the apicultural pasture the translocation (from soil to pollen of Mn and Zn was more effective than in case of Cu and Pb, therefore, the bee pollen can be used as food supplement without causing risks to human health.O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar plantas apícolas nativas, quanto a sua capacidade de extrair e acumular elementos-traço do solo e suas conseqüências na sanidade do pólen produzido. Os elementos-traço Cu, Mn, Pb e Zn foram analisados em solo, planta e pólen apícolas em Teresina (PI, Brasil, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com atomização em chama. Considerando as espécies de plantas estudadas, os metais Cu e Pb apresentaram nas raízes maiores teores de B. platypetala com 47,35 e 32,71 µg.mL-1 e H. suaveolens com 39,69 e 17,06 µg.mL-1, respectivamente, enquanto na parte aérea os metais Mn e Zn apresentaram os maiores teores, em S. verticillata com 199,18 e 85, 73 µg.mL-1. No pólen os teores de Cu, Mn, Pb e Zn varia de 5,44 a 11,75 µg.mL-1; 34,31 a 85,75 µg.mL-1; 13,98 a 18,19 µg.mL-1 e 50,19 a 90,35 µg.mL-1

  7. Molecular and clinical studies in five index cases with novel mutations in the GLA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzo, Carmela; Monte, Ines; Pisani, Antonio; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Riccio, Eleonora; Rodolico, Margherita Stefania; Colomba, Paolo; Uva, Maurizio; Cammarata, Giuseppe; Alessandro, Riccardo; Iemolo, Francesco; Duro, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Fabry disease is a metabolic and lysosomal storage disorder caused by the functional defect of the α-galactosidase A enzyme; this defect is due to mutations in the GLA gene, that is composed of seven exons and is located on the long arm of the X-chromosome (Xq21-22). The enzymatic deficit is responsible for the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in lysosomes of different cellular types, mainly in those ones of vascular endothelium. It consequently causes a cellular and microvascular dysfunction. In this paper, we described five novel mutations in the GLA gene, related to absent enzymatic activity and typical manifestations of Fabry disease. We identified three mutations (c.846_847delTC, p.E341X and p.C382X) that lead to the introduction of a stop codon in positions 297, 341 and 382. Moreover we found a missense mutation (p.R227P) in the exon 5 of the GLA gene and a single point mutation (c.639+5 G>T) occurring five base pairs beyond the end of the exon 4. These mutations have never been found in our group of healthy control subjects >2300. The studied patients presented some clinical manifestations, such as cornea verticillata, hypo-anhidrosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, cerebrovascular disorders and renal failure, that, considering the null enzymatic activity, suggest that the new mutations reported here are related to the classic form of Fabry disease. The identification of novel mutations in patients with symptomatology referable to FD increases the molecular knowledge of the GLA gene and it gives clinicians an important support for the proper diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

  9. Molecular phylogeny and barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales) based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2) phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence) in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters.

  10. Verticillane derivatives from Bursera suntui and Bursera kerberi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Juan D; Román-Marín, Luisa U; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2005-11-01

    The stems of Bursera suntui afforded two new verticillane derivatives, (1S,3Z,7E,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12,20-diol (1) and (1S,3Z,7E,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12,20-diol 20-acetate (2), together with (1S,3E,7E,11R)-(+)-verticilla-3,7,12(18)-triene (3), (1R,3E,7E,11R,12Z)-(+)-verticilla-3,7,12-triene (4), (1R,7E,11Z)-(-)-verticilla-4(20),7,11-triene (5), and (1S,3E,7E,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (6). Compounds 3 and 4 are new enantiomerically pure natural products whose racemic mixtures, derived from synthetic approaches toward the taxane skeleton, were obtained previously. The stems of Bursera kerberi afforded the new (1S,3E,7E,11S,12R)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (7) together with 3-5. This is the first time that verticillane derivatives have been isolated from the genus Bursera. Their structures and stereochemistry were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR data, including COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, while the absolute configuration was determined by comparison of the optical rotatory dispersion data with that of recently revised (1S,3E,7E,11S,12S)-(+)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (6), obtained from Sciadopitys verticillata, and those of (1R,3E,7E,11R,12R)-(-)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (8) and (1R,3E,7E,11R,12S)-(-)-verticilla-3,7-dien-12-ol (9), isolated from the liverwort Jackiella javanica. The conformational preferences of 1-7 were studied by molecular mechanics modeling employing the Monte Carlo protocol.

  11. Following of erosive wash of soil in variants with different intercrops

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    Barbora Badalíková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pilot experiment established in a sugar beet growing region the erosive washing away of soil was studied in the years 2006 to 2008. The area is located at an altitude of 246 m with the long-term mean precipitation of 500 mm and the mean annual temperature of 8.4 °C. The soils are classified as Chernozem, moderately heavy, loamy, with a good supply of nutrients, humus content of 2.30 % and an alkaline soil reaction. Slope gradient is 12 %, exposition is NE. To study the role of intercrops in erosion control, three variants were established after the harvest of the main crop, two variants with different intercrops and one (control with no intercrop. These were Variant 1 with Secale cereale L. var. multicaule METZG. ex ALEF., a non-freezing intercrop, Variant 2 with cluster mallow (Malva verticillata L., a freezing intercrop, and a control variant with no intercrop. In Variant 1 Secale cereale L. var. multicaule was desiccated with the herbicide Roundup in early spring. All the variants involved maize as the main crop. In variants 1 and 2, maize was sown in intercrop residues after seedbed preparation by Vario and a compactor. In Variant 3 maize was sown after conventional seedbed preparation. For assessment of soil conditions soil samples were taken to determine soil physical and chemical properties and water content in the soil. Soil loss by erosion was determined using specially-designed pockets. Erosive washing away of soil was monitored during the entire growing season of maize. The variants in which intercrops were used were found very effective in soil erosion control. In Variant 3 (control without surface crop residues, the washing away of soil was recorded with each heavy torrential rain. During the all years the total amount of soil loss by erosion in this treatment was 2.25 t . ha−1.

  12. Optimization of canopy conductance models from concurrent measurements of sap flow and stem water potential on Drooping Sheoak in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Guan, H.; Deng, R.; Simmons, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Canopy conductance response to environmental conditions is a critical component in land surface hydrological modeling. This response is often formulated as a combination of response functions of each influencing factor (solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and soil water availability). These functions are climate and vegetation specific. Thus, it is important to determine the most appropriate combination of response functions and their parameter values for a specific environment. We will present a method for this purpose based on field measurements and an optimization scheme. The study was performed on Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) in Adelaide South Australia. Sap flow and stem water potential were measured in a year together with microclimate variables. Canopy conductance was calculated from the inversed Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, which was then used to examine the performance of 36 combinations of various response functions. Parameters in the models were optimized using a DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) model based on a training dataset. The testing results show that the best combination gave a correlation coefficient of 0.97, and root mean square error of 0.0006 m/s in comparison to the PM-calculated values. The maximum stomatal conductance given by this combination is 0.0075 m/s, equivalent to a minimum stomatal resistance of 133 s/m. This is close to the number (150 s/m) used in Noah land surface model for evergreen needle-leaf trees. It is surprising that for all combinations, the optimized parameter of the temperature response function is against its physical meaning. This is likely related to the inter-dependence between air temperature and vapor pressure deficit. Supported by the results, we suggest that the effects of vapor pressure deficit and air temperature should be represented together, so as to be consistent with the physics.

  13. Loss of different inverted repeat copies from the chloroplast genomes of Pinaceae and cupressophytes and influence of heterotachy on the evaluation of gymnosperm phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Wang, Ya-Nan; Hsu, Chi-Yao; Lin, Ching-Ping; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2011-01-01

    The relationships among the extant five gymnosperm groups--gnetophytes, Pinaceae, non-Pinaceae conifers (cupressophytes), Ginkgo, and cycads--remain equivocal. To clarify this issue, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs) from two cupressophytes, Cephalotaxus wilsoniana and Taiwania cryptomerioides, and 53 common chloroplast protein-coding genes from another three cupressophytes, Agathis dammara, Nageia nagi, and Sciadopitys verticillata, and a non-Cycadaceae cycad, Bowenia serrulata. Comparative analyses of 11 conifer cpDNAs revealed that Pinaceae and cupressophytes each lost a different copy of inverted repeats (IRs), which contrasts with the view that the same IR has been lost in all conifers. Based on our structural finding, the character of an IR loss no longer conflicts with the "gnepines" hypothesis (gnetophytes sister to Pinaceae). Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses of amino acid sequences recovered incongruent topologies using different tree-building methods; however, we demonstrated that high heterotachous genes (genes that have highly different rates in different lineages) contributed to the long-branch attraction (LBA) artifact, resulting in incongruence of phylogenomic estimates. Additionally, amino acid compositions appear more heterogeneous in high than low heterotachous genes among the five gymnosperm groups. Removal of high heterotachous genes alleviated the LBA artifact and yielded congruent and robust tree topologies in which gnetophytes and Pinaceae formed a sister clade to cupressophytes (the gnepines hypothesis) and Ginkgo clustered with cycads. Adding more cupressophyte taxa could not improve the accuracy of chloroplast phylogenomics for the five gymnosperm groups. In contrast, removal of high heterotachous genes from data sets is simple and can increase confidence in evaluating the phylogeny of gymnosperms.

  14. Effect of Planting Date and Weed Control Methods on Yield and Agronomic Traits of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in Khoy Region

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    M. Akbari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planting dates and weed control methods on yield and agronomic traits of sunflower was investigated. A factorial experiment based on a complete randomized blocks design with four replications was conducted in 2009. Treatments consisted of three planting date (April 4th, May5th and Juns5th and five weed control methods, Trifluralin (2 Lit/ha + Fokus (1.5 Lit/ha, Trifluralin+Nabu-s (3Lit/ha, Trifluralin, Hand weeding and without control. Results indicated that planting dates and weed control methods significantly affected head diameter, 100 grain weight, seed number per head and grain yield. Harvest index and oil percent was affected only by planting dates. The highest grain yield (630.1 g/m2, was produced in the second planting date (May 5 by using Trifluralin+Fokus. Delaying sowing date (after May 5 significantly decreased grain yield. The most important weeds in the experimental site were common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album, field bind weed (Convolvulus arvensis, bastard cabbage (Rapistrum rugosum, flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum, cockspur grass (Echinochloa colorum and green bristle grass (Setaria verticillata. It was observed that the dry matter weight sharply varied in all weed species in different planting dates, that is, in the 4th April the dry matter production of common lambsquarter and bastard cabbage, in June 5th planting date were maximum. Dry matter of broad leaf and narrow leaf weeds in the date of May 5th was lower than the other two planting dates. The interaction of planting date ×control methods on head diameter, seed number per head, grain yield and weeds dry matter was significant.

  15. Ethnobotany, biochemistry and pharmacology of Minthostachys (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, A N

    2008-08-13

    The South American mint genus Minthostachys is of great importance in the Andes as a medicinal, aromatic, culinary and commercial essential oil plant. After decades of taxonomic confusion and virtual indeterminability of specimens, new systematic and taxonomic work has been conducted in recent years. The present paper attempts to summarize the state of knowledge about Minthostachys with a focus on ethnobotany, analyses of essential oil content and pharmacology, to identify the currently accepted species names for the plants examined in these previous studies, and to assess where additional research is needed. All available studies on Minthostachys were obtained and evaluated. Herbaria were contacted to identify voucher specimens cited in the respective publications. The great majority of published studies was conducted on a single species, Argentinean Minthostachys verticillata. In contrast, the most widely distributed and well-known species (Minthostachys mollis) as well as several locally important and intensively used species (e.g., Minthostachys acutifolia) have received disproportionately little attention, and virtually nothing is known about the local endemics among the 17 species currently recognized. In many cases, however, it is difficult to relate the results to taxonomic entities due to the lack of voucher specimens. Future research efforts should especially be directed at studying the chemistry and potential for use of several common but so far neglected species of the central and northern Andes, at disentangling environmental and genetic influences on essential oil composition, at prerequisites for cultivation, and at the pharmacological basis of the most important traditional uses. Because of the morphological complexity of the genus, future researchers are urged to deposit voucher specimens of the plants used in their studies to facilitate species identification and to make the results more comparable and reproducible.

  16. Molecular phylogeny and barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassar Anisoddin Kazi

    Full Text Available The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2 phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters.

  17. Um estudo citológico comparativo de Thalictrum e Ilex

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    Henry Wilhelm Jensen

    1943-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. New chromosome numbers have been determined tor the following species from material collected in various counties of North Carolina, U . S . A. Thalictrum clavatum n = 7 Th. dioicum n = 14 Th. polygamum n = 42 Th. coriaceum n = 70 Ilex decidua n = 20 I. monticola n = 20 I. vomitoria n = 20 I. opaca n = 18 I. verticillata n = 11. New chromosome numbers have been determined tor the following species from material collected in various counties of North Carolina, U.S.A. Thalictrum clavatum n = 7 Th. dioicum n = 14 Th. polygamum n = 42 Th. coriaceum n = 70 Ilex decidua n = 20 I. monticola n = 20 I. vomitoria n = 20 I. opaca n = 18 I. verticillata n = 18 2. The genus Thalictrum has been rather well investigated cytologically but the genus Ilex has not yet received the attention it merits, and offers cytologists in North, Central, and South America an opportunity ro study an extensive genus which has been, and probably is, undergoing interespecific hybridization while a shift from the hermaphroditic to the unisexual habit is also well established. These two great evolutionary factors, hybridization and the advent of the dioecious condition, appear to stimulate divergent lines of meiotic behavior depending upon whether or not they appear in the phylogeny of a race simultaneously or successively, and in the case of the latter, which came first. The genus Thalictrum was used as a basis for comparison with the situation as found in the eastern North American forms of Hex with the following conclusions. a. The genus Thalictrum is vastly polyploid and meiotically regular. This condition is thought to be the result of previous hybridization of the species before the advent of the dioecious habit. b. The genus Ilex is, as far as research has gone, negatively aneuploid and frequently irregular meiotically. This condition is thought to be the result of previous hybridization of the species after , or no more than simultaneously with, the advent oí the

  18. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Results Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite) and divergence time estimates (BEAST) resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma). Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges) probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Conclusions Our study has shed light

  19. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  20. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  1. Influence of Corneal Opacity on Intraocular Pressure Assessment in Patients with Lysosomal Storage Diseases.

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    Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Politino, Giuseppe; Schmidtmann, Irene; Lorenz, Katrin; Bell, Katharina; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Pitz, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    To investigate an influence of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS)- and Morbus Fabry-associated corneal opacities on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements and to evaluate the concordance of the different tonometry methods. 25 MPS patients with or without corneal clouding, 25 Fabry patients with cornea verticillata ≥ grade 2 and 25 healthy age matched controls were prospectively included into this study. Outcome measures: Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT); palpatory assessment of IOP; Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), corneal resistance factor (CRF) and corneal hysteresis (CH) assessed by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA); central corneal thickness (CCT) and density assessed with Pentacam. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effect models and Spearman correlation coefficients. The concordance between tonometry methods was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. There was no relevant difference between study groups regarding median GAT, IOPg, IOPcc and CCT measurements. The limits of agreement between GAT and IOPcc/IOPg/palpatory IOP in MPS were: [-11.7 to 12.1mmHg], [-8.6 to 15.5 mmHg] and [- 5.4 to 10.1 mmHg] respectively. Limits of agreement were less wide in healthy subjects and Fabry patients. Palpatory IOP was higher in MPS than in healthy controls and Fabry patients. Corneal opacity correlated more strongly with GAT, IOPg, CH, CRF, CCT and corneal density in MPS (r = 0.4, 0.5, 0.5, 0.7, 0.6, 0.6 respectively) than in Fabry patients (r = 0.3, 0.2, -0.03, 0.1, 0.3, -0.2 respectively). In contrast, IOPcc revealed less correlation with corneal opacity than GAT in MPS (r = 0.2 vs. 0.4). ORA and GAT render less comparable IOP-values in patients suffering from MPS-associated corneal opacity in comparison to Fabry and healthy controls. The IOP seems to be overestimated in opaque MPS-affected corneas. GAT, IOPg and biomechanical parameters of the cornea correlate more strongly with the corneal

  2. Modelling and mapping the local distribution of representative species on the Le Danois Bank, El Cachucho Marine Protected Area (Cantabrian Sea)

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    García-Alegre, Ana; Sánchez, Francisco; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Hinz, Hilmar; Serrano, Alberto; Parra, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    to be the key factor structuring their distribution, followed by the seabed morpho-sedimentary characteristics and rugosity variables. Three of the species studied (Asconema setubalense, Callogorgia verticillata and Helicolenus dactylopterus) were found to have small suitable areas as a result of being restrictive species related to the environmental characteristics of the top of the bank. The other species (Pheronema carpenteri, Phycis blennoides and Trachyscorpia cristulata), which were species less restrictive to the environmental variables used, had highly suitable areas of distribution. The study provides high-resolution maps of species that characterize the habitat of two communities included in OSPAR and NATURA networks, whose distributions corroborate the adequate protection of this area by the management measures applied at present.

  3. Phytoextraction of heavy metal from sewage sludge by plants

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    Jaroslava Bartlová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 and 2009, studies made contents of cadmium and lead in the soil and their uptake by non-traditional plants were studied in a small-plot trial. At the same time also the effect of bio-algeen preparations on phytoextraction of heavy metals by these plants was investigated. Experimental plots were established on the reclaimed land after closing down mining operations in the town of Žacléř (North-East Bohemia where a layer of sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant 0.6–0.8 m thick was subsequently applied. The locality is situated in the altitude of 612 m, its average annual temperature is about 6.8 °C and the mean annual precipitations are 857 mm. Analyses revealed higher concentrations of heavy metals in the applied sewage sludge. The average concentrations of lead and cadmium were 180 mg . kg−1 and 6.89 mg . kg−1, respectively. The experiment had two variants: Variant 1 – sewage sludge without any other substances, and Variant 2 – sewage sludge + bio-algeen preparations (B. A. S-90 or B. A. Root Concentrate. To find the most suitable plant species for the phytoextraction of cadmium and lead, the following non-traditional plants were cultivated in both variants: fodder mallow (Malva verticillata L., rye (Secale cereale L. var. multicaule METZG. ex ALEF. and white sweet clover (Melilotus alba MEDIC.. The highest accumulation of cadmium and lead in the aboveground biomass was found out in rye, viz 14.89 mg . kg−1 DM and 14.89 mg . kg−1 DM of Cd and Pb, respectively., As compared with other plants under study, white sweet clover exhibited the significantly lowest capability to extract both heavy metals from soil (viz 0.22 and 3.20 mg . kg−1 DM of Cd and Pb, respectively. A positive effect of bio-algeen on phytoextraction of cadmium and lead was evident in all plants. The highest yield of aboveground biomass was recorded on the plot with white sweet clover with added

  4. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

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    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  5. Pediatric Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Markus; Gupta, Surya; Moore, David F; Sachdev, Vandana; Quirk, Jane M; Murray, Gary J; Rosing, Douglas R; Robinson, Chevalia; Schaefer, Ellen; Gal, Andreas; Dambrosia, James M; Garman, Scott C; Brady, Roscoe O; Schiffmann, Raphael

    2005-03-01

    Fabry disease is an underdiagnosed, treatable, X-linked, multisystem disorder. To test the hypothesis that quality of life and sweating are decreased among pediatric patients with Fabry disease, compared with control subjects, and to provide quantitative natural history data and novel clinical end points for therapeutic trials. Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Referral to the National Institutes of Health. Twenty-five male children with Fabry disease (mean age: 12.3 +/- 3.5 years) and 21 age-matched control subjects. Quality of life (measured with the Child Health Questionnaire) and sweating (assessed with the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test). Quality of life scores for pediatric patients disease, compared with published normative values, were 55 +/- 17 vs 83 +/- 19 for bodily pain and 62 +/- 19 vs 80 +/- 13 for mental health. Bodily pain scores for patients > or =10 years of age were 54 +/- 22 vs 74 +/- 23. Sweat volume in the Fabry disease group was 0.41 +/- 0.46 microL/mm2, compared with 0.65 +/- 0.44 microL/mm2 in the control group. Renal function, urinary protein excretion, and cardiac function and structure were normal for the majority of patients. The 3 patients with residual alpha-galactosidase A activity > or =1.5% of normal values were free of cornea verticillata and had normal serum and urinary globotriaosylceramide levels. All other children had glycolipid levels comparable to those of adult patients with Fabry disease. Acroparesthesia and cardiac abnormalities were generally present before anhidrosis and proteinuria. Mapping of the missense mutations on the crystallographic structure of alpha-galactosidase A revealed that the mutations were partially surface-exposed and distal to the active site among individuals with residual enzyme activity. Mutations associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (defined as left ventricular mass index of >51 g/m2.7) were localized near the catalytic site of the enzyme. Despite the absence of

  6. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic

  7. Hurricane Effects on a Shallow Lake Ecosystem and Its Response to a Controlled Manipulation of Water Level

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    Karl E. Havens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reverse the damage to aquatic plant communities caused by multiple years of high water levels in Lake Okeechobee, Florida (U.S., the Governing Board of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD authorized a "managed recession" to substantially lower the surface elevation of the lake in spring 2000. The operation was intended to achieve lower water levels for at least 8 weeks during the summer growing season, and was predicted to result in a large-scale recovery of submerged vascular plants. We treated this operation as a whole ecosystem experiment, and assessed ecological responses using data from an existing network of water quality and submerged plant monitoring sites. As a result of large-scale discharges of water from the lake, coupled with losses to evaporation and to water supply deliveries to agriculture and other regional users, the lake surface elevation receded by approximately 1 m between April and June. Water depths in shoreline areas that historically supported submerged plant communities declined from near 1.5 m to below 0.5 m. Low water levels persisted for the entire summer. Despite shallow depths, the initial response (in June 2000 of submerged plants was very limited and water remained highly turbid (due at first to abiotic seston and later to phytoplankton blooms. Turbidity decreased in July and the biomass of plants increased. However, submerged plant biomass did not exceed levels observed during summer 1999 (when water depths were greater until August. Furthermore, a vascular plant-dominated assemblage (Vallisnera, Potamogeton, and Hydrilla that occurred in 1999 was replaced with a community of nearly 98% Chara spp. (a macro-alga in 2000. Hence, the lake’s submerged plant community appeared to revert to an earlier successional stage despite what appeared to be better conditions for growth. To explain this unexpected response, we evaluated the impacts that Hurricane Irene may have had on the lake in the

  8. Zoantharians (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia Associated with Cold-Water Corals in the Azores Region: New Species and Associations in the Deep Sea

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    Marina Carreiro-Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoantharians are a group of cnidarians that are often found in association with marine invertebrates, including corals, in shallow and deep-sea environments. However, little is known about deep-sea zoantharian taxonomy, specificity and nature of their associations with their coral hosts. In this study, analyses of molecular data (mtDNA COI, 16S, and 12S rDNA coupled with ecological and morphological characteristics were used to examine zoantharian specimens associated with cold-water corals (CWC at depths between 110 and 800 m from seamounts and island slopes in the Azores region. The zoantharians examined were found living in association with stylasterids, antipatharians and octocorals. From the collected specimens, four new species were identified: (1 Epizoanthus martinsae sp. n. associated with the antipatharian Leiopathes sp.; (2 Parazoanthus aliceae sp. n. associated with the stylasterid Errina dabneyi (Pourtalès, 1871; (3 Zibrowius alberti sp. n. associated with octocorals of the family Primnoidae [Paracalyptrophora josephinae (Lindström, 1877] and the family Plexauridae (Dentomuricea aff. meteor Grasshoff, 1977; (4 Hurlizoanthus hirondelleae sp. n. associated with the primnoid octocoral Candidella imbricata (Johnson, 1862. In addition, based on newly collected material, morphological and molecular data and phylogenic reconstruction, the zoantharian Isozoanthus primnoidus Carreiro-Silva, Braga-Henriques, Sampaio, de Matos, Porteiro & Ocaña, 2011, associated with the primnoid octocoral Callogorgia verticillata (Pallas, 1766, was reclassified as Zibrowius primnoidus comb. nov. The zoantharians, Z. primnoidus comb. nov., Z. alberti sp. n., and H. hirondelleae sp. n. associated with octocorals showed evidence of a parasitic relationship, where the zoantharian progressively eliminates gorgonian tissue and uses the gorgonian axis for structure and support, and coral sclerites for protection. In contrast, the zoantharian P. aliceae sp. n

  9. Bosques andinos del sur de Ecuador, clasificación, regeneración y uso

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    Rainer W. Bussmann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Existen muy pocos inventarios y descripciones sintaxonómicas de la vegetación de bosques montanos tropicales. Este trabajo presenta datos sobre los bosques del sur de Ecuador localizados en la Reserva Biológica San Francisco, límite norte del Parque Nacional Podocarpus. Se propone la siguiente clasificación junto con notas sobre los factores edáficos que contribuyen a su establecimiento. El «Bosque Montano Bajo» (1800-2150 m, formando el orden Alzateetalia verticillatae, muestra 2-3 estratos arbóreos muy diversos, con árboles de 20-35 m de altura, y es una clímax mosaico típico. Creciendo sobre Terric Haplosaprists y Aquic Dystrupepts, originado del material de derrumbes viejos, este tipo de bosque se extiende hasta los 2300 m sobre el nivel del mar en quebradas protegidas de viento. A altitudes de 2100-2650 m (menos de 2750 m la estructura del bosque y la composición florística cambia totalmente. Esta vegetación, el «Bosque Montano Alto» forma el orden de Purdiaeaetalia nutantis y crece sobre Histic Petraquepts. Representando una vegetación monotípica con un solo estrato arbóreo de 5-10 m (–15 m de altura, completamente dominado por Purdiaea nutans (Cyrillaceae. El bosque ubicado a mayor altitud en el área, densamente enlazado con el páramo es el «Bosque Nublado Subalpino». Descritos como Clusio ellipticae-Weinmannietum cochensis aparecen más como una vegetación arbustiva casi impenetrable, y crecen sobre Humaquic Epiaquents. El límite del bosque es causado principalmente por los vientos fuertes de la región. Derrumbes e incendios naturales representan el «motor» de regeneración de los bosques. Se encontró carbón en la base de los niveles A de muchos perfiles de suelo. El análisis 14C precisó una edad de 710-980 ±50 años antes del presente. Esto indica que fuegos en la vegetación han contribuido a la dinámica de esta vegetación en el pasado y no es un fenómeno reciente. El diámetro basal de los