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Sample records for verticillata biotypes electronic

  1. Genetic Relationships among Invasive Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata L.f. Royle) Biotypes in the US and Their Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    genetic clusters . ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-32 February 2014 3 Benoit (2011) built upon these early studies and conducted a formal cladistic analysis of...Schnell. 1997. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of the phonetic relationships among world-wide accessions of Hydrilla verticillata. Aquatic

  2. Do the U.S. Dioecious and Monoecious biotypes of Hydrilla verticillata L.F. Royle hybridize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical note reports the results of two studies to address the question of whether the two hydrilla biotypes present in the U.S. can hybridize. These include whether hybridization can occur under controlled conditions and in field populations where the two hybrids coexist in close proximity ...

  3. Haemophilus influenzae biotype VIII.

    OpenAIRE

    Sottnek, F O; Albritton, W L

    1984-01-01

    Six Haemophilus influenzae strains could not be classified as biotypes I through VII. The strains were indole, urease, and ornithine decarboxylase negative. We propose that they be classified as biotype VIII, a previously unreported biotype.

  4. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/02/0156-0162. Keywords. Hydrilla verticillata; keystone species; invasive weeds; carbon sequestration; bioremediation; AVM disease. Author Affiliations. Stephen Sumithran1 P J Sanjeeva Raj. Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University Richmond, KY. 40475 ...

  5. Haemophilus influenzae biotype VII.

    OpenAIRE

    Gratten, M

    1983-01-01

    A hitherto unreported biotype of Haemophilus influenzae is described. The isolate is noncapsulate and fails to decarboxylate ornithine or hydrolyze urea but is a strong indole producer. Its frequency is low. It is suggested that this newly recognized biotype of H. influenzae be designated biotype VII.

  6. Abietane diterpeniods from Hyptis verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Roy B R; Biggs, Duanne A C; Reynolds, William F

    2009-01-01

    Seven abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Hyptis verticillata (Labiatae). One is a novel natural product, 7-acetoxy-16-benzoxy-12-hydroxyabieta-8,12-diene-11,14-dione (1), while the other six known compounds are 11,14 dihydroxy-12-methoxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-7-one (2), 11,14-dihydroxy-12-methoxy- 18(4-->3betaH) abeo-abieta-4(19),8,11,13-tetraene-7-one (3), 7-acetoxy-12-methoxyabieta-8,12-diene-11,14-dione (4), royleanone (5), 7,6-dehydroroyleanone (6) and 7-acetoxyhorminone (7). All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and mass spectrometric means.

  7. Composition of the essential oil of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hayta, Sukru; Dogan, Gulden; Yuce, Ebru; Bagci, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The essential oil composition of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) analysed and yield of compositions were analysedMaterial and Methods: The essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus coupled to a 2 L round-bottom flask. A total of 100 g of fresh plant material (aerial parts) and 1 L of water were used for the extraction. Gas chromatography / Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were applied to ext...

  8. Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parts of America and the Caribbean countries. (Picking et al., 2013). Hyptis verticillata has been used medicinally in Mesoamerica since the times of the Aztec and Mayan cultures. (Ocampo and Balick, 2009). It is among the most abundant species of the genus Hyptis and it grows up to the height of one to two meters.

  9. Prevalence and Biotyping of Pasteurella Haemolytica Isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all, biotype A was 60.75%, biotype T 22.43% and untypable isolates were 16.82%. Overall, biotype A occurred more significantly than biotype T (P<0.05) and appeared to be the predominant biotype in the area. Gross pathological appearance of pneumonic lungs was characterized by pulmonary oedema, congestion and ...

  10. A New Phenolic Amide from the Roots of Paris verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ro Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic amide 8, together with the nine known phenolic compounds 1-7,9 and 10 were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Paris verticillata. Thestructure of the new compound 8 was determined to be 1-N-feruloylaminobutyl-4-ρ-hydroxybenzamide by spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were tested forcytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines using the SRB assay.

  11. Sesquiterpene and acyclic diterpenes from Hyptis verticillata Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duanne A C; Porter, Roy B R; Reynolds, William F

    2009-03-01

    From the methanolic extract of the plant Hyptis verticillata Jacq, was isolated five compounds: the novel compounds cadina-10(15)-en-3-one and 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-1-en-3-ol and the known compounds 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol, 7,11,15-trimethyl-3-methylenehexadecane-1,2-diol and myo-inositol. All structures were established by spectroscopic means.

  12. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  13. Soft tissue biotype affects implant success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angie; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2011-06-01

    The influence of tissue biotype in natural dentition is already well demonstrated in the literature, with numerous articles showing that thicker tissue is a preferred biotype for optimal surgical and prosthetic outcomes. In this same line of thought, current studies are directed to explore whether mucosal thickness would have similar implications around dental implants. The purpose of this review was to investigate the effects of soft tissue biotype in relation to success of implant therapy. The influence of tissue biotype was divided into 3 main categories: its relationship with periimplant mucosa and the underlying bone, immediate implant placement, and restorative outcomes. Soft tissue biotype is an important parameter to consider in achieving esthetic implant restoration, improving immediate implant success, and preventing future mucosal recession.

  14. Cholera outbreaks in the classical biotype era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, A K; Cash, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In the Indian subcontinent description of a disease resembling cholera has been mentioned in Sushruta Samita, estimated to have been written between ~400 and 500 BC. It is however not clear whether the disease known today as cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae Vibrio cholerae O1 is the evolutionary progression of the ancient disease. The modern history of cholera began in 1817 when an explosive epidemic broke out in the Ganges River Delta region of Bengal. This was the first of the seven recorded cholera pandemics cholera pandemics that affected nearly the entire world and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. The bacterium responsible for this human disease was first recognised during the fifth pandemic and was named V. cholerae which was grouped as O1, and was further differentiated into Classical and El Tor biotypes. It is now known that the fifth and the sixth pandemics were caused by the V. cholerae O1 of the Classical biotype Classical biotype and the seventh by the El Tor biotype El Tor biotype . The El Tor biotype of V. cholerae, which originated in Indonesia Indonesia and shortly thereafter began to spread in the early 1960s. Within the span of 50 years the El Tor biotype had invaded nearly the entire world, completely displacing the Classical biotype from all the countries except Bangladesh. What prompted the earlier pandemics to begin is not clearly understood, nor do we know how and why they ended. The success of the seventh pandemic clone over the pre-existing sixth pandemic strain remains largely an unsolved mystery. Why classical biotype eventually disappeared from the world remains to be explained. For nearly three decades (1963-1991) during the Seventh cholera pandemic seventh pandemic, cholera in Bangladesh has recorded a unique history of co-existence of Classical and El Tor biotypes of V. cholerae O1 as epidemic and endemic strain. This long co-existence has provided us with great opportunity to improve our understanding of the disease itself

  15. Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata: a native medicinal plant of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to carry out an anatomical and histochemical analysis of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis, Vitaceae, to contribute for the attest the taxonomic identity of the medicinal plant. Samples from root, stem, leaf and tendril were cleared, dissociated and processed according to the usual methodology for observation under light and scanning electron microscopes. Histochemical tests were performed in order to identify polysaccharides, phenolic and lipid compounds. The C. verticillata root is typically protostelic, and the stem is eustelic with collateral bundles. The tendril presents structural organization similar to the stem, suggesting a common origin for both. The petiole has an epidermis with ornamented cuticle; the cortex is composed of collenchyma and parenchyma, and the vascular tissues are arranged in collateral bundles. The leaf blade is amphistomatic with non-glandular and glandular trichomes, and the mesophyll is dorsiventral. The identification of the idioblasts as secretion site of the phenolic compounds, mucilage and terpenoids as being responsible for the potential activity of the plant is of fundamental importance for future bioprospecting research on this species.

  16. Responses of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to glyphosate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guidi; Wu, Zhonghua; Yin, Jun; Chai, Lulu

    2018-02-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is frequently detected in water bodies and is harmful to aquatic systems. We conducted an experiment to explore the ecological sensitivity of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to glyphosate. Our research focused on the physiological responses of H. verticillata and V. natans after exposure to various concentrations of glyphosate (0, 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 80 mg/L) in hydroponic culture after one day (1D) and seven days (7D). The results show that after 1D, the soluble protein content of H. verticillata was significantly stimulated under low herbicide concentrations. Other indices for H. verticillata and V. natans had no remarkable changes at 1D. After 7D of treatment, the soluble protein content of H. verticillata showed no significant differences, while the malondialdehyde (MDA), pigment contents and catalase (CAT) activity significantly increased at low glyphosate concentrations. Guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity in H. verticillata significantly increased with increasing herbicide concentrations. The chlorophyll a/b ratio of H. verticillata sharply decreased above 10 mg/L. For V. natans, soluble protein, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid content; and CAT activity declined significantly after glyphosate application, while other indicators showed no significant changes. Our results indicate that glyphosate concentrations from 0 to 80 mg/L can induce oxidative stress in H. verticillate and may impede metabolism processes for protein and pigments without causing oxidative stress in V. natans. Taken together, our results suggest that the sensitivity of H. verticillata to glyphosate exposure is higher than that of V. natans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Immersion vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri O1, biotype 2 confers cross protection against Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Neumann, Lukas; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    A new biotype 2 of Y. ruckeri O1, which lacks motility has proven highly virulent for rainbow trout, and is causing disease in cultured trout even in fish vaccinated with commercial ERM biotype 1 vaccines. Not much is known about immunity against biotype 2, and therefore have we produced a Y....... ruckeri O1 biotype 2 immersion vaccine and tested the protection against both Y. ruckeri biotype 1 and 2 infections. Seven months post vaccination, both vaccinated and mock-vaccinated groups of rainbow trout were bath challenged with Y. ruckeri serotype O1, biotype 1 or 2. Challenge with biotype 2...... resulted in very low mortalities with no significant difference in mortality between vaccinated and mock-vaccinated fish. Challenge with biotype 1 resulted in a significantly lower mortality (P=0.0001) in the vaccinated group. This result was confirmed 15 months post vaccination (P

  18. Acclimation of Hydrilla verticillata to sediment anoxia in vegetation restoration in eutrophic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Dai, Yanran; Rui, Shengyang; Cui, Naxin; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping

    2015-12-01

    Sediment anoxia generally results from intense organic enrichment and is a limiting factor in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters. To investigate the effect of sediment anoxia on a typical pollution-tolerant submerged macrophyte species, Hydrilla verticillata, and acclimation mechanisms in the plant, a gradient of sediment anoxia was simulated with additions of sucrose to the sediment, which can stimulate increased concentrations of total nitrogen, NH4(+) and Fe in pore water. H. verticillata growth was significantly affected by highly anoxic conditions, as indicated by reduced total biomass in the 0.5 and 1% sucrose treatments. However, slight anoxia (0.1% sucrose addition) promoted growth, and the shoot biomass was 22.64% higher than in the control. In addition to morphologic alterations, H. verticillata showed physiological acclimations to anoxia, including increased anaerobic respiration and changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in roots. The soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate contents in roots of the 1% treatment were both significantly higher compared with those in the control. The increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate content in the roots suggested that H. verticillata has a well-developed capacity for anaerobic fermentation. This study suggests that highly anoxic sediments inhibit the growth of H. verticillata and the species has a degree of tolerance to anoxic conditions. Further in situ investigations should be conducted on the interactions between sediment conditions and macrophytes to comprehensively evaluate the roles of sediment in the restoration of vegetation in eutrophic waters.

  19. Periodontal biotype: characteristic, prevalence and dimensions related to dental malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Ramaglia, Luca; Dalessandri, Domenico; Lucchese, Alessandra; Alibrandi, Angela; Fabiano, Francesca; Cordasco, Giancarlo

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of periodontal anatomy is essential when performing surgical and non-surgical procedures in the field of oral healthcare. Gingival biotype is often assessed for this purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the gingival biotypes in a group of patients and to evaluate if the gingival biotypes were related with the different types of Angle's classification of malocclusion. The study was performed on 76 volunteer patients (38 males, 38 females, mean age 14.7 years old). Gingival biotypes were assessed with the evaluation on the translucence of a periodontal probe through the gingival margin of the tooth during the probing, at the mid facial aspect of both maxillary central, lateral incisors and canine; on each patient, Angle's classification of malocclusion was also recorded. The prevalence in the whole sample of thin gingival biotype was 43.4% and thick gingival biotype was 56.6%. The frequency of female with thin gingival biotype was significantly less respect to male patients (42.4% and 55.6%, respectively) while the thick gingival biotype was higher in the female respect to male patients (55.8% and 44.2%, respectively) (χ2=1.339, P=0.247). There was not a significant association between type of malocclusion and gingival biotype (P=0.143). There was however a prevalence of thick gingival biotype in patient with class II malocclusion and a slight prevalence of thin gingival biotype in patient with class I malocclusion. No relationship was found between gingival biotypes and Angle's classification of malocclusion. In this sample, a higher prevalence of thick gingival biotype especially among female subjects was observed.

  20. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype is converted to the viable non-culturable state when cultured with the El Tor biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhra; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2013-01-01

    A unique event in bacterial epidemiology was the emergence of the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 and the subsequent rapid displacement of the existing classical biotype as the predominant cause of epidemic cholera. We demonstrate that when the El Tor and classical biotypes were cocultured in standard laboratory medium a precipitous decline in colony forming units (CFU) of the classical biotype occurred in a contact dependent manner. Several lines of evidence including DNA release, microscopy and flow cytometric analysis indicated that the drastic reduction in CFU of the classical biotype in cocultures was not accompanied by lysis, although when the classical biotype was grown individually in monocultures, lysis of the cells occurred concomitant with decrease in CFU starting from late stationary phase. Furthermore, uptake of a membrane potential sensitive dye and protection of genomic DNA from extracellular DNase strongly suggested that the classical biotype cells in cocultures retained viability in spite of loss of culturability. These results suggest that coculturing the classical biotype with the El Tor biotype protects the former from lysis allowing the cells to remain viable in spite of the loss of culturability. The stationary phase sigma factor RpoS may have a role in the loss of culturability of the classical biotype in cocultures. Although competitive exclusion of closely related strains has been reported for several bacterial species, conversion of the target bacterial population to the viable non-culturable state has not been demonstrated previously and may have important implications in the evolution of bacterial strains.

  1. Biotyping of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry in and around Anand city, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Tayde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of different biotypes of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the study area. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples comprising 90 chicken and 60 caecal content were collected from retail meat market and processed for isolation of Campylobacter spp. 52 Campylobacter isolates obtained from raw poultry meat (6 and caecal content (46 were subjected to biotyping using Lior's biotyping scheme. Results: Among the 52 Campylobacter isolates studied, 60.46 % isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni Biotype I and 39.53% were C. jejuni Biotype II, whereas 83.33 % were C. coli Biotype I and 16.66 % C. coli Biotype II. No other biotypes were identified. Conclusions: The present study revealed that C. jejuni Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II whereas in case of C. coli, Biotype I was more prevalent than Biotype II providing basis for further epidemiological study.

  2. Identification and biotyping of Acinetobacter spp. isolated in Chilean hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, M; Gonzalez, G; Bello, H; Garcia, A; Mella, S; Pinto, M E; Martinez, M A; Zemelman, R

    1995-08-01

    Two hundred and eighty-one isolates of Acinetobacter spp. obtained from clinical specimens in hospitals from five Chilean cities were identified to species level and biotyped. Respiratory tract and wound secretions were the main sources of the isolates. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequent species (96.8%), followed by Acinetobacter genospecies 3 (2.8%). Twelve different biotypes of A. baumannii strains were found of which biotypes 9, 8 and 6 were the most frequent. Isolates of other biotypes were rare. These results differ from most other Latin American and European countries.

  3. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...

  4. Hydrilla verticillata employs two different ways to affect DNA methylation under excess copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danlu; Zhuang, Kai; Xia, Yan; Zhu, Changhua; Chen, Chen; Hu, Zhubing; Shen, Zhenguo

    2017-12-01

    Because of the accumulation of heavy metals, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, a rooted submerged perennial aquatic herb, is being developed as a potential tool to clean the aquatic ecosystem polluted by heavy metals. However, its physiological responses for heavy metal remain to be elucidated. Here, through employing proteomics approach, we found that excess Cu significantly induced the expressions of four DNA methylation related proteins in H. verticillata, which were the homologues of two domains rearranged methyltransferases (DRM), a methyltransferases chromomethylase (CMT) and a histone H3 lysine-9 specific SUVH6-like (SUVH6). Consistently, a dramatic change in DNA methylation patterns was detected in excess Cu-exposed H. verticillata. Surprisingly, administration of the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and imidazole (IMZ) that block production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could trigger the remethylation of genomic sites that were demethylated by excess Cu, indicating that Cu-induced ROS might be another way to affect DNA methylation. Further analysis suggested this changed DNA methylation may be owing to the ROS-induced DNA damage. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that two different ways to influence DNA methylation in excess Cu-treated H. verticillata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel cytotoxic isolated from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata jacq induces apoptosis and overcomes multidrug resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Yohann; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hachiman, Miho; Kozako, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kakushi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kofune, Hiroki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Arima, Naomichi

    2011-01-01

    ...-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8, 9 - dihydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(5H)-one (4-MTDND) from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata jacq, and its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle and drug resistance were elucidated...

  6. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.

  7. Identification of resistant biotypes of Leptochloa chinensis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... rence was found in respect of plant toxicity by application of cyhalofop-butyl at both rates. The shoot fresh weight of susceptible biotype had 87% at recommended rates (800 ml a.i. ha-1) while resistant biotype had no significant effect even with higher rates of cyhalofop-butyl (Figure. 3c). Quadratic equation ...

  8. Prevalence of gingival biotype and its relationship to dental malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Al-Harthi, Shaimaa M; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S

    2012-06-01

    To study the prevalence of different gingival biotypes in a sample of patients and the association between gingival biotype and different dental malocclusions. Two hundred adult patients (100 males and 100 females) who presented for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were recruited from February 2011 to February 2012. Gingival thickness was assessed for the maxillary central incisors using the transparency of periodontal probe technique. Angle's classification of malocclusion and smoking habit were also recorded. The mean age was 32.1 (+/-11.0) years. Thin gingival biotype was observed in 44.5% of the sample, of which 64% were females and 25% were males (p=0.001). Only 31.4% of current smokers had thin gingival biotype compared to 51.9% of subjects who never smoked (p=0.011). No significant association between dental malocclusions and the presence of thin gingival biotype was found (Class I = 42.9%, Class II = 44.1%, and Class III 53.9%, p=0.6). A high prevalence of thin gingival biotype especially among females was observed. Smokers had thicker gingival biotype. No relationship was found between gingival biotypes and Angle's classification of malocclusion.

  9. Relationship between Propionibacterium acnes biotypes and Jumi-haidoku-to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, S; Kitagawa, T; Kagoura, M; Morohashi, M; Yamagishi, T

    2000-10-01

    We examined the relationship between Propionibacterium acnes biotypes and Jumi-haidoku-to (JHT). In all the P. acnes strains tested, the production of propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) was suppressed in a medium containing 1 mg/ml JHT compared with the control medium without JHT. There were no significant differences in the rates of decreased PA and BA production between P. acnes biotype 3 (B3) and the other biotypes or between isolates from mild skin rash and more severe skin rash. P. acnes B3 was the most commonly identified biotype. The clinical effects on acne due to the anti-P. acnes lipase activity of JHT did not seem to be influenced by the degree of acne rash or the P. acnes biotype.

  10. ASPECTOS BOTÂNICOS E DE USOS DE Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis (VITACEAE):INSULINA-VEGETAL

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Fabiano Alves; Neto, Germano Guarim

    2013-01-01

      RESUMO - (Aspectos botânicos e de usos de Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis (Vitaceae): insulina-vegetal). No presente trabalho são apresentados dados botânicos e de usos de uma importante planta usada na medicina popular, denominada de insulina-vegetal, Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicholson & C. E. Jarvis, da familia Vitaceae. Palavras-chave: Cissus, planta medicinal, insulina-vegetal.

  11. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284?bp in length, consisting of 118 unique...

  12. New, extended biotyping scheme for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and "Campylobacter laridis".

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H.

    1984-01-01

    A biotyping scheme using improved media and methods for the detection of hippurate hydrolysis, rapid H2S production, and DNA hydrolysis was applied to 1,826 cultures of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and "Campylobacter laridis" isolates from human and nonhuman sources. Four biotypes were identified among C. jejuni: 57.3% of the isolates belonged to biotype I; 36.0%, to biotype II; 4.0%, to biotype III; and 2.7%, to biotype IV. C. coli organisms were differentiated into biotype I (67...

  13. Biotypes and virulence factors of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayalaxmi, J; Bhat, G K; Kotigadde, S

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to correlate the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis and their virulence factors. Thirty-two strains of G. vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis were biotyped. Adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm production, surface hydrophobicity, phospholipase C and protease activity were tested on these isolates. Biotype 1 was the most prevalent (8; 25%), followed by biotype 2 (7; 21.9%) and biotypes 5 and 8 (5; 15.6%). We did not find any statistical correlation between G. vaginalis biotypes and its virulence factors. Virulence factors expressed by G. vaginalis were not associated with a single biotype.

  14. Gingival Biotype Assessment in a Healthy Periodontium: Transgingival Probing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, R G Shiva; Rana, Anju; Sarkar, Arijit

    2015-05-01

    Gingival biotype is the thickness of the gingiva in the faciopalatal dimension. It has a significant impact on the outcome of the restorative, regenerative and implant therapy. It has been suggested that a direct co-relation exists with the susceptibility of gingival recession followed by any surgical procedure. So, the study was aimed to assess gingival biotype in different age groups of males and females using transgingival probing method. Gingival thickness (GT) was evaluated in 336 patients including males and females of different age groups. The latter was based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin while probing the buccal sulcus. Final data collected was then used for statistical analysis. A significant difference was found between males and females with males showing thick biotype. Out of the total samples 76.9% of males showed thick biotype compared to 13.3 % of females which was statistically significant. This was probably one of the few attempts to correlate gingival biotype with different age groups in males and females. A clear thick gingiva was found in more than two-third of the male subjects whereas majority of female subjects showed thin biotype. Also, it was seen that in females, the gingival biotype varies with age unlike in male.

  15. Gingival biotype in relation to incisors' inclination and position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S

    2014-11-01

    To study the association between gingival biotypes and inclination and position of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. This cross-sectional study included 142 consecutive orthodontic patients (64 males and 78 females) who were seeking orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from February 2013 to January 2014. Gingival biotype was assessed independently for the maxillary and mandibular central incisors using the transparency of periodontal probe method. Maxillary and mandibular incisors' inclination and position were measured using cephalometric analysis. The mean age was 23.56 (±2.55) years. The prevalence of thin gingival biotype was 43% for the maxillary and 52.1% for the mandibular incisors. Females were 4 times more likely to have thin gingiva for the maxillary incisors and 5 times more likely for the mandibular incisors. A significant association was found between mandibular incisor inclination and position and thin gingival biotype, while there was no association between the maxillary incisor inclination and position and gingival biotypes. Mandibular incisor proclination and protrusion is associated with thin gingival biotype while no association is found in the maxilla. The evaluation of the gingival biotype is essential during diagnosis and treatment planning for potential orthodontic patients. 

  16. Gingival biotype in relation to incisors’ inclination and position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H.; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the association between gingival biotypes and inclination and position of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 142 consecutive orthodontic patients (64 males and 78 females) who were seeking orthodontic treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from February 2013 to January 2014. Gingival biotype was assessed independently for the maxillary and mandibular central incisors using the transparency of periodontal probe method. Maxillary and mandibular incisors’ inclination and position were measured using cephalometric analysis. Results: The mean age was 23.56 (±2.55) years. The prevalence of thin gingival biotype was 43% for the maxillary and 52.1% for the mandibular incisors. Females were 4 times more likely to have thin gingiva for the maxillary incisors and 5 times more likely for the mandibular incisors. A significant association was found between mandibular incisor inclination and position and thin gingival biotype, while there was no association between the maxillary incisor inclination and position and gingival biotypes. Conclusion: Mandibular incisor proclination and protrusion is associated with thin gingival biotype while no association is found in the maxilla. The evaluation of the gingival biotype is essential during diagnosis and treatment planning for potential orthodontic patients. PMID:25399216

  17. Role of iron, capsule, and toxins in the pathogenicity of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 for mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, C; Biosca, E G; Fouz, B; Toranzo, A E; Garay, E

    1994-01-01

    The virulence mechanisms of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 have been studied and compared with those of biotype 1 in mice as the experimental animals. Biotype 2 isolates from European eels were as virulent for mice as biotype 1 strains (50% lethal dose, about 10(5) CFU per mouse); a septicemic infection developed in less than 24 h. These strains had several properties in common with biotype 1 organisms including capsule expression, uptake of various iron sources, and production of exoproteins, w...

  18. Evaluation of the purified fraction of Wilbrandia (c. f. verticillata for antitumour activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. N. Rao

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbatacins are known to produce cytotoxic and anticancer activities. Two novel norcucurbitacin glucosides (Wvl and Wv2 have recently been isolated from a purified fraction obtained from the rhizome of Wilbrandia verticillata. The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and anti-tumour activities of the norcucurbitacins. We have found a regular cytotoxicity in KB cells (Cy50 = 12µg/ml as well as a significant inhibition in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma growth (approximately 75%.

  19. Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 Progress Report on Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol ...AND SUBTITLE Progress Report on Field Surveys to Identify Biocontrol Agents of Hydrilla verticillata from June - September 2012 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...1 Invasion Biology and Biocontrol Lab, Wuhan Botanical Institute, CAS ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-36 July 2015 3 named previously as Bagous sp. 3 and

  20. Hyptis verticillata Jacq: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picking, D; Delgoda, R; Boulogne, I; Mitchell, S

    2013-05-02

    Hyptis verticillata Jacq. (Lamiaceae) (John Charles) is an important medicinal plant with a long history of traditional use, originating in Central America and now extending from Florida to Colombia and across the Caribbean. Records of its earliest use date back to the ancient Mayan and Aztec cultures of Mesoamerica. There is no indication that this plant is being used outside of the Americas. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity and toxicology of Hyptis verticillata and to highlight the opportunities for greater development of the plant's medicinal properties at a local and international level. An extensive and systematic review of the literature was undertaken and all relevant abstracts and full-text articles analysed and included in the review. A wide range of traditional uses are cited in the literature, from internal uses for conditions affecting the respiratory system, digestive tract and gynaecological system to external uses for conditions affecting the skin and musculoskeletal system. Pharmacological studies to date have demonstrated significant activity which support the traditional use of the plant as an antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antisecretory agent and hormone modulator. In addition studies have identified anti-cancer, acaricidal, insecticidal and molluscicidal activity. No clinical trials had been completed at the time of this review. A number of key phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date including: 17 lignans; 4 triterpenes; 11 diterpenes, 3 sesquiterpenes, 3 monoterpenes, 2 flavonoids, 1 polyphenol and 1 alkaloid. Nine of these phytochemicals are novel to Hyptis verticillata. Plant extracts and isolated phytochemicals exhibit a broad range of activities that include: antimitotic; antiproliferative; cytotoxic; antioxidant; antiinflammatory; antibacterial; antifungal; antiviral; anti-HIV; antisecretory; hepatoprotective; insecticidal and

  1. Baubles, Bangles, and Biotypes: A Critical Review of the use and Abuse of the Biotype Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Pest species of insects are notoriously prone to escape the weapons deployed in management efforts against them. This is particularly true in herbivorous insects. When a previously successful tactic fails the insect population has apparently adapted to it and is often considered to be a new or distinct entity, and given the non-formal category ‘biotype’. The entities falling under the umbrella term ‘biotype’ are not consistent either within or between biotypes, and their underlying genetic composition and origins, while generally unknown, are likely heterogeneous within and variable between biotypes. In some cases race or species may be more appropriate referents. Some examples of applications of the concept in the context of host plant resistance are discussed. It is argued here that the term ‘biotype’ and its applications are overly simplistic, confused, have not proved useful in current pest management, and lack predictive power for future management. PMID:21062149

  2. Examining the competitive advantage of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 over biotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Randolph, Terri L; Peairs, Frank B; Michels, G J; Walker, C B

    2014-08-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is a serious pest of small grains, such as wheat and barley. High population growth rates and a broad gramineae host range have allowed this aphid to successfully establish and become pestiferous across much of North America since its invasion in the mid-1980s. Resistant wheat cultivars were developed and provided control ofD. noxia until 2003, when a new biotype (designated RWA2, as contrasted with the original biotype's designation, RWA1) emerged and rapidly spread through dryland winter wheat-growing regions. RWA2 displaced RWA1 more quickly than expected, based on RWA2's advantage in RWA1-resistant wheat cultivars. Previous research suggested that RWA2 may out-compete RWA1 in cooler temperatures. Thus, we sought to determine if RWA2 had a competitive advantage over RWA1 during the overwintering period. We placed a known distribution of RWA1 and RWA2 aphids in the field for the winter at three sites across a latitudinal gradient (from northern Colorado to Texas) to test for a competitive advantage between these biotypes. We found overwhelming support for an overwintering competitive advantage by RWA2 over RWA1, with evidence suggesting a > 10-fold advantage even at our Texas site (i.e., the site with the mildest winter). This substantial overwintering advantage helps explain the quick dispersion and displacement of RWA1 by RWA2.

  3. The gingival biotype assessed by experienced and inexperienced clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, Aryan; De Rouck, Tim; De Bruyn, Hugo; Cosyn, Jan

    2009-11-01

    A recent cluster analysis has identified three gingival biotypes among 100 periodontally healthy subjects based on different combinations of morphometric data related to maxillary front teeth and surrounding soft tissues. Patients with a thin-scalloped biotype are considered at risk because they have been associated with a compromised soft tissue response following surgical and/or restorative therapy. Hence, an accurate identification of these high-risk patients is warranted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the precision of simple visual inspection as a method to identify the gingival biotype by experienced and inexperienced clinicians. Fifteen clinicians (five Restorative Dentists, five Periodontists and five Students) were invited to assess the gingival biotype (thin-scalloped, thick-flat, thick-scalloped) of 100 periodontally healthy subjects based on clinical slides. Cluster analysis on these subjects was used as the gold standard and the accuracy in identifying the gingival biotype was determined using percentile agreement and kappa statistics. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability were also calculated. The gingival biotype was accurately identified only in about half of the cases irrespective of the clinician's experience. The thick-flat biotype was mostly recognized especially by experienced clinicians (> or =70% of the cases). Nearly half of the thin-scalloped cases were misclassified. The intra-examiner repeatability was fair to substantial (kappa: 0.328-0.670) and the inter-examiner reproducibility was slight to moderate (kappa: 0.127-0.547). Simple visual inspection may not be considered a valuable method to identify the gingival biotype as nearly half of the high-risk patients are overlooked.

  4. Development of an antibody-based diagnostic method for the identification of Bemisia tabaci biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyeong; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Lim, Kook Jin; Lee, Si Hyeock; Kim, Bum Joon

    2016-07-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a very destructive pest. B. tabaci is composed of various morphologically undistinguishable biotypes, among which biotypes B and Q, in particular, draw attention because of their wide distribution in Korea and differential potentials for insecticide resistance development. To develop a biotype-specific protein marker that can readily distinguishes biotypes B from other biotypes in the field, we established an ELISA protocol based on carboxylesterase 2 (COE2), which is more abundantly expressed in biotypes B compared with Q. Recombinant COE2 was expressed, purified and used for antibody construction. Polyclonal antibodies specific to B. tabaci COE2 [anti-COE2 pAb and deglycosylated anti-COE2 pAb (DG anti-COE2 pAb)] revealed a 3-9-fold higher reactivity to biotype B COE2 than biotype Q COE2 by Western blot and ELISA analyses. DG anti-COE2 pAb exhibited low non-specific activity, demonstrating its compatibility in diagnosing biotypes. Western blot and ELISA analyses determined that one of the 11 field populations examined was biotype B and the others were biotype Q, suggesting the saturation of biotype Q in Korea. DG anti-COE2 pAb discriminates B. tabaci biotypes B and Q with high specificity and accuracy and could be useful for the development of a B. tabaci biotype diagnosis kit for on-site field applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Preliminary study on gingival biotype by periodontal probing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Di; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Wen-jie; Liu, Deng-gao

    2012-02-01

    To establish a convenient, objective and applicable method to assess gingival biotype using periodontal probing. A total of 66 maxillary anterior teeth from 14 volunteers (6 males, 8 females) with healthy gingiva, aged from 20 to 30 years, were recruited in this study. The gingival biotypes were evaluated by whether or not the outline of the periodontal probe was clear inside the gingiva. Gingival thickness of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) in upper anterior teeth was measured by cone-beam CT (CBCT). The method of periodontal probing-assessed gingival biotype had good consistency and repeatability. The result of probing-assessed gingival biotype was consistent with that obtained by CBCT. The mean thickness of gingiva in thin, compromised and thick gingival biotype was (1.02 ± 0.20), (1.28 ± 0.25) and (1.46 ± 0.25) mm. These differences were significant for all three comparisons (P = 0.001, respectively). Periodontal probing-assessed gingival biotype is a simple, relatively objective and suitable method for clinical examination.

  6. Influence of Periodontal Biotype on Root Surface Exposure During Orthodontic Treatment: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasperini, Giulio; Acunzo, Raffaele; Cannalire, Paola; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of periodontal biotype in the development of gingival recession in patients who have undergone orthodontic treatment. A total of 60 mandibular incisors were analyzed. The qualitative assessment of periodontal biotype was performed with the use of a new biotype probe. A strong correlation was found between thin biotype and proinclination in terms of recession depth and keratinized tissue width. Patients with thin periodontal biotype are more prone to gingival margin instability, irrespective of the type of orthodontic movements. Thin periodontal biotype and proinclination orthodontic movement were related to loss of keratinized tissue width.

  7. The El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae exhibits a growth advantage in the stationary phase in mixed cultures with the classical biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhra; Baidya, Amit K; Ghosh, Amalendu; Paul, Kalidas; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2010-02-01

    Vibrio cholerae strains of the O1 serogroup that typically cause epidemic cholera can be classified into two biotypes, classical and El Tor. The El Tor biotype emerged in 1961 and subsequently displaced the classical biotype as a cause of cholera throughout the world. In this study we demonstrate that when strains of the El Tor and classical biotypes were cocultured in standard LB medium, the El Tor strains clearly had a competitive growth advantage over the classical biotype starting from the late stationary phase and could eventually take over the population. The classical biotype produces extracellular protease(s) in the stationary phase, and the amounts of amino acids and small peptides in the late stationary and death phase culture filtrates of the classical biotype were higher than those in the corresponding culture filtrates of the El Tor biotype. The El Tor biotype cells could utilize the amino acids more efficiently than the classical biotype under the alkaline pH of the stationary phase cultures but not in medium buffered to neutral pH. The growth advantage of the El Tor biotype was also observed in vivo using the ligated rabbit ileal loop and infant mouse animal models.

  8. Biological activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Petrea C; Porter, Roy B R; Reese, Paul B; Williams, Lawrence A D

    2005-06-15

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata Jacq. was elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The oil was dominated by the sesquiterpenoids cadina-4,10(15)-dien-3-one (15.1%) (1) and aromadendr-1(10)-en-9-one (squamulosone) (30.7%) (2). The oil exhibited chemosterilant activities against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus Canest., and toxic action against adult Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer, the most destructive pest of sweet potato (Ipomoea species).

  9. Baseline Susceptibilities of B- and Q-biotype Bemisia tabaci to anthranilic diamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of pyriproxyfen and neonicotinoid resistance in the B biotype whitefly and recent introduction of the Q biotype are threatening the current whitefly management programs in Arizona. Whether the novel anthranilic diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole can be integrated into the ...

  10. Male rats transmit Brucella abortus biotype 1 through sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Ariful; Khatun, Mst Minara; Baek, Byeong-Kirl

    2013-08-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate transmission of Brucella abortus biotype 1 via sexual intercourse in rats. Male and female virgin Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were experimentally infected intraperitoneally with 1×10(9)colony forming units (CFU) of B. abortus biotype 1, a Korean bovine isolate. At 14 days after infection, infected male rats (n=10) were housed with uninfected female rats (n=10) and infected female rats (n=10) were housed with uninfected male rats (n=10) for a period of one month. During this period all uninfected female rats became pregnant and 6 of 10 infected female rats became pregnant. Serum from two out of 10 female uninfected rats had positive reactions in the Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPAT), Tube Agglutination Test (TAT) or the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); whereas none of the uninfected male rat had positive reactions in these tests. Using bacteriological culture and AMOS-PCR assay, B. abortus biotype 1 was isolated and identified from two uninfected female rats and all of the uninfected male rats were found negative for B. abortus biotype 1. It was concluded that transmission of B. abortus biotype 1 from infected male to uninfected female rats resulted from sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of DNA Sequences Specific for Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 2 Strains by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung-Te; Amaro, Carmen; Sanjuán, Eva; Hor, Lien-I

    2005-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus can be divided into three biotypes, and only biotype 2, which is further divided into serovars, contains eel-virulent strains. We compared the genomic DNA of a biotype 2 serovar E isolate (tester) with the genomic DNAs of three biotype 1 strains by suppression subtractive hybridization and then tested the distribution of the tester-specific DNA sequences in a wide collection of bacterial strains. In this way we identified three plasmid-borne DNA sequences that were specific ...

  12. Presence of integrons in isolates of different biotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii from Chilean hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, G; Sossa, K; Bello, H; Dominguez, M; Mella, S; Zemelman, R

    1998-04-01

    Class 1 and class 2 integrons were investigated by hybridisation in 100 isolates of multiresistant biotypes of Acinetobacter baumannii from Chilean hospitals. Most isolates of A. baumannii biotype 9, the prevalent biotype, harboured integrons of class 2 (Tn7-like) whereas no integrons were detected in infrequent biotypes. Integron-carrying isolates exhibited broader antibiotic resistance patterns as well as higher resistance levels to various antimicrobials.

  13. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-02-11

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284 bp in length, consisting of 118 unique genes. The S. verticillata cp genome has lost one copy of the canonical inverted repeats and shown distinctive genomic structure comparing with other cupressophytes. Fifty-three simple sequence repeat loci and 18 forward tandem repeats were identified in the S. verticillata cp genome. According to the rearrangement of cupressophyte cp genome, we proposed one mechanism for the formation of inverted repeat: tandem repeat occured first, then rearrangement divided the tandem repeat into inverted repeats located at different regions. Phylogenetic estimates inferred from 59-gene sequences and cpDNA organizations have both shown that S. verticillata was sister to the clade consisting of Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Cephalotaxaceae. Moreover, accD gene was found to be lost in the S. verticillata cp genome, and a nucleus copy was identified from two transcriptome data.

  14. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284 bp in length, consisting of 118 unique genes. The S. verticillata cp genome has lost one copy of the canonical inverted repeats and shown distinctive genomic structure comparing with other cupressophytes. Fifty-three simple sequence repeat loci and 18 forward tandem repeats were identified in the S. verticillata cp genome. According to the rearrangement of cupressophyte cp genome, we proposed one mechanism for the formation of inverted repeat: tandem repeat occured first, then rearrangement divided the tandem repeat into inverted repeats located at different regions. Phylogenetic estimates inferred from 59-gene sequences and cpDNA organizations have both shown that S. verticillata was sister to the clade consisting of Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Cephalotaxaceae. Moreover, accD gene was found to be lost in the S. verticillata cp genome, and a nucleus copy was identified from two transcriptome data. PMID:26865528

  15. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  16. Baseline susceptibilities of B- and Q-biotype Bemisia tabaci to anthranilic diamides in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchun; Degain, Benjamin A; Harpold, Virginia S; Marçon, Paula G; Nichols, Robert L; Fournier, Alfred J; Naranjo, Steven E; Palumbo, John C; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Development of pyriproxyfen and neonicotinoid resistance in the B-biotype whitefly and recent introduction of the Q biotype have the potential to threaten current whitefly management programs in Arizona. The possibility of integrating the novel anthranilic diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole into the current program to tackle these threats largely depends on whether these compounds have cross-resistance with pyriproxyfen and neonicotinoids in whiteflies. To address this question, the authors bioassayed a susceptible B-biotype strain, a pyriproxyfen-resistant B-biotype strain, four multiply resistant Q-biotype strains and 16 B-biotype field populations from Arizona with a systemic uptake bioassay developed in the present study. The magnitude of variations in LC(50) and LC(99) among the B-biotype populations or the Q-biotype strains was less than fivefold and tenfold, respectively, for both chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole. The Q-biotype strains were relatively more tolerant than the B-biotype populations. No correlations were observed between the LC(50) (or LC(99)) values of the two diamides against the B- and Q-biotype populations tested and their survival rates at a discriminating dose of pyriproxyfen or imidacloprid. These results indicate the absence of cross-resistance between the two anthranilic diamides and the currently used neonicotinoids and pyriproxyfen. Future variation in susceptibility of field populations to chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole could be documented according to the baseline susceptibility range of the populations tested in this study. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Biotype and insecticide resistance status of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Yan, Haifei; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2010-12-01

    Resistance to numerous insecticide classes in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius has impaired field control efficacy in south-eastern China. The biotype and resistance status of B. tabaci collected from these areas was investigated. Two different biotypes of B. tabaci (B-biotype and Q-biotype) were detected in south-eastern China, and the samples collected from geographical regions showed a prevalence of the Q-biotype and the coexistence of B- and Q-biotypes in some regions. Moderate to high levels of resistance to two neonicotinoids were established in both biotypes (28-1900-fold to imidacloprid, 29-1200-fold to thiamethoxam). Medium to high levels of resistance to alpha-cypermethrin (22-610-fold) were also detected in both biotypes. Four out of 12 populations had low to medium levels of resistance to fipronil (10-25-fold). Four out of 12 populations showed low levels of resistance to spinosad (5.7-6.4-fold). All populations tested were susceptible to abamectin. The Q-biotype B. tabaci is supplanting the B-biotype which used to be ubiquitous in China. Field populations of both B- and Q-biotypes of B. tabaci have developed high levels of resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Abamectin is the most effective insecticide against adult B. tabaci from all populations. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Correlation between Propionibacterium acnes biotypes, lipase activity and rash degree in acne patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, S; Kitagawa, T; Kagoura, M; Morohashi, M; Yamagishi, T

    2000-08-01

    We examined the possible correlation between biotypes of Propionibacterium acnes, lipase activity, and rash degree in acne patients. Among 5 P. acnes biotypes, P. acnes biotype 3 (B3) was the most common, followed by P. acnes biotypes 1, 2 and 4; P. acnes biotype 5 was not found. P. acnes B3 was isolated from more severe skin rashes than those of the other biotypes. Production of propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) by P. acnes B3 was higher than those by the other P. acnes biotypes. As the rash degree in acne patients was more severe, the production of PA and BA elevated. Although only a few P. acnes strains were examined in the present study, P. acnes B3 had the highest lipase activity and might have the greatest influence on skin rash in acne patients.

  19. Biotype differences for resistance to Russian wheat aphid in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a worldwide insect pest of barley, causing crop losses each year. Previously identified resistant barley lines do not show variable reactions to the eight USA RWA biotypes identified by wheat reactions. However, additional RWA isolates have been identified outside the ...

  20. Gingival biotype revisited-novel classification and assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kai R; Künzlberger, Andreas; Donos, Nikolaos; Fickl, Stefan; Friedmann, Anton

    2017-05-27

    To evaluate the relationship between gingival biotypes and gingival thickness based on probe transparency through the gingival margin and to assess the sensitivity of a novel classification method. Sixty adult Caucasian subjects were stratified by their gingival biotype (GB) as defined by the transparency of a prototype double-ended periodontal probe through the buccal gingival margin into "thin" (30 subjects), "moderate" (15 subjects), and "thick" (15 subjects) GB. Three additional parameters were also assessed: gingival thickness (GT), probing depth (PD), and gingival width (GW). Median GT was 0.43 mm (P 25% 0.32; P 75% 0.58) for thin, 0.74 mm (P 25% 0.58; P 75% 0.81) for moderate, and 0.83 mm (P 25% 0.74; P 75% 0.95) for thick GB, respectively. GT was statistically significant different for thin versus moderate and thin versus thick, respectively (Kruskal-Wallis test, p biotypes based on a modified periodontal probe might be advantageous. In addition, the presence of a thick gingiva is associated with a wide band of keratinized tissue. This clinical setting might to be useful to identify high-risk patients with a very thin biotype and, consequently, higher risk for gingival recession after dental treatments.

  1. The bioassay-guided isolation of growth inhibitors of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata, and NMR characterization of hyptoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Toshiyuki; White, Yohann; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Oiso, Yusuke; Fijita, Masaki J; Okamura, Hiroaki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo; Arima, Naomichi

    2012-08-17

    Through bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds with growth inhibitory activity on S1T, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell line, were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata.

  2. Saprotrophic proteomes of biotypes of the witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Sandra; Griffith, Gareth W; Morphew, Russell M; Mur, Luis A J; Scott, Ian M

    2017-09-01

    Nine geographically diverse Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease pathogen) isolates were cultured in vitro. They included six C-biotypes differing in virulence on cacao (Theobroma cacao), two S-biotypes (solanaceous hosts), and an L-biotype (liana hosts). Mycelial growth rates and morphologies differed considerably, but no characters were observed to correlate with virulence or biotype. In plant inoculations using basidiospores, one C-biotype caused symptoms on tomato (an S-biotype host), adding to evidence of limited host adaptation in these biotypes. Mycelial proteomes were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 619 gel spots were indexed on all replicate gels of at least one strain. Multivariate analysis of gel spots discriminated the L-biotype, but not the S-biotypes, from the remaining strains. The proteomic similarity of the S- and C-biotypes is consistent with their reported lack of phylogenetic distinction. Sequences from tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides from major 2-DE spots were matched with Moniliophthora genome and transcript sequences on NCBI and WBD Transcriptome Atlas databases. Protein-spot identifications indicated that M. perniciosa saprotrophic mycelial proteomes expressed functions potentially connected with a 'virulence life-style', including peroxiredoxin, heat-shock proteins, nitrilase, formate dehydrogenase, a prominent complement of aldo-keto reductases, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, and central metabolism enzymes with proposed pathogenesis functions. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between clinical periodontal biotype and labial plate thickness: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D Ryan; Mealey, Brian L; Verrett, Ronald G; Mills, Michael P; Noujeim, Marcel E; Lasho, David J; Cronin, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in labial plate thickness in patients identified as having thin versus thick/average periodontal biotypes. The association between biotype and labial plate thickness was evaluated by correlating information obtained from cone beam computed tomographs, diagnostic impressions, and clinical examinations of the maxillary anterior teeth (canine to canine) in 60 patients. Compared to a thick/average biotype, a thin biotype was associated with thinner labial plate thickness (P biotype and tooth height-to-width ratio or facial recession. Periodontal biotype is significantly related to labial plate thickness, alveolar crest position, keratinized tissue width, gingival architecture, and probe visibility but unrelated to facial recession.

  4. Resistance and differential susceptibility of Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Ovejero Ramiro Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequent application of herbicides in agricultural areas may select resistant biotypes in weed populations, whose biological characteristics influence the speed and patterns of resistance. This research aims to charactere, simultaneously, resistance patterns and differential susceptibility of Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides of the imidazolinone and sulfonylurea chemical groups. Six hairy beggarticks biotypes, four suspected resistant and two known susceptible, were treated with eight rates of chlorimuron-ethyl or imazethapyr, in greenhouse conditions. Percent control and percent fresh weight of the plants were evaluated at 28 days after the application. B. subalternans is less susceptible to ALS-inhibiting herbicides than B. pilosa; B. subalternans biotypes were more resistant than B. pilosa biotypes; there are B. pilosa and B. subalternans biotypes with cross resistance to the ALS-inhibiting herbicides of the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups; there are different patterns of cross resistance to the diverse groups of ALS-inhibiting herbicides.

  5. Prevalence of gingival biotype and its relationship to clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rucha; Sowmya, N K; Mehta, D S

    2015-09-01

    The dimensions of gingiva and different parts of the masticatory mucosa have a profound impact in periodontics as it governs the way; the gingival tissue reacts to various physical, chemical, or bacterial insults. The purpose of the following study was to assess the gingival thickness (GT) and correlate it to gender, presence of recession, and width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) in a subset of the Indian population. A total of 400 subjects in the age range of 20-35 years (200 males and 200 females) were included in the study. Clinical parameters such as probing depth, recession depth, WKG, and GT were recorded for all the patients. The prevalence of thin biotype was 43.25%, and that of thick gingival biotype was 56.75%. The mean GT of central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine in Group I was 1.11 ± 0.17, 1.01 ± 0.16, and 0.82 ± 0.17 mm, respectively. No significant association was observed between the gender and the presence of gingival recession to GT. The mean WKG of central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine in Group I was 4.38 ± 1.18, 5.18 ± 1.25, 4.16 ± 1.16 mm, respectively. A positive correlation exists between WKG and the GT (P biotype is 56.75% versus 43.25%, respectively, and there is no significant relationship between age, gender, and the presence of recession to gingival biotype. A positive correlation exists between WKG and the GT.

  6. Resistance and differential susceptibility of Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Fernando López-Ovejero; Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho; Marcelo Nicolai; Aluana Gonçalves Abreu; Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini; Roberto Estevão Bragion de Toledo; Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2006-01-01

    The frequent application of herbicides in agricultural areas may select resistant biotypes in weed populations, whose biological characteristics influence the speed and patterns of resistance. This research aims to charactere, simultaneously, resistance patterns and differential susceptibility of Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides of the imidazolinone and sulfonylurea chemical groups. Six hairy beggarticks biotypes, four suspected resistant and two known s...

  7. Oleate lipase activity in Gardnerella vaginalis and reconsideration of existing biotype schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncla Bernard J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative gram positive organism that requires subculture every 1–2 days to maintain viability. It has been linked with bacterial vaginosis (BV, a syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for preterm delivery, pelvic inflammatory disease and HIV acquisition. About 10% of the G. vaginalis isolates have been reported to produce sialidase, but there have not been any studies relating sialidase production and biotype. Sialidase activity is dramatically increased in the vaginal fluid of women with BV and bacterial sialidases have been shown to increase the infectivity of HIV in vitro. There are 8 different biotypes of G. vaginalis. Biotypes 1–4 produce lipase and were reported to be associated with BV and the association of these biotypes with BV is under dispute. Other studies have demonstrated that G. vaginalis biotype 1 can stimulate HIV-1 production. Because of the discrepancies in the literature we compared the methods used to biotype G. vaginalis and investigated the relationship of biotype and sialidase production. Results A new medium for maintenance of Gardnerella vaginalis which allows survival for longer than one week is described. Some isolates only grew well under anaerobic conditions. Sialidase producing isolates were observed in 5 of the 6 biotypes tested. Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-oleate to determine lipase activity, instead of egg yolk agar, resulted in erroneous biotypes and does not provide reliable results. Conclusion Previous studies associating G. vaginalis biotype with bacterial vaginosis were methodologically flawed, suggesting there is not an association of G. vaginalis biotypes and bacterial vaginosis. Sialidase activity was observed in 5 of the 8 biotypes.

  8. Dose-response curves of Lolium multiflorum biotypes resistant and susceptible to clethodim

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, L.; Fraga, D.S.; Agostinetto, D.; Mariani, F.; Duarte, T.V.; Silva, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical control with herbicides, especially glyphosate, is the main method used to control ryegrass. However, the repeated use of glyphosate has selected resistant ryegrass biotypes. Thus, the ACCase inhibitor herbicides have become the main alternative to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes, being widely used by farmers in Rio Grande do Sul. Repeated use of ACCase inhibitors, in turn, have selected ryegrass biotypes resistant to this herbicide mechanism. Thus, the objective of this study ...

  9. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF WHEAT IN ASSOCIATION WITH BIOTYPES OF Raphanus raphanistrum L. RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO ALS-INHIBITOR HERBICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Oliveira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Raphanus raphanistrum ALS herbicide-resistant in wheat crops causes crop yield losses, which makes it necessary to understand the factors that influence the interference of this weed to develop safer management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the competitive ability of wheat in coexistence with biotypes of R. raphanistrum that are resistant (R biotype and susceptible (S biotypes to ALS herbicides and to determine whether there are differences in the competitiveness of these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments were placed in pots and arranged in replacement series for three experiments (1 - wheat with the R biotype; 2 - wheat with the S biotype; and 3 - the R biotype with the S biotype at the following ratios: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The competitiveness was analyzed through diagrams applied to replacement experiments and competitiveness indices, including the evaluation of the shoot dry matter of the plants (experiments 1, 2, and 3 and the leaf area (experiment 3. The R and S biotypes significantly decreased the shoot dry matter of the wheat cultivar and demonstrated superior competitive ability compared with the culture. The interspecific competition was more important for the wheat and for the S biotype. The competitiveness of the R biotype compared to the S biotype was similar, with synergism in the leaf area production, which indicates the predominant intraspecific competition exhibited by the R biotype.

  10. Variation in the salivary proteomes of differentially virulent greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Scott J; Puterka, Gary J

    2014-06-13

    Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) biotypes are classified by their differential virulence to wheat, barley, and sorghum varieties possessing greenbug resistance genes. Virulent greenbug biotypes exert phytotoxic effects upon their hosts during feeding, directly inducing physiological and metabolic alterations and accompanying foliar damage. Comparative analyses of the salivary proteomes of four differentially virulent greenbug biotypes C, E, G, and H showed significant proteomic divergence between biotypes. Thirty-two proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS; the most prevalent of which were three glucose dehydrogenase paralogs (GDH), lipophorin, complementary sex determiner, three proteins of unknown function, carbonic anhydrase, fibroblast growth factor receptor, and abnormal oocyte (ABO). Seven nucleotide-binding proteins were identified, including ABO which is involved in mRNA splicing. Quantitative variation among greenbug biotypes was detected in six proteins; two GDH paralogs, carbonic anhydrase, ABO, and two proteins of unknown function. Our findings reveal that the greenbug salivary proteome differs according to biotype and diverges substantially from those reported for other aphids. The proteomic profiles of greenbug biotypes suggest that interactions between aphid salivary proteins and the plant host result in suppression of plant defenses and cellular transport, and may manipulate transcriptional regulation in the plant host, ultimately allowing the aphid to maintain phloem ingestion. Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani, GB) is a major phytotoxic aphid pest of wheat, sorghum, and barley. Unlike non-phytotoxic aphids, GB directly damages its host, causing uniformly characteristic symptoms leading to host death. As saliva is the primary interface between the aphid and its plant host, saliva is also the primary aphid biotypic determinant, and differences in biotypic virulence are the result of biotypic variations in salivary content. This study analyzed

  11. Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 classical biotype in 2012 in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, B; Boustanshenas, M; Mahmoudi-aznaveh, A

    2014-02-01

    Cholera outbreaks annually occur in many parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the biotype and genotype diversity of V. cholerae isolates from recent outbreak (2012) in Iran and to characterize the ctxB allelic sequence of isolates. The ctxB sequence of all isolates was analyzed and compared with the reference ctxB sequences for El Tor and classical biotypes in GenBank database. The PFGE genotype specification of isolates was determined and genetic relatedness among isolates and also with those previously reported from Iran was assessed. Ten out of eleven isolates were identified as El Tor biotype and one single isolate belonged to classical biotype. All isolates except three possessed tcpA, ctxA, ctxB and wbeT genes. All the ctxB(+) isolates in this study (classical and El Tor biotypes) possessed the ctxB sequence of classical biotype allele providing evidences of El Tor variants. Eight out of 11 isolates (73%) showed identical pulsotypes (P1). Each of the remaining three isolates showed distinct pulsotypes (P2-P4) with more than three band differences. Pulsotype P2 was corresponded to an isolate (9%) with classical biotype. The result demonstrated diversity in virulence gene content of strains with identical PFGE patterns and also provided evidences of the import of a V. cholerae strain with classical biotype from out of our country as no classical biotype strain has been previously (1998-2011) reported from Iran. Emergence of V. cholerae with Classical biotype after at least one decade in Iran is alarming due to fear of expansion of V. cholerae strains with high virulence potential and signifies the need to monitor and analyze all new cases in countries with cholera outbreaks or even sporadic cases as this could conceivably affect the neighbouring countries and may expose the world to the seventh pandemic with Classical biotype strains. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Application of ADM1 for modeling of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xun; Huo, Chan; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Mian

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the application of anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) to simulate biogas production from Hydrilla verticillata. Model simulation was carried out by implementing ADM1 in AQUASIM 2.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the most sensitive parameters for estimation using the absolute-relative sensitivity function. Among all the kinetic parameters, disintegration constant (kdis), hydrolysis constant of protein (khyd_pr), Monod maximum specific substrate uptake rate (km_aa, km_ac, km_h2) and half-saturation constants (Ks_aa, Ks_ac) affect biogas production significantly, which were optimized by fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to well predict the experimental results of daily biogas production and biogas composition. The simulation results of evolution of organic acids, bacteria concentrations and inhibition effects also helped to get insight into the reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A preliminary study on the adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) using seaweed, Hydrilla verticillata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baral, S.S., E-mail: ss_baral2003@yahoo.co.in [Chemical Engineering Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani - Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa-403726 (India); Das, Namrata; Roy Chaudhury, G.; Das, S.N. [Department of Environment and Sustainability, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar-751013 (India)

    2009-11-15

    The Cr(VI) adsorption efficiency of the seaweed, Hydrilla verticillata, was studied in batches. The adsorbent was characterized using SEM, BET surface area analyzer, Malvern particle size analyzer, EDAX and FT-IR. Cr(VI) removal efficiency of the adsorbent was studied as a function of different adsorption parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, pH, adsorbent dose, particle size, adsorbate concentration, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm equations were used in the equilibrium modeling. The adsorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step. Experimental data follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of the adsorption process were evaluated to find out the feasibility of the adsorption process. The negative values of Gibb's free energy and positive enthalpy values show the feasibility and endothermic nature of the process. The significance of different adsorption parameters along with their combined effect on the adsorption process has been established through a full 2{sup 4} factorial design. Among the different adsorption parameters, pH has the most influential effect on the adsorption process followed by adsorbate concentration and combined effects of all the four parameters were tested. The correlation among different adsorption parameters were studied using multi-variate analysis.

  14. Novel cytotoxic isolated from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata jacq induces apoptosis and overcomes multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yohann; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hachiman, Miho; Kozako, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kakushi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kofune, Hiroki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Arima, Naomichi

    2011-12-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia is an aggressive hematological malignancy with a poor clinical prognosis, and a rapid resistance to chemotherapy is rapid. Cytotoxicity assay-directed fractionation identified a novel lignan-related agent, 4-methoxy-9-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8, 9 - dihydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(5H)-one (4-MTDND) from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata jacq, and its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle and drug resistance were elucidated. The novel agent, 4-MTDND, exhibited cytotoxicity against myriad cancer types, with a wide therapeutic index of 30- to 40-fold, promoted G(2)/M arrest and up-regulated expression of pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and BAX, as well as enhanced activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, consistent with apoptosis induction. Multidrug-resistant cancer cells were as susceptible to 4-MTDND as their non-resistant control counterparts, with 4-MTDND having greater efficacy compared to standard chemotherapy agents etoposide and mitoxantrone. The novel cytotoxic agent 4-MTDND induces G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells possibly due to direct DNA damage or interference with topoisomerase II.

  15. Vegetative propagation of insulin (Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis by cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T.A. CRUZ-SILVA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Propagation techniques may support handling, this way providing an alternative for producers of medicinal plants, thus avoiding indiscriminate collection. We aimed to evaluate the size of cuttings with and without leaves on the seedling production of insulin (Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis. The herbaceous apical cuttings were prepared with diagonal cut at the bottom and straight cut at the apex, with 5, 10 or 15 cm in length, kept with two whole leaves, two leaves cut in half or without leaves, being sterilized with sodium hypochlorite at 0.5% for 15 minutes. The cuttings were planted in plastic containers with 180 mL capacity with vermiculite as substrate and placed in greenhouse at the temperature of 22 ± 2° C. The experimental design was completely randomized and means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. After 60 days, we found that the cutting of 5 cm with whole leaves and with leaves cut in half and the cutting of 10 cm with whole leaves had rates above 70% of rooting with the best means for number and length of roots. There was a high mortality rate for cuttings made without leaves. The callus and the percentage of live cuttings were not significant for the treatments. Therefore, 5 cm long cuttings with whole or half leaves and 10 cm long cuttings with whole leaves are the most suitable for the vegetative propagation of insulin.

  16. Change in the biotype composition of Bemisia tabaci in Shandong Province of China from 2005 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dong; Wan, Fang Hao; Zhang, You Jun; Brown, Judith K

    2010-06-01

    Certain biotypes of the Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) complex cause extensive damage and are important pests and virus vectors in agricultural crops throughout the world. Among the most invasive and well studied are the B and Q biotypes. Recent reports in Shandong Province, China, have indicated that the Q biotype was introduced there in approximately 2005, whereas the B biotype has been established there for approximately 10 yr. Even so, the present distribution of the two biotypes in Shandong has not been examined. The results of this study showed that the B and Q biotypes are both present in Shandong Province based on bar-coding using a approximately 450-base fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene. In addition, a B biotype-specific polymerase chain reaction primer pair that amplifies a approximately 300 bp mtCOI fragment was designed and used to examine the biotype composition of B. tabaci in selected crops from six provincial locations, using the general mtCOI primers as an internal positive control for DNA quality. The results of this study indicated that the Q biotype was the predominant B. tabaci colonizing all of the crops in the study sites examined. This suggests that the Q biotype has displaced the B biotype in Shandong Province of China, which until now was the predominant biotype. This is the first report of the displacement of the B by the Q biotype in field grown crops in China, and in a locale where neither the B nor the Q biotype is native. We hypothesize that this phenomenon may have been exacerbated by the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides for whitefly control, given the sustained efficacy thus far of neonicotinoids against the B biotype, and their failure at times to effectively control the Q biotype.

  17. Is colonoscopy necessary in cases of infection by Streptococcus bovis biotype II?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corredoira, J.C.; Alonso, M.P.; Garcia-Pais, M.J.; Rabunal, R.; Garcia-Garrote, F.; Lopez-Roses, L.; Lancho, A.; Coira, A.; Pita, J.; Velasco, D.; Lopez-Alvarez, M.J.; Tjalsma, H.; Varela, J.

    2014-01-01

    The association of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) with Streptococcus bovis biotype I (SBI) infection is well recognized. However, this is not the case for Streptococcus bovis biotype II (SBII). We conducted this study in order to analyze the relationship between SBII and CRN. We analyzed all cases of

  18. Extraordinary resistance to insecticides reveals exotic Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Timothy J; Degain, Benjamin A; Harpold, Virginia S; Zaborac, Marni; Morin, Shai; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Nichols, Robert L; Brown, Judith K; Byrne, Frank J; Li, Xianchun

    2010-12-01

    A strain of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) possessing unusually high levels of resistance to a wide range of insecticides was discovered in 2004 in the course of routine resistance monitoring in Arizona. The multiply resistant insects, collected from poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) plants purchased at a retail store in Tucson, were subjected to biotype analysis in three laboratories. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of naphthyl esterases and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (780 bp) confirmed the first detection of the Q biotype of B. tabaci in the New World. This U.S. Q biotype strain, referred to as Poinsettia'04, was highly resistant to two selective insect growth regulators, pyriproxyfen and buprofezin, and to mixtures of fenpropathrin and acephate. It was also unusually low in susceptibility to the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam, relative to B biotype whiteflies. In 100 collections of whiteflies made in Arizona cotton (Gossypium spp.), vegetable, and melon (Cucumis melo L.) fields from 2001 to 2005, no Q biotypes were detected. Regions of the United States that were severely impacted by the introduction of the B biotype of B. tabaci in the 1980s would be well advised to promote measures that limit movement of the Q biotype from controlled environments into field systems and to formulate alternatives for managing this multiply-resistant biotype, in the event that it becomes more widely distributed.

  19. Yersinia ruckeri biotype 2 isolates from mainland Europe and the UK likely represent different clonal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard W; Davies, Robert L; Dalsgaard, Inger; Garcia, Jose; Welch, Timothy J; Wagley, Sariqa; Bateman, Kelly S; Verner-Jeffreys, David W

    2009-03-09

    There have been increased reports of outbreaks of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri in previously vaccinated salmonids in Europe, with some of these outbreaks being attributed to emergent non-motile, Tween 80-negative, biotype 2 isolates. To gain information about their likely origins and relationships, a geographically and temporally diverse collection of isolates were characterised by serotyping, biotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and outer membrane protein (OMP) profiling. A total of 44 pulsotypes were identified from 160 isolates by PFGE, using the restriction enzyme NotI. Serotype O1 isolates responsible for ERM in rainbow trout in both the US and Europe, and including biotype 2 isolates, represented a distinct subgroup of similar pulsotypes. Biotype 2 isolates, responsible for outbreaks of the disease in rainbow trout in the UK, Denmark and Spain, had different pulsotypes, suggesting that they represented different clones that may have emerged separately. Danish biotype 2 isolates recovered since 1995 were indistinguishable by PFGE from the dominant biotype 1 clone responsible for the majority of outbreaks in Denmark and the rest of mainland Europe. In contrast, US biotype 2 isolate YRNC10 had an identical pulsotype and OMP profile to UK biotype 2 isolates, suggesting that there had been exchange of these isolates between the UK and the US in the past. UK Atlantic salmon isolates were genetically and serologically diverse, with 12 distinct pulsotypes identified among 32 isolates.

  20. Independent Emergence of Yersinia ruckeri Biotype 2 in the United States and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Timothy J.; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    Biotype 2 (BT2) variants of the bacterium Yersinia ruckeri are an increasing disease problem in U.S. and European aquaculture and have been characterized as serovar 1 isolates that lack both peritrichous flagella and secreted phospholipase activity. The emergence of this biotype has been associat...

  1. Identification of novel sources of host plant resistance to known soybean aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Mian, M A R; Michel, Andy P

    2013-06-01

    While soybean cultivars with resistance to the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been commercially released, the presence of virulent biotypes capable of overcoming plant resistance threatens the durability of host plant resistance as a stable management tactic. Novel sources of host plant resistance are needed to combat rapid biotype evolution. In this study, we screened 1,061 soybean plant introductions (PIs) for resistance to three known biotypes of A. glycines. Based on a series of growth chamber and field screenings, we identified 11 PIs that showed resistance to biotype 1 of A. glycines. Among these 11 PIs, 7 PIs were resistant to biotype 2 and 5 PIs were resistant to biotype 3. Further, two PIs (PI 606390A from Vietnam and PI 340034 from South Korea) showed resistance to all three biotypes of A. glycines. We also identified 11 PIs that were potentially tolerant to A. glycines, illustrated by no adverse impact on plant quality because of A. glycines infestation. As resistant PIs identified in this study belong to maturity group II-IV, they can be readily crossed to early maturing cultivars adapted to north-central states of the United States, where A. glycines is a major pest. The genetic characterization of resistance in these PIs and incorporation of novel resistant genes into elite soybean cultivars will broaden the defense against multiple biotypes of A. glycines.

  2. Yersinia ruckeri biotype 2 isolates from mainland Europe and the UK likely represent different clonal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wheeler, Richard W.; Davies, Robert L.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2009-01-01

    different pulsotypes, suggesting that they represented different clones that may have emerged separately. Danish biotype 2 isolates recovered since 1995 were indistinguishable by PFGE from the dominant biotype 1 clone responsible for the majority of outbreaks in Denmark and the rest of mainland Europe...

  3. Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Differentiation of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A from pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes by detection of β-glucosidase activity: comparison of two chromogenic culture media and Vitek2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhukorpi, Jari; Päivänurmi, Marjut

    2014-01-01

    Aesculin hydrolysis (ESC) is one of the key reactions in differentiating pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 from the less-pathogenic biotype 1A. Because the ESC reaction is caused by β-glucosidase (βGLU) activity of the bacteria, we studied whether two commonly used methods (BBL CHROMagar Orientation and Vitek2 Gram-negative identification card) could be used in assessing βGLU activity of 74 Yersinia strains. Both methods were sensitive (100 % and 97 %) and specific (100 % and 100 %) in differentiating βGLU-positive YE BT1A from βGLU-negative Y. enterocolitica biotypes. For a subset of strains (n = 69), a new selective CHROMagar Yersinia showed excellent agreement with the strains' βGLU activity. Thus all the methods evaluated in this study may be used to differentiate between YE BT1A and other Y. enterocolitica biotypes.

  5. Suitability changes with host leaf age for Bemisia tabaci B biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Fen; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2012-10-01

    The suitability of tomato leaves of different ages for Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) was characterized by development time, stage-specific survival, sex ratio, longevity, and fecundity. Three categories of leaf ages were tested (young: expanding leaves biotype developed faster through the quiescent fourth nymphal instar, had higher ratio of females to males, survived longer, and produced more eggs (in the first 2 wk of adult life) than T. vaporariorum on leaves of the same age; although on young leaves, B. tabaci B biotype survivorship was lower than that of T. vaporariorum. The index of host suitability of B. tabaci B biotype was higher on mature and old leaves than on young leaves. In T. vaporariorum, no such differences were found among these three leaf ages. The results could provide some cues why B. tabaci B biotype is spreading so vigorously.

  6. Molecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)+-pulegone and menthone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Yanina Estefanía; Canavoso, Lilián; Palacios, Sara María

    2012-03-01

    Intense applications of synthetic insecticides for the control of adult Musca domestica have led to the insects developing resistance to most of them. In consequence, there is interest in new active ingredients as alternatives to conventional insecticides. Essential oils (EO) are potential tools for controlling M. domestica because of their effectiveness and their minimal environmental effects. In a fumigant assay, M. domestica adults treated with Minthostachys verticillata EO [LC(50)=0.5 mg/dm(3); majority components by SPME-GC: (4R)(+)-pulegone (67.5%), menthone (22.3%) and (4R)(+)-limonene (3.8%)], died within 15 min or less. The terpenes absorbed by the flies and their metabolites, analyzed using SPME fiber, were (4R)(+)-limonene (LC(50)=6.2 mg/dm(3)), menthone (LC(50)=1.9 mg/dm(3)), (4R)(+)-pulegone (LC(50)=1.7 mg/dm(3)) and a new component, menthofuran (LC(50)=0.3 mg/dm(3)), in a relative proportion of 12.4, 6.5, 35.9 and 44.2% respectively. Menthofuran was formed by oxidation of either (4R)(+)-pulegone or menthone mediated by cytochrome P450, as demonstrated by a fumigation assay on flies previously treated with piperonyl butoxide, a P450 inhibitor, which showed a decrease in toxicity of the EO, (4R)(+)-pulegone and of menthone, supporting the participation of the P450 oxidizing system in the formation of menthofuran. The enzymatic reaction of isolated fly microsomes with the EO or the (4R)(+)-pulegone produced menthofuran in both cases. Contrary to expectations, the insect detoxification system contributed to enhance the toxicity of the M. verticillata EO. Consequently, resistant strains overexpressing P450 genes will be more susceptible to either M. verticillata EO or (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of Bemisia tabaci Biotype B on Soybean Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, P L; Baldin, E L L

    2017-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has been recognized as an important pest of many agricultural systems including soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] crops. As an alternative to chemical control, the use of resistant genotypes represents an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM). This study aimed to evaluate the biological development of Bemisia tabaci biotype B confined on 13 soybean genotypes under greenhouse conditions. Initially, the nymphal period, complete development period (egg-adult), and the viability of the silverleaf whitefly nymphs were evaluated in all genotypes. Then, four genotypes promising for resistance ('Jackson,' UX-2569-159, 'P98Y11,' and 'TMG132 RR') and a susceptible genotype (PI-227687) were selected for further assays, where two insect populations were compared: a first population from the initial rearing (cabbage plants) and another corresponding to insects previously reared out on the selected genotypes. In addition to the parameters evaluated in preliminary tests, we also determined the viability and incubation period of eggs. Moderate levels of resistance (antibiosis/antixenosis) to B. tabaci biotype B were found in three genotypes. 'P98Y11' and 'TMG132 RR' were less suitable for insect development, extending the development cycle, and UX-2569-159 caused high nymphal mortality. We did not observe a significant increase in the level of plant resistance by the use of previously stressed insects. This suggests that the evaluation of a single whitefly generation may be sufficient to make correct decisions on promising soybean genotypes.

  8. Influence of periodontal biotype on the presence of interdental papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Alexandre Barboza; Kahn, Sergio; Rodrigues, Walmir Junio de Pinho Reis; Barceleiro, Marcos O

    2013-01-01

    The absence of interdental papillae can be a negative influence in aesthetics. Periodontal biotype (PB) is one of the factors that can possibly influence this relation and has to be considered in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the periodontal biotype on the presence and absence of interdental papillae. Forty-seven patients were included in this transversal clinical study. The PB, presence and height of interdental papilla, loss of papillary height, and the distance between the base of the contact point and bone crest (CP-BC) were evaluated. The chi-square test was used to verify the significance level of the PB distribution frequency between groups. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the CP-BC measures between the different PB groups, and the correlation test was used to verify the relation between the CP-BC distance and the presence of papillae. The thin PB group presented a significantly higher presence of papillae (71.1%) than did the thick PB group (59.6%, P < 0.05). An inverse and proportional correlation between the CP-BC distance and the presence of papillae was found. The authors concluded that the PB influenced the presence and height of interdental papillae.

  9. Further spread of and domination by Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q on field crops in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Chu, Dong; Ge, Daqing; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Xie, Wen; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Liu, Baiming; Yang, Xin; Yang, Nina; Su, Qi; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

    2011-06-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), causes severe crop losses to many crops. The worst of these losses are often associated with the invasion and establishment of biotypes B and Q of this pest. Previous research in 2007 showed that biotype Q occurred with other biotypes in most field populations in China. To determine the current status of the biotype composition in the field, an extensive survey covering mainly eastern parts of China was conducted in 2009. Using polymerase chain reaction primers specific for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I of biotypes B and Q and gene sequencing, we determined the biotypes composition in 61 whitefly populations and their distribution across 19 provinces in China. Our research revealed that only biotypes B and Q have been found in the field in 2009 in China. Among them, biotype Q was dominant in 44 locations (100.0%) and biotype B was dominant in 17 locations (100.0%). The current survey indicates that biotype Q has rapidly displaced biotype B in most locations in China.

  10. Gingival biotype assessement: visual inspection relevance and maxillary versus mandibular comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny-Houchmand, Madline; Renaudin, Stéphane; Leroul, Mustapha; Planche, Lucie; Guehennec, Laurent Le; Soueidan, Assem

    2013-01-01

    This clinical study was aimed at evaluating the accuracy of gingival visual inspection procedures during clinical examination and determining whether differences existed between the maxillary and mandibular gingival biotypes. The study included 53 patients and 124 clinicians. The clinicians were asked to assign to each subject, using photographic documents, one of three biotypes: thin-scalloped, thick-scalloped, or thick-flat gingival biotype. A total of 19716 responses were collected for statistical analysis. Identification accuracy of the gingival biotype and the intra-examiner repeatability presented poor highlighting of the limited relevance of visual inspection. In addition, the percent of agreement between classifications based on the global view of both the maxilla and mandible and the classification based on the individual mandibular or maxillary anterior teeth was not statistically significant. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that a simple visual inspection is not effective for the identification of gingival biotype. Furthermore, evidence suggests that a difference of biotype between the maxilla and the mandible in the same patient is conceivable. Therefore, orthodontic clinical examination should incorporate a reproducible method of determining the individualized gingival biotype for each group of teeth that will be moved.

  11. Evaluation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system for identification of Staphylococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenming; Sieradzki, Krzysztof; Albrecht, Valerie; McAllister, Sigrid; Lin, Wen; Stuchlik, Olga; Limbago, Brandi; Pohl, Jan; Kamile Rasheed, J

    2015-10-01

    The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS (Biotyper) system, with a modified 30 minute formic acid extraction method, was evaluated by its ability to identify 216 clinical Staphylococcus isolates from the CDC reference collection comprising 23 species previously identified by conventional biochemical tests. 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used to resolve discrepancies. Of these, 209 (96.8%) isolates were correctly identified: 177 (84.7%) isolates had scores ≥2.0, while 32 (15.3%) had scores between 1.70 and 1.99. The Biotyper identification was inconsistent with the biochemical identification for seven (3.2%) isolates, but the Biotyper identifications were confirmed by 16S rDNA analysis. The distribution of low scores was strongly species-dependent, e.g. only 5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis and 4.8% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates scored below 2.0, while 100% of Staphylococcus cohnii, 75% of Staphylococcus sciuri, and 60% of Staphylococcus caprae produced low but accurate Biotyper scores. Our results demonstrate that the Biotyper can reliably identify Staphylococcus species with greater accuracy than conventional biochemicals. Broadening of the reference database by inclusion of additional examples of under-represented species could further optimize Biotyper results. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Relationship between Pyruvate Kinase Activity and Cariogenic Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus mutans Biotypes in Caries Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyściak, Wirginia; Papież, Monika; Jurczak, Anna; Kościelniak, Dorota; Vyhouskaya, Palina; Zagórska-Świeży, Katarzyna; Skalniak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (MS) and its biotype I are the strains most frequently found in dental plaque of young children. Our results indicate that in children pyruvate kinase (PK) activity increases significantly in dental plaque, and this corresponds with caries progression. The MS strains isolated in this study or their main glycolytic metabolism connected with PK enzymes might be useful risk factors for studying the pathogenesis and target points of novel therapies for dental caries. The relationship between PK activity, cariogenic biofilm formation and selected biotypes occurrence was studied. S. mutans dental plaque samples were collected from supragingival plaque of individual deciduous molars in 143 subjects. PK activity was measured at different time points during biofilm formation. Patients were divided into two groups: initial stage decay, and extensive decay. Non-parametric analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were used to determine the connections between S. mutans levels, PK activity and dental caries biotypes. A total of 143 strains were derived from subjects with caries. Biotyping data showed that 62, 23, 50, and 8 strains were classified as biotypes I, II, III, IV, respectively. PK activity in biotypes I, II, and IV was significantly higher in comparison to that in biotype III. The correlation between the level of S. mutans in dental plaque and PK activity was both statistically significant (p mutans in the biofilm (colony count and total biomass), the higher the PK activity; similarly, a low bacterial count correlated with low PK activity.

  13. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  14. Insight into the evolution of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3's genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Vera; Danin-Poleg, Yael; Raz, Nili; Elgavish, Sharona; Linetsky, Alex; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic bacterium and an important human pathogen. Strains of V. vulnificus are biochemically classified into three biotypes. The newly emerged biotype 3 appears to be rather clonal and geographically restricted to Israel, where it caused an outbreak of wound infections and bacteremia. To understand the evolution of the bacterium's genome, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of biotype 3 strain VVyb1(BT3), and then conducted a microbial environmental survey of the hypothesized niche from which it probably evolved. The genome of this environmental isolate revealed higher similarity to the published biotype 1 genomes of clinical strains (90%) than to the environmental strains (87%), supporting the virulence of the biotype 3 group. Moreover, 214 of the total 5361 genes were found to be unique to strain VVyb1(BT3), having no sequence similarity to any of the known genomes of V. vulnificus; 35 of them function in DNA mobility and rearrangement, supporting the role of horizontal gene transfer in genome evolution. Interestingly, 29 of the "unique" genes had homologies among Shewanella species. In a survey conducted in aquaculture ponds in Israel, we successfully co-isolated Shewanella and V. vulnificus from the same niche, further supporting the probable contribution of Shewanella to the genome evolution of biotype 3. Indeed, one gene was found in a S. algae isolate. Surprisingly, molecular analysis revealed that some of the considered unique genes are harbored by non-sequenced biotype 1 strains isolated from the same environment. Finally, analyses of the biotype 3 genome together with the environmental survey suggested that its genome originated from a biotype 1 Israeli strain that acquired a rather small number of genes from other bacterial species in the niche, such as Shewanella. Therefore, aquaculture is likely to play a major role as a man-made ecological niche in bacterial evolution, leading the emergence of new pathogenic groups in V

  15. Propionibacterium acnes biotypes and susceptibility to minocycline and Keigai-rengyo-to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Shuichi; Nakamura, Motokazu; Morohashi, Masaaki; Yamagishi, Takayoshi

    2004-02-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the predominant organism in acne lesions, but the sensitivity of different biotypes of P. acnes to therapeutic agents has seldom been reported. To characterize biotypes of P. acnes and to measure the effects of Keigai-rengyo-to (KRT) and minocycline (MINO) on clinical P. acnes isolates. Propionibacterium acnes biotype III (BIII) is the most common form of identified acne lesion, followed by P. acnes biotype I. BIII was isolated from mild, moderate and severe severity and the average lipase activity of BIII was higher than that of Biotypes I, II, IV and V. No significant differences in the decrease of free fatty acid production elicited by KRT or by MINO were found between BIII and the other biotypes. The degree of decreased butyric acid production was greater than that of propionic acid production in the medium supplemented with MINO. The percent decrease of butyric acid production elicited by 1 mg/mL of KRT was the same as that elicited by 0.1 microg/mL of MINO. Among biotypes of P. acnes, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of agents tested were generally higher in erythritol-positive biotypes than in erythritol-negative biotypes. The high frequency of BIII might be responsible for the severity of acne in patients. It seems that if the same concentrations of MINO and KRT are used, the antilipase activity of MINO is stronger than that of KRT. Minocycline also has a direct anti-lipase activity against P. acnes. The mechanism underlying the influence of erythritol on the susceptibility of P. acnes to these agents remains unknown.

  16. The El Tor Biotype of Vibrio cholerae Exhibits a Growth Advantage in the Stationary Phase in Mixed Cultures with the Classical Biotype▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Subhra; Baidya, Amit K.; Ghosh, Amalendu; Paul, Kalidas; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae strains of the O1 serogroup that typically cause epidemic cholera can be classified into two biotypes, classical and El Tor. The El Tor biotype emerged in 1961 and subsequently displaced the classical biotype as a cause of cholera throughout the world. In this study we demonstrate that when strains of the El Tor and classical biotypes were cocultured in standard LB medium, the El Tor strains clearly had a competitive growth advantage over the classical biotype starting from th...

  17. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains isolated from pigs in two Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1997-01-01

    Eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains were isolated in pure culture from lungs of pigs originating from two Danish herds with growing and finishing pigs. The antigenic properties were studied by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests using soluble surface...... antigens and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using capsular enriched fractions and LPS. In all tests the strains proved antigenically homogeneous and serologically distinct from the known biotype 1 and 2 serotypes. Thus, the strains represent a new serotype which is provisionally proposed...... as biotype 2 serotype 14....

  18. Specific gene probe for detection of biotyped and serotyped Listeria strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Notermans, S; Chakraborty, T; Leimeister-Wächter, M; Dufrenne, J; Heuvelman, K J; Maas, H; Jansen, W; Wernars, K; Guinee, P

    1989-01-01

    A total of 284 strains of Listeria, including all known serovars and biovars together with Listeria grayi and Listeria murrayi, were biotyped and serotyped. Biotyping and serotyping could be done in 2 days. A gene probe encoding a delayed hypersensitivity factor (DTH) was used in the detection of pathogenic biotypes and serotypes of the tested strains. The gene was found in all 117 tested Listeria monocytogenes strains of serogroups 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, 3c, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4ab, and 7. It was...

  19. Uncertain diagnosis of fabry disease in patients with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma or cornea verticillata: consensus on the approach to diagnosis and follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, L. van der; Cassiman, D.; Houge, G.; Janssen, M.C.; Lachmann, R.H.; Linthorst, G.E.; Ramaswami, U.; Sommer, C.; Tondel, C.; West, M.L.; Weidemann, F.; Wijburg, F.A.; Svarstad, E.; Hollak, C.E.M.; Biegstraaten, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with neuropathic pain, angiokeratoma (AK) and/or cornea verticillata (CV) may be tested for Fabry disease (FD). Classical FD is characterised by a specific pattern of these features. When a patient presents with a non-specific pattern, the pathogenicity of a variant in the

  20. Integrated role of ROS and Ca(+2) in blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement in leaves of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arkajo; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Directional chloroplast photorelocation is a major physio-biochemical mechanism that allows these organelles to realign themselves intracellularly in response to the intensity of the incident light as an adaptive response. Signaling processes involved in blue light (BL)-dependent chloroplast movements were investigated in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle leaves. Treatments with antagonists of actin filaments [2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA)] and microtubules (oryzalin) revealed that actin filaments, but not microtubules, play a pivotal role in chloroplast movement. Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in controlling chloroplast avoidance movement has been demonstrated, as exogenous H2O2 not only accelerated chloroplast avoidance but also could induce chloroplast avoidance even in weak blue light (WBL). Further support came from experiments with different ROS scavengers, i.e., dimethylthiourea (DMTU), KI, and CuCl2, which inhibited chloroplast avoidance, and from ROS localization using specific stains. Such avoidance was also partially inhibited by ZnCl2, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) as well as 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a photosynthetic electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitor at PS II. However, methyl viologen (MV), a PS I ETC inhibitor, rather accelerated avoidance response. Exogenous calcium (Ca(+2)) induced avoidance even in WBL while inhibited chloroplast accumulation partially. On the other hand, chloroplast movements (both accumulation and avoidance) were blocked by Ca(+2) antagonists, La(3+) (inhibitor of plasma membrane Ca(+2) channel) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Ca(+2) chelator) while LiCl that affects Ca(+2) release from endosomal compartments did not show any effect. A model on integrated role of ROS and Ca(+2) (influx from apolastic space) in actin-mediated chloroplast avoidance has been proposed.

  1. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains antigenically related to both serotypes 2 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1996-01-01

    Nine Danish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 isolates were shown by latex agglutination and indirect haemagglutination to possess capsular polysaccharide epitopes identical to those of serotype 2 strain 1536 (reference strain of serotype 2) and strain 4226 (Danish serotype 2 strain...

  2. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandi, Aman; Jordan, David L; York, Alan C; Milla-Lewis, Susana R; Burton, James D; Culpepper, A. Stanley; Whitaker, Jared R

    2012-01-01

      Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate...

  3. Comparison of virulence of different Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes using an aerosol infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mariann Juul; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Nielsen, Ragnhild

    1996-01-01

    An aerosol infection model for inoculation of pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is described, With this model the virulence of three A. pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 strains representing serotypes 2, 5b and 6, and one Danish biotype 2 were compared using 13-week-old pigs for inoculation....... The pigs were sacrificed 24 h after aerosol exposure and lung lesions were evaluated. In pigs exposed to aerosols of suspensions containing 10(4) CFU/ml of serotypes 2, 5b and 6, a number of 5-10 lesions of haemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia were induced, For the biotype 2 strain the dose creating similar...... lesions was 10(9) CFU/ml. Repeated experiments confirmed these results showing similar virulence of serotypes 2, 5b and 6 whereas the biotype 2 strain proved less virulent, The aerosol infection model allowed a comparison of the number of A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/liter air which were necessary to induce...

  4. Isolation and characterization of nine microsatellite loci from Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistylli, M; Schwartz, S A; Brown, J K; Roderick, G K

    2014-10-15

    Nine microsatellites were isolated from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and screened across 60 individuals from two populations (biotype B) to examine polymorphism. Two to 12 alleles were observed per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.033 to 0.967 and 0.033 to 0.854, respectively. There was no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no significant linkage disequilibrium between loci. One locus showed evidence for null alleles. These loci will be useful in future studies of the genetic structure of worldwide biotypes and gene flow analyses between and within biotypes of B. tabaci. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Genomic regions repeatedly involved in divergence among plant-specialized pea aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, P; Peccoud, J; Mahéo, F; Mieuzet, L; Jaquiéry, J; Simon, J-C

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the genetic bases of biological diversification is a long-standing goal in evolutionary biology. Here, we investigate whether replicated cases of adaptive divergence involve the same genomic regions in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, a large complex of genetically differentiated biotypes, each specialized on different species of legumes. A previous study identified genomic regions putatively involved in host-plant adaptation and/or reproductive isolation by performing a hierarchical genome scan in three biotypes. This led to the identification of 11 F(ST) outliers among 390 polymorphic microsatellite markers. In this study, the outlier status of these 11 loci was assessed in eight biotypes specialized on other host plants. Four of the 11 previously identified outliers showed greater genetic differentiation among these additional biotypes than expected under the null hypothesis of neutral evolution (α Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Curtis B; Shiao, Derek; Fox, Carolyn M; Hartman, Glen L

    2017-07-01

    Five soybean plant introductions expressed antibiosis resistance to multiple soybean aphid biotypes. Two introductions had resistance genes located in the Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 regions; one introduction had resistance genes located in the Rag1, Rag2, and rag4 regions; one introduction had resistance genes located in the Rag1 and Rag2 regions; and one introduction had a resistance gene located in the Rag2 region. Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance inheritance, and identify markers associated with genes controlling resistance in these accessions. Five soybean PIs, from an initial set of 3000 PIs, were tested for resistance against soybean aphid biotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 in choice and no-choice tests. Of these five PIs, PI 587663, PI 587677, and PI 587685 expressed antibiosis against all four biotypes, while PI 587972 and PI 594592 expressed antibiosis against biotypes 1, 2, and 3. F2 populations derived from PI 587663 and PI 587972 were evaluated for resistance against soybean aphid biotype 1, and populations derived from PIs 587677, 587685, and 594592 were tested against biotype 3. In addition, F2:3 plants were tested against biotypes 2 and 3. Genomic DNA from F2 plants was screened with markers linked to Rag1, Rag2, Rag3, and rag4 soybean aphid-resistance genes. Results showed that PI 587663 and PI 594592 each had three genes with variable gene action located in the Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 regions. PI 587677 had three genes with variable gene action located in the Rag1, Rag2 and rag4 regions. PI 587685 had one dominant gene located in the Rag1 region and an additive gene in the Rag2 region. PI 587972 had one dominant gene located in the Rag2 region controlling antixenosis- or antibiosis-type resistance to soybean

  7. [The significance of biotype in the predictability of dental-periodontal treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovics, Dániel; Gera, István

    2016-06-01

    The dimension of attached gingiva is a very important landmark in the periodontal health, and determine the function of the mucogingival unit, the progression of marginal inflammation and also affects aesthetic dentistry, orthodontics and implantology. The determination of gingival/periodontal biotype is important in dental/periodontal practice. Hence, the aim of this cross sectional clinical study was to assess the width and thickness of attached gingiva in young, periodontally healthy individuals and to provide anthropometric data in Hungary. 68 periodontally healthy (between the age of 14-28) individuals participated in the study. The thickness of the gingiva was determined using transgingival transparency of periodontal probe at each tooth in the maxillary and mandibular dental arch. Based on this non-invasive technique three biotype categories were determined i.e. thin > 1 mm, medium 1-2 mm and thick gingival margin and mucogingival line the midline of each tooth. The data were statistically analyzed and compared according to gender, dental arch and group of teeth. The gingiva was found to be thinner in females than males. The thin biotype was significantly more common among females while in males the thick biotype was the dominant. The individual variations were common within dental arch and many times the biotype switched from tooth to tooth. The average width of the attached gingiva was wider in the maxilla than in the mandible and there was no statistically significant correlation between the biotype and the width of attached gingiva. Manifest gingival recession occurred just around teeth with thin biotype. In the present study, we concluded that gingival thickness and width varies with gender and dental arch location and the biotype had no effect on the width of attached gingiva.

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A: a possible new trigger of reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuompo, Riitta; Hannu, Timo; Huovinen, Elisa; Sihvonen, Leila; Siitonen, Anja; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta

    2017-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) biotype 1A is generally considered non-pathogenic, and the role of it in causing reactive musculoskeletal complications is unclear. We evaluated the capability of YE biotype 1A to induce reactive arthritis (ReA) and other reactive musculoskeletal symptoms. Analysis of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms was supplemented with a telephone interview (with a permission to acquire copies of patient files from a local physician or hospital) and/or clinical examination of subjects with recent musculoskeletal symptoms after a positive stool culture for YE. The diagnoses of ReA and reactive tendinitis and enthesitis (ReTe) were defined as "definite" when based on clinical examination and/or on interview by phone and "probable" when based solely on the questionnaire. Of 120 subjects, who reported musculoskeletal symptoms, 100 were included in the final analysis. Among these 100 patients, 68% had YE biotype 1A, 16% YE bio/serotype 4, and 1% biotype 2 infection; the remaining 15% had different YE-like strains or a non-biotypable strain. Of the 21 patients with ReA and of the 14 patients with ReTe, the diagnosis was definite in 9 and 7 patients and probable in 12 and 7 patients, respectively. The clinical picture of ReA caused by YE biotype 1A was similar with other bio/serotypes of YE. The definite ReA due to YE biotype 1A occurred in middle-aged adults (5 men, 4 women) with the most frequently affected joints being the knees and ankles. We suggest that YE biotype 1A should be taken into account as a new trigger of ReA.

  9. Control Measures of Sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis) Resistant Biotype using Propanil Quinclorac and Cyhalofop-butyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Motior Rahman; M. Aminul Islam; M. Sofian-Azirun; N.B. Amru; S. Ismail

    2014-01-01

    ...) sprangletop biotype (Kedah-SB8) but finally regain and exhilarate by use of propanil quinclorac and cyhalofop-butyl at eight-folds the recommended field use rates. The effective dose of propanil cyhalofop-butyl and quinclorac to inhibit plant growth by 50% (ED50) was 0.58 g m-2 0.05 g m-2 and 0.09 g m-2 for the R biotype while forthat of the susceptible (S) b...

  10. Biotype expression and insecticide response of Bemisia tabaci chemosensory protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo Xia; Xuan, Ning; Chu, Dong; Xie, Hong Yan; Fan, Zhong Xue; Bi, Yu Ping; Picimbon, Jean-François; Qin, Yu Chuan; Zhong, Su Ting; Li, Yao Fa; Gao, Zhan Lin; Pan, Wen Liang; Wang, Guo Ying; Rajashekar, Balaji

    2014-03-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are a group of small soluble proteins found so far exclusively in arthropod species. These proteins act in chemical communication and perception. In this study, a gene encoding the Type 1 CSP (BtabCSP1) from the agricultural pest Bemisia tabaci (whitefly) was analyzed to understand sequence variation and expression specificity in different biotypes. Sequence analysis of BtabCSP1 showed significant differences between the two genetically characterized biotypes, B and Q. The B-biotype had a larger number of BtabCSP1 mutations than the Q-biotype. Similar to most other CSPs, BtabCSP1 was more expressed in the head than in the rest of the body. One-step RT-PCR and qPCR analysis on total messenger RNA showed that biotype-Q had higher BtabCSP1 expression levels than biotype-B. Females from a mixed field-population had high levels of BtabCSP1 expression. The interaction of BtabCSP1 with the insecticide thiamethoxam was investigated by analyzing the BtabCSP1 expression levels following exposure to the neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam, in a time/dose-response study. Insecticide exposure increased BtabCSP1 expression (up to tenfold) at 4 and 24 h following 50 or 100 g/ml treatments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Clinical Considerations on the Root Coverage of Gingival Recessions in Thin or Thick Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sergio; Almeida, Renato Alves da Rocha; Dias, Alexandra Tavares; Rodrigues, Walmir Júnior; Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira; Taba, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gingival biotype is a clinical term used to describe the thickness of the gingiva. It has been classified as being thick or thin and may be related to the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures. This study evaluated the impact of gingival biotype on the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures following subepithelial connective tissue graft plus coronally positioned flap. A total of 19 patients, 10 with thin and 9 with thick gingival biotype, were treated for localized Miller Class I or II gingival recessions. After 6 months, 14 patients achieved complete root coverage, 7 from each group. The overall mean pooled root coverage rate was 90.93%. The thin biotype cases yielded a reduced mean root coverage of 88.51% compared with 93.63% for patients who had the thick biotype classification. Although the thin gingival biotype may impair the clinical outcome of root coverage procedures, this limitation does not appear to have a strong influence on the success of the root coverage therapy when subepithelial connective tissue graft was associated with the coronal positioning of the flap.

  12. Characteristics of periodontal biotype, its dimensions, associations and prevalence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweers, Jeroen; Thomas, Renske Z; Slot, Dagmar E; Weisgold, Arnold S; Van der Weijden, Fridus G A

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this review were as follows: What are characteristics used to define various forms of periodontal biotypes? What are their anatomic dimensions in relation to the definition? In addition, what is the association between these various characteristics in relation to the periodontal biotypes? Furthermore, what is the prevalence of various forms of periodontal biotypes in the population? The PubMed-MEDLINE, the Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched through up and till June 2013 to identify any appropriate studies regarding the aim. Appropriate studies were those reporting characteristics of various forms of periodontal biotype and its dimensions. These characteristics were gingival thickness (GT), gingival morphotype (GM), tooth dimensions (TD), keratinized tissue (KT) and bone morphotype (BM). The search yielded 2581 unique papers, after selection resulted in 12 publications that met the eligibility criteria. In general, the available definitions are found to be unclear and sometimes inconsistent. However, based on the available literature, the three biotypes thin scalloped, thick flat and thick scalloped seem a comprehensive categorization in defining periodontal biotypes in the population. The dental, gingival and osseous dimensions have a weak to moderate association. Only between gingival thickness, keratinized tissue and bone morphotype uniform positive associations are found. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A Strains Isolated from Swine Slaughterhouses and Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paixão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans and animals. Y. enterocolitica is also the most heterogeneous species of the genus and is divided into distinct serotypes and over six biotypes. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are classically considered as nonpathogenic; however, some biotype 1A isolates have been considered as causative of gastrointestinal disease, yielding symptoms indistinguishable from those produced by pathogenic biotypes. Even after decades of isolation of clinical strains, the pathogenic mechanisms of these isolates are still not fully understood. In the present study, 122 Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were characterized according to the presence of the virulence genes ail, virF, and ystA. A total of 94 strains were positive to at least one virulence gene (77.05%, and 67 were positive to all of them (54.92%. Twenty-two strains were submitted to PFGE genotyping resulting in 22 distinct pulsotypes, varying from 50% to 84% of genetic similarity. Any clustering tendency among pulsotypes related to origin, isolation site, or even virulence profile was not observed. The present study reports an important contamination of the environment in swine slaughterhouses, meat markets, and pork, by potentially virulent Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A.

  14. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Renata; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Sena de Gobbi, Débora Dirani; Raimundo, Daniele Cristine; Hofer, Ernesto; Matté, Maria Helena; Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Tulio; Costa, Barbara Leticia Pereira; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans and animals. Y. enterocolitica is also the most heterogeneous species of the genus and is divided into distinct serotypes and over six biotypes. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are classically considered as nonpathogenic; however, some biotype 1A isolates have been considered as causative of gastrointestinal disease, yielding symptoms indistinguishable from those produced by pathogenic biotypes. Even after decades of isolation of clinical strains, the pathogenic mechanisms of these isolates are still not fully understood. In the present study, 122 Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were characterized according to the presence of the virulence genes ail, virF, and ystA. A total of 94 strains were positive to at least one virulence gene (77.05%), and 67 were positive to all of them (54.92%). Twenty-two strains were submitted to PFGE genotyping resulting in 22 distinct pulsotypes, varying from 50% to 84% of genetic similarity. Any clustering tendency among pulsotypes related to origin, isolation site, or even virulence profile was not observed. The present study reports an important contamination of the environment in swine slaughterhouses, meat markets, and pork, by potentially virulent Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Aeromonas jandaei, A. schubertii, A. trota, and A. veronii biotype veronii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, T L; Janda, J M

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-six isolates of four Aeromonas species, which have been documented as causative agents of human infections or isolated from human clinical specimens, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using a MicroScan WalkAway conventional (overnight incubation) gram-negative panel. The four species tested and the number of isolates of each were as follows: Aeromonas jandaei, 17; A. schubertii, 12; A. trota, 15; and A. veronii biotype veronii, 12. All isolates of A. trota were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, except cefazolin (20% of isolates were resistant) and cefoxitin (13% of isolates were resistant). All isolates of A. schubertii and A. veronii biotype veronii, as well as 88% of A. jandaei isolates, were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam ranged from 25% of A. schubertii strains to 100% of A. veronii biotype veronii strains. Cefazolin resistance ranged from 17% of A. veronii biotype veronii isolates to 59% of A. jandaei isolates. Imipenem resistance was detected in 65% of A. jandaei strains and 67% of A. veronii biotype veronii strains. A. jandaei displayed resistance to piperacillin and ticarcillin in 53 and 71% of the isolates, respectively. A. veronii biotype veronii strains were 100% susceptible to piperacillin and 100% resistant to ticarcillin. These antibiogram data may be useful in establishing the identification of these four species when members of the genus Aeromonas are isolated from human clinical sources.

  16. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  17. Effect of mercury on some aquatic plants. [Hydrilla verticillata Presl. ; Pistia stratiotes L. ; Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhatre, G.N.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    Three aquatic plants, Hydrilla verticillata Presl, Pistia stratiotes L. and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell, were treated with different concentrations of mercury ranging from 1 to 1000 ..mu..g liter/sup -1/ at three different exposure durations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5 h. All were found to be severely affected by mercury. Foliar injury, chlorophyll content and phytomass showed perceptible effects with increasing exposure to the metal. In the case of floating plants a positive relationship was obtained between Leaf Injury Index (LII) and doses of the metal. The possible use of aquatic plants in general, and floating plants in particular, as simple bioassay material in biomonitoring and toxicity studies is discussed with special reference to LII as a simple biomonitoring parameter.

  18. Impacts of residual aluminum from aluminate flocculant on the morphological and physiological characteristics of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Wei; He, Feng; Ma, Jian-Min; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Bi-Yun; Min, Fen-Li; Dai, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Qiao-Hong; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-11-01

    Aluminate is generally used as a flocculant in water and wastewater treatment processes, but the residual aluminum (Al) may have toxic effects on aquatic organisms when the concentration accumulates beyond a threshold level. The in situ and laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of residual Al on submerged macrophytes in West Lake, Hangzhou, China, which receives Al flocculant-purified water diverted from the Qiantang River. The responses of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata were investigated based on their morphological and physiological parameters in pot culture and aquarium simulation experiments. In the pot culture experiments, the biomass, seedling number, plant height, stolon number, stolon length, and root weight were significantly higher at a site located 150m from the inlet compared with those at a site located 15m from the inlet (P macrophytes were stressed by residual Al. V. natans and H. verticillata accumulated 0.052-0.227mg of Al per gram of plant biomass (fresh weight, mg/g FW) and 0.045-0.205mg Al/g FW in the in situ experiments, respectively, where the amounts of Al were significantly higher in the plants in the treatment aquaria during the laboratory experiments than those in the controls. These results may have important implications for the restoration of submerged macrophytes and ecological risk assessments in Al-exposed lakes. It is recommended that the Al salt concentration used for the control of lake eutrophication should be reduced to an appropriate level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Semipersistent Plant Virus Differentially Manipulates Feeding Behaviors of Different Sexes and Biotypes of Its Whitefly Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant viruses can change the performance of their vectors. However, there have been no reports on whether or how a semipersistent plant virus manipulates the feeding behaviors of its whitefly vectors. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae is an emergent plant virus in many Asian countries and is transmitted specifically by B and Q biotypes of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, in a semipersistent manner. In the present study, we used electrical penetration graph (EPG technique to investigate the effect of CCYV on the feeding behaviors of B. tabaci. The results showed that CCYV altered feeding behaviors of both biotypes and sexes of B. tabaci with different degrees. CCYV had stronger effects on feeding behaviors of Q biotype than those of B biotype, by increasing duration of phloem salivation and sap ingestion, and could differentially manipulate feeding behaviors of males and females in both biotype whiteflies, with more phloem ingestion in Q biotype males and more non-phloem probing in B biotype males than their respective females. With regard to feeding behaviors related to virus transmission, these results indicated that, when carrying CCYV, B. tabaci Q biotype plays more roles than B biotype, and males make greater contribution than females.

  20. A Semipersistent Plant Virus Differentially Manipulates Feeding Behaviors of Different Sexes and Biotypes of Its Whitefly Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaohua; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Xueli; Song, Danyang; Bai, Rune; Shi, Yan; Gu, Qinsheng; Kuo, Yen-Wen; Falk, Bryce W.; Yan, Fengming

    2017-01-01

    It is known that plant viruses can change the performance of their vectors. However, there have been no reports on whether or how a semipersistent plant virus manipulates the feeding behaviors of its whitefly vectors. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) is an emergent plant virus in many Asian countries and is transmitted specifically by B and Q biotypes of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in a semipersistent manner. In the present study, we used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique to investigate the effect of CCYV on the feeding behaviors of B. tabaci. The results showed that CCYV altered feeding behaviors of both biotypes and sexes of B. tabaci with different degrees. CCYV had stronger effects on feeding behaviors of Q biotype than those of B biotype, by increasing duration of phloem salivation and sap ingestion, and could differentially manipulate feeding behaviors of males and females in both biotype whiteflies, with more phloem ingestion in Q biotype males and more non-phloem probing in B biotype males than their respective females. With regard to feeding behaviors related to virus transmission, these results indicated that, when carrying CCYV, B. tabaci Q biotype plays more roles than B biotype, and males make greater contribution than females. PMID:28098749

  1. Dynamics of Bemisia tabaci biotypes and insecticide resistance in Fujian province in China during 2005–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng-Luan; Zheng, Yu; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ding, Xue-Ling; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Desneux, Nicolas; He, Yu-Xian; Weng, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an important agricultural insect pest worldwide. The B and Q biotypes are the two most predominant and devastating biotypes prevalent across China. However, there are few studies regarding the occurrence of the Q biotype in Fujian Province, China, where high insecticide resistance has been reported in the B biotype. Differences in some biological characteristics between the B and Q biotypes, especially insecticide resistance, are considered to affect the outcome of their competition. Extensive surveys in Fujian revealed that the B biotype was predominant during 2005–2014, whereas the Q biotype was first detected in some locations in 2013 and widely detected throughout the province in 2014. Resistance to neonicotinoids (that have been used for more than 10 years) exhibited fluctuations in open fields, but showed a continual increasing trend in protected areas. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin exhibited a declining trend. Resistance to novel insecticides, such as nitenpyram, pymetrozine, sulfoxaflor, and cyantraniliprole, in 2014 was generally below a moderate level. A decline in insecticide resistance in the B biotype and the rapid buildup of protected crops under global temperature increase may have promoted the establishment of the Q biotype in Fujian. PMID:28112233

  2. Vaccine Induced Specific Protection Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM) Caused by Yersinia Ruckeri Serotype 1 Biotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Sidharta; Raida, Martin K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    biotype 1 and 2. In this study, the specificity of immune protection extended by three commercial vaccines viz; AQUAVAC ERM® Intervet Schering Plough (based on biotype 1 only), ERMOGEN VET® Novartis (based on biotype 1 only) and AQUAVAC RELERA® Intervet Schering Plough (based on both biotype 1and 2...... by AQUAVAC RELERA® in terms of milder and lesser degree of certain pathological lesions like haemorrhages in or around the buccal cavity, base of fins and intestines, when compared to ERMOGEN VET®, AQUAVAC ERM® vaccinated group and Yersinia ruckeri (BT2) infected group....

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio vulnificus isolates revealed biotype 3 evolutionary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koton, Yael; Gordon, Michal; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Bisharat, Naiel

    2014-01-01

    In 1996 a common-source outbreak of severe soft tissue and bloodstream infections erupted among Israeli fish farmers and fish consumers due to changes in fish marketing policies. The causative pathogen was a new strain of Vibrio vulnificus, named biotype 3, which displayed a unique biochemical and genotypic profile. Initial observations suggested that the pathogen erupted as a result of genetic recombination between two distinct populations. We applied a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach using several V. vulnificus strains from Israel in order to study the pan genome of V. vulnificus and determine the phylogenetic relationship of biotype 3 with existing populations. The core genome of V. vulnificus based on 16 draft and complete genomes consisted of 3068 genes, representing between 59 and 78% of the whole genome of 16 strains. The accessory genome varied in size from 781 to 2044 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole, core, and accessory genomes displayed similar clustering patterns with two main clusters, clinical (C) and environmental (E), all biotype 3 strains formed a distinct group within the E cluster. Annotation of accessory genomic regions found in biotype 3 strains and absent from the core genome yielded 1732 genes, of which the vast majority encoded hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, and mobile element proteins. A total of 1916 proteins (including 713 hypothetical proteins) were present in all human pathogenic strains (both biotype 3 and non-biotype 3) and absent from the environmental strains. Clustering analysis of the non-hypothetical proteins revealed 148 protein clusters shared by all human pathogenic strains; these included transcriptional regulators, arylsulfatases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, acetyltransferases, GGDEF family proteins, transposases, type IV secretory system (T4SS) proteins, and integrases. Our study showed that V. vulnificus biotype 3 evolved from environmental populations and formed a genetically

  4. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio Vulnificus Isolates Revealed Biotype 3 Evolutionary Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eKotton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 a common-source outbreak of severe soft tissue and bloodstream infections erupted among Israeli fish farmers and fish consumers due to changes in fish marketing policies. The causative pathogen was a new strain of Vibrio vulnificus, named biotype 3, which displayed a unique biochemical and genotypic profile. Initial observations suggested that the pathogen erupted as a result of genetic recombination between two distinct populations. We applied a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach using several V. vulnificus strains from Israel in order to study the pan genome of V. vulnificus and determine the phylogenetic relationship of biotype 3 with existing populations. The core genome of V. vulnificus based on 16 draft and complete genomes consisted of 3068 genes, representing between 59% and 78% of the whole genome of 16 strains. The accessory genome varied in size from 781 kbp to 2044 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole, core, and accessory genomes displayed similar clustering patterns with two main clusters, clinical (C and environmental (E, all biotype 3 strains formed a distinct group within the E cluster. Annotation of accessory genomic regions found in biotype 3 strains and absent from the core genome yielded 1732 genes, of which the vast majority encoded hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, and mobile element proteins. A total of 1916 proteins (including 713 hypothetical proteins were present in all human pathogenic strains (both biotype 3 and non-biotype 3 and absent from the environmental strains. Clustering analysis of the non-hypothetical proteins revealed 148 protein clusters shared by all human pathogenic strains; these included transcriptional regulators, arylsulfatases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, acetyltransferases, GGDEF family proteins, transposases, type IV secretory system (T4SS proteins, and integrases. Our study showed that V. vulnificus biotype 3 evolved from environmental populations and

  5. Importance of isolation and biotypization of Gardnerella vaginalis in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numanović, Fatima; Hukić, Mirsada; Nurkić, Mahmud; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Imamović, Alma; Pasić, Selma

    2008-08-01

    The natural habitat of Gardnerella vaginalis is a vagina since it could be located among 69% of women who have no signs of vaginal infection and in the vagina of as many as 13.5% girls. G. vaginalis is almost certainly identified among women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis as well as in the urethra of their sexual partner. The increase in prevalence and concentration of G. vaginalis among patients diagnosed with this syndrome confirms that G. vaginalis plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. In our research, based on Amsel criteria for three or more clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis, it was diagnosed in 20.5% of women with subjective problems of vaginal infection, and in 48.80% of women with subjective symptoms characteristic of this disease. G. vaginalis was isolated from vaginal secretion of women without clinical signs characteristic of bacterial vaginosis. In 2.58% of cases it was solitary, while in 1.28% it was found in combination with other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and, in 1.28% women combined with Candida albicans. The isolation of G. vaginalis was significantly increased (pvaginalis, different from a source biotype or as a consequence of wrong treatment. Following Piot biotype scheme, biotypes 2., 3. and 7. G. vaginalis are significantly more often isolated from women who suffer from bacterial vaginosis. Biotype 7. G. vaginalis, isolated from the group of women without clinical signs of bacterial vaginosis, accounted for 2.58% cases. Following Benit biotype scheme, biotypes IVa, IVc and IIc were identified in 12.90% cases, while biotypes IIIa, IIa, Ia, IVb, IIb were found in 6.45% cases. Lipase-positive isolates of G. vaginalis were significantly more frequently accompanied by the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis.

  6. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  8. Determinação de massa fresca, massa seca, água e cinzas totais de folhas de Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata e avaliação do processo de secagem em estufa com ventilação forçada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. BRAGA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis subsp. verticillata (Vitaceae é conhecida popularmente como insulina vegetal, cortina japonesa, uva-brava, anil trepador e cipó-pucá e utilizada na medicina popular na forma de chá das folhas no tratamento da diabetes, como antiinflamatório, antiepilético, antihipertensivo, antitérmico, antireumático, antigripal e contra infecções respiratórias. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de massa fresca, massa seca, percentual de água e percentual de cinzas totais, visando melhoria das condições de secagem, armazenamento, dispensação e uso pela população. As folhas da espécie foram coletadas no bairro Antônio Dias, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram selecionadas, lavadas e secas em estufa com ventilação forçada à 45ºC e determinou-se as cinzas totais e perda por dessecação (através do método gravimétrico, ambos de acordo com a Farmacopéia Brasileira. Os resultados mostraram que as folhas de C. verticillata subsp. verticillata possuem alto teor de água. O processo de secagem em estufa de ventilação forçada, a temperatura de 45ºC, foi eficaz, proporcionando folhas com 11,47% de umidade e 17,99% de cinzas totais. Palavras-chave: Cissus verticillata; insulina vegetal; qualidade; gravimetria.

  9. Analysis of the gingival biotype based on the measurement of the dentopapillary complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Mohindra, Kanika

    2014-01-01

    Background: The gingival morphology of the maxillary anterior region plays an important role in determining the final esthetic outcome. Knowledge of the periodontal biotype is of fundamental importance because the anatomical characteristics of the periodontium, such as gingival thickness, gingival width and alveolar bone morphology, will determine periodontium behavior when submitted to physical, chemical, or bacterial injury or during periodontal or implant surgical procedures and orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: 50 subjects with healthy periodontal tissues with no loss of attachment and (b) presence of all anterior teeth in both upper and lower jaw were selected. On clinical examination gingival thickness was recorded based on the transparency of periodontal probe. Following parameters are recorded from dental cast, i.e., crown length, crown width, papillary length (PL) and papillary width. Results: There was highly significant correlation between gingival biotype and crown length and area of papilla with P value −0.002 and 0.013 respectively. Significant correlation was found between area of crown and PL with P value −0.013 and 0.016. The results of discriminant function analysis showed that average crown length was the best single determinant of biotype and area of papilla was the next best choice. Conclusion: Within the limits of the current investigation, the existence and correlation of different gingival biotypes and dentopapillary complex dimension has been confirmed. These findings can be utilized as objective guidelines for determining the biotype and response of gingiva to many dental operative procedures. PMID:24744543

  10. Periodontal Biotype: Gingival Thickness as It Relates to Probe Visibility and Buccal Plate Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Natalie A; Mealey, Brian L; Jones, Archie A; Huynh-Ba, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Probe visibility is the clinical gold standard to discriminate thick from thin biotype but is prone to subjective interpretation. The primary objective of this study is to determine at what objective gingival thickness the probe becomes invisible through the tissue. A secondary objective is to compare mean buccal plate thickness between thick and thin biotypes as determined by probe visibility. Maxillary anterior teeth (n = 306) were studied in 56 human patients. Biotype was determined by probe visibility through the tissue. Gingival thickness was measured via transgingival sounding. Buccal plate thickness was measured (n = 66 teeth) by cone beam computed tomography. For the primary objective, the gingival thickness that best corresponded with probe invisibility was selected using the receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve (AUC) with the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity. For the secondary objective, mean buccal plate thickness was compared between sites in which the probe was visible and when it was not (Student t test, α= 0.05). The gingival thickness that most closely corresponded with probe invisibility was >0.8 mm (0.666 AUC, 67.7% sensitivity, 65.4% specificity). When the probe was visible, mean gingival thickness was 0.17 mm less (P biotype) and those in which it was not (i.e., thick biotype). Probe visibility was associated with thinner measurements of gingival thickness and showed a tendency to be associated with a thinner buccal plate.

  11. Analysis of the gingival biotype based on the measurement of the dentopapillary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Mohindra, Kanika

    2014-01-01

    The gingival morphology of the maxillary anterior region plays an important role in determining the final esthetic outcome. Knowledge of the periodontal biotype is of fundamental importance because the anatomical characteristics of the periodontium, such as gingival thickness, gingival width and alveolar bone morphology, will determine periodontium behavior when submitted to physical, chemical, or bacterial injury or during periodontal or implant surgical procedures and orthodontic treatment. 50 subjects with healthy periodontal tissues with no loss of attachment and (b) presence of all anterior teeth in both upper and lower jaw were selected. On clinical examination gingival thickness was recorded based on the transparency of periodontal probe. Following parameters are recorded from dental cast, i.e., crown length, crown width, papillary length (PL) and papillary width. There was highly significant correlation between gingival biotype and crown length and area of papilla with P value -0.002 and 0.013 respectively. Significant correlation was found between area of crown and PL with P value -0.013 and 0.016. The results of discriminant function analysis showed that average crown length was the best single determinant of biotype and area of papilla was the next best choice. Within the limits of the current investigation, the existence and correlation of different gingival biotypes and dentopapillary complex dimension has been confirmed. These findings can be utilized as objective guidelines for determining the biotype and response of gingiva to many dental operative procedures.

  12. Association of gingival biotype with the results of scaling and root planing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yeon-Woo; Chang, Hee-Yung; Yun, Woo-Hyuk; Jeong, Seong-Nyum; Pi, Sung-Hee; You, Hyung-Keun

    2013-12-01

    The concept of gingival biotype has been used as a predictor of periodontal therapy outcomes since the 1980s. In the present study, prospective and controlled experiments were performed to compare periodontal pocket depth (PPD) reduction and gingival shrinkage (GSH) after scaling and root planing (SRP) according to gingival biotype. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis participated in the present study. The PPD and GSH of the labial side of the maxillary anterior teeth (from the right canine to the left canine) were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after SRP. Changes in the PPD following SRP were classified into 4 groups according to the gingival thickness and initial PPD. Two more groups representing normal gingival crevices were added in evaluation of the GSH. The results were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test. In the end, 16 patients participated in the present study. With regard to PPD reduction, there were no significant differences according to gingival biotype (P>0.05). Likewise, sites with a PPD of over 3 mm failed to show any significant differences in the GSH (P>0.05). However, among the sites with a PPD of under 3 mm, those with the thin gingival biotype showed more GSH (Pbiotype with either shallow or deep periodontal pockets. GSH also showed equal outcomes in all the groups without normal gingival crevices. The results of SRP seem not to differ according to gingival biotype.

  13. Inheritance of Evolved Glyphosate Resistance in a North Carolina Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in a Palmer amaranth biotype from North Carolina was studied. Glyphosate rates for 50% survival of glyphosate-resistant (GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS biotypes were 1288 and 58 g ha−1, respectively. These values for F1 progenies obtained from reciprocal crosses (GR×GS and GS×GR were 794 and 501 g ha−1, respectively. Dose response of F1 progenies indicated that resistance was not fully dominant over susceptibility. Lack of significant differences between dose responses for reciprocal F1 families suggested that genetic control of glyphosate resistance was governed by nuclear genome. Analysis of F1 backcross (BC1F1 families showed that 10 and 8 BC1F1 families out of 15 fitted monogenic inheritance at 2000 and 3000 g ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. These results indicate that inheritance of glyphosate resistance in this biotype is incompletely dominant, nuclear inherited, and might not be consistent with a single gene mechanism of inheritance. Relative 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS copy number varied from 22 to 63 across 10 individuals from resistant biotype. This suggested that variable EPSPS copy number in the parents might be influential in determining if inheritance of glyphosate resistance is monogenic or polygenic in this biotype.

  14. Arsenic, zinc, and aluminium removal from gold mine wastewater effluents and accumulation by submerged aquatic plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid; Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  15. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored.

  16. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  17. Marinas may act as hubs for the spread of the pseudo-indigenous bryozoan Amathia verticillata (Delle Chiaje, 1822 and its associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Marchini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The spaghetti bryozoan Amathia verticillata, formerly known as Zoobotryon verticillatum, was first described in 1822 from Naples, Italy, although this species was already present in 1807 at Cadiz, Spain. This ctenostome has long been considered a native species in the Mediterranean Sea but it has recently been suggested to be of Caribbean origin. It is most likely to have been introduced by vessels as hull fouling. This pseudo-indigenous species, i.e. a non-indigenous species (NIS having been perceived to be native, has been found in several marinas and harbours within the Mediterranean Sea. In November 2014, this bryozoan species was abundant in the La Grande Motte marina on the south coast of France. Several thousand colonies were estimated to be present within this marina attached to the floating pontoon units that supported a floating boardwalk. Of the berthed craft examined, 31% were fouled with this species, and it was occasionally a prominent fouling species. Several macroinvertebrate species were associated with A. verticillata colonies, including some NIS, Paracerceis sculpta, Paranthura japonica and Caprella scaura, that are recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean coast of France. A. verticillata might support their transfer elsewhere by providing a habitat and substrate when attached to vessel hulls.

  18. Winter Activity and Aboveground Hybridization Between the Two Biotypes of the West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, C.B.F.; Peppel, van de L.J.J.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Westenberg, M.; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Stroo, A.; Buijs, J.A.; Visser, T.M.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Culex (Cx.) pipiens mosquitoes are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). In Europe, the species Cx. pipiens consists of two biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which are morphologically identical, but differ in behavior. Typical behavior of the molestus biotype is the ability to remain active

  19. Modelling West Nile virus transmission risk in Europe: effect of temperature and mosquito biotypes on the basic reproduction number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Chantal B F; Hartemink, Nienke; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2017-07-10

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which has caused repeated outbreaks in humans in southern and central Europe, but thus far not in northern Europe. The main mosquito vector for WNV, Culex pipiens, consists of two behaviourally distinct biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can form hybrids. Differences between biotypes, such as vector competence and host preference, could be important in determining the risk of WNV outbreaks. Risks for WNV establishment can be modelled with basic reproduction number (R 0) models. However, existing R 0 models have not differentiated between biotypes. The aim of this study was, therefore, to explore the role of temperature-dependent and biotype-specific effects on the risk of WNV establishment in Europe. We developed an R 0 model with temperature-dependent and biotype-specific parameters, and calculated R 0 values using the next-generation matrix for several scenarios relevant for Europe. In addition, elasticity analysis was done to investigate the contribution of each biotype to R 0. Global warming and increased mosquito-to-host ratios can possibly result in more intense WNV circulation in birds and spill-over to humans in northern Europe. Different contributions of the Cx. pipiens biotypes to R 0 shows the importance of including biotype-specific parameters in models for reliable WNV risk assessments.

  20. The use of refuge in host plant resistance systems for the control of virulent biotype adaptation in the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jacob; Ramstad, Monica; Mian, M A Rouf; Michel, Andy

    2014-08-01

    Host plant resistant (HPR) crop varieties offer control of many insect pest species. However, the evolution of virulent biotypes capable of overcoming plant resistance poses challenges for the implementation of HPR. Widespread planting of HPR crops further reduces HPR efficacy by increasing selection pressure on pests, favoring the rapid proliferation of virulence. An analogous situation occurs in managing insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops, where planting of susceptible refuges effectively delays the evolution and spread of Bt resistance. We investigated the applicability of susceptible refuges in HPR as a tactic to manage virulent biotypes, using the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a model system. The virulent biotype 3 and avirulent biotype 1 were reared in greenhouse microcosms using a variety of refuge size, HPR gene, and biotype mixture treatments, allowing us to discern how the presence of a refuge alters the relative fitness and movement of biotypes both by themselves and in competition. The virulent biotype had greater relative fitness in 10 of 12 tested microcosms, with the greatest advantage observed in refuge-free microcosms. In microcosms with a refuge, avirulent fitness increased significantly as these biotypes moved to and used refuge plants. When the two biotypes were reared in the same microcosm, biotype 3's fitness increased significantly relative to when reared in isolation, while biotype 1's fitness was slightly, but not significantly, increased. Our findings suggested that while susceptible refuges would be incapable of reversing the proliferation of virulent biotypes, they could slow the spread of virulence by maintaining avirulence.

  1. Characterisation of ail-positive Yersinia enterocolitica of different biotypes using HRMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2018-02-02

    Yersiniosis is one of the four most frequent foodborne zoonotic diseases in Europe, and Yersinia enterocolitica is the primary agent in human infections. The ail gene is an important chromosomal virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica which encodes Ail, a 17-kDa outer membrane protein that promotes attachment and invasion. In the present study, ail-positive Y. enterocolitica strains of different biotypes were examined using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and DNA sequencing. Genotype data relating to Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from different sources and belonging to different biotypes were compared. Applied method allowed efficient distinguishing of three genotypes and phylogenetic groups: 1A - included non-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains; 1B - consisted of highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains and 2/4 - involved weakly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains. Amplicon genotyping based on HRMA supports rapid identification of ail SNPs correlated with biotype of examined Y. enterocolitica strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serious systemic infection caused by non-encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae biotype III in an adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Pedersen, P B

    1991-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is the aetiological agent in less than 1% of septic arthritis cases in adults and most often serotype b is involved. We report here a case of severe systemic infection due to non-encapsulated H. influenzae biotype III in a 40-year-old man, previously healthy although alcohol...... abuser. Cholangitis and acute alcoholic hepatitis were diagnosed simultaneously. The organism was grown from blood and from synovial fluid of the left knee, but several other joints were also affected. The close relationship between H. influenzae biotype III and H. aegyptius is mentioned in view...... of recent reports of fatal childhood illness caused by a special clone of H. aegyptius and the importance of reporting both serotype and biotype in severe H. influenzae induced disease is emphasized....

  3. Biotyping of Aeromonas isolates as a correlate to delineating a species-associated disease spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, J M; Reitano, M; Bottone, E J

    1984-01-01

    A group of 147 Aeromonas isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources was subjected to the biotyping scheme of Popoff and Veron. Of the 147 isolates biotyped, 137 (93%) could be identified, with Aeromonas hydrophila predominating (48%) and equal percentages (25 to 27%) of the other two species (Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae). A number of additional biochemical properties were found to be significantly associated with one or more of these three species. These included lysine decarboxylase activity, hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, lecithinase production, staphylolytic activity, arbutin hydrolysis, and acid production from utilization of various carbohydrates. By incorporating these phenotypic properties into an extended biotyping system, 98% of the isolates were identified. Selective distribution of individual species with respect to certain body sites was noted. PMID:6690467

  4. Characterization of bovine Haemophilus somnus by biotyping, plasmid profiling, REA-patterns and ribotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1993-01-01

    A total of 105 strains of H. somnus isolated from cattle in Denmark and other countries during 1982-1951 were compared with regard to biotypes (fermentation of 8 different sugars), plasmid profiles, Taq1 restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNA (REA-typing) and EcoRI-generated DNA...... restriction fragment length polymorphisms of rRNA genes (ribotyping). Eighty-four strains originating from cases of pneumonia, and 21 originating from the genitals of bulls were included in this study. Biotyping yielded 21 different types. Twenty-two of the isolates contained plasmids, and these were divided...... into 12 distinct plasmid profiles. Analysis of chromosomal DNA restriction patterns, resulted in 33 different REA patterns and 16 different ribopatterns in the investigated strains. Biotypes, REA-types, and ribotypes generally showed good correlation, whereas plasmid profiles did not correlate with any...

  5. Differentiation of Acinetobacter baumannii biotypes by amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A; Montoya, R; Bello, H; Gonzalez, G; Dominguez, M; Zemelman, R

    1996-01-01

    Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (32 strains) from blood samples obtained from patients in five Chilean hospitals were identified and biotyped according to their phenotypic properties. They were also submitted to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using eight randomly designed 10-mers and the core sequence of M13 phage (15-mers) as well as amplification of the spacer regions between 16S and 23S genes in the prokaryotic rRNA genetic loci. With some primers, RAPD discriminated between biotypes, whereas with others each isolate showed a particular profile. When amplification of spacer regions was performed, a clear correlation between patterns and biotypes was found. This last technique allowed correct biotyping of clinical isolates. Both genetic methods might be used for the identification of A. baumannii biotypes.

  6. Genotypic diversity and pathogenic potential of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2 strains isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, M R; Falcão, J P

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the pathogenic potential and genotypic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2 strains isolated in Brazil and to compare these strains with other Y. enterocolitica biotypes using ERIC-PCR and PFGE. Forty strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 2 (B2) isolated from humans (5), the environment (34) and animal (1), in Brazil over 19 years were studied. In addition to these isolates, we also analysed 26 Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to the biotypes 1A, 1B, and 3-5. All of the B2 strains contained the genes inv, ail, ystA, hreP, tccC and myfA. The genes fepD and fes were detected in 39 (97·5%) strains, virF was found in three (7·5%) strains, and ystB and fepA were not detected in any strains. The B2 strains showed genotypic similarities of more than 84·8% by ERIC-PCR and of more than 69·0% by PFGE. The pathogenic potential of the B2 strains examined in this study was highlighted by the occurrence of the majority of the virulence markers searched. The results of the ERIC-PCR and PFGE showed that the B2 strains evaluated in this study had a high genotypic similarity, suggesting that these strains differed little over the 19 year study period and that the environment was a possible source of contamination of humans and animals in Brazil. Furthermore, the ERIC-PCR technique grouped the strains belonging to Y. enterocolitica biotypes 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 according to their pathogenicity. This study provided new information about the pathogenic potential and genotypic similarity of Y. enterocolitica B2 isolated from diverse sources in Brazil. Furthermore, ERIC-PCR showed to be a valuable tool for grouping Y. enterocolitica of different biotypes according their pathogenicity. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Gingival biotype assessment in the esthetic zone: visual versus direct measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Joseph Y K; Morimoto, Taichiro; Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Roe, Phillip; Smith, Dennis H

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the reliability of assessing visually the facial gingival biotype of maxillary anterior teeth with and without the use of a periodontal probe in comparison with direct measurements. Forty-eight patients (20 men, 28 women) with a single failing maxillary anterior tooth participated in this study. Three methods were used to evaluate the thickness of the gingival biotype of the failing tooth: visual, periodontal probing, and direct measurement. Prior to extraction, the gingival biotype was identified as either thick or thin via visual assessment and assessment with a periodontal probe. After tooth extraction, direct measurement of the gingival thickness was performed to the nearest 0.1 mm using a tension-free caliper. The gingival biotype was considered thin if the measurement was =or1.0 mm. The assessment methods were compared using the McNemar test at a significance level of a=.05. The mean gingival thickness obtained from direct measurements was 1.06+/-0.27 mm, with an equal distribution (50%) of sites with gingival thicknesses of =or1 mm. The McNemar test showed a statistically significant difference when comparing the visual assessment with assessment using a periodontal probe (P=.0117) and direct measurement (P=.0001). However, there was no statistically significant difference when comparing assessment with a periodontal probe and direct measurement (P=.146). Assessment with a periodontal probe is an adequately reliable and objective method in evaluating gingival biotype, whereas visual assessment of the gingival biotype by itself is not sufficiently reliable compared to direct measurement.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BIOTYPE Moringa OF SAUDI ARABIA USING RAPD AND ISSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyan Robiansyah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa peregrina and M. oleifera are the only Moringa species found in Saudi Arabia. Both species are drought resistant and have very high nutritional and medicinal properties. Detection of genetic diversity is of great value for the improvement of nutritional and medicinal value of these plants. The aim of the present study was to characterize a new biotype Moringa observed in Al Bahah Region, Saudi Arabia. We used 11 RAPD and 15 ISSR primers to characterize and compare the new biotype with M. peregrina and M. oleifera. Level of polymorphism generated by each marker was calculated. We also calculate Nei and Li’s coefficient to measure the genetic distance between the studied species. Level of polymorphism generated by RAPD and ISSR was 46% and 57%, respectively. RAPD and ISSR primers revealed that the new biotype shared 55 amplicons (45.08% with both M. peregrina and M. oleifera, 28 amplicons with M. peregrina (22.95%, 21 amplicons (17.21% with M. oleifera, and displayed 18 unshared amplicons (14.75%. Based on RAPD data, genetic distance between M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.32, whereas genetic distance between the new biotype and M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.21 and 0.29, respectively. For ISSR data, genetic distance between M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.5, whereas genetic distance between the new biotype and M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.36 and 0.34, respectively. Based on these results we suggested that the new biotype is a hybrid crossbred between M. peregrina and M. oleifera.

  9. Host plant effects on alkaline phosphatase activity in the whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci Biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Peng, Lu; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao; Harris, Marvin K

    2011-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) often coexist on greenhouse-grown vegetable crops in northern China. The recent spread of B. tabaci B-biotype has largely replaced T. vaporariorum, and B-biotype now overlaps with T. vaporariorum where common hosts occur in most invaded areas. The impact of the B-biotype on the agro eco system appears to be widespread, and involves the ability to compete with and perhaps replace other phytophages like T. vaporariorum. An emerging hypothesis is that the B-biotype is physiologically superior due at least in part to an improved ability to metabolically utilize the alkaline phosphatase pathway. To test this hypothesis, alkaline phosphatase activity was studied in the B-biotype and T. vaporariorum after feeding on a number of different hosts for a range of durations, with and without host switching. Alkaline phosphatase activity in T. vaporariorum was 1.45 to 2.53-fold higher than that of the B-biotype when fed on tomato for 4 and 24 h, or switched from tomato to cotton and cabbage for the same durations. However, alkaline phosphatase activity in the B-biotype was 1.40 to 3.35-fold higher than that of T. vaporariorum when the host switching time was ∼72 and ∼120 h on the same plant. Both short-term (4 h) and long-term (72 h) switching of plant hosts can significantly affect the alkaline phosphatase activity in the two species. After ∼120 h, feeding on tomato and cotton alkaline phosphatase activity in the B-biotype was significantly higher than that of T. vaporariorum. It was shown that alkaline phosphatase aids the species feeding on different plant species, and that the B-biotype is physiologically superior to T. vaporariorum in utilizing the enzyme compared to T. vaporariorum over longer periods of feeding.

  10. Survey of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biotypes in Brazil using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.C. Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, the poinsettia strain, silverleaf whitefly or B biotype of Bemisia tabaci was detected in Brazil. This variant is a far more serious agricultural pest than the previously prevalent non-B (BR biotype. The correct identification of B. tabaci is problematic since it is highly polymorphic with extreme plasticity in key morphological characters that vary according to the host. RAPD-PCR was used to survey the B biotype and other biotypes of B. tabaci in Brazil. Whiteflies were collected from cultivated plants and weeds from 57 different localities and on 27 distinct crops. RAPD analyses using two selected 10-mer primers reliably identified the BR biotype and the B biotype of B. tabaci and also differentiated other whitefly species. The presence of the B biotype was confirmed in 20 Brazilian states. The BR and B biotypes of B. tabaci were found to coexist in the whitefly populations of three different localities: Jaboticabal, SP; Rondonópolis and Cuiabá, MT, and Goiânia, GO.Em 1991, um novo biótipo de Bemisia tabaci denominado de raça B, mosca branca da poinsétia ou mosca da folha prateada foi detectado no Brasil. Esta praga trouxe muitos prejuízos e danos à agricultura nacional, por ser mais agressiva do que a existente anteriormente, conhecida como B. tabaci ou B. tabaci biótipo BR (não B. A relação taxonômica entre B. tabaci e B. tabaci biótipo B não é clara e não existem evidências morfológicas consistentes que possam distinguir esses dois biótipos. RAPD-PCR tem sido utilizada para identificação de biótipos presentes nas populações, utilizando-se, como padrões de referência, adultos de Bemisia tabaci das raças A e B provenientes dos Estados Unidos. As coletas de mosca branca foram feitas em 27 culturas e plantas daninhas em 57 localidades do país. As populações foram então analisadas, observando-se que a população predominante em 20 estados brasileiros é de B. tabaci biótipo B. Os biótipos BR e B foram

  11. Packed-bed column biosorption of chromium(VI) and nickel(II) onto Fenton modified Hydrilla verticillata dried biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Tripathi, Brahma Dutt; Rai, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the biosorption potential of Fenton modified Hydrilla verticillata dried biomass (FMB) in removing chromium(VI) and nickel(II) ions from wastewater using up-flow packed-bed column reactor. Effects of different packed-bed column parameters such as bed height, flow rate, influent metal ion concentration and particle size were examined. The outcome of the column experiments illustrated that highest bed height (25cm); lowest flow rate (10mLmin(-1)), lowest influent metal concentration (5mgL(-1)) and smallest particle size range (0.25-0.50mm) are favourable for biosorption. The maximum biosorption capacity of FMB for chromium(VI) and nickel(II) removal were estimated to be 89.32 and 87.18mgg(-1) respectively. The breakthrough curves were analyzed using Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and Thomas models. The experimental results obtained agree to both the models. Column regeneration experiments were also carried out using 0.1M HNO3. Results revealed good reusability of FMB during ten cycles of sorption and desorption. Performance of FMB-packed column in treating secondary effluent was also tested under identical experimental conditions. Results demonstrated significant reduction in chromium(VI) and nickel(II) ions concentration after the biosorption process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of uranium removal by Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle from low level nuclear waste under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Bhainsa, K C

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated uranium (U) removal ability and tolerance to low level nuclear waste (LLNW) of an aquatic weed Hydrilla verticillata. Plants were screened for growth in 10%-50% waste treatments up to 3 d. Treatments of 20% and 50% waste imposed increasing toxicity with duration assessed in terms of change in fresh weight and in the levels of photosynthetic pigments and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. U concentration, however, did not show a progressive increase and was about 42 μg g(-1) dw from 20% to 50% waste at 3 d. This suggested that a saturation stage was reached with respect to U removal due to increasing toxicity. However, in another experiment with 10% waste and 10% waste+10 ppm U treatments, plants showed an increase in U concentration with the maximum level approaching 426 μg g(-1) dw at 3 d without showing any toxicity as compared to that at 20% and 50% waste treatments. Hence, plants possessed significant potential to take up U and toxicity of LLNW limited their U removal ability. This implies that the use of Hydrilla plants for U removal from LLNW is feasible at low concentrations and would require repeated harvesting at short intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene against Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montironi, Ivana D; Cariddi, Laura N; Reinoso, Elina B

    Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes great economic losses per year, being Streptococcus uberis the main environmental pathogen involved. The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene for S. uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. In addition, the effect of MIC on biofilm formation was analyzed. MIC values for the essential oil ranged from 14.3 to 114.5mg/ml (1.56-12.5%v/v) and MBC between 114.5 and 229mg/ml (12.5-25%v/v). MICs for limonene ranged from 3.3 to 52.5mg/ml (0.39-6.25%v/v) and MBC was 210mg/ml (25%v/v). Both compounds showed antibacterial activity and affected the biofilm formation of most of the strains tested. In conclusion, these compounds could be used as an alternative and/or complementary therapy for bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Viral infection of tobacco plants improves performance of Bemisia tabaci but more so for an invasive than for an indigenous biotype of the whitefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Meng; Li, Jun-min; Huang, Chang-jun; Zhou, Xue-ping; Xu, Fang-cheng; Liu, Shu-sheng

    2010-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant-virus-vector interactions on invasion of alien plant viral vectors have been rarely investigated. We examined the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) by the invasive Q biotype and the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a plant viral vector, as well as the influence of TYLCCNV-infection of plants on the performance of the two whitefly biotypes. Both whitefly biotypes were able to acquire viruses from infected plants and retained them in their bodies, but were unable to transmit them to either tobacco or tomato plants. However, when the Q biotype fed on tobacco plants infected with TYLCCNV, its fecundity and longevity were increased by 7- and 1-fold, respectively, compared to those of the Q biotype fed on uninfected tobacco plants. When the ZHJ2 biotype fed on virus-infected plants, its fecundity and longevity were increased by only 2- and 0.5-fold, respectively. These data show that the Q biotype acquired higher beneficial effects from TYLCCNV-infection of tobacco plants than the ZHJ2 biotype. Thus, the Q biotype whitefly may have advantages in its invasion and displacement of the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype.

  15. Viral infection of tobacco plants improves performance of Bemisia tabaci but more so for an invasive than for an indigenous biotype of the whitefly*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Meng; Li, Jun-min; Huang, Chang-jun; Zhou, Xue-ping; Xu, Fang-cheng; Liu, Shu-sheng

    2010-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant-virus-vector interactions on invasion of alien plant viral vectors have been rarely investigated. We examined the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) by the invasive Q biotype and the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a plant viral vector, as well as the influence of TYLCCNV-infection of plants on the performance of the two whitefly biotypes. Both whitefly biotypes were able to acquire viruses from infected plants and retained them in their bodies, but were unable to transmit them to either tobacco or tomato plants. However, when the Q biotype fed on tobacco plants infected with TYLCCNV, its fecundity and longevity were increased by 7- and 1-fold, respectively, compared to those of the Q biotype fed on uninfected tobacco plants. When the ZHJ2 biotype fed on virus-infected plants, its fecundity and longevity were increased by only 2- and 0.5-fold, respectively. These data show that the Q biotype acquired higher beneficial effects from TYLCCNV-infection of tobacco plants than the ZHJ2 biotype. Thus, the Q biotype whitefly may have advantages in its invasion and displacement of the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype. PMID:20043350

  16. Comparative protection of two different commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 and biotype 2 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, S.; Raida, M. K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Differentially extended specific protection by two commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 was studied following 30s immersion exposure. Rainbow trout were challenged intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with Y. ruckeri serotype O1, biotype 2 (≈106 to 107CFU/fish) at 4, 6 and 8...... months after vaccination with vaccines containing either biotype 1 (AquaVac® ERM) or both biotypes 1 and 2 (AquaVac® RELERA™). The specific pattern of vaccine-mediated protection was evaluated by relative percentage survival (RPS) analysis at 4 and 6 months post-vaccination and by obtaining gross...... months without any booster vaccination. A specific and adaptive response induced by AquaVac® RELERA™ vaccine against Y. ruckeri biotype 2 was clearly indicated. In addition, some degree of cross protection rendered by AquaVac® ERM containing biotype 1 during infection with Y. ruckeri biotype 2 was also...

  17. The Prevalence of Brucella Biotypes Isolated From Sterile Body Fluids of Patients With Brucellosis in Kashan, Iran in 2013

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    Erami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucella species are classified based on their pathogenic and genetic properties and hosts. Considering the significance of identifying different biotypes of Brucella from the epidemiological point of view and lack of such information in the city of Kashan, Iran. Objectives This study was designed to determine the biotypes and strains of Brucella isolated from patients with brucellosis. Methods This was a descriptive study of 206 samples obtained from patients with suspected brucellosis in 2013 in Kashan. BACTEC 9050 culture media was employed to test the samples. Suspected colonies of Brucella were identified through morphology, staining, and biochemical tests. The biotypes were identified by the Razi Research Institute. Lysis tests with the Tbilisi (Tb phage were performed, the need for CO2, SH2 production, sensitivity to basic fuchsin and thionin stains, and the reaction of all the samples to specific antiserum A and M (monospecific were tested. Results Fifty (24.3% of the 206 samples were culture positive. SH3 production was not detected in any of the isolates, and none of the isolated strains required CO2. The results of the sensitivity test to basic fuchsin and thionin staining and specific agglutination and phage lysis (phage typing tests indicated that all the isolated strains were biotype 1 B. melitansis. Conclusions The cause of human brucellosis in Kashan and its suburbs was biotype 1 B. melitensis. The identification of various biotypes of Brucella is important. Similar studies should be performed to detect the presence of new biotypes originating from neighboring countries.

  18. Implementing an evolutionary framework for understanding genetic relationships of phenotypically defined insect biotypes in the invasive soybean aphid (Aphis glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jacob A; Michel, Andy P

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive evolution of pest insects in response to the introduction of resistant cultivars is well documented and commonly results in virulent (i.e., capable of feeding upon resistant cultivars) insect populations being labeled as distinct biotypes. Phenotypically defined, biotypes frequently remain evolutionarily indistinct, resulting in ineffective application of virulence control measures and shorter durability of resistant cultivars. Here, we utilize an evolutionary framework to discern the genetic relationship between biotypes of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines, Matsumura). The soybean aphid is invasive in North America and is among the most destructive pests of commercial soybean on the continent. Attempts to breed host-plant-resistant soybean have been hampered by the emergence of virulent aphid biotypes that are unaffected by the plant's resistance mechanism(s). Comparative population genetic analysis of virulent and avirulent (i.e., unable to feed on resistant cultivars) biotypes found populations to be genetically indistinguishable across biotype and geographic distance, with high rates of interpopulation immigration and admixture. The lack of genetic distinction between biotypes coupled with elevated genotypic diversity within all populations suggested virulence has a nongenetic-based or includes a gene complex that is widely distributed throughout soybean aphid populations, which undergo regular dispersal and unimpeded sexual recombination. PMID:24187586

  19. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A; Haralur, Satheesh B; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype.

  20. Molecular analysis of β-lactamase genes to understand their differential expression in strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2014-06-12

    Beta-lactams are used as major therapeutic agents against a number of infectious agents. Due to widespread use of β-lactams, β-lactamases have evolved at a rapid pace leading to treatment failures. Yersinia enterocolitica causes many gastrointestinal problems. It is an extremely heterogeneous species comprising more than fifty serotypes and six biotypes which differ in their ecological niches, geographical distribution and pathogenic potential. Though biotype 1A strains have been associated with outbreaks of Yersiniosis, there has been a controversy regarding their pathogenicity. The strains of Y. enterocolitica isolated from India belonged to biotype 1A and possessed genes for two β-lactamases namely, blaA and blaB. An earlier study by us reported differential expression of blaA by strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A. The present study has been carried out to understand the molecular bases which regulate the expression of blaA in Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A. We concluded that six types of blaA variants were present in strains of biotype 1A. Neither amino acid substitutions in blaA nor mutations in promoter regions of blaA contributed to differential expression of blaA in Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A. Rather, the secondary structures attained by mRNA of blaA might underlie the differential expression of blaA in Y. enterocolitica.

  1. Comparative Metabolomic Analyses of Ipomoea lacunosa Biotypes with Contrasting Glyphosate Tolerance Captures Herbicide-Induced Differential Perturbations in Cellular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2018-02-16

    Glyphosate-tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern United States. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the less tolerant QUI-biotype, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of the QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose. Glyphosate application (80 g ae/ha) caused similar shikimate accumulation in both biotypes. Compared to QUI, in WAS, the content of aromatic amino acids was less affected by glyphosate treatment, and the content of Ala, Val, Ile, and Pro increased. However, the total sugars decreased by ∼75% in WAS, compared to ∼50% decrease in QUI. The innate, higher proportional abundance, of the transport-sugar sucrose in QUI coud partly explain the higher translocation and greater sensitivity of this biotype to glyphosate. The decrease in sugars, accompanied by an increase in amino acids could delay feedback regulation of upstream enzymes of the shikimate acid pathway in WAS, which could contribute to a greater glyphosate tolerance. Our study, through a metabolomics approach, provides complementary data that elucidates the cellular physiology of herbicide tolerance in Ipomoea lacunosa biotypes.

  2. Reproduction and Population Dynamics as Biotypic Markers of Russian Wheat Aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Ngenya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov is widely established in wheat-growing countries where it causes significant economic losses. The development and use of Russian wheat aphid (RWA-resistant wheat varieties has been constrained by the variation in resident RWA populations and the evolution of virulent biotypes. An experiment was set up at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO, Njoro, to characterize RWA populations based on phenotypic characteristics of reproduction, development and population dynamics. RWA populations from the regions of Eldoret, Mau Narok and Njoro were used in the study. A factorial experiment was set up in randomized complete block design replicated eleven times. A single day-old nymph was placed on a new, fully-open leaf in a 0.5 cm-diameter clear plastic straw leaf cage and observed daily for its entire lifetime. The results showed that there were variations in aphid lifespan, reproductive longevity and aphid fecundity between populations, indicating that the phenotypic markers used to determine biotypes were good enough to show distinct biotypes among populations of the RWA in Kenya. Further, the study concluded that the use of phenotypic life and reproductive markers was a valid way of characterizing biotypes of RWA worldwide.

  3. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  4. Characteristics of periodontal biotype, its dimensions, associations and prevalence: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, J.; Thomas, R.Z.; Slot, D.E.; Weisgold, A.S.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The objectives of this review were as follows: What are characteristics used to define various forms of periodontal biotypes? What are their anatomic dimensions in relation to the definition? In addition, what is the association between these various characteristics in relation to the

  5. Comparison of Gingival Biotype between different Genders based on Measurement of Dentopapillary Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aniruddha; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer Anil; Ashwinirani, S R; Varma, Siddhartha A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical and aesthetic outcomes after periodontal or implant surgical procedures are determined by anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gingiva like width of keratinized gingiva, thickness of gingiva and alveolar bone. Therefore, the knowledge of gingival biotype plays an important role in modifying the dental therapeutic procedures for the desired outcome and predictability. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the gingival biotype among genders by clinical, photographic and radiographic parameters. A total of 800 subjects (400 males and 400 females) were considered for the study. Width of keratinized gingiva (GW), transparency of the periodontal probe through the sulcus (TRAN) were assessed clinically; Crown Width/Crown Length ratio (CW/CL) and Papillary Height (PH) were assessed photographically; Gingival Thickness (GT1, GT2, GT3) and Alveolar bone Thickness (AT1, AT2, AT3) were assessed radiographically. The obtained data was correlated to compare the gingival biotype between males and females. The collected data was statistically analysed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The TRAN at GT1, GT2 and GT3 as well as at AT1, AT2 and AT3 showed a very strong positive correlation in males (r>0.8) as compared to females (r0.9) as compared to females (rbiotype among different genders with predominance of a thin gingival biotype with reduced alveolar bone thickness in females as compared to males.

  6. The gingival biotype in a cohort of Chinese subjects with and without history of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Pelekos, G; Jin, L J

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to determine the gingival biotype in Chinese subjects with and without a history of periodontal disease. Thirty periodontally healthy subjects and 20 subjects with treated chronic periodontitis were recruited. The mid-buccal gingival thickness of upper central and lateral incisors was measured by a customized caliper in all subjects. The crown length and crown width of these teeth were recorded in the healthy group, while gingival recession was measured in the periodontitis group. These outcome measures were compared among the groups and sub-groups, and the correlation of gingival biotypes with clinical parameters was analyzed. The mean thickness of gingiva in the 30 periodontally healthy subjects was 1.05±0.31 mm (0.47-1.57 mm). The males exhibited a greater crown length than the females (Pbiotype as measured by gingival thickness was significantly correlated with gingival recession (r=-.240, P=.032), while a stronger correlation was found among the 42 sites with bleeding on probing prior to periodontal treatment (r=-.382, P=.013). This study shows that gingival biotype measured by gingival thickness in subjects with treated periodontitis is significantly correlated with gingival recession. Further study could clarify the clinical implications of gingival biotype in the management of periodontal patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Use of microsatellite and SNP markers for biotype characterization in Hessian fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Crane, Yan Ma; Cambron, Sue E; Crane, Charles F; Shukle, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of the biotype structure of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes and difference in genetic background. Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are highly variable genetic markers that are widely used in population genetic studies. This study developed and tested a panel of 18 microsatellite and 22 SNP markers to investigate the genetic structure of nine Hessian fly biotypes: B, C, D, E, GP, L, O, vH9, and vH13. The simple sequence repeats were more polymorphic than the SNP markers, and their neighbor-joining trees differed in consequence. Microsatellites suggested a simple geographic association of related biotypes that did not progressively gain virulence with increasing genetic distance from a founder type. Use of the k-means clustering algorithm in the STRUCTURE program shows that the nine biotypes comprise six to eight populations that are related to geography or history within laboratory cultures. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  9. Species, biotype, and bacteriophage type determinations compared with cell envelope protein profiles for typing Acinetobacter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, P J; Jeanjean, S; Vieu, J F; Dijkshoorn, L

    1990-02-01

    Species, biotypes, and phage types were determined for 120 Acinetobacter strains from clinical or environmental sources or from culture collections. These characteristics were compared with cell envelope protein profiles obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in previous studies. A considerable heterogeneity of species and types was observed by use of the various methods, in particular among strains from different sources. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most commonly found species in isolates from clinical sources, followed by Acinetobacter species 3. Nine biotypes were observed among A. baumannii strains. Further differentiation within most species and biotypes was achieved by protein profile typing and, to some extent, phage typing. Of 120 strains, 49 (41%) were not typeable by phages. Consistent results for the various classification methods were obtained for strains from common sources. Biotyping seemed an appropriate method for the screening of strains, whereas protein profile and phage typing could serve as additional methods to establish the identity or nonidentity of strains. Results of this study suggest that the combination of the typing methods is useful in epidemiological studies.

  10. Variable Virulence of Biotype 3 Vibrio vulnificus due to MARTX Toxin Effector Domain Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Sik; Gavin, Hannah E; Satchell, Karla J F

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an environmental organism that causes septic human infections characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The annual incidence and global distribution of this pathogen are increasing as ocean waters warm. Clinical strains exhibit variations in the primary virulence toxin, suggesting a potential for the emergence of new strains with altered virulence properties. A clonal outbreak of tilapia-associated wound infections in Israel serves as a natural experiment for the sudden emergence of a new V. vulnificus strain. The effector domain content of the multifunctional autoprocessing RTX (MARTX) toxin of the outbreak-associated biotype 3 (BT3) strains was previously shown to harbor a modification generated by recombination. The modification introduced an actin-induced adenylate cyclase effector domain (ExoY) and an effector domain that disrupts the Golgi organelle (DmX). Here, we report that the exchange of these effector domains for a putative progenitor biotype 1 toxin arrangement produces a toxin that slows the lysis kinetics of targeted epithelial cells but increases cellular rounding phenotypes in response to bacteria. In addition, replacing the biotype 3 toxin variant with the putative progenitor biotype 1 variant renders the resulting strain significantly more virulent in mice. This suggests that the exchange of MARTX effector domains during the emergence of BT3 generated a toxin with reduced toxin potency, resulting in decreased virulence of this outbreak-associated strain. We posit that selection for reduced virulence may serve as a route for this lethal infectious agent to enter the human food chain by allowing it to persist in natural hosts. IMPORTANCEVibrio vulnificus is a serious infection linked to climate change. The virulence capacity of these bacteria can vary by gene exchange, resulting in new variants of the primary virulence toxin. In this study, we tested whether the emergence of an epidemic strain of V. vulnificus with a

  11. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, FangHao; Zhang, GuiFen; Liu, ShuSheng; Luo, Chen; Chu, Dong; Zhang, YouJun; Zang, LianSheng; Jiu, Min; Lü, ZhiChuang; Cui, XuHong; Zhang, LiPing; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, QingWen; Liu, WanXue; Liang, Pei; Lei, ZhongRen; Zhang, YongJun

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  12. Characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from patients and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, R; Joutsen, S; Hofer, E; Säde, E; Björkroth, J; Ziegler, D; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2013-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are frequently isolated from the environment, foods, and animals, and also from humans with yersiniosis. There are controversial reports on the pathogenicity of biotype 1A strains. In this study, 811 fecal samples from asymptomatic humans from Switzerland were studied for the presence of Y. enterocolitica. Nine (1.1%) of the 811 samples were positive for Y. enterocolitica 1A. These strains were compared with 12 Y. enterocolitica 1A strains from Swiss patients with diarrhea isolated in the same year. Almost all (20/21) Y. enterocolitica 1A strains carried the ystB gene, seven strains carried the hreP gene, and none carried the ail, ystA, myfA, yadA, or virF genes. Most (17/21) Y. enterocolitica 1A strains belonged to two major clusters, A and B, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Strains of cluster B were only isolated from humans with diarrhea; however, ystB and hreP genes were detected in strains from both clinical and non-clinical samples and from strains of clusters A and B. Using ribotyping, six restriction patterns among biotype 1A strains were obtained with HindIII enzyme. The most common ribotype (RT I) was found in strains isolated from humans with and without diarrhea. All biotype 1A strains had a unique NotI profile by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), showing a very high genetic diversity. In this study, Y. enterocolitica 1A strains from clinical and non-clinical samples could not be clearly differentiated from each other. More research is needed in order to prove that biotype 1A strains are a primary cause for human yersiniosis and not only a secondary finding.

  13. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

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    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based

  14. A new 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase gene encoding the committed-step enzyme in the MEP pathway from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Rong; Chen, Min; Yang, Chunxian; Wang, Qiang; Gong, Yifu

    2007-01-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR; EC 1.1.1.267) catalyzes a committed step of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) precursors. The full-length cDNA sequence was cloned and characterized from a TIA-producing species, Rauvolfia verticillata, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The new cDNA was named as RvDXR and submitted to GenBank to be assigned with an accession number (DQ779286). The full-length cDNA of RvDXR was 1804 bp containing a 1425 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 51.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.88. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that RvDXR showed extensive homology with DXRs from other plant species and contained a conserved transit peptide for plastids, an extended Pro-rich region and a highly conserved NADPH-binding motif in its N-terminal region owned by all plant DXRs. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that DXRs had two groups including a plant and bacterial group; RvDXR belonged to angiosperm DXRs that were obtained from Synechocystis through gene transfer according to the phylogenetic analysis. The structural modeling of RvDXR showed that RvDXR had the typical V-shaped structure of DXR proteins. The tissue expression pattern analysis indicated that RvDXR expressed in all tissues including roots, stems, leaves, fruits and followers but at different levels. The lowest transcription level was observed in followers and the highest transcription was found in fruits of R. verticillata; the transcription level of RvDXR was a little higher in roots and stems than in leaves. The cloning and characterization of RvDXR will be helpful to understand more about the role of DXR involved in R. verticillata TIA biosynthesis at the molecular level and provides a candidate gene for metabolic engineering of the TIAs pathway in R. verticillata.

  15. Experimental feeding of Hydrilla verticillata colonized by stigonematales cyanobacteria induces vacuolar myelinopathy in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta.

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    Albert D Mercurio

    Full Text Available Vacuolar myelinopathy (VM is a neurologic disease primarily found in birds that occurs when wildlife ingest submerged aquatic vegetation colonized by an uncharacterized toxin-producing cyanobacterium (hereafter "UCB" for "uncharacterized cyanobacterium". Turtles are among the closest extant relatives of birds and many species directly and/or indirectly consume aquatic vegetation. However, it is unknown whether turtles can develop VM. We conducted a feeding trial to determine whether painted turtles (Chrysemys picta would develop VM after feeding on Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata, colonized by the UCB (Hydrilla is the most common "host" of UCB. We hypothesized turtles fed Hydrilla colonized by the UCB would exhibit neurologic impairment and vacuolation of nervous tissues, whereas turtles fed Hydrilla free of the UCB would not. The ability of Hydrilla colonized by the UCB to cause VM (hereafter, "toxicity" was verified by feeding it to domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus or necropsy of field collected American coots (Fulica americana captured at the site of Hydrilla collections. We randomly assigned ten wild-caught turtles into toxic or non-toxic Hydrilla feeding groups and delivered the diets for up to 97 days. Between days 82 and 89, all turtles fed toxic Hydrilla displayed physical and/or neurologic impairment. Histologic examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed vacuolations in all treatment turtles. None of the control turtles exhibited neurologic impairment or had detectable brain or spinal cord vacuolations. This is the first evidence that freshwater turtles can become neurologically impaired and develop vacuolations after consuming toxic Hydrilla colonized with the UCB. The southeastern United States, where outbreaks of VM occur regularly and where vegetation colonized by the UCB is common, is also a global hotspot of freshwater turtle diversity. Our results suggest that further investigations into the effect of the

  16. Relationship Between Biotype and Bone Morphology in the Lower Anterior Mandible: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemian, Marjan; Lajolo, Carlo; Semeraro, Vittorio; Giuliani, Michele; Verdugo, Fernando; Pirronti, Tommaso; D'Addona, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Different clinical parameters have been advocated as potential predictors of alveolar and basal jawbone morphology. The aim of this study is to describe, by tomographic means, alveolar and basal osseous dimensions of the anterior mandible in healthy individuals and evaluate potential correlations with biotype, along with other clinical parameters. One hundred consecutive healthy patients needing surgery in the posterior mandible were enrolled in this observational study (group 1 = 50 patients with thin biotype; group 2 = 50 patients with thick biotype). Data were collected for: 1) Little irregularity index for anterior crowding; 2) molar and canine class relationship; 3) previous orthodontic treatment; 4) gingival recession; and 5) band of keratinized gingiva for each of the six anterior mandibular teeth (#22 through #27). At the most mid-buccal computerized tomography slice of each tooth, other parameters were measured, including: 1) distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the bone crest; 2) tooth torque (TT); 3) labial cortical bone thickness (BT) for alveolar and basal bone; and 4) BT 5 and 10 mm apical to the tooth apex. Data were statistically analyzed, and significance was set at P ≤0.05. Mean thickness of alveolar bone ranged from 6.66 to 4.51 mm (standard deviation [SD] = 1.46 for tooth #27; SD = 1.01 for tooth #25) whereas mean thickness of basal bone ranged from 8.9 to 8.2 mm (SD = 2.06 for tooth #22; SD = 2.06 for tooth #26). Mean thickness of bone at 5 mm from apex ranged from 11.94 to 10.47 mm (SD = 2.96 for tooth #25; SD = 2.22 for tooth #22), whereas mean thickness of bone at 10 mm from apex ranged from 13.75 to 11.08 mm (SD = 2.79 for tooth #25; SD = 2.53 for tooth #27). No statistically significant differences were detected among biotypes, whereas: 1) TT, 2) age, and 3) smoking habit were often predictors of reduction in BT in a multiple linear regression model. Male sex was often a predictor of positive changes in BT, and previous

  17. Lack of evidence for western flower thrips biotypes base don intra and inter-strain variation in gut bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, S.C.; Jacobs, G.; Kogel, de, W.J.; Hoek, van, A.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Western flower thrips is a polyphagous insect, which during the last 30 years has become a world wide pest. It was found earlier that these thrips are associated with a type of Erwinia species gut bacteria. In this study we examine the variation of bacteria within and between thrips individuals and try to find evidence for biotypes in western flower thrips regarding the type of gut bacteria. The existence of biotypes in this thrips species has been suggested by different authors. For example,...

  18. Poultry-Like pA+ Biotype of Staphylococcus aureus CC346/084 Clone in Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was (1) to analyse the prevalence of P-like pA+ biotype of S. aureus in material from healthy and diseased individuals, not employed at slaughterhouses or meat processing plants, and (2) to analyse the relatedness of these strains and their genetic variability. The study included 344 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitalized patients with staphylococcal infections and from healthy carriers. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined on the basis of fibrinolysin and β-haemolysin production, coagulation of bovine plasma, and type of growth on crystal violet agar. Additionally, the strains were tested for the synthesis of protein A in order to distinguish between P-like pA+ and poultry biotypes. Fibrinolysin gene (sak) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected by means of PCR. The clonal structure of studied strains was analysed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and sequencing of spa gene. Finally, the strains were typed with a basic set of 23 bacteriophages. The strains belonging to P-like pA+ biotype corresponded to nearly 20 % of all the studied strains. In contrast to the human biotype, they formed one clonal complex, spa-CC346/084. The P-like pA+ biotype strains did not synthesize fibrinolysin, lacked the sak gene, and showed susceptibility to methicillin. In contrast to the human biotype strains, they belonged mostly to phage group II. The P-like pA+ biotype strains, previously described solely in meat products and meat industry workers, can be also present in hospitalized patients and extra-hospital carriers. These strains form a single, fibrinolysin-negative, clonal complex t084/CC346.

  19. Biological traits and Life table parameters A and B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. on cotton and rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Samih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to construct life table of Bemisia tabaci (Gen. A and B (silverleaf whitefly B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring biotype (Hem.: Aleyrodidae on two host plants; cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. and rapeseed, (Brassica napus L.. Experiments were conducted in a growth chamber under 24 ± 2ºC, 55±3% RH and 16:8 (L:D h photoperiod on caged plants of cotton G. hirsutum L. (Varamin 76 variety and rapeseed B. napus L. (global variety. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T for B. tabaci A biotype was 0.1010 females per female per day, 18.4075 females per female and 30.079 day (d on cotton; 0.1286, 30.6760 and 26.77 d on rapeseed; and for B biotype (B. argentifolii those above respective parameters averaged 0.1033, 27.8426 and 32.74 d on cotton and 0.1750, 40.75 and 21.27 d on rapeseed. The total survival of A and B biotype from the egg to adult on cotton was 22.08 and 22.25, respectively. The results showed significant differences between the two biotype reared on either host plant for gross reproductive rate (GRR, net reproductive rate (R0 or NRR, intrinsic rates of increase (r m, finite rate of increase (λ, doubling time (DT and mean generation times (Tc. To obtain a better understanding of the biology of these biotypes, Stable age distribution (Cx and some other aspects of life history related to their hosts were also studied. Based upon the results, both biotypes showed a greater reproduction capacity on rapeseed than on cotton. Thus, rapeseed was more suitable host than cotton for two biotypes and this was an important factor in host plant selection for optimizing the control strategies of these major pests.

  20. Cholera outbreaks in the El Tor biotype era and the impact of the new El Tor variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Balakrish Nair, G

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1, the causative agent of the disease cholera, has two biotypes namely the classical and El Tor. Biotype is a subspecific taxonomic classification of V. cholerae O1. Differentiation of V. cholerae strains into biotype does not alter the clinical management of cholera but is of immense public health and epidemiological importance in identifying the source and spread of infection, particularly when V. cholerae is first isolated in a country or geographic area. From recorded history, till date, the world has experienced seven pandemics of cholera. Among these, the first six pandemics are believed to have been caused by the classical biotype whereas the ongoing seventh pandemic is caused by the El Tor biotype. In recent years, new pathogenic variants of V. cholerae have emerged and spread throughout many Asian and African countries with corresponding cryptic changes in the epidemiology of cholera. In this chapter, we describe the outbreaks during the seventh pandemic El Tor biotype era spanning more than five decades along with the recent advances in our understanding of the development, evolution, spread, and impact of the new variants of El Tor strains.

  1. Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3 multifunctional autoprocessing RTX toxin is an adenylate cyclase toxin essential for virulence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolo, Kevin J; Jeong, Hee-Gon; Kwak, Jayme S; Yang, Shuangni; Lavker, Robert M; Satchell, Karla J F

    2014-05-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an environmental organism that causes both food-borne and wound infections with high morbidity and mortality in humans. The annual incidence and global distribution of infections associated with this pathogen are increasing with climate change. In the late 1990s, an outbreak of tilapia-associated wound infections in Israel was linked to a previously unrecognized variant of V. vulnificus designated biotype 3. The sudden emergence and clonality of the outbreak suggest that this strain may be a true newly emergent pathogen with novel virulence properties compared to those of other V. vulnificus strains. In a subcutaneous infection model to mimic wound infection, the multifunctional autoprocessing RTX (MARTX) toxin of biotype 3 strains was shown to be an essential virulence factor contributing to highly inflammatory skin wounds with severe damage affecting every tissue layer. We conducted a sequencing-based analysis of the MARTX toxin and found that biotype 3 MARTX toxin has an effector domain structure distinct from that of either biotype 1 or biotype 2. Of the two new domains identified, a domain similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoY was shown to confer adenylate cyclase activity on the MARTX toxin. This is the first demonstration that the biotype 3 MARTX toxin is essential for virulence and that the ExoY-like MARTX effector domain is a catalytically active adenylate cyclase.

  2. A case of Vibrio vulnificus infection complicated with fulminant purpura: gene and biotype analysis of the pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Akifumi; Kitagawa, Daisuke; Fukushima, Hidetada; Asai, Hideki; Kawai, Yasuyuki; Okuchi, Kazuo

    2017-05-01

    Introduction.Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) causes a severe infection that develops in the compromised host. Its pathophysiology is classified into three types: (1) primary septicaemia, (2) gastrointestinal illness pattern and (3) wound infection pattern. Of these, primary septicaemia is critical. V. vulnificus can be classified into three biotypes and two genotypes and its pathogenicity is type-dependent. Case presentation. A 47-year-old man presented to a local hospital with chief complaints of fever, bilateral lower limb pain and diarrhoea. He had no history of foreign travel or known medical problems. He was in septic shock and developed fulminant purpura within 24 h of the onset. High-dose vasopressor and antibiotic administration failed to alter his status and he died 3 days after the onset of symptoms. V. vulnificus was isolated from blood, skin and nasal discharge cultures. Biotype and gene analysis of the microbe isolated identified it as Biotype 3, mainly reported in Israel in wound infections, and Genotype E, implicating an environmental isolate. These typing analyses indicated that the microbe isolated could be classified as a type with low pathogenicity. Conclusion. This case highlighted that Biotype 3 and Genotype E can also cause primary septicaemia. Although the majority of reports on Biotype 3 have been from the Middle East, this experience with the present case provided evidence that the habitat of Biotype 3 V. vulnificus has been extending to East Asia as well.

  3. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and potential distribution of Cricotopus lebetis (Diptera: Chironomidae), a tip miner of Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, Karen N; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Mukherjee, A; Diaz, R; Netherland, Michael D; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-10-15

    A chironomid midge, Cricotopus lebetis (Sublette) (Diptera: Chironomidae), was discovered attacking the apical meristems of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle) in Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida in 1992. The larvae mine the stems of H. verticillata and cause basal branching and stunting of the plant. Temperature-dependent development, cold tolerance, and the potential distribution of the midge were investigated. The results of the temperature-dependent development study showed that optimal temperatures for larval development were between 20 and 30°C, and these data were used to construct a map of the potential number of generations per year of C. lebetis in Florida. Data from the cold tolerance study, in conjunction with historical weather data, were used to generate a predicted distribution of C. lebetis in the United States. A distribution was also predicted using an ecological niche modeling approach by characterizing the climate at locations where C. lebetis is known to occur and then finding other locations with similar climate. The distributions predicted using the two modeling approaches were not significantly different and suggested that much of the southeastern United States was climatically suitable for C. lebetis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Biotyping and genotyping (MLVA16 of Brucella abortus isolated from cattle in Brazil, 1977 to 2008.

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    Sílvia Minharro

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that causes important economic losses to animal production. In Brazil, information on the distribution of biovars and genotypes of Brucella spp. is scarce or unavailable. This study aimed (i to biotype and genotype 137 Brazilian cattle isolates (from 1977 to 2008 of B. abortus and (ii to analyze their distribution. B. abortus biovars 1, 2 and 3 (subgroup 3b were confirmed and biovars 4 and 6 were first described in Brazil. Genotyping by the panel 1 revealed two groups, one clustering around genotype 40 and another around genotype 28. Panels 2A and 2B disclosed a high diversity among Brazilian B. abortus strains. Eighty-nine genotypes were found by MLVA16. MLVA16 panel 1 and 2 showed geographic clustering of some genotypes. Biotyping and MLVA16 genotyping of Brazilian B. abortus isolates were useful to better understand the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the region.

  5. Microbes affected the TYLCCNV transmission rate by the Q biotype whitefly under high O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yanyun; Yi, Tuyong; Tan, Xiaoling; Su, Jianwei; Ge, Feng

    2017-10-31

    Ozone (O3) is a major air pollutant that has a profound effect on whole ecosystems. In this study we studied how hO3 affected the transmission of the Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), a begomovirus, by the Q biotype Bemisia tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner. We found hO3 affected the transmission of TYLCCNV via the effect of it on the microbial community of the transmitting insect, such as Candidatus Hamiltonella, Ralstonia, Diaphorobacter, Caldilineaceae, Deinococcus, Rickettsia, Thysanophora penicillioides and Wallemia ichthyophaga. We concluded that hO3 decreased the resistance of acquiring virus tomatoes, and decreased the immune response and increased the endurance to extreme environments of viruliferous whiteflies by altering the composition and abundance of the microbial environments inside the body and on the surface of whitefly, as a result, it enhanced the TYLCV transmission rate by the Q biotype whitefly.

  6. Biotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and milk products in Tabriz city

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    j Shayegh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about phenotypic features of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and their products is very limited in Tabriz region. The aim of this study was to determine the biotypes of S. aureus. For this purpose, 48 S. aureus strains which were previously isolated from cow raw milk (24, traditional cheese (12 and ice cream (12 in Tabriz region were considered. Biotyping was carried out by means of Staphylokinase production, β-hemolysis, coagulation of cow plasma and crystal violates reaction. Among 48 isolates, 23 and 2 strains were belonged to the human and ovine ecovars, respectively. The rest of the isolates were identified as non-host specific ecovars. Regarding the high prevalence rate of human ecovars in this study, it seems that these ecovars may have been transmitted to these products via human handling.

  7. The Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Growth Inhibitors of Adult T-Cell Leukemia (ATL, from the Jamaican Plant Hyptis verticillata, and NMR Characterization of Hyptoside

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    Naomichi Arima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided isolation, five compounds with growth inhibitory activity on S1T, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL cell line, were isolated from the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata.

  8. Use of the Bruker MALDI Biotyper for identification of molds in the clinical mycology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulthess, Bettina; Ledermann, Raphael; Mouttet, Forouhar; Zbinden, Andrea; Bloemberg, Guido V; Böttger, Erik C; Hombach, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used for the identification of bacteria and fungi in the diagnostic laboratory. We evaluated the mold database of Bruker Daltonik (Bremen, Germany), the Filamentous Fungi Library 1.0. First, we studied 83 phenotypically and molecularly well-characterized, nondermatophyte, nondematiaceous molds from a clinical strain collection. Using the manufacturer-recommended interpretation criteria, genus and species identification rates were 78.3% and 54.2%, respectively. Reducing the species cutoff from 2.0 to 1.7 significantly increased species identification to 71.1% without increasing misidentifications. In a subsequent prospective study, 200 consecutive clinical mold isolates were identified by the MALDI Biotyper and our conventional identification algorithm. Discrepancies were resolved by ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer region sequence analysis. For the MALDI Biotyper, genus and species identification rates were 83.5% and 79.0%, respectively, when using a species cutoff of 1.7. Not identified were 16.5% of the isolates. Concordant genus and species assignments of MALDI-TOF MS and the conventional identification algorithm were observed for 98.2% and 64.2% of the isolates, respectively. Four erroneous species assignments were observed using the MALDI Biotyper. The MALDI Biotyper seems highly reliable for the identification of molds when using the Filamentous Fungi Library 1.0 and a species cutoff of 1.7. However, expansion of the database is required to reduce the number of nonidentified isolates. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Influence of concentrate levels in diet and body biotypes on productive variables of Guzera beef cattle

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    Antonio Carlos Homem Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was evaluate diets (50 or 80% of concentrate and body biotypes (late or early on performance, behavior, carcass condition, meat quality, and feed cost estimates in feedlot finishing Guzera beef cattle. Use of concentrates in the diet may improve performance and carcass fat scores in ruminant animals, but Guzera beef cattle may be more efficient in forage conversion, which directly influences the economic viability of the production system. We evaluated 32 non-castrated male Guzera beef cattle at 32±2 months of age. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and six replicates in a 2 × 2 factorial design (2 diets × 2 body biotypes. Initial and final body weights were 459.4±31.2 kg and 566.7±40.8 kg, respectively. There was no change (P > 0.05 in dry matter intake, feed conversion, or daily weight gain when the concentrate in the diet was increased to 80%. Animals fed a diet with 80% of concentrate spent less time (P < 0.05 ruminating (17.8±6.3 vs. 6.3±2.7% of the assessed time. Body biotype did not alter the variables. The rise from 50 to 80% in the proportion of dietary concentrate increased carcass fat, with positive returns in the production process, even given the reduction in rumination, which can lead to poor welfare of animals consuming 80% of dietary concentrate. Body biotype did not affect the variables studied, but it is worth emphasizing that the age at slaughter of these animals probably influenced this result. Thus, selection of the best diet should be based on feeding cost, and in accordance with the cost estimated in this study, the diet with 80% of concentrate is the most suitable for feedlot finished Guzera beef cattle.

  10. Transmission to Eels, Portals of Entry, and Putative Reservoirs of Vibrio vulnificus Serovar E (Biotype 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco-Noales, Ester; Milán, Miguel; Fouz, Belén; Sanjuán, Eva; Amaro, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus serovar E (formerly biotype 2) is the etiologic agent that is responsible for the main infectious disease affecting farmed eels. Although the pathogen can theoretically use water as a vehicle for disease transmission, it has not been isolated from tank water during epizootics to date. In this work, the mode of transmission of the disease to healthy eels, the portals of entry of the pathogen into fish, and their putative reservoirs have been investigated by means of laborator...

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Environmental Parameters on Growth Rates of Vibrio vulnificus Biotypes I, II, and III by Culture and Quantitative PCR Analysis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Eva; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a natural inhabitant of estuarine waters. The three known biotypes include (i) most human pathogens, (ii) primarily eel pathogens, and (iii) pathogens associated with fish and with human wound infections in Israel. Despite the frequently lethal consequences of V. vulnificus infections, the growth rates of the various biotypes and their response to environmental changes are not well characterized. We compared the specific growth rates (μ) of a representative of each biotype by culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in a defined medium under varied pH, temperature, and salinity. Growth rates based on culturable concentrations were always higher than those based on qPCR estimates; however, both enumeration methods yielded comparable results on the influence of environmental factors on growth rates. Temperature (25°C, 30°C, 37°C), pH (7.0, 8.0), and salinity (5 to 40‰) all had significant effects on the μ of each biotype. Temperature had the greatest effect on the μ of biotype 1 (CMCP6), whereas salinity had the greatest effect on the μ of biotypes 2 (ATCC 33147) and 3 (302/99). The biotypes' growth rates varied significantly; biotype 1 grew most rapidly, while biotype 3 grew most slowly. The highest growth rates were achieved at 37°C, pH 7.0, and salinities of 15 to 30‰ (μ = 4.0, 2.9, and 2.4 generations h−1 for biotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Other strains of the biotypes yielded comparable results, suggesting that the physiological responses of the biotypes are differentially affected by parameters that are highly variable both in estuarine environments and between the free-living and pathogen states of V. vulnificus. PMID:21515718

  12. Performance of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottoriva, L D M; Lourenção, A L; Colombo, C A

    2014-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is regarded as a pest with a large number of hosts, including crops and weeds. The performance of this whitefly on seven weeds was evaluated in order to identify the most suitable host. The following weeds that are very common in intense agricultural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected for this study: spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla), beggarticks (Bidens pilosa), red tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia), small-flower galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora), pigweed (Amaranthus viridis), black nightshade (Solanum americanum), and morning glory (Ipomoea sp.). In free-choice tests, adult preference and oviposition were greatest on spurge. In contrast, morning glory was the least attractive and least oviposited plant. In assays carried out for egg-adult development, egg viability was greater than 87% over all weeds, whereas nymph viability ranged from 74 to 97%. The developmental period from egg to adult ranged from 26.7 to 49.1 days among the hosts under study. The lowest nymph density rate was observed for beggarticks and morning glory. Cluster analysis resulted in a single group formed by spurge, indicating its superiority as a host for B. tabaci biotype B. Even though the parameters evaluated indicate that spurge is the most suitable host among the weeds, all the others allow the reproduction of B. tabaci biotype B. For this reason, they should be observed during cropping and the intercrop period in areas infested by this whitefly.

  13. First report of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (Q biotype) species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca Barbosa, Leonardo; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; De Marchi, Bruno Rossitto; Perini, Fernando Luis; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; de Barros, Danielle Ribeiro; Ghanim, Murad; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesus; Krause-Sakate, Renate

    2015-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major cosmopolitan pest and comprises a complex of more than 36 cryptic species that cause serious damage to agricultural crops worldwide. In this study, the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci, formerly known as Q biotype, was identified for the first time in Brazil. Adult B. tabaci were collected from different localities and hosts from Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of the country that borders Uruguay and Argentina. Partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene indicated that B. tabaci MED species appears to be restricted to the province of Barra do Quaraí, infesting Capsicum annuum cultivated in greenhouses and Ipomoea batatas in open fields. The partial mtCOI sequences obtained shared 100% nucleotide identity with reference sequences for the Q biotype reported from Uruguay. The secondary endosymbionts Hamiltonella and Cardinium were detected by PCR in the new identified MED species from Brazil, similarly to the Q biotype from Uruguay. Our results indicate the presence of the MED species in Brazil. The close monitoring of this new identified species in the southern region of Brazil is essential to avoid its geographical expansion to more important agricultural areas in the country. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Proteomic-based biotyping reveals hidden diversity within a microalgae culture collection: An example using Dunaliella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Kaveh; Hack, Ethan; Nelson, Andrew; Brain, Chelsea M.; Lyne, Fern M.; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Day, John G.; Caldwell, Gary S.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and defendable taxonomic identification of microalgae strains is vital for culture collections, industry and academia; particularly when addressing issues of intellectual property. We demonstrate the remarkable effectiveness of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) biotyping to deliver rapid and accurate strain separation, even in situations where standard molecular tools prove ineffective. Highly distinctive MALDI spectra were obtained for thirty two biotechnologically interesting Dunaliella strains plus strains of Arthrospira, Chlorella, Isochrysis, Tetraselmis and a range of culturable co-occurring bacteria. Spectra were directly compared with genomic DNA sequences (internal transcribed spacer, ITS). Within individual Dunaliella isolates MALDI discriminated between strains with identical ITS sequences, thereby emphasising and enhancing knowledge of the diversity within microalgae culture collections. Further, MALDI spectra did not vary with culture age or growth stage during the course of the experiment; therefore MALDI presents stable and accurate strain-specific signature spectra. Bacterial contamination did not affect MALDI’s discriminating power. Biotyping by MALDI-TOF-MS will prove effective in situations wherein precise strain identification is vital, for example in cases involving intellectual property disputes and in monitoring and safeguarding biosecurity. MALDI should be accepted as a biotyping tool to complement and enhance standard molecular taxonomy for microalgae.

  15. Proteomic-based biotyping reveals hidden diversity within a microalgae culture collection: An example using Dunaliella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Kaveh; Hack, Ethan; Nelson, Andrew; Brain, Chelsea M; Lyne, Fern M; Mesbahi, Ehsan; Day, John G; Caldwell, Gary S

    2015-05-12

    Accurate and defendable taxonomic identification of microalgae strains is vital for culture collections, industry and academia; particularly when addressing issues of intellectual property. We demonstrate the remarkable effectiveness of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) biotyping to deliver rapid and accurate strain separation, even in situations where standard molecular tools prove ineffective. Highly distinctive MALDI spectra were obtained for thirty two biotechnologically interesting Dunaliella strains plus strains of Arthrospira, Chlorella, Isochrysis, Tetraselmis and a range of culturable co-occurring bacteria. Spectra were directly compared with genomic DNA sequences (internal transcribed spacer, ITS). Within individual Dunaliella isolates MALDI discriminated between strains with identical ITS sequences, thereby emphasising and enhancing knowledge of the diversity within microalgae culture collections. Further, MALDI spectra did not vary with culture age or growth stage during the course of the experiment; therefore MALDI presents stable and accurate strain-specific signature spectra. Bacterial contamination did not affect MALDI's discriminating power. Biotyping by MALDI-TOF-MS will prove effective in situations wherein precise strain identification is vital, for example in cases involving intellectual property disputes and in monitoring and safeguarding biosecurity. MALDI should be accepted as a biotyping tool to complement and enhance standard molecular taxonomy for microalgae.

  16. Biotypes and ScM types of isolates of Streptococcus canis from diseased and healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, J F; Velineni, S; Ulrich, B; Blanchard, P

    2017-04-08

    Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during convalescence. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Using blood cytokine measures to define high inflammatory biotype of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerrigter, Danny; Weickert, Thomas W; Lenroot, Rhoshel; O'Donnell, Maryanne; Galletly, Cherrie; Liu, Dennis; Burgess, Martin; Cadiz, Roxanne; Jacomb, Isabella; Catts, Vibeke S; Fillman, Stu G; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2017-09-18

    Increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines are found in the brain and blood of people with schizophrenia. However, increased cytokines are not evident in all people with schizophrenia, but are found in a subset. The cytokine changes that best define this subset, termed the "elevated inflammatory biotype", are still being identified. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we measured five cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18) from peripheral blood of healthy controls and of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 165). We used a cluster analysis of the transcript levels to define those with low and those with elevated levels of cytokine expression. From the same cohort, eight cytokine proteins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα) were measured in serum and plasma using a Luminex Magpix-based assay. We compared peripheral mRNA and protein levels across diagnostic groups and between those with low and elevated levels of cytokine expression according to our transcription-based cluster analysis. We found an overall decrease in the anti-inflammatory IL-2 mRNA (p = 0.006) and an increase in three serum cytokines, IL-6 (p = 0.010), IL-8 (p = 0.024) and TNFα (p biotype compared to healthy controls (33%). The magnitude of increase in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNAs in people in the elevated inflammation biotype ranged from 100 to 220% of those in the non-elevated inflammatory biotype and was comparable between control and schizophrenia groups. Blood cytokine protein levels did not correlate with cytokine mRNA levels, and plasma levels of only two cytokines distinguished the elevated and low inflammatory biotypes, with IL-1β significantly increased in the elevated cytokine control group and IL-8 significantly increased in the elevated cytokine schizophrenia group. Our results confirm that individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to have elevated levels of inflammation compared to controls. We suggest that efforts to

  18. Underlying resistance mechanisms in the Cynosurus echinatus biotype to acetyl CoA carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eFernández

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog dogtail (Cynosurus echinatus is an annual grass, native to Europe, but also widely distributed in North and South America, South Africa and Australia. Two hedgehog dogtail biotypes, one diclofop-methyl (DM-resistant and one DM-susceptible were studied in detail for experimental dose-response resistance mechanisms. Herbicide rates that inhibited shoot growth by 50% (GR50 were determined for DM, being the resistance factor (GR50R/GR50S of 43.81. When amitrole (Cyt. P450 inhibitor was applied before treatment with DM, the R biotype growth was significantly inhibited (GR50 of 1019.9 g ai ha-1 compared with the GR50 (1484.6 g ai ha-1 found for the R biotype without pretreatment with amitrole. However, GR50 values for S biotype do not vary with or without amitrole pretreatment. Dose-response experiments carried out to evaluate cross-resistance, showed resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP, cyclohexanodione (CHD and phenylpyrazoline (PPZ inhibiting herbicides. Both R and S biotypes had a similar 14C-DM uptake and translocation. The herbicide was poorly distributed among leaves, the rest of the shoot and roots with unappreciable acropetal and/or basipetal DM translocation at 96 HAT. The metabolism of 14C-DM, D-acid and D-conjugate metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography. The results showed that DM resistance in C. echinatus is likely due to enhanced herbicide metabolism, involving Cyt. P450 as was demonstrated by indirect assays (amitrole pretreatment. The ACCase in vitro assays showed that the target site was very sensitive to APP, CHD and PPZ herbicides in the C. echinatus S biotype, while the R biotype was insensitive to the previously mentioned herbicides. DNA sequencing studies confirmed that C. echinatus cross-resistance to ACCase inhibitors has been conferred by specific ACCase double point mutations Ile-2041-Asn and Cys-2088-Arg.

  19. Genome-wide SNP-genotyping array to study the evolution of the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Nili; Danin-Poleg, Yael; Hayman, Ryan B; Bar-On, Yudi; Linetsky, Alex; Shmoish, Michael; Sanjuán, Eva; Amaro, Carmen; Walt, David R; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic bacterium and an important human pathogen. Strains of V. vulnificus are classified into three different biotypes. The newly emerged biotype 3 has been found to be clonal and restricted to Israel. In the family Vibrionaceae, horizontal gene transfer is the main mechanism responsible for the emergence of new pathogen groups. To better understand the evolution of the bacterium, and in particular to trace the evolution of biotype 3, we performed genome-wide SNP genotyping of 254 clinical and environmental V. vulnificus isolates with worldwide distribution recovered over a 30-year period, representing all phylogeny groups. A custom single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array implemented on the Illumina GoldenGate platform was developed based on 570 SNPs randomly distributed throughout the genome. In general, the genotyping results divided the V. vulnificus species into three main phylogenetic lineages and an additional subgroup, clade B, consisting of environmental and clinical isolates from Israel. Data analysis suggested that 69% of biotype 3 SNPs are similar to SNPs from clade B, indicating that biotype 3 and clade B have a common ancestor. The rest of the biotype 3 SNPs were scattered along the biotype 3 genome, probably representing multiple chromosomal segments that may have been horizontally inserted into the clade B recipient core genome from other phylogroups or bacterial species sharing the same ecological niche. Results emphasize the continuous evolution of V. vulnificus and support the emergence of new pathogenic groups within this species as a recurrent phenomenon. Our findings contribute to a broader understanding of the evolution of this human pathogen.

  20. Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, Adam J.; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of insect resistance in crops require insect resistance management plans that may include a refuge to limit the spread of virulence to this resistance. However, without a loss of fitness associated with virulence, a refuge may not prevent virulence from becoming fixed within a population of parthenogenetically reproducing insects like aphids. Aphid-resistance in soybeans (i.e., Rag genes) prevent outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), yet four biotypes defined by their capacity to survive on aphid-resistant soybeans (e.g., biotype-2 survives on Rag1 soybean) are found in North America. Although fitness costs are reported for biotype-3 on aphid susceptible and Rag1 soybean, it is not clear if virulence to aphid resistance in general is associated with a decrease in fitness on aphid susceptible soybeans. In laboratory assays, we measured fitness costs for biotype 2, 3 and 4 on an aphid-susceptible soybean cultivar. In addition, we also observed negative cross-resistance for biotype-2 on Rag3, and biotype-3 on Rag1 soybean. We utilized a simple deterministic, single-locus, four compartment genetic model to account for the impact of these findings on the frequency of virulence alleles. When a refuge of aphid susceptible was included within this model, fitness costs and negative cross-resistance delayed the increase of virulence alleles when virulence was inherited recessively or additively. If virulence were inherited additively, fitness costs decreased the frequency of virulence. Combined, these results suggest that a refuge may prevent virulent A. glycines biotypes from overcoming Rag genes if this aphid-resistance were used commercially in North America. PMID:26372106

  1. Underlying Resistance Mechanisms in the Cynosurus echinatus Biotype to Acetyl CoA Carboxylase-Inhibiting Herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pablo; Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo; Osuna, María D; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog dogtail (Cynosurus echinatus) is an annual grass, native to Europe, but also widely distributed in North and South America, South Africa, and Australia. Two hedgehog dogtail biotypes, one diclofop-methyl (DM)-resistant and one DM-susceptible were studied in detail for experimental dose-response resistance mechanisms. Herbicide rates that inhibited shoot growth by 50% (GR50) were determined for DM, being the resistance factor (GR50R/GR50S) of 43.81. When amitrole (Cyt. P450 inhibitor) was applied before treatment with DM, the R biotype growth was significantly inhibited (GR50 of 1019.9 g ai ha(-1)) compared with the GR50 (1484.6 g ai ha(-1)) found for the R biotype without pretreatment with amitrole. However, GR50 values for S biotype do not vary with or without amitrole pretreatment. Dose-response experiments carried out to evaluate cross-resistance, showed resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP), cyclohexanedione (CHD) and phenylpyrazoline (PPZ) inhibiting herbicides. Both R and S biotypes had a similar (14)C-DM uptake and translocation. The herbicide was poorly distributed among leaves, the rest of the shoot and roots with unappreciable acropetal and/or basipetal DM translocation at 96 h after treatment (HAT). The metabolism of (14)C-DM, D-acid and D-conjugate metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography. The results showed that DM resistance in C. echinatus is likely due to enhanced herbicide metabolism, involving Cyt. P450 as was demonstrated by indirect assays (amitrole pretreatment). The ACCase in vitro assays showed that the target site was very sensitive to APP, CHD and PPZ herbicides in the C. echinatus S biotype, while the R biotype was insensitive to the previously mentioned herbicides. DNA sequencing studies confirmed that C. echinatus cross-resistance to ACCase inhibitors has been conferred by specific ACCase double point mutations Ile-2041-Asn and Cys-2088-Arg.

  2. Genome-Wide SNP-Genotyping Array to Study the Evolution of the Human Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Ryan B.; Bar-On, Yudi; Linetsky, Alex; Shmoish, Michael; Sanjuán, Eva; Amaro, Carmen; Walt, David R.; Kashi, Yechezkel

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic bacterium and an important human pathogen. Strains of V. vulnificus are classified into three different biotypes. The newly emerged biotype 3 has been found to be clonal and restricted to Israel. In the family Vibrionaceae, horizontal gene transfer is the main mechanism responsible for the emergence of new pathogen groups. To better understand the evolution of the bacterium, and in particular to trace the evolution of biotype 3, we performed genome-wide SNP genotyping of 254 clinical and environmental V. vulnificus isolates with worldwide distribution recovered over a 30-year period, representing all phylogeny groups. A custom single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array implemented on the Illumina GoldenGate platform was developed based on 570 SNPs randomly distributed throughout the genome. In general, the genotyping results divided the V. vulnificus species into three main phylogenetic lineages and an additional subgroup, clade B, consisting of environmental and clinical isolates from Israel. Data analysis suggested that 69% of biotype 3 SNPs are similar to SNPs from clade B, indicating that biotype 3 and clade B have a common ancestor. The rest of the biotype 3 SNPs were scattered along the biotype 3 genome, probably representing multiple chromosomal segments that may have been horizontally inserted into the clade B recipient core genome from other phylogroups or bacterial species sharing the same ecological niche. Results emphasize the continuous evolution of V. vulnificus and support the emergence of new pathogenic groups within this species as a recurrent phenomenon. Our findings contribute to a broader understanding of the evolution of this human pathogen. PMID:25526263

  3. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid’s immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present

  4. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid’s immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B

  5. The Fish Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus Biotype 2: Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Virulence Factors Involved in Warm-Water Vibriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Carmen; Sanjuán, Eva; Fouz, Belén; Pajuelo, David; Lee, Chung-Te; Hor, Lien-I; Barrera, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is the etiological agent of warm-water vibriosis, a disease that affects eels and other teleosts, especially in fish farms. Biotype 2 is polyphyletic and probably emerged from aquatic bacteria by acquisition of a transferable virulence plasmid that encodes resistance to innate immunity of eels and other teleosts. Interestingly, biotype 2 comprises a zoonotic clonal complex designated as serovar E that has extended worldwide. One of the most interesting virulence factors produced by serovar E is RtxA13, a multifunctional protein that acts as a lethal factor for fish, an invasion factor for mice, and a survival factor outside the host. Two practically identical copies of rtxA13 are present in all biotype 2 strains regardless of the serovar, one in the virulence plasmid and the other in chromosome II. The plasmid also contains other genes involved in survival and growth in eel blood: vep07, a gene for an outer membrane (OM) lipoprotein involved in resistance to eel serum and vep20, a gene for an OM receptor specific for eel-transferrin and, probably, other related fish transferrins. All the three genes are highly conserved within biotype 2, which suggests that they are under a strong selective pressure. Interestingly, the three genes are related with transferable plasmids, which emphasizes the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of V. vulnificus in nutrient-enriched aquatic environments, such as fish farms.

  6. Synergistic effects of heavy metal pollutants on senescence in submerged aquatic plants. [Potamogeton pectinatus L. , Vallisneria spiralis L. , Hydrialla Verticillata (L. f. ) Royle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, S.; Choudhuri, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of many combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants, viz., mercuric chloride, lead acetate, cadmium chloride and cupric sulphate, on the senescence of isolated mature leaves of submerged aquatic plants, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Vallisneria spiralis L., and Hydrilla Verticillata (L.f.) Royle were studied. All of the combinations of heavy metal pollutants caused senescence in all three species by decreasing chlorophyll, DNA, RNA, protein and dry wt, and increasing free amino acid, tissue permeability, the activities of protease and RNase, and the ratio of acid to alkaline pyrophosphatase activity over control values. The effects were highest in Potamogeton and lowest in Hydrilla. The degree of senescence in the three submerged plants by combinations of toxic concentrations of heavy metal pollutants is much higher due to synergism than that by individual heavy metal pollutants.

  7. An Exploratory Study on Assessment of Gingival Biotype and Crown Dimensions as Predictors for Implant Esthetics Comparing Caucasian and Indian Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Ratnadeep; van Brakel, Ralph; Mahesh, Kavita; de Putter, Cornelius; Cune, Marco S.

    Gingival biotype and crown dimensions may be important predictors for the esthetic outcome of surgical procedures. However, the visual distinction between "thick" and "thin" biotype may not be a suitable predictive parameter of surgical outcome. Intraoral photographs of 73 Indian and Dutch subjects

  8. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of yearling male Pedi goats fed dietary mixture levels of Acacia karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Ng'ambi, Jones W

    2017-06-01

    Eighteen yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.7 ± 3.1 kg were used in a 42-day trial in a 2 (Acacia karroo leaf meal levels) × 3 (levels of PEG 4000) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design to determine PEG 4000 supplementation levels for optimal productivity of indigenous Pedi goats fed different mixture levels of A. karroo leaf meal and Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. grass hay. Each goat was supplemented with 0, 23 or 30 g of PEG 4000 per day in addition to dietary mixture of A. karroo and S. verticillata hay. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on nutrient intake of goats. However, a diet × PEG (P goat were optimized at PEG 4000 supplementation levels of 19.62, 19.62, 19.61 and 19.53 g/goat/day, respectively, for diets containing 20% A. karroo leaf meal. Polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the apparent digestibility of all nutrients. The dietary inclusion level of A. karroo leaf meal at 20% improved (P goats. Crude protein digestibility was optimized at a PEG 4000 supplementation level of 15.78 g/goat/day. Dietary mixture level and PEG 4000 supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on final weights of Pedi goats. Similar results were observed for blood urea and glucose concentrations of yearling male Pedi goats. However, daily body weight gain was higher (P goats fed 50% A. karroo leaf meal than those on 20% inclusion level. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has potential to improve the feeding value of tanninifeorus A. karroo leaf meal.

  9. Resistance of soybean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S S; Bueno, A F; Boff, M I C; Bueno, R C O F; Hoffman-Campo, C B

    2011-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B has become a serious problem for soybean cultivation because it can significantly reduce soybean productivity. The use of soybean cultivars resistant to whitefly attack is an important strategy in an integrated pest management (IPM) program. This study evaluated the preference for oviposition and colonization by B. tabaci biotype B on different soybean genotypes. In the free-choice test, the genotypes studied were 'IAC 17' and 'IAC 19' as the standards for resistance and 'IAC Holambra Stwart' as the standard for susceptibility, as well as BABR01-0492, BABR01-0173, BABR01-1259, BABR01-1576, BABR99-4021HC, BABR99-4021HP, 'Barreiras', 'Conquista', 'Corisco', 'BRS Gralha', PI274454, PI227687, and PI171451. In the no-choice test, the four best genotypes selected in the free-choice test, in addition to the susceptible and resistant standards were evaluated. Our data indicated 'Barreiras' as the most resistant genotype against B. tabaci biotype B. 'BRS Gralha', which was the least attractive to whitefly adults in the free-choice test, did not show resistance to insect attack when they were confined in cages in the no-choice test. Despite the high number of eggs observed, BABR01-1576 and BABR99-4021HC showed a reduced number of nymphs, indicating antibiosis. The genotypes with a high level of resistance can be used as a tool against B. tabaci in IPM or as a source of resistance in plant-breeding programs.

  10. Characterization of Antixenosis in Soybean Genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, E L L; Cruz, P L; Morando, R; Silva, I F; Bentivenha, J P F; Tozin, L R S; Rodrigues, T M

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) is one of the most important soybean pest worldwide. Herein, 15 soybean genotypes were evaluated, to characterize the occurrence of antixenosis to B. tabaci biotype B. Initially, a multiple-choice test with all genotypes was carried out, evaluating the settling and oviposition preference at 3 d after infestation, and the colonization by nymphs after 48 d of infestation. Subsequently, a no-choice test, using 14 genotypes, was conducted with infested plants individually, and the number of eggs was counted after 72 h. Then, 10 genotypes were selected (indicative of resistance and susceptibility), which were evaluated for whitefly settling 24, 48, and 72 h after infestation and for oviposition 72 h after infestation. The trichomes of the leaflets were characterized for density, size, and inclination to establish possible correlations with the settling and oviposition in the genotypes. In the first multiple-choice test, involving 15 genotypes, 'IAC-17,' 'IAC-19,' and UX-2569-159 expressed antixenosis against B. tabaci. 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and PI-229358 exhibited the same behavior in the no-choice test. In the multiple-choice test, 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and 'TMG1176 RR' were the least attractive and least used for oviposition. The antixenosis shown by 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and PI-229358 may be related to the characteristics of the trichomes (lower density and inclined). Based on the experiments carried out, 'IAC-17,' 'IAC-19,' 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' PI-229358, TMG1176 RR, and UX-2569-159 are considered promising for resistance to B. tabaci biotype B and may be exploited in soybean breeding programs for resistance to insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mechanisms of inflammasome activation by Vibrio cholerae secreted toxins vary with strain biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Jessica; Agarwal, Shivani; Dolores, Jazel S; Stehlik, Christian; Satchell, Karla J F

    2015-06-01

    Activation of inflammasomes is an important aspect of innate immune responses to bacterial infection. Recent studies have linked Vibrio cholerae secreted toxins to inflammasome activation by using murine macrophages. To increase relevance to human infection, studies of inflammasome-dependent cytokine secretion were conducted with the human THP-1 monocytic cell line and corroborated in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Both El Tor and classical strains of V. cholerae activated ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein-containing a CARD domain)-dependent release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) when cultured with human THP-1 cells, but the pattern of induction was distinct, depending on the repertoire of toxins the strains produced. El Tor biotype strains induced release of IL-1β dependent on NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and ASC due to the secreted pore-forming toxin hemolysin. Unlike in studies with mouse macrophages, the MARTX toxin did not contribute to IL-1β release from human monocytic cells. Classical biotype strains, which do not produce either hemolysin or the MARTX toxin, activated low-level IL-1β release that was induced by cholera toxin (CT) and dependent on ASC but independent of NLRP3 and pyroptosis. El Tor strains likewise showed increased IL-1β production dependent on CT when the hemolysin gene was deleted. In contrast to studies with murine macrophages, this phenotype was dependent on a catalytically active CT A subunit capable of inducing production of cyclic AMP and not on the B subunit. These studies demonstrate that the induction of the inflammasome in human THP-1 monocytes and in PBMCs by V. cholerae varies with the biotype and is mediated by both NLRP3-dependent and -independent pathways. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Low-pH Adaptation and the Acid Tolerance Response of Bifidobacterium longum Biotype longum▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Borja; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Collado, María del Carmen; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; Sanz, Yolanda; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Margolles, Abelardo; Zagorec, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are one of the main microbial inhabitants of the human colon. Usually administered in fermented dairy products as beneficial microorganisms, they have to overcome the acidic pH found in the stomach during the gastrointestinal transit to be able to colonize the lower parts of the intestine. The mechanisms underlying acid response and adaptation in Bifidobacterium longum biotype longum NCIMB 8809 and its acid-pH-resistant mutant B. longum biotype longum 8809dpH were studied. Comparison of protein maps, and protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis, allowed us to identify nine different proteins whose production largely changed in the mutant strain. Furthermore, the production of 47 proteins was modulated by pH in one or both strains. These included general stress response chaperones and proteins involved in transcription and translation as well as in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, among others. Significant differences in the levels of metabolic end products and in the redox status of the cells were also detected between the wild-type strain and its acid-pH-resistant mutant in response to, or as a result of, adaptation to acid. Remarkably, the results of this work indicated that adaptation and response to low pH in B. longum biotype longum involve changes in the glycolytic flux and in the ability to regulate the internal pH. These changes were accompanied by a higher content of ammonium in the cytoplasm, likely coming from amino acid deamination, and a decrease of the bile salt hydrolase activity. PMID:17720838

  13. Genotype and biotype of invasive Anopheles stephensi in Mannar Island of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Sivabalakrishnan, Kokila; Gajapathy, Kanapathy; Arthiyan, Sivasingham; Jayadas, Tibutius T P; Karvannan, Kalingarajah; Raveendran, Selvarajah; Parakrama Karunaratne, S H P; Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2018-01-03

    Anopheles stephensi, the major vector of urban malaria in India, was recently detected for the first time in Sri Lanka in Mannar Island on the northwestern coast. Since there are different biotypes of An. stephensi with different vector capacities in India, a study was undertaken to further characterise the genotype and biotype of An. stephensi in Mannar Island. Mosquito larvae were collected in Pesalai village in Mannar and maintained in the insectary until adulthood. Adult An. stephensi were identified morphologically using published keys. Identified adult An. stephensi were molecularly characterized using two mitochondrial (cox1 and cytb) and one nuclear (ITS2) markers. Their PCR-amplified target fragments were sequenced and checked against available sequences in GenBank for phylogenetic analysis. The average spiracular and thoracic lengths and the spiracular index were determined to identify biotypes based on corresponding indices for Indian An. stephensi. All DNA sequences for the Mannar samples matched reported sequences for An. stephensi from the Middle East and India. However, a single nucleotide variation in the cox1 sequence suggested an amino acid change from valine to methionine in the cox1 protein in Sri Lankan An. stephensi. Morphological data was consistent with the presence of the Indian urban vector An. stephensi type-form in Sri Lanka. The present study provides a more detailed molecular characterization of An. stephensi and suggests the presence of the type-form of the vector for the first time in Sri Lanka. The single mutation in the cox1 gene may be indicative of a founder effect causing the initial diversification of An. stephensi in Sri Lanka from the Indian form. The distribution of the potent urban vector An. stephensi type-form needs to be established by studies throughout the island as its spread adds to the challenge of maintaining the country's malaria-free status.

  14. Enhancing gingival biotype through chorion membrane with innovative step in periodontal pocket therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothiwale, Shaila; Rathore, Amrita; Panjwani, Vishal

    2016-03-01

    A thick gingival biotype is a requisite for good periodontal health. It has important role in resisting trauma and subsequent gingival recession. The gingival thickness is a significant predictor of clinical outcome of periodontal surgeries. Various surgical procedures are used to increase the gingival thickness. The present study incorporated the innovative step of placement of chorion membrane to objectively evaluate the increase in thickness of gingival biotype during periodontal pocket therapy. The patients in age group between 25 and 45 years with chronic periodontitis, indicated for flap surgery were selected for the study. The sites with pocket depth of 6-8 mm in the mandibular anterior teeth were divided into test and control sites. Periodontal flap surgery was carried at both the sites and chorion membrane was placed at the test sites. The gingival thickness measurement was assessed using a markings marked on injection needle, these markings were read using digital vernier caliper, pre and post operatively. The baseline values of gingival thickness at test site (1.04 ± 0.19 at mid buccal region, 1.24 ± 0.20 at mid papillary) and control site (0.94 ± 0.11 at mid buccal region, 1.14 ± 0.11 at mid papillary region) showed no statistically significant difference. At test sites, 6 weeks post treatment (1.36 ± 0.16 at mid buccal region and 1.48 ± 0.17 at mid papillary region) as compared to control sites (1.06 ± 0.11 at mid buccal region, 1.24 ± 0.11 at mid papillary) showed statistically significant increase in gingival thickness (p ≤ 0.05*). The innovative step of placement of chorion membrane during periodontal pocket therapy facilitated increase in the gingival thickness in the areas with thin gingival biotype.

  15. An atypical biotype I Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 is present in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Malcolm B.; Angen, Øystein; MacLean, Leann L.

    2012-01-01

    Atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 strains present in North America are described here for the first time. Different from serotype 13 strains described in Europe, North America strains are biotype I and antigenically related to both, serotypes 13 and 10. Chemical and structural...... and structurally identical with that of the reference strain of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 10. The O-PS was characterized as a homopolymer of 1,2 linked β-d-galactofuranosyl residues, a structure unrelated to that of the O-PS produced by the reference strain of serotype 13. Strains from Canada and United States...

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep - a high frequency of biotype 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Karin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Methods Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. Results The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4, Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3, Providencia rettgeri (n = 2, Serratia marcescens (n = 1 and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica in sheep--a high frequency of biotype 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderqvist, Karin; Boqvist, Sofia; Wauters, Georges; Vågsholm, Ivar; Thisted-Lambertz, Susanne

    2012-06-29

    Pigs are regarded as the main reservoir for human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is dominated by bioserotype 4/O:3. Other animals, including sheep, have occasionally been reported as carriers of pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in the Nordic countries in which the presence of Y. enterocolitica in sheep is investigated. Tonsils and faecal samples collected from sheep slaughtered on the island Gotland (Sweden) from September 2010 through January 2011 were analysed for presence of Y. enterocolitica. In an attempt to maximize recovery, several cultural strategies were applied. Various non-selective media were used and different temperatures and durations of the enrichment were applied before subculturing on Cefsulodin Irgasan Novobiocin (CIN) agar. Presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies were subjected to urease, API 20E and agglutination test. Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were biotyped, serotyped, and tested for pathogenicity using a TaqMan PCR directed towards the ail-gene that is associated with human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica. The samples collected from 99 sheep yielded 567 presumptive Y. enterocolitica colonies. Eighty urease positive isolates, from 35 sheep, were identified as Y. enterocolitica by API 20E. Thirty-four of 35 further subtyped Y. enterocolitica isolates, all from faecal samples, belonged to biotype 1A serotype O:5, O:6. O:13,7 and O:10. One strain was Yersinia mollaretii serotype O:62. No human pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica were found in the investigated sheep. Other species identified were Y. kristensenii (n = 4), Y. frederiksenii/intermedia (n = 3), Providencia rettgeri (n = 2), Serratia marcescens (n = 1) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1). This study does not support the hypothesis that sheep play an important role in transmission of the known human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in the studied geographical region. However

  18. Identification of species and biotypes of the brucella genus in apparently healthy and aborted ewes and goats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, M; Abdel-Hamed, S; Nada, S M; Osman, K

    1984-12-01

    Brucella micro-organisms was absent in the vaginal swabs collected from apparently healthy ewes. Such incidence among the genital tract of aborted ewes was 4.84%. Among goats, brucella species represented 7.04% in aborted goats, while it was recovered in lower percentage (0.92%) from the vaginal swabs of apparently healthy goats. Br. melitensis biotype "3" was the sole species recovered from aborted ewes, while biotypes "3" and "2" could be obtained from clinically healthy and aborted foeti of goats. The predilection seats of brucella in the genital tracts of aborted animals and their foeti were discussed in details.

  19. Shigella sonnei biotype g carrying class 2 integrons in southern Italy: a retrospective typing study by pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romani Cristina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence and global dissemination of multiresistant strains of enteric pathogens is a very concerning problem from both epidemiological and Public Health points of view. Shigella sonnei is the serogroup of Shigella most frequently responsible for sporadic and epidemic enteritis in developed countries. The dissemination is associated most often to human to human transmission, but foodborne episodes have also been described. In recent years the circulation of multiresistant strains of S. sonnei biotype g carrying a class 2 integron has been reported in many countries worldwide. In southern Italy a strain with similar properties has been responsible for a large community outbreak occurred in 2003 in Palermo, Sicily. The objective of this study was to date the emergence of the biotype g strain carrying the class 2 integron in southern Italy and to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of biotype g S. sonnei isolated throughout an extended interval of time. Methods A total of 31 clinical isolates of S. sonnei biotype g identified in southern Italy during the years 1971–2000 were studied. The strains were identified at the serogroup level, characterized by biochemical tests and submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE after digestion of DNA by XbaI. Carriage of class 2 integrons was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers and confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis of amplicons. Results The 15 isolates of S. sonnei biotype g identified in the decade 1971–1980 showed highly heterogeneous drug resistance profiles and pulsotypes. None of the isolates was simultaneous resistant to streptomycin and trimethoprim and none was class 2 integron positive. On the contrary, this resistance phenotype and class 2 integron carriage were very common among the 16 strains of biotype g identified in the following two decades

  20. Immediate placement and restoration of implants in the aesthetic zone with a trimodal approach: soft tissue alterations and its relation to gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Gustavo; Rioboo, María; Fábrega, Javier G

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the soft tissue changes around implants in the aesthetic zone, placed under a trimodal approach (immediate post-extraction placement, flapless, and immediate provisional restoration) and its relationship to gingival/periodontal biotype of the patient. The sample consisted of 14 patients from two private practices that were in need of a tooth extraction in the anterior maxillary region (cuspid to cuspid) and were candidates to a replacement with a dental implant. An initial measurement (baseline) of the position or the mesial and distal papillae and gingival zenith was made at this time, with a rigid dental-supported stent and an electronic precision caliper, able to the second tenth of a millimeter; after careful tooth extraction, the periodontal thickness, at a point 5 mm apical to de gingival buccal margin, with an analogical thickness gauge, able to one tenth of a millimeter. Once the implant was inserted an immediate provisional restoration was delivered. To evaluate the soft tissue changes measurements were repeated at 3, 6, and 12 months. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the changes in the gingival margin around the implant restorations and to identify a possible correlation to patient's periodontal thickness. All 14 patients received Straumann (®) implants (9 Tissue Level [TL] Regular Neck [RN], 2 TL Narrow Neck [NN], 2 Bone Level [BL] Narrow Crossfit [NC], and 1 BL Regular Crossfit [RC]). All implants integrated and none had any biological complications. Three provisional restorations presented screw loosening and retightened once and one loss retention and was recemented once. In one patient, with a severe bruxing habit, the final restoration suffered screw loosening and was retightened. Of the final restorations, 12 were screw-retained and 2 cemented on custom-made Zirconia abutments. A mean recession of the buccal margin of 0.45 mm was recorded at 12 months ( ± 0.25 mm). An acceptable

  1. Implementing the Bruker MALDI Biotyper in the Public Health Laboratory for C. botulinum Neurotoxin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Perry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the gold standard method for active botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT detection is the mouse bioassay (MBA. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-developed mass spectrometry (MS-based assay that detects active BoNT was successfully validated and implemented in a public health laboratory in clinical matrices using the Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry Biotyper. For the first time, a direct comparison with the MBA was performed to determine MS-based assay sensitivity using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Mice were injected with BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F at concentrations surrounding the established MS assay limit of detection (LOD and analyzed simultaneously. For BoNT/B, /E, and /F, MS assay sensitivity was equivalent or better than the MBA at 25, 0.3, and 8.8 mLD50, respectively. BoNT/A was detected by the MBA between 1.8 and 18 mLD50, somewhat more sensitive than the MS method of 18 mLD50. Studies were performed to compare assay performance in clinical specimens. For all tested specimens, the MS method rapidly detected BoNT activity and serotype in agreement with, or in the absence of, results from the MBA. We demonstrate that the MS assay can generate reliable, rapid results while eliminating the need for animal testing.

  2. Identification of Apis mellifera gut microbiota with MALDI TOF MS Biotyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gasper

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is critically important for the pollination of many economically important crops. Continued colony losses have called for a deeper understanding of both symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions, particularly as they relate to food storage and the pollination environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore and characterize the bacteria colonizing the alimentary tract of the native honey bees using MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. Content of the intestinal tract was cultured for isolation of Gram-negative, Gram-positive microorganisms and yeasts. Then, the identification of isolates with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper was done. Results showed that the most abundant genera in bees’ samples were Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas and Serratia. Altogether, 12 genera with 21 bacterial species and one yeast genus with two species were isolated. Bacteria were represented with Acidovorax facilis, Lactobacillus gasseri, L. amylovorus, L. kunkeei, L. fructivorans, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ps. brenneri, Ps. indica, Micrococcus luteus, Serratia fonticola, Ser. marcescens, Ser. ureilytica, Hafnia alvei, Candida magnolia, Bacillus oleronius, B. horneckiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staph. pasteuri, Shewanella profunda.  The results of the study shows that the microflora of the bees gut is heterogenic and depend of locality and resources of environment for bees.

  3. A comparative epizootiologic study of the two fish-pathogenic serovars of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouz, B; Llorens, A; Valiente, E; Amaro, C

    2010-05-01

    Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 is subdivided into two main serovars, serovar E, able to infect fish and humans, and serovar A, only virulent for fish. Serovar E emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of a haemorrhagic septicaemia (warm-water vibriosis) affecting eels cultured in brackish water. Serovar A emerged in 2000 in freshwater-cultured eels vaccinated against serovar E, causing warm-water vibriosis with fish showing a haemorrhagic intestine as the main differential sign. The aim of the present work was to compare the disease caused by both serovars in terms of transmission routes, portals of entry and host range. Results of bath, patch-contact and oral-anal challenges demonstrated that both serovars spread through water and infect healthy eels, serovar A entering mainly by the anus and serovar E by the gills. The course of the disease under laboratory conditions was similar for both serovars in terms of transmission and dependence of degree of virulence on water parameters (temperature and salinity). However, the decrease in degree of virulence in fresh water was significantly greater in serovar E than in serovar A. Finally, both serovars proved pathogenic for tilapia, sea bass and rainbow trout, but not for sea bream, with significant differences in degree of virulence only in rainbow trout. In conclusion, serovar A seems to represent a new antigenic form of V. vulnificus biotype 2 with an unusual portal of entry and is better adapted to fresh water than serovar E.

  4. THE STUDY OF ENTEROTOXIGENICITY OF THE BIOTYPE 1A YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bogumilchik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А which are considered as nonpathogenic microorganisms were tested for production of the thermostable enterotoxin YST B (Yersinia Stable Toxin. This toxin is characterized by strong toxic action and it can bring on diarrhea in human and animals. The chromosome gene of thermostable enterotoxin ystB was detected by PCR in 87.1% out of 116 studied strains of different origin and territorial isolation. To determine toxin production in vitro the studied strains cultivated in various conditions: in 26°C and 37°С in usual culture medium and in 37°С in the medium corresponded to the content of intestine. In part of the studied strains the toxin production was revealed on the model of newborn mice in both temperature regimes of cultivation 26°С and 37°С. The study of toxin production in representatives of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1А showed their possible role as etiological agents of diarrhea.

  5. Comparative protection of two different commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 and biotype 2 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S; Raida, M K; Dalsgaard, I; Chettri, J K; Kania, P W; Buchmann, K

    2012-01-15

    Differentially extended specific protection by two commercial vaccines against Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 was studied following 30s immersion exposure. Rainbow trout were challenged intra-peritoneally (i.p.) with Y. ruckeri serotype O1, biotype 2 (≈10(6) to 10(7)CFU/fish) at 4, 6 and 8 months after vaccination with vaccines containing either biotype 1 (AquaVac(®) ERM) or both biotypes 1 and 2 (AquaVac(®) RELERA™). The specific pattern of vaccine-mediated protection was evaluated by relative percentage survival (RPS) analysis at 4 and 6 months post-vaccination and by obtaining gross pathological observations at 4 and 8 months respectively. We determined specific significant and superior protection in terms of increased survivability in AquaVac(®) RELERA™ vaccinated fish and observed correspondingly fewer pathological changes. The challenge trials indicated a longer protection for at least 6 months without any booster vaccination. A specific and adaptive response induced by AquaVac(®) RELERA™ vaccine against Y. ruckeri biotype 2 was clearly indicated. In addition, some degree of cross protection rendered by AquaVac(®) ERM containing biotype 1 during infection with Y. ruckeri biotype 2 was also noted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. First report of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in Costa Rica and detection of viruliferous whiteflies in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies are a complex that comprises multiple species and biotypes or races which are capable of affecting crops by phloem feeding, virus transmission and promotion of fungal colonization. The distribution of these pests is worldwide. In Costa Rica, a country located in the tropics, the most prob...

  7. Are three colonies of Neostromboceros albicomus, a candidate biological control agent for Lygodium microphyllum, the same host biotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three colonies of Neostromboceros albicomus, a candidate biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum, were barcoded using the D2 expansion domain, to determine which of two biotypes they represented. The first colony, collected in 2005 & 2007, was used for the initial host range testing. Colon...

  8. Vector competence of northern European Culex pipiens biotypes and hybrids for West Nile virus is differentially affected by temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, Chantal B.F.; Fros, Jelke J.; Goertz, Giel; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Koenraadt, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV) have not occurred in northern Europe despite nearby circulation of WNV in the southern part of the continent. The main vector for WNV, the mosquito Culex (Cx.) pipiens, consists of two behaviorally distinct biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can

  9. Comparative evaluation of administration methods for a vaccine protecting rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 2 infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Deshmukh, Sidhartha; Holten-Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Numerous outbreaks of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 2 in rainbow trout farms are currently being recorded despite established vaccination procedures against this disease. This could indicate that the currently used application of single immersion vaccination...

  10. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco.

  11. The profile of Porphyromonas gingivalis kgp biotype and fimA genotype mosaic in subgingival plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Mangala A; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Chapple, Cheryl C; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Hunter, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Combined analysis of allelic variation of the virulence-associated, strain-specific lys-gingipain gene (kgp) and major fimbrial gene (fimA) of Porphyromonas gingivalis was undertaken in 116 subgingival plaque samples to understand the kgp biotype and fimA genotype profile in a subject-specific manner. Allelic variation in the polyadhesin domain of kgp from P. gingivalis strains 381 (ATCC 33277), HG66 and W83 generated four isoforms corresponding to four biotypes of P. gingivalis. Similarly, variation in the fimA subunit of the fimA gene cluster of P. gingivalis resulted in six fimA genotypes. Strain-specific differential PCR was performed for kgp and fimA using DNA isolated from subgingival plaque samples. Our findings demonstrate that all of the P. gingivalis kgp biotypes detected in this study were predominantly associated with the fimA II genotype. Dominance of kgp biotypes 381 or HG66 combined with fimA II fimbriae could imply an adaptive strategy by P. gingivalis to generate the fittest strains for survival in the host environment. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Latitudinal diversity of culex pipiens biotypes and hybrids in farm, peri-Urban, and wetland habitats in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, Chantal B.F.; Mohlmann, Tim; Melsen, Diede; Favia, Guido; Wennergren, Uno; Koenraadt, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Despite the presence of Culex (Cx.) pipiens mosquitoes and circulation of West Nile virus (WNV), WNV outbreaks have so far not occurred in northern Europe. The species Cx. pipiens consists of two morphologically identical biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can form hybrids. Until now,

  13. Improved DNA barcoding method for Bemisia tabaci and related Aleyrodidae: development of universal and Bemisia tabaci biotype-specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I polymerase chain reaction primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatters, Robert G; Powell, Charles A; Boykin, Laura M; Liansheng, He; McKenzie, C L

    2009-04-01

    Whiteflies, heteropterans in the family Aleyrodidae, are globally distributed and severe agricultural pests. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence has been used extensively in whitefly phylogenetic comparisons and in biotype identification of the agriculturally important Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) whitefly. Because of the economic importance of several whitefly genera, and the invasive nature of the B and the Q biotypes of Bemisia tabaci, mtCOI sequence data are continually generated from sampled populations worldwide. Routine phylogenetic comparisons and biotype identification is done through amplification and sequencing of an approximately 800-bp mtCOI DNA fragment. Despite its routine use, published primers for amplification of this region are often inefficient for some B. tabaci biotypes and especially across whitefly species. Through new sequence generation and comparison to available whitefly mtCOI sequence data, a set of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification primers (Btab-Uni primers) were identified that are more efficient at amplifying approximately 748 bp of the approximately 800-bp fragment currently used. These universal primers amplify an mtCOI fragment from numerous B. tabaci biotypes and whitefly genera by using a single amplification profile. Furthermore, mtCOI PCR primers specific for the B, Q, and New World biotypes of B. tabaci were designed that allow rapid discrimination among these biotypes. These primers produce a 478-, 405-, and 303-bp mtCOI fragment for the B, New World, and Q biotypes, respectively. By combining these primers and using rapid PCR and electrophoretic techniques, biotype determination can be made within 3 h for up to 96 samples at a time.

  14. The clinical epidemiology and malignancies associated with Streptococcus bovis biotypes in 506 cases of bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Juan; Grau, Imma; Garcia-Rodriguez, Jose F; Alonso-Garcia, Pilar; Garcia-Pais, M J; Rabuñal, Ramon; Garcia-Garrote, Fernando; Ardanuy, Carmen; Coira, Amparo; Lopez-Alvarez, M J; Pallares, Roman

    2015-09-01

    To determine the incidence of Streptococcus bovis (Sb) biotypes causing bacteraemia and associated malignancies. This is a retrospective analysis of patients with Sb bacteraemia, pulled out from a prospective surveillance protocol of bacteraemia cases, in three areas of Spain (1990-2013): a cattle area (Lugo), a fishing area (Ferrol) and an urban area (Barcelona). Colonoscopy and Sb biotypes (Sb-I and Sb-II) were determined in most cases. 506 patients with Sb bacteraemia; mean age 68.1 (±14.1) years, and 66.2% were males. The cattle area, compared with the fishing and urban areas, had higher incidence of bacteraemia by SbI (40.29 vs 9.38 vs 6.15 cases/10(6) person-years, P < 0.001) and bacteraemia by Sb-II (29.07 vs 9.84 vs 13.37 cases/10(6) person-years, P < 0.001). The Sb-I cases (n = 224), compared with Sb-II cases (n = 270), had greater rates of endocarditis (77.6% vs 9.6%, P < 0.001) and colorectal neoplasm (CRN) (50.9% vs 16.6%, P < 0.001), and smaller rates of biliary tract infection (2.2% vs 29.6%, P < 0.001) and non-colorectal malignancy (8.9% vs 31.4%, P < 0.001). There was a link between the cattle area and higher incidence of Sb bacteraemia. Sb-I differed from Sb-II cases in clinical findings and associated malignancies. Colonoscopy is mandatory in cases of endocarditis or bacteraemia caused by Sb-I. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stable isotope resolved metabolomics reveals the role of anabolic and catabolic processes in glyphosate-induced amino acid accumulation in Amaranthus palmeri biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM), we characterized the role of anabolic (de novo synthesis) vs catabolic (protein catalysis) processes contributing to free amino acid pools in glyphosate susceptible (S) and resistant (R) Amaranthus palmeri biotypes. Following exposure to glyphosate ...

  16. SELEÇÃO DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DA ESPÉCIE Senefeldera verticillata (Vell. CROIZAT EM DOIS FRAGMENTOS FLORESTAIS DO SUL DO ESPIRITO SANTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Abreu Rodrigues Vieira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil abriga a flora mais rica do planeta, sendo a Floresta Atlântica um dos sistemas mais diversificados que compõe essa paisagem. Por outro lado, a atuação antrópica desordenada transformou esse bioma, originalmente contínuo, em um mosaico de fragmentos isolados colocando em risco a biodiversidade. A coleta de sementes de alta qualidade é muito importante para qualquer programa de produção de mudas voltado para restauração e conservação dos recursos genéticos. Dessa forma, com esse estudo objetivou-se avaliar indivíduos de Senefeldera verticillata (Vell. Croizat presentes na FLONA de Pacotuba e RPPN Cafundó (Cachoeiro de Itapemirim - Espírito Santo, como matrizes para banco de sementes. O maior DAP foi de 17,6 cm e o menor foi de 5 cm, a média foi de 8,66 cm. Todas as matrizes avaliadas encontravam-se em boas condições de sanidade e aparência fenotípica. A partir dos dados foi possível identificar árvores matrizes que servirão como banco de sementes e empregadas nos projetos de reflorestamento e recuperação de áreas degradadas da própria região.

  17. Structural characterization and molecular identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza morphotypes of Alzatea verticillata (Alzateaceae), a prominent tree in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Adela; Haug, Ingeborg; Oberwinkler, Franz; Kottke, Ingrid

    2007-10-01

    The vast majority of the highly diverse trees in the tropical mountain rain forest of South Ecuador form arbuscular mycorrhizas, and previous molecular investigations revealed a high diversity of fungi. In this study, we present a first trial to link fungal DNA-sequences with defined morphotypes characterized on the basis of partly new mycelial features obtained from field material of one tree species, Alzatea verticillata. Fine roots were halved lengthwise to study the mycelium anatomy on one half and to obtain fungal nuclear rDNA coding for the small subunit rRNA of Glomeromycota from the other half. Light microscopy revealed conspicuously large amounts of mycelium attaching to the surface of the rootlets. The mycelium formed fine- or large-branched appressoria-like plates, vesicles of regular or irregular shape, and very fine, multibranched structures ensheathed by septate hyphae. These previously undescribed features of the supraradical mycelia combined with intraradical mycelium structures were used for distinguishing of four main morphogroups and subordinate 14 morphotypes. DNA sequences of Glomus group A, Acaulospora and Gigaspora, were obtained and linked to three morphogroups. Two sequence types within Glomus group A could be tentatively associated to subordinate morphotypes.

  18. Evidence, Mechanism and Alternative Chemical Seedbank-Level Control of Glyphosate Resistance of a Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) Biotype from Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Bastida, Fernando; De Prado, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most troublesome weeds in different crops in the Mediterranean region. A rigid ryegrass biotype from an olive grove in Jaén province (Andalusía, southern Spain), potentially resistant to glyphosate (RG), was tested for its resistance level through dose-response assays using a susceptible biotype (SG). To test the hypothesis of a non-target-site-based resistance, as point mutations are far less common mechanisms of glyphosate resistance, studies were also conducted to elucidate whether resistance was associated with biochemical, metabolism, molecular and/or physiological mechanisms. Alternative herbicide-based control options, including single-herbicide or herbicide mixtures with glyphosate, applied at seedling, tillering or full heading stages, were tested in field experiments for 2 years for their efficacy against rigid ryegrass plants and their effects on the soil seed bank. Resistance levels of the RG biotype were 23- (LD50) and 7-fold (GR50) higher compared to the SG biotype. The SG biotype exhibited a significantly greater shikimic acid accumulation than the RG one. At 96 HAT, 58 and 89% of applied 14C-glyphosate was up taken by leaves of RG and SG biotype plants, respectively, and, at this time, a significantly higher proportion of the glyphosate taken up by the treated leaf remained in its tissue in RG plants compared to the SG ones. The RG biotype did not reveal any point mutation in the glyphosate target site EPSP synthase. Overall, results confirmed reduced glyphosate uptake and translocation as being the mechanism involved in glyphosate resistance in the RG biotype. RG biotype responses to the alternative treatments tested in situ indicated that herbicide applications at the later growth stage tended to be less effective in terms of immediate effects on population size than earlier applications, and that only in some cases, the removal of at least 85% of the RG biotype was achieved. However, with few

  19. Metabolic Profiling and Enzyme Analyses Indicate a Potential Role of Antioxidant Systems in Complementing Glyphosate Resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2015-10-21

    Metabolomics and biochemical assays were employed to identify physiological perturbations induced by a commercial formulation of glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. At 8 h after treatment (HAT), compared to the respective water-treated control, cellular metabolism of both biotypes were similarly perturbed by glyphosate, resulting in abundance of most metabolites including shikimic acid, amino acids, organic acids and sugars. However, by 80 HAT the metabolite pool of glyphosate-treated R-biotype was similar to that of the control S- and R-biotypes, indicating a potential physiological recovery. Furthermore, the glyphosate-treated R-biotype had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage, higher ROS scavenging activity, and higher levels of potential antioxidant compounds derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Thus, metabolomics, in conjunction with biochemical assays, indicate that glyphosate-induced metabolic perturbations are not limited to the shikimate pathway, and the oxidant quenching efficiency could potentially complement the glyphosate resistance in this R-biotype.

  20. A comparative evaluation of the reliability of three methods of assessing gingival biotype in dentate subjects in different age groups: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Patel, Jayanti R; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Patel, Ravi; Arora, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    In the modern competitive society, a pleasing appearance often dictates the difference between success and failure in both our personal and professional lives. Evaluation of gingival biotype is very important from the start of treatment plan to the final restorative placement to provide excellent esthetics. For the study, subjects were divided into 4 groups of different ages, from 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. 30 subjects (15 men and 15 women) were selected in each group for the study. Examination of the thickness of Gingival Biotype was done in 3 different ways; - Direct visual, William's Graduated Probe and Using modified wax caliper. The McNemar test showed statistically significant differences in the way gingival biotype was identified when comparing visual assessment with assessment using direct measurement (P Biotype among the different age groups. Gingival biotype identification by visual assessment is statistically significantly different from assessment with direct measurement. Gingival biotype identification by assessment with a periodontal probe is not statistically significantly different from direct measurement.

  1. Biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Jatropha gossypiifolia, commercial (Manihot esculenta) and wild cassava (Manihot flabellifolia and M. carthaginensis) (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabalí, Arturo; Belloti, Anthony C; Montoya-Lerma, James

    2010-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most important pests of cassava in Africa and several countries of Asia due to the damage caused by direct feeding, the excretion of honeydew, and its capacity as a vector of cassava mosaic geminivirus. There is a general consensus that B. tabaci is a complex of morphologically indistinguishable populations with different biotypes. In the Americas, the polyphagous biotype B does not appear to feed on cassava. Recent studies indicate that it is possible, however, for biotype B to gradually adapt to cassava using phylogenetically related hosts. Therefore, the possibility that some wild species of cassava constitute intermediate hosts in the adaptation process may lead to the establishment of biotype B on commercial varieties of Manihot esculenta. In here, we evaluated Jatropha gossypiifolia, two wild species of cassava (Manihot flabellifolia and M. carthaginensis) and a commercial cassava variety (MCol 2063) as hosts of biotype B. The highest oviposition rate (2.7 eggs /two days) occurred on M. esculenta, although the development time (44 d) was the longest when compared to M. carthaginensis and J. gossypiifolia. About 60% of the population could reproduce on the wild cassava species vs. 55% on J. gossypiifolia and 27.5% on the commercial variety. Our data suggest that J. gossypiifolia is a suitable host and the wild species M. carthaginensis can constitute a potential intermediate host in the adaptation of biotype B to commercial varieties of cassava.

  2. Presence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A isolates from game animals in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt-Samoraj, A; Syczyło, K; Szczerba-Turek, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Jabłoński, A; Łabuć, S; Pajdak, J; Oshakbaeva, N; Szweda, W

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica is associated with the presence of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. Strains belonging to biotype 1A do not possess pYV plasmids, often harbour the ystB gene and usually lack the ail gene, which is the main virulence marker for Y. enterocolitica. The simultaneous presence of ail and ystB is uncommon. In this study, 21/218 (9.6%) biotype 1A Y. enterocolitica isolates from rectal swabs of wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 18), red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 2) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; n = 1) in Poland harboured both ail and ystB genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Supportive periodontal therapy and periodontal biotype as prognostic factors in implants placed in patients with a history of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Zorzano, Luis-Antonio; Vallejo-Aisa, Francisco-Javier; Estefanía-Fresco, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate bone loss around implants placed in patients with a history of treated chronic periodontitis and who did or did not attend supportive periodontal therapy, after one year in function. Furthermore, the influence of periodontal biotype and level of plaque was also evaluated. Forty-nine patients participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects had a history of chronic periodontitis, which had been previously treated. After the active treatment, 27 patients attended supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) and the rest did not (No SPT). The O'Leary plaque index and periodontal biotype were recorded for each subject and 246 Astra Tech® OsseospeedTM implants were radiographically analysed (123 placed in SPT patients and 123 in No SPT patients) at the time of loading and one year later, measuring marginal bone loss with the program Dental Studio NX 6.0®. The statistical analysis was performed with Windows SPSS, applying Pearson's correlation index and the Kruskal-Wallis and U-Mann Whitney non-parametric tests. Six patients were found to have periimplantitis and sixteen mucositis. The survival rate was 99.59% (100% SPT and 99.18% No SPT). Mean bone loss was 0.39 mm (range [-0.71 - 8.05]). Among SPT patients, 95% of the implants had losses less than or equal to the mean (mean bone loss of 0.16 mm) compared to 53.7% for the No SPT group (mean bone loss of 0.62 mm). A statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between bone loss around the implant and the patient's periodontal biotype and plaque index. The marginal bone loss around implants in patients with treated chronic periodontitis is minimal if they are in a controlled SPT programme and there is individual control of plaque index. Moreover, the presence of a thin periodontal biotype represents a risk factor for additional bone loss.

  4. Lethal and Inhibitory Activities of Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanela, T L M; Baldin, E L L; Pannuti, L E R; Cruz, P L; Crotti, A E M; Takeara, R; Kato, M J

    2016-04-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most severe tomato pests in the world. The damage caused by this insect may compromise up to 100% of crop production, and management of this pest has relied on spraying of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the environmental issues associated with this practice, alternative methods such as the use of botanical pesticides are now used as a strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated the effects of essential oils of five plant species on B. tabaci biotype B in tomato and demonstrate that the essential oils (0.5%) of Piper callosum (PC-EO), Adenocalymma alliaceum (AA-EO), Pelargonium graveolens (PG-EO), and Plectranthus neochilus (PN-EO) inhibit the settlement and oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B adults in tomato plants. In fumigation tests, A. alliaceum (AA-EO) at 0.4 μL/L of air after 72 h and 0.1 μL/L of air after 6 h was the most effective against nymphs and adults of B. tabaci biotype B, respectively. The major chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified as being safrole (29.3%), α-pinene (19.2%), and β-pinene (14.3%), whereas diallyl trisulfide (66.9%) and diallyl disulfide (23.3%) were the major compounds identified in AA-EO. This is the first report on the reduction of oviposition by the use of P. callosum (PC-EO) and A. alliaceum (AA-EO). In addition, the fumigant effect of A. alliaceum (AA-EO) on nymphs and adults has also been reported here for the first time.

  5. Reproduction of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) B biotype in maize fields (Zea mays L.) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Eliane D; Abreu, Aluana G; Lima, Julyana F Dos S; Mascarin, Gabriel M; Santos, Jardel B Dos; Brown, Judith K

    2016-11-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was observed to have completed its reproductive cycle from the egg to the adult on maize (Zea mays L.). Field and screenhouse studies were carried out to investigate the durability of this putative and unprecedented adaptation to a grass host. Analysis of the mitochondrial COI gene sequence identified the maize-associated B. tabaci as the exotic B biotype (major clade North Africa-Mediterranean-Middle East). Results showed that whiteflies migrated from soybean crops and successfully established in maize plants. Females exhibited a preference for oviposition primarily on the first and second leaves of maize, but were also able to colonise developing leaves. A high, natural infestation on maize (193.3 individuals, all developmental stages) was observed within a 7.1 cm2 designated 'observation area'. Whiteflies collected from naturally infested maize leaves and allowed to oviposit on maize seedlings grown in a screenhouse developed from egg to adulthood in 28.6 ± 0.2 days. This is the first report of the B biotype completing its development on maize plants. This surprising anomaly indicates that the B biotype is capable of adapting to monocotyledonous host plants, and importantly, broadens the host range to include at least one species in the Poaceae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Identification of a virulence determinant that is conserved in the Jawetz and Heyl biotypes of [Pasteurella] pneumotropica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiraku; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Terayama, Hayato; Asano, Ryoki; Kawamoto, Eiichi; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Boot, Ron

    2016-08-01

    [Pasteurella] pneumotropica is a ubiquitous bacterium frequently isolated from laboratory rodents. Although this bacterium causes various diseases in immunosuppressed animals, little is known about major virulence factors and their roles in pathogenicity. To identify virulence factors, we sequenced the genome of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl strain ATCC 12555, and compared the resulting non-contiguous draft genome sequence with the genome of biotype Jawetz strain ATCC 35149. Among a large number of genes encoding virulence-associated factors in both strains, four genes encoding for YadA-like proteins, which are known virulence factors that function in host cell adherence and invasion in many pathogens. In this study, we assessed YadA distribution and biological activity as an example of one of virulence-associated factor shared, with biotype Jawetz and Heyl. More than half of mouse isolates were found to have at least one of these genes; whereas, the majority of rat isolates did not. Autoagglutination activity, and ability to bind to mouse collagen type IV and mouse fibroblast cells, was significantly higher in YadA-positive than YadA-negative strains. To conclude, we identified a large number of candidate genes predicted to influence [P.] pneumotropica pathogenesis. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from healthy women and women with bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Ilknur; Alpay Karaoğlu, Sengül; Ciftçi, Hasan; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Aydin, Faruk; Kiliç, Ali Osman; Ertürk, Murat

    2007-01-01

    As Gardnerella vaginalis is accepted as a member of normal vaginal flora, it is one of the dominant species which has been related to bacterial vaginosis (BV). The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rate, biotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of G.vaginalis from the vaginal swab samples of 408 women who were admitted to the outpatient clinics of Family Planning Center. Hippurate hydrolysis, lipase and beta-galactosidase tests were performed for biotyping the isolates, and agar dilution (for metronidazole) and disk diffusion (for clindamycin) tests were used for the detection of antibiotic resistance patterns. As a result, by Nugent's BV scoring protocol, 122 (29.9%), 20 (29.4%), 137 (33.6%), and 18 (4.4%) of the women were diagnosed as BV, intermediate form, normal vaginal flora (NVF) and mycotic vaginosis, respectively. The overall isolation rate of G.vaginalis was found as 23% (94/408). Of them, 56.4% (53/94) and 8.5% (8/94) were isolated from samples of BV cases and subjects with NVF, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p or =128 microg/ml in 57% of resistant strains. The data of this study has emphasized that the metronidazole resistance is very high in our population, and the large scale studies are needed to clarify the relationship between BV and G.vaginalis biotypes, which can be found in the normal vaginal flora.

  8. Adding to Yersinia enterocolitica Gene Pool Diversity: Two Cryptic Plasmids from a Biotype 1A Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lepka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequence of two novel cryptic plasmids (4357 and 14 662 base pairs carried by a Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strain isolated from pork. As distinguished from most biotype 1A strains, this isolate, designated 07-04449, exhibited adherence to eukaryotic cells. The smaller plasmid pYe4449-1 carries five attributable open reading frames (ORFs encoding the first CcdA/CcdB-like antitoxin/toxin system described for a Yersinia plasmid, a RepA-like replication initiation protein, and mobilizing factors MobA and MobC. The deduced amino acid sequences showed highest similarity to proteins described in Salmonella (CcdA/B, Klebsiella (RepA, and Plesiomonas (MobA/C indicating genomic fluidity among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. One additional ORF with unknown function, termed ORF5, was identified with an ancestry distinct from the rest of the plasmid. While the C+G content of ORF5 is 38.3%, the rest of pYe4449-1 shows a C+G content of 55.7%. The C+G content of the larger plasmid pYe4449-2 (54.9% was similar to that of pYe4449-1 (53.7% and differed from that of the Y. enterocolitica genome (47.3%. Of the 14 ORFs identified on pYe4449-2, only six ORFs showed significant similarity to database entries. For three of these ORFs likely functions could be ascribed: a TnpR-like resolvase and a phage replication protein, localized each on a low C+G island, and DNA primase TraC. Two ORFs of pYe4449-2, ORF3 and ORF7, seem to encode secretable proteins. Epitope-tagging of ORF3 revealed protein expression at 4°C but not at or above 27°C suggesting adaptation to a habitat outside swine. The hypothetical protein encoded by ORF7 is the member of a novel repeat protein family sharing the DxxGN(xnDxxGN motif. Our findings illustrate the exceptional gene pool diversity within the species Y. enterocolitica driven by horizontal gene transfer events.

  9. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype variant clinical isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, including a molecular genetic analysis of virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mike S; Megli, Christina J; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Qadri, Firdausi; Taylor, Ronald K

    2011-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. Both biotypes produce the major virulence factors toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). Although possessing genotypic and phenotypic differences, El Tor biotype strains displaying classical biotype traits have been reported and subsequently were dubbed El Tor variants. Of particular interest are reports of El Tor variants that produce various levels of CT, including levels typical of classical biotype strains. Here, we report the characterization of 10 clinical isolates from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and a representative strain from the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak. We observed that all 11 strains produced increased CT (2- to 10-fold) compared to that of wild-type El Tor strains under in vitro inducing conditions, but they possessed various TcpA and ToxT expression profiles. Particularly, El Tor variant MQ1795, which produced the highest level of CT and very high levels of TcpA and ToxT, demonstrated hypervirulence compared to the virulence of El Tor wild-type strains in the infant mouse cholera model. Additional genotypic and phenotypic tests were conducted to characterize the variants, including an assessment of biotype-distinguishing characteristics. Notably, the sequencing of ctxB in some El Tor variants revealed two copies of classical ctxB, one per chromosome, contrary to previous reports that located ctxAB only on the large chromosome of El Tor biotype strains.

  10. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype Variant Clinical Isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti, Including a Molecular Genetic Analysis of Virulence Genes ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mike S.; Megli, Christina J.; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Qadri, Firdausi; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, is divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. Both biotypes produce the major virulence factors toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT). Although possessing genotypic and phenotypic differences, El Tor biotype strains displaying classical biotype traits have been reported and subsequently were dubbed El Tor variants. Of particular interest are reports of El Tor variants that produce various levels of CT, including levels typical of classical biotype strains. Here, we report the characterization of 10 clinical isolates from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and a representative strain from the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak. We observed that all 11 strains produced increased CT (2- to 10-fold) compared to that of wild-type El Tor strains under in vitro inducing conditions, but they possessed various TcpA and ToxT expression profiles. Particularly, El Tor variant MQ1795, which produced the highest level of CT and very high levels of TcpA and ToxT, demonstrated hypervirulence compared to the virulence of El Tor wild-type strains in the infant mouse cholera model. Additional genotypic and phenotypic tests were conducted to characterize the variants, including an assessment of biotype-distinguishing characteristics. Notably, the sequencing of ctxB in some El Tor variants revealed two copies of classical ctxB, one per chromosome, contrary to previous reports that located ctxAB only on the large chromosome of El Tor biotype strains. PMID:21880975

  11. Comparative analysis of factors promoting optimal production of cholera toxin by Vibrio cholerae O1 (classical & E1Tor biotypes) & O139.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A K; Garg, S; Saha, P K; Takeda, Y; Bhattacharya, S K; Nair, G B

    1996-07-01

    Various culture media [AKI, Brain heart infusion broth (BHI), Casamino acid-yeast extract broth (CAYE), Casamino acid-yeast extract broth supplemented with 90 micrograms/ml of lincomycin (CAYE-L), Tryptic soy broth (TSB) and Yeast extract peptone (YEP)], cultural conditions (stationary and shaking) and incubation temperatures (30 degrees C and 37 degrees C) were evaluated to determine optimal conditions for production of cholera toxin (CT) by different biotypes (classical and E1Tor) and serogroups (O1 and O139) of V. cholerae. It was found that V. cholerae O1 E1Tor grown in CAYE-L and incubated at 30 degrees C with constant shaking was optimal for production of CT, while for the classical biotype and for the O139 serogroup, CT was maximally produced when grown in YEP and incubated at 30 degrees C in a shaker. Temperature appeared to be a prominent factor affecting the production of CT by the O1 E1Tor biotype when the media used were AKI, CAYE-L and YEP and also for the classical biotype when the media used were the AKI, BHI, CAYE and YEP. In the case of the O1 E1Tor biotype, CAYE-L was the best medium for CT production whereas for the classical biotype, CAYE-L was a poor medium as far as CT production was concerned. Irrespective of the media used, 30 degrees C shake culture condition seemed to be more favourable for supporting CT production except in CAYE medium for the O1 E1Tor biotype where incubation at 37 degrees C in a shaker was as good as incubation at 30 degrees C.

  12. A study of the relationships between antibiotic resistance phenotypes, phage-typing and biotyping of 117 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly-Guillou, M L; Bergogne-Berezin, E; Vieu, J F

    1990-07-01

    Two typing systems were used to conduct an epidemiological study of Acinetobacter and to establish their relationship to antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Biotyping was performed with biochemical tests according to the new definition of Acinetobacter baumannii (18 biotypes). Phage typing included two complementary systems: 125 phage-types and 25 subtypes. Resistance phenotype analysis included 11 antibiotics. The results of the study showed that: (1) nine phage-types or subtypes (67%) and two groups of atypical phage-types (5%) or of untypable strains (28%), could be defined; (2) all strains that were resistant to carboxy/ureido-penicillins and cephalosporins (62%) belonged to biotypes 6 or 9; among them 70% belonged to phage-types 17 or 124; (3) imipenem resistance was observed in five isolates of biotype 9 and one of biotype 6; (4) a phenotype including resistance to third generation cephalosporins (but not carboxypenicillins) and to amikacin (but not tobramycin) represented 8.5% of the isolates; 90% of them belonged to biotype 1 and were not phage-typable; (5) 15% of the isolates were not identified as A. baumannii; among them five Acinetobacter haemolyticus strains all had the same resistance phenotype: amikacin-tobramycin-kanamycin-netilmicin resistant; they were however, susceptible to beta-lactams and to gentamicin. There was a clear relationship between biotypes 6 and 9 and phage-types 17 and 124 which were the strains most resistant to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides and were predominant in the survey. The three typing systems were complementary but it seems that antibiotic resistance phenotypes and one of the two other typing systems would be required in parallel to provide suitable information for epidemiological purposes.

  13. Potential evidence for biotype-specific chemokine profile following BVDV infection of bovine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Stephen; Thomas, Carole; Brownlie, Joe; Offord, Victoria; Coffey, Tracey J; Werling, Dirk

    2012-11-15

    Chemokines play a key role in initiating the innate and subsequently adaptive immune response by recruiting immune cells to the site of an infection. Monocytes/macrophages (MØ) are part of the first line of defence against invading pathogens, and have been shown to release a variety of chemokines in response to infection. Here, we reveal the early transcriptional response of MØ to infection with cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cytopathogenic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhoea strains (BVDV). We demonstrate up-regulation of several key chemokines of the CCL and CXCL families in MØ exposed to cpBVDV, but not ncpBVDV. In contrast, infection of MØ with ncpBVDV led to down-regulation of chemokine mRNA expression compared to uninfected cells. Data suggest that ncpBVDV can shut down production of several key chemokines that play crucial roles in the immune response to infection. This study helps to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of BVDV infection, highlighting biotype-specific cellular responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius,1889 biotype B on Lycopersicon spp. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies are phytophagous insects, whose nymphs and adults suck the phloem sap, causing direct damage due to host plant weakness. In tomato (Lycopersicon spp. crops, they are important vectors of limiting fitoviruses. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Lycopersicon spp. genotypes on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B development under greenhouse conditions. The evaluated genotypes were LA462 (L. peruvianum, LA716 (L. pennellii, LA1584 (L. pimpinellifolium, LA1609 (L. peruvianum, LA1739 (L. hirsutum, P25 (L. esculentum, PI134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum and Santa Clara (L. esculentum. LA716 was non-preferred for oviposition by the whitefly, which suggests an antixenotic effect. LA1584 showed an antibiotic resistance because nymphal survival was reduced and nymphal developmental time was increased. Antixenotic resistance was observed in LA1739 and PI134417, based on a reduction of oviposition. PI134417 also reduced nymphal survival, which suggests an antibiotic effect, but LA1739 was suitable for insect development. LA1609 was highly preferred for oviposition, however it reduced insect survival. P25 and Santa Clara (L. esculentum were highly preferred for oviposition.

  15. Streptococcus Mutans Adhesin Biotypes that Match and Predict Individual Caries Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esberg, Anders; Sheng, Nongfei; Mårell, Lena; Claesson, Rolf; Persson, Karina; Borén, Thomas; Strömberg, Nicklas

    2017-10-01

    Dental caries, which affects billions of people, is a chronic infectious disease that involves Streptococcus mutans, which is nevertheless a poor predictor of individual caries development. We therefore investigated if adhesin types of S.mutans with sucrose-independent adhesion to host DMBT1 (i.e. SpaP A, B or C) and collagen (i.e. Cnm, Cbm) match and predict individual differences in caries development. The adhesin types were measured in whole saliva by qPCR in 452 12-year-old Swedish children and related to caries at baseline and prospectively at a 5-year follow-up. Strains isolated from the children were explored for genetic and phenotypic properties. The presence of SpaP B and Cnm subtypes coincided with increased 5-year caries increment, and their binding to DMBT1 and saliva correlated with individual caries scores. The SpaP B subtypes are enriched in amino acid substitutions that coincided with caries and binding and specify biotypes of S. mutans with increased acid tolerance. The findings reveal adhesin subtypes of S. mutans that match and predict individual differences in caries development and provide a rationale for individualized oral care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Streptococcus Mutans Adhesin Biotypes that Match and Predict Individual Caries Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Esberg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries, which affects billions of people, is a chronic infectious disease that involves Streptococcus mutans, which is nevertheless a poor predictor of individual caries development. We therefore investigated if adhesin types of S.mutans with sucrose-independent adhesion to host DMBT1 (i.e. SpaP A, B or C and collagen (i.e. Cnm, Cbm match and predict individual differences in caries development. The adhesin types were measured in whole saliva by qPCR in 452 12-year-old Swedish children and related to caries at baseline and prospectively at a 5-year follow-up. Strains isolated from the children were explored for genetic and phenotypic properties. The presence of SpaP B and Cnm subtypes coincided with increased 5-year caries increment, and their binding to DMBT1 and saliva correlated with individual caries scores. The SpaP B subtypes are enriched in amino acid substitutions that coincided with caries and binding and specify biotypes of S. mutans with increased acid tolerance. The findings reveal adhesin subtypes of S. mutans that match and predict individual differences in caries development and provide a rationale for individualized oral care.

  17. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Lack of fitness costs associated with pyriproxyfen resistance in the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Carrière, Yves

    2009-03-01

    The insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen has provided effective control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius in many countries. Here, whether or not fitness costs were associated with pyriproxyfen resistance in a laboratory-selected resistant strain (QC02-R) of the B biotype was determined. Mortality caused by pyriproxyfen and fitness traits over time were measured in unselected and selected hybrid strains, which were created by crossing individuals of the resistant strain with individuals of a susceptible strain. Fitness costs were not associated with resistance in QC02-R, as mortality caused by pyriproxyfen did not increase over time in unselected hybrid strains and fitness traits were similar in unselected and selected hybrid strains. Using a new method to examine the inheritance of resistance, based on data from fitness cost experiments, it was estimated that pyriproxyfen resistance is controlled by two loci in the QC02-R strain. The lack of fitness costs associated with pyriproxyfen resistance could promote the evolution of resistance in field populations with similar traits to QC02-R. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  19. Discriminant analysis for the thin periodontal biotype based on the data acquired from three-dimensional virtual models of Korean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Tae-Il; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Shon, Won-Jun; Park, Young-Seok

    2013-11-01

    There have been no objective criteria for classifying the periodontal biotype. The purpose of this study is to suggest clinical guidelines for discriminating the thin biotype, which might be susceptible to gingival recession, using statistical analyses based on the measurement of the dento-gingival complex on three-dimensional virtual models. From canine to canine, the area of the facial papilla, the facial surface area of the anterior tooth, the proportion of the dento-papillary complex, clinical papillary length, and the clinical papillary angle were measured on a three-dimensional virtual model of 133 young participants. In the clinical exam, the gingival transparency when probing was evaluated, and the classification into thin and non-thin biotype groups was used as the gold standard. The data were analyzed by discriminant analysis. Twenty-nine participants (17 males and 12 females) belonged to the "thin group" according to the clinical evaluation. All variables were significantly different between groups (P biotype, and the sum of the papillary lengths between each canine and lateral incisor, each lateral and central incisor, and the two central incisors (PLSum5) was the next best choice. The cutoff value of PLSum5 was calculated to be 23.73 mm. PLSum5 >24 mm is the suggested criterion for identifying high-risk thin biotype patients based on the comparison with the results from gingival transparency inspection. A clinical reevaluation of this criterion should be examined in additional studies for application in real clinical situations.

  20. Defining biotypes for depression and anxiety based on large-scale circuit dysfunction: a theoretical review of the evidence and future directions for clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Leanne M

    2017-01-01

    Complex emotional, cognitive and self-reflective functions rely on the activation and connectivity of large-scale neural circuits. These circuits offer a relevant scale of focus for conceptualizing a taxonomy for depression and anxiety based on specific profiles (or biotypes) of neural circuit dysfunction. Here, the theoretical review first outlines the current consensus as to what constitutes the organization of large-scale circuits in the human brain identified using parcellation and meta-analysis. The focus is on neural circuits implicated in resting reflection (default mode), detection of "salience," affective processing ("threat" and "reward"), "attention," and "cognitive control." Next, the current evidence regarding which type of dysfunctions in these circuits characterize depression and anxiety disorders is reviewed, with an emphasis on published meta-analyses and reviews of circuit dysfunctions that have been identified in at least two well-powered case:control studies. Grounded in the review of these topics, a conceptual framework is proposed for considering neural circuit-defined "biotypes." In this framework, biotypes are defined by profiles of extent of dysfunction on each large-scale circuit. The clinical implications of a biotype approach for guiding classification and treatment of depression and anxiety is considered. Future research directions will develop the validity and clinical utility of a neural circuit biotype model that spans diagnostic categories and helps to translate neuroscience into clinical practice in the real world. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Eficácia do diquat no controle de Hydrilla verticillata, Egeria densa e Egeria najas e toxicidade aguda para o Guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of diquat in the control of Hydrylla verticillata, Egeria densa and Egeria najas and its acute toxicity to Phallocerus caudimaculatus, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.P. Henares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as macrófitas aquáticas submersas, Egeria densa e Egeria najas, têm causado prejuízos aos usos múltiplos da água. Hydrilla verticillata foi recentemente introduzida, mas tem histórico como planta problemática nos EUA, no México e na Austrália. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as suscetibilidades relativas dessas três macrófitas aquáticas ao diquat e os riscos da utilização desse herbicida para o guaru (Phallocerus caudimaculatus. Para isso, foram instalados ensaios em condições de laboratório, a fim de avaliar a suscetibilidade relativa das três macrófitas por meio da manutenção de ponteiros dessas plantas em soluções contendo 0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; e 1,6 mg L-1 de diquat (Reward® por 14 dias. A avaliação foi realizada pela variação do acúmulo de matéria fresca e do comprimento dos ponteiros no período de exposição ao herbicida. H. verticillata mostrou maior sensibilidade ao diquat em comparação com as duas macrófitas do gênero Egeria, mesmo em baixas concentrações do herbicida. Nas maiores concentrações, E. densa mostrou maior sensibilidade que E. najas. O risco da aplicação do diquat para P. caudimaculatus foi estimado pela toxicidade aguda. Alevinos de P. caudimaculatus de 0,4 ± 0,2 mg foram expostos a soluções de 0,0; 1,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0; 20,0; 25,0; e 30,0 mg L-1 de diquat. A concentração letal de 50% (CL(I (50;96h do diquat estimada para P. caudimaculatus foi de 7,17 mg L-1. Para P. caudimaculatus, a toxicidade aguda foi superior à concentração recomendada para o controle de macrófitas aquáticas submersas, indicando risco muito baixo para esse peixe.In Brazil, the submerged plants Egeria densa and Egeria najas have caused damage to multiple uses of water. Hydrilla verticillata has been recently introduced, but it has a history as a problem plant in the U.S., Mexico and Australia. The objectives of this work were to assess the relative susceptibilities of these three

  2. Comparative evaluation of development and reproductive capacity of two biotypes of Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Chinese biotype of Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is being mass reared and released in Florida for control of the invasive vine, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreales). Another biotype from Nepal is under investigation to determine if its release would benefit the ...

  3. Assessment of gingival biotype and facial hard/soft tissue dimensions in the maxillary anterior teeth region using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Reza; Mirakhori, Mahdieh; Safi, Yaser; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Namdari, Mahshid

    2017-07-01

    This study sought to assess the relationship between facial gingival and bone dimensions in maxillary anterior teeth region using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). This study assessed 621 maxillary anterior teeth in 144 patients. In the sagittal plane, facial bone thickness (BT) and gingival thickness (GT) were measured at the crestal level and at 2, 4 and 6mm apical to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The dentogingival complex (DGC) dimensions and the distance from the CEJ to bone crest were also measured on CBCT scans. To determine the gingival biotype, GT at 2mm apical to the gingival margin was measured and GT biotypes (Pbiotypes around central and lateral incisors (Pbiotypes had significantly different mean BT; different biotypes and their relationship to BT varied around anterior maxillary teeth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene expression profiling in the thiamethoxam resistant and susceptible B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shao-Ii; Wu, Qing-jun; Yang, Ni-na; Li, Ru-mei; Jiao, Xiao-guo; Pan, Hui-peng; Liu, Bai-ming; Feng, Yun-tao; Xu, Bao-yun; Zhou, Xu-guo; Zhang, You-jun

    2012-01-01

    Thiamethoxam has been used as a major insecticide to control the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Due to its excessive use, a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam has developed worldwide over the past several years. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance in B. tabaci, gene profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible strains were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library approach. A total of 72 and 52 upand down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belong to several functional categories based on their gene ontology annotation. Some categories such as cell communication, response to abiotic stimulus, lipid particle, and nuclear envelope were identified only in the forward library of thiamethoxam-resistant strains. In contrast, categories such as behavior, cell proliferation, nutrient reservoir activity, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and signal transducer activity were identified solely in the reverse library. To study the validity of the SSH method, 16 differentially expressed genes from both forward and reverse SSH libraries were selected randomly for further analyses using quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were fairly consistent with the SSH results; however, only 50% of the genes showed significantly different expression profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible whiteflies. Among these genes, a putative NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase was substantially over-expressed in the thiamethoxamresistant adults compared to their susceptible counterparts. The distributed profiles show that it was highly expressed during the egg stage, and was most abundant in the abdomen of adult females.

  5. Evaluation of Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS for the identification of Candida tropicalis on different solid culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Li, Ying; Fan, Xin; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Xu, Ying-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-11-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Vitek MS systems for identification of genetically-confirmed blood isolates of Candida tropicalis that had been grown on several types of culture media commonly used for primary fungal isolation. Isolates included 105 from the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net program (CHIF-NET) and 120 from National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Culture media tested for CHIF-NET isolates included trypticase soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood (BAP), Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA-C), CHROMagar, China blue agar (CBA), chocolate agar supplemented with vancomycin (CAP-VA), and MacConkey agar (MAC). Culture media used for NTUH isolates included BAP, SDA, CHROMagar, eosin methylene blue (EMB), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), Mycosel agar, and cornmeal agar (CMA). The Bruker Biotyper correctly identified all CHIF-NET isolates to the species level on all six agar media tested and correctly identified the majority of NTUH isolates with the exception of isolates grown on SDA (85.8%) and CMA (52.5%). The Vitek MS system correctly identified all CHIF-NET isolates to the species level with the exception of isolates grown on CHROMagar (84.8%), and correctly identified the majority of NTUH isolates with the exception of isolates grown on SDA (51.7%), Mycosel agar (57.5%), and CMA (9.2%) for NTUH isolates. Clinical microbiologists should be aware that different culture media can affect the performance of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek MS systems in identifying C. tropicalis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Occurrence of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae parasitizing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B nymphs on cotton plants was observed during a research on resistance of cotton genotypes to this whitefly. The experiment was set in a greenhouse at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of the parasitized nymphs were collected and maintained in laboratory to monitor the parasitism and obtain the adult parasitoids. A total of 129 adult parasitoids were obtained, including one Encarsia inaron (Walker, 13 En. lutea (Masi, and 115 Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. This is the first report of Er. mundus in Brazil.

  7. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

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    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  8. Two novel ail-positive biotype 1A strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated in China with unequal adhesion and invasion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Shi, Guoxiang; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Kou, Zengqiang; Hu, Bin; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteric pathogen having six biotypes: 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Different bioserotypes have been associated with varying pathogenicity, and the strains of biotype 1A lack the virulence-associated pYV-bearing genes and were once considered to be avirulent. However, there is growing epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence to suggest some biotype 1A isolates are virulent and can cause gastrointestinal disease. Here, we describe two biotype 1A strains discovered from 3807 isolates that carry the ail (attachment and invasion locus) gene. The two strains showed unique PFGE patterns compared to all other isolates in the Chinese Y. enterocolitica isolate PFGE database. Strain SDWL-003 isolated from a sheep shared ail sequence identical to A1 pattern, and the foxA (ferrioxamine receptor) sequence was identical to the pathogenic F5 pattern, besides, the PFGE patterns of SDWL-003 was also cluster to pathogenic branch; however it does not attach to or invade Hep-2 cells. The ail sequence of strain 2006RAT isolated from a Microtus fortis showed several mutations compared to other published genomes, and therefore formed an entirely new pathogenic pattern. Though it clustered to non-pathogenic block with foxA sequence polymorphism analysis or PFGE assay, the strain 2006RAT showed adhesion properties. The data here bring new insights into the molecular genetics of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A, show some isolates of 1A biotype gaining potential pathogenicity using the function of the virulence gene - ail, and indicate the lateral gene transfer of ail virulence genes proceeded between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contact and fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oils against B- and Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chae, Song-Hwa; Youn, Hee-Sung; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-09-01

    The contact + fumigant toxicity of 92 plant essential oils and control efficacy of 18 experimental spray formulations containing nine selected essential oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and six commercial insecticides to females from B- and Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci were evaluated using vapour-phase mortality and spray bioassays. Garlic and oregano (LC50 , 0.15 mL cm(-3) ) were the most toxic oils against B- and Q-biotype females. Strong fumigant toxicity to both biotype females was also obtained from catnip, cinnamon bark, clove bud, clove leaf, davana, savory and vetiver Haiti oils (LC50 , 0.17-0.48 mL cm(-3) ). The 0.5% sprays of these oils (except for thyme red oil) resulted in 90-100% mortality against both biotype females. Only garlic applied as 0.1% spray provided 100% mortality. Spinosad 100 g L(-1) suspension concentrate (SC) treatment resulted in 92 and 95% mortality against both biotype females, whereas acetamiprid 80 g L(-1) wettable powder (WP), imidacloprid 80 g L(-1) SC, thiamethoxam 100 g L(-1) water-dispersible granule (WDG) and pyridaben 200 g L(-1) WP treatments resulted in 89-100% mortality against B-biotype females only. In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment, the essential oils described, particularly garlic, cinnamon bark and vetiver Haiti, merit further study as potential insecticides for the control of B. tabaci populations as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The optimization and validation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database for the identification of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veloo, A C M; de Vries, E D; Jean-Pierre, H

    2016-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) account for 24%-31% of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens. At present, GPAC are under-represented in the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database. Profiles of new species have yet to be added. We present the optimization of the matrix-assisted......Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) account for 24%-31% of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens. At present, GPAC are under-represented in the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database. Profiles of new species have yet to be added. We present the optimization of the matrix...

  11. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxia Liu

    Full Text Available Chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde. This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity.

  12. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoxia; Ma, Hongmei; Xie, Hongyan; Xuan, Ning; Guo, Xia; Fan, Zhongxue; Rajashekar, Balaji; Arnaud, Philippe; Offmann, Bernard; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1) was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde). This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity. PMID:27167733

  13. Genotypic diversity and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-03-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered as non-pathogenic; however, some reports have identified some strains as the causal agents of infection. In South America, few studies molecularly characterized the strains of this biotype. This work typed 51 B1A strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources from Brazil and Chile by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) to elucidate their genotypic diversity, and verify the distribution of 11 virulence markers by PCR. The strains were divided into two groups, ERIC-A and ERIC-B, clustered independently of their clinical or non-clinical origin. No differences were observed in the frequencies of the virulence markers between clinical and non-clinical strains. However, the genes ystB, hreP and myfA occurred exclusively in the strains of the group ERIC-A. Some clinical and non-clinical strains were clustered in the same genetic group and presented the same number of virulence markers, which might suggest the role of the environment and food as a potential source of infection for humans and animals. The results corroborate with the hypothesis that B1A strains are divided into two main clusters that differ in the frequency of some virulence markers, a fact observed for the first time in South American strains. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genotyping of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains from clinical and nonclinical origins by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered mainly nonpathogenic. However, some studies considered strains of this biotype to be the causal agents of infections in humans and animals. In South America, there are no studies that have compared clinical and nonclinical strains of B1A typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and none that have compared the capability of different enzymes on typing these strains. This study typed 51 Y. enterocolitica B1A strains isolated in Brazil and Chile by PFGE, testing the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI. The resulting dendrograms discriminated the strains in 47, 40, and 49 pulsotypes generated by the cleavage with the enzymes XbaI, NotI, and XhoI, respectively. The majority of the strains were grouped independently of their clinical or nonclinical origins. The high discriminatory power of PFGE confirmed the heterogeneity of B1A strains but could not divide the strains studied into clusters that differed in the frequency of some virulence genes as observed in studies using other methodologies.

  15. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  16. The influence of soft tissue biotype on the marginal bone changes around dental implants: A 1-year prospective clinico-radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pragathi Raghavendra; Thakur, Srinath Lakshman; Kulkarni, Sudhindra Sushilendra

    2015-01-01

    The peri-implant mucosa undergoes surgical and bacterial assaults in various stages of implant therapy, however, the literature on changes occurring in the peri-implant mucosa is minimal. This study was thus conducted to evaluate the change in the peri-implant mucosal thickness and its effect on the marginal bone levels around dental implants treated in a conventional two-stage implant therapy. A total of 36 implants were placed in 22 subjects. Two subjects dropped out. Thirty-three implants in 20 subjects were then evaluated. Initial mucosal thickness, marginal bone levels on radiographs, pain, and exudation were evaluated. All these parameters were recorded at the time of implant placement, at the time of cementation of final restoration, 6 months and 12 months post cementation/restoration. The peri-implant mucosal thickness reduced from implant placement to second stage and till restorations and was statistically significant, in both the thick and thin biotypes, however, at 12 months there was a rebound of the tissue thickness, which was more in the thick biotype (P biotype as compared to the thin biotype (P < 0.05). The mucosa at implant sites undergoes a reduction in thickness from the time of implant placement till the placement of final restorations. The placement of the final restorations and then end of active therapy leads to a rebound of the tissue thickness. Sites with thicker tissues preoperatively have a lesser bone loss and better rebound as compared to thinner tissues.

  17. First Nationwide Surveillance of Culex pipiens Complex and Culex torrentium Mosquitoes Demonstrated the Presence of Culex pipiens Biotype pipiens/molestus Hybrids in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Melaun, Christian; Jöst, Hanna; von Thien, Heidrun; Badusche, Marlis; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Krüger, Andreas; Tannich, Egbert; Becker, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes and other arthropods may transmit medically important pathogens, in particular viruses such as West Nile virus. The presence of suitable hosts and competent vectors for those zoonotic viruses is essential for an enzootic transmission, which is a prerequisite for epidemics. To establish reliable risk projections, it is an urgent need for an exact identification of mosquito species, which is especially challenging in the case of sibling species, such as Culex. pipiens pipiens biotypes pipiens and molestus. To facilitate detection of different Culex pipiens forms and their hybrids we established a multiplex real-time PCR. Culex pipiens samples were obtained by egg raft collection and rearing until imago stage or adult sampling using CO2 baited traps and gravid traps. In total, we tested more than 16,500 samples collected all over Germany in the years 2011 and 2012. The predominant species in Germany are Culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens and Culex. torrentium, but we also detected Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus and hybrids of the two pipiens biotypes at sites where both species occur sympatrically. This report of a potentially important bridge vector for West Nile virus might have major impact in the risk projections for West Nile virus in Germany. PMID:24039724

  18. An exploratory study on assessment of gingival biotype and crown dimensions as predictors for implant esthetics comparing caucasian and Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ratnadeep; van Brakel, Ralph; Mahesh, Kavita; de Putter, Cornelius; Cune, Marco S

    2013-06-01

    Gingival biotype and crown dimensions may be important predictors for the esthetic outcome of surgical procedures. However, the visual distinction between "thick" and "thin" biotype may not be a suitable predictive parameter of surgical outcome. Intraoral photographs of 73 Indian and Dutch subjects were matched with respect to age and gender and were used to determine the gingival biotype (subjective assessment) and crown dimensions (objective assessment). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was determined for subjective measurements (Cohen's kappa), and the error of the method was calculated for the objective measurements (Dahlberg formula). Intraobserver agreement for the subjective assessment of gingival biotype was adequate (κ = 0.49-0.60), but interobserver agreement was poor (κ = 0.10), whereas the error of the method for objective assessment of crown dimensions was small. The mean crown width-length angle is smaller in Dutch as compared to Indian subjects in this sample (P < .05). Crown dimensions may be a more quantitative approach and could become a future norm to predict outcomes of implant restorative and surgical procedures, bearing in mind that cross-cultural differences may be present.

  19. Significance of buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation on the level of the midbuccal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation affects the level of the midbuccal mucosa (MBM). Ninety patients with a single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone were included. The level of the MBM was measured on photographs

  20. Clinical evaluation of coronally advanced flap with or without acellular dermal matrix graft on complete defect coverage for the treatment of multiple gingival recessions with thin tissue biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedbeyli, Cavid; Ipçi, Şebnem Dirikan; Cakar, Gokser; Kuru, Bahar E; Yılmaz, Selçuk

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare acellular dermal matrix graft (ADM) combination with coronally advanced flap (CAF) on complete defect coverage, aesthetics and patient satisfaction with CAF alone for multiple recessions with gingival thickness (GT) treatment of multiple recessions with thin tissue biotype. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparison of the Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Systems Using a Formic Acid Extraction Method to Identify Common and Uncommon Yeast Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Shin, Jong Hee; Choi, Min Ji; Won, Eun Jeong; Kee, Seung Jung; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal

    2017-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) allows rapid and accurate identification of clinical yeast isolates. In-tube formic acid/acetonitrile (FA/ACN) extraction is recommended prior to the analysis with MALDI Biotyper, but the direct on-plate FA extraction is simpler. We compared the Biotyper with the VITEK MS for the identification of various clinically relevant yeast species, focusing on the use of the FA extraction method. We analyzed 309 clinical isolates of 42 yeast species (four common Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, and 37 uncommon yeast species) using the Biotyper and VITEK MS systems. FA extraction was used initially for all isolates. If 'no identification' result was obtained following the initial FA extraction, these samples were then retested by using FA (both systems, additive FA) or FA/ACN (Biotyper only, additive FA/ACN) extraction. These results were compared with those obtained by sequence-based identification. Both systems correctly identified all 158 isolates of the four common Candida species after the initial FA extraction. The Biotyper correctly identified 8.7%, 30.4%, and 100% of 23 C. neoformans isolates after performing initial FA, additive FA, and FA/ACN extractions, respectively, while VITEK MS identified all C. neoformans isolates after the initial FA extraction. Both systems had comparable identification rates of 37 uncommon yeast species (128 isolates), following the initial FA (Biotyper, 74.2%; VITEK MS, 73.4%) or additive FA (Biotyper, 82.0%; VITEK MS, 73.4%). The identification rate of most common and uncommon yeast isolates is comparable between simple FA extraction/Biotyper method and VITEK MS methods, but FA/ACN extraction is necessary for C. neoformans identification by Biotyper.

  2. Optimized Use of the MALDI BioTyper System and the FilmArray BCID Panel for Direct Identification of Microbial Pathogens from Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, B; D'Inzeo, T; Giaquinto, A; Menchinelli, G; Liotti, F M; de Maio, F; De Angelis, G; Quaranta, G; Nagel, D; Tumbarello, M; Posteraro, B; Sanguinetti, M; Spanu, T

    2016-03-01

    Despite the current reliance on blood cultures (BCs), the diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSIs) can be sped up using new technologies performed directly on positive BC bottles. Two methods (the MALDI BioTyper system and FilmArray blood culture identification [BCID] panel) are potentially applicable. In this study, we performed a large-scale clinical evaluation (1,585 microorganisms from 1,394 BSI episodes) on the combined use of the MALDI BioTyper and FilmArray BCID panel compared to a reference (culture-based) method. As a result, the causative organisms of 97.7% (1,362/1,394) of the BSIs were correctly identified by our MALDI BioTyper and FilmArray BCID-based algorithm. Specifically, 65 (5.3%) out of 1,223 monomicrobial BCs that provided incorrect or invalid identifications with the MALDI BioTyper were accurately detected by the FilmArray BCID panel; additionally, 153 (89.5%) out of 171 polymicrobial BCs achieved complete identification with the FilmArray BCID panel. Conversely, full use of the MALDI BioTyper would have resulted in the identification of only 1 causative organism in 97/171 (56.7%) of the polymicrobial cultures. By applying our diagnostic algorithm, the median time to identification was shortened (19.5 h versus 41.7 h with the reference method; P FilmArray BCID panel led to a significant cost savings. Twenty-six out of 31 microorganisms that could not be identified were species/genera not designed to be detected with the FilmArray BCID panel, indicating that subculture was not dispensable for a few of our BSI episodes. In summary, the fast and effective testing of BC bottles is realistically adoptable in the clinical microbiology laboratory workflow, although the usefulness of this testing for the management of BSIs remains to be established. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Keystone Functions of Hydrilla verticillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    His doctoral research was on the Nilgiri Tahr in the. Nilgiris and he has since continued his research into several endangered species both in India and globally. His research interests .... Epizoic Forms: An incredible 2000–3000 species of free- living microbes, like bacteria and diatoms are known to adhere to Hydrilla.

  4. Species, biotype and serogroup of Campylobacter spp. isolated from children with diarrhoea over a ten-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, N; Guglielmetti, P; Zanchi, A; Signori, R; Rossolini, A; Lior, H; Russi, M; Musmanno, R A

    1997-10-01

    From 1981 to 1990, stool samples from 6403 gastroenteritis cases were examined for the presence of campylobacters as well as Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas species and Yersinia enterocolitica. The percentages of isolation were the following: campylobacters 10.8 (86.1% of isolates were C. jejuni and 13.9% were C. coli), Salmonella spp. 8.4, Aeromonas spp 1.4, Yersinia enterocolitica 0.3. Shigella spp. were isolated only occasionally. Predominant biotypes of campylobacters were C. jejuni I (69.5%), C. jejuni II (29.5%) and C. coli I (92.7%). The six most common LIO serogroups-36; 4; 1; 28.53; 11; 2-accounted for 50% ca. of typable strains. Campylobacters are the most common etiological agent of bacterial enteritis in children living in this area of Tuscany. The species and serogroup determination can be useful from an epidemiological point of view.

  5. Evaluation of culture methods for rapid screening of swine faecal samples for Yersinia enterocolitica O : 3 biotype 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Holmvig, C.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In two studies, seven different culture protocols were compared to test naturally contaminated faecal samples from pigs for isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype O; 3/biotype 4( n = 70 and n = 79). Four of the protocols were based on the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL protocols), while...... three protocols were based on a rapid and selective method (here called ITC protocols). The protocols differed mainly in time of pre-enrichment (1, 10 and 24 d) and enrichment (2, 10, 24 d) and the type of selective enrichment media (ITC vs. MRB). The sensitivity of the rapid ITC protocol (24% and 9...... indicate possibilities of shortening the culture methods by replacing most of the biochemical tests with an agglutination test based on a monoclonal antibody....

  6. Multiple generation effects of high temperature on the development and fecundity of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Ying; Cong, Lin; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2013-08-01

    Insects are ectotherms and their ability to resist temperature stress is limited. The immediate effects of sub-lethal heat stress on insects are well documented, but longer-term effects of such stresses are rarely reported. In this study, survival, development and reproduction of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B, were compared over five consecutive generations at 27, 31 and 35 °C and for one generation at 37 °C. Both temperature and generation significantly affected the fitness of the whitefly. These impacts were more dramatic with increasing generations and temperatures. Among the experimental temperatures, the most favorable for development and reproduction were 27 °C and 31 °C. At 27 °C, survival, development and fecundity were all stable over these five generations. At 31 °C, immature survival rate was the highest in the fifth generation, but female fecundities decreased in the fourth and fifth generations. At 35 °C, egg hatching rate, immature survival rate and female fecundity decreased significantly in the fourth and fifth generations. At 37 °C, survival of B. tabaci was not adversely affected, but female fecundity at 37 °C was less than 10% of that at 27 °C or 31 °C. These results demonstrate that the lethal high temperature for B. tabaci is over 37 °C, and the whitefly population continued expanding in the five generations at 35 °C. The ability of B. tabaci biotype B to survive high temperature stress will play an important role in its population extension under global warming. © 2012 The Authors Insect Science © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Changing trends in the prevalence of Shigella species: emergence of multi-drug resistant Shigella sonnei biotype g in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu I M S Ud-Din

    Full Text Available Shigellosis, caused by Shigella species, is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. To determine the prevalence and distribution of different Shigella species, we analyzed 10,827 Shigella isolates from patients between 2001 and 2011. S. flexneri was the predominant species isolated throughout the period. However, the prevalence of S. flexneri decreased from 65.7% in 2001 to 47% in 2011, whereas the prevalence of S. sonnei increased from 7.2% in 2001 to 25% in 2011. S. boydii and S. dysenteriae accounted for 17.3% and 7.7% of the isolates respectively throughout the period. Of 200 randomly selected S. sonnei isolates for extensive characterization, biotype g strains were predominant (95% followed by biotype a (5%. Resistance to commonly used antibiotics including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, mecillinam and ampicillin was 89.5%, 86.5%, 17%, 10.5%, and 9.5%, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and imipenem. Ninety-eight percent of the strains had integrons belonging to class 1, 2 or both. The class 1 integron contained only dfrA5 gene, whereas among class 2 integron, 16% contained dhfrAI-sat1-aadA1-orfX gene cassettes and 84% harbored dhfrA1-sat2 gene cassettes. Plasmids of ∼5, ∼1.8 and ∼1.4 MDa in size were found in 92% of the strains, whereas only 33% of the strains carried the 120 MDa plasmid. PFGE analysis showed that strains having different integron patterns belonged to different clusters. These results show a changing trend in the prevalence of Shigella species with the emergence of multidrug resistant S. sonnei. Although S. flexneri continues to be the predominant species albeit with reduced prevalence, S. sonnei has emerged as the second most prevalent species replacing the earlier dominance by S. boydii and S. dysenteriae in Bangladesh.

  8. Córnea verticilata - marcador clínico da doença de Fabry: relato de caso Cornea verticillata - a clinical marker of Fabry disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Azeredo Cordeiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Fabry é erro inato do metabolismo dos glicoesfingolipídeos (GL, resultante da atividade deficiente da enzima alfa-galactosidase A (a-Gal, com herança ligada ao cromossomo X. O acúmulo progressivo de GL nos tecidos resulta nas manifestações clínicas da doença, mais evidentes em homens hemizigotos, e incluem angioqueratomas, acroparestesias, córnea verticilata, hipo-hidrose, envolvimento cardíaco, renal e manifestações cerebrovasculares. Foi realizada avaliação em família acometida pela doença, sendo dois pacientes do sexo feminino e três do sexo masculino. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame oftalmológico completo e dosagem da atividade da enzima a-Gal. O único achado clínico presente em todos foi a córnea verticilata. Isto demonstra o importante papel que o exame oftalmológico apresenta no diagnóstico da doença, já que as alterações oculares são tão características.Fabry's disease is a rare X-linked lisosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipid (GL metabolism, caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A activity. The progressive accumulation of GL in tissues results in the clinical manifestations of the disease, that are more evident in hemizygous males, and include angiokeratomas, acroparesthesia, cornea verticillata, cardiac and kidney involvement, cerebrovascular manifestations. A family with Fabry's disease including 2 female patients and 3 male patients is reported. The patients were submitted to complete medical history, ophthalmological examination and alpha-galactosidase activity test. Cornea verticillata was a constant finding in all patients. This demonstrates the important role of the ophtalmological examination for the diagnosis of Fabry's disease since the eye findings are so characteristic of the disease.

  9. Phytomorphological and essential-oil characterization in situ and ex situ of wild biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Enrica; Roscigno, Graziana; Iodice, Carmela; Senatore, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Oregano is an aromatic species of great interest, which spreads spontaneously over the Mediterranean area, but its genetic resources are not yet adequately developed. Moreover, the results of studies of wild strains of different origin - although quite numerous - are not always comparable, and, therefore, the influence of the environment and genotype on the variability cannot be distinguished. Hence, the plant morphology and the essential-oil composition of three wild, white-flowering biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (southern Italy) were characterized, and the effects of genotype and environment were assessed by comparison in situ and ex situ. This allowed deducing that the biotypes belonged to two different subspecies, i.e., Origanum vulgare ssp. virens and O. vulgare ssp. viridulum. The essential-oil yield was higher for the biotype belonging to ssp. virens, and it was significantly correlated with the glandular and stomatal density. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was found to be influenced by the genotype and the conditions of plant growth. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Importance and approaches for the control of different photosystem-II-inhibitor resistant Chenopodium album biotypes in sugar beet and potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrikola, Yvonne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistances in weeds for PS-II herbicides are well known. Since the end of the 1970s especially resistances to triazines in maize represented a problem. Today, because of the variety of alternative active ingredients in maize, this problem is considered to be solved. This is different in sugar beet and potatoes because hardly any new herbicides have been developed during the last 20 years. Chenopodium album is a major weed in all summer crops. In maize, resistance to triazines (target-site resistance (TSR at position 264 on the D1 protein is known. In recent years, new TSR in C. album (position 251 in Sweden and 218 in Lower Saxony, Germany has been found. These biotypes exhibit resistances to triazinones and chloridazon but showed no cross-resistances to triazines. An outdoor pot trial with sugar beets and potatoes showed that higher dosages of ethofumesate in sugar beets and aclonifen in potatoes are able to control triazine and triazinone resistant C. album biotypes to certain extend or even completely, respectivly. A competition pot trial with maize and different C. album biotypes showed no significant differences in weed fitness concerning the parameters plant height, biomass and seed production.

  11. Biotype characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products of private production in the western regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Kukhtyn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of foodborne diseases is a priority for the world health system. In the process of manufacturing milk and dairy products, the most important factor compromising their safety is seeding with a conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria and other microorganisms that reproduce in dairy products without changing their organoleptic properties are a particular danger. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic, conditionally pathogenic microorganism that often contaminates raw milk and dairy products. The aim of the research presented in this article was to determine the dissemination of S. aureus in milk and milk products of household production in the western regions of Ukraine, to identify the biotypes of S. aureus, production of enterotoxins and the presence of methicillin-resistant strains. S. aureus was isolated on BD Baird-Parker Agar. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined according to Meer. The determination of MRSA was carried out on the chromogenic Agar chromID MRSA ("Biomerioux", Russia. The mecA gene was determined using the LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test with LightCycler 2.0 primer (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Germany. To determine staphylococcal enterotoxins, the test system RIDASCREENSET A, B, C, D, E (R-Biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany was used. We isolated saprophyte staphylococci from milk of raw and dairy products in western regions of Ukraine in 82.7–97.4% of samples. S. aureus is much more rarely isolated from these dairy products, so it was isolated from sour cream at 62.8 ± 0.9%, from milk at 35.5 ± 1.3% and cottage cheese at 23.0 ± 1.6%. Of the most well known biotypes of S. aureus present in milk of raw and dairy products of domestic production, two ecological types were distinguished: human and cattle. In this case S. aureus var. hominis was isolated more often than in S. aureus var. bovis. This gives grounds to believe that the main source of

  12. High ozone (O3 affects the fitness associated with the microbial composition and abundance of Q biotype Bemisia tabaci

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    Yanyun Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ozone (O3 affects the fitness of an insect, such as its development, reproduction and protection against fungal pathogens, but the mechanism by which it does so remains unclear. Here, we compared the fitness (i.e., the growth and development time, reproduction and protection against Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana of Q biotype whiteflies fumigated under hO3 (280 ± 20 ppb and control O3 (50 ± 10 ppb concentrations. Moreover, we determined that gene expression was related to development, reproduction and immunity to B. bassiana and examined the abundance and composition of bacteria and fungi inside of the body and on the surface of the Q biotype whitefly. We observed a significantly enhanced number of eggs that were laid by a female, shortened developmental time, prolonged adult lifespan, decreased weight of one eclosion, and reduced immunity to B. bassiana in whiteflies under hO3, but hO3 did not significantly affect the expression of genes related to development, reproduction and immunity. However, hO3 obviously changed the composition of the bacterial communities inside of the body and on the surface of the whiteflies, significantly reducing Rickettsia and enhancing Candidatus_Cardinium. Similarly, hO3 significantly enhanced Thysanophora penicillioides from the Trichocomaceae family and reduced Dothideomycetes (at the class level inside of the body. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between the abundance of Candidatus_Cardinium and the female whitefly ratio and the fecundity of a single female, and positive correlations were found between the abundance of Rickettsia and the weight of adult whiteflies just after eclosion and immunity to B. bassiana. We conclude that hO3 enhances whitefly development and reproduction but impairs immunity to B. bassiana, and our results also suggest that the changes to the microbial environments inside of the body and on the surface could be crucial factors that alter whitefly fitness under

  13. Caracterização de biótipos de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina Biotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos e dezoito amostras de Staphylococcus aureus, isoladas de infecção intramamária de vacas de 44 rebanhos leiteiros, foram classificadas em biótipos de acordo com os testes de produção de estafiloquinase (K, beta-hemolisina (beta , coagulação do plasma bovino (Pl e crescimento na presença de cristal violeta (CV. As amostras foram distribuídas em 10 biótipos e 63 delas foram classificadas nas ecovariedades bovina (35, ovina (17, aviária (10 e humana (1 e 155 não apresentaram características específicas de hospedeiro. Estas últimas podem ser isoladas de homem, cabra, coelho, suíno, alimentos e de mastite bovina. O biótipo 1, encontrado com maior freqüência (37,2%, apresentou o padrão K (-, beta (+, Pl (- e CV (azul. Em sete rebanhos nos quais se examinaram 10 ou mais amostras, verificou-se que, apesar da ocorrência simultânea de mais de um biótipo por rebanho, houve predominância de um sobre os demais.Two hundred and eighteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections, obtained from 44 different dairy herds, were classified in biotypes based on staphylokinase (K and beta-haemolysin (beta production, bovine plasma coagulation (Pl and growth on crystal violet agar (CV. The strains were assigned to 10 different types, with 63 in the bovine (35, ovine (17, poultry (10 and human (1 ecovars and 155 in non-host specific biotypes. The latter can be isolated from man, goat, rabbit, pig, food, and bovine mastitis. The biotype 1, with reaction pattern K (-, beta (+, Pl (- and CV (blue, was the most frequently found (37,2%. From seven herds ten or more strains were examined. It was found that in spite of the presence of different biotypes per herd, there was always one prevalent biotype.

  14. Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Benefits Population Growth of the Q Biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

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    Maluta, N K P; Garzo, E; Moreno, A; Lopes, J R S; Fereres, A

    2014-08-01

    Plant viruses can directly influence their insect vectors, and indirectly through their shared host plant, altering their behavior and performance in a mutualistic or rather antagonistic manner. One of the most studied begomovirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), may also facilitate the expansion of its vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Considering the likely expansion of the disease and its major vector, we studied the direct and the indirect effects of a Mediterranean isolate of this virus (TYLCV-IL) on the biological performance of the Q biotype of B. tabaci. The following parameters were examined: development time and viability of nymphs, sex ratio, fecundity, and fertility and longevity. The results varied from positive to neutral depending on the parameter and the effect studied. TYLCV accelerated nymphal developmental and increased male longevity of B. tabaci when viruliferous insects developed on TYLCV-immune eggplants (direct effects). An indirect, positive effect of TYLCV-infected plants was observed on fecundity of B. tabaci, which laid more eggs on virus-infected than on noninfected tomato plants. Our results show that TYLCV enhances the population increase of its whitefly vector and that there is a high risk of rapid expansion of both the virus and its vector-the MED species of B. tabaci-into new areas when both agents interact together.

  15. Experimental infection by Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 2 induces brain lesions and neurological signs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, H K; Ohtani, M; Nowak, B; Boutrup, T S; Jones, B; Raida, M K; Bojesen, A M

    2017-11-17

    Pathological manifestations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following experimental waterborne infection with Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 (strain 07111224) were investigated. Rainbow trout were exposed to 8 × 107  CFU/ml of Y. ruckeri by bath for 6 hr, and mortality was then monitored for 22 days post-infection (dpi). Organs were sampled at 3 dpi and also from moribund fish showing signs of severe systemic infection such as bleeding, exophthalmia or erratic swimming behaviour. Y. ruckeri was observed in the meninges and diencephalon of the brain, and lamina propria of olfactory organ at 3 dpi. At 12 dpi, Y. ruckeri had spread throughout the brain including cranial connective tissues and ventricles and the infection was associated with haemorrhages and an infiltration with leucocytes. Y. ruckeri infection and associated with leucocyte infiltration were observed at 13 dpi. In conclusion, Y. ruckeri strain 07111224 causes encephalitis in the acute phase of infection, which could explain why Y. ruckeri-affected fish show exophthalmia and erratic swimming known as signs of ERM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Preference of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on zucchini squash and buckwheat and the effect of Delphastus catalinae on whitefly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, Janine M; Liburd, Oscar E; McSorley, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Zucchini squash, Cucurbita pepo L., is an important vegetable crop in Florida. Physiological disorders and insect-transmitted diseases are major problems for squash growers in semi-tropical regions around the world. Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B is a significant whitefly pest and is largely responsible for transmitting viruses and causing physiological disorders in squash. Several studies have shown that whitefly populations are reduced when crops are interplanted with non-host cover crops or mulches. The aim of the present study was to determine how the presence of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and a key predator, Delphastus catalinae (Horn), affect whitefly colonization on squash. Whitefly densities were higher on squash than on buckwheat. The introduction of D. catalinae on squash significantly reduced whitefly populations. Overall, there were higher densities of D. catalinae on squash where the whitefly pest was more concentrated compared with buckwheat. The study provided preliminary evidence that D. catalinae, when used in conjunction with buckwheat as a living mulch, may aid in reducing whiteflies in squash. This greenhouse experiment highlights the need to investigate a multitactic approach of intercropping buckwheat with squash and the incorporation of D. catalinae in the field to manage populations of whiteflies and whitefly-transmitted diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae Mitogenome Has Evolved Novel Gene Boundaries and Tandem Repeats That Distinguish Its Biotypes.

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    Isha Atray

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1 rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2 truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3 presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4 presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5 inversion of the rRNA genes; (6 higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated.

  18. [Biology and non-preference for oviposition by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lucas C; Souza, Brígida; Amaral, Bruno B; Tanque, Ricardo L

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this work were to evaluate some biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B at egg and nymphal stages and to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition and its correlation with the number and type of trichomes on the cotton cultivars BRS Ipê, BRS 186-Precoce 3, BRS Acala, BRS Verde, BRS-200 Marrom, BRS Cedro, BRS Ita 90-2 and BRS Aroeira. The experiments were conducted in climatic chambers at 28 +/- 2 degrees C, 70% RH and photophase of 14h, and in greenhouse. Egg fertility was not affected by the cotton cultivars but survival in egg-adult period was influenced by the host plant. There was no influence of cultivars neither on the duration of egg stage, nymphs at 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars nor on the duration from egg to adult, but nymphs reared on the cultivar BRS Ipê had their 1st instar extended. Low number of eggs was detected on the cultivars BRS Aroeira, BRS Verde and BRS Ita 90-2 in both experiments with and without oviposition choice, indicating a possible mechanism of resistance, but no correlation could be established between trichome densisty and oviposition non-preference.

  19. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aspergillus Species Directly from Growth on Solid Agar Media

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    Ying Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the accuracy of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system at identifying clinical isolates of Aspergillus species that were grown on agar media. A total of 381 non-duplicate Aspergillus isolates representing 21 different Aspergillus species identified by molecular analysis were included in this study. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system was able to identify 30.2% (115/381 of the isolates to the species level (score values of ≥2.000 and 49.3% to the genus level (score values of 1.700–1.999. When the identification cutoff value was lowered from ≥2.000 to ≥1.700, the species-level identification rate increased to 79.5% with a slight rise of false identification from 2.6 to 5.0%. From another aspect, a correct species-level identification rate of 89% could be reached by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system regardless of the score values obtained. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system had a moderate performance in identification of Aspergillus directly inoculated on solid agar media. Continued expansion of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database and adoption of alternative cutoff values for interpretation are required to improve the performance of the system for identifying highly diverse species of clinically encountered Aspergillus isolates.

  20. The Effect of Temperature and Host Plant Resistance on Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Ashley R; Nechols, James R; McCornack, Brian P; Margolies, David C; Sandercock, Brett K; Yan, Donglin; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans. To assess indirect (plant-mediated) effects, soybean aphids were reared under a range of temperatures (15-30 °C) on soybean seedlings from a line expressing a Rag1 gene for resistance, and life history traits were quantified and compared to those obtained for soybean aphids on a susceptible soybean line. Direct effects of temperature were obtained by comparing relative differences in the magnitude of life-history traits among temperatures on susceptible soybeans. We predicted that temperature and host plant resistance would have a combined, but asymmetrical, effect on soybean aphid fitness and population growth. Results showed that temperature and plant resistance influenced preimaginal development and survival, progeny produced, and adult longevity. There also appeared to be a complex interaction between temperature and plant resistance for survival and developmental rate. Evidence suggested that the level of plant resistance increased at higher, but not lower, temperature. Soybean aphids required about the same number of degree-days to develop on resistant and susceptible plants. Our results will be useful for making predictions of soybean aphid population growth on resistant plants under different seasonal temperatures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. An epidemic outbreak of Vibrio Cholerae El Tor 01 serotype ogawa biotype in a Lalpur town, Jamnagar, India

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    H D Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On December 19, 2010, 57 cases of gastroenteritis were reported in the community health center of Lalpur town. A rapid response team was sent to investigate the outbreak on December 21, 2010. Aim: To identify the source, to institute control and prevention measures. Materials and Methods: The outbreak was confirmed using the previous Integrated Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP data. Detailed history was taken, line listing of patients and house-to-house investigations were done. Environmental investigation and laboratory investigation of stool samples were also done. As the study was conducted during emergency response to the outbreak and was designed to provide information to orient the public health response, ethical approval was not required. Remedial measures were implemented. Results: Three hundred and thirty cases were reported during December 19, 2010 to January 2, 2011 in Lalpur town of Jamnagar district. Nineteen patients were found to be positive for Vibrio Cholerae 01 serotype ogawa biotype out of 117 stool samples. The mean age of patients was 24.23΁19.01 years. The outbreak had 1.88% attack rate with no mortality and 59.1% cases had to be admitted. Investigations revealed that the epidemic was waterborne. Ten leakages were found in the pipelines of the affected areas of Lalpur town near two riverbanks. Conclusion: Among identified gaps, delays in the initiation of the investigation of the epidemic and repairing of leakages were most important. In India, waterborne epidemics are usual occurrences during the year. In this scenario, the village health and sanitation committee and water board should follow guidelines, and monitoring of water sources, proper sewage disposal and sanitation measures should be undertaken.

  2. Biophysicochemical evaluation of wild hilly biotypes of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production and micropropagation study of elite plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, K C; Verma, S K

    2015-01-01

    Depleting reserves of fossil fuel and increasing effects of environmental pollution from petrochemicals demands eco-friendly alternative fuel sources. Jatropha curcas oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment-friendly and renewable fuel. Jatropha oil is looked up in terms of availability and cost and also has several applications and enormous economic benefits. The seed oils of various jatropha biotypes from hilly regions were screened out and evaluated for their physiochemical parameters, viz, seed index(520-600 g), oil content (15-42 %), biodiesel yield (71-98 %), moisture content (2.3-6.5 %), ash content (3.2-5.6 %), acid value (4.2-26), density (0.9172-0.9317 g/cm(3)), viscosity (5-37 mm(2)/s), saponification value (195.8-204.2 mg/g), iodine value (106.6-113.6 mg/g), flash point (162-235 °C), cetane value (46.70-50.06 °C), free fatty acid value (2.5-10.2 %), and refractive index (1.4600-1.4710). Fatty acid profiling of jatropha resembles as edible oilseeds. NAA with BAP was found to be superior for callus induction (up to 87 %), as well as for shoot regeneration (up to12 shoots). Root induction (90-100 %) was successfully obtained in MS medium with or without phytoregulators. Grown plantlets were successfully transferred from lab to field with a survival rate of 80 %.

  3. Identification of a major quantitative trait locus conditioning resistance to greenbug biotype E in sorghum PI 550610 using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y Q; Huang, Yinghua; Porter, David R; Tauer, C G; Hollaway, Lindsey

    2007-10-01

    Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), represents the most important pest insect of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, in the Great Plains of the United States. Biotype E is the most widespread and dominant type not only in sorghum and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., fields, but also on many noncultivated grass species. This study was designed to determine sorghum accession PI 550610 resistance to greenbug biotype E, to map the resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by using an established simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map and to identify SSR markers closely linked to the major resistance QTLs. In greenhouse screening tests, seedlings of PI 550610 showed strong resistance to the greenbug at a level similar to resistant accession PI550607. For QTL mapping, one F2 population containing 277 progeny and one population containing 233 F2:3 families derived from Westland A line x PI 550610 were used to genotype 132 polymorphic SSR markers and to phenotype seedling resistance to greenbug feeding. Phenotypic evaluation of sorghum seedling damage at 7, 12, 17, and 21 d postinfestation in the F2:3 families revealed that resistance variation was normally distributed. Single marker analysis indicated 16 SSRs spread over five chromosomes were significant for greenbug resistance. Composite interval and multiple interval mapping procedures indicated that a major QTL resided in the interval of 6.8 cM between SSR markers Xtxp358 and Xtxp289 on SBI-09. The results will be valuable in the development of new greenbug biotype E resistant sorghum cultivars and for the further characterization of major genes by map-based cloning.

  4. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid, highly accurate, and cost-effective method for routine identification of a wide range of microorganisms. We carried out a side by side comparative evaluation of the performance of Bruker Biotyper versus VITEK MS for identification of a large and diverse collection of microorganisms. Most difficult and/or unusual microorganisms, as well as commonly encountered microorganisms were selected, including Gram-positive and negative bacteria, mycobacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts and filamentous fungi. Six hundred forty two strains representing 159 genera and 441 species from clinical specimens previously identified at the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ) by reference methods were retrospectively chosen for the study. They included 254 Gram-positive bacteria, 167 Gram-negative bacteria, 109 mycobacteria and aerobic actinomycetes and 112 yeasts and moulds. MALDI-TOF MS analyses were performed on both systems according to the manufacturer's instructions. Of the 642 strains tested, the name of the genus and / or species of 572 strains were referenced in the Bruker database while 406 were present in the VITEK MS IVD database. The Biotyper correctly identified 494 (86.4%) of the strains, while the VITEK MS correctly identified 362 (92.3%) of the strains (excluding 14 mycobacteria that were not tested). Of the 70 strains not present in the Bruker database at the species level, the Biotyper correctly identified 10 (14.3%) to the genus level and 2 (2.9%) to the complex/group level. For 52 (74.2%) strains, we obtained no identification, and an incorrect identification was given for 6 (8.6%) strains. Of the 178 strains not present in the VITEK MS IVD database at the species level (excluding 71 untested mycobacteria and actinomycetes), the VITEK MS correctly identified 12 (6.8%) of the strains each to the genus and to the complex/group level. For 97 (54

  6. Encapsulated pleural effusion due to Haemophilus influenzae biotype II in a child with trisomy 21: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masanori; Bando, Yuki; Fujita, Tomohiro; Hirose, Yoneji; Suganuma, Eisuke; Ishii, Masahiro; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) can colonize in the upper respiratory tract and cause severe pulmonary infections, especially among immunocompromised children. Herein, we report a case of left encapsulated pleural effusion (EPE) due to Hi in a 24-month-old girl with trisomy 21. She was already vaccinated against Hi type b. The Hi biotype II was isolated from both the blood and aspirated sputum obtained upon admission. Ampicillin/sulbactam 180 mg/kg/day was administered intravenously for 34 days with oxygen supplementation for 4 days. She clinically recovered without undergoing thoracic drainage. One month after discharge, the girl developed acute otitis media, and the throat swab was cultured. Nontypeable Hi with the same biotype II was isolated, and the infection was controlled by administering antimicrobials. In this report, a literature review regarding the EPE due to Hi in children is also summarized. Pediatric clinicians should be aware of the possibility of Hi-related EPE because of its rapid progression, although it is rare in clinical settings. In addition, they need to consider the possibility of repetitive respiratory infections with Hi in a child with trisomy 21.

  7. Characterization of main primary and secondary metabolites and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties in the mesocarp of three biotypes of Pouteria lucuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Claudia; Gálvez, Lena; Cobos, Ariel; Olaeta, José Antonio; Defilippi, Bruno G; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David; Pedreschi, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Pouteria lucuma is an Andean fruit from pre-Incas' times highly appreciated due to its characteristic flavor and taste in its homeland. We characterized the primary (e.g., sugars and organic acids), and secondary (e.g., phenolics and carotenoids) and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Rosalia, Montero and Leiva 1 lucuma biotypes. Significant differences were found in these metabolites and functional properties related to biotype and ripeness stage. Results showed significant amounts of sugars (119.4-344 mg total sugars g(-1)DW) and organic acids (44.4-30.0 mg g(-1)DW) and functional associated compounds such as ascorbic acid (0.35-1.07 mg g(-1)DW), total phenolics (0.7-61.6 mg GAE g(-1)DW) and total carotenoids (0.22-0.50 mg β-carotene g(-1)DW). Important in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties were found and provide the base for the standardization of lucuma harvest and postharvest focused not only on the enhancement of sensory but functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Competitividade de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac Competitiveness of echinochloa biotypes resistant and susceptible to quinclorac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a competitividade de dois biótipos de capim-arroz, resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac, coletados em regiões orizícolas do Estado de Santa Catarina. O experimento foi instalado em ambiente protegido, e os tratamentos constaram de diferentes densidades de plantas dos biótipos de capim-arroz comprovadamente resistente (ITJ-13 e suscetível (ITJ-17 ao quinclorac, oriundos da região arrozeira de Itajaí/SC. No centro da unidade experimental, foram semeadas três sementes do biótipo de capim-arroz, considerado como o tratamento da unidade experimental. Na periferia foram semeadas dez sementes do biótipo oposto ao do tratamento (central. Dez dias após a germinação foi efetuado o desbaste, deixando-se apenas uma planta no centro da unidade experimental e um número variável de plantas do biótipo oposto, de acordo com o tratamento (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas por vaso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Aos 40 dias após a emergência, foram avaliados altura de plantas, número de afilhos e de folhas, área foliar, massa fresca e seca e conteúdo de água de colmos e folhas. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste F, sendo efetuado teste de Duncan para comparar o efeito de densidade de plantas e teste da Diferença Mínima Significativa (DMS para avaliar diferenças entre os biótipos resistente e suscetível, além de correlação linear simples entre as variáveis avaliadas. Nas análises, utilizou-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os biótipos estudados de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac são similares quando sob alta intensidade de competição, com vantagem em algumas variáveis para o biótipo suscetível sob baixa ou moderada intensidade competitiva.The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive potential of two Echinochloa sp. biotypes, resistant and susceptible to

  9. Clinical isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A represent two phylogenetic lineages with differing pathogenicity-related properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihvonen Leila M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y. enterocolitica biotype (BT 1A strains are often isolated from human clinical samples but their contribution to disease has remained a controversial topic. Variation and the population structure among the clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates have been poorly characterized. We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR for ystA and ystB, lipopolysaccharide analysis, phage typing, human serum complement killing assay and analysis of the symptoms of the patients to characterize 298 clinical Y. enterocolitica BT 1A isolates in order to evaluate their relatedness and pathogenic potential. Results A subset of 71 BT 1A strains, selected based on their varying LPS patterns, were subjected to detailed genetic analyses. The MLST on seven house-keeping genes (adk, argA, aroA, glnA, gyrB, thrA, trpE conducted on 43 of the strains discriminated them into 39 MLST-types. By Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS the strains clustered conclusively into two distinct lineages, i.e. Genetic groups 1 and 2. The strains of Genetic group 1 were more closely related (97% similarity to the pathogenic bio/serotype 4/O:3 strains than Genetic group 2 strains (95% similarity. Further comparison of the 16S rRNA genes of the BT 1A strains indicated that altogether 17 of the 71 strains belong to Genetic group 2. On the 16S rRNA analysis, these 17 strains were only 98% similar to the previously identified subspecies of Y. enterocolitica. The strains of Genetic group 2 were uniform in their pathogenecity-related properties: they lacked the ystB gene, belonged to the same LPS subtype or were of rough type, were all resistant to the five tested yersiniophages, were largely resistant to serum complement and did not ferment fucose. The 54 strains in Genetic group 1 showed much more variation in these properties. The most commonly detected LPS types were similar to the LPS types of reference strains with serotypes O

  10. Variable tolerance among Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) biotypes to glyphosate, 2,4-D amine, and premix formulation of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline (Enlist Duo®) herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of soybean that is resistant to 2,4-D will result in more use of glyphosate plus 2,4-D premixes and tank-mixtures. Preliminary whole-plant greenhouse assays confirm most Palmer amaranth found in Indiana are glyphosate-resistant (GR) and some biotypes exhibit tolerance to 2,4-D amine. Dose r...

  11. Glyphosate translocation in hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis biotypes Translocação do glyphosate em biótipos de buva (Conyza bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the translocation of glyphosate in C. bonariensis plants resistant and susceptible to that herbicide. The 14C-glyphosate was mixed with commercial gyhphosate (800 g ha-1 and applied on the center of the adaxial face of a third node leaf, using a micro syringe, and adding 10 µL of a solution with specific activity of 1,400 Bq, 45 days after plant emergence. The concentration of the glyphosate translocated in the plant was evaluated at time intervals of 6, 12, 36 and 72 hours after being applied on the application leaf, stem, roots and leaves. Ten hours after treatment application, the distribution of the product in the application leaf, divided into base, center and apex, was also evaluated by measuring the radiation emitted by 14C-glyphosate in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Greater glyphosate retention was observed in the resistant biotype leaf, approximately 90% of the total absorbed up to 72 hours. In the susceptible biotype, this value was close to 70% in the same period. Susceptible biotype leaves, stem and roots showed greater concentration of glyphosate, indicating greater translocation efficiency in this biotype. In the resistant biotype, the herbicide accumulated in greater quantity at the apex and center of the application leaf, while in the susceptible biotype greater accumulation was observed at the base and center leaf. Thus, it can be stated that the resistance mechanism is related to the differential translocation of this herbicide in the biotypes.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a translocação do glyphosate em plantas de C. bonariensis resistentes e suscetíveis a esse herbicida. Para isso aplicou-se o 14C-glyphosate em mistura com glyphosate comercial (800 g ha-1 sobre o centro da face adaxial da folha do terceiro nó, utilizando-se uma microsseringa, adicionando-se 10 µL da calda com atividade específica de 1.400 Bq, aos 45 dias após a emergência da buva. A concentra

  12. Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry system for identification of clinical and environmental isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei

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    He eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is not represented in the current version of Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system. A total of 66 isolates of B. pseudomallei, including 30 clinical isolates collected from National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH, n=27 and Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH, n=3, and 36 isolates of genetically confirmed strains, including 13 from clinical samples and 23 from environmental samples, collected from southern Taiwan were included in this study. All these isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis and the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system. Among the 30 isolates initially identified as B. pseudomallei by conventional identification methods, one was identified as B. cepacia complex (NTUH and three were identified as B. putida (PUMCH by partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis and Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system. The Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system misidentified 62 genetically confirmed B. pseudomallei isolates as B. thailandensis or Burkholderia species (score values, 1.803-2.063 when the currently available database (DB 5627 was used. However, using a newly created MALDI-TOF MS database (including B. pseudomallei NTUH-3 strain, all isolates were correctly identified as B. pseudomallei (score values >2.000, 100%. An additional 60 isolates of genetically confirmed B. cepacia complex and B. putida were also evaluated by the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system using the newly created database and none of these isolates were identified as B. pseudomallei. MALDI-TOF MS is a versatile and robust tool for the rapid identification of B. pseudomallei using the enhanced database.

  13. Genetic diversity among proso millet (Panicum miliaceum biotypes assessed by AFLP technique Diversidade genética entre biótipos de proso millet (Panicum miliaceum revelada pela técnica de AFLP

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    D. Karam

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP technique was used to access genetic diversity between three domestic and nine wild proso millet biotypes from the United States and Canada. Eight primer combinations detected 39 polymorphic DNA fragments, with the genetic distance estimates among biotypes ranging from 0.02 to 0.04. Colorado-Weld County black seeded and Wyoming-Platte County were the most distinct biotypes according to the dissimilarity level. A UPGMA cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of proso millet without any geographic association. Six weed biotypes exhibiting some characters of cultivated plants were grouped together with domesticated biotypes of proso millet while the three typical wild phenotypes were clearly clustered into another group according to AFLP markers.A técnica de AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism foi empregada para acessar a diversidade genética entre três biótipos domesticados e nove biótipos selvagens de proso millet dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá. Oito combinações de primers detectaram 39 fragmentos polimórficos de DNA, e a estimativa da distância genética entre os biótipos variou de 0,02 a 0,04. Colorado-Weld County de sementes pretas e Wyoming-Platte County foram os biótipos mais distintos de acordo com o índice de dissimilaridade. A análise de cluster por UPGMA revelou dois grupos distintos de proso millet mas sem nenhuma relação geográfica. Seis biótipos selvagens que exibiam algumas características de plantas cultivadas foram agrupados juntamente com os biótipos domesticados de proso millet, enquanto os três fenótipos tipicamente selvagens formaram outro grupo distinto por marcadores AFLP.

  14. Resistance of melon cultivars to Bemisia tabaci biotype B Resistência de cultivares de melão a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B

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    Edson LL Baldin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, is currently one of the most important pests of melon, causing direct and indirect damage to plants, and significantly reducing production in the field. Due to the need for alternative methods of chemical control in melon crops, the melon cultivars AF-646, AF-682, Don Luis, Frevo, Jangada, Nilo, Vereda, Amarelo Ouro and Hales Best were assessed at field, greenhouse, and laboratory trials for resistance to whitefly B. tabaci biotype B. In general, 'Hales Best' and 'Amarelo Ouro' were the most resistant, showing oviposition non-preference against whitefly. The trichome density is associated with the variation in oviposition on the cultivars and should be further investigated in future work. These results may be helpful in melon breeding programs, focusing on plant resistance to B. tabaci biotype B.A mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, é atualmente uma das mais importantes pragas da cultura do melão, ocasionando danos diretos e indiretos às plantas e reduzindo significativamente as produções a campo. Devido à necessidade de métodos mais sustentáveis do que o controle químico nas lavouras de melão, neste trabalho avaliou-se a resposta das cultivares de meloeiro AF-646, AF-682, Don Luis, Frevo, Jangada, Nilo, Vereda, Amarelo Ouro e Hales Best quanto à possível resistência a B. tabaci biótipo B, através de testes de campo, casa de vegetação e laboratório. No geral, 'Hales Best' e 'Amarelo Ouro' foram as mais resistentes, expressando não-preferência para oviposição contra a mosca-branca. A densidade de tricomas está associada à variação de oviposição sobre os materiais e deve ser melhor investigada em trabalhos futuros. Estes resultados podem auxiliar nos programas de melhoramento de melão, visando à resistência de plantas a B. tabaci biótipo B.

  15. Effect of the combined application of microencapsulated synthetic oviposition pheromone (MSP) with different larvicidal agents on the oviposition of Culex pipiens biotype molestus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Rumbos, Christos I; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2017-08-29

    Attract-and-kill strategies, in which a behavior-modifying stimulus (e.g. a pheromone) is integrated with a pest control agent, have lately attracted increased interest for mosquito control. Previously, it was demonstrated that the polyurea microencapsulated synthetic oviposition pheromone 6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (MSP) was sufficiently attractive to gravid females of Culex pipiens L. biotype molestus Førskal (Diptera: Culicidae) for a period of 40 days. Furthermore, it was shown that MSP could be effectively combined with the organophosphate temephos to achieve efficient mosquito control. In the present study, the effect of the combined application of MSP with commonly used larvicides on the oviposition response of Cx. p. biotype molestus females over time was investigated in two-choice oviposition bioassays. As larvicides, the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron and the bacterial insecticide spinosad were evaluated at their lowest recommended label dose, whereas temephos was used as a control. When MSP was applied in combination with diflubenzuron, the attractancy of MSP to gravid females was in all cases negatively affected, as fewer egg rafts were laid in pots treated with MSP and diflubenzuron compared with MSP alone. Spinosad did not reduce, but rather increased, the attractive effect of the oviposition pheromone at the beginning of the bioassay (at 2 days of ageing) when co-applied; however, the observed attractive effect was significantly reduced after 7 days of ageing and remained stable at the same level until the termination of the bioassay. Finally, the oviposition pattern of egg rafts laid on the pot with MSP and temephos was similar to that of egg rafts laid on the pot with MSP alone, showing that temephos did not significantly affect MSP activity. The results of the present study highlight the effects of the combined application of MSP with spinosad and diflubenzuron on the oviposition of gravid Cx. p. biotype molestus females, which in

  16. Epidemiologic and Drug Resistance Pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor, Serotype Ogawa, in the 2011 Cholera Outbreak, in Alborz Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Hojatolah; Moradi, Ghobad; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Mohammadi, Parvin

    2015-11-01

    Although the national guidelines recommend special antibiotics, based on the antibiogram of National Reference Laboratory, it seems that, because of uncontrolled usage of antibiotics in the society and due to the changes in the serotypes causing the disease, it is essential to monitor the status of drug resistance, permanently, and to revise the current prescriptions guidelines. This study aimed to assess the epidemiological aspects and drug resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, in cholera outbreak, in Alborz province in Iran, during 2011. This is a cross-sectional study, which reviews a cholera epidemic that occurred in Iran. A total of 9844 specimens were taken from suspected cases, among diarrheal patients, via rectal swabs. The specimens were placed in Cary-Blair transport medium and sent to laboratory. Samples were enriched, in alkaline peptone water, and isolated on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose agar. From the 244 confirmed cases, 239 cases underwent antibiogram test, via disk diffusion method and based on national committee for clinical laboratory standards (NCCLS) instructions. The standard Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used for antibiogram quality control and, eventually, all results were interpreted and reported using NCCLS standard table. In total, until October 22, 2011, which was announced as the end of outbreak, 9844 samples were taken from diarrheal patients. Regarding the type of V. cholerae, 244 El Tor biotype positive cases were reported. The case fatality rate was 1.3%. The mean age of patients was 37.8 years and the highest incidence rate occurred in the age group 21 - 30 years. After conducting antibiotic susceptibility test in the 244 V. cholerae, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, it was found that ciprofloxacin had the highest level of antibiotic susceptibility (99.6%) and the highest level of antibiotic resistance was observed in co-trimoxazole (95.4%). The results of our study show that the

  17. Shotgun sequencing of Yersinia enterocolitica strain W22703 (biotype 2, serotype O:9: genomic evidence for oscillation between invertebrates and mammals

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    Starke Mandy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia enterocolitica strains responsible for mild gastroenteritis in humans are very diverse with respect to their metabolic and virulence properties. Strain W22703 (biotype 2, serotype O:9 was recently identified to possess nematocidal and insecticidal activity. To better understand the relationship between pathogenicity towards insects and humans, we compared the W22703 genome with that of the highly pathogenic strain 8081 (biotype1B; serotype O:8, the only Y. enterocolitica strain sequenced so far. Results We used whole-genome shotgun data to assemble, annotate and analyse the sequence of strain W22703. Numerous factors assumed to contribute to enteric survival and pathogenesis, among them osmoregulated periplasmic glucan, hydrogenases, cobalamin-dependent pathways, iron uptake systems and the Yersinia genome island 1 (YGI-1 involved in tight adherence were identified to be common to the 8081 and W22703 genomes. However, sets of ~550 genes revealed to be specific for each of them in comparison to the other strain. The plasticity zone (PZ of 142 kb in the W22703 genome carries an ancient flagellar cluster Flg-2 of ~40 kb, but it lacks the pathogenicity island YAPIYe, the secretion system ysa and yts1, and other virulence determinants of the 8081 PZ. Its composition underlines the prominent variability of this genome region and demonstrates its contribution to the higher pathogenicity of biotype 1B strains with respect to W22703. A novel type three secretion system of mosaic structure was found in the genome of W22703 that is absent in the sequenced strains of the human pathogenic Yersinia species, but conserved in the genomes of the apathogenic species. We identified several regions of differences in W22703 that mainly code for transporters, regulators, metabolic pathways, and defence factors. Conclusion The W22703 sequence analysis revealed a genome composition distinct from other pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica

  18. Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Gordonia, Tsukamurella, and Listeria Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Fen; Du, Shin-Hei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether the Bruker Biotyper matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system provides accurate species-level identifications of 147 isolates of aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (GPRs). The bacterial isolates included Nocardia (n = 74), Listeria (n = 39), Kocuria (n = 15), Rhodococcus (n = 10), Gordonia (n = 7), and Tsukamurella (n = 2) species, which had all been identified by conventional methods, molecular methods, or both. In total, 89.7% of Listeria monocytogenes, 80% of Rhodococcus species, 26.7% of Kocuria species, and 14.9% of Nocardia species (n = 11, all N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum) were correctly identified to the species level (score values, ≥2.0). A clustering analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper identified six clusters of Nocardia species, i.e., cluster 1 (N. cyriacigeorgica), cluster 2 (N. brasiliensis), cluster 3 (N. farcinica), cluster 4 (N. puris), cluster 5 (N. asiatica), and cluster 6 (N. beijingensis), based on the six peaks generated by ClinProTools with the genetic algorithm, i.e., m/z 2,774.477 (cluster 1), m/z 5,389.792 (cluster 2), m/z 6,505.720 (cluster 3), m/z 5,428.795 (cluster 4), m/z 6,525.326 (cluster 5), and m/z 16,085.216 (cluster 6). Two clusters of L. monocytogenes spectra were also found according to the five peaks, i.e., m/z 5,594.85, m/z 6,184.39, and m/z 11,187.31, for cluster 1 (serotype 1/2a) and m/z 5,601.21 and m/z 11,199.33 for cluster 2 (serotypes 1/2b and 4b). The Bruker Biotyper system was unable to accurately identify Nocardia (except for N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum), Tsukamurella, or Gordonia species. Continuous expansion of the MALDI-TOF MS databases to include more GPRs is necessary. PMID:24759706

  19. Bruker biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for identification of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Gordonia, Tsukamurella, and Listeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Tai-Fen; Du, Shin-Hei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated whether the Bruker Biotyper matrix-associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system provides accurate species-level identifications of 147 isolates of aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (GPRs). The bacterial isolates included Nocardia (n = 74), Listeria (n = 39), Kocuria (n = 15), Rhodococcus (n = 10), Gordonia (n = 7), and Tsukamurella (n = 2) species, which had all been identified by conventional methods, molecular methods, or both. In total, 89.7% of Listeria monocytogenes, 80% of Rhodococcus species, 26.7% of Kocuria species, and 14.9% of Nocardia species (n = 11, all N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum) were correctly identified to the species level (score values, ≥ 2.0). A clustering analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper identified six clusters of Nocardia species, i.e., cluster 1 (N. cyriacigeorgica), cluster 2 (N. brasiliensis), cluster 3 (N. farcinica), cluster 4 (N. puris), cluster 5 (N. asiatica), and cluster 6 (N. beijingensis), based on the six peaks generated by ClinProTools with the genetic algorithm, i.e., m/z 2,774.477 (cluster 1), m/z 5,389.792 (cluster 2), m/z 6,505.720 (cluster 3), m/z 5,428.795 (cluster 4), m/z 6,525.326 (cluster 5), and m/z 16,085.216 (cluster 6). Two clusters of L. monocytogenes spectra were also found according to the five peaks, i.e., m/z 5,594.85, m/z 6,184.39, and m/z 11,187.31, for cluster 1 (serotype 1/2a) and m/z 5,601.21 and m/z 11,199.33 for cluster 2 (serotypes 1/2b and 4b). The Bruker Biotyper system was unable to accurately identify Nocardia (except for N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum), Tsukamurella, or Gordonia species. Continuous expansion of the MALDI-TOF MS databases to include more GPRs is necessary. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Escherichia coli biotype 1 as a surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7 for cooking, fermentation, freezing, and refrigerated storage in meat processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Carisa; Niebuhr, Steven E; Acuff, Gary R; Dickson, James S

    2009-04-01

    Five Escherichia coli biotype I isolates were compared with E. coli O157:H7 under four common meat processing conditions. The processes that were evaluated were freezing, refrigerating, fermentation, and thermal inactivation. For each study, at least one surrogate organism was not statistically different when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the four studies did not consistently show the same isolate as having this agreement. The three studies that involved temperature as a method of controlling or reducing the E. coli population all had at least one possible surrogate in common. In the fermentation study, only one isolate (BAA-1429) showed no statistical difference when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the population reductions that were observed indicated the isolates BAA-1427 and BAA-1431 would overestimate the surviving E. coli O157:H7 population in a fermented summer sausage. When all of the data from all of the surrogates were examined, it was found that isolates BAA-1427, BAA-1429, and BAA-1430 would be good surrogates for all four of the processes that were examined in this study. There was no statistical difference noted between these three isolates and E. coli O157:H7 in the refrigeration study. These isolates resulted in smaller population reductions than did E. coli O157:H7 in the frozen, fermentation, and thermal inactivation studies. This would indicate that these isolates would overpredict the E. coli O157:H7 population in these three instances. This overprediction results in an additional margin of safety when using E. coli biotype 1 as a surrogate.

  1. Flower-bud formation in explants of photoperiodic and day-neutral Nicotiana biotypes and its bearing on the regulation of flower formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeevan, M.S.; Lang, A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1993-05-15

    The capacity to form flower buds in thin-layer explants was studied in Nicotiana of several species, cultivars, and lines of differing in their response to photoperiod. This capacity was found in all biotypes examined and could extend into sepals and corolla. It varied depending on genotype, source tissue and its developmental state, and composition of the culture medium, particularly the levels of glucose, auxin, and cytokinin. It was greatest in the two day-neutral plants examined, Samsun tobacco and Nicotiana rustica, where it extended from the inflorescence region down the vegetative stem, in a basipetally decreasing gradient; it was least in the two qualitative photoperiodic plants studied, the long-day plant Nicotiana silvestris and the short-day plant Maryland Mammoth tobacco, the quantitative long-day plant Nicotiana alata and the quantitative short-day plant Nicotiana otophora line 38-G-81, where it was limited to the pedicels (and, in some cases, the sepals). Regardless of the photoperiodic response of the source plants, the response was the same in explants cultured under long and short days. The capacity to form flow buds in explants is present in all Nicotiana biotypes studied supports the idea that it is regulated by the same mechanism(s), regardless of the plant's photoperiodic character. However, flower formation in the explants is not identical with de novo flower formation in a hitherto vegetative plant: it is rather the expression of a floral state already established in the plant, although it can vary widely in extent and spatial distribution. Culture conditions that permit flower-bud formation in an explant are conditions that maintain the floral state and encourage its expression; conditions under which no flower buds are formed reduce this state and/or prevent its expression. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Cholera outbreak caused by drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype ElTor serotype Ogawa in Nepal; a cross-sectional study

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    Pappu Kumar Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. Methods A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering from watery diarrhea during July to December 2012 were obtained from outbreak areas from all over Nepal. Alkaline peptone water and thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS were used to isolate the Vibrio cholerae. The isolates were identified with the help of colony morphology, Gram’s staining, conventional biochemical testing, serotyping and biotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by agar dilution method. Results Vibrio cholerae was isolated from 26.72 % of total samples. All isolated Vibrio cholerae were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae serogoup O1 biotype El Tor and serotype Ogawa. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Twenty nine isolates were resistant toward two different classes of antibiotics, one strain was resistant to three different classes of antibiotics and one strain was resistant to four different classes of antibiotics. According to the definition of the multidrug resistant bacteria; 6.45 % of the strains of Vibrio cholerae were found to be multidrug resistant. Conclusions Cholera due to multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae is also possible in Nepal. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae in our study we recommend to use any antibiotics among tetracycline, doxycycline, levofloxacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin for preliminary treatment of cholera in Nepal.

  3. Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) and climate change: the effect of CO2concentration, temperature, and water deficit on growth and reproduction of two biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will have a considerable impact upon the processes that moderate weed invasion, in particular to that of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). This study evaluated the performance of two Australian biotypes of parthenium weed under a range of environmental conditions including soil moisture (100 and 50% of field capacity), atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration (390 and 550 ppm), and temperature (35/20 and 30/15 °C/day/night). Measurements were taken upon growth, reproductive output, seed biology (fill, viability and dormancy) and soil seed longevity. Parthenium weed growth and seed output were significantly increased under the elevated CO 2 concentration (550 ppm) and in the cooler (30/15 °C) and wetter (field capacity) conditions. However, elevated CO 2 concentration could not promote growth or seed output when the plants were grown under the warmer (35/20 °C) and wetter conditions. Warm temperatures accelerated the growth of parthenium weed, producing plants with greater height biomass but with a shorter life span. Warm temperatures also affected the reproductive output by promoting both seed production and fill, and promoting seed longevity. Dryer soil conditions (50% of field capacity) also promoted the reproductive output, but did not retain high seed fill or promote seed longevity. Therefore, the rising temperatures, the increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the longer periods of drought predicted under climate change scenarios are likely to substantially enhance the growth and reproductive output of these two Australian parthenium weed biotypes. This may facilitate the further invasion of this noxious weed in tropical and sub-tropical natural and agro-ecosystems.

  4. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  5. Fotossíntese de biótipos de azevém sob condição de competição Photosynthesis of ryegrass biotypes under different competition levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As características associadas à atividade fotossintética de biótipos de azevém, resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glyphosate, foram avaliadas sob diferentes níveis de competição entre biótipos. O experimento foi realizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com dois biótipos de azevém, resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate, cultivados em planta única no centro da parcela, competindo com zero, um, dois, três ou quatro plantas do biótipo oposto. Cinqüenta dias após a emergência, foram determinadas a taxa de fluxo de gases pelos estômatos (U - µmol s-1, a concentração de CO2 subestomática (Ci - µmol mol-1 e a taxa fotossintética (A - µmol m-2 s-1, sendo calculado ainda o CO2 consumido (ΔC - µmol mol-1 a partir dos valores de CO2 de referência e CO2 na câmara de avaliação. Os dados foram coletados utilizando-se analisador de gases no infravermelho (IRGA, marca ADC, modelo LCA 4. Foi elaborada matriz de correlação entre as variáveis. Os biótipos de azevém resistente e suscetível ao glyphosate não diferiram quanto à atividade fotossintética na ausência de competição. No entanto, a taxa fotossintética foi reduzida com o aumento na intensidade de competição com plantas do biótipo oposto, tanto para o biótipo resistente como para o suscetível, e também para o biótipo resistente quando em competição com plantas do mesmo biótipo. Atribuiu-se tal comportamento ao aumento no sombreamento mútuo e à competição por luz.Characteristics associated with photosynthetic activity of ryegrass biotypes, susceptible and resistant to glyphosate, were evaluated under different competition levels. The experiment was installed in a factorial design, with two ryegrass biotypes, susceptible and resistant to glyphosate, growing in the plot center, surrounded by 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 plants of the opposite biotype. Fifty days after emergence, stomatal gas flow rate (U µmol s¹, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci - µmol mol-1

  6. Crescimento diferencial de biótipos de Conyza SPP. resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glifosato Differential growth of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Conyza SPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Sala Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar, em condição controlada e não-competitiva, o crescimento de biótipos de Conyza canadensis e C. bonariensis resistente e suscetível ao herbicida glifosato, a fim de quantificar os efeitos da pressão de seleção para resistência nos biótipos. Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos com tratamentos organizados em esquema fatorial 9 x 2, com nove avaliações periódicas de crescimento e dois biótipos de cada espécie. As variáveis avaliadas por planta foram: área foliar; massa seca da parte aérea, das raízes e total, obtendo-se, a partir desta última, a taxa de crescimento absoluto. O biótipo de C. canadensis resistente ao glifosato possui crescimento mais lento, menor acúmulo de área foliar e de massa seca que o biótipo suscetível. Menores áreas foliar e massa seca também foram registradas para o biótipo de C. bonariensis resistente ao glifosato quando comparado ao suscetível, porém com diferenças mais sutis que aquelas constatadas para C. canadensis. O crescimento absoluto do biótipo suscetível foi superior ao do resistente em ambas as espécies. A pressão de seleção para resistência ao glifosato teve impactos negativos na habilidade de crescimento dos biótipos.This work was carried out with the objective of comparing, under controlled and non-competitive condition, the growth of glyphosate-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis; to quantify the effects of resistance selection pressure on the biotypes. Two trials were developed with treatments organized according to a factorial scheme 9 x 2, where nine were periodical growth evaluations and two were biotypes of each species. The variables evaluated per plant were: leaf area and dry mass (shoot, root and total; to determine absolute growth rate from the total dry mass. The glyphosate-resistant biotype of C. canadensis exhibits slower growth and smaller accumulation of leaf area

  7. Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) Collected from Hydrilla Verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha- and ß-diversity values indicated that the chironomid communities on aquatic plants from Lake Bisina and Lake Tanganyika (Burundi) were markedly different. Studies of chironomids and other invertebrates associated with macrophytes in other African lakes will add significantly to knowledge of the natural history of ...

  8. Evaluation of an experimental and commercial state-of-the-art vaccine against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout by waterborne challenge with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer

    has been compared to a state-of-the-art commercial ERM immersion vaccine (AquaVac® ReleraTM). Un-vaccinated and sham vaccinated rainbow trout were included as controls. Two months post vaccination the rainbow trout were challenged in duplicate with Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 2 by bath. No effect...... of the experimental immersion or bath vaccine was observed in the present study. However, full protection was achieved with i.p. injection of the experimental vaccine (p

  9. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MALDI BioTyper in comparison to 16S rDNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria isolated from Arctic sea water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Timperio

    Full Text Available MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry in association with the MALDI BioTyper 3.1 software has been evaluated for the identification and classification of 45 Arctic bacteria isolated from Kandalaksha Bay (White Sea, Russia. The high reliability of this method has been already demonstrated, in clinical microbiology, by a number of studies showing high attribution concordance with other credited analyses. Recently, it has been employed also in other branches of microbiology with controversial performance. The phyloproteomic results reported in this study were validated with those obtained by the "gold standard" 16S rDNA analysis. Concordance between the two methods was 100% at the genus level, while at the species level it was 48%. These percentages appeared to be quite high compared with other studies regarding environmental bacteria. However, the performance of MALDI BioTyper changed in relation to the taxonomical group analyzed, reflecting known identification problems related to certain genera. In our case, attribution concordance for Pseudomonas species was rather low (29%, confirming the problematic taxonomy of this genus, whereas that of strains from other genera was quite high (> 60%. Among the isolates tested in this study, two strains (Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans and Pseudomonas costantinii were misidentified by MALDI BioTyper due to absence of reference spectra in the database. Accordingly, missing spectra were acquired for the database implementation.

  10. Transcriptomic dynamics in soybean near-isogenic lines differing in alleles for an aphid resistance gene, following infestation by soybean aphid biotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Cassone, Bryan J; Wijeratne, Asela; Jun, Tae-Hwan; Michel, Andrew P; Mian, M A Rouf

    2017-06-23

    Genetic resistance of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] against Aphis glycines provides effective management of this invasive pest, though the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate genome-wide changes in gene expressions of soybean near-isogenic lines (NILs) either with the Rag5 allele for resistance or the rag5 allele for susceptibility to the aphid following infestation with soybean aphid biotype 2. The resistant (R)-NIL responded more rapidly to aphid infestation than the susceptible (S)-NIL, with differential expressions of 2496 genes during first 12 h of infestation (hai), compared to the aphid-free control. Although the majority of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the R-NIL also responded to aphid infestation in S-NIL, overall the response time was longer and/or the magnitude of change was smaller in the S-NIL. In addition, 915 DEGs in R-NIL continued to be regulated at all time points (0, 6, 12, and 48 hai), while only 20 DEGs did so in S-NIL. Enriched gene ontology of the 2496 DEGs involved in plant defense responses including primary metabolite catalysis, oxidative stress reduction, and phytohormone-related signaling. By comparing R- vs. S-NIL, a total of 556 DEGs were identified. Of the 13 genes annotated in a 120-kb window of the Rag5 locus, two genes (Glyma.13 g190200 and Glyma.13 g190600) were differentially expressed (upregulated in S- or R-NIL), and another gene (Glyma.13 g190500) was induced up to 4-fold in the R-NIL at 6 and 12 h following aphid infestation. This study strengthens our understanding of the defense dynamics in compatible and incompatible interactions of soybean and soybean aphid biotype 2. Several DEGs (e.g., Glyma.13 g190200, Glyma.13 g190500, and Glyma.13 g190600) near the Rag5 locus are strong candidate genes for further investigations.

  11. Identificación y tipificación de biotipos y serotipos de Yersinia enterocolitica Identification and typing of Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes and serotypes isolated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Elizalde Castañeda

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la existencia de Yersinia enterocolitica en suínos visiblemente sanos y sacrificados para el consumo humano. MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 100 muestras de tejido linfático obtenidas en el momento del sacrifício, en un matadero del Estado de México. Fueron realizados muestreos pilotos de 20 casos, de los cuales 20% fueron positivos, permitiendo obtener una muestra estudiada (n=100. Las muestras colectadas de tejido linfático fueron acondicionadas para el aislamiento de Yersinia enterocolitica en caldo de Rappaport y en medio de cultivo de Salmonella-Shigella y MacConkey. Las identificaciones fueron efectuadas por medio de pruebas bioquímicas y serológicas, utilizándose en el caso los antisueros O:3, O:8 y O:9 para la biotipificación correspondiente. RESULTADOS: Fueron obtenidos 22 aislamientos tipificándose 8 serotipos pertenecientes al O:3 y 8 al O:9 correspondientes al biotipo 1; y, en 6 muestras no fue posible la serotipificación. No se encontró en el total de los aislados el serotipo O:8. CONCLUSIONES: En base en la metodología, se registró la presencia de Y. enterocolitica y sus serogrupos en tejido linfático de porcinos por la primera vez en México; esto es importante porque el patógeno y sus serotipos aislados están comprometidos con mayor frecuencia con problemas de salud pública.OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica in otherwise healthy pigs slaughtered for human consumption. METHODS: One hundred pharyngeal tonsils were sampled in a slaughterhouse in the state of Mexico. The minimum sample size (n=100 was calculated based on a preliminary sample of 20 cases, which had 20% positive cases. The collected tonsil samples were inoculated in Rappaport broth, and Salmonella-Shigella and McConkey media. The biotyping identification process was based on biochemical and serological tests using O:3, O:8 and O:9 antisera. RESULTS: Twenty-two isolates were obtained. Most were biotype 1 (8 cases

  12. Suscetibilidade de biótipos de arroz-vermelho e de cultivares de arroz irrigado ao herbicida imazethapyr Susceptibility of red rice biotypes and commercial rice cultivars to imazethapyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.B. Dornelles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a suscetibilidade de biótipos de arroz-vermelho(Oryza sativa e cultivares comerciais de arroz ao herbicida imazethapyr, realizou-se um ensaio em casa de vegetação com cinco biótipos de arroz-vermelho (acessos Santa Maria 5, Pelotas 3, Rio Pardo 1, Manoel Viana 2 e Catuçaba 1, dois cultivares comerciais de arroz: Clearfield® (IRGA 422 CL e Puitá INTA CL e um cultivar convencional (IRGA 417. Utilizou-se a metodologia de curvas de dose-resposta proposta por Seefeldt et al. (1995. A metodologia de curvas de resposta foi gerada a partir dos parâmetros do modelo logístico e dos valores de I50. Os biótipos de arroz-vermelho e os cultivares foram submetidos a seis doses do herbicida imazethapyr (0; 33,12; 66,25; 132,5; 265,0; e 530,0 g i.a. ha-1. As plantas de arroz foram contadas e coletadas no 20º dia após a aplicação dos tratamentos. A análise do percentual de dano foi realizada através de avaliação visual da fitointoxicação (%, massa verde e massa seca das plantas. Analisando as curvas e os resultados da análise da variância, pode-se inferir que os cultivares Clearfield Irga 422 CL e Puitá INTA CL foram significativamente iguais ao biótipo de arroz-vermelho Catuçaba 1, resistindo a doses de imazethapyr superiores à recomendada em campo para o sistema Clearfield®. Os biótipos Manoel Viana 2, Santa Maria 5 e Pelotas 3 agruparam-se com o cultivar convencional IRGA 417, sendo suscetíveis à dose comercial do herbicida. O biótipo Rio Pardo 1 também é resistente ao herbicida imazethapyr, porém menos resistente que o biótipo Catuçaba 1.To evaluate the susceptibility of biotypes of red rice (Oryza sativa and commercial rice cultivars to the herbicide imazethapyr, a greenhouse assay was conducted with five red rice biotypes (accesses Santa Maria 5, Pelotas 3, Rio Pardo 1, 2 and Manoel Viana Catuçaba 1, two commercial rice cultivars: Clearfield ® (Irga CL 422 and CL Puit INTA, and a conventional cultivar (Irga

  13. Insecticidal activity against Bemisia tabaci biotype B of peel essential oil of Citrus sinensis var. pear and Citrus aurantium cultivated in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Nicolle de Carvalho; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; Born, Flávia de Souza; de Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu

    2010-11-01

    The fumigant action of peel essential oils of Citrus sinensis var. pear (pear orange = PO) and C. aurantium (bitter orange = BO) from the northeast of Brazil were evaluated against Bemisia tabaci biotype B and compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oil concentration in the PO at 8.5 microL/L of air caused 97% mortality, while the oil concentration of BO at 9.5 microL/L of air caused 99% mortality. However, the LC50 estimates for both oils (LC50 = 3.80 microL/L of air for PO and LC50 = 5.80 microL/L of air for BO) did not differ from each other, but they did when compared with eugenol (LC50 = 0.20 microL/L of air). Regarding their effects on oviposition, the Citrus oils showed concentration-response dependence, reducing the number of eggs as the concentration increased, which was not observed for eugenol. The minimum concentrations of the oils that caused a significant reduction in the egg lay were 3.5 and 7.0 microL/L of air for BO and PO, respectively. These results suggest that oils from PO and BO peels may be promising as models to develop new insecticides that might be applied into the integrated management of whiteflies.

  14. An Evaluation of the Effect of Periodontal Biotype on Inter-Dental Papilla Proportions, Distances Between Facial and Palatal Papillae in the Maxillary Anterior Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arshia Jameel; Nichani, Ashish S; Venugopal, Ranganath

    2017-08-03

    Gingival esthetics are an essential segment of facial beauty. The aim of the present study was to clinically assess the impact of periodontal biotype (PB), the length between the base of interproximal contact area and the interproximal bone crest (CP-BC), the distance between the facial and palatal papillae (DFPP), and papillary proportions (PP) on the presence of interdental papillae (PIP). 80 patients aged 18 to 60 years were recruited for study. PB and CP-BC were evaluated clinically. Alginate impressions of maxillary arches were made, and DFPPs were measured using a digital Vernier caliper. The impressions were later poured in dental stone, and PP were calculated. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis for correlation among the variables. A greater proportion of individuals who had a thick PB (77.7%) had significantly higher amounts of PIP than did patients with thin PB (60.7%) (p < 0.01). A strong significant positive correlation was found between PIP in thick PB patients and DFPP (p < 0.01, r = 0.56); DFPP and PP (p < 0.01, r = 0.61). A strong negative correlation was seen between PIP in thin PB and DFPP (p < 0.01, r = -0.67). According to the results of this study, PB affected the heights and presence of maxillary interdental papillae by affecting papilla proportion and distances between the facial and palatal papillae. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. A new biotype of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 emerged by a transposon-driven mutation of avirulence gene AVR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Sato, Akira; Akai, Kotaro; Teraoka, Tohru; Komatsu, Ken; Arie, Tsutomu

    2016-07-01

    Emergence of races in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is caused by loss or mutation of at least one avirulence (AVR) gene. The product of AVR1 is a small protein (Avr1) secreted by Fol in tomato xylem sap during infection. This protein triggers Fol race 1 specific resistance (I) in tomato, indicating that AVR1 is an AVR gene. Deletion of AVR1 in race 1 resulted in the emergence of race 2, and an additional mutation in AVR2 generated race 3. Previously, we reported a new biotype of race 3, KoChi-1, in which AVR1 was truncated by a transposon Hormin, which suggested a new route to evolution of races in Fol However, to date no race 2 isolate carrying Hormin-truncated AVR1 has been reported. In this report, we describe such isolates, represented by Chiba-5, in which Hormin insertion occurred in AVR1 at a position different from that in KoChi-1. AVR1 truncation in both isolates resulted in production of defective Avr1 proteins. Chiba-5 and KoChi-1 belong to different phylogenetic clades, A1 and A2, respectively, suggesting that insertion of Hormin in AVR1 in Chiba-5 and KoChi-1 occurred as independent evolutionary events. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Novos acessos de tomateiro resistentes à mosca-branca biótipo B New accessions of tomato resistant to whitefly biotype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa de Sena Fernandes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar novas fontes de resistência a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, entre 34 acessos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, do Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças da UFV. Avaliaram-se os números de adultos, ovos e ninfas por planta, além da densidade de tricomas. Detectaram-se diferenças entre os acessos nas variáveis avaliadas. Os acessos BGH-166, BGH-616, BGH-850, BGH-990, BGH-2102 e BGH-2125 apresentaram menor número de adultos, ovos e ninfas por planta e tiveram menor densidade de tricomas. A resistência dos acessos de tomate à mosca-branca foi associada a uma menor densidade de tricomas.The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance to Bemisia tabaci biotype B in 34 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum accessions from the Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças of UFV. The number of adults, eggs and nymphs per plant besides of trichome density were evaluated. Differences between accessions were found for the evaluated variables. Accessions BGH-166, BGH-616, BGH-850, BGH-990, BGH-2102 and BGH-2125 presented less infestation of adults, eggs and nymphs per plant and showed lower trichome density. The resistance of these tomato accessions to whitefly was associated to a lower trichome density.

  17. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  18. Influence of periodontal biotype on buccal bone remodeling after tooth extraction using the flapless approach with a xenograft: a histomorphometric and fluorescence study in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Luciana Prado; Reino, Danilo Maeda; Novaes Junior, Arthur Belém; Muglia, Valdir Antonio; Taba Junior, Mário; Grisi, Márcio Fernando de Morais; Souza, Sérgio Luís Scombatti de; Palioto, Daniela Bazan

    2015-01-01

    Several approaches have been used to counteract alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gingival thickness and bone grafting on buccal bone remodeling in extraction sockets with thin buccal bone, using a flapless approach. The gingiva of 8 dogs was thinned at one side of the mandible and mandibular premolars were extracted without flaps. The sockets were randomly assigned to the test group (thin gingiva) (TG), the test group with grafting material TG + GM, the control group (normal gingiva) (CG), or the control group with grafting material CG + GM. Ground sections were prepared from 12-week healing biopsies, and histomorphometry and fluorescence analysis were performed. In the groups with thin gingiva, numerically greater buccal bone loss was observed, while there were no differences between grafted and nongrafted sites. A numerically higher rate of mineralization was observed for the grafted sites, as compared with the nongrafted sites, at 12 weeks. A thin buccal bone plate leads to higher bone loss in extraction sockets, even with flapless surgery. The gingival thickness or the use of a graft material did not prevent buccal bone resorption in a naturally thin biotype, but modified the mineralization process. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  20. Retrospective Analysis of the Correlation Between the Facial Biotype and the Inclination of the Upper Canine Cusp Axis to the Occlusal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, L; DE Angelis, F; Orefici, A; Cielo, A; Tatullo, M

    2016-01-01

    Permanent maxillary canines are the second most frequently impacted teeth and the prevalence of this clinical condition is estimated to be 1-2% in the general population. The diagnosis of maxillary canine impaction should be based on both clinical and radiographic examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of a correlation between the facial biotype and the inclination of the upper cusp axis. A correlation between the total radicular length of the lateral incisors was also evaluated, by comparing the side of impaction with the healthy side. Twenty three patients with a diagnosis of unilateral upper cusp impaction were recruited. For each patient, dental casts and radiographic material (panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms) were examined. Statistical analyses were done with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient or Spearman's rho (ρ). X-ray examinations demonstrated that canine impaction was associated to other dental anomalies (32% of the sample). The mean α angle measurements were 22.9° ± 4.1°, and mean values of the β angle were 34.7°± 4.0°. The mean distance "d" value was 14.6 mm ± 1.2 mm. The mean values of the angle between the upper cusp axis and the perpendicular-to-Fh plane were 20.8° ± 2.6°. Among the 23 subjects recruited, 5 showed values included in the range 25°-45° and 1 an inclination > 45°. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate a significant inverse correlation between the MM angle and the inclination of the upper cusp axis to the perpendicular-to-Fh plane.

  1. Survey of indigenous entomopathogenic fungi and evaluation of their pathogenicity against the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.), and the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Emine; Erler, Fedai; Gumrukcu, Emine

    2016-12-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, and the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, are serious pests of both field- and greenhouse-grown crops in south-western Turkey. Control of these pests has been heavily dependent upon chemical pesticides. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of indigenous entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) in field populations of T. cinnabarinus and B. tabaci, and to evaluate their pathogenicity against these pests. For this purpose, a survey of EPF isolated from field-collected samples of both pests was carried out in Antalya in 2010 and 2011 using the dilution plating method. Four indigenous Beauveria bassiana isolates (TUR1-B, TUR2-B, FIN1-B, FIN2-B) were recovered. In pathogenicity bioassays with T. cinnabarinus and B. tabaci biotype B, all the isolates tested were pathogenic to some of the biological stages of both pests to varying degrees. FIN1-B and TUR1-B caused mortalities of up to 50 and 45%, respectively, in adults of T. cinnabarinus, and of over 79 and 37%, respectively, in pupae of B. tabaci with 10 7 conidia mL -1 suspensions under laboratory conditions 10 days after inoculation. FIN2-B and TUR2-B had mortalities of 19.45 and 12.28%, respectively, in adults of T. cinnabarinus, and of 6.78 and 8.18%, respectively, in pupae of B. tabaci. None of the isolates had an effect on eggs of either species and larvae of the mite. Overall results suggest that isolates FIN1-B and TUR1-B have potential for management of T. cinnabarinus and B. tabaci. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Efficacy of a Blend of Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Surface Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Bullard, Britteny R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Bred; Belk, Keith E

    2017-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a sulfuric acid-sodium sulfate blend (SSS) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli biotype I on prerigor beef surface tissue. The suitability of using the nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate for in-plant validation studies was also determined by comparing the data obtained for the nonpathogenic inoculum with those for the pathogenic inocula. Prerigor beef tissue samples (10 by 10 cm) were inoculated (ca. 6 log CFU/cm 2 ) on the adipose side in a laboratory-scale spray cabinet with multistrain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 (5 strains), non-O157 STEC (12 strains), Salmonella (6 strains), or E. coli biotype I (5 strains). Treatment parameters evaluated were two SSS pH values (1.5 and 1.0) and two spray application pressures (13 and 22 lb/in 2 ). Untreated inoculated beef tissue samples served as controls for initial bacterial populations. Overall, the SSS treatments lowered inoculated (6.1 to 6.4 log CFU/cm 2 ) bacterial populations by 0.6 to 1.5 log CFU/cm 2 (P coli inocula; however, solution pH did have a significant effect (P coli inoculum to the SSS treatments was similar (P ≥ 0.05) to that of the pathogenic inocula tested, making the E. coli biotype I strains viable surrogate organisms for in-plant validation of SSS efficacy on beef. The application of SSS at the tested parameters to prerigor beef surface tissue may be an effective intervention for controlling pathogens in a commercial beef harvest process.

  3. Distribuição de glyphosate e acúmulo de nutrientes em biótipos de azevém Glyphosate distribution and nutrient accumulation in ryegrass biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2008-03-01

    produto.This work aimed to evaluate nutrient accumulation and glyphosate translocation in ryegrass biotypes. Two trials were conducted: in the first, 10 uL of 14C-glyphosate ware applied on the upper side of the first leaf showing completely visible ligule, with ryegrass plants at the three-tiller stage. The amount of glyphosate absorbed, translocated and exudated was evaluated 64 hours after application, by using a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Glyphosate was quantified in the leaf it had been applied, in the tillers, roots and in the nutritive solution the plants were grown. In the second trial, glyphosate was applied on the resistant and the susceptible biotypes at the rate of 480 g L-1. Ten days after application, the shoot and roots were collected and oven-dried and the levels of macronutrients were determined. In the first trial, root exudation was observed in both biotypes, in which the amount of exudated glyphosate was similar and not greater than 5% of the absorbed glyphosate. In the main tiller of the susceptible biotype, a higher concentration of 14C-glyphosate was observed, compared to the resistant one. The resistant biotype showed more glyphosate accumulation in the leaf it had been applied and in the susceptible biotype; most 14-C glyphosate was found in the root system. In the second trial, the susceptible biotype showed less P accumulation than the resistant one. Both the resistant and susceptible biotypes tended to accumulate more total N and inorganic N in the shoot and in the whole plant in the absence of glyphosate, compared to the applied treatments. Both biotypes presented the same absorption capacity and macronutrients accumulation in the absence of the glyphosate.

  4. Effect of dose and application site on quinclorac absorption by barnyardgrass biotypes Efeito de dose e local de aplicação na absorção de quinclorac em biótipos de capim-arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the uptake and translocation of quinclorac in function of application sites (shoot or roots by Echinochloa crusgalli biotypes resistant and susceptible to this herbicide. The treatments consisted of quinclorac doses (0; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 16 and 64 ppm, applied on the shoot or roots of seedlings of barnyardgrass biotypes. The experimental units consisted of plastic cups containing 250 cm³ of sand. The treatments were applied 10 days after emergence, when barnyardgrass plants reached a 2- to 3- leaf growth stage. The barnyardgrass biotypes were irrigated with nutritive solution weekly and maintained for 40 days after emergence, when length, fresh and dry matter of shoot and roots were evaluated. Variance analysis was carried out using the F test at 5% probability, and in case of significance, a non-linear regression analysis was also carried out using a three-parameter logistic model. In the susceptible biotype, quinclorac was more absorbed by the roots than by the shoot. Comparing dry mass production of the different plant parts of the susceptible biotype per application site, it was verified that quinclorac action is higher when applied to the plant roots. However, for the resistant biotype, it was not possible to determine the dose causing 50% reduction in dry mass accumulation (GR50 and in the resistance index (RI between both biotypes, due to its high resistance to quinclorac (128 times the recommended dosage. The results showed that quinclorac resistance by the evaluated biotype is not due to differences in the absorption site, strongly suggesting that the resistance acquired by the biotype may result from alteration in the target site.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a absorção e a translocação do quinclorac em função dos locais de aplicação (parte aérea ou raiz em biótipos de capim-arroz (Echinochloa crusgalli resistente e suscetível a esse herbicida. Os tratamentos foram compostos por doses de

  5. Habilidade competitiva de plantas de arroz com biótipos de capim-arroz resistente ou suscetível ao quinclorac Competitive ability of rice plants with barnyardgrass biotypes resistant or susceptible to quinclorac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tironi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a habilidade competitiva de plantas de arroz cultivar BRS Pelota com biótipos de capim-arroz resistente ou suscetível ao herbicida quinclorac. Para isso, foi instalado experimento em casa de vegetação, em delineamento completamente casualizado com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 6. As unidades experimentais constaram de vasos plásticos contendo 10 dm³ de solo, cujo pH e nível de nutrientes foram previamente corrigidos. Os tratamentos consistiram na competição entre uma planta de arroz, cultivar BRS Pelota, com populações (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas por vaso dos biótipos de capim-arroz resistente (ECH-13 ou suscetível (ECH-12 ao herbicida quinclorac. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 40 dias após emergência, sendo avaliados; massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, taxa de crescimento (TC, área foliar específica (AFE, razão de massa foliar (RMF, razão de área foliar (RAF e índice de área foliar (IAF. A interferência no desenvolvimento do cultivar de arroz BRS Pelota foi proporcionalmente maior com o aumento da população de ambos os biótipos de capim-arroz. Os biótipos apresentaram, em geral, habilidade competitiva similar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of the rice cultivar BRS Pelota with biotypes resistant or susceptible to the herbicide Quinclorac. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized design with four replications, with the treatments arranged in a 2 x 6 factorial. The experimental units consisted of plastic pots containing 10 dm³ of soil, with pH and nutrient level being previously corrected. The treatments consisted of a competition between a rice plant, BRS Pelota cultivar, with populations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 plants per pot of the barnyardgrass biotypes resistant (ECH-13 or susceptible (ECH -12 to the herbicide Quinclorac. The evaluations were performed

  6. Applicability of an in-House Saponin-Based Extraction Method in Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Species in Positively Flagged Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yien Chien

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We used an in-house saponin-based extraction method to evaluate the performance of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS system for the identification of bacteria and fungi in 405 positively flagged blood culture bottles. Results obtained from MALDI-TOF/MS were compared with those obtained using conventional phenotypic identification methods. Of the 405 positively flagged blood culture bottles, 365 showed monomicrobal growth and were correctly identified to the species (72.1% or genus (89.6% level using the Bruker Biotyper system. The remaining 40 positively flagged blood culture bottles showed polymicrobial growth. Of them, 82.5% (n=33 of the isolates were correctly identified to the species level and 92.5% (n=37 to the genus level using the Bruker Biotyper system. The overall accuracy of identification to the genus level in flagged blood cultures was 89.5% for Gram-positive organisms, 93.5% for Gram-negative pathogens and 71.9% for fungi. Confidence scores were 1.500 for 307 (75.8% bottles, 1.700 for 249 (61.5% bottles and 2.000 for 142 (35.1% bottles. None of the yeast cultures yielded scores 1.700. Using an identification-score cutoff of 1.500, the MALDI Biotyper correctly identified 99.2% of Gram-positive bacteria, 97.6% of Gram-negative bacteria and 100% of yeast isolates to the genus level and 77.6% of Gram-positive bacteria, 87.1% of Gram-negative bacteria and 100.0% of yeast isolates to the species level. The overall rate of identification using our protocol was 89.9% (364/405 for genus level identification and 73.1% (296/405 for species level identification. Yeast isolates yielded the lowest confidence scores, which compromised the accuracy of identification. Further optimization of the protein extraction procedure in positive blood cultures is needed to improve the rate of identification.

  7. Identificação de biótipos de Bidens spp. resistentes aos inibidores da ALS através de teste germinativo Identification of Bidens spp. biotypes resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides through germinative test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2004-09-01

    B idens subalternans populations resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides have been reported in different soybean areas of Brazil. This research aimed to develop a methodology to identify Bidens spp. biotypes resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides through germinative tests in herbicide solutions. The work was divided into three phases consisting of independent experiments. The first phase consisted of dose-response curves prepared for a susceptible biotype of Bidens spp., germinated in solutions of four pre-emergence herbicides (flumetsulan, diclosulan, imazaquin and metribuzin. The objective of this phase was to select the herbicides best adapted to the methodology, by using the following rates: 2C, 1C, 1/2C, 1/4C, 1/8C, 1/16C, 1/32C, 1/64C and water (where C = recommended rate. The second phase consisted of dose-response curves prepared for the herbicides selected in the first phase (imazaquin and metribuzin using a resistant biotype, to identify the dose providing the largest response range between the biotypes. The third phase consisted of a comparative test between three resistant and one susceptible biotypes, exposed to germination in the solutions of the herbicides chosen in the first phase, applying the doses chosen in the second phase. The resistant Bidens spp. biotypes demonstrated a better capacity to develop roots in imazaquin herbicide solution (87 mg L-1,than the susceptible biotype, a fact that proves the method's applicability. The methodology applied to identify Bidens spp. resistant biotypes through germinative tests in herbicide solution is a fast and efficient alternative for biotype identification.

  8. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  9. Degree of resistance of hetero- and homozygous resistant genotypes of a target-site resistant blackgrass biotype (haplotype Leu1781 in dose-response experiments with clethodim and cycloxydim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner, Jean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In dose-response experiments and by molecular analyses the reaction of a black grass biotype (Alopecurus myosuroides with target site resistance to ACCase inhibitors (Ile1781-Leu was examined for the response to clethodim and cycloxydim and compared to the responses of the homozygous and heterozygous subpopulations. To decipher the population into the homo- and heterozygous sub-populations, individual plants of the resistant biotype were analyzed for the haplotype Leu1781 by means of SNP analytics (pyrosequencing. For the entire population, significant different resistance factors (RF of 8 and 153 resulted for clethodim and cycloxydim, respectively. For the heterozygous sub-population a RF of 6 was estimated for clethodim and 118 for cycloxydim. For the homozygous sub-population a RF of 10 for clethodim and 136 for cycloxydim was estimated. The RF between the homo- and heterozygous sub-populations for each herbicide were, however, not significantly different. Despite this, a tendency of the heterozygous sub-population being less resistant was indicated. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the selection of resistance depends not only on the herbicide used, but on the frequency of the genotypes in a field population. Furthermore, the significant different reaction of black grass with the haplotype 1781 to both tested herbicides reflects the meaning of the individual constellation of active ingredient, resistance mechanisms and genotype for selection and spread of resistance.

  10. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes; Aspectos biologicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em seis genotipos de feijoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriani, Maria A. de G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Vendramin, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Brunherotto, Rogerio [Fundacao Municipal de Ensino Superior de Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  11. Resistências cruzadas em biótipos de Alisma Plantago-Aquatica resistentes ao bensulfurão-metilo e suas consequências Cross resistance in bensulfuron-methyl resistant Alisma Plantago-Aquatica biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Calha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação repetida de bensulfurão-metilo em arrozais dos vales dos rios Sorraia, Sado e Mondego seleccionaram populações resistentes (R de Alisma plantago-aquatica (Mo260, Sa88, So306 e So307. Determinou-se o nível de resistência (NR= ED50 R/ ED50 S ao bensulfurão-metilo em plantas com 26 dias (6 filódios lineares e com 42 dias (6 filódios expandidos e a resistência cruzada a 14 herbicidas. Confirmou-se que quatro populações eram resistentes e uma (Mo190 era susceptível. Esta população provinha de um campo tratado com bensulfurão-metilo e bentazona anualmente. Os resultados dos ensaios de doseresposta confirmam a maior susceptibilidade ao bensulfurão-metilo, no estado fenológico 116. Apresentaram resistência cruzada a todos os herbicidas inibidores da ALS excepto ao metsulfurão-metilo e ao imazetapir. Obtiveram-se valores de NR de 3 a 315 para azimsulfurão, cinosulfurão e etoxisulfurão. Bentazona, MCPA, oxadiazão e propanil apresentaram NR próximos da unidade, indicando que herbicidas com diferente modo de acção mantiveram a sua eficácia e podem constituir alternativa no combate a populações de A. plantago-aquatica resistentes ao bensulfurão-metilo.The repetitive use of bensulfuron-methyl in rice fields from Sorraia, Sado and Mondego river valleys had selected resistant (R populations of Alisma plantago-aquatica in Portugal, identified as So306, So307, Sa88, Mo190; Mo260, respectively. The response of R-biotypes to bensulfuron-methyl at 26 days after seeding (DAS and 42 DAS and the crossresistance either to ALS- inhibitors or to herbicides with other mode of action, was investigated in dose-response experiments. The results confirmed bensulfuron-methyl resistance in four biotypes, but not in Mo190, which had been also treated with bentazon every year. Younger plants (6 linear phyllodium, BBCH 116 were more susceptible to bensulfuron-merthyl than were older plants (6 expanded phyllodium, BBCH 126. R-biotypes

  12. Resistência de genótipos de feijoeiro a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B Resistance of bean genotypes to Bemisia tabaci biotype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Castro Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de genótipos de feijoeiro resistentes à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae é de grande importância devido aos danos ocasionados por essa praga à cultura. Neste trabalho, foram estudados a atratividade para adultos, a preferência para oviposição em testes com e sem chance de escolha, o ciclo ovo-adulto e o tipo e número de tricomas presentes nos folíolos. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação avaliando-se, inicialmente, cem genótipos de feijoeiro. A resistência do tipo não-preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose foi observada nos genótipos ARC-3, IAC-Alvorada e Canário 101, sendo a emergência de adultos fortemente influenciada pelos genótipos. Também se observou correlação negativa moderada entre o número de ovos e o número de tricomas glandulares, e correlação positiva muito forte entre o número de ovos e o número de tricomas tectores unciformes.The study of bean genotypes resistant to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae has been of great importance due to the damage caused by this pest. In this research, bean genotypes were evaluated regarding attractiveness to whitefly adults, the preference for oviposition in free-choice and non choice tests, egg-to-adult development time and characterized for the presence, type and number of trichomes. The experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions initially evaluating 100 bean genotypes. The non-preference type of resistance for feeding and/or antibiosis was observed in the genotypes ARC-3, IAC-Alvorada and Canário 101, and the emergence of adults was strongly influenced by the genotypes. It was also observed a moderate negative correlation between the number of eggs and the number of glandular trichomes, as well as a very strong positive correlation between the number of eggs and the number of unciform non-glandular trichomes.

  13. Resistência de clones de batata a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B Resistance of potato clones to Bemisia tabaci biotype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur BO Rocha

    2012-03-01

    resistentes a B. tabaci biótipo B.The resistance of 30 potato genotypes to B. tabaci (Genn. biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae was evaluated in three greenhouse experiments. In the first experiment we evaluated the attractiveness, the preference for oviposition and the trichome density in a free-choice test in randomized blocks design with 30 treatments and three replications. In other experiment, no-choice preference for oviposition was evaluated (randomized blocks, nine treatments and five replications. The whitefly egg-adult cycle was monitored using a statistical design in randomized blocks with five replications. In the free-choice test, the genotypes NYL 235-4 and MAC 2 were the most attractive to adults, whereas HPC 5B and BAP 82 presented the lowest number of adults. The genotypes HPC 6R, BACH 4, clone APTA 2135, HPC 9B, BAP 82, 'Baraka' and HPC 5B presented the lowest number of eggs. Clone NYL 235-4 had the greatest number of simple (ST and glandular (GT trichomes, whereas clone CH 2 had the lowest number of ST, and HPC 5B, 'Radosa', 'Cupido', 'Caesar', 'Saginaw Gold', BACH 3 and HPC 1B of GT. There was significant correlation between adult attractiveness and oviposition preference. In the no-choice test, only the genotypes BACH 4, HPC 9B, 'Baraka and 'Achat' remained resistant. Consequently, for these four genotypes non-preference is the oviposition resistance mechanism. The egg adult cycle varied from 34.4 to 36.6 days. For the adult emergence, genotypes BAP 82, 'Baraka' and BACH 4 showed the lowest number of adults emerged, suggesting the presence of antibiosis. Genotypes BAP82, 'Baraka' and BACH 4 were resistant to B. tabaci biotype B.

  14. Identificação de biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate em pomares de maçã Identification of glyphosate-resistant ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2004-12-01

    geral, evidenciam que o biótipo sensível é facilmente controlado com o herbicida glyphosate e pelos demais herbicidas pós-emergentes avaliados, independentemente do estádio vegetativo. Demonstram, ainda, que o biótipo resistente apresenta-se, igualmente ao biótipo sensível, altamente suscetível aos herbicidas com mecanismo de ação distinto daquele do glyphosate. No entanto, o biótipo resistente apresenta baixa resposta ao herbicida glyphosate, mesmo se este for empregado em altas doses, evidenciando ter adquirido resistência a esse produto.Glyphosate is a wide spectrum herbicide used for over 15 years in apple orchards in Vacaria-RS for weed control in rows of trees. Usually, 3 to 4 applications per year are made at a rate of 720 to 1080 g a.e. glyphosate ha-1 (2 to 3 L ha-1 of commercial product. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum is a common weed in orchards and traditionally sensitive to glyphosate. However, in the last years, some ryegrass plants have not been found to show significant toxicity symptoms after treatment with glyphosate, suggesting that they acquired resistance to this product. To evaluate the response of a ryegrass plant population to glyphosate, one field and two greenhouse experiments were carried out. The field experiment treatments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880; 5,760 and 11,520 g a.e. ha-1, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop and diclofop-methyl as standards, sprayed at two different vegetative growth stages of ryegrass. The greenhouse experiments had increasing rates of glyphosate (0; 360; 720; 1,440; 2,880 and 5,760 g a.e. ha-1 plus the above listed check herbicides sprayed on biotypes considered resistant and on plants of one susceptible biotype. In the second greenhouse experiment, glyphosate rates (720; 1,440; 2,880; 720 + 720 and 720 + 1,440 g a.e. ha-1 were sprayed in single and sequential applications, in addition to the herbicides paraquat, glufosinate

  15. The Fatty Acid Regulator FadR Influences the Expression of the Virulence Cascade in the El Tor Biotype of Vibrio cholerae by Modulating the Levels of ToxT via Two Different Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacikova, Gabriela; Lin, Wei; Taylor, Ronald K; Skorupski, Karen

    2017-04-01

    FadR is a master regulator of fatty acid (FA) metabolism that coordinates the pathways of FA degradation and biosynthesis in enteric bacteria. We show here that a ΔfadR mutation in the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae prevents the expression of the virulence cascade by influencing both the transcription and the posttranslational regulation of the master virulence regulator ToxT. FadR is a transcriptional regulator that represses the expression of genes involved in FA degradation, activates the expression of genes involved in unsaturated FA (UFA) biosynthesis, and also activates the expression of two operons involved in saturated FA (SFA) biosynthesis. Since FadR does not bind directly to the toxT promoter, we determined whether the regulation of any of its target genes indirectly influenced ToxT. This was accomplished by individually inserting a double point mutation into the FadR-binding site in the promoter of each target gene, thereby preventing their activation or repression. Although preventing FadR-mediated activation of fabA, which encodes the enzyme that carries out the first step in UFA biosynthesis, did not significantly influence either the transcription or the translation of ToxT, it reduced its levels and prevented virulence gene expression. In the mutant strain unable to carry out FadR-mediated activation of fabA, expressing fabA ectopically restored the levels of ToxT and virulence gene expression. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that V. cholerae FadR influences the virulence cascade in the El Tor biotype by modulating the levels of ToxT via two different mechanisms.IMPORTANCE Fatty acids (FAs) play important roles in membrane lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism in all organisms. In Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the acute intestinal disease cholera, they also influence virulence by binding into an N-terminal pocket of the master virulence regulator, ToxT, and modulating its activity. FadR is a transcription factor

  16. Parâmetros biológicos de Bemisia Tabaci (genn. biótipo B (hemiptera: aleyrodidae em genótipos de algodoeiro Biological parameters of Bemisia Tabaci B biotype on cotton genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneide Ribeiro Campos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é uma praga de grande importância econômica para muitas culturas em todo o mundo. No Brasil, especialmente no Estado da Bahia, essa praga causou perdas que variam entre 30% e 70% em cultura de algodão. Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros biológicos de B. tabaci biótipo B em genótipos de algodoeiro para verificar a possível ocorrência de antibiose como mecanismo de resistência sob condições de casa de vegetação. Os genótipos estudados foram IAC-23, Coodetec 406, BRS Aroeira, Fabrika, Coodetec 407, IAC-24, Makina, IAC 20-233, Coodetec 401 e CNPA Acala I. Foram avaliados os períodos de incubação e ninfal, o desenvolvimento total e a longevidade. Dos genótipos avaliados observou-se em Coodetec 406 maior período ninfal (14,7 dias e IAC-23 a menor viabilidade de ninfas (30,7%, indicando a ocorrência de resistência do tipo antibiose contra essa mosca-branca.The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype is an important pest of many crops throughout the world. In Brazil, specifically in the Bahia State, this insect caused losses estimated to 30-70% on cotton crops. The purpose of this research was to investigate biological parameters of the silverleaf whitefly biotype B in genotype of cotton bush to verify a possible occurrence of antibiosis as resistance mechanism cotton, under greenhouse conditions. The duration of the egg and nymphal stages, and the adult longevity of B. tabaci biotype B were evaluated in the genotypes IAC-23, Coodetec 406, BRS Aroeira, Fabrika, Coodetec 407, IAC-24, Makina, IAC 20-233, Coodetec 401 and CNPA Acala I. Among those evaluated genotypes, Coodetec 406 increased the nymph stage (14.7 days and IAC-23 reduced the nymphal viability (30.7%, suggesting the occurrence of antibiosis against this whitefly.

  17. Análise do risco da ocorrência de biotipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas The risk of finding herbicide resistant weed biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas A. Vidal

    1997-01-01

    biotype depends on two aspects : the probability of selecting a herbicide resistant mutant, and the probability of spreading the resistance in the area. The objectives of this work were to study factors that control the probability of selecting a herbicide resista NT mutant, and to predict the risk of selecting a resistant plant. The factors that control the probability of selecting a herbicide resistant mutant are grouped in three categories: those related to the genetics of resistance, those related to the number of plants under selection, and thoserelated to the herbicide. The genetics of resistance is governed by the initial frequency of the resista nt allele, dominance of the gene, and type of species pollination. The number of plants under selection depend on size of the herbicide treated area and weed density. The factors related to the herbicide are its mechanism of action, and frequency of use of the same mechanism of action in the area. Computer simulations indicate great risk of occurrence of a resistant mutant in áreas with high weed density, mainly those sprayed with herbicides whose mechanisms of action present history of high initial frequency of the resistant trait on the weed populations.

  18. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  19. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Vacuum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Eichmeier, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen experts from the electronics industry, research institutes and universities have joined forces to prepare this book. ""Vacuum Electronics"" covers the electrophysical fundamentals, the present state of the art and applications, as well as the future prospects of microwave tubes and systems, optoelectronics vacuum devices, electron and ion beam devices, light and X-ray emitters, particle accelerators and vacuum interrupters. These topics are supplemented by useful information about the materials and technologies of vacuum electronics and vacuum technology.

  2. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  3. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically associated with other data and which is intended by the user to serve as a signature;. The suggested new definition for an electronic signature reads as follows: 'electronic signature' means a sound, symbol or process that is (i) uniquely linked to the ...

  4. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    (a) facilitate ecommerce;2. (b) remove and prevent barriers to electronic communications in South Africa;3. (c) ensure that electronic transactions in the Republic conform to the highest international standards;4. (d) promote the development of electronic transactions services which are responsive to the needs of users and ...

  5. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  7. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  8. Bioensaios para identificação de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e da PROTOX Greenhouse and laboratory bioassays for identification of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes with multiple resistance to PROTOX and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Trezzi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro bioensaios, dois em casa de vegetação e dois em laboratório, foram conduzidos com o objetivo de identificar biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e da PROTOX. Em casa de vegetação, plantas do biótipo suscetível (S e dos biótipos 4 e 23, suspeitos de resistência múltipla, foram aspergidas com diferentes doses de imazethapyr e fomesafen. Nos bioensaios em laboratório, sementes dos biótipos S e 4 foram depositadas em placas de Petri contendo diferentes concentrações dos mesmos herbicidas. Curvas de dose-resposta foram ajustadas, utilizando os modelos logístico e polinomial, respectivamente, para os dados obtidos em casa de vegetação e em laboratório. Em casa de vegetação, o fator de resistência (FR a imazethapyr para o biótipo 4 foi superior a 24, enquanto para o biótipo 23 ele foi de 15. Os FRs a fomesafen foram, respectivamente, de 62 e 39, para os mesmos biótipos. Em um período de 144 horas, concentrações de imazethapyr e fomesafen no bioensaio em laboratório foram capazes de discriminar os crescimentos da parte aérea e radicular dos biótipos de EPHHL com resistência múltipla e S. Os resultados confirmam ser tanto os testes em casa de vegetação quanto os laboratoriais, utilizando placas de Petri, metodologias apropriadas para discriminar biótipos de EPHHL S daqueles com resistência múltipla.Four bioassays were developed under greenhouse and laboratory conditions to identify Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL biotypes with multiple resistance to PROTOX and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. In the greenhouse bioassays, plants of a susceptible (S biotype and of two biotypes suspected of multiple resistance (#4 and #23 were sprayed using different levels of the herbicides imazethapyr and fomesafen. The laboratory bioassays consisted of a comparative test between biotypes S and #4, exposed to germination in imazethapyr and fomesafen solutions. Dose

  9. Exigências térmicas e estimativa do número de gerações dos biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda Thermal requirements and estimate of the number of generations of biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a biologia dos biótipos "milho" e "arroz" de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e estimar o número de gerações por ano em laboratório e campo. Foram coletadas lagartas de quatro populações de S. frugiperda no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, identificadas eletroforeticamente como os biótipos "milho" e "arroz", em áreas isoladas, distanciadas entre si em mais de 300 km, produtoras de milho e arroz irrigado e em áreas adjacentes, que produzem milho e arroz irrigado lado a lado. A temperatura mais adequada para o desenvolvimento dos dois biótipos foi 25ºC. Em laboratório, podem ser obtidas 11,0 e 11,3 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "milho" proveniente de áreas isoladas e adjacentes, respectivamente. Foram estimadas 12,1 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "arroz" quando proveniente de áreas isoladas e 12,2 gerações ano-1 quando proveniente de áreas adjacentes. Em campo, estimou-se a ocorrência de 8,3 e 6,1 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "milho", respectivamente, em áreas isoladas e áreas adjacentes e 8,4 e 7,0 gerações ano-1 do biótipo "arroz", respectivamente, em áreas isoladas e áreas adjacentes. Em áreas adjacentes, o biótipo "arroz" apresenta uma geração a mais ao longo de um ano em relação ao biótipo "milho".The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the temperature on the biology of the biotypes "corn" and "rice" of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and to estimate the number of generations per year in laboratory and field. Caterpillars of four populations of S. frugiperda were collected in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, identified by electrophoresis as the biotypes "corn" and "rice" in isolated areas (spaced for more than 300 km, areas of corn and irrigated rice production, as well as in adjacent areas that produces corn and rice irrigated side by side. The most appropriate

  10. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  11. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  14. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  15. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  16. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  17. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  18. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  19. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  20. Electronic Cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentrup, Julie R.; Phillips, Donald B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes activities that use Froot Loops breakfast cereal to help students master the concepts of valence electrons and chemical bonding and the implications of the duet and octet rules. Involves students working in groups to create electron dot structures for various compounds. (JRH)

  1. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    induce selection of resistant biotypes, such as occurred to Euphorbia heterophylla L. in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in areas of the Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States, in Brazil. In order to verify possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage this population, seeds of E. heterophylla were collected in the Assis region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species had survived to continuous herbicides application. The trial was carried out in glasshouse conditions where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. The study used several post-emergence herbicides sprayed at zero, one, two, four and eight times the recommended field application rates of these products. Twenty days after application, the plants were harvested and the percentage of control and the fresh weight were determined to establish the dose-response curves, to get the resistance factor using data of DL50 and GR50 and to verify if there was a multiple resistance. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was efficiently controlled by fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, ammonium-gluphosinate (150 g.ha-1 and glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.

  2. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  3. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  4. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  5. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  6. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  7. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  8. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  9. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Infogallery Be Tobacco Free Search betobaccofree.gov Menu Search ABOUT TOBACCO Tobacco Facts and Figures Tobacco and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction ...

  11. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  12. Electronic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-11-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants' "circuitry" has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization.

  13. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  14. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    . multiflorum of Loberia (Buenos Aires, Argentina. Bioassays were conducted in Petri dishes and the GR50 was determined by the length of coleoptile. Curves dose-response were obtained using the log-logistic equation. The LmR biotype survived under multiple herbicides of three different modes of action, glyphosate, ALS and ACCase inhibitors. This test showed the appearance of a biotype of L. multiflorum with resistance to multiple active ingredients.

  15. Biotipos homeopáticos y oclusión en niños con hábito de succión digital Homeopathic biotypes and occlusion in children with finger-sucking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Gardón Delgado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las anomalías de la oclusión es de suma importancia en la práctica ortodóncica, y la biotipología homeopática constituye una base para el análisis e interpretación de los factores que intervienen en la etiología y patogenia de las anomalías dentofaciales, incluida la presencia de hábitos perjudiciales como la succión digital. Este trabajo descriptivo de corte transversal se propuso relacionar los principales biotipos homeopáticos con la oclusión en 55 niños de los círculos infantiles pertenecientes a las áreas de salud que atiende la Facultad de Estomatología de Ciudad de La Habana, en las edades comprendidas entre 2 y 5 años, de ambos sexos y que practicaban el hábito de succión digital. A través del examen clínico facial y de la confección de la historia clínica homeopática, se realizó la clasificación biotipológica y se determinaron las características intraorales de cada niño. El análisis de los resultados reveló una correspondencia de la oclusión con los biotipos homeopáticos.The study of occlusion abnormalities is very important in the orthodontic practice, and the homeopathic biotypology is the basis for the analysis and interpretation of the factors taking part in the etiology and pathogeny of the dentofacial abnormalities, including the presence of detrimental habits, such as finger sucking . This descriptive cross-sectional study was aimed at relating the main homeopathic biotypes to occlusion in 55 children aged 2-5 of both sexes from the day care centres corresponding to the health areas that received dental care at the Faculty of Stomatology of Havana City. All these children used to suck their fingers. By the clinicofacial examination and by the making of the homeopathic medical history, it was possible to obtain the biotypological classification, and to determine the intraoral characteristics of every child. The analysis of the results revealed a correspondance of occlusion with the

  16. Controle químico de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae Chemical control of Bemisia tabaci B biotype (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae eggs and nymphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Etore do Valle

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas brancas são pragas de diversas culturas, causam redução na produção e na qualidade do produto. Inseticidas, com diferentes modos de ação vêm sendo utilizados, sem muito sucesso. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a eficiência de inseticidas sobre ovos de diferentes idades (1, 3 e 5 dias e de ninfas de 1° ínstar da mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. Os experimentos foram realizados em condições de laboratório, sob temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e fotofase de 12 horas. Piriproxifem (75 mg L-1 atuou como excelente ovicida, sendo altamente eficiente, 3 dias de idade. Cartape (500 mg L-1 não teve efeito satisfatório, mas a 1000 mg L-1 foi eficiente em ovos com até 5 dias de idade. Quanto à ação sobre ninfas de 1° ínstar, para pulverizações na face superior das folhas, piriproxifem, a 75 mg L-1, apresentou eficiência na supressão da emergência de adultos, caracterizando presença de ação translaminar; buprofezim, cartape, acefato e fempiroximate não apresentaram eficiência no controle de ninfas. Quando aplicado na face inferior das folhas, buprofezim (375 mg L-1 apresentou eficiência comparável à de piriproxifem, impedindo a emergência de adultos.Whiteflies are pests of many crops, cause severe yield losses and reduce crop quality. Insecticides of different modes of action have been used without success. In this work, the efficiency of five insecticides on Bemisia tabaci B biotype (= B. argentifolii eggs and nymphs was evaluated under laboratory conditions (T = 25 ± 2°C; 12 h photophase. In relation to the ovicidal effect, pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1 caused egg hatching inhibition up to three day old eggs. Cartap showed efficiency only at the concentration of 1000 mg L-1, supressing the viability of eggs up to five days. Soybean leaves with first instar nymphs were treated in the upper surface with pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1, buprofezin (375 mg L-1, cartap (1000 mg L-1, acephate (750 mg L-1 and fenpyroximate (100 mg L-1; in

  17. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  18. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  19. Infestação de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e Caliothrips phaseoli em genótipos de feijoeiro Infestation of Bemisia tabaci biotype B and Caliothrips phaseoli on bean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento de genótipos de feijoeiro sob a infestação de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B e Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood em condições de campo, nas épocas de cultivo "de inverno", "das águas" e "da seca". Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas sub-subdividida (19x3x6, com 19 genótipos (IAC Tybatã, IAC Una, FT Nobre, Pérola, Gen 96A98-15-3-32-1, Gen 96A45-3-51-52-1, IAC Alvorada, IAC Diplomata, Gen 96A3-P1-1-1, LP 98-122, LP 02-130, LP 01-38, LP 9979, BRS-Pontal, BRS-Requinte, BRS-Triunfo, BRS-Grafite, CV-48 e Z-28, três épocas de cultivos (inverno, águas e seca e seis períodos de avaliação. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, contando-se o número de ovos e ninfas de B. tabaci e ninfas de C. phaseoli em dez folíolos por parcela. Os genótipos IAC Una, Pérola, Gen 96A45-3-51-52-1, Gen 96A98-15-32-1, FT Nobre, IAC Tybatã, IAC Alvorada, LP 02-130, LP 01-38, LP 98-122, IAC Diplomata e Gen 96A3P1-1-1 foram menos ovipositados por B. tabaci no cultivo "das águas". Os genótipos Pérola, Gen 96A45-3-51-52-1, IAC Una, Gen 96A98-15-32-1, IAC Tybatã e FT Nobre foram menos infestados por C. phaseoli. A maior incidência de ninfas de mosca-branca ocorreu no fim de janeiro no cultivo "das águas" e início de maio no cultivo "da seca"; para tripés, foi em junho durante o cultivo "de inverno". A maior incidência da população de B. tabaci e C. phaseoli, ocorreu dos 46 aos 60 dias após a emergência das plantas.The response of bean genotypes to infestation of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B and Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood in field conditions on the winter, rainy and dry seasons was evaluated. The experiment was arranged in a randomized Sub-divided (19x3x6 blocks design with 19 genotypes (IAC Tybatã, IAC Una, FT Nobre, Pérola, Gen 96A98-15-3-32-1, Gen 96A45-3-51-52-1, IAC Alvorada, IAC Diplomata, Gen 96A3-P1-1-1, LP 98-122, LP 02-130, LP 01-38, LP 9979, BRS-Pontal, BRS

  20. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  1. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  2. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  3. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  4. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  5. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  6. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  7. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  8. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  9. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF...... transistors (Part 2). The synthetic protocols rely on stepwise Sonogashira coupling reactions. Conductivity studies on various OPE-based molecular wires reveal that mere OPE compounds have a higher electrical resistance compared to the cruciform based wires (up to 9 times higher). The most spectacular result...... be potential candidates for future molecular electronics Synthesis of a new donor-acceptor chromophore based on a benzoquinone- TTF motif (QuinoneDTF) is also described herein (Part 2). Reaction of this molecule with acid induces a colour change from purple to orange. The purple colour can be restored...

  10. Phytochemical evaluation and GC-MS analysis of Hyptis verticillata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    https://doi.org/10.2307/3434847. Gairola S, Shariff NM, Bhatt A, Kala CP. 2010. Influence of climate change on production of secondary chemicals in high altitude medicinal plants: Issues needs immediate attention. J. Med. Plants Res., 4(18): 1825-1829. Griffiths DW, Thomas T A. 1981. Phytate and total phosphorus content ...

  11. Exploration for Natural Enemies of Hydrilla verticillata in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    were for morphological evidence of herbivority ( teeth type, peritoneum color, intestine length) and for actual evidence of hydrilla feeding (stomach...brought to shore for examination for natural enemies and damage. The plants to be examined were normally floated in water-filled white enamel pans. The...sected for evidence of hydrilla feeding and herbivority. All four species were carnivorous. They had silver peritoneums, holding teeth , and short

  12. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  13. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e......-government/e-governance and provide guidance for research, development and application of this emerging field. The papers are arranged in topical sections on challenges, performance, strategy, knowledge, and technology....

  14. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  15. Electronic discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Locher, Miriam A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter deals with electronic discourse by discussing the pragmatics of language use in computer-mediated settings. In many so-called first world countries, accessing the Internet by means of a computer or a smartphone, etc. has become an everyday activity for many people. In only little more than twenty years of publicly accessible Internet access, the use of computer-mediated forms of communication has developed from primarily information websites and email exchanges to highly interact...

  16. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  17. Suscetibilidade comparativa a herbicidas pós-emergentes de biótipos de Digitaria ciliaris resistente e suscetível aos inibidores da ACCase Relative susceptibility to post-emergence herbicides of ACCase-resistant and susceptible biotypes of Digitaria ciliaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. López-Ovejero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar a possibilidade de resistência múltipla aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase, ALS e síntese de carotenos em um biótipo de capim-colchão (Digitaria ciliaris resistente aos inibidores da ACCase. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando dois biótipos de capim-colchão: um resistente (R e outro suscetível (S aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados 11 herbicidas: fluazifop-p-butil, haloxyfop-r-methyl, propaquizafop, sethoxydim, tepraloxydim, clethodim, fenoxaprop + clethodim, imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, iodosulfuron + foramsulfuron e mesotrione. Para cada herbicida, os tratamentos resultaram da combinação fatorial entre os dois biótipos de capim-colchão e 10 doses (0,0D; 0,016D; 0,03D; 0,06D; 0,25D; 0,5D; 1,0D; 2,0D; 4,0D; e 16,0D, em que D é a dose recomendada para cada produto. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sobre as plantas de capim-colchão em estádio de desenvolvimento de 3-4 folhas. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de controle aos 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA. O biótipo R foi confirmado como resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase (grupos químicos dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas com níveis variáveis de resistência cruzada. O biótipo R foi controlado satisfatoriamente pela dose de campo de todos os herbicidas alternativos aplicados (sulfoniluréias, imidazolinonas e inibidores da síntese de caroteno, excluindo a hipótese de resistência múltipla nesse biótipo de capim-colchão.This research was conducted to evaluate the possibility of multiple resistances to ACCase, ALS and carotene synthesis inhibiting herbicides in one ACCase-resistant biotype of crab-grass (Digitaria ciliaris. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using two crab-grass biotypes: one resistant (R and another susceptible (S to ACCase inhibiting herbicides

  18. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; Henderson, R

    2007-10-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) in the structural analysis of large biological molecules and macro-molecular complexes and the need for simple, rapid and efficient readout, there is a persuasive need for improved detectors. Commercial detectors, based on phosphor/fibre optics-coupled CCDs, provide adequate performance for many applications, including electron diffraction. However, due to intrinsic light scattering within the phosphor, spatial resolution is limited. Careful measurements suggest that CCDs have superior performance at lower resolution while all agree that film is still superior at higher resolution. Consequently, new detectors are needed based on more direct detection, thus avoiding the intermediate light conversion step required for CCDs. Two types of direct detectors are discussed in this review. First, there are detectors based on hybrid technology employing a separate pixellated sensor and readout electronics connected with bump bonds-hybrid pixel detectors (HPDs). Second, there are detectors, which are monolithic in that sensor and readout are all in one plane (monolithic active pixel sensor, MAPS). Our discussion is centred on the main parameters of interest to cryoEM users, viz. detective quantum efficiency (DQE), resolution or modulation transfer function (MTF), robustness against radiation damage, speed of readout, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of independent pixels available for a given detector.

  19. Oviposição e dispersão de ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em genótipos de tomateiro Oviposition and nymphal dispersion of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fancelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversos métodos têm sido empregados para avaliar a resistência de plantas a moscas-brancas. Todavia, poucos trabalhos têm sido realizados visando determinar a dispersão de ninfas desses insetos sobre as plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B e a dispersão de suas ninfas em folíolos com e sem exsudatos de genótipos de tomateiro. Foram utilizados sete genótipos de tomateiro: LA716, LA1739, PI134417, LA462, LA1584, 'Santa Clara' e P25 (controle suscetível. A oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B foi avaliada em gaiolas plásticas (2,8 cm² fixadas na face abaxial dos folíolos, nas quais foram inseridos dez casais do inseto. Para avaliação da dispersão das ninfas, considerou-se o deslocamento dos insetos além do limite da área ocupada pelas gaiolas. As variáveis observadas foram: mortalidade de adultos 24 horas após a liberação, número de ovos, viabilidade da fase de ovo, período de incubação, número de ninfas e dispersão. Em folíolos com exsudato, LA716, LA1739 e PI134417 provocaram as maiores mortalidades. Adultos mortos nos folíolos desses genótipos ficaram aderidos aos tricomas glandulares, o que provocou redução na oviposição do inseto. Para dispersão, nos folíolos com exsudato, os máximos valores ocorreram nos genótipos LA716, LA462 e P25. Na condição sem exsudato, LA716 promoveu a menor dispersão das ninfas. A presença do exsudato influencia negativamente a sobrevivência e oviposição do inseto. A dispersão das ninfas também é afetada pelo exsudato, embora outros fatores possam ser importantes para o deslocamento do inseto.Several methods have been employed for evaluating plant resistance to whiteflies. Although, a few researches have been conducted aiming to determine the whitefly nymphal dispersion on crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B and nymphal dispersion in leaflets with and without

  20. Potencial de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen no controle de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro = Potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen at B-biotype Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius nymphs control in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Furtado Braga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o potencial de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 no controle de ninfas de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B em tomateiro. Foram colocados 96 vasos com uma planta, isenta de mosca-branca, em gaiolas mantidas em casa de vegetação. Em seguida, cada planta foi infestada por 100 adultos do aleirodídeo por 24 horas. No primeiro e oitavo dias após a eclosão das ninfas, liberou-se uma, cinco e dez larvas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares de C. externa nos tomateiros infestados, exceto nas testemunhas. A contagem das ninfas que escaparam à predação foi efetuada no 11o dia após a eclosão da presa. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial, com oito repetições. As larvas de C. externa, liberadas no primeiro dia apósa eclosão das ninfas de mosca-branca, foram eficientes na redução da população da presa quando foi utilizado 10 larvas por planta, assegurando cerca de 50% de controle da praga. Quando o predador foi liberado oito dias após a eclosão das ninfas, nas densidades de cincoe dez larvas de C. externa por planta, verificou-se redução na densidade populacional da praga próxima a 40%. Assim, a liberação de larvas de C. externa em tomateiros individualizados em gaiolas denota ser eficiente no controle de B. tabaci biótipo B.This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 in controlling nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889, biotype B, in tomato plants. Ninety-six pots, each with one whiteflyfree plant, were placed in cages at greenhouse and each plant was infested with 100 adult whiteflies for 24 hours. In the first and eighth days after nymph eclosion, infested plants were inoculated with one, five and ten larvae of the first, second and third C. externa instars, excepting the control plants. The number of nymphs that escaped predation was counted on the eleventh day after prey eclosion. Totally casualized delineation was used

  1. Tomato yellow vein streak virus: relationship with Bemisia tabaci biotype B and host range Tomato yellow vein streak virus: interação com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e gama de hospedeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV is a putative species of begomovirus, which was prevalent on tomato crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, until 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between ToYVSV and its vector Bemisia tabaci biotype B and to identify alternative hosts for the virus. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToYVSV by B. tabaci were 30 min and 10 min, respectively. Seventy five percent of tomato-test plants were infected when the acquisition and inoculation access periods were 24 h. The latent period of the virus in the insect was 16 h. The ToYVSV was retained by B. tabaci until 20 days after acquisition. First generation of adult whiteflies obtained from viruliferous females were virus free as shown by PCR analysis and did not transmit the virus to tomato plants. Out of 34 species of test-plants inoculated with ToYVSV only Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Datura stramonium, Gomphrena globosa, Nicotiana clevelandii and N. tabacum cv. TNN were susceptible to infection. B. tabaci biotype B was able to acquire the virus from all these susceptible species, transmitting it to tomato plants.O Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV é uma espécie putativa de begomovirus que infecta o tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicon em diversas regiões do Brasil onde se cultiva essa solanácea, sendo a espécie prevalente no estado de São Paulo até 2005. Estudou-se a interação do ToYVSV com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e identificaram-se hospedeiras alternativas deste vírus. Os períodos de acesso mínimo de aquisição (PAA e de inoculação (PAI foram de 30 min e 10 min, respectivamente. A porcentagem de plantas infectadas chegou até cerca de 75% após um PAA e PAI de 24 h. O período de latência do vírus no vetor foi de 16 horas. O ToYVSV foi retido pela B. tabaci até 20 dias após a aquisição do vírus. Não foi detectada transmissão do vírus para prog

  2. Herança da resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS em biótipos da planta daninha Euphorbia heterophylla Inheritance of ALS inhibitor resistance in Euphorbia heterophylla weed biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas inibidores da ALS são os principais produtos aplicados para o controle da planta daninha amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia herterophylla em lavouras de soja; no entanto, já foram identificados biótipos desta planta daninha resistentes a estes herbicidas no Brasil. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a herança, o número de genes que conferem a resistência e o grau de resistência dos biótipos homozigotos e heterozigotos resistentes. Foram realizados cruzamentos recíprocos entre os genitores suscetíveis e resistentes para obtenção de sementes F1 e, posteriormente, realizaram-se os retrocruzamentos (RC com os genitores resistente (R e suscetível (S. Plantas F1 foram autofecundadas artificialmente para obtenção da geração F2. As plantas F1, F2, RCr e RCs e dos genitores foram tratadas com o herbicida imazethapyr (150 g ha-1. Para avaliar o grau de resistência, plantas F1 e os genitores resistente e suscetível foram tratados com as doses de imazethapyr de 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1.600 g ha-1. As plantas F1 mostraram-se totalmente resistentes ao herbicida, demonstrando que a resistência é nuclear e dominante. As plantas F2 apresentaram alta probabilidade para segregação 3:1, indicando que a resistência é codificada por um gene dominante. A aplicação de doses de imazethapyr sobre as plantas F1 demonstrou que os biótipos homozigotos resistentes e os heterozigotos apresentam o mesmo grau de resistência para doses de até 1.600 g ha-1 deste herbicida. A resistência é codificada por um gene dominante nuclear com dominância completa.The ALS inhibitor herbicides are the main products applied to control Euphorbia heterophylla in the soybean crop; however, resistant biotypes to these herbicides have been identified in Brazil. This research aimed to study the inheritance, number of genes involved in the resistance and the degree of resistance of the homozygous and heterozygous resistant biotypes. Reciprocal crossings (RSs

  3. Biology of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on tomato genotypes Biologia de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. Biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em genótipos de tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Godoy Oriani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the main tomato (Solanum lycopersicum producers worldwide. Nevertheless, considerable part of the production is lost due to Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype attacks. Resistant plants can be an important method for controlling this pest in an integrated pest management. Tests for evaluating some biological aspects of B. tabaci were carried out on 18 tomato genotypes, in controlled laboratory greenhouse conditions. Thirty-day-old plants placed in plastic cages were infested with 20 whitefly pairs each, for 24 h. The development of at least 30 eggs in three leaflets per plant (repetition was observed until adult emergence. The development period of insects grown in LA1335, PI365928 and LA722 genotypes took three days longer when compared to the ones grown in PI134418 (20.3 days. The highest mortality rate of whitefly nymphs occurred in PI365928, LA1335 and LA722 genotypes (63.8, 54.5 and 53.3%, respectively, and the smallest ones in IAC294 and IAC68F-22-2 genotypes (4.9 e 6.2%, respectively. LA1335, PI365928 and LA722 genotypes presented moderate feeding nonpreference and/or antibiosis-based resistance to B. tabaci B biotype.O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores mundiais de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum, porém grande parte da produção é perdida devido ao ataque de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B. Entre as táticas de controle dessa praga num manejo integrado de pragas, pode-se relacionar a resistência de plantas. Ensaios para avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos de B. tabaci foram realizados com 18 genótipos de tomateiro, em condições controladas de laboratório (casa de vegetação. Plantas com 30 dias de idade foram colocadas em gaiolas plásticas e infestadas com 20 casais de moscas-brancas cada, durante 24h. Acompanhou-se então o desenvolvimento de pelo menos 30 ovos em três folíolos por planta (repetição até a emergência dos insetos. Os insetos criados nos genótipos LA1335, PI365928 e LA722 apresentaram

  4. Efficiency of neem oil nanoformulations to Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biotype B (Hemiptera: AleyrodidaeEficiência de nanoformulações a base de óleo de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Salles Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology, through encapsulation of active ingredients, has showed an important way to avoid problems with quickly degradation of the pesticide molecules. Thus, neem (Azadirachta indica oil nanoformulations containing ?-ciclodextrin and poli-?-caprolactone (PCL were tested as to their control efficiency against eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B reared in soybean. The Lethal Concentration (LC50 was estimated using a commercial neem oil (Organic Neem® on first-instar nymphs to establish the adequate volume of the nanoformulations per treatment. After that, they were sprayed on eggs and first-instar nymphs in laboratory and greenhouse and on third-instar nymphs in greenhouse. The commercial neem oil and distilled water were used as controls. Egg viability was not affected by any treatment. Among six nanoformulations, only one was efficient against the first-instar nymphs in laboratory conditions. However, its effective period was not increased as expected. In greenhouse, first-instar nymphs were more affected by two nanoformulations which were significantly different of the commercial neem oil - the most effective one. No mortality differences among the formulations in the third-instar test were observed. The nanoformulations were less efficient to control the B. tabaci biotype B nymphs than the commercial neem oil. A nanotecnologia, através do encapsulamento de ingredientes ativos, tem-se revelado uma importante estratégia para evitar problemas com a rápida degradação de moléculas inseticidas. Assim, nanoformulações à base de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica utilizando os polímeros ?-ciclodextrina e poli-?-caprolactona (PCL foram testadas quanto a sua eficiência de controle de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B mantidas em soja. Foi estimada a CL50 utilizando uma formulação comecial de óleo de nim (Organic Neem® sobre ninfas em 1º ínstar da qual se estipulou o volume das nanoformula

  5. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  6. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  7. Direct electron detection in transmission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Since the first prototype of a transmission electron microscope was built in 1931 by Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has proved to be an essential imaging tool for physicists, material scientists, and biologists. To record the TEM images for analysis, electron microscopists have used specialized electron micrograph film for a long time, until the new developments in TEM, such as electron tomography and cryo- electron microscopy, pushed for the needs of digita...

  8. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is an urgent demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that the power capacity has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as efficient as possible and incentives to save...... energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...

  9. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the object and, connected to the detector, a device for processing the detected electrons so as to form an object image, wherein a beam splitter is provided for dividing the electron beam from the electron...

  10. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  11. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  12. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  13. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  14. Alteração das características biológicas dos biótipos de azevém (Lolium multiflorum ocasionada pela resistência ao herbicida glyphosate Change in the biological characteristics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum biotypes caused by resistance to the herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de biótipos de azevém ao herbicida glyphosate está alterando o manejo da vegetação de cobertura do solo em pomares de maçã. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a dose de glyphosate necessária para reduzir 50% do acúmulo de matéria seca (GR50, a resposta do biótipo resistente e sensível a herbicidas graminicidas e o acúmulo de matéria seca destes biótipos durante o ciclo. Para isso, foram conduzidos três experimentos. No primeiro, os tratamentos constaram de doses crescentes de glyphosate aplicadas sobre plantas dos biótipos resistente e sensível para determinar o GR50. No segundo experimento, os tratamentos constaram de doses dos herbicidas glyphosate, haloxyfop-r, diclofop, fluazifop-p, fenoxaprop-p e paraquat. No terceiro experimento, sementes dos biótipos resistente e sensível foram semeadas em recipientes com capacidade para 10 L e as plantas originadas delas foram colhidas quinzenalmente, para determinação da matéria seca da parte aérea, radicular e total. Como resultados, foi obtido GR50 de 287,5 e de 4.833,5 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate para os biótipos sensível e resistente, respectivamente, e verificou-se que existem diferenças significativas na resposta dos biótipos aos herbicidas graminicidas, dependendo da dose utilizada. Além disso, o biótipo sensível evidenciou maior capacidade de acúmulo de matéria seca e produção de sementes. Constatouse, assim, fator de resistência (FR de 16,8 e que o mecanismo de resistência provoca alterações nas características biológicas do biótipo resistente e afeta a sensibilidade deste aos herbicidas graminicidas.The identification of ryegrass biotypes resistant to glyphosate is causing changes in weed management in apple orchards. Three experiments were carried out to determine the GR50 of the biotypes, to grass herbicides and dry matter accumulation. The first experiment tested different rates of glyphosate. Their effects on GR50 dry matter

  15. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  16. Efeito de extratos aquosos de meliáceas sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em tomateiro Effect of aqueous extracts of meliaceous plants on Bemisia tabaci B biotype on tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO PANCRÁCIO DE SOUZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a bioatividade de extratos aquosos a 3% (p/v de três meliáceas, Melia azedarach L. (frutos verdes, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos e Azadirachta indica A. Juss (sementes, em relação à mosca branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criada em tomateiro. No primeiro experimento os extratos foram aplicados sobre ovos e sobre ninfas com três dias de idade, avaliando-se a mortalidade e a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa. No segundo experimento os extratos foram aplicados apenas sobre as ninfas, avaliando-se a mortalidade nessa fase e a longevidade e fecundidade dos adultos. Em relação à fase de ovo, o extrato de T. pallida foi o que provocou maior mortalidade, seguindo-se os de A. indica e M. azedarach. A maior mortalidade ninfal foi constatada com o extrato de A. indica, seguindo-se os de T. pallida e M. azedarach. Nenhum dos extratos afetou a duração das fases de ovo e de ninfa, assim como a longevidade e fecundidade.The objective of this research was to compare the effect of aqueous extracts of fresh fruits of Melia azedarach L., twigs of Trichilia pallida Swartz and seeds of zadirachta indica A. Juss, on eggs and nymphs of silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius B biotype reared on tomato plants. The extracts were tested at a concentration of 3%. In the first experiment, the extracts were applied on eggs and 3-day-old nymphs. Records were taken on mortality, duration of egg and nymphal stages. In the second experiment the extracts were applied on 3-day-old nymphs and records were taken on nymphal mortality, adult longevity and fecundity. The extracts of T. pallida were the most effective on eggs, followed by A. indica and M. azedarach. The extracts of A. indica were the most effective on nymphs followed by T. pallida and M. azedarach. In both experiments, the duration of egg and nymph stages, longevity and fecundity were not affected by the extracts.

  17. Assesing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B resistance in soybean genotypes: Antixenosis and antibiosis Evaluación de la resistencia de genotipos de soya a Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotipo B: Antixenosis y antibiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paulo Gonçalves Franco da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first reported in Brazil in the 1990s, the B biotype of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae has been recognized as an important pest in soybeans (Glycine max L., reducing the productivity of this legume species in some areas of the country. As an alternative to chemical control, the use of resistant genotypes represents an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM. This study evaluated the performance of 10 soybean genotypes prior to whitefly infestation, by testing attractiveness and preference for oviposition in the greenhouse and antibiosis in the laboratory. In a multiple-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive to insects. In a no-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive for egg deposition, indicating the occurrence of non-preference for oviposition on this genotype. Trichome density was positively correlated with the oviposition site and may be associated with the resistance of 'IAC-17' to infestation. The genotypes 'IAC-PL1', 'IAC-19', 'Conquista', 'IAC-24' and 'IAC-17' extended the insect's life cycle, indicating the occurrence of a small degree of antibiosis and/or non-preference for feeding.Desde que se registró por primera vez en Brasil en la década de 1990, el biotipo B de la mosca-blanca (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, se reconoce como una importante plaga de la soya (Glycine max L. y es lo que reduce la productividad de estas especies de leguminosas en algunas zonas del pais. Como una alternativa al control químico, el uso de genotipos resistentes representa una herramienta importante para la gestión integrada de plagas (MIP. Este trabajo evaluó el comportamiento de 10 genotipos de soya frente al ataque de la mosca-blanca, por medio de ensayos de atractividad y preferencia para ovipostura en invernaderos y antibiosis en laboratorio. En una prueba de elección multiple, 'IAC-17' fue el menos atractivo para los insectos. En una prueba sin elecci

  18. Salmonella typhi: lisotipia VI e biotipificação em amostras oriundas de algumas regiões do Brasil Salmonella typhi: lysotype VI and biotyping in sample from some regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se uma análise da distribuicão da frequência dos lisotipos VI e dos tipos fermentativos segundo o esquema de Kristensen, em 1.150 amostras de Salmonella typhi, isoladas de diferentes regiões do Brasil (Pará, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul. No computo geral, observou-se a prevalência dos lisotipos A (38,1%; Ela (18,9%; amostras VI negativas (16,6%; D6 (8,7% I + IV (4,6%; T (2,3% e C1 (2,1% e a ocorrência de alguns tipos fágicos característicos para determinadas áreas (B3, C4 e 40 na Bahia; E1b, F2, G1 e L1 em São Paulo; E4 e 28 no Rio de Janeiro. Quanto a classificacão bioquímica, 55,2% das amostras caracterizaram-se no biotipo II (xilose e arabinose negativas, 44,2% no tipo fermentativo I (xilose positiva e arabinose negativas e 0,52% no tipo III (xilose e arabinose positivas, respectivamente.The frequency of Vi-phage types and fermentative types according to Kristensen's scheme was studied among 1,150 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from different areas in Brazil (states of Pará, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. The most prevalent phage types encountered in this study were: A (38.1%; Ela (18.9%, D6 (8.7%, T (2.3% and C1 (2.1%, including categories of untypable strains (group I + IV-4.6%, and Vi negative (16.6%. There was,however, some types characteristics of particular areas (B3, C4, 40 from Bahia; Elb, F2,G1, L1 from São Paulo; E4 and 28 from Rio de Janeiro. In respect to the biochemical classification, 55.2% of the strains were classified as a biotype II (xylose and arabinose negative, 44,2% as of type I (xylose positive and negative0 and 0.52% as a type III (xylose and arabinose positive, respectively.

  19. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  20. Electronic Design Automation Using Object Oriented Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Walid M. Aly; Mohamed S. Abuelnasr

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Electronic design automation is the usage of computer technology and software tools for designing integrated electronic system and creating electrical schematics. Approach: An approach is presented for modeling of various electronic and electric devices using object oriented design, aiming on building a library of devices (classes) which can be used for electronic design automation. Results: The presented library was implemented using Java programming language to form an El...

  1. Características morfofisiológicas de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência a diferentes mecanismos de ação herbicida Morphophysiological characteristics of Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes resistant to different herbicide action mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M Trezzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas é um dos maiores entraves da agricultura mundial. No Brasil, Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL obtém destaque devido ao fato de apresentar resistência a mais de um mecanismo de ação de herbicidas. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de identificar características morfofisiológicas e a adaptabilidade ecológica entre biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla com resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS e Protox e com resistência apenas a inibidores da ALS e suscetível, oriundos da região sudoeste do Paraná. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação. O delineamento utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As características morfofisiológicas avaliadas foram: matéria seca de folhas+cotilédones, de raízes, de caule+pecíolos e total, estatura, número de ramificações por planta, área foliar e número de folhas por planta. Nas determinações efetuadas mais tardiamente, plantas do biótipo S apresentaram menores matérias secas de folhas+cotilédones, caules+pecíolos e total. Plantas do biótipo S também apresentaram menores área foliar, número de ramificações e estatura em avaliações mais tardias, comparativamente aos biótipos R a ALS e R a Protox.Weed resistance to herbicides is one of the major barriers to agriculture worldwide. In Brazil, Euphorbia heterophylla (EPHHL is especially known for presenting resistance to more than one herbicide action mechanism. This work was carried out to identify morphophysiological characteristics and ecological adaptability between Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes with multiple resistance to ALS inhibitors and PROTOX, and with resistance only to ALS inhibitors and susceptible from Southwestern Paraná. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The morphophysiological characteristics evaluated were: dry matter of leaves

  2. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  3. Desenvolvimento das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa alimentadas com ninfas de Bemisia tabaci criadas em três hospedeiros Development of immature stages of Chrysoperla externa fed on nymphs of Bemisia tabaci biotype B reared on three hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Insetos da família Chrysopidae têm sido encontrados em ovos e ninfas de moscas-brancas em diferentes agroecossistemas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a duração e a viabilidade das fases imaturas de Chrysoperla externa alimentada com ninfas de Bemisia tabaci, biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus, couve (Brassica oleracea e na erva adventícia leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1% e mantidos a 25±1ºC, 70±10% UR e fotófase de 12 horas. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, num total de dez repetições. Avaliaram-se a duração e a viabilidade de cada ínstar, de toda fase de larva, das fases de pré-pupa e pupa e peso após 24 horas de idade em cada estádio e fase do desenvolvimento. A espécie de planta hospedeira da mosca-branca afetou a duração do primeiro e terceiro ínstares de C. externa, registrando-se redução no período larval, quando alimentadas com presas oriundas de folhas de pepino. A fase de pré-pupa foi prolongada quando utilizadas folhas de leiteiro. Os pesos foram afetados pelo tipo de hospedeiro do aleirodídeo, porém esse efeito não influencia a viabilidade das fases imaturas.Insects of the Chrysopidae family have been found on eggs and nymphs of whitefly in several ecosystems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the duration and survival of the immature stages of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861, fed on nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B reared on leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus, kale (Brassica oleracea or wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. Leaf discs from the hosts containing nymphs of whitefly were placed in Petri dishes containing 1% agar and maintained at 25±1ºC, 70±10% RH and a 12-hour photophase. One recently hatched larvae of C. externa was placed in each dish, in ten replications. The duration

  4. Toxicity of neem oil to Bemisia tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on dry bean Toxicidade de óleo de nim para ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B criadas em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valle Pinheiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the most susceptible nymphal stage of Bemisia tabaci biotype B to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. oil applied to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a screenhouse. A solution of commercial oil (Dalneem extracted from neem seeds was sprayed directly on each nymphal instar at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations for lethal concentration (LC determination, and at 0, 0.5 and 1% concentrations for lethal time (LT determination. The number of living and dead nymphs was recorded five days after spraying for LC determination, and daily during six days for LT determination. The LC50 estimated for fourth instar nymphs occurred at 0.56% concentration. For all instars, LC50 and LC95 were estimated at 0.32 and 2.78% concentrations, respectively. The estimated values of LT50 at 1% concentration were 2.46, 4.45, 3.02 and 6.98 days for the first to fourth instars, respectively. The LT50 occurred at five days for 0.5% and at four days for 1% concentration in all instars. A mortality rate of over 80% was observed on the 6th day for the first to third instars at 1% concentration. The first three nymphal stages were more susceptible to neem oil when compared to the fourth nymphal stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o estágio ninfal de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B mais suscetível ao óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. aplicado em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em casa telada. Foram avaliados o tempo letal (TL e concentração letal (CL do óleo comercial de sementes de nim Dalneem. Para CL, concentrações de 0, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5, 1 e 2% do produto foram pulverizadas diretamente sobre as ninfas em cada ínstar. Para TL, o produto foi avaliado a 0, 0,5 e 1% de óleo de nim em cada ínstar. Ninfas vivas e mortas foram contadas cinco dias após a pulverização para CL e diariamente para TL durante seis dias. Para o quarto ínstar, a CL50 foi de 0,56% de óleo de nim. Considerando todos os ínstares, CL

  5. Indutores de resistência à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci Biótipo B (GENN., 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em soja Resistance inducers to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (GENN., 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Campos Moraes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito da aplicação de indutores na resistência de duas cultivares de soja à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Entomologia - UFLA. As sementes de soja, cultivar IAC-19 e MONSOY-8001, foram previamente tratadas com o fungicida captan. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: T1- irrigação no solo, ao redor das plantas de cada vaso, de 250 mL de solução de ácido silícico a 1%; T2- pulverização das plantas, até o ponto de escorrimento, com solução a 0,3% de acibenzolar-s-methyl; T3- pulverização das plantas, até o ponto de escorrimento, com calda a 0,24% de pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole e T4- testemunha. As plantas foram infestadas com 100 adultos da mosca-branca por vaso que liberados oito dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o número de ovos na face abaxial de cada folha, que foi marcada para posterior avaliação de ninfas; teores de taninos e de lignina; peso seco das raízes e da parte aérea. Não houve diferença para número de ovos e ninfas entre as cultivares de soja, porém, a viabilidade média de B. tabaci foi menor a cultivar IAC-19. O cultivar de soja IAC-19 demonstrou moderada resistência ao biótipo B de B. tabaci. A aplicação de silício ou acibenzolar-s-methyl induz um aumento no teor de lignina na cultivar de soja IAC-19.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of the application of inducers on the resistance of two soybean cultivars to the whitefly B. tabaci Biotype B. The experiment was carried out at the Entomology Department - UFLA. The soybean seeds of cultivars IAC-19 and MONSOY-8001 were previously treated with Captan fungicide. The following treatments were tested: T1- irrigating the soil around the plants of each pot with 250 mL of solution of 1% silicic acid; T2- spraying of the plants, to the 'point of dripping', with a solution of 0.3% acibenzolar-s-methyl; T3- spraying of

  6. Susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação Susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to insecticides with different action manners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda, a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação. Os insetos foram coletados em milho e em arroz irrigado no agroecossistema de várzea, município de Pelotas, região que produz milho e arroz irrigado (lado a lado. Os experimentos foram realizados, em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 1°C, umidade relativa (70 ± 10% e fotofase (14 horas, utilizando-se folhas do híbrido de milho Pionner 30F33 (40 dias após a emergência. As folhas pulverizadas em torre de Potter calibrada para aplicação de um volume de calda de 1,7 ± 0,305mg cm-2, foram colocadas em recipientes de plásticos com tampa, sendo individualizadas 25 lagartas de 3° ínstar de cada biótipo de S. frugiperda. Os inseticidas e concentrações avaliados foram: clorpirifós [Lorsban 480 BR, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Organofosforado], lambda-cialotrina [Karate Zeon 50 CE, 0,003g i.a. L-1 (Piretróide sintético], lufenuron [Match CE, 0,006g i.a. L-1 (Aciluréia], methoxifenozide [Intrepid 240 SC, 0,158g i.a. L-1 (Diacilhidrazina] e spinosad [Tracer, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Naturalyte]. A avaliação da mortalidade foi realizada 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas após o tratamento. O biótipo milho de S. frugiperda foi menos suscetível aos inseticidas lambda-cialotrina, lufenuron e methoxifenozide. Os inseticidas clorpirifós e spinosad foram eficientes no controle das lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de S. frugiperda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda, to insecticides with different action manners. The insects were collected in corn and in irrigated rice in the lowland, county of Pelotas, area that produces corn and irrigated rice (side by side. The experiments were conducted, in controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 1°C, relative humidity (70 ± 10% and photophase (14

  7. Crescimento de raízes de biótipos de capim-arroz resistente e suscetível ao quinclorac em competição Root growth of Echinochloa biotypes resistant and susceptible to quinclorac under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.B. Schuch

    2008-01-01

    center of the experimental unit one plant was established and considered as the treatment; at the periphery, the number of plants of the opposite biotype was established according to the treatment (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 plants. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks in a factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replications. Forty days after emergence, root length, volume, fresh and dry mass and water content were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the F-test at 5% probability, using the DMRT test at 5% probability for the effect of increasing density, and DMS test at 5% probability between biotypes. A correlation matrix was built between the evaluated variables. Root competition in the soil could affect more seriously the resistant biotype than the susceptible one, being this characteristic essential for biotype survival, mainly under low nutrient levels.

  8. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  9. Concepts in spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A new branch of physics and nanotechnology called spin electronics has emerged, which aims at simultaneously exploiting the charge and spin of electrons in the same device. The aim of this book is to present new directions in the development of spin electronics in both the basic physics and the future electronics.

  10. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  11. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  12. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  13. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Atomicity in Electronic Commerce J. D. Tygar January 1996 CMU-CS-96-112 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213...other research sponsor. Keywords: electronic commerce , atomicity, NetBill, IBIP, cryptography, transaction pro- cessing, ACID, franking, electronic ...goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work. Unfortunately, much of that work ignores traditional transaction

  14. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  15. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  16. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for whic...

  17. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  18. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  19. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  20. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  1. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  2. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  3. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  4. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  5. Electronic Science Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geidarov P.Sh.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of electronic scientific seminar, which provides a high level of quality of the objectivity in the evaluation of scientific papers, including dissertations, is described. Conditions for the implementation of electronic scientific seminar are also considered.

  6. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  7. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-30

    Compound Semiconductors." 4 ......... I-*. Univesity of California. Berkeley Electronics Research Laboratory Joint Services Electronics Program August 15...reduction techniques [SCH-66,MCG- 73,HAM-75], for essentially i educing the proportionality constant. A significant portion of the probabilistic literature

  8. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  9. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Kozík; Jozefína Slivová

    2014-01-01

    Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of...

  10. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  11. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  12. Electronic Toll System

    OpenAIRE

    Kotěšovec, Václav

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the functioning of the electronic toll system. The first section describes the electronic fee collection, the architecture of the electronic toll collection system and the EU transport policy. The next section describes the electronic fee collection in the Czech republic and neighbouring countries. As a conclusion is a personal recommendation for a better functioning of the system in the Czech republic.

  13. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  14. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  15. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  16. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  17. Electronic recordkeeping: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deken, J.M.

    2000-01-19

    This paper begins with a brief overview of records and archival management before the advent of the electronic era; then describe the ways in which the definitions and constructs of archives and records management have been altered in the electronic environment; and outlines the various approaches to the challenges of electronic recordkeeping that are currently being investigated and applied.

  18. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  19. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for real-time charge readout and precise tuning of the tunnel barriers of the quantum dot. The second part of this thesis describes the realization of exceptionally clean Carbon Nanotube quantum dots....

  20. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  1. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  2. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  3. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  4. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic Publishing or Electronic Information Handling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    The current dramatic evolution in information technology is bringing major modifications in the way scientists communicate. The concept of 'electronic publishing' is too restrictive and has often different, sometimes conflicting, interpretations. It is thus giving way to the broader notion of 'electronic information handling' encompassing the diverse types of information, the different media, as well as the various communication methodologies and technologies. New problems and challenges result also from this new information culture, especially on legal, ethical, and educational grounds. The procedures for validating 'published material' and for evaluating scientific activities will have to be adjusted too. 'Fluid' information is becoming a common concept. Electronic publishing cannot be conceived without link to knowledge bases nor without intelligent information retrieval tools.

  6. Colliding Electrons - Workhorses of Gaseous Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Bill

    2004-09-01

    The need for electron scattering data to explain the various observed phenomena encountered in electric discharges through gases and indeed in plasmas of all types, has provided strong motivation to collision physicists over the years to carry out the appropriate measurements and calculations. The field has been continually stimulated by new discoveries in such diverse areas as planetary atmosphere processes, low and high temperature plasma physics, lasers and radiation chemistry. In addition, electron collisions undergird the efficient operation of a multitude of practical devices and industrial processes. This talk will seek to give a flavor of what has been happening in this field, particularly over the past half-century.

  7. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  8. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  9. Electrons in silicon microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R E; Jackel, L D; Mankiewich, P M; Skocpol, W J

    1986-01-24

    Silicon microstructures only a few hundred atoms wide can be fabricated and used to study electron transport in narrow channels. Spatially localized voltage probes as close together as 0.1 micrometer can be used to investigate a variety of physical phenomena, including velocity saturation due to phonon emission, the local potentials caused by scattering from a single trapped electron, and quantum tunneling or hopping among very few electron states.

  10. Green and biodegradable electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai; Głowacki, Eric. D.; Voss, Gundula; Bauer, Siegfried; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a world where the lifetime of electronics is becoming shorter, now approaching an average of several months. This poses a growing ecological problem. This brief review will present some of the initial steps taken to address the issue of electronic waste with biodegradable organic electronic materials. Many organic materials have been shown to be biodegradable, safe, and nontoxic, including compounds of natural origin. Additionally, the unique features of such organic materials sugg...

  11. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  12. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  13. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  14. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  15. Nonadiabatic electron heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Miguel; Strass, Michael; Kohler, Sigmund; Hänggi, Peter; Sols, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a mechanism for extracting heat from metallic conductors based on the energy-selective transmission of electrons through a spatially asymmetric resonant structure subject to ac driving. This quantum refrigerator can operate at zero net electronic current as it replaces hot by cold electrons through two energetically symmetric inelastic channels. We present numerical results for a specific heterostructure and discuss general trends. We also explore the conditions under which the...

  16. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  17. Electron correlation in molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    2007-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  18. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  19. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  20. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...