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Sample records for vertical porous plate

  1. Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt has been made to study the unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate immersed in a porous medium with Hall current, thermal diffusion and heat source. Analytical solution has been found depending on the physical parameters including the Hartmann number M, the Prandtl number Pr, the ...

  2. Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-06-08

    Heat transfer in a porous medium embedded with vertical flat plate is investigated by using thermal non-equilibrium model. Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside porous medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by natural convection and radiation. The vertical plate is maintained at isothermal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method. Results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines for various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio, and radiation parameter.

  3. Dufour and Soret Effects on Melting from a Vertical Plate Embedded in Saturated Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant K. Jha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo effects on combined heat and mass transfer in mixed convection boundary layer flow with aiding and opposing external flows from a vertical plate embedded in a liquid saturated porous medium with melting are investigated. The resulting system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Runge Kutta-Fehlberg with shooting techniques. Numerical results are obtained for the velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions, as well as the Nusselt number and Sherwood number for several values of the parameters, namely, the buoyancy parameter, melting parameter, Dufour effect, Soret effect, and Lewis number. The obtained results are presented graphically and in tabular form and the physical aspects of the problem are discussed.

  4. Chemical reaction effect on MHD free convective surface over a moving vertical plate through porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Tripathy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to study the heat and mass transfer effect in a boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting viscous fluid subject to transverse magnetic field past over a moving vertical plate through porous medium in the presence of heat source and chemical reaction. The governing non-linear partial differential equations have been transformed into a two-point boundary value problem using similarity variables and then solved numerically by fourth order Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Graphical results are discussed for non-dimensional velocity, temperature and concentration profiles while numerical values of the skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in tabular form for various values of parameters controlling the flow system.

  5. Oscillatory free-convective flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past an impulsively started infinite vertical porous plate. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.

    1984-10-01

    The author presents the two-dimensional free-convective flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate for the Stokes problem when the flow is subjected to a constant suction velocity through the porous plate. As the mean steady flow has been presented in Part I, only the solution for the transient velocity profiles, transient temperature profiles, the amplitude and the phase of the skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer are presented in this work. As in the case of mean steady flow, the influence of various parameters on the unsteady flow field is discussed for both the cases cooling and heating of the porous plate by free-convection currents.

  6. Natural convection of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate embedded in a porous medium

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    Ghalambaz, M.; Noghrehabadi, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, A., E-mail: m.ghalambaz@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanbarzadeh.a@scu.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)

  7. Similarity Solution for Combined Free-Forced Convection Past a Vertical Porous Plate in a Porous Medium with a Convective Surface Boundary Condition

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    Garg P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the mathematical implications of the two dimensional viscous steady laminar combined free-forced convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a semi infinite fixed vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid which is at a temperature higher than the temperature of the fluid on the right surface of the vertical plate. To achieve numerical consistency for the problem under consideration, the governing non linear partial differential equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a similarity variable and then solved numerically under conditions admitting similarity solutions. The effects of the physical parameters of both the incompressible fluid and the vertical plate on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are studied and analysed and the results are depicted both graphically and in a tabular form. Finally, algebraic expressions and the numerical values are obtained for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number.

  8. On Nonperturbative Techniques for Thermal Radiation Effect on Natural Convection past a Vertical Plate Embedded in a Saturated Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moitsheki

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the heat transfer characteristics of natural convection about a vertical permeable flat surface embedded in a saturated porous medium are studied by taking into account the thermal radiation effect. The plate is assumed to have a power-law temperature distribution. Similarity variables are employed in order to transform the governing partial differential equations into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Both Adomian decomposition method (ADM and He's variational iteration method (VIM coupled with Padé approximation technique are implemented to solve the reduced system. Comparisons with previously published works are performed, and excellent agreement between the results is obtained.

  9. MHD Natural Convection Flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid through porous medium from a vertical flat plate

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    Dr. G. Prabhakara Rao,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider a two-dimensional MHD natural convection flow of an incompressible viscous and electrically conducting fluid through porous medium past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations of velocity and temperature fields with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the ordinary differential equations by introducing appropriate coordinate transformations. We solve that ordinary differential equations and find the velocity profiles, temperature profile, the skin friction and nusselt number. The effects of Grashof number (Gr, Hartmann number (M and Prandtl number (Pr, Darcy parameter (D-1 on velocity profiles and temperature profiles are shown graphically.

  10. Rotation and Radiation Effects on MHD Flow through Porous Medium Past a Vertical Plate with Heat and Mass Transfer

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    Uday Singh Rajput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of rotation and radiation on unsteady MHD flow past a vertical plate with variable wall temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current is studied here. Earlier we studied chemical reaction effect on unsteady MHD flow past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion in the presence of Hall current. We had obtained the results which were in agreement with the desired flow phenomenon. To study further, we are changing the model by considering radiation effect on fluid, and changing the geometry of the model. Here in this paper we are taking the plate positioned vertically upward and rotating with velocity Ω . Further, medium of the flow is taken as porous. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate increase linearly with time. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations under consideration have been solved by Laplace transform technique. The model contains equations of motion, diffusion equation and equation of energy. To analyze the solution of the model, desirable sets of the values of the parameters have been considered. The governing equations involved in the flow model are solved by the Laplace-transform technique. The results obtained have been analyzed with the help of graphs drawn for different parameters. The numerical values obtained for the drag at boundary and Nusselt number have been tabulated. We found that the values obtained for velocity, concentration and temperature are in concurrence with the actual flow of the fluid

  11. Diffusion-thermo effect with hall current on unsteady hydromagnetic flow past an infinite vertical porous plate

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    J.R. Pattnaik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady hydromagnetic flow past an infinite vertical porous plate has been analyzed to show the effect of an additional cross transport phenomenon, i.e. heat flux caused by concentration gradient in addition to the heat flux caused by temperature gradient. The effect of magnetic field on the fluid temperature and the heat transfer between fluid and wall is of considerable importance affecting the flow. Further, Hall current, an additional electric current density so generated perpendicular to both applied electric field and magnetic field has been taken into consideration in the present study. Moreover, the Dufour effect has been considered in energy equation leaving the equations of thermal diffusion and mass diffusion coupled. The coupled non-linear equations are solved by applying a special function Hhn(x. The effects of flow parameters are shown with the help of graphs and tables. A phenomenal observation, i.e. a radical change is marked near the plate in respect of Dufour number in the presence of suction. Further, it is to note that suction induces backflow in conjunction with opposing buoyancy forces. Hall current contributes to greater skin friction at the bounding surface.

  12. Radiation and chemical reaction effects on MHD Casson fluid flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in porous medium

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    Hari R. Kataria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytic expression for unsteady free convective hydromagnetic boundary layer Casson fluid flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded through porous medium in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field, thermal radiation and chemical reaction is obtained. Both isothermal and ramped wall temperatures are taken into account. The governing equations are solved using Laplace transform technique and the solutions are presented in closed form. The numerical values of Casson fluid velocity, temperature and concentration at the plate are presented graphically for several values of the pertinent parameters. Effect of governing parameters on Skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number is also discussed. Casson parameter γ is inversely proportional to the yield stress and it is observed that for the large value of Casson parameter, the fluid is close to the Newtonian fluid where the velocity is less than the Non-Newtonian fluid. It is seen that velocity increases and Temperature decreases with increase in thermal radiation R. Radiation parameter R signifies the relative contribution of conduction heat transfer to thermal radiation transfer. Concentration decreases tendency with chemical reaction parameter R′.

  13. Soret and heat generation effects on MHD Casson fluid flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded through porous medium

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    Hari R. Kataria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solution of thermal diffusion and heat generation effects on MHD Casson fluid flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded through porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction is obtained. Ramped wall temperature with ramped surface concentration, isothermal temperature with ramped surface concentration and isothermal temperature with constant surface concentration are taken into account. The governing non-dimensional equations are solved using Laplace transform technique and the solutions are presented in closed form. In order to get a perfect understanding of the physics of the problem we obtained numerical results using Matlab software and clarified with the help of graphical illustrations. With the help of velocity, temperature and concentration, Skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are obtained and represent through tabular form. Casson parameter is inversely proportional to the yield stress and it is observed that for the large value of Casson parameter, the fluid is close to the Newtonian fluid where the velocity is less than the non-Newtonian fluid. The intensification in values of Soret number produces a raise in the mass buoyancy force which results an increase in the value of velocity.

  14. Chemical reaction and radiation effects on mixed convection heat and mass transfer over a vertical plate in power-law fluid saturated porous medium

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    D. Srinivasacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a vertical plate embedded in a power-law fluid saturated Darcy porous medium with chemical reaction and radiation effects is studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using shooting method. A parametric study of the physical parameters involved in the problem is conducted and a representative set of numerical results is illustrated graphically.

  15. Combined natural convection and mass transfer effects on unsteady flow past an infinite vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium with heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.S. [Department of Physics, K B D A V College, Nirakarpur, Khurda-752 019 (Orissa) (India); Tripathy, R.K. [Department of Physics, D R Nayapalli College, Bhubaneswar-751 012 (Orissa) (India); Padhy, R.K. [Department of Physics, D A V Public School, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar-751 021 (Orissa) (India); Sahu, M. [Department of Physics, Jupiter +2 Women’s Science College, IRC Village, Bhubaneswar-751 015 (Orissa) (India)

    2012-07-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the combined natural convection and mass transfer effects on unsteady flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium with heat source. The governing equations of the flow field are solved analytically for velocity, temperature, concentration distribution, skin friction and the rate of heat transfer using multi parameter perturbation technique and the effects of the flow parameters such as permeability parameter Kp, Grashof number for heat and mass transfer Gr, Gc; heat source parameter S, Schmidt number Sc, Prandtl number Pr etc. on the flow field are analyzed and discussed with the help of figures and tables. The permeability parameter Kp is reported to accelerate the transient velocity of the flow field at all points for small values of Kp (£1) and for higher values the effect reverses. The effect of increasing Grashof numbers for heat and mass transfer or heat source parameter is to enhance the transient velocity of the flow field at all points while a growing Schmidt number retards its effect at all points. A growing permeability parameter or heat source parameter increases the transient temperature of the flow field at all points, while a growing Prandtl number shows reverse effect. The effect of increasing Schmidt number is to decrease the concentration boundary layer thickness of the flow field at all points. Further, a growing permeability parameter enhances the skin friction at the wall and a growing Prandtl number shows reverse effect. The effect of increasing Prandtl number or permeability parameter leads to increase the magnitude of the rate of heat transfer at the wall.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic free convection heat and mass transfer of a heat generating fluid past an impulsively started infinite vertical porous plate with Hall current and radiation absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinyanjui, M.; Kwanza, J.K.; Uppal, S.M. [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Cayman Islands). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics

    2001-05-01

    Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in unsteady free convection flow with radiation absorption past an impulsively started infinite vertical porous plate subjected to a strong magnetic field is presented. The governing equations for the problem are solved by a finite difference scheme. The influence of the various parameters on the convectively cooled or convectively heated plate in the laminar boundary layer are considered. An analysis of the effects of the parameters on the concentration, velocity and temperature profiles, as well as skin friction and the rates of mass and heat transfer, is done with the aid of graphs and tables. (author)

  17. Heat and mass transfer on unsteady MHD free convection rotating flow through a porous medium over an infinite vertical plate with hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, D. Dastagiri; Venkateswarlu, S.; Reddy, E. Keshava

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we have considered the unsteady MHD free convection flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid through porous medium bounded by an infinite vertical porous surface in the presence of heat source and chemical reaction in a rotating system taking hall current into account. The flow through porous medium is governed by Brinkman's model for the momentum equation. In the undisturbed state, both the plate and fluid in porous medium are in solid body rotation with the same angular velocity about normal to the infinite vertical plane surface. The vertical surface is subjected to the uniform constant suction perpendicular to it and the temperature on the surface varies with time about a non-zero constant mean while the temperature of free stream is taken to be constant. The exact solutions for the velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained making use of perturbation technique. The velocity expression consists steady state and oscillatory state. It reveals that, the steady part of the velocity field has three layer characters while the oscillatory part of the fluid field exhibits a multi-layer character. The influence of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration is analysed graphically, and computational results for the skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also obtained in the tabular forms.

  18. Chemical reaction effect on an unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in the presence of suction or injection

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    Shivaiah S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of chemical reaction on unsteady magneto hydrodynamic free convective fluid flow past a vertical porous plate in the presence of suction or injection. The governing equations of the flow field are solved numerically by a finite element method. The effects of the various parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically and values of skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number for various values of physical parameters are presented through tables.

  19. Double diffusive unsteady convective micropolar flow past a vertical porous plate moving through binary mixture using modified Boussinesq approximation

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    Isaac Lare Animasaun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of unsteady convective with thermophoresis, chemical reaction and radiative heat transfer in a micropolar fluid flow past a vertical porous surface moving through binary mixture considering temperature dependent dynamic viscosity and constant vortex viscosity has been investigated theoretically. For proper and correct analysis of fluid flow along vertical surface with a temperature lesser than that of the free stream, Boussinesq approximation and temperature dependent viscosity model were modified and incorporated into the governing equations. The governing equations are converted to systems of ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations and solved numerically using fourth-order Runge–Kutta method along with shooting technique. The results of the numerical solution are presented graphically and in tabular forms for different values of parameters. Velocity profile increases with temperature dependent variable fluid viscosity parameter. Increase of suction parameter corresponds to an increase in both temperature and concentration within the thin boundary layer.

  20. Development of flow and heat transfer in the vicinity of a vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with viscous dissipation effects

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of viscous dissipation on unsteady free convection from an isothermal vertical flat plate in a fluidsaturated porous medium are investigated. The Darcy-Brinkman model is employed to describe the flow field. A new model of viscous dissipation is used for the Darcy-Brinkman model of porous media. The simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers is obtained by using a finite-difference method. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximation have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity and temperature profiles as well as the local friction factor and local Nusselt number are displayed graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient approach steady state. © 2012 by Begell House, Inc.

  1. The effects of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on MHD heat and mass diffusion flow past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with variable surface conditions

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    Kishore P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is undertaken to study the hydromagnetic flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an oscillating vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with radiation, viscous dissipation and variable heat and mass diffusion. Governing equations are solved by unconditionally stable explicit finite difference method of DuFort - Frankel’s type for concentration, temperature, vertical velocity field and skin - friction and they are presented graphically for different values of physical parameters involved. It is observed that plate oscillation, variable mass diffusion, radiation, viscous dissipation and porous medium affect the flow pattern significantly.

  2. Combined effect of buoyancy force and Navier slip on MHD flow of a nanofluid over a convectively heated vertical porous plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuku-Njane, Winifred Nduku; Makinde, Oluwole Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effect of magnetic field on boundary layer flow of an incompressible electrically conducting water-based nanofluids past a convectively heated vertical porous plate with Navier slip boundary condition. A suitable similarity transformation is employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by employing fourth-order Runge-Kutta with a shooting technique. Three different water-based nanofluids containing copper (Cu), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) are taken into consideration. Graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively with respect to the influence of pertinent parameters, such as solid volume fraction of nanoparticles (φ), magnetic field parameter (Ha), buoyancy effect (Gr), Eckert number (Ec), suction/injection parameter (f w ), Biot number (Bi), and slip parameter ( β ), on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient, and heat transfer rate.

  3. Chemical reaction and radiation effects on the transient MHD free convection flow of dissipative fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate with ramped wall temperature

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    V. RAJESH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A finite-difference analysis is performed to study the effects of thermal radiation and chemical reaction on the transient MHD free convection and mass transform flow of a dissipative fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate subject to ramped wall temperature. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing/ /emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The dimensionless governing equations are unsteady, coupled and non-linear partial differential equations. An analytical method fails to give a solution. Hence an implicit finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson method is employed. The effect of the magnetic parameter (M, chemical reaction parameter (K, radiation parameter (F, buoyancy ratio parameter (N, Schmidt number (Sc on the velocity field and skin friction for both air (Pr = 0.71 and water (Pr = 7 in the presence of both aiding (N>0 and opposing (N<0 flows are extensively discussed with the help of graphs.

  4. Radiation and mass transfer effects on an unsteady MHD free convection flow past a heated vertical plate in a porous medium with viscous dissipation

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    Prasad Ramachandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, laminar free convective boundary-layer flow of an incompressible, Newtonian, electrically-conducting and radiating fluid past an infinite heated vertical porous plate with heat and mass transfer is analyzed, by taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed and graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles within the boundary layer and tabulated results for the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented and discussed. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases, the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer, whereas when thermal and solutal Grashof increases the velocity increases.

  5. Free Convective Flow of a Reacting Fluid between Vertical Porous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates free convective flow between vertical porous plates. The energy and momentum equations which arise from the definitions of temperature and velocity are written in dimensionless forms. The resulting second order equations are solved to obtain expressions for the velocity, temperature, mass transfer ...

  6. Heat and Mass Transfer of Unsteady Hydromagnetic Free Convection Flow Through Porous Medium Past a Vertical Plate with Uniform Surface Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aziz, Mohamed Abd; Yahya, Aishah S.

    2017-09-01

    Simultaneous effects of thermal and concentration diffusions in unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow past a moving plate maintained at constant heat flux and embedded in a viscous fluid saturated porous medium is presented. The transport model employed includes the effects of thermal radiation, heat sink, Soret and chemical reaction. The fluid is considered as a gray absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation in the energy equations is used to describe the radiative heat flux for optically thick fluid. The dimensionless coupled linear partial differential equations are solved by using Laplace transform technique. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, concentration as well as the skin friction coefficient and the rates of heat and mass transfer are shown graphically for different values of physical parameters involved.

  7. Time dependent Oldroyd-B liquid film flow over an oscillating and porous vertical plate with the effect of thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmand, Muhammad Ismail; Shah, Qayyum; Mamat, Mustafa Bin; Shah, Zahir; Khan, Abdul Samad

    2017-05-01

    In the current research work, a liquid film flow of Oldroyd-B fluid with internal heat in vertical porous medium in an oscillating belt is being examined in unsteady state. For this phenomenon, by using basic equations of fluid motion we get a mathematical model. The obtained model problem is solved for the exact analytic solutions by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). Velocity, temperature fields with the mass flow-rate and heat transfer rate of the fluid flow at the belt are also calculated. The effect of pertinent parameters like κ1 relaxation time parameter, κ2 retardation time parameter, Λ porosity parameter, R radiation parameter and Pr temperature fields are also deliberated and then are presented graphically.

  8. An exact solution on unsteady MHD free convection chemically reacting silver nanofluid flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate through porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, E.; Vijaya Kumar, A. G.; Rushi Kumar, B.

    2017-11-01

    This article studies, an exact solution of unsteady MHD free convection boundary-layer flow of a silver nanofluid past an exponentially accelerated moving vertical plate through aporous medium in the presence of thermal radiation, transverse applied amagnetic field, radiation absorption and Heat generation or absorption with chemical reaction are investigated theoretically. We consider nanofluids contain spherical shaped nanoparticle of silverwith a nanoparticle volume concentration range smaller than or equal to 0.04. This phenomenon is modeled in the form of partial differential equations with initial boundary conditions. Some suitable dimensional variables are introduced. The corresponding dimensionless equations with boundary conditions are solved by using Laplace transform technique. The exact solutions for velocity, energy, and species are obtained, also the corresponding numerical values of nanofluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are represented graphically. The expressions for skin friction coefficient, the rate of heat transfer and mass transfer are derived. The present study finds applications involving heat transfer, enhancement of thermal conductivity and other applications like transportation, industrial cooling applications, heating buildings and reducing pollution, energy applications and solar absorption. The effect of heat transfer is found to be more pronounced in a silver–water nanofluid than in the other nanofluids.

  9. Numerical Solutions by EFGM of MHD Convective Fluid Flow Past a Vertical Plate Immersed in a Porous Medium in the Presence of Cross Diffusion Effects via Biot Number and Convective Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, R. S.; Reddy, B. M.; Rashidi, M. M.; Gorla, R. S. R.

    2017-08-01

    In this investigation, the numerical results of a mixed convective MHD chemically reacting flow past a vertical plate embedded in a porous medium are presented in the presence of cross diffusion effects and convective boundary condition. Instead of the commonly used conditions of constant surface temperature or constant heat flux, a convective boundary condition is employed which makes this study unique and the results more realistic and practically useful. The momentum, energy, and concentration equations derived as coupled second-order, ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using a highly accurate and thoroughly tested element free Galerkin method (EFGM). The effects of the Soret number, Dufour number, Grashof number for heat and mass transfer, the viscous dissipation parameter, Schmidt number, chemical reaction parameter, permeability parameter and Biot number on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically. In addition, numerical results for the local skin-friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are discussed through tabular forms. The discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the results as well as their comparison with the results of previous studies.

  10. Numerical Solutions by EFGM of MHD Convective Fluid Flow Past a Vertical Plate Immersed in a Porous Medium in the Presence of Cross Diffusion Effects via Biot Number and Convective Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju R.S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the numerical results of a mixed convective MHD chemically reacting flow past a vertical plate embedded in a porous medium are presented in the presence of cross diffusion effects and convective boundary condition. Instead of the commonly used conditions of constant surface temperature or constant heat flux, a convective boundary condition is employed which makes this study unique and the results more realistic and practically useful. The momentum, energy, and concentration equations derived as coupled second-order, ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using a highly accurate and thoroughly tested element free Galerkin method (EFGM. The effects of the Soret number, Dufour number, Grashof number for heat and mass transfer, the viscous dissipation parameter, Schmidt number, chemical reaction parameter, permeability parameter and Biot number on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically. In addition, numerical results for the local skin-friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are discussed through tabular forms. The discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the results as well as their comparison with the results of previous studies.

  11. Mixed convective heat transfer from a vertical plate embedded in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 2. Mixed convective heat transfer from a vertical plate embedded in a saturated non-Darcy porous medium with concentration and melting effect. K Hemalatha Peri K Kameswaran M V D N S Madhavi. Mechanical Sciences Volume 40 Issue 2 April 2015 pp 455-465 ...

  12. Hall current effect on radiating span-wise fluctuating MHD convective flow through porous medium in a vertical porous channel

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    Dev Krishan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of an unsteady MHD convective flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid through porous medium filled in a vertical porous channel is carried out. The two porous plates are subjected to a constant injection and suction velocity as shown in Fig. 1a, b. The temperature of the plate at y*= + 9 2 is assumed to be varying in space and time as T*(y*, z*, t* = T1 (y* + (T2 - T1COS (πz*d -ω*t*. A magnetic field of uniform strength is applied perpendicular to the plates of the channel. The temperature difference between the plates is high enough to induce the heat due to radiation. It is also assumed that the conducting fluid is opticallythin gray gas, absorbing/ emitting radiation and non-scattering. The Hall current effects have also been taken into account. Exact solution of the partial differential equations governing the flow under the prescribed boundary conditions has been obtained for the velocity and the temperature fields. The primary and secondary velocities, temperature and the skin-friction and Nusselt number for the rate of heat transfer in terms of their amplitudes and phase angles have been shown graphically to observe the effects of suction parameter λ, Grashof number Gr, Hartmann number M, Hall parameter H, the permeability of the porous medium K, Prandtl number Pr, radiation parameter N, pressure gradient A and the frequency of oscillation ω. The final results are then discussed in detail in the last section of the paper with the help of figures.

  13. Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a new numerical approach for solving unsteady two dimensional boundary layer flow past an infinite vertical porous surface with the flow generated by Newtonian heating and impulsive motion in the presence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid under ...

  14. The structure of turbulent flow around vertical plates containing holes and attached to a channel bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, K.; Constantinescu, G.

    2017-11-01

    High-resolution, 3-D large eddy simulations are conducted to study the physics of flow past 2-D solid and porous vertical plates of height H mounted on a horizontal surface (no bottom gap) with a fully developed, turbulent incoming flow. The porous plate consists of an array of spanwise-oriented, identical solid cylinders of rectangular cross section. The height of the solid cylinders and the spacing between the solid cylinders, corresponding to the plate's "holes," are kept constant for any given configuration, as the present study considers only plates of uniform porosity. The paper discusses how the mean flow and turbulence structure around the vertical plate, the unsteady forces acting on the plate, the dynamics of the large-scale turbulent eddies, the spectral content of the wake, and the distribution of the bed friction velocity on the horizontal channel bed vary as a function of the plate porosity (0% forming at the top of the plate and the wake structure. It is found that the main recirculation eddy in the wake remains attached to the plate for P forms away from the porous plate. The energy of the billows advected in the SSL decays monotonically with increasing plate porosity. For cases when the recirculation eddy remains attached to the plate, the larger billows advected in the downstream part of the SSL are partially reinjected inside the main recirculation eddy as a result of their interaction with the channel bed. This creates a feedback mechanism that induces large-scale disturbances of the spanwise-oriented vortex tubes advected inside the upstream part of the SSL. Results also show that the mean drag coefficient and the root-mean-square of the drag coefficient fluctuations increase mildly with increasing d/H. Meanwhile, varying d/H has a negligible effect on the position and size of the main recirculation eddy. The presence of large-scale roughness elements (2-D ribs) at the bed results in the decrease of the mean drag coefficient of the plate and

  15. Radiation and mass transfer effects on unsteady MHD convective flow past an infinite vertical plate with Dufour and Soret effects

    OpenAIRE

    N. Vedavathi; K Ramakrishna; K. Jayarami Reddy

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of heat and mass transfer on two-dimensional unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in a porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation under the influence of Dufour and Soret effects. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations have been reduced to the coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by the similarity transformations. The resulting equations are then solved numerically using shooting method along with ...

  16. A high performance porous flat-plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Clarke, V.; Reynolds, R.

    1979-01-01

    A solar collector employing a porous matrix as a solar absorber and heat exchanger is presented and its application in solar air heaters is discussed. The collector is composed of a metallic matrix with a porous surface which acts as a large set of cavity radiators; cold air flows through the matrix plate and exchanges heat with the thermally stratified layers of the matrix. A steady-state thermal analysis of the collector is used to determine collector temperature distributions for the cases of an opaque surface matrix with total absorption of solar energy at the surface, and a diathermanous matrix with successive solar energy absorption at each depth. The theoretical performance of the porous flat plate collector is shown to exceed greatly that of a solid flat plate collector using air as the working medium for any given set of operational conditions. An experimental collector constructed using commercially available, low cost steel wool as the matrix has been found to have thermal efficiencies from 73 to 86%.

  17. Transmission coefficients of a floating rectangular breakwater with porous side plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Hyoung Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between incident waves and a floating rectangular breakwater with the vertical porous side plates has been investigated in the context of the two-dimensional linear potential theory. The matched eigenfunction expansion method(MEEM for multiple domains is applied to obtain the analytic solutions. The dependence of the transmitted coefficients and motion responses on the design parameters, such as porosity and protruding depth of side plates, is systematically analyzed. It is found that the non-dimensional wavelength where the sudden drop of transmission coefficients occurs, corresponds to the heave resonant frequency obtained from Ruol et al. (2013 for π-type floating breakwater. It is concluded that both properly selected porosity and deeper protruding depth of side plates are helpful in reducing the transmission coefficients and also extending the wider applicable extent of incident wavelength for performance enhancement.

  18. Unsteady Hydromagnetic Rotating Flow through an Oscillating Porous Plate Embedded in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates unsteady hydromagnetic flow of a viscous fluid in a rotating frame. The fluid is bounded by an oscillating porous plate embedded in a porous medium. The Laplace transform and Fourier sine transform methods are employed to find the exact solutions. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and as special cases are reduced to some published results from the literature. The graphical results are plotted for different values of pertinent parameters and some interesting conclusions are made.

  19. Magnetic field effects on unsteady convective flow along a vertical porous flat surface embedded in a porous medium with constant suction and heat sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.S.; Das, P. [Department of Pysics, K B D A B College, Nirakarpur, Khurda-752 019 (Orissa) (India); Mohanty, J. [Department of Physics, ABIT, CDA, Sector-I, Bidanasi, Cuttack-753 014, (Orissa) (India)

    2011-07-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic unsteady convective flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along a vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium with constant suction and heat sink is considered. Approximate solutions for velocity, temperature, skin friction and rate of heat transfer are obtained by solving the governing equations of the flow field using multi parameter perturbation technique. The effects of various flow parameters affecting the flow field are discussed with the help of figures and table. It is observed that a growing magnetic parameter or heat sink parameter retards the transient velocity of the flow field while the Grashof number or permeability parameter reverses the effect. Further, an increase in magnetic parameter or Prandtl number or heat sink parameter decreases the transient temperature of the flow field. A growing permeability parameter enhances the magnitude of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer at the wall, while the magnetic parameter reverses the effect.

  20. Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    been seen in MHD power generators, astrophysical and meteorological studies as well as in plasma physics. The Hall effect is due merely to ...... -3. Kg/ m ] fluid density in the boundary layer υ [ 2 -1. m s ] kinematic viscosity σ [ -1. -1. Ω m ] electrical conductivity θ [-] dimensionless temperature φ [. -3. Wm ] frictional heat. Ω [-].

  1. Unsteady MHD free convective flow past a vertical porous plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2 Department of Mathematics, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, INDIA. 3 Department of ... Analytical solution has been found depending on the physical parameters including ... the attention of many scholars because of its possible applications in diverse fields of science and technology such as – soil- sciences ...

  2. Heat transfer in a vertical rectangular duct filled with a porous matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive numerical study to analyze free convective heat transfer in a vertical rectangular duct filled with porous matrix and saturated with nanofluid for temperature dependent viscosity. Using the Darcy- Forchhiemer model, the momentum in the porous medium was simulated.

  3. Modular Porous Plate Sublimator /MPPS/ requires only water supply for coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Modular porous plate sublimators, provided for each location where heat must be dissipated, conserve the battery power of a space vehicle by eliminating the coolant pump. The sublimator requires only a water supply for coolant.

  4. Effects of Hall current, radiation and rotation on natural convection heat and mass transfer flow past a moving vertical plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Seth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the effects of Hall current and rotation on unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection flow with heat and mass transfer of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible and optically thick radiating fluid past an impulsively moving vertical plate embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium, when temperature of the plate has a temporarily ramped profile, is carried out. Exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by Laplace transform technique. Exact solution is also obtained in case of unit Schmidt number. Expressions for skin friction due to primary and secondary flows and Nusselt number are derived for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates. Expression for Sherwood number is also derived. The numerical values of primary and secondary fluid velocities, fluid temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas those of skin friction are presented in tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters.

  5. Numerical simulation of porous burners and hole plate surface burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Stevan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the free flame burners the porous medium burners, especially those with flame stabilization within the porous material, are characterized by a reduction of the combustion zone temperatures and high combustion efficiency, so that emissions of pollutants are minimized. In the paper the finite-volume numerical tool for calculations of the non-isothermal laminar steady-state flow, with chemical reactions in laminar gas flow as well as within porous media is presented. For the porous regions the momentum and energy equations have appropriate corrections. In the momentum equations for the porous region an additional pressure drop has to be considered, which depends on the properties of the porous medium. For the heat transfer within the porous matrix description a heterogeneous model is considered. It treats the solid and gas phase separately, but the phases are coupled via a convective heat exchange term. For the modeling of the reaction of the methane laminar combustion the chemical reaction scheme with 164 reactions and 20 chemical species was used. The proposed numerical tool is applied for the analyses of the combustion and heat transfer processes which take place in porous and surface burners. The numerical experiments are accomplished for different powers of the porous and surface burners, as well as for different heat conductivity character is tics of the porous regions.

  6. Vertical Electric Field Measurements with Copper Plates by Sounding Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shao-Chun; Chiu, Cheng-Hsiu; Bing-Chih Chen, Alfred; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong

    2015-04-01

    The vertical electric field plays an important role in driving the circulation of the global electric circuit, and crucial to the formation of the transient luminous events (TLEs). The in-situ measurement of the electric field in the upper atmosphere, especially from cloud top to the bottom of the ionosphere is very challenging but essential. Limited by the flight vehicle, the measurements of the electric field in and above cloud, especiall thundercloud, is rare up to now. A light-weight electric field meter was developed independently and sent to 30 km height by small meteorological balloons successfully. Other than the existing long-spaced, spherical probe design, an improved electric field meter has been built and tested carefully. A new circuit with ultra high input impedance and a high voltage amplifier is implemented to reduce the AC noise induced by the voltage divider. Two copper plates are used to replace the double spherical probes which is spaced by a long fiberglass boom. The in-lab calibration and tests show that this new model is superior to the existing design and very sensitive to the variation of the DC electric field. In this poster, the design and the in-lab tests will be presented, and preliminary results of the flight experiments are also discussed.

  7. Radiation and mass transfer effects on unsteady MHD convective flow past an infinite vertical plate with Dufour and Soret effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedavathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of heat and mass transfer on two-dimensional unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in a porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation under the influence of Dufour and Soret effects. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations have been reduced to the coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by the similarity transformations. The resulting equations are then solved numerically using shooting method along with Runge–Kutta fourth order integration scheme. The numerical results are displayed graphically showing the effects of various parameters entering into the problem. Finally, the local values of the skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also shown in tabular form.

  8. Thermal radiation and mass transfer effects on unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical oscillating plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, B. M. Jewel; Ahmed, Rubel; Ahmmed, S. F.

    2017-06-01

    Unsteady MHD free convection flow past a vertical porous plate in porous medium with radiation, diffusion thermo, thermal diffusion and heat source are analyzed. The governing non-linear, partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless by using non-dimensional quantities. Then the resultant dimensionless equations are solved numerically by applying an efficient, accurate and conditionally stable finite difference scheme of explicit type with the help of a computer programming language Compaq Visual Fortran. The stability and convergence analysis has been carried out to establish the effect of velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, stream lines and isotherms line. Finally, the effects of various parameters are presented graphically and discussed qualitatively.

  9. Radiation effects on unsteady MHD convective heat and mass transfer past a vertical plate with chemical reaction and viscous dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar Balla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical analysis is performed to study the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic convective flow of heat and mass transfer of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting Newtonian fluid along a vertical permeable plate in the presence of a homogeneous first order chemical reaction and taking into account thermal radiation effects. The porous plate was subjected to a constant suction velocity with variable surface temperature and concentration. The governing coupled non-linear boundary layer partial differential equations were solved by an efficient and unconditionally stable finite element method based on Galerkin weighted residual approach. A representative set of computational results for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as Local skin-friction coefficient, Local Nusselt number and Local Sherwood number are presented graphically for various governing parameters such as M,R,Ec,Sc,andK. In the present analysis various comparisons with previously published work are performed and the results are found to be in a good agreement.

  10. Heat transfer in a vertical rectangular duct filled with a porous matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with uniform heat flux, Transactions of the ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 107, pp. 716-720. Seddeek M.A., Effects of magnetic field and variable viscosity on forced non-Darcy flow about a flat plate with variable wall temperature in porous media in the presence of suction and bellowing, J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys., Vol.

  11. Heat transfer between two parallel porous plates for Couette flow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technology to study the movement of natural gas, oil and water through the oil reservoirs. Ravikumar et al (2012). Many research workers have paid their attention towards the application of fluid flow in different category through porous medium in channels of various cross-sections. (Nield & Kuznetsov 2010; Pal & Talukdar ...

  12. Heat transfer between two parallel porous plates for Couette flow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present paper is to study the unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic viscous Couette flow with heat transfer in a Darcy porous medium between two ... Basic and Applied Science Department, College of Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy for Science, Technology, and Maritime Transport, Cairo 2033, ...

  13. On flow of an elastico-viscous fluid past an oscillating porous plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, S. T.; Korwar, V. M.

    1981-10-01

    A solution for the flow problem of an elastico-viscous fluid (Walters liquid B') due to an oscillating infinite porous plate with constant suction has been obtained. It has been observed that the magnitude of velocity decreases with increase in suction velocity. The shearing stress increases with increase in suction.

  14. Oblique wave motion over multiple submerged porous bars near a vertical wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yong; Li, Huajun; Chang, Anteng

    2017-08-01

    This study examines oblique wave motion over multiple submerged porous bars in front of a vertical wall. Based on linear potential theory, an analytical solution for the present problem is developed using matched eigenfunction expansions. A complex dispersion relation is adopted to describe the wave elevation and energy dissipation over submerged porous bars. In the analytical solution, no limitations on the bar number, bar size, and spacing between adjacent bars are set. The convergence of the analytical solution is satisfactory, and the correctness of the analytical solution is confirmed by an independently developed multi-domain BEM (boundary element method) solution. Numerical examples are presented to examine the reflection and transmission coefficients of porous bars, C R and C T , respectively, for engineering applications. The calculation results show that when the sum of widths for all the porous bars is fixed, increasing the bar number can significantly improve the sheltering function of the bars. Increasing the bar height can cause more wave energy dissipation and lower C R and C T . The spacing between adjacent bars and the spacing between the last bar and the vertical wall are the key parameters affecting C R and C T . The proposed analytical method may be used to analyze the hydrodynamic performance of submerged porous bars in preliminary engineering designs.

  15. The flow of a non-Newtonian fluid induced due to the oscillations of a porous plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asghar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic solution of the flow of a third-grade fluid on a porous plate is constructed. The porous plate is executing oscillations in its own plane with superimposed injection or suction. An increasing or decreasing velocity amplitude of the oscillating porous plate is also examined. It is also shown that in case of third-grade fluid, a combination of suction/injection and decreasing/increasing velocity amplitude is possible as well. Several limiting situations with their implications are given and discussed.

  16. The linear stability of vertical mixture seepage into the close porous filter with clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryshev, Boris S.

    2017-02-01

    In the present paper, filtration of a mixture through a close porous filter is considered. A heavy solute penetrates from the upper side of the filter into the filter body due to seepage flow and diffusion. In the presence of heavy solute a domain with a heavy fluid is formed near the upper boundary of the filter. The stratification, at which the heavy fluid is located above the light, is unstable. When the mass of the heavy solute exceeds the critical value, one can observe the onset of instability. As a result, two regimes of vertical filtration can occur: (1) homogeneous seepage and (2) convective filtration. Filtration of a mixture in porous media is a complex process. It is necessary to take into account the solute immobilization (or sorption) and clogging of porous medium. We consider the case of low solute concentrations, in which the immobilization is described by the linear MIM (mobile/immobile media) model. The clogging is described by the dependence of permeability on porosity in terms of the Carman-Kozeny formula. The presence of immobile (or adsorbed) particles of the solute decreases the porosity of media and porous media becomes less permeable. The purpose of the paper is to find the stability conditions for the homogeneous vertical seepage of the mixture into the close porous filter. The linear stability problem is solved using the quasi-static approach. The critical times of instability are estimated. The stability maps have been plotted in the space of system parameters. The applicability of quasi-static approach is substantiated by direct numerical simulation.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of the wave run-up along a vertical plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Bernard; Kimmoun, O.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    , strong deviations from the predictions of linear theory gradually take place as the reflected wave field develops in the basin. This phenomenon is attributed to third-order interactions between the incoming and reflected wave systems, on the weather side of the plate. The measured profiles along...... the plate are compared with the predictions of two numerical models: an approximate model based on the tertiary interaction theory of Longuet-Higgins & Phillips (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 12, 1962, p. 333) for plane waves, which provides a steady-state solution, and a fully nonlinear numerical wavetank based......Results from experiments on wave interaction with a rigid vertical plate are reported. The 5m long plate is set against the wall of a 30m wide basin, at 100m from the wavemaker. This set-up is equivalent to a 10m plate in the middle of a 60m wide basin. Regular waves are produced, with wavelengths...

  18. Effects of Unsteady Flow Past An Infinite Vertical Plate With Variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of unsteady flow past an infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and constant mass flux are investigated. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain velocity and concentration fields. The computation of the results indicates that the velocity profiles increase with increase in Grashof numbers, mass ...

  19. Effects of reverse waves on the hydrodynamic pressure acting on a dual porous horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweon Hyuck-Min

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The seaward reverse wave, occurring on the submerged dual porous horizontal plate, can contribute to the reduction of the transmitted wave as it reflects the propagating wave. However, the collision between the propa¬gating and seaward reverse waves increases the water level and acts as a weight on the horizontal plate. This study investigated the characteristics of the wave pressure created by the seaward reverse wave through the analysis of expe¬rimental data. The analysis confirmed the following results: 1 the time series of the wave pressure showed reverse phase phenomena due to the collision, and the wave pressures acted simultaneously on both upper and lower surfaces of the horizontal plate; 2 the horizontal plate became repeatedly compressed and tensile before and after the occur¬rence of the seaward reverse wave; and 3 the seaward reverse wave created the total wave pressure to the maximum towards the direction of gravity, primarily on the upper plate. It was also confirmed that the wave distributions showed a similar trend to the wave steepness. Such outcome of the analysis will provide basic information to the structural analysis of the horizontal plate as a wave dissipater of the steel-type breakwater (STB.

  20. Effects of reverse waves on the hydrodynamic pressure acting on a dual porous horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The seaward reverse wave, occurring on the submerged dual porous horizontal plate, can contribute to the reduction of the transmitted wave as it reflects the propagating wave. However, the collision between the propagating and seaward reverse waves increases the water level and acts as a weight on the horizontal plate. This study investigated the characteristics of the wave pressure created by the seaward reverse wave through the analysis of experimental data. The analysis confirmed the following results: 1 the time series of the wave pressure showed reverse phase phenomena due to the collision, and the wave pressures acted simultaneously on both upper and lower surfaces of the horizontal plate; 2 the horizontal plate became repeatedly compressed and tensile before and after the occurrence of the seaward reverse wave; and 3 the seaward reverse wave created the total wave pressure to the maximum towards the direction of gravity, primarily on the upper plate. It was also confirmed that the wave distributions showed a similar trend to the wave steepness. Such outcome of the analysis will provide basic information to the structural analysis of the horizontal plate as a wave dissipater of the steel-type breakwater (STB.

  1. A Note on Variable Viscosity and Chemical Reaction Effects on Mixed Convection Heat and Mass Transfer Along a Semi-Infinite Vertical Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. A. Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an analysis is carried out to study the variable viscosity and chemical reaction effects on the flow, heat, and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity transformations. The transformed coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the shooting method. The effects of different parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are shown graphically. In addition, tabulated results for the local skin-friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and the local Sherwood number are presented and discussed.

  2. Investigation of boiling heat transfer of binary mixture from vertical tube embedded in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hailong; Ma, Tongze; Zhang, Zhengfang

    1996-07-01

    Ethanol-water binary mixtures with 7 different mole fractions of ethanol ranging from 0 to 1 were adopted as testing liquids in the experiment. The vertical heating tube was inserted in porous matrix composed of five well sorted glass beads whose diameters range from 0.5 to 4.3 mm. Due to the effect of composition, the trend of combination of vapor bubbles was reduced, resulting in the increase of peak heat flux of binary mixture. With the increase of ethanol mole fraction, 0.5 mm diameter bead had lower value of peak heat flux, while for pure liquid the critical state is difficult to appear. With given diameter of glass bead, there existed an optimum value of mole fraction of ethanol, which was decreased with the increase of bead diameter. A dimensionless heat transfer coefficient was predicted through the introduction of a dimensionless parameter of porous matrix, which agreed with the experimental results satisfactorily.

  3. The stability of homogeneous pulsating vertical seepage of mixture through porous media with solute immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryshev, B. S.

    2017-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the linear stability of homogeneous pulsating vertical seepage of mixture through porous media with solute immobilization. The flow through porous media is modelled within the standard Darcy law and immobilization is described by the linear mobile/immobile media (MIM) model. It is known that the immobilization leads to oscilatory mode of convective instability due to transition of solute from the mobile phase to immobile. It means that immobilization effect to the flow pulsations should be non-trivial. The equations for the convection with immobilization is derived, the regime of homogeneous filtration is obtained and its stabilization is investigated. The neutral curves into the space of parameters of investigated system is ploted. The effect of homogeneous filtration stabilization under intensification of external seepage and dynamics interphase exchange is studied.

  4. Radiation and chemical reaction effects on isothermal vertical oscillating plate with variable mass diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan Kaliappan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady flow of a viscous incompressible flow past an infinite isothermal vertical oscillating plate, in the presence of thermal radiation and homogeneous chemical reaction of first order has been studied. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature is raised to Tw and the concentration level near the plate is raised linearly with respect to time. An exact solution to the dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity, temperature, and concentration are studied for different physical parameters like phase angle, radiation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, and time are studied graphically. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle wt.

  5. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on porous silicon substrates: Effect of growth time

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shabannia

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates by chemical bath deposition at a low temperature. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) analyses were carried out to investigate the effect of growth duration (2 h to 8 h) on the optical and structural properties of the aligned ZnO nanorods. Strong and sharp ZnO (0 0 2) peaks of the ZnO nanorods proved th...

  6. New movable plate for efficient millimeter wave vertical on-chip antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Marnat, Loic

    2013-04-01

    A new movable plate concept is presented in this paper to realize mm-wave vertical on-chip antennas through MEMS based post-processing steps in a CMOS compatible process. By virtue of its vertical position, the antenna is isolated from the lossy Si substrate and hence performs with a better efficiency as compared to the horizontal position. In addition, the movable plate concept enables polarization diversity by providing both horizontal and vertical polarizations on the same chip. Through a first iteration fractal bowtie antenna design, dual band (60 and 77 GHz) operation is demonstrated in both horizontal and vertical positions without any change in dimensions or use of switches for two different mediums (Si and air). To support the movable plate concept, the transmission line and antenna are designed on a flexible polyamide, where the former has been optimized to operate in the bent position. The design is highly suitable for compact, low cost and efficient SoC solutions. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  7. Novel in situ method (vacuum assisted electroless plating) modified porous cathode for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ren; Lue, Zhe; Chen, Kongfa; Ai, Na; Li, Shuyan; Wei, Bo [Center for the Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Su, Wenhui [Center for the Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Academia Sinica, Shenyang 110015 (China)

    2008-06-15

    A novel in situ method - vacuum assisted electroless plating (VA-EP) is developed to modify the porous structure of various materials. The advantage of this method is that it can form a metal network based on the already-given structure. We utilize this method to deposit silver (VA-EPA) in porous perovskite cathode Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) for an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) in the present research. The results of investigation show the performance of the modified cathode (VA-EPA-BSCF) enhances greatly, for example, the polarization resistance of VA-EPA-BSCF decreases by 60% at 600 C compared to BSCF. (author)

  8. Electro-mechanical vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric porous plates in the translation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Qing

    2018-02-01

    To provide reference for aerospace structural design, electro-mechanical vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates carrying porosities in the translation state are investigated. A modified power law formulation is employed to depict the material properties of the plates in the thickness direction. Three terms of inertial forces are taken into account due to the translation of plates. The geometrical nonlinearity is considered by adopting the von Kármán non-linear relations. Using the d'Alembert's principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the out-of-plane motion of the plates is derived. The equation is further discretized to a system of ordinary differential equations using the Galerkin method, which are subsequently solved via the harmonic balance method. Then, the approximate analytical results are validated by utilizing the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. Additionally, the stability of the steady state responses is examined by means of the perturbation technique. Linear and nonlinear vibration analyses are both carried out and results display some interesting dynamic phenomenon for translational porous FGPM plates. Parametric study shows that the vibration characteristics of the present inhomogeneous structure depend on several key physical parameters.

  9. Metal-adeninate vertices for the construction of an exceptionally porous metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jihyun; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Pohl, Ehmke; Yeh, Joanne I; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2012-01-03

    Metal-organic frameworks comprising metal-carboxylate cluster vertices and long, branched organic linkers are the most porous materials known, and therefore have attracted tremendous attention for many applications, including gas storage, separations, catalysis and drug delivery. To increase metal-organic framework porosity, the size and complexity of linkers has increased. Here we present a promising alternative strategy for constructing mesoporous metal-organic frameworks that addresses the size of the vertex rather than the length of the organic linker. This approach uses large metal-biomolecule clusters, in particular zinc-adeninate building units, as vertices to construct bio-MOF-100, an exclusively mesoporous metal-organic framework. Bio-MOF-100 exhibits a high surface area (4,300 m(2) g(-1)), one of the lowest crystal densities (0.302 g cm(-3)) and the largest metal-organic framework pore volume reported to date (4.3 cm(3) g(-1)).

  10. Open Channel Natural Convection Heat Transfer on a Vertical Finned Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Heo, Jeong Hwan; Chung, Bum Jin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The natural convection heat transfer of vertical plate fin was investigated experimentally. Heat transfer systems were replaced by mass-transfer systems, based on the analogy concept. The experimental results lie within the predictions of the existing heat transfer correlations of plate-fin for the natural convections. An overlapped thermal boundary layers caused increasing heat transfer, and an overlapped momentum boundary layers caused decreasing heat transfer. As the fin height increases, heat transfer was enhanced due to increased inflow from the open side of the fin spacing. When fin spacing and fin height are large, heat transfer was unaffected by the fin spacing and fin height. Passive cooling by natural convection becomes more and more important for the nuclear systems as the station black out really happened at the Fukushima NPPs. In the RCCS (Reactor Cavity Cooling System) of a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), natural convection cooling through duct system is adopted. In response to the stack failure event, extra cooling capacity adopting the fin array has to be investigated. The finned plate increases the surface area and the heat transfer increases. However, the plate of fin arrays may increase the pressure drop and the heat transfer decreases. Therefore, in order to enhance the passive cooling with fin arrays, the parameters for the fin arrays should be optimized. According to Welling and Wooldridge, a natural convection on vertical plate fin is function of Gr, Pr, L, t, S, and H. The present work investigated the natural convection heat transfer of a vertical finned plate with varying the fin height and the fin spacing. In order achieve high Rayleigh numbers, an electroplating system was employed and the mass transfer rates were measured using a copper sulfate electroplating system based on the analogy concept.

  11. Natural convective magneto-nanofluid flow and radiative heat transfer past a moving vertical plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the hydromagnetic boundary layer flow past a moving vertical plate in nanofluids in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation has been carried out. Three different types of water-based nanofluids containing copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are taken into consideration. The governing equations are solved using Laplace transform technique and the solutions are presented in closed form. The numerical values of nanofluid temperature, velocity, the rate of heat transfer and the shear stress at the plate are presented graphically for several values of the pertinent parameters. The present study finds applications in engineering devices.

  12. Ice-templated Self-assembly of VOPO4–Graphene Nanocomposites for Vertically Porous 3D Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung Woo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Son, Jeong Gon

    2015-01-01

    A simple ice-templated self-assembly process is used to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) and vertically porous nanocomposite of layered vanadium phosphates (VOPO4) and graphene nanosheets with high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The resulting 3D VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite has a much higher capacitance of 527.9 F g−1 at a current density of 0.5 A g−1, compared with ~247 F g−1 of simple 3D VOPO4, with solid cycling stability. The enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior mainly originates from vertically porous structures from directionally grown ice crystals and simultaneously inducing radial segregation and forming inter-stacked structures of VOPO4–graphene nanosheets. This VOPO4–graphene nanocomposite electrode exhibits high surface area, vertically porous structure to the separator, structural stability from interstacked structure and high electrical conductivity, which would provide the short diffusion paths of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of charges within the conductive frameworks. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is fabricated by using vertically porous VOPO4–graphene as the positive electrode and vertically porous 3D graphene as the negative electrode; it exhibits a wide cell voltage of 1.6 V and a largely enhanced energy density of 108 Wh kg−1. PMID:26333591

  13. Experimental study on the method of estimating the vertical design wave force acting on a submerged dual horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A steel-type breakwater that uses a submerged dual horizontal porous plate was originally proposed by Kweon et al. (2005, and its hydrodynamic characteristics and design methodology were investigated in a series of subsequent researches. In particular, Kweon et al. (2011 proposed a method of estimating the vertical uplift force that acts on the horizontal plate, applicable to the design of the pile uplift drag force. However, the difference between the method proposed by Kweon et al. (2011, and the wave force measured at a different time without a phase difference, have not yet been clearly analyzed. In this study, such difference according to the method of estimating the wave force was analyzed, by measuring the wave pressure acting on a breakwater model. The hydraulic model test was conducted in a two-dimensional wave flume of 60.0 m length, 1.5 m height and 1.0 m width. The steepness range of the selected waves is 0.01~0.03, with regular and random signals. 20 pressure gauges were used for the measurement. The analysis results showed that the wave force estimate in the method of Kweon et al. (2011 was smaller than the wave force calculated from the maximum pressure at individual points, under a random wave action. Meanwhile, the method of Goda (1974 that was applied to the horizontal plate produced a smaller wave force, than the method of Kweon et al. (2011. The method of Kweon (2011 was already verified in the real sea test of Kweon et al. (2012, where the safety factor of the pile uplift force was found to be greater than 2.0. Based on these results, it was concluded that the method of estimating the wave force by Kweon et al. (2011 can be satisfactorily used for estimating the uplift force of a pile.

  14. Applications of 'edge-on' illuminated porous plate detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhaliev, P M

    2002-01-01

    Scanning X-ray imaging systems for non-invasive diagnostics have several advantages over conventional imaging systems using area detectors. They significantly reduce the detected scatter radiation, cover large areas and potentially provide high spatial resolution. Applications of one-dimensional gaseous detectors and 'edge-on' illuminated silicon strip detectors for scanning imaging systems are currently under intensive investigation. The purpose of this work is to investigate 'edge-on' illuminated Porous Plate (PP) detectors for applications in diagnostic X-ray imaging. MicroChannel Plate (MCP), which is a common type of PP, has previously been investigated as a detector in surface-on illumination mode for medical X-ray imaging. However, its detection efficiency was too low for medical imaging applications. In the present study, the PP are used in the 'edge-on' illumination mode. Furthermore, the structural parameters of different PP types are optimized to improve the detection efficiency in the diagnostic X...

  15. MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS ON ACCELERATED VERTICAL PLATE IN A ROTATING FLUID WITH FIRST ORDER CHEMICAL REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthucumaraswamy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The precise analysis of the rotation effects on the unsteady flow of an incompressible fluid past a uniformly accelerated infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion has been undertaken, in the presence of a homogeneous first order chemical reaction. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace-transform technique. The plate temperature as well as the concentration near the plate increase linearly with time. The velocity profiles, temperature and concentration are studied for different physical parameters, like the chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, Prandtl number and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. It is also observed that the velocity increases with decreasing rotation parameter Ω.

  16. On the Behavior of Pliable Plate Dynamics in Wind: Application to Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosse, Julia Theresa

    Numerous studies have shown that flexible materials improve resilience and durability of a structure. Several studies have investigated the behavior of elastic plates under the influence of a free stream, such as studies of the fluttering flag and others of shape reconfiguration, due to a free stream. The principle engineering contribution of this thesis is the design and development of a vertical axis wind turbine that features pliable blades which undergo various modes of behavior, ultimately leading to rotational propulsion of the turbine. The wind turbine design was tested in a wind tunnel and at the Caltech Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy. Ultimately, the flexible blade vertical axis wind turbine proved to be an effective way of harnessing the power of the wind. In addition, this body of work builds on the current knowledge of elastic cantilever plates in a free stream flow by investigating the inverted flag. While previous studies have focused on the fluid structure interaction of a free stream on elastic cantilever plates, none had studied the plate configuration where the trailing edge was clamped, leaving the leading edge free to move. Furthermore, the studies presented in this thesis establish the geometric boundaries of where the large-amplitude flapping occurs.

  17. Fem Simulation of Triple Diffusive Natural Convection Along Inclined Plate in Porous Medium: Prescribed Surface Heat, Solute and Nanoparticles Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, triple diffusive natural convection under Darcy flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nanoparticles and two salts is studied. The model used for the nanofluid is the one which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition, the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nanoparticle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. A wide range of parameter values are chosen to bring out the effect of buoyancy ratio, regular Lewis number and modified Dufour parameters of both salts and nanofluid parameters with varying angle of inclinations. The effects of parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles, as well as on the important parameters of heat and mass transfer, i.e., the reduced Nusselt, regular and nanofluid Sherwood numbers, are discussed. Such problems find application in extrusion of metals, polymers and ceramics, production of plastic films, insulation of wires and liquid packaging.

  18. Fem Simulation of Triple Diffusive Natural Convection Along Inclined Plate in Porous Medium: Prescribed Surface Heat, Solute and Nanoparticles Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, M.; Goyal, R.; Bhargava, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, triple diffusive natural convection under Darcy flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium saturated with a binary base fluid containing nanoparticles and two salts is studied. The model used for the nanofluid is the one which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. In addition, the thermal energy equations include regular diffusion and cross-diffusion terms. The vertical surface has the heat, mass and nanoparticle fluxes each prescribed as a power law function of the distance along the wall. The boundary layer equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of group theory transformations. A wide range of parameter values are chosen to bring out the effect of buoyancy ratio, regular Lewis number and modified Dufour parameters of both salts and nanofluid parameters with varying angle of inclinations. The effects of parameters on the velocity, temperature, solutal and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles, as well as on the important parameters of heat and mass transfer, i.e., the reduced Nusselt, regular and nanofluid Sherwood numbers, are discussed. Such problems find application in extrusion of metals, polymers and ceramics, production of plastic films, insulation of wires and liquid packaging.

  19. Optimization and experimental validation of stiff porous phononic plates for widest complete bandgap of mixed fundamental guided wave modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Kersemans, Mathias; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Phononic crystal plates (PhPs) have promising application in manipulation of guided waves for design of low-loss acoustic devices and built-in acoustic metamaterial lenses in plate structures. The prominent feature of phononic crystals is the existence of frequency bandgaps over which the waves are stopped, or are resonated and guided within appropriate defects. Therefore, maximized bandgaps of PhPs are desirable to enhance their phononic controllability. Porous PhPs produced through perforation of a uniform background plate, in which the porous interfaces act as strong reflectors of wave energy, are relatively easy to produce. However, the research in optimization of porous PhPs and experimental validation of achieved topologies has been very limited and particularly focused on bandgaps of flexural (asymmetric) wave modes. In this paper, porous PhPs are optimized through an efficient multiobjective genetic algorithm for widest complete bandgap of mixed fundamental guided wave modes (symmetric and asymmetric) and maximized stiffness. The Pareto front of optimization is analyzed and variation of bandgap efficiency with respect to stiffness is presented for various optimized topologies. Selected optimized topologies from the stiff and compliant regimes of Pareto front are manufactured by water-jetting an aluminum plate and their promising bandgap efficiency is experimentally observed. An optimized Pareto topology is also chosen and manufactured by laser cutting a Plexiglas (PMMA) plate, and its performance in self-collimation and focusing of guided waves is verified as compared to calculated dispersion properties.

  20. Free convective flow of a stratified fluid through a porous medium bounded by a vertical plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Mondal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady two-dimensional free convection flow of a thermally stratified viscous fluid through a highly porous medium bounded by a vertical plane surface of varying temperature, is considered. Analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and the rate of heat transfer are obtained by perturbation method. Velocity distribution and rate of heat transfer for different values of parameters are shown in graphs. Velocity distribution is also obtained for certain values of the parameters by integrating the coupled differential equations by Runge-Kutta method and compared with the analytical solution. The chief concern of the paper is to study the effect of equilibrium temperature gradient on the velocity and the rate of heat transfer.

  1. Fundamental Study of Local Heat Transfer in Forced Convective Boiling of Ammonia on Vertical Flat Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Arima, Hirofumi; Ikegami, Yasuyuki

    In the present study, the fundamental experiments that investigate characteristics of local heat transfer in forced convective boiling on vertical flat plate with 2-mm channel height are taken to realize plate type compact evaporator for OTEC or STEC. The experiments are performed with ammonia as the working fluid. The experiments are also carried out with the following test conditions; saturated pressure = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 MPa, mass flux = 7.5, 10, 15 kg/(m2•s), heat flux = 15, 20, 25 kW/m2 and inlet quality = 0.1 ~ 0.4 [-]. The result shows that the wall superheated temperature of forced convective boiling is lower than that of pool boiling. And the heat transfer coefficient increases with an increase in quality and the decrease in the local heat flux and saturated pressure for prescribed experimental conditions. However, local heat transfer coefficients are not affected by mass fluxes in the prescribed experimental conditions. An empirical correlation that can predict the local heat transfer coefficient on vertical flat plate within experimental conditions is also proposed.

  2. Trans-iliosacral plating for vertically unstable fractures of sacral spine associated with spinopelvic dissociation: A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Padalkar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Trans-iliosacral plating is feasible anatomically, biomechanically and radiologically for sacral fractures associated with vertical shear pelvic fractures. Low profile of plate reduces the risk of hardware prominence and decreases the need for implant removal. Also, the fixation pattern of plate allows to spare mobile lumbosacral junction which is an important segment for spinal mobility. Biomechanical studies revealed that rigidity offered by plate for cross headed displacement across fracture site is equal to sacroiliac screws and further rigidity of construct can be increased with addition of one more screw. There is need for precountered thicker plate in future.

  3. HPM-Pade Method on Natural Convection of Darcian Fluid about a Vertical Full Cone Embedded in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bararnia, H.; Ghasemi, E.; Soleimanikutanaei, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, fluid flow and heat transfer of a vertical full cone embedded in porous media have been studied. A similarity solution for a full cone subjected to wall temperature boundary conditions gives us a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), which has been solved through...

  4. On three phase lags thermodi¤usion theory in micropolar porous circular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work examines a two dimensional axisymmetric problem of micropolar porous thermodi¤usion circular plate due to thermal and chemical potential sources. The governing equations are solved by using the potential function. The expressions of displacements, microrotation, volume fraction field, temperature distribution, concentration and stresses are obtained in the transformed domain by using Laplace and Hankel transforms. The inversion of transforms using Fourier expansion techniques has been applied to obtain the results in the physical domain. The numerical results for resulting quantities are obtained and depicted graphically to show the influence of porosity, relaxation time, phase lags, with and without energy dissipation on the resulting quantities. Some particular cases are also deduced.

  5. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics flow about a stagnation point on a stretching plate embedded in porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nor Syazwani Mohd; Khuzaimah Soid, Siti; Aziz, Ahmad Sukri Abd; Ali, Zaileha Md

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an unsteady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible, viscous and electrically conducting fluid in a vicinity of a stagnation point towards a stretching plate embedded in porous medium with variable free stream velocity. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of mass, momentum and energy are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity variables. The ordinary differential equations are tackled numerically by using Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effect of the significant parameters on the fluid temperature and velocity are graphically presented and discussed. The numerically computed results are in good agreement with the available published results in the literature. It is found that the velocity increases with the increasing unsteadiness parameter where the velocity ratio parameter λ = 0.5 but it decreases for λ = 1.5.

  6. Numerical simulation of a plate-fin heat exchanger with offset fins using porous media approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Du; Hai-Tao, Zhao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the study was focused on a double flow plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) whose heat transfer element was offset staggered fin. Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the thermodynamic characteristics of a full-size PFHE via the porous media approach. Based on the numerical model, the effects of the dynamic viscosity and the locations of the inlet and outlet tubes on flow distribution and pressure drop of the PFHE were studied. The results showed that flow distribution of the PFHE was improved by increasing the dynamic viscosity. Therefore, the relationship between flow distribution and pressure drop was analyzed under various inlet velocity, and a correlation among flow distribution, pressure drop, and Reynolds number was derived. Finally, the middle-based strategy was proposed and numerically verified to improve flow distribution of the PFHE.

  7. Boundary layer flow of micropolar fluids past an impulsively started infinite vertical plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youn-Jea [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Su [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Transient free convective boundary layer flow of micropolar fluids past an impulsively started infinite vertical plate is investigated. The transformed dimensionless governing equations for the flow, microrotation and heat transfer characteristics are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. In particular, the relevant solution of the coupled governing equations was found with the second kind of the Volterra integral equation. The obtained results concerning velocity, microrotation and temperature across the boundary layer are illustrated graphically for different values of the parameters entering into the problem under consideration and the dependence of the flow and temperature fields from these parameters is discussed.

  8. Thermal diffusion effects on free convection and mass transfer flow for an infinite vertical plate

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Khalek, M M

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical study is performed to examine the effects of thermal diffusion on free convection and mass transfer flow for an infinite vertical plate. The governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved subject to the relevant boundary conditions. A perturbation technique is used to obtain expressions for the velocity field and skin friction. An analysis of the effects of the parameters on the concentration, velocity and temperature profiles as well as skin friction and the rate of mass and heat transfer is done with the aid of graphs.

  9. Performance Analysis of a Shallow Duct Flat Plate Solar Air Heater with and without Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroun A.K. Shahad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a flat plate solar air heater with a shallow duct is analyzed experimentally. The collector consists of a 4.5m long air duct with a (20×5cm cross-sectional area. The air duct consists of four channels so that the collector becomes more compact. The collector is studied under the weather conditions of Hilla city – Iraq with latitude and longitude equal 32.3° N and 44.25° E respectively and it is tilted by 45° with the horizontal plane. The effect of the air mass flow rate on the collector performance is also studied.The performance of the collector is analyzed with and without porous media stuffing. The measured parameters are the air and absorber temperatures, air speed and pressure drop. The temperatures are measured by means of type (K thermocouples as this type covers the temperature range of the studied system. The values of the temperature are displayed by temperature data logger devices. The air speed and pressure drop are measured by digital anemometer and manometer devices respectively. The results of the studied system show that as the air mass flow rate increases, the temperature of both the flowing air and the absorber decrease, whilst the efficiency of the collector increases. The results also show that the addition of the steel wool porous material inside the air duct increases the temperature of both the flowing air and the absorber, and by that increases the efficiency of the collector. The porous media also caused an increase in the pressure drop between the outlet air and the atmosphere. This pressure drop increased with the increase in the air mass flow rate

  10. Numerical/Laplace transform analysis for MHD radiating heat/mass transport in a Darcian porous regime bounded by an oscillating vertical surfac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and numerical solutions of a non-linear MHD flow with heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting and Boussinesq’s fluid over a vertical oscillating plate embedded in a Darcian porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation effect have been presented. The fluid considered here is gray, absorbing/emitting radiating, but non-scattering medium. At time t > 0, the plate temperature and concentration near the plate raised linearly with time t. The dimensionless governing coupled, non-linear boundary layer partial differential equations are solved by an efficient, accurate, extensively validated and unconditionally stable finite difference scheme of the Crank–Nicolson type as well as by the Laplace Transform technique. An increase in porosity parameter (K is found to depress fluid velocities and shear stress in the regime. Also it has been found that, when the conduction-radiation (R increased, the fluid velocity and the temperature profiles decreased. Applications of the study arise in materials processing and solar energy collector systems.

  11. Effect of an inserted porous layer on heat and fluid flow in a vertical channel with mixed convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celik Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and velocity fields in a vertical channel partially filled with porous medium under mixed convection heat transfer condition are obtained. The heat transfer equation and equation of motion for clear and porous layer regions are written and solved analytically. The nondimensionalization of the governing equations yields two Grashof numbers as Grc and Grd for clear and porous sections where Grd=Da.Grc. The dimensionless governing parameters for the problem are Grc (or Grd, Da, thermal conductivity ratio (i.e., K and thickness of porous layer. The temperature and velocity profiles for different values of Grc, Da, K and thickness of porous layer are plotted and their changes with the governing parameters are discussed. Moreover, the variation of pressure drop with the governing parameters is investigated. The decrease of porous layer thickness or thermal conductivity ratio increases the possibility of the downward flows. Thermal conductivity ratio plays important role on pressure drop, particularly for the channels with high values of Grc/Re.

  12. Some Exact Solutions of Boundary Layer Flows along a Vertical Plate with Buoyancy Forces Combined with Lorentz Forces under Uniform Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Pantokratoras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.

  13. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on porous silicon substrates: Effect of growth time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shabannia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on porous silicon (PS substrates by chemical bath deposition at a low temperature. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL analyses were carried out to investigate the effect of growth duration (2 h to 8 h on the optical and structural properties of the aligned ZnO nanorods. Strong and sharp ZnO (0 0 2 peaks of the ZnO nanorods proved that the aligned ZnO nanorods were preferentially fabricated along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite structure. FESEM images demonstrated that the ZnO nanorod arrays were well aligned along the c-axis and perpendicular to the PS substrates regardless of the growth duration. The TEM image showed that the top surfaces of the ZnO nanorods were round with a smooth curvature. PL spectra demonstrated that the ZnO nanorods grown for 5 h exhibited the sharpest and most intense PL peaks within the ultraviolet range among all samples.

  14. Unsteady natural convection flow of nanofluids past a semi-infinite isothermal vertical plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippa, Sowmya; Narahari, Marneni; Pendyala, Rajashekhar

    2016-11-01

    Numerical analysis is performed to investigate the unsteady natural convection flow of a nanofluid past a semi-infinite isothermal vertical plate. Five different types of water based nanofluids are considered in this investigation where Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu), Copper Oxide (CuO), Alumina (Al2O3) and Titanium Oxide (TiO2) are the nanoparticles. The governing non-dimensional partial differential equations are solved by employing an implicit finite-difference method of Crank-Nicolson type. Numerical results are computed for different values of pertinent parameters. The results for nanofluid temperature, velocity, local Skin friction and Nusselt number, average Skin friction and Nusselt number are discussed through graphs. The present numerical results for local Nusselt number have been compared with the well-established pure fluid correlation results for the limiting case and the comparison shows that the results are in excellent agreement.

  15. Flow reversal of laminar mixed convection in the entry region of symmetrically heated, vertical plate channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrayaud, G. [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, INSSET, Lab. Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME FRE 3160 CNRS, 02 - Saint-Quentin (France); Lauriat, G. [Universite Paris-Est, Lab. Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME FRE 3160 CNRS, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    2009-11-15

    The present numerical investigation is concerned with flow reversal phenomena for laminar, mixed convection of air in a vertical parallel-plate channel of finite length. Results are obtained for buoyancy-assisted flow in a symmetrically heated channel with uniform wall temperatures for various Grashof numbers and Reynolds numbers in the range 300 {<=} Re {<=} 1300. The effects of buoyancy forces on the flow pattern are investigated and the shapes of velocity and temperature profiles are discussed in detail. Flow reversals centred in the entrance of the channel are predicted. The strength of the cells decreases as the Reynolds number is increased, until they disappear. The regime of reversed flow is identified for high values of the Peclet number in a Pe-Gr/Re map. It is also shown that the channel length has no influence on the occurrence of the reversal flow provided that H/D {>=} 10. (authors)

  16. Effects of parabolic motion on an isothermal vertical plate with constant mass flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthucumaraswamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical study of free convection flow near a parabolic started infinite vertical plate with isothermal in the presence of uniform mass flux was considered. The mathematical model is reduced to a system of linear partial differential equations for the velocity, the concentration and the temperature; the closed form exact solutions were obtained by the Laplace transform technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for the different parameters as thermal Grashof number Gr, mass Grashof number Gc, Prandtl number Pr, Schmidt number Sc and time t were graphed and the numerical values for the skin friction were as tabulated. It is observed that the velocity is enhanced as the time increased and the velocity is decreased as the Prandtl number increased.

  17. Radiation and mass transfer effects on MHD flow through porous medium past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate with variable temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Rani Pattnaik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of unsteady MHD free convection flow, heat and mass transfer past an exponentially accelerated inclined plate embedded in a saturated porous medium with uniform permeability, variable temperature and concentration has been carried out. The novelty of the present study was to analyze the effect of angle of inclination on the flow phenomena in the presence of heat source/sink and destructive reaction. The Laplace transformation method has been used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the material parameters, magnetic field and the permeability of the porous medium are discussed. From the present analysis it is reported that the presence of magnetic field and porous medium prevents the flow reversal. Angle of inclination and heat source sustains a retarding effect on velocity. The present study has an immediate application in understanding the drag experienced at the heated/cooled and inclined surfaces in a seepage flow.

  18. Vertical electric field stimulated neural cell functionality on porous amorphous carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shilpee; Sharma, Ashutosh; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate the efficacy of amorphous macroporous carbon substrates as electrodes to support neuronal cell proliferation and differentiation in electric field mediated culture conditions. The electric field was applied perpendicular to carbon substrate electrode, while growing mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells in vitro. The placement of the second electrode outside of the cell culture medium allows the investigation of cell response to electric field without the concurrent complexities of submerged electrodes such as potentially toxic electrode reactions, electro-kinetic flows and charge transfer (electrical current) in the cell medium. The macroporous carbon electrodes are uniquely characterized by a higher specific charge storage capacity (0.2 mC/cm(2)) and low impedance (3.3 kΩ at 1 kHz). The optimal window of electric field stimulation for better cell viability and neurite outgrowth is established. When a uniform or a gradient electric field was applied perpendicular to the amorphous carbon substrate, it was found that the N2a cell viability and neurite length were higher at low electric field strengths (≤ 2.5 V/cm) compared to that measured without an applied field (0 V/cm). While the cell viability was assessed by two complementary biochemical assays (MTT and LDH), the differentiation was studied by indirect immunostaining. Overall, the results of the present study unambiguously establish the uniform/gradient vertical electric field based culture protocol to either enhance or to restrict neurite outgrowth respectively at lower or higher field strengths, when neuroblastoma cells are cultured on porous glassy carbon electrodes having a desired combination of electrochemical properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of radiation on transient MHD flow of micropolar fluid between porous vertical channel with boundary conditions of the third kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prakash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to investigate the effect of thermal radiation on fully developed flow of micropolar fluid flowing between the two infinite parallel porous vertical plates in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The fluid is considered to be a gray, absorbing–emitting but non-scattering medium, and the Cogley–Vincent–Gilles formulation is adopted to simulate the radiation component of heat transfer. The rigid plates are assumed to exchange the heat with an external fluid by convection. The governing equations are solved numerically by Crank–Nicolson implicit finite difference method. The effect of various physical parameters such as transient, Hartmann number, micropolar parameter, radiation parameter, Prandtl number, Biot number and Reynolds number on the velocity and temperature field are discussed graphically. The important finding of the present work is that the temperature of the fluid is reduced by applying thermal radiation. Further, the results obtained under the limiting conditions were found to be in good agreement with the existing one.

  20. Quadratic Convective Flow of a Micropolar Fluid along an Inclined Plate in a Non-Darcy Porous Medium with Convective Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamReddy, Ch.; Naveen, P.; Srinivasacharya, D.

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of nonlinear variation of density with temperature and concentration on the mixed convective flow of a micropolar fluid over an inclined flat plate in a non-Darcy porous medium in the presence of the convective boundary condition. In order to analyze all the essential features, the governing non-dimensional partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a local non-similarity procedure and then the resulting boundary value problem is solved using a successive linearisation method (SLM). By insisting the comparison between vertical, horizontal and inclined plates, the physical quantities of the flow and its characteristics are exhibited graphically and quantitatively with various parameters. An increase in the micropolar parameter and non-Darcy parameter tend to increase the skin friction and the reverse change is observed in wall couple stress, mass and heat transfer rates. The influence of the nonlinear concentration parameter is more prominent on all the physical characteristics of the present model, compared with that of nonlinear temperature parameter.

  1. Natural Convection Flow along an Isothermal Vertical Flat Plate with Temperature Dependent Viscosity and Heat Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mamun Molla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the natural convection laminar flow along an isothermal vertical flat plate immersed in a fluid with viscosity which is the exponential function of fluid temperature in presence of internal heat generation. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into a nondimensional form and the resulting nonlinear system of partial differential equations is reduced to a convenient form which are solved numerically using an efficient marching order implicit finite difference method with double sweep technique. Numerical results are presented in terms of the velocity and temperature distribution of the fluid as well as the heat transfer characteristics, namely, the wall shear stress and the local and average rate of heat transfer in terms of the local skin-friction coefficient, the local and average Nusselt number for a wide range of the viscosity-variation parameter, heat generation parameter, and the Rayleigh number. Increasing viscosity variation parameter and Rayleigh number lead to increasing the local and average Nusselt number and decreasing the wall shear stress. Wall shear stress and the rate of heat transfer decreased due to the increase of heat generation.

  2. Natural Convection Flow of Fractional Nanofluids Over an Isothermal Vertical Plate with Thermal Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Fetecau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies of classical nanofluids are restricted to models described by partial differential equations of integer order, and the memory effects are ignored. Fractional nanofluids, modeled by differential equations with Caputo time derivatives, are able to describe the influence of memory on the nanofluid behavior. In the present paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of two water-based fractional nanofluids, containing nanoparticles of CuO and Ag, over an infinite vertical plate with a uniform temperature and thermal radiation, are analytically and graphically studied. Closed form solutions are determined for the dimensionless temperature and velocity fields, and the corresponding Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient. These solutions, presented in equivalent forms in terms of the Wright function or its fractional derivatives, have also been reduced to the known solutions of ordinary nanofluids. The influence of the fractional parameter on the temperature, velocity, Nusselt number, and skin friction coefficient, is graphically underlined and discussed. The enhancement of heat transfer in the natural convection flows is lower for fractional nanofluids, in comparison to ordinary nanofluids. In both cases, the fluid temperature increases for increasing values of the nanoparticle volume fraction.

  3. Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadir, G. A., E-mail: Irfan-magami@Rediffmail.com, E-mail: gaquadir@gmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia)

    2016-06-08

    This work is continuation of the paper Part A. Due to large number of results, the paper is divided into two section with section-A (Part A) discussing the effect of various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio etc. on streamlines and isothermal lines. Section-B highlights the heat transfer characteristics in terms of Nusselt number The Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside the medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by convection and radiation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method.

  4. A film model for free convection over a vertical porous plate with blowing or suction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos

    1993-01-01

    A film model is described for free convective heat transfer and friction in the presence of wall suction or injection. The analysis yields a thermal correction factor, which appears to be the classical (Ackermann) expression, and a novel friction correction factor, derived here for the first time.

  5. Stability of viscous film flow coating the interior of a vertical tube with a porous wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Ding, Zijing

    2017-05-01

    The stability of the gravity-driven flow of a viscous film coating the inside of a tube with a porous wall is studied theoretically. We used Darcy's law to describe the motion of fluids in a porous medium. The Beaver-Joseph condition is used to describe the discontinuity of velocity at the porous-fluid interface. We derived an evolution equation for the film thickness using a long-wave approximation. The effect of velocity slip at the porous wall is identified by a parameter β . We examine the effect of β on the temporal stability, the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI), and the nonlinear evolution of the interface deformation. The results of the temporal stability reveal that the effect of velocity slip at the porous wall is destabilizing. The parameter β plays an important role in determining the AI-CI behavior and the nonlinear evolution of the interface. The presence of the porous wall promotes the absolute instability and the formation of the plug in the tube.

  6. Finite element computation of multi-physical micropolar transport phenomena from an inclined moving plate in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshuddin, MD.; Anwar Bég, O.; Sunder Ram, M.; Kadir, A.

    2018-02-01

    Non-Newtonian flows arise in numerous industrial transport processes including materials fabrication systems. Micropolar theory offers an excellent mechanism for exploring the fluid dynamics of new non-Newtonian materials which possess internal microstructure. Magnetic fields may also be used for controlling electrically-conducting polymeric flows. To explore numerical simulation of transport in rheological materials processing, in the current paper, a finite element computational solution is presented for magnetohydrodynamic, incompressible, dissipative, radiative and chemically-reacting micropolar fluid flow, heat and mass transfer adjacent to an inclined porous plate embedded in a saturated homogenous porous medium. Heat generation/absorption effects are included. Rosseland's diffusion approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. A Darcy model is employed to simulate drag effects in the porous medium. The governing transport equations are rendered into non-dimensional form under the assumption of low Reynolds number and also low magnetic Reynolds number. Using a Galerkin formulation with a weighted residual scheme, finite element solutions are presented to the boundary value problem. The influence of plate inclination, Eringen coupling number, radiation-conduction number, heat absorption/generation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, plate moving velocity parameter, magnetic parameter, thermal Grashof number, species (solutal) Grashof number, permeability parameter, Eckert number on linear velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentration profiles. Furthermore, the influence of selected thermo-physical parameters on friction factor, surface heat transfer and mass transfer rate is also tabulated. The finite element solutions are verified with solutions from several limiting cases in the literature. Interesting features in the flow are identified and interpreted.

  7. Finite element computation of multi-physical micropolar transport phenomena from an inclined moving plate in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshuddin, MD.; Anwar Bég, O.; Sunder Ram, M.; Kadir, A.

    2017-08-01

    Non-Newtonian flows arise in numerous industrial transport processes including materials fabrication systems. Micropolar theory offers an excellent mechanism for exploring the fluid dynamics of new non-Newtonian materials which possess internal microstructure. Magnetic fields may also be used for controlling electrically-conducting polymeric flows. To explore numerical simulation of transport in rheological materials processing, in the current paper, a finite element computational solution is presented for magnetohydrodynamic, incompressible, dissipative, radiative and chemically-reacting micropolar fluid flow, heat and mass transfer adjacent to an inclined porous plate embedded in a saturated homogenous porous medium. Heat generation/absorption effects are included. Rosseland's diffusion approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. A Darcy model is employed to simulate drag effects in the porous medium. The governing transport equations are rendered into non-dimensional form under the assumption of low Reynolds number and also low magnetic Reynolds number. Using a Galerkin formulation with a weighted residual scheme, finite element solutions are presented to the boundary value problem. The influence of plate inclination, Eringen coupling number, radiation-conduction number, heat absorption/generation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, plate moving velocity parameter, magnetic parameter, thermal Grashof number, species (solutal) Grashof number, permeability parameter, Eckert number on linear velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentration profiles. Furthermore, the influence of selected thermo-physical parameters on friction factor, surface heat transfer and mass transfer rate is also tabulated. The finite element solutions are verified with solutions from several limiting cases in the literature. Interesting features in the flow are identified and interpreted.

  8. Trans-iliosacral plating for vertically unstable fractures of sacral spine associated with spinopelvic dissociation: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkar, Pravin; Pereira, Barry P; Kathare, Ambadas; Sun, Khong Kok; Kagda, Fareed; Joseph, Thambiah

    2012-05-01

    The treatment algorithm for sacral fracture associated with vertical shear pelvic fracture has not emerged. Our aim was to study a new approach of fixation for comminuted and vertically unstable fracture pattern with spinopelvic dissociation to overcome inconsistent outcome and avoid complications associated with fixations. We propose fixation with well-contoured thick reconstruction plate spreading across sacrum from one iliac bone to another with fixation points in iliac wing, sacral ala and sacral pedicle on either side. Present biomechanical study tests the four fixation pattern to compare their stiffness to vertical compressive forces. Dissection was performed on human cadavers through posterior midline paraspinal approach elevating erector spinae from insertion with two flaps. Feasibility of surgical exposure and placement of contoured plate for fixation was evaluated. Ten age and sex matched computed tomography scans of pelvis with both hips were obtained. Reconstructions were performed with advantage windows 4.2 (GE Light Speed QX/I, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA). Using the annotation tools, direct digital CT measurement (0.6 mm increments) of three linear parameters was carried out. Readings were recorded at S2 sacral level. Pelvic CT scans were extensively studied for entry point, trajectory and estimated length for screw placement in S2 pedicle, sacral ala and iliac wing. Readings were recorded for desired angulation of screw in iliac wing ala of sacrum and sacral pedicle with respect to midline. The readings were analyzed by the values of mean and standard deviation. Biomechanical efficacy of fixation methods was studied separately on synthetic bone. Four fixation patterns given below were tested to compare their stiffness to vertical compressive forces: 1) Single S1 iliosacral screw (7.5 mm cancellous screw), 2) Two S1 and S2 iliosacral screws, 3) Isolated trans-iliosacral plate, 4) Trans-iliosacral plate + single S1 iliosacral screw. Mean of

  9. Modelling and control of Base Plate Loading subsystem for The Motorized Adjustable Vertical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsahperi, N. M. H.; Ahmad, S.; Fuad, A. F. M.; Mahmood, I. A.; Toha, S. F.; Akmeliawati, R.; Darsivan, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    Malaysia National Space Agency, ANGKASA is an organization that intensively undergoes many researches especially on space. On 2011, ANGKASA had built Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Centre (AITC) for spacecraft development and test. Satellite will undergo numerous tests and one of it is Thermal test in Thermal Vacuum Chamber (TVC). In fact, TVC is located in cleanroom and on a platform. The only available facilities for loading and unloading the satellite is overhead crane. By utilizing the overhead crane can jeopardize the safety of the satellite. Therefore, Motorized vertical platform (MAVeP) for transferring the satellite into the TVC with capability to operate under cleanroom condition and limited space is proposed to facilitate the test. MAVeP is the combination of several mechanisms to produce horizontal and vertical motions with the ability to transfer the satellite from loading bay into TVC. The integration of both motions to elevate and transfer heavy loads with high precision capability will deliver major contributions in various industries such as aerospace and automotive. Base plate subsystem is capable to translate the horizontal motion by converting the angular motion from motor to linear motion by using rack and pinion mechanism. Generally a system can be modelled by performing physical modelling from schematic diagram or through system identification techniques. Both techniques are time consuming and required comprehensive understanding about the system, which may expose to error prone especially for complex mechanism. Therefore, a 3D virtual modelling technique has been implemented to represent the system in real world environment i.e. gravity to simulate control performance. The main purpose of this technique is to provide better model to analyse the system performance and capable to evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the system with visualization of the system performance, where a 3D prototype was designed and assembled in Solidworks

  10. The Impact of Reduced Gravity on Free Convective Heat Transfer from a Finite, Flat, Vertical Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Michael A.; Johnson, Kirstyn M.; Nie, Christopher W.; Klaus, David M.

    2017-09-01

    Convective heat transfer is governed by a number of factors including various fluid properties, the presence of a thermal gradient, geometric configuration, flow condition, and gravity. Empirically-derived analytical relationships can be used to estimate convection as a function of these governing parameters. Although it is relatively straightforward to experimentally quantify the contributions of the majority of these variables, it is logistically difficult to assess the influence of reduced-gravity due to practical limitations of establishing this environment. Therefore, in order to explore this regime, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate convection under reduced-gravity conditions averaging 0.45 m/sec2 (0.05 g) achieved aboard a parabolic aircraft. The results showed a reduction in net heat transfer of approximately 61% in flight relative to a 1g terrestrial baseline using the same setup. The average experimental Nusselt Number of 19.05 ± 1.41 statistically correlated with the predicted value of 18.90 ± 0.63 (N = 13), estimated using the Churchill-Chu correlation for free convective heat transfer from a finite, flat, vertical plate. Extrapolating this to similar performance in true microgravity (10-6 g) indicates that these conditions should yield a Nusselt Number of 1.27, which is 2.6% the magnitude of free convection at 1g, or a reduction of 97.4%. With advection essentially eliminated, heat transfer becomes limited to diffusion and radiation, which are gravity-independent and nearly equivalent in magnitude in this case. These results offer a general guideline for integrating components that utilize natural (free) convective gas cooling in a spacecraft habitat and properly sizing the thermal control system.

  11. The Impact of Reduced Gravity on Free Convective Heat Transfer from a Finite, Flat, Vertical Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Michael A.; Johnson, Kirstyn M.; Nie, Christopher W.; Klaus, David M.

    2017-10-01

    Convective heat transfer is governed by a number of factors including various fluid properties, the presence of a thermal gradient, geometric configuration, flow condition, and gravity. Empirically-derived analytical relationships can be used to estimate convection as a function of these governing parameters. Although it is relatively straightforward to experimentally quantify the contributions of the majority of these variables, it is logistically difficult to assess the influence of reduced-gravity due to practical limitations of establishing this environment. Therefore, in order to explore this regime, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate convection under reduced-gravity conditions averaging 0.45 m/sec2 (0.05 g) achieved aboard a parabolic aircraft. The results showed a reduction in net heat transfer of approximately 61% in flight relative to a 1 g terrestrial baseline using the same setup. The average experimental Nusselt Number of 19.05 ± 1.41 statistically correlated with the predicted value of 18.90 ± 0.63 (N = 13), estimated using the Churchill-Chu correlation for free convective heat transfer from a finite, flat, vertical plate. Extrapolating this to similar performance in true microgravity (10-6 g) indicates that these conditions should yield a Nusselt Number of 1.27, which is 2.6% the magnitude of free convection at 1 g, or a reduction of 97.4%. With advection essentially eliminated, heat transfer becomes limited to diffusion and radiation, which are gravity-independent and nearly equivalent in magnitude in this case. These results offer a general guideline for integrating components that utilize natural (free) convective gas cooling in a spacecraft habitat and properly sizing the thermal control system.

  12. An Experimental Study on the Solidification and Melting of Water around a Vertical Heat Transfer Plate with Pin Fins

    OpenAIRE

    平澤, 良男; 陳, 東; 渡邉, 弘毅; 竹越, 栄俊

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the solidification and melting of water were investigated experimentally for the case of a vertical heat transfer plate with pin fins. In the experiment, temperature distributions, ice and water volume fractions, and heat flux changes were measured and the flow patterns in the water were observed for examination of the phase change process. In the solidification, the phase change rate increased monotonously with increasing number of fins. In the melting, the temperature ...

  13. Attempts of Thermal Imaging Camera Usage in Estimations of the Convective Heat Loss From a Vertical Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denda Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new method for determining heat transfer coefficients using a gradient method has been developed. To verify accuracy of the proposed method vertical isothermal heating plate with natural convection mechanism has been examined. This configuration was deliberately chosen, because of the fact that such case is historically the earliest and most thoroughly studied and its rich scientific documentation – the most reliable. New method is based on temperature field visualization made in perpendicular plane to the heating surface of the plate using infrared camera. Because the camera does not record temperature of air itself but the surface only, therefore plastic mesh with low thermal conductivity has been used as a detector. Temperature of each mesh cell, placed perpendicular to the vertical heating surface and rinsed with convection stream of heated air could be already recorded by infrared camera. In the same time using IR camera surface of heating plate has been measured. By numerical processing of the results matrix temperature gradient on the surface ∂T/∂x │ x=0, local heat transfer coefficients αy, and local values of Nusselt number Nuy, can be calculated. After integration the average Nusselt number for entire plate can be calculated. Obtained relation characteristic numbers Nu = 0.647 Ra 0.236 (R2 = 0.943, has a good correlation with literature reports and proves usefulness of the method.

  14. Numerical analysis for magnetohydrodynamic chemically reacting and radiating fluid past a non-isothermal uniformly moving vertical surface adjacent to a porous regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is conducted for the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic viscous, incompressible free convective flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid over an impulsively-started semi-infinite vertical plate adjacent to saturated porous medium in the presence of appreciable thermal radiation heat transfer and chemical reaction of first order taking transverse magnetic field into account. The fluid is assumed optically thin gray gas, absorbing-emitting radiation, but a non-scattering medium. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are non-dimensionalized and are solved by an implicit finite difference scheme of Crank–Nicholson type. It is found that, increasing magnetic parameter serves to decelerate the flow, but increased temperatures and concentration values. An increase in the porosity parameter (K is found to escalate the local skin friction (τx, Nusselt number (Nux and the Sherwood number (Shx. Applications of the model include fundamental magneto-fluid dynamics, MHD energy systems and magneto-metallurgical processing for aircraft materials.

  15. Preparation of porous n-type silicon sample plates for desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, S; Huikko, K; Grigoras, K; Ostman, P; Kostiainen, R; Baumann, M; Abian, J; Kotiaho, T; Franssila, S

    2002-11-01

    This study focuses on porous silicon (pSi) fabrication methods and properties for desorption ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS). PSi was prepared using electrochemical etching of n-type silicon in HF-ethanol solution. Porous areas were defined by a double-sided illumination arrangement: front-side porous areas were masked by a stencil mask, eliminating the need for standard photolithography, and backside illumination was used for the backside ohmic contact. Backside illumination improved the uniformity of the porosified areas. Porosification conditions, surface derivatizations and storage conditions were explored to optimize pSi area, pore size and pore depth. Chemical derivatization of the pSi surfaces improved the DIOS-MS performance providing better ionization efficiency and signal stability with lower laser energy. Droplet spreading and drying patterns on pSi were also examined. Pore sizes of 50-200 nm were found to be optimal for droplet evaporation and pore filling with the sample liquid, as measured by DIOS efficiency. With DIOS, significantly better detection sensitivity was obtained (e.g. 150 fmol for midazolam) than with desorption ionization from a standard MALDI steel plate without matrix addition (30 pmol for midazolam). Also the noise that disturbs the detection of low-molecular weight compounds at m/z MS spectra and good detection sensitivity at the 100-150 fmol level for pharmaceutical compounds were achieved with DIOS-MS.

  16. Analytical and numerical stability analysis of Soret-driven convection in a horizontal porous layer: the effect of conducting bounding plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B; Khouzam, A; Mojtabi, A [Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Charrier-Mojtabi, M C, E-mail: bouattar@imft.fr, E-mail: akhouzam@imft.fr, E-mail: mojtabi@imft.fr, E-mail: cmojtabi@cict.fr [PHASE, EA 810, UFR PCA, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France)

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conducting boundaries on the onset of convection in a binary fluid-saturated porous layer. The isotropic saturated porous layer is bounded by two impermeable but thermally conducting plates, subjected to a constant heat flux. These plates have identical conductivity. Moreover, the conductivity of the plates is generally different from the porous layer conductivity. The overall layer is of large extent in both horizontal directions. The problem is governed by seven dimensionless parameters, namely the normalized porosity of the medium {epsilon}, the ratio of plates over the porous layer thickness {delta} and their relative thermal conductivities ratio d, the separation ratio {delta}, the Lewis number Le and thermal Rayleigh number Ra. In this work, an analytical and numerical stability analysis is performed. The equilibrium solution is found to lose its stability via a stationary bifurcation or a Hopf bifurcation depending on the values of the dimensionless parameters. For the long-wavelength mode, the critical Rayleigh number is obtained as Ra{sub cs}=12(1+2d{delta} )/[1+{psi} (2d{delta}Le+Le+1)] and k{sub cs}=0 for {psi}> {psi} {sub uni}> 0. This work extends an earlier paper by Mojtabi and Rees (2011 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 54 293-301) who considered a configuration where the porous layer is saturated by a pure fluid.

  17. MHD forced convective laminar boundary layer flow from a convectively heated moving vertical plate with radiation and transpiration effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jashim; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, A I Md

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to x(m) whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to x((m-1)/2) where x is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory.

  18. Combined Effects Of Stress Work And Heat Generation On MHD Natural Convection Flow Along A Vertical Flat Plate With Power Law Variation Of Uniform Surface Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam; Md. M. Alam; M. M. Parvez; M. A. Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper is presented to study conjugate effects of stress work and heat generation on MHD natural convection flow along a vertical flat plate with power law variation of surface temperature...

  19. Low-voltage pulsed plasma discharges inside water using a bubble self-generating parallel plate electrode with a porous ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradia, Sonia; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of pulsed bubbles discharges in water were investigated using parallel punched plate electrodes with a porous thin ceramic plate inserted between two metal plates. The micro-bubbles were generated just beneath the porous ceramic plate by flowing gas through it. The transition from spiky dielectric barrier discharges to pulsed glow discharges enables efficient bubble discharges at a relatively low voltage of 1.8 ˜ 4.0 kV of the 5 kHz square-waves with a pulse-width of about 750 ns. With 80% Ar and 20% O2 mixture gas at 4.0 kV, the 50 mg/l Indigo Carmine aqueous solution was efficiently decolorized within about 3 min.

  20. Heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving porous flat plate with heat flux

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    The analysis of the heat transfer in flow past a continuously moving semi-infinite plate in the presence of suction/ injection with heat flux has been presented. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated...

  1. Mixed convective heat transfer from a vertical plate embedded in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In problems dealing with porous media, the effect of melting, radiation is important in indus- tries and technologies. The applications are found in situation such as geothermal systems, heating and cooling chamber, fossil fuel combustion, energy processes and Astro-physical flows. The effects of non-Darcy mixed convection ...

  2. Soret and Dufour Effects on Natural Convection Flow Past a Vertical Surface in a Porous Medium with Variable Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. K. Moorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat and mass transfer characteristics of natural convection about a vertical surface embedded in a saturated porous medium subject to variable viscosity are numerically analyzed, by taking into account the diffusion-thermo (Dufour and thermal-diffusion (Soret effects. The governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and concentrations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations, using similarity transformations, and then solved by using Runge-Kutta-Gill method along with shooting technique. The parameters of the problem are variable viscosity, buoyancy ratio, Lewis number, Prandtl number, Dufour effect, Soret effect, and Schmidt number. The velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are presented graphically. The Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also derived and discussed numerically.

  3. Effects of thermophoresis and variable properties on mixed convection along a vertical wavy surface in a fluid saturated porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbhasayanam Srinivasacharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of thermophoresis on mixed convection heat and mass transfer flow over a vertical wavy surface in a porous medium with variable properties, namely variable viscosity and variable thermal conductivity. The effect of wavy surface is incorporated into non-dimensional equations by using suitable transformations and then transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations by employing the similarity transformations and then solved numerically. The transport process of flow, heat and mass transfer in the boundary layer for aiding and opposing flow cases is discussed. The structure of flow, temperature and concentration fields in the Darcy porous media are more pronounced by complex interactions among variable viscosity, variable thermal conductivity, mixed convective parameter, thermophoresis and amplitude of the wavy surface. Increasing thermophoresis parameter enhances velocity profile, concentration distribution and Sherwood number while reduces Nusselt number. As increase in variable viscosity, temperature and concentration distributions are enhanced while velocity profile, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers are reduced. This study finds applications in aerosol Technology, space technology and processes involving high temperatures.

  4. On the stability of natural convection in a porous vertical slab saturated with an Oldroyd-B fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, B. M.; Shivakumara, I. S.

    2017-06-01

    The stability of the conduction regime of natural convection in a porous vertical slab saturated with an Oldroyd-B fluid has been studied. A modified Darcy's law is utilized to describe the flow in a porous medium. The eigenvalue problem is solved using Chebyshev collocation method and the critical Darcy-Rayleigh number with respect to the wave number is extracted for different values of physical parameters. Despite the basic state being the same for Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids, it is observed that the basic flow is unstable for viscoelastic fluids—a result of contrast compared to Newtonian as well as for power-law fluids. It is found that the viscoelasticity parameters exhibit both stabilizing and destabilizing influence on the system. Increase in the value of strain retardation parameter Λ _2 portrays stabilizing influence on the system while increasing stress relaxation parameter Λ _1 displays an opposite trend. Also, the effect of increasing ratio of heat capacities is to delay the onset of instability. The results for Maxwell fluid obtained as a particular case from the present study indicate that the system is more unstable compared to Oldroyd-B fluid.

  5. Free convection flow of some fractional nanofluids over a moving vertical plate with uniform heat flux and heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Waqas Ali; Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Constantin

    2017-08-01

    Free convection flow of some water based fractional nanofluids over a moving infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux and heat source is analytically and graphically studied. Exact solutions for dimensionless temperature and velocity fields, Nusselt numbers, and skin friction coefficients are established in integral form in terms of modified Bessel functions of the first kind. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to the similar solutions for ordinary nanofluids when the fractional parameters tend to one. Furthermore, they reduce to the known solutions from the literature when the plate is fixed and the heat source is absent. The influence of fractional parameters on heat transfer and fluid motion is graphically underlined and discussed. The enhancement of heat transfer in such flows is higher for fractional nanofluids in comparison with ordinary nanofluids. Moreover, the use of fractional models allows us to choose the fractional parameters in order to get a very good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  6. Experimental Optimization of Passive Cooling of a Heat Source Array Flush-Mounted on a Vertical Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Baudoin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat sources, such as power electronics for offshore power, could be cooled passively—mainly by conduction and natural convection. The obvious advantage of this strategy is its high reliability. However, it must be implemented in an efficient manner (i.e., the area needs to be kept low to limit the construction costs. In this study, the placement of multiple heat sources mounted on a vertical plate was studied experimentally for optimization purposes. We chose a regular distribution, as this is likely to be the preferred choice in the construction process. We found that optimal spacing can be determined for a targeted source density by tuning the vertical and horizontal spacing between the heat sources. The optimal aspect ratio was estimated to be around two.

  7. Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid over an oscillating vertical plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ali

    Full Text Available Closed form solutions for unsteady free convection flows of a second grade fluid near an isothermal vertical plate oscillating in its plane using the Laplace transform technique are established. Expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained and displayed graphically for different values of Prandtl number Pr, thermal Grashof number Gr, viscoelastic parameter α, phase angle ωτ and time τ. Numerical values of skin friction τ 0 and Nusselt number Nu are shown in tables. Some well-known solutions in literature are reduced as the limiting cases of the present solutions.

  8. Free surface entropic lattice Boltzmann simulations of film condensation on vertical hydrophilic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Karlin, Iliya; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A model for vapor condensation on vertical hydrophilic surfaces is developed using the entropic lattice Boltzmann method extended with a free surface formulation of the evaporation–condensation problem. The model is validated with the steady liquid film formation on a flat vertical wall....... It is shown that the model is in a good agreement with the classical Nusselt equations for the laminar flow regime. Comparisons of the present model with other empirical models also demonstrate good agreement beyond the laminar regime. This allows the film condensation modeling at high film Reynolds numbers...

  9. Fabrication, Structural Characterization and Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Novel Sintered Multi-Layer Wire Mesh Porous Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in developing porous metals or metallic foams for functional and structural applications. The study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous metals is very important and helpful for their application. In this paper, a novel sintered multilayer wire mesh porous plate material (WMPPs with a thickness of 0.5 mm–3 mm and a porosity of 10–35% was prepared by winding, pressing, rolling, and subsequently vacuum sintering them. The pore size and total size distribution in the as-prepared samples were investigated using the bubble point method. The uniaxial tensile behavior of the WMPPs was investigated in terms of the sintering temperature, porosity, wire diameter, and manufacturing technology. The deformation process and the failure mechanism under the tensile press was also discussed based on the appearance of the fractures (SEM figures. The results indicated that the pore size and total size distribution were closely related to the raw material used and the sintering temperature. For the WMPPs prepared by the wire mesh, the pore structures were inerratic and the vast majority of pore size was less than 10 μm. On the other hand, for the WMPPs that were prepared by wire mesh and powder, the pore structures were irregular and the pore size ranged from 0 μm–50 μm. The experimental data showed that the tensile strength of WMPPs is much higher than any other porous metals or metallic foams. Higher sintering temperatures led to coarser joints between wires and resulted in higher tensile strength. The sintering temperature decreased from 1330 °C to 1130 °C and the tensile strength decreased from 296 MPa to 164 MPa. Lower porosity means that there are more metallurgical joints and metallic frameworks resisting deformation per unit volume. Therefore, lower porosities exhibit higher tensile strength. An increase of porosity from 17.14% to 32.5% led to the decrease of the tensile strength by 90 MPa. The

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective slip flow over an inclined porous plate with viscous dissipation and Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on the momentum and thermal transport for the magnetohydrodynamic flow past an inclined plate in both aiding and opposing buoyancy situations have been carried out. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plate. The results show that there are significant effects of pertinent parameters on the flow fields.

  11. New Three-Dimensional Porous Electrode Concept: Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Directly Grown on Embroidered Copper Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Aguiló-Aguayo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New three-dimensional (3D porous electrode concepts are required to overcome limitations in Li-ion batteries in terms of morphology (e.g., shapes, dimensions, mechanical stability (e.g., flexibility, high electroactive mass loadings, and electrochemical performance (e.g., low volumetric energy densities and rate capabilities. Here a new electrode concept is introduced based on the direct growth of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs on embroidered Cu current collectors. The direct growth of VA-CNTs was achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD, and there was no application of any post-treatment or cleaning procedure. The electrochemical behavior of the as-grown VA-CNTs was analyzed by charge/discharge cycles at different specific currents and with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The results were compared with values found in the literature. The as-grown VA-CNTs exhibit higher specific capacities than graphite and pristine VA-CNTs found in the literature. This together with the possibilities that the Cu embroidered structures offer in terms of specific surface area, total surface area, and designs provide a breakthrough in new 3D electrode concepts.

  12. Boundary layer flow adjacent to a permeable vertical plate with constant surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Najwa; Bachok, Norfifah; Md Arifin, Norihan

    2013-04-01

    The effects of suction/injection on the laminar boundary layer flow adjacent to a vertical wall with constant surface temperature are considered. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically by a finite difference method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the solution was unique for the assisting flow, while dual solutions exist for the opposing flow. The results indicate that the range of known dual solutions increases with suction and decreases with injection.

  13. Conjugate Heat Transfer of MHD non-Darcy Mixed Convection Flow of a Nanofluid over a Vertical Slender Hollow Cylinder Embedded in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jafarian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, conjugate heat transfer of magneto hydrodynamic mixed convection of nanofluid about a vertical slender hollow cylinder embedded in a porous medium with high porosity have been numerically studied. The Forchheimer’s modification of Darcy’s law was used in representing the nanofluid motion inside the porous media. The governing boundary layer equations were transformed to non-dimensional differential equations by taking suitable similarity variables and solved numerically using differential quadrature method (DQM. The interfacial (solid-liquid temperature distribution and the variations of velocity and temperature within boundary layer for different values of governing parameter in presence of uniform magnetic field have been presented and discussed. Our results demonstrate that heat transfer rate can enhance using nanofluid as well as porous medium, while magnetic field has no remarkable effect on the parameter. The computed results were also compared with those available in the existing literature and a good agreement was observed.

  14. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective slip flow along a radiating moving vertical flat plate with convective boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad M; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, [Formula: see text], local Nusselt number, [Formula: see text], and local Sherwood number [Formula: see text] are shown and explained through tables.

  15. NUMERICAL STUDY OF MICROPOLAR FLUID FLOW HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER OVER VERTICAL PLATE: EFFECTS OF THERMAL RADIATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REDHA ALOUAOUI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the thermal radiation effect on heat and mass transfer in steady laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscous micropolar fluid over a vertical flat plate, with the presence of a magnetic field. Rosseland approximation is applied to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The resulting similarity equations are solved numerically. Many results are obtained and representative set is displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of the various parameters on different profiles. The conclusion is drawn that the flow field, temperature, concentration and microrotation  as well as the skin friction coefficient and the both  local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers  are significantly influenced by Magnetic parameter, material parameter  and thermal radiation parameter.

  16. Exact Solutions for Unsteady Free Convection Flow of Casson Fluid over an Oscillating Vertical Plate with Constant Wall Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady free flow of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with constant wall temperature has been studied. The Casson fluid model is used to distinguish the non-Newtonian fluid behaviour. The governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations are transformed into linear ordinary differential equations by using nondimensional variables. Laplace transform method is used to find the exact solutions of these equations. Expressions for shear stress in terms of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number are also obtained. Numerical results of velocity and temperature profiles with various values of embedded flow parameters are shown graphically and their effects are discussed in detail.

  17. Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.

  18. Numerical analysis of natural convection for non-Newtonian fluid conveying nanoparticles between two vertical parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, S. A. R.; Pourziaei, H.; Feizi, A. R.; Taheri, M. H.; Rostamiyan, Y.; Ganji, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, natural convection of non-Newtonian bio-nanofluids flow between two vertical flat plates is investigated numerically. Sodium Alginate (SA) and Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (SCMC) are considered as the base non-Newtonian fluid, and nanoparticles such as Titania ( TiO2 and Alumina ( Al2O3 were added to them. The effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are calculated through Maxwell-Garnetts (MG) and Brinkman models, respectively. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method (NUM) and three Weighted Residual Methods (WRMs), Collocation (CM), Galerkin (GM) and Least-Square Method (LSM) and Finite-Element Method (FEM), are used to solve the present problem. The influence of some physical parameters such as nanofluid volume friction on non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are discussed. The results show that SCMC- TiO2 has higher velocity and temperature values than other nanofluid structures.

  19. Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussanan

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.

  20. Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a moving vertical flat plate in an external fluid flow with viscous dissipation effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfifah Bachok

    Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.

  1. Parametric study on density stratification erosion caused by a horizontal steam jet interacting with a vertical plate obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranjape, S., E-mail: Sidharth.paranjape@psi.ch; Kapulla, R., E-mail: ralf.kapulla@psi.ch; Mignot, G., E-mail: guillaume.mignot@psi.ch; Paladino, D., E-mail: domenico.paladino@psi.ch

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Helium layer breakup by horizontal steam jet impinging on vertical plate. • A small change in geometric configuration lead to a large change in flow pattern. • The functional dependence of erosion front motion on time. • Creation of a concentration stratification in adjacent vessel. - Abstract: During postulated severe accident scenarios in nuclear power plants, a hydrogen-rich layer might form at the top of the reactor containment. Various flow patterns resulting from the release of steam from the primary circuit might break the layer and redistribute hydrogen in the containment. The prediction of the gas transport during the accident requires detailed modeling of the processes involved. Advanced lumped parameter codes or computational fluid dynamics codes are used for this purpose. These codes need to be validated against experimental data obtained in large scale experimental facilities, where scale distortions are reduced. In order to obtain the required data with high spatial and temporal resolution, experiments were carried out in the PANDA facility in Switzerland as a part of OECD/HYMERES (HYdrogen Mitigation Experiments for Reactor Safety) project. The present experiments address the breakup of a layer rich in helium (used as simulant for hydrogen), under steam environment and its redistribution in two interconnected vessels (total volume of 183.3 m{sup 3}) under the action of a diffused flow resulting from the interaction of a horizontal steam jet with a vertical plate obstruction. The influence of the distance between the jet exit and the obstruction on the flow pattern was investigated. Spatial and temporal distribution of the gas concentration, the temperature and local gas velocity field were measured. It was found that a small change in the geometric configuration lead to a large change in the flow pattern. Reducing the jet-obstruction distance slowed down the helium-layer erosion process by a factor of two. Additionally, the

  2. Exact solutions for unsteady free convection flow of carbon nanotubes over an oscillating vertical plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Asma; Jiann, Lim Yeou; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the unsteady convection flow of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) induced by free convection with oscillating plate condition. Single-wall CNTs are used with water as base fluids. The governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations using suitable dimensionless variables. These equations are solved analytically using Laplace transform technique to obtain the velocity and temperature profiles. Results for velocity and temperature are shown in various graphs and discussed for the embedded flow parameters in detail. It is observed that, velocity decreases with increasing CNTs volume fraction and an increase in CNTs volume fraction increases the nanofluid temperature, which leads to an increase in the heat transfer rates.

  3. Lie Group Solution for Free Convective Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Chemically Reacting Horizontal Plate in a Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is employed to investigate the steady laminar incompressible free convective flow of a nanofluid past a chemically reacting upward facing horizontal plate in a porous medium taking into account heat generation/absorption and the thermal slip boundary condition. Using similarity transformations developed by Lie group analysis, the continuity, momentum, energy, and nanoparticle volume fraction equations are transformed into a set of coupled similarity equations. The OHAM solutions are obtained and verified by numerical results using a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. The effect of the emerging flow controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction have been presented graphically and discussed. Good agreement is found between analytical and numerical results of the present paper with published results. This close agreement supports our analysis and the accuracy of the numerical computations. This paper also includes a representative set of numerical results for reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in a table for various values of the parameters. It is concluded that the reduced Nusselt number increases with the Lewis number and reaction parameter whist it decreases with the order of the chemical reaction, thermal slip, and generation parameters.

  4. Magnetic Fluid-Based Squeeze Film Behaviour in Curved Porous-Rotating Rough Annular Plates and Elastic Deformation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Shimpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been directed to study and analyze the squeeze film performance between rotating transversely rough curved porous annular plates in the presence of a magnetic fluid lubricant considering the effect of elastic deformation. A stochastic random variable with nonzero mean, variance, and skewness characterizes the random roughness of the bearing surfaces. With the aid of suitable boundary conditions, the associated stochastically averaged Reynolds' equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution in turn, which results in the calculation of the load-carrying capacity. The graphical representations establish that the transverse roughness, in general, adversely affects the performance characteristics. However, the magnetization registers a relatively improved performance. It is found that the deformation causes reduced load-carrying capacity which gets further decreased by the porosity. This investigation tends to indicate that the adverse effect of porosity, standard deviation and deformation can be compensated to certain extent by the positive effect of the magnetic fluid lubricant in the case of negatively skewed roughness by choosing the rotational inertia and the aspect ratio, especially for suitable ratio of curvature parameters.

  5. Entropy generation in hydrodynamic slip flow over a vertical plate with convective boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Adnan Saeed; Munawar, Sufian; Ali, Asif [Quaid i Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan); Meh Mood, Ahmer [International Islamic Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-09-15

    The present article aims to report the effects of hydrodynamic slip on entropy generation in the boundary layer flow over a vertical surface with convective boundary condition. Suitable similarity transformations are used to transform the fundamental equations of hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer flow into ordinary differential equations. The governing equations are then solved numerically using the shooting method and the velocity and the temperature profiles are obtained for various values of parameters involved in the governing equations. The expressions for the entropy generation number and the Bejan number are presented and the results are discussed graphically and quantitatively for the slip parameter, the local Grashof number, the Prandtl number, the local convective heat transfer parameter, the group parameter and the local Reynolds number. It is observed that due to the presence of slip, entropy production in a thermal system can be controlled and reduced.

  6. Porous Composite for Bipolar Plate in Low Emission Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Katarzyna Włodarczyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of graphite-stainless steel composites for the bipolar plates in low-temperature fuel cells. The sinters were performed by powder metallurgy technology. The influenceof technological parameters, especially molding pressure were examined. Following the requirements formulated by the DOE concerning the parameters of the materials, it indicated by the value of the parameters. The density, flowabilit, particle size of graphite and stainless steel powders have been evaluated. Composites have been tested by microstructure and phase analysis, properties of strength, functional properties: wettability, porosity, roughness. The special attention was paid to the analysis of corrosion resistance obtained sinters and influenceof technological parameters on the corrosion. Corrosion tests were carried out under conditions simulating the environment of the fuel cell under anode and cathode conditions. The effectof pH solution during working of the cell on corrosion resistance of composites have been evaluated. Contact resistance depends on roughness of sinters. Low ICR determined high contact area GDL-BP and high electrical conductivity on the contact surface. The ICR in anode conditions after corrosion tests are not change significantly; composite materials can be used for materials for B in terms of H 2 .

  7. Quantifying Station Quality from Residual Vertical Motions in the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory GPS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Meertens, C. M.; Herring, T.

    2016-12-01

    Vertical motions measured by GPS stations in the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network are a combination of tectonic motion, hydrologic loading processes, local volcanism, atmospheric loading, errors inherent to a satellite-based navigation system, and other local events. We take all the position time series in the PBO network and apply a linear and sinusoidal fit, and we also correct for offsets from earthquakes and equipment, and for post-seismic decay. The residuals can then be used as a starting point for station quality evaluations. Well-fit residuals for healthy stations should have low RMS values and plot as relatively flat time series, with bumps in the time series attributable to seasonal variations in hydrologic loading (e.g., an unusually wet or dry year). Exceptions for healthy stations without flat time series occur in regions with volcanism (affecting the vertical and horizontal components) and episodic tremor and slip (affecting horizontal components). In such cases healthy and unhealthy stations can be separated by examining various quality (QC) parameters from processing-derived errors to multipath to signal-to-noise ratios. Furthermore, otherwise healthy station may experience episodes of low-quality as equipment fails or the station is overgrown with vegetation or buried in snow or something else unusual occurs. Focusing on the vertical residuals, we calculate short and long-term RMS values for all stations and compare them with other QC parameters to separate healthy and well-behaved stations, healthy and nonlinear stations, and unhealthy, poorly-behaved stations. We also showcase examples of low-QC and other unusual episodes in the network.

  8. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...

  9. Effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on a boundary layer over a vertical plate with a convective surface boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Tasawar Hayat; Awatif A. Hendi; Jacob A. Gbadeyan; Philip O. Olanrewaju

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer about a vertical plate in a uniform stream of fluid under a convective surface boundary condition. In the analysis, we assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid whilst a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the right surface; the heat source decays exponentially outwards from the surface of the plate. The similarity variable m...

  10. Study on heat transfer characteristics of the one side-heated vertical channel with inserted porous materials applied as a vessel cooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kuriyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the very high temperature reactor (VHTR, which is a next generation nuclear reactor system, ceramics are used as a fuel coating material and graphite is used as a core structural material. Even if a depressurization accident occurs and the reactor power goes up instantly, the temperature of the core will change only slowly. This is because the thermal capacity of the core is so high. Therefore, the VHTR system can passively remove the decay heat of the core by natural convection and radiation from the surface of the reactor pressure vessel. The objectives of this study are to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of natural convection of a one-side heated vertical channel with inserted porous materials of high porosity and also to develop the passive cooling system for the VHTR. An experiment was carried out using a one-side heated vertical rectangular channel. To obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the vertical channel with inserted porous material, we have also carried out a numerical analysis using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code. This paper describes the thermal performances of the one-side heated vertical rectangular channel with an inserted copper wire of high porosity.

  11. Experimental studies on the enhanced flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of organic fluid with high saturation temperature in vertical porous coated tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Shen, Zhi; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2013-07-01

    The characteristics of flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of organic fluid with high saturation temperature in a vertical porous coated tube are experimentally studied in this paper. The experiments are performed at evaporation pressure of 0.16-0.31MPa, mass flux of 390-790kg/m2s, and vapor quality of 0.06-0.58. The variations of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop with vapor quality are measured and compared to the results of smooth tube. Boiling curves are generated at mass flux of 482 and 675kg/m2s. The experimental results indicate that the heat transfer coefficients of the porous tube are 1.8-3.5 times those of smooth tube, and that the frictional pressure drops of the porous tube are 1.1-2.9 times those of smooth tube. The correlations for heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop are derived, in which the effect of fluid molecular weight is included. The experiments show that significant heat transfer enhancement is accompanied by a little pressure drop penalty, the application of the porous coated tube is promising in the process industries.

  12. MHD Free Convective Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid past a Flat Vertical Plate with Newtonian Heating Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammed J.; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, Ahmed I.

    2012-01-01

    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688

  13. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I

    2012-01-01

    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.

  14. Heat transfer analysis in a Maxwell fluid over an oscillating vertical plate using fractional Caputo-Fabrizio derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ilyas; Ali Shah, Nehad; Mahsud, Yasir; Vieru, Dumitru

    2017-04-01

    This article is focused on heat transfer analysis in the unsteady flow of a generalized Maxwell fluid over an oscillating vertical flat plate with constant temperature. The well-known equation of the Maxwell fluid with classical derivatives, describing the unidirectional and one-dimensional flow, has been generalized to a non-integer-order derivative, known as fractional derivative, with free convection term of buoyancy. A new definition of the fractional derivative introduced by Caputo and Fabrizio has been used in the mathematical formulation of the problem. Exact solution of the dimensionless problem has been obtained by using the Laplace transform. These solutions are expressed with complementary error and modified Bessel functions. Similar solutions for classical Maxwell and Newtonian fluids and generalized Newtonian fluid performing the same motion are obtained as limiting cases of our general results. Graphical illustrations show that the velocity profiles corresponding to a generalized Maxwell fluid are similar to those for an ordinary Maxwell fluid when the fraction order approaches 1. A comparison amongst four different types of fluids is also shown graphically.

  15. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J Uddin

    Full Text Available Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.

  16. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F

    2015-01-01

    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  17. Heat Transfer Analysis for Stationary Boundary Layer Slip Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in a Darcy Porous Medium with Plate Suction/Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Ali, Yasir; Aziz, Taha; Siddique, J I

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the slip effects on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of a power-law fluid past a porous flat plate embedded in the Darcy type porous medium. The nonlinear coupled system of partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid is transformed into a system of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Matlab bvp4c solver. Numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and the effects of the power-law index, velocity and thermal slip parameters, permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter on the velocity and temperature profiles are examined.

  18. Influence of Soret, Hall and Joule heating effects on mixed convection flow saturated porous medium in a vertical channel by Adomian Decomposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ch. Ram; Kaladhar, K.; Srinivasacharya, D.; Pradeepa, T.

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes the laminar, incompressible mixed convective transport inside vertical channel in an electrically conducting fluid saturated porous medium. In addition, this model incorporates the combined effects of Soret, Hall current and Joule heating. The nonlinear governing equations and their related boundary conditions are initially cast into a dimensionless form using suitable similarity transformations and hence solved using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). In order to explore the influence of various parameters on fluid flow properties, quantitative analysis is exhibited graphically and shown in tabular form.

  19. Effects of radiation and thermal conductivity on MHD boundary layer flow with heat transfer along a vertical stretching sheet in a porous medium

    KAUST Repository

    Ferdows, M.

    2017-03-10

    A steady two-dimensional free convective flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along a vertical stretching sheet with the effect of magnetic field, radiation and variable thermal conductivity in porous media is analyzed. The nonlinear partial differential equations, governing the flow field under consideration, have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a systemof nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically. Resulting non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are then presented graphically for different values of the parameters. Finally, the effects of the pertinent parameters, which are of physical and engineering interest, are examined both in graphical and tabular form.

  20. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: The mechanism of the drilling of holes in vertical metallic plates by cw CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, V. V.; Loboiko, A. I.; Antonova, G. F.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Sayapin, V. P.

    1999-02-01

    The possibility of making a hole in a vertical plate with the aid of laser radiation at a surface temperature not exceeding the boiling point is analysed neglecting the vapour pressure. The mechanism of the degradation of the liquid layer involving a reduction of its thickness, as a result of the redistribution of the molten mass owing to the operation of the force of gravity and of thermocapillary convection, is examined. The theoretical dependence of the critical size of the molten zone on the plate thickness is obtained and a comparison is made with experimental data.

  1. Conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer on MHD free convection flow over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farhad; Khan, Ilyas; Samiulhaq; Shafie, Sharidan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present an exact analysis of combined effects of radiation and chemical reaction on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid over an inclined plate embedded in a porous medium. The impulsively started plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion is considered. The dimensionless momentum equation coupled with the energy and mass diffusion equations are analytically solved using the Laplace transform method. Expressions for velocity, temperature and concentration fields are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and can be reduced, as special cases, to some known solutions from the literature. Expressions for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also obtained. Finally, the effects of pertinent parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are graphically displayed whereas the variations in skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are shown through tables.

  2. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS ON FLOW PAST PARABOLIC STARTING MOTION OF ISOTHERMAL VERTICAL PLATE IN THE PRESENCE OF FIRST ORDER CHEMICAL REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthucumaraswamy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution of unsteady flow past a parabolic starting motion of the infinite isothermal vertical plate with uniform mass diffusion, in the presence of a homogeneous chemical reaction of the first order, has been studied. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace transform technique. The effect of velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters, such as chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, and time. It is observed that velocity increases with increasing values of thermal Grashof number or mass Grashof number. The trend is reversed with respect to the chemical reaction parameter.

  3. Entropy analysis on MHD pseudo-plastic nanofluid flow through a vertical porous channel with convective heating

    OpenAIRE

    Das, S.; Banu, A.S.; Jana, R.N.; Makinde, O.D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the entropy generation in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pseudo-plastic nanofluid flow through a porous channel with convective heating. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are considered with pseudo-plastic carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)–water used as base fluids. The governing equations are solved numerically by shooting technique coupled with Runge–Kutta scheme. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the fl...

  4. Effect of radiation on free convection heat and mass transfer flow through porous medium in a vertical channel with heat absorption/generation and chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, B.

    2017-07-01

    The present paper analyses a solution for the transient free flow on a viscous and incompressible fluid between two vertical walls as a result of heta and mass transfer. The perturbation technique ahs been used to find the solutions for the velocity and temperature fields by solving the governing partial differential equations. The temperature of the one plate is assumed to be fluctuating. The effcets of the various parametrs entering into the problem, on the velocity and the temprature are depivted graphically. The impact of various parameters (Da, Rv, Pr, R and S) on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically. The expressions for skin friction at both walls are also obtained.

  5. Influence of Cross-Diffusion on Slip Flow and Heat Transfer of Chemically Reacting UCM Fluid between Porous Parallel Plates with Hall and Ion Slip Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odelu Ojjela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the Hall and ion slip currents on an incompressible unsteady free convection flow and heat transfer of an upper convected Maxwell fluid between porous parallel plates with Soret and Dufour effects by considering the velocity slip and convective boundary conditions. Assume that there are periodic injection and suction at the lower and upper plates, respectively. The temperature and concentration at the lower and upper plates change periodically with time. The flow field equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations and a semi-analytical-numerical solution has been obtained by the differential transform method. The velocity components, temperature distribution, and concentration with respect to different fluid and geometric parameters are discussed in detail and presented in the form of graphs. It is observed that the Biot number increases the temperature and concentration of the fluid. Further, the concentration of the fluid is enhanced whereas the temperature decreases with increasing slip. The present results are compared with the existing literature and are found to be in good agreement.

  6. Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavu S. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of buoyancy forces; on the fingering pattern and oil recovery by conducting immiscible displacement experiments in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium cells aligned in the vertical plane. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the favourable and unfavourable effects of buoyancy forces, experiments were carried out in three different flow modes, namely horizontal, vertical upward, and vertical downward. As the effects of buoyancy forces are negligible for two-dimensional porous media in the horizontal flow mode, the recoveries obtained in this mode were used as a reference for comparison with those obtained in the two vertical modes. Displacements using five different density ratios were studied. The breakthrough time and percentage oil recovery were measured in each case. The effects of buoyancy forces, viscous forces, and capillary forces, as well as the injection flow rate, were also recorded. The results obtained indicate that the effects of buoyancy forces are very pronounced at low flow rates and low oil/water density ratios, and that even a slight increase in the flow rate causes the buoyancy forces to rapidly become less significant. Les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet important sur les déplacements liquide/liquide en milieu poreux dans toute une gamme de situations pratiques, en particulier lorsqu'on veut déplacer l'huile de roches réservoirs partiellement épuisées à l'aide de solutions aqueuses. La plupart des

  7. Nonlinear radiation heat transfer effects in the natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate: a numerical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraj Mustafa

    Full Text Available The problem of natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate is discussed in the presence of nonlinear radiative heat flux. The effects of magnetic field, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are also taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The results reveal an existence of point of inflection for the temperature distribution for sufficiently large wall to ambient temperature ratio. Temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness increase as Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects intensify. Moreover temperature increases and heat transfer from the plate decreases with an increase in the radiation parameter.

  8. Dufour and Soret Effects on Convection Heat and Mass Transfer in an Electrical Conducting Power Law Flow over a Heated Porous Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, P. O.; Fenuga, O. J.; Gbadeyan, J. A.; Okedayo, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of thermal and thermo diffusion on convection heat and mass transfer in an electrically conducting power law flow over a heated porous plate in the presence of magnetic field has been considered. The similarity solution is used to transform the system of partial differential equations into a boundary value problem of coupled ordinary differential equations. Runge Kutta of sixth order has been used along with a shooting method for better accuracy. The results were presented as velocity, temperature, and concentration fields for pseudoplastic and dilatant fluids for different values of the embedded flow parameters. The results are presented graphically and the conclusion is drawn that the flow field and other quantities of physical interests are significantly influenced by these parameters.

  9. Lie Group Analysis of Natural Convective Flow from a Convectively Heated Upward Facing Radiating Permeable Horizontal Plate in Porous Media Filled with Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jashim Uddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional, steady, laminar and incompressible natural convective flow of a nanofluid over a connectively heated permeable upward facing radiating horizontal plate in porous medium is studied numerically. The present model incorporates Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. The similarity transformations for the governing equations are developed by Lie group analysis. The transformed equations are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. Effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as on the dimensionless rate of heat and mass transfer are presented graphically and the results are compared with the published data for special cases. Good agreement is found between numerical results of the present paper and published results. It is found that Lewis number, Brownian motion and convective heat transfer parameters increase the heat and mass transfer rates whilst thermophoresis decreases both heat and mass transfer rates.

  10. Free convection boundary layer flow past a horizontal flat plate embedded in porous medium filled by nano-fluid containing gyro-tactic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA 99258 (United States); Khan, W.A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi 75350 (Pakistan); Pop, I. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-06-15

    The steady boundary layer free convection flow past a horizontal flat plate embedded in a porous medium filled by a water-based nano-fluid containing gyro-tactic microorganisms is investigated. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation is assumed in the analysis. The effects of bio-convection parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, nano-particle concentration and density of motile microorganisms as well as on the local Nusselt, Sherwood and motile microorganism numbers are investigated and presented graphically. In the absence of bio-convection, the results are compared with the existing data in the open literature and found to be in good agreement. The bio-convection parameters strongly influence the heat, mass, and motile microorganism transport rates. (authors)

  11. Mixed Convective Flow of an Elastico-Viscous Fluid Past a Vertical Plate in the Presence of Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction with an Induced Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Utpal Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the steady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, mixed convection heat and mass transfer of a conducting, optically thin, incompressible, elastico-viscous fluid (characterized by the Walters' B' model) past a permeable, stationary, vertical, infinite plate in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction with account for an induced magnetic field. The governing equations of the flow are solved by the series method, and expressions for the velocity field, induced magnetic field, temperature field, and the skin friction are obtained.

  12. Entropy analysis on MHD pseudo-plastic nanofluid flow through a vertical porous channel with convective heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the entropy generation in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD pseudo-plastic nanofluid flow through a porous channel with convective heating. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are considered with pseudo-plastic carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC–water used as base fluids. The governing equations are solved numerically by shooting technique coupled with Runge–Kutta scheme. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, entropy generation, Bejan number as well as the shear stresses at the channel walls are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. It is possible to determine optimum values of magnetic parameter, power-law index, Eckert number and Boit number which lead to a minimum entropy generation rate.

  13. EFFECT OF VARIOUS POROUS STRUCTURES ON THE SHLIOMIS MODEL BASED FERROFLUID LUBRICATION OF THE FILM SQUEEZED BETWEEN ROTATING ROUGH CURVED CIRCULAR PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimit R Patel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been made to analyze the Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication of a squeeze film between rotating rough curved circular plates where the upper plate has a porous facing. Different models of porosity are treated. The stochastic modeling of Christensen and Tonder has been employed to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. The related stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation is numerically solved to obtain the pressure distribution, leading to the calculation of load carrying capacity. The results presented in graphical form establish that the Kozeny-Carman model is more favorable as compared to the Irmay one from the design point of view. It is observed that the Shliomis model based ferrofluid lubrication performs relatively better than the Neuringer-Rosensweig one. Although the bearing suffers due to transverse surface roughness, with a suitable choice of curvature parameters and rotational ratio, the negative effect of porosity and standard deviation can be minimized by the ferrofluid lubrication at least in the case of negatively skewed roughness.

  14. Study the effect of chemical reaction and variable viscosity on free convection MHD radiating flow over an inclined plate bounded by porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M., E-mail: ali.mehidi93@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Department of Mathematics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong-4349 (Bangladesh); Alim, M. A., E-mail: maalim@math.buet.ac.bd; Nasrin, R., E-mail: rehena@math.buet.ac.bd [Department of Mathematics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Alam, M. S., E-mail: shahalammaths@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong-4349 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An analysis is performed to study the free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid about a semi-infinite inclined porous plate under the action of radiation, chemical reaction in presence of magnetic field with variable viscosity. The dimensionless governing equations are steady, two-dimensional coupled and non-linear ordinary differential equation. Nachtsgeim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations. The effects of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and chemical reaction parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed numerically and shown graphically. Therefore, the results of velocity profile decreases for increasing values of magnetic parameter and viscosity parameter but there is no effect for reaction parameter. The temperature profile decreases in presence of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and Prandtl number but increases for radiation parameter. Also, concentration profile decreases for the increasing values of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and reaction parameter. All numerical calculations are done with respect to salt water and fixed angle of inclination of the plate.

  15. Effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on a boundary layer over a vertical plate with a convective surface boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the effects of internal heat generation, thermal radiation and buoyancy force on the laminar boundary layer about a vertical plate in a uniform stream of fluid under a convective surface boundary condition. In the analysis, we assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid whilst a stream of cold fluid flows steadily over the right surface; the heat source decays exponentially outwards from the surface of the plate. The similarity variable method was applied to the steady state governing non-linear partial differential equations, which were transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and were solved numerically by applying a shooting iteration technique together with a sixth-order Runge–Kutta integration scheme for better accuracy. The effects of the Prandtl number, the local Biot number, the internal heat generation parameter, thermal radiation and the local Grashof number on the velocity and temperature profiles are illustrated and interpreted in physical terms. A comparison with previously published results on similar special cases showed excellent agreement.

  16. MHD Heat and Mass Transfer of Chemical Reaction Fluid Flow over a Moving Vertical Plate in Presence of Heat Source with Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Rout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the influence of chemical reaction and the combined effects of internal heat generation and a convective boundary condition on the laminar boundary layer MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a moving vertical flat plate. The lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while the stream of cold fluid flows over the upper surface with heat source and chemical reaction. The basic equations governing the flow, heat transfer, and concentration are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate transformation for variables and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta fourth-order integration scheme in association with shooting method. The effects of physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are illustrated graphically. A table recording the values of skin friction, heat transfer, and mass transfer at the plate is also presented. The discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the results as well as their comparison with previous studies which shows good agreement as a special case of the problem.

  17. MHD free convection flow of Eyring–Powell fluid from vertical surface in porous media with Hall/ionslip currents and ohmic dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Gaffar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical study is presented to analyze the nonlinear, non-isothermal, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD free convection boundary layer flow, heat and mass transfer of non-Newtonian Eyring–Powell fluid from a vertical surface in a non-Darcy, isotropic, homogenous porous medium, in the presence of Hall currents and ionslip currents. The governing nonlinear coupled partial differential equations for momentum conservation in the x, and z directions, heat and mass conservation, in the flow regime are transformed from an (x, y, z coordinate system to a (ξ, η coordinate system in terms of dimensionless x-direction velocity (f′ and z-direction velocity (G, dimensionless temperature and concentration functions (θ and ϕ under appropriate boundary conditions. Both Darcian and Forchheimer porous impedances are incorporated in both momentum equations. Computations are also provided for the variation of the x and z direction shear stress components and also heat and mass transfer rates. It is observed that with increasing ɛ, primary velocity, secondary velocity, heat and mass transfer rates are decreased whereas, the temperature, concentration and skin friction are increased. An increasing δ is found to increase primary and secondary velocities, skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates. But the temperature and concentration decrease. Increasing βe and βi are seen to increase primary velocity, skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates whereas secondary velocity, temperature and concentration are decreased. Excellent correlation is achieved with a Nakamura tridiagonal finite difference scheme (NTM. The model finds applications in magnetic materials processing, MHD power generators and purification of crude oils.

  18. MHD free convection flow past an oscillating plate in the presence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer in MHD flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate through porous medium, taking account of the presence of free convection and mass transfer. The energy and chemical species equations are solved in closed form by Laplace-transform technique and ...

  19. Thermo-fluid-dynamics of natural convection around a heated vertical plate with a critical assessment of the standard similarity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Nayek, Subhajit

    2017-10-01

    A compulsory element of all textbooks on natural convection has been a detailed similarity analysis for laminar natural convection on a heated semi-infinite vertical plate and a routinely used boundary condition for such analysis is u = 0 at x = 0. The same boundary condition continues to be assumed in related theoretical analyses, even in recent publications. The present work examines the consequence of this long-held assumption, which appears to have never been questioned in the literature, on the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics. The assessment has been made here by solving the Navier-Stokes equations numerically with two boundary conditions—one with constrained velocity at x = 0 to mimic the similarity analysis and the other with no such constraints simulating the case of a heated vertical plate in an infinite expanse of the quiescent fluid medium. It is found that the fluid flow field given by the similarity theory is drastically different from that given by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with unconstrained velocity. This also reflects on the Nusselt number, the prediction of the CFD simulations with unconstrained velocity being quite close to the experimentally measured values at all Grashof and Prandtl numbers (this is the first time theoretically computed values of the average Nusselt number N u ¯ are found to be so close to the experimental values). The difference of the Nusselt number (Δ N u ¯ ) predicted by the similarity theory and that by the CFD simulations (as well as the measured values), both computed with a high degree of precision, can be very significant, particularly at low Grashof numbers and at Prandtl numbers far removed from unity. Computations show that within the range of investigations (104 ≤ GrL ≤ 108, 0.01 ≤ Pr ≤ 100), the maximum value of Δ N u ¯ may be of the order 50%. Thus, for quantitative predictions, the available theory (i.e., similarity analysis) can be rather inadequate. With

  20. Numerical Simulation of Williamson Combined Natural and Forced Convective Fluid Flow between Parallel Vertical Walls with Slip Effects and Radiative Heat Transfer in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical study of the slip effects and radiative heat transfer on a steady state fully developed Williamson flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid; between parallel vertical walls of a microchannel with isothermal walls in a porous medium is performed. The slip effects are considered at both boundary conditions. Radiative highly absorbing medium is modeled by the Rosseland approximation. The non-dimensional governing Navier–Stokes and energy coupled partial differential equations formed a boundary problem are solved numerically using the fourth order Runge–Kutta algorithm by means of a shooting method. Numerical outcomes for the skin friction coefficient, the rate of heat transfer represented by the local Nusselt number were presented even as the velocity and temperature profiles illustrated graphically and analyzed. The effects of the temperature number, Grashof number, thermal radiation parameter, Reynolds number, velocity slip length, Darcy number, and temperature jump, on the flow field and temperature field and their effects on the boundaries are presented and discussed.

  1. Analytical study of MHD free convective, dissipative boundary layer flow past a porous vertical surface in the presence of thermal radiation, chemical reaction and constant suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Raju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution of MHD free convective, dissipative boundary layer flow past a vertical porous surface in the presence of thermal radiation, chemical reaction and constant suction, under the influence of uniform magnetic field which is applied normal to the surface is studied. The governing equations are solved analytically using a regular perturbation technique. The expressions for velocity, temperature and concentration fields are obtained. With the aid of these, the expressions for the coefficient of skin friction, the rate of heat transfer in the form of Nusselt number and the rate of mass transfer in the form of Sherwood number are derived. Finally the effects of various physical parameters of the flow quantities are studied with the help of graphs and tables. It is observed that the velocity and concentration increase during a generative reaction and decrease in a destructive reaction. The same observed to be true for the behavior of the fluid temperature. The presence of magnetic field and radiation diminishes the velocity and also the temperature.

  2. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: An experimental study of the heat transfer behavior with adverse pressure gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, B. F.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat transfer behavior of the near equilibrium transpired turbulent boundary layer with adverse pressure gradient has been carried out. Stanton numbers were measured by an energy balance on electrically heated plates that form the bottom wall of the wind tunnel. Two adverse pressure gradients were studied. Two types of transpiration boundary conditions were investigated. The concept of an equilibrium thermal boundary layer was introduced. It was found that Stanton number as a function of enthalpy thickness Reynolds number is essentially unaffected by adverse pressure gradient with no transpiration. Shear stress, heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number profiles were computed from mean temperature and velocity profiles. It was concluded that the turbulent Prandtl number is greater than unity in near the wall and decreases continuously to approximately 0.5 at the free stream.

  3. Combined Effects Of Stress Work And Heat Generation On MHD Natural Convection Flow Along A Vertical Flat Plate With Power Law Variation Of Uniform Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper is presented to study conjugate effects of stress work and heat generation on MHD natural convection flow along a vertical flat plate with power law variation of surface temperature. Stress work and heat generation effects on magneto-hydrodynamics natural convection flows are considered in this investigation. With a goal to attain similarity solutions of the problem the developed equations are made dimensionless by using suitable transformations. The non-dimensional equations are then transformed into non-similar forms by introducing non- similarity transformations. The resulting non-similar equations together with their corresponding boundary conditions based on conduction and convection are solved numerically by using the shooting method of Nachtsheim-swigert iteration technique and finite difference method together with Keller box Scheme. Numerically calculated velocity profiles and temperature profiles skin friction and the rate of heat transfer coefficient are shown on graphs for different values of the parameters entering into the problem.

  4. The influence of chemical reaction and viscous dissipation on unsteady MHD free convection flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with variable surface conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is presented on the effects of chemical reaction and magnetic field on the unsteady free convection flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate by taking into account the heat due to viscous dissipation. The problem is governed by coupled non-linear partial differential equations. The dimensionless equations of the problem have been solved numerically by the implicit finite difference method of Crank - Nicolson’s type. The effects of governing parameters on the flow variables are discussed quantitatively with the aid of graphs for the flow field, temperature field, concentration field, skin-friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number. It is found that under the influence of chemical reaction, the flow velocity as well as concentration distributions reduce, while the viscous dissipation parameter leads to increase the temperature.

  5. Heat and mass transfer effects on the mixed convective flow of chemically reacting nanofluid past a moving/stationary vertical plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahanthesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer over a moving/stationary vertical plate has been studied under the influence of applied magnetic field, thermal radiation, internal heat generation/absorption and first order chemical reaction. The fluid is assumed to be electrically conducting water based Cu-nanofluid. The Tiwari and Das model is used to model the nanofluid, whereas Rosseland approximation is used for thermal radiation effect. Unified closed form solutions are obtained for the governing equations using Laplace transform method. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are expressed graphically for different flow pertinent parameters. The physical quantities of engineering interest such as skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also computed. The obtained analytical solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and they can be reduced to known previous results in some limiting cases. It is found that, by varying nanoparticle volume fraction, the flow and heat transfer characteristics could be controlled.

  6. Radiation and porosity effects on the magnetohydrodynamic flow near a vertical plate that applies shear stress to the fluid with mass diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan [Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    This article studies the radiation and porosity effects on the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an infinite vertical plate that applies a shear stress f(t) to the fluid. Conjugate phenomenon of heat and mass transfer is considered. General solutions of the dimensionless governing equations along with imposed initial and boundary conditions are determined using Laplace transform technique. The solution of velocity is presented as a sum of mechanical and non mechanical parts. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some known solutions from the literature as special cases. The results for embedded parameters are shown graphically. Numerical results for skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and presented in tabular forms.

  7. Second-order velocity slip with axisymmetric stagnation point flow and heat transfer due to a stretching vertical plate in a Copper-water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardri, M. A.; Bachok, N.; Arifin, N. M.; Ali, F. M.

    2017-09-01

    The steady axisymmetric stagnation point flow with second-order velocity slip due to a stretching vertical plate with the existence of copper-water nanofluid was investigated. Similarity transformation has been applied to reduce the governing partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Then the self-similar equations are solved numerically using solver bvp4c available in Matlab with Prandtl number, Pr = 6.2. It is found that the dual solutions exist for the certain range of mixed convection parameter. The effects of the governing parameters on the velocity and temperature profile, skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are observed. The results show that the inclusion of nanoparticle copper, will increase the shear stress on the stretching sheet and decrease the heat transfer rate for the slip parameters.

  8. Computational study of Jeffrey’s non-Newtonian fluid past a semi-infinite vertical plate with thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Gaffar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear, steady state boundary layer flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible non-Newtonian Jeffrey’s fluid past a semi-infinite vertical plate is examined in this article. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a versatile, implicit finite-difference Keller box technique. The influence of a number of emerging non-dimensional parameters, namely Deborah number (De, ratio of relaxation to retardation times (λ, Buoyancy ratio parameter (N, suction/injection parameter (fw, Radiation parameter (F, Prandtl number (Pr, Schmidt number (Sc, heat generation/absorption parameter (Δ and dimensionless tangential coordinate (ξ on velocity, temperature and concentration evolution in the boundary layer regime is examined in detail. Also, the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate, mass transfer rate and local skin friction are investigated. This model finds applications in metallurgical materials processing, chemical engineering flow control, etc.

  9. A new stochastic hydraulic conductivity approach for modeling one-dimensional vertical flow in variably saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrettas, M. D.; Fung, I. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The degree of carbon climate feedback by terrestrial ecosystems is intimately tied to the availability of moisture for photosynthesis, transpiration and decomposition. The vertical distribution of subsurface moisture and its accessibility for evapotranspiration is a key determinant of the fate of ecosystems and their feedback on the climate system. A time series of five years of high frequency (every 30 min) observations of water table at a research site in Northern California shows that the water tables, 18 meters below the surface, can respond in less than 8 hours to the first winter rains, suggesting very fast flow through micro-pores and fractured bedrock. Not quite as quickly as the water table rises after a heavy rain, the elevated water level recedes, contributing to down-slope flow and stream flow. The governing equation of our model uses the well-known Richards' equation, which is a non-linear PDE, derived by applying the continuity requirement to Darcy's law. The most crucial parameter of this PDE is the hydraulic conductivity K(θ), which describes the speed at which water can move in the underground. We specify a saturation profile as a function of depth (i.e. Ksat(z)) and allow K(θ) to vary not only with the soil moisture saturation but also include a stochastic component which mimics the effects of fracture flow and other naturally occurring heterogeneity, that is evident in the subsurface. A large number of Monte Carlo simulation are performed in order to identify optimal settings for the new model, as well as analyze the results of this new approach on the available data. Initial findings from this exploratory work are encouraging and the next steps include testing this new stochastic approach on data from other sites and also apply ensemble based data assimilation algorithms in order to estimate model parameters with the available measurements.

  10. Numerical investigation of MHD free convection flow of a non-Newtonian fluid past an impulsively started vertical plate in the presence of thermal diffusion and radiation absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umamaheswar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is carried out on an unsteady MHD free convection flow of a well-known non-Newtonian visco elastic second order Rivlin-Erickson fluid past an impulsively started semi-infinite vertical plate in the presence of homogeneous chemical reaction, thermal radiation, thermal diffusion, radiation absorption and heat absorption with constant mass flux. The presence of viscous dissipation is also considered at the plate under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field. The flow is governed by a coupled nonlinear system of partial differential equations which are solved numerically by using finite difference method. The effects of various physical parameters on the flow quantities viz. velocity, temperature, concentration, Skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are studied numerically. The results are discussed with the help of graphs. We observed that the velocity decreases with an increase in magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, and Prandtl number while it increases with an increase in Grashof number, modified Grashof number, visco-elastic parameter and Soret number. Temperature increases with an increase in radiation absorption parameter, Eckert number and visco-elastic parameter while it decreases with increasing values of radiation parameter, Prandtl number and heat absorption parameter. Concentration increases with increase in Soret number while it decreases with an increase in Schmidt number and chemical reaction parameter.

  11. Effects of Ramped Wall Temperature on Unsteady Two-Dimensional Flow Past a Vertical Plate with Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of free convection with thermal radiation of a viscous incompressible unsteady flow past a vertical plate with ramped wall temperature and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account the homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The fluid is gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative flux in the energy equation. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using an implicit finite-difference method of the Crank-Nicolson type, which is stable and convergent. The velocity profiles are compared with the available theoretical solution and are found to be in good agreement. Numerical results for the velocity, the temperature, the concentration, the local and average skin friction, the Nusselt number and Sherwood number are shown graphically. This work has wide application in chemical and power engineering and also in the study of vertical air flow into the atmosphere. The present results can be applied to an important class of flows in which the driving force for the flow is provided by combination of the thermal and chemical species diffusion effects.

  12. Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Stagnation-Point Flow of a Jeffery Fluid Past a Permeable Vertical Flat Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad M.; Ioan, Pop

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the combined effects of buoyancy force, mass flux, and variable surface temperature on the stagnation point flow and heat transfer due to a Jeffery fluid over a vertical surface. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the function bvp4c from computer algebra software Matlab. Numerical results are obtained for skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number as well as dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles for various values of the controlling parameters namely mixed convection parameter λ, mass flux parameter s, elastic parameter (Deborah number) γ, and the ratio of relaxation and retardation time parameter λ1. The results indicate that dual solutions exist in a certain range of the mixed convection and mass flux parameters. In order to establish the physically realizable of these solutions, a stability analysis has also been performed. The results indicate that mixed convection and mass flux significantly affects the nature of the solutions, skin friction, and Nusselt number of a Jeffery fluid.

  13. MHD mixed convection flow of power law non-Newtonian fluids over an isothermal vertical wavy plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei Nejad, Mehrzad [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 3756, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javaherdeh, K., E-mail: Javaherdeh@guilan.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 3756, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moslemi, M. [Ayandegan Institute of Higher Education, Tonekabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    Mixed convection flow of electrically conducting power law fluids along a vertical wavy surface in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is studied numerically. Prandtl coordinate transformation together with the spline alternating direction implicit method is employed to solve the boundary layer equations. The influences of both flow structure and dominant convection mode on the overall parameters of flow and heat transfer are well discussed. Also, the role of magnetic field in controlling the boundary layers is investigated. The variation of Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are studied as functions of wavy geometry, magnetic field, buoyancy force and material parameters. Results reveal the interrelation of the contributing factors. - Highlights: • Magnetic field effects undermine the heat transfer for n<1 more markedly. • Magnetic field decreases the values of Nu number and C{sub f} downstream of the plat. • The magnetic field opposes the second harmonic in the curve of Nu number and C{sub f}. • The wavy geometry influences the pseudo-plastic fluids (n<1) more profoundly.

  14. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of a second grade fluid in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown.

  15. Convective heat transfer in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, P.

    Recent emerging technologies on the extraction of geothermal energy, the design of insulation systems for energy conservation, the use of aquifers for hot-water storage, the disposal of nuclear wastes in sub-seabeds, the enhanced recovery of oils by thermal methods, and the design of catalyst-bed reactors have demanded an improved understanding of heat transfer mechanisms in fluid-filled porous media. Experiments have been conducted to investigate the onset of free convection in rectangular and cylindrical enclosures filled with porous media and heated from below. The Nusselt numbers determined from these experiments during steady conditions are correlated in terms of the Rayleigh number. The data for free convection in rectangular geometries show considerable scattering among investigators using different porous media and fluids. Recently, some data has been obtained for free convect on in water-filled glass beads adjacent to a heated vertical flat plate, a horizontal cylinder and between vertical concentric cylinders. The data obtained at low Rayleigh numbers is found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions based on Darcy's law.

  16. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  17. A new numerical method for investigation of thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects on MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer between parallel plates partially filled with a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib-Olah Sayehvand

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation the problem of nanofluid heat and mass transfer in a channel partially filled with a porous medium in the presence of uniform magnetic field is carried out by a new computational iterative approach known as the spectral local linearization method (SLLM. The similarity solution is used to reduce the governing system of partial differential equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are then solved by SLLM and validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results (fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with the shooting method. In modeling the flow in the channel, the effects of flow inertia, Brinkman friction, nanoparticles concentration and thickness of the porous region are taken into account. The results are obtained for velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number. Also, effects of active parameters such as viscosity parameter, Hartmann number, Darcy number, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, Eckert number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter and the thickness of porous region on the hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer behaviors are investigated. Keywords: Brownian, Nanofluid, Porous medium, Spectral local linearization method, Thermophoresis

  18. Surface heat flux feedback controlled impurity seeding experiments with Alcator C-Mod’s high-Z vertical target plate divertor: performance, limitations and implications for fusion power reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, D.; Wolfe, S. M.; LaBombard, B.; Kuang, A. Q.; Lipschultz, B.; Reinke, M. L.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Terry, J. L.; Umansky, M. V.; The Alcator C-Mod Team

    2017-08-01

    The Alcator C-Mod team has recently developed a feedback system to measure and control surface heat flux in real-time. The system uses real-time measurements of surface heat flux from surface thermocouples and a pulse-width modulated piezo valve to inject low-Z impurities (typically N2) into the private flux region. It has been used in C-Mod to mitigate peak surface heat fluxes  >40 MW m-2 down to    1. While the system works quite well under relatively steady conditions, use of it during transients has revealed important limitations on feedback control of impurity seeding in conventional vertical target plate divertors. In some cases, the system is unable to avoid plasma reattachment to the divertor plate or the formation of a confinement-damaging x-point MARFE. This is due to the small operational window for mitigated heat flux in the parameters of incident plasma heat flux, plasma density, and impurity density as well as the relatively slow response of the impurity gas injection system compared to plasma transients. Given the severe consequences for failure of such a system to operate reliably in a reactor, there is substantial risk that the conventional vertical target plate divertor will not provide an adequately controllable system in reactor-class devices. These considerations motivate the need to develop passively stable, highly compliant divertor configurations and experimental facilities that can test such possible solutions.

  19. Combined effects of chemical reaction and temperature dependent heat source on MHD mixed convective flow of a couple-stress fluid in a vertical wavy porous space with travelling thermal waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuraj R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed to examine the effect of chemical reaction on MHD mixed convective heat and mass transfer flow of a couple-stress fluid in vertical porous space in the presence of temperature dependent heat source with travelling thermal waves. The dimensionless governing equations are assumed to be made up of two parts: a mean part corresponding to the fully developed mean flow, and a small perturbed part, using amplitude as a small parameter. The analytical solution of perturbed part have been carried out by using the long-wave approximation. The expressions for the zeroth-order and the first order solutions are obtained and the results of the heat and mass transfer characteristics are presented graphically for various values of parameters entering into the problem. It is noted that velocity of the fluid increases with the increase of the couple stress parameter and increasing the chemical reaction parameter leads suppress the velocity of the fluid. Cross velocity decreases with an increase of the phase angle. The increase of the chemical reaction parameter and Schmidt number lead to decrease the fluid concentration. The hydrodynamic case for a non-porous space in the absence of the temperature dependent heat source for Newtonian fluid can be captured as a limiting case of our analysis by taking, and α1→0, Da→∞, a→∞.

  20. Thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) and its thermal contact resistance with fuel cell gas diffusion layers: Effect of compression, PTFE, micro porous layer (MPL), BPP out-of-flatness and cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements of thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) as a function of temperature and its thermal contact resistance (TCR) with treated and untreated gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The thermal conductivity of the BPP decreases with temperature and its thermal contact resistance with GDLs, which has been overlooked in the literature, is found to be dominant over a relatively wide range of compression. The effects of PTFE loading, micro porous layer (MPL), compression, and BPP out-of-flatness are also investigated experimentally. It is found that high PTFE loadings, MPL and even small BPP out-of-flatness increase the BPP-GDL thermal contact resistance dramatically. The paper also presents the effect of cyclic load on the total resistance of a GDL-BPP assembly, which sheds light on the behavior of these materials under operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Transient Free Convection Flow and Heat Transfer in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled momentum and heat transfer in unsteady, incompressible flow along a semi-infinite vertical porous moving plate adjacent to an isotropic porous medium with viscous dissipation effect are investigated. The Darcy-Forchheimer nonlinear drag force model which includes the effects of inertia drag forces is employed. The governing differential equations of the problem are transformed into a system of nondimensional differential equations which are solved numerically by the finite element method (FEM. The non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are presented for the influence of Darcy number, Forchheimer number, Grashof number, Eckert number, Prandtl number, plate velocity, and time. The Nusselt number is also evaluated and compared with finite difference method (FDM, which shows excellent agreement.

  2. Vertical GPS ground motion rates in the Euro-Mediterranean region: New evidence of velocity gradients at different spatial scales along the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Serpelloni, Enrico; Faccenna, Claudio; Spada, Giorgio; DONG Danan; Williams, Simon D.P.

    2013-01-01

    We use 2.5 to 14 years long position time series from >800 continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) stations to study vertical deformation rates in the Euro-Mediterranean region. We estimate and remove common mode errors in position time series using a principal component analysis, obtaining a significant gain in the signal-to-noise ratio of the displacements data. Following the results of a maximum likelihood estimation analysis, which gives a mean spectral index ~ −0.7, we adopt a power l...

  3. Influence of non-integer order parameter and Hartmann number on the heat and mass transfer flow of a Jeffery fluid over an oscillating vertical plate via Caputo-Fabrizio time fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, A. R.; Abdullah, M.; Raza, N.; Imran, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, semi analytical solutions for the heat and mass transfer of a fractional MHD Jeffery fluid over an infinite oscillating vertical plate with exponentially heating and constant mass diffusion via the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative are obtained. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless form by introducing dimensionless variables. A modern definition of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative has been used to develop the fractional model for a Jeffery fluid. The expressions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields are obtained in the Laplace transformed domain. We have used the Stehfest's and Tzou's algorithm for the inverse Laplace transform to obtain the semi analytical solutions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields. In the end, in order to check the physical impact of flow parameters on temperature, concentration and velocity fields, results are presented graphically and in tabular forms.

  4. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw Internal Fixation device (INFIX vs External Fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigdorchik Jonathan M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX. This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Methods Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation. Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons Results The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01 at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017 at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Conclusions Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  5. Natural convection in a parallel-plate vertical channel with discrete heating by two flush-mounted heaters: effect of the clearance between the heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarper, Bugra; Saglam, Mehmet; Aydin, Orhan; Avci, Mete

    2017-10-01

    In this study, natural convection in a vertical channel is studied experimentally and numerically. One of the channel walls is heated discretely by two flush-mounted heaters while the other is insulated. The effects of the clearance between the heaters on heat transfer and hot spot temperature while total length of the heaters keeps constant are investigated. Four different settlements of two discrete heaters are comparatively examined. Air is used as the working fluid. The range of the modified Grashof number covers the values between 9.6 × 105 and 1.53 × 10.7 Surface to surface radiation is taken into account. Flow visualizations and temperature measurements are performed in the experimental study. Numerical computations are performed using the commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT. The results are represented as the variations of surface temperature, hot spot temperature and Nusselt number with the modified Grashof number and the clearance between the heaters as well as velocity and temperature variations of the fluid.

  6. Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges confronting plate tectonics. Presents evidence that contradicts continental drift, seafloor spreading, and subduction. Reviews problems posed by vertical tectonic movements. (Contains 242 references.) (DDR)

  7. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND EVALUATION OF A VERTICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertical plate metering device is intended to minimize seed damage during planting while improving metering efficiency and field capacity. A vertical plate maize seed planter which is adapted for gardens and small holder farmers cultivating less than two hectares has been designed, constructed and tested. The major ...

  8. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor ...

  9. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important......The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...

  10. Pressure-Letdown Plates for Coal Gasifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Variation of pseudoporous plates used with coal gasifiers in pressure letdown stage of processing minimize clogging. Rotating plates containing variable gap annuli continually change flow path to enable erosionless reduction of gas pressure. Particles that otherwise clog porous plugs pass through gaps.

  11. Resistivity Index Measurement without the Porous Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springer, N.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina

    2003-01-01

    A Desaturation Technique Based on Evaporation Produces Uniform Water Saturation Profiles and More Reliable Results for Tight North Sea Chalk......A Desaturation Technique Based on Evaporation Produces Uniform Water Saturation Profiles and More Reliable Results for Tight North Sea Chalk...

  12. Influence of Hall Current and Thermal Radiation on MHD Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in a Rotating Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study is carried out to obtain an analytic solution of heat and mass transfer in a vertical porous channel with rotation and Hall current. A constant suction and injection is applied to the two insulating porous plates. A strong magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction. The entire system rotates with uniform angular velocity Ω about the axis normal to the plates. The governing equations are solved by perturbation technique to obtain the analytical results for velocity, temperature, and concentration fields and shear stresses. The steady and unsteady resultant velocities along with the phase differences for various values of physical parameters are discussed in detail. The effects of rotation, buoyancy force, magnetic field, thermal radiation, and heat generation parameters on resultant velocity, temperature, and concentration fields are analyzed.

  13. Magnetic fluid based squeeze film between porous annular curved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghatlodia, Ahmedabad 380 061, India. MS received 7 March 2000; revised 7 June 2001. Abstract. The squeeze film behaviour between rotating annular plates was analysed theoretically when the curved upper plate with a uniform porous facing approached the impermeable and flat lower plate, considering a magnetic fluid ...

  14. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  15. New solutions of stokes problem for an oscillating plate using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New solutions of stokes problem for an oscillating plate using Laplace transform. Ehsan Ellahi Ashraf, Muhammad R Mohyuddin. Abstract. An exact solution of the flow of a Newtonian fluid on a porous plate is obtained when the plate at y = 0 is oscillating with the amplitude β and oscillating frequency ω with the assumption ...

  16. Bipolar plate/diffuser for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    2000-01-01

    A combination bipolar plate/diffuser fuel cell component includes an electrically conducting solid material having: a porous region having a porous surface; and a hermetic region, the hermetic region defining at least a portion of at least one coolant channel, the porous region defining at least a portion of at least one reactant channel, the porous region defining a flow field medium for diffusing the reactant to the porous surface.

  17. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  18. Combined effect of thermal dispersion and variable viscosity of non-darcy convection heat transfer in a fluidsaturated porous medium

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of thermal dispersion and variable viscosity on the non-Darcy free, mixed, and forced convection heat transfer along a vertical flat plate embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium are investigated. Forchheimer extension is employed in the flow equation to express the non-Darcy model. The fluid viscosity varies as an inverse linear function of temperature. The coefficient of thermal diffusivity has been assumed to be the sum of the molecular diffusivity and the dynamic diffusivity due to mechanical dispersion. Similarity solutions of the governing equations, for an isothermally heated plate, are obtained. Effects of the physical parameters, which govern the problem, on the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number, the slip velocity, and the boundary layer thickness, for the two cases Darcy and non-Darcy, are shown on graphs or entered in tables. © 2013 by Begell House, Inc.

  19. Unsteady MHD free convection flow of rotating Jeffrey fluid embedded in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, N. A. Mohd; Khan, I.; Shafie, S.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of radiative heat transfer on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection flow of rotating Jeffrey fluid past an infinite vertical plate saturated in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature is investigated. The incompressible fluid is taken electrically conducting under influence of transverse magnetic field which perpendicular to the flow. An appropriate dimensionless variables are employed to the governing equations and solved analytically by Laplace transform technique. The results of several controlling parameters for both ramped wall temperature and an isothermal plate are presented graphically with comprehensive discussions. It has been observed that, an increase in rotation parameter, reduced the primary velocity, but an opposite behaviour is noticed for the secondary velocity. Moreover, large values of Hartmann number tends to retard the fluid flow due to the Lorentz force.

  20. Effects of chemical reaction in thermal and mass diffusion of micropolar fluid saturated in porous regime with radiation and ohmic heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the chemically reacting free convection MHD micropolar flow, heat and mass transfer in porous medium past an infinite vertical plate with radiation and viscous dissipation. The non-linear coupled partial differential equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller-box method. The results for concentration, transverse velocity, angular velocity and temperature are obtained and effects of various parameters on these functions are presented graphically. The numerical discussion with physical interpretations for the influence of various parameters also presented.

  1. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 209 Plate Tectonics A. K. Chaubey National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004. chaubey@nio.org Introduction The theory of continental drift, which paved the way for discovery... of plate tectonics, was put forward by Alfred Lother Wegener - a meteorologist from Germany - in 1912. The theory states that continents are not fixed, but have been slowly wandering during the course of Earth’s geological history. Although Wegener...

  2. Porous Ascend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riiber, Jacob; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    towards a novel approach to working with, and reproducing, complexity within collections of architectural components. With no predefined coordinization mapping the ever changing fractal pattern, building proceeds by a locally defined identification and pairing of elements. In this way the project...... demonstrates that we can build without reference to a global position, by solely referencing by means of relations between neighbouring parts. Assembly itself becomes algorithmic. This suggests a more locally adaptive and reactive organization of elements, offering both better interfacing capabilities......The Porous Ascend project investigates how algorithmic and generative approaches allows for the utilization of complex, and by other means inaccessible, ways of devising the schema by which we arrange the parts of an architectural object. It does so by pursuing to physically realize a structure...

  3. Effect of Hall current and thermal radiation on heat and mass transfer of a chemically reacting MHD flow of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. Oahimire

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer effects on an unsteady flow of a chemically reacting micropolar fluid over an infinite vertical porous plate through a porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with Hall effect and thermal radiation are studied. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations are then solved analytically using the perturbation technique to obtain the expressions for velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration. With the help of graphs, the effects of the various important parameters entering into the problem on the velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration fields within the boundary layer are discussed. Also the effects of the pertinent parameters on the skin friction coefficient and rates of heat and mass transfer in terms of the Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented numerically in a tabular form. The results show that the observed parameters have a significant influence on the flow, heat and mass transfer.

  4. Investigation of heat and mass transfer of rotating MHD viscous flow between a stretching sheet and a porous surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikholeslami, R; Ashorynejad, H.R; Barari, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze hydromagnetic flow between two horizontal plates in a rotating system. The bottom plate is a stretching sheet and the top one is a solid porous plate. Heat transfer in an electrically conducting fluid bounded by two parallel plates is also studied...

  5. Shear waves in a fluid saturated elastic plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 25 February 2002. Abstract. In the present context, we consider the propagation of shear waves in the transverse isotropic fluid saturated porous plate. The frequency spectrum for SH-modes in the plate has been studied. It is observed that the frequency of the propagation is damped due to the two-phase ...

  6. Mixed convection opposing flow in porous annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ahmed N. J.; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Khaleed, H. M. T.

    2016-06-01

    The current work investigates the mixed convection flow in a vertical porous annulus embedded with fluid saturated porous medium. The annulus is isothermally heated discretely at 20%, 35% and 50% of the height of cylinder at the center of annulus. Darcy law with thermal non-equilibrium approach is considered. The governing partial differential equations are solved using Finite Element Method (FEM). The effects of Peclet number Pe and conductivity ratio Kr on heat transfer and fluid flow is discussed It is found that the applied velocity in the downward direction, in case of an opposing flow, does not allow the thermal energy to reach from a hot to a cold surface.

  7. Analytical and Numerical Study on Magnetoconvection Stagnation-Point Flow in a Porous Medium with Chemical Reaction, Radiation, and Slip Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of slip and radiation on magnetoconvection flow of a chemically reacting fluid near a stagnation-point towards a vertical plate embedded in a porous medium analytically and numerically. The governing partial differential equations are diminished into the coupled ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations. Then they are solved analytically by homotopy analysis method and solved numerically by shooting method with RK fourth-order method. In this study, the analytical and numerical results are compared for many combinations of parameters. The rates of heat and mass transfer are calculated. The velocity profile near the plate overshoots on increasing the slip parameter. The concentration and temperature are decreasing on increasing the slip parameter.

  8. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  9. Microscale transport in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rinker, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-04-01

    In-pore transport processes in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media have been investigated using novel 3D imaging techniques. The experimental system consists of a clear column packed with clear particles and a refractive index-matched fluid seeded with fluorescent tracers and an organic solute dye. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow and transport processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a high accuracy. Fluorescent images are captured and recorded at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the test section. These digitized transport images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. This paper reports on pore-scale observations of velocity, chemical concentration, and fluxes. Tests were undertaken with two separate columns. One is a rectangular column for chemical transport and bioremediation studies in aqueous heterogeneous systems and the other is a cylindrical column for flow and transport investigations in nonaqueous homogeneous systems.

  10. Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yyasu@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshio [The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 – 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.

  11. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  12. Porous and Microporous Honeycomb Composites as Potential Boundary-Layer Bleed Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D. O.; Willis, B. P.; Schoenenberger, M.

    1997-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation are presented in which the use of porous and microporous honeycomb composite materials is evaluated as an alternate to perforated solid plates for boundary-layer bleed in supersonic aircraft inlets. The terms "porous" and "microporous," respectively, refer to bleed orifice diameters roughly equal to and much less than the displacement thickness of the approach boundary-layer. A Baseline porous solid plate, two porous honeycomb, and three microporous honeycomb configurations are evaluated. The performance of the plates is characterized by the flow coefficient and relative change in boundary-layer profile parameters across the bleed region. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 1.27 and 1.98. The results show the porous honeycomb is not as efficient at removing mass compared to the baseline. The microporous plates were about equal to the baseline with one plate demonstrating a significantly higher efficiency. The microporous plates produced significantly fuller boundary-layer profiles downstream of the bleed region for a given mass flow removal rate than either the baseline or the porous honeycomb plates.

  13. Double diffusion in arbitrary porous cavity: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, N. Ameer; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum

    2017-07-01

    Double diffusion refers to the heat and mass transfer that takes place simultaneously. The current work highlights the double diffusion when a solid block is placed at the bottom of a square porous cavity. The whole cavity is filed with saturated porous medium except the small block placed at the bottom left corner of the domain. The left vertical surface of porous cavity is maintained at concentration Ch and right vertical surface possesses lowest concentration Cc in the porous domain. The results are discussed in terms of isotherms, iso-concentration and streamlines inside the domain for various physical parameters. It is seen that the mass transfer is substantially different in present case as compared to the case of natural convection.

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  15. Porous Shape Memory Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

  16. Tailored Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  17. Segmental and Kinetic Contributions in Vertical Jumps Performed with and without an Arm Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltner, Michael E.; Bishop, Elijah J.; Perez, Cassandra M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the contributions of the motions of the body segments to the vertical ground reaction force ([F.sub.z]), the joint torques produced by the leg muscles, and the time course of vertical velocity generation during a vertical jump, 15 men were videotaped performing countermovement vertical jumps from a force plate with and without an arm…

  18. Wave analysis of porous geometry with linear resistance law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokken, Jørgen; Grue, John; Karstensen, Lars Petter

    2017-10-01

    The wave diffraction-radiation problem of a porous geometry of arbitrary shape located in the free surface of a fluid is formulated by a set of integral equations, assuming a linear resistance law at the geometry. The linear forces, the energy relation and the mean horizontal drift force are evaluated for non-porous and porous geometries. A geometry of large porosity has an almost vanishing added mass. The exciting forces are a factor of 5-20 smaller compared to a solid geometry. In the long wave regime, the porous geometry significantly enhances both the damping and the mean drift force, where the latter grows linearly with the wavenumber. The calculated mean drift force on a porous hemisphere and a vertical truncated cylinder, relevant to the construction of fish cages, is compared to available published results.

  19. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  20. Review. Freeze-casting: Fabrication of highly porous and hierarchical ceramic supports for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudillere, C.; Serra, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of structured ceramic porous support knows an important boom since more than a decade with the development of new shaping techniques. Among the most promising ones, the freeze-casting also called Ice-Tem plating allows the fabrication of ceramic parts exhibiting high porosity (>50%) and vertically aligned and hierarchically organized pores. Such structures were firstly conceived for biomedical applications like bone substitute and tissue engineering, but the distinctive features of freeze-cast structures have attracted the attention of diverse scientific fields, especially in high temperature ceramic-based energy production systems. Indeed, technologies like (a) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Electrolyser Cell (SOEC), (b) gas separation (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}) by asymmetric supported membranes based on mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIEC) or hydrogen-permeable metals, and (c) Catalytic Membrane Reactor (CMR) systems present a porous component in their physical structure. This latest, presenting a tortuous pathway for gas access and as a consequence, a high transport limitation, is known to be a limiting component for the operation at high flow streams that would enable to reach industrial target. (Author)

  1. Effects of wall shear stress on unsteady MHD conjugate flow in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Ali, Farhad; Ulhaq, Sami; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an arbitrary wall shear stress on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Newtonian fluid with conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer. The fluid is considered in a porous medium over a vertical plate with ramped temperature. The influence of thermal radiation in the energy equations is also considered. The coupled partial differential equations governing the flow are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. Exact solutions for velocity and temperature in case of both ramped and constant wall temperature as well as for concentration are obtained. It is found that velocity solutions are more general and can produce a huge number of exact solutions correlative to various fluid motions. Graphical results are provided for various embedded flow parameters and discussed in details.

  2. An urban lysimeter to assess runoff losses on asphalt concrete plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramier, D.; Berthier, E.; Andrieu, H.

    Hydrological behaviour of roads concerns environmental issues, as pollution by rainwater runoff or urban heat island, and road safety issues. The few studies devoted to the subject concluded that runoff losses are non-negligible and poorly understood. The objective of the study is to better describe runoff losses over asphalt concrete plates of around 0.5 m 2 area. An urban lysimeter has been developed to measure by weighing the partition of rainfall on the plate: storage at the surface and in the pore of the plate, surface runoff, infiltration at the bottom of the plate and evaporation at the surface of the plate. Three plates have been tested outdoor during 5 months each. One of them is a porous asphalt concrete. Results show that runoff losses are significant. They represent 30% of the rain for the traditional plates and 84% of the rain for the porous plate. Losses are mainly due to infiltration (58%) and evaporation (25%) for the porous plate. For traditional plates, evaporation is similar to the one measured for the porous (25% of the rainfall), but infiltration at the bottom is negligible (3%).

  3. Comparison study between the effects of different terms contributing to viscous dissipation in saturated porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-02-01

    Some sort of controversy is associated with the problem of viscous dissipation in saturated porous media for which we try to present a comparison study between the influences of the different terms contributing to this phenomenon. We consider viscous dissipation by studying the case of semi-infinite flat plate embedded in saturated porous medium and is kept at constant, higher temperature compared with the surrounding fluid. The fluid is induced to move upwards by natural convection during which viscous dissipation is considered. The boundary layer assumptions are considered to simplify the treatment and to highlight the influencing parameters. The behavior of temperature, and velocity fields in the neighborhood of the vertical flat plate were used to highlight the effects of these parameters. Three terms were considered to contribute to viscous dissipation, namely Darcy\\'s term, the Forchheimer term and Al-Hadharami\\'s term. Although there are no unanimous agreements between researchers to include the Forchhemier term in the dissipation function, some researchers argued it might have an indirect effect and hence for this sake and for completion purposes, we include it in this comparison study. Dimensional considerations reveal that Darcy\\'s term is influenced by Gebhart number, the Forchheimer term is controlled by the non-Darcy parameter and Al-Hadharami\\'s term is influenced by Darcy\\'s number. The governing, non-dimensional set of equations together with the imposed boundary conditions is numerically investigated by finite element method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e., viscous dissipation) is very much influenced by the relative magnitude of these dimensionless parameters. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Unsteady hydromagnetic Couette flow within a porous channel with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unsteady hydromagnetic Couette flow of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid between two infinitely long parallel porous plates, taking Hall current into account, in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is studied. Fluid flow within the channel is induced due to impulsive movement of the lower ...

  5. A Study Of Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film Between Porous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts have been made to study and analyze the effect of surface roughness on the performance of magnetic fluid based squeeze film between porous elliptic plates. The transverse roughness of the bearing surface is characterized by a stochastic random variable with non-zero mean, variance and skewness.

  6. MHD oscillatory flow through a porous channel saturated with porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Falade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effect of suction/injection on the unsteady oscillatory flow through a vertical channel with non-uniform wall temperature. The fluid is subjected to a transverse magnetic field and the velocity slip at the lower plate is taken into consideration. Exact solutions of the dimensionless equations governing the fluid flow are obtained and the effects of the flow parameters on temperature, velocity profiles, skin friction and rate of heat transfer are discussed and shown graphically. It is interesting to note that skin friction increases on both channel plates as injection increases on the heated plate.

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO ... Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your food choices. Reset Plate Share Create Your ...

  8. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Growth Plate Fractures Page ( 1 ) The bones of children and adults share many of the same risks for ... also subject to a unique injury called a growth plate fracture. Growth plates are areas of cartilage ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your food choices. Reset Plate Share Create Your ... your protein. See this list of protein foods . Add a serving of fruit , a serving of dairy ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ... Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your ... down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have ...

  12. Spectroscopic and ultrastructural analysis of fluorhydroxyapatite-coated titanium plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, D.; Ottani, V.; Ruggeri, A. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Anatomiche e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore; Raspanti, M. [Insubria Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche; Monti, P.; Taddei, P.; Tinti, A.; Fragnano, C. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biochimica ' G. Moruzzi'

    2001-07-01

    This study aimed to describe the chemical, physical and morphological features of the surface of titanium plates coated with porous titanium and fluorhydroxyapatite for surgical implantation. Although the plasma flame spray coating process partially altered the original chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings, the surface morphology of the coated plates seems very favourable for bone integration of the implant. Immersion in simulated body fluid for ten weeks failed to disclose signs of implant dissolution or impaired surface composition. (orig.)

  13. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  14. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  15. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Al-Jassim, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    We have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that utilizes the very large surface areas, produced by porous silicon etch on both front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer, as gettering sites. In this method, a simple and low-cost chemical etching is used to generate the porous silicon layers. Then, a high-flux solar furnace (HFSF) is used to provide high-temperature annealing and the required injection of silicon interstitials. The gettering sites, along with the gettered impurities, can be easily removed at the end the process. The porous silicon removal process consists of oxidizing the porous silicon near the end the gettering process followed by sample immersion in HF acid. Each porous silicon gettering process removes up to about 10 {mu}m of wafer thickness. This gettering process can be repeated so that the desired purity level is obtained.

  16. Natural convection due to heating of small block in porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, N. J. Ahmed; Ameer Ahamad, N.; Yunus Khan, T. M.

    2017-08-01

    This article presents an attempt to understand the heat transfer behaviour due to heat supplied through a small block in the porous medium from its outside vertical and horizontal surfaces. The heat transfer in the porous medium is assumed to follow Darcy law. The right vertical surface of porous cavity is maintained at isothermal temperature Tc which is lesser than that of heat supplied by isothermal block. The governing equations are solved with the help of finite element method by using a 2-dimesnional triangular element. The results are discussed with respect to the Thermal conductivity ratio, Rayleigh number, Radiation parameter etc.

  17. Steady magnetohydrodynamic radiating flow past a vertical porous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximate solutions to the coupled non-linear equations governing the steady velocity, temperature, skin friction and rate of heat transfer are obtained invoking a perturbative series expansion in terms of the Eckert number Ec, since the Eckert, number Ec for all incompressible flows is small. We notice that the rate of heat ...

  18. Unsteady MHD convective flow within a parallel plate rotating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unsteady hydromagnetic convective flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting heat generating/absorbing fluid within a parallel plate rotating channel in a uniform porous medium under slip boundary conditions is investigated. Exact solution of the governing equations for fully developed flow is obtained in ...

  19. Current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Argus, D. F.; Stein, S.

    1990-05-01

    A global plate motion model, named NUVEL-1, which describes current plate motions between 12 rigid plates is described, with special attention given to the method, data, and assumptions used. Tectonic implications of the patterns that emerged from the results are discussed. It is shown that wide plate boundary zones can form not only within the continental lithosphere but also within the oceanic lithosphere; e.g., between the Indian and Australian plates and between the North American and South American plates. Results of the model also suggest small but significant diffuse deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, which may be confined to small awkwardly shaped salients of major plates.

  20. Accuracy of soil heat flux plate measurements in coarse substrates - Field measurements versus a laboratory test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, S.; Graf, A.; Heusinkveld, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    The in-situ performance of heat flux plates within coarse porous substrates might be limited due to poor contact between plate and substrate. We tested this behaviour with a simple laboratory set-up. Two test substrates were placed above a reference material of known thermal conductivity between a

  1. Acquired vertical accommodative vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Scharff, Ulrike; Kommerell, Guntram; Lagrèze, Wolf A

    2008-03-08

    Vertical accommodative vergence is an unusual synkinesis in which vertical vergence is modulated together with accommodation. It results from a supranuclear miswiring of the network normally conveying accommodative convergence. So far, it is unknown whether this condition is congenital or acquired. We identified an otherwise healthy girl who gradually developed vertical accommodative vergence between five to 13 years of age. Change of accommodation by 3 diopters induced a vertical vergence of 10 degrees. This observation proves that the miswiring responsible for vertical accommodative vergence must not necessarily be congenital, but can be acquired. The cause and the mechanism leading to vertical accommodative vergence are yet unknown.

  2. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  3. Stochastic porous media equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel; Röckner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on stochastic porous media equations, this book places an emphasis on existence theorems, asymptotic behavior and ergodic properties of the associated transition semigroup. Stochastic perturbations of the porous media equation have reviously been considered by physicists, but rigorous mathematical existence results have only recently been found. The porous media equation models a number of different physical phenomena, including the flow of an ideal gas and the diffusion of a compressible fluid through porous media, and also thermal propagation in plasma and plasma radiation. Another important application is to a model of the standard self-organized criticality process, called the "sand-pile model" or the "Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model". The book will be of interest to PhD students and researchers in mathematics, physics and biology.

  4. Fractured porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Pierre M; Mourzenko, Valeri V

    2013-01-01

    This monograph on fractures, fracture networks, and fractured porous media provides a systematic treatment of their geometrical and transport properties for students and professionals in geophysics, materials science, and Earth sciences.

  5. Squeeze film between porous rough elliptical plates | Deheri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The associated Reynolds' equation is solved with appropriate boundary conditions. Results for bearing performance characteristics such as load carrying capacity and response time for different values of mean, standard deviation and measure of symmetry are numerically computed and the same are presented graphically ...

  6. Vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, M

    2001-01-01

    Active stabilisation showed a relative locked linewidth of approx 3 kHz. Coarse tuning over 7 nm was achieved using a 3-plate birefingent filter plate while fine-tuning using cavity length change allowed tuning over 250 MHz. Vertical external cavity semiconductor lasers have emerged as an interesting technology based on current vertical cavity semiconductor laser knowledge. High power output into a single transverse mode has attracted companies requiring good fibre coupling for telecommunications systems. The structure comprises of a grown semiconductor Bragg reflector topped with a multiple quantum well gain region. This is then included in an external cavity. This device is then optically pumped to promote laser action. Theoretical modelling of AIGaAs based VECSEL structures was undertaken, showing the effect of device design on laser characteristics. A simple 3-mirror cavity was constructed to assess the static characteristics of the structure. Up to 153 mW of output power was achieved in a single transver...

  7. Radiative Fluid Flow Between Fixed Vertical Plates With Suction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiating MHD free convective slip flow with mass transfer and chemical reaction is presented. The governing particles are solved by perturbation method. The temperature, velocity and concentration profiles are presented graphically. The effects of magnetic, Prandtl, Schmidt, radiation, chemical, wave numbers are ...

  8. design, construction and evaluation of a vertical plate maize seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code equation as shown in (18). d. √ K. K. In (18), d is the diameter of the shaft, Mb is the bending moment, Mt is the torsional moment, Kb is the combined shock and fatigue factor applied to bending moment, Kt is the combined shock and fatigue factor applied to torsional moment ...

  9. Vertical nanowire architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfl-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires and statistics: A statistical process for reading ultradense arrays of nanostructured materials is presented (see image). The experimental realization is achieved through selective nanowire growth using porous alumina templates. The statistical patterning approach is found to provide ri...

  10. Combination cellulose plate (non-agar solid support) and agar plate method improves isolation of fungi from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kenichi; Todaka, Nemuri; Ōmura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro

    2014-11-01

    This is the first report describing the improved isolation of common filamentous fungi via a method combining cellulose plate and agar plate system. A cellulose plate is a porous plate made of nanofibrous crystaline cellulose. Isolating fungi from soils using these types of media separately resulted in the number of fungal colonies appearing on cellulose plates being lower than that on agar plates. However, the number of actual fungal species isolated using cellulose plates alone was more or less the same as that found using agar plates. Significantly, the diversity of isolates using a combination of the two media was greater than using each media individually. As a result, numerous new or rare fungal species with potential, including previously proposed new species, were isolated successfully in this way. All fungal colonies, including the Penicillium species, that appeared on the cellulose plate penetrated in potato dextrose were either white or yellow. Cultivation on cellulose plates with added copper ion overcomes the change in coloration, the colonies appearing as they do following cultivation on potato dextrose agar.

  11. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  12. Comparison of the mass transfer in totally porous and superficially porous stationary phases in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ibolya; Bacskay, Ivett; Kilár, Ferenc; Felinger, Attila

    2010-06-01

    The characterization of mass-transfer processes in a chromatographic column during a separation process is essential, since the influence of the mass-transfer kinetics on the shape of the chromatographic band profiles and on the efficiency of the separation is crucial. Several sources of mass transfer in a chromatographic bed have been identified and studied: the axial dispersion in the stream of mobile phase, the external mass-transfer resistance, intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics of adsorption-desorption. We measured and compared the characteristics and performance of a new brand of shell particles and those of a conventional brand of totally porous silica particles. The shell stationary phase was made of 2.7-microm superficially porous particles (a 1.7-microm solid core is covered with a 0.5-microm-thick shell of porous silica). The other material consisted of totally porous particles of conventional 3.5-microm commercial silica. We measured the first and second central moments of the peaks of human insulin over a wide range of mobile phase velocities (from 0.02 to 1.3 mL/min) at 20 degrees C. The plate height equations were constructed and the axial dispersion, external mass transfer, as well as the intraparticle diffusion coefficients were calculated for the two stationary phases.

  13. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries includes: Falling down. Competitive sports (like football). Recreational activities. Sometimes growth plate injuries happen when ... knee. For More Info U.S. Food and Drug Administration Toll free: 888-INFO-FDA (888-463-6332) ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations are endless! Ready to try it at home? Just follow ... non-starchy vegetables and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving ... Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for ...

  1. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  2. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy veggies ...

  4. Oxidative stability of high-oleic sunflower oil in a porous starch carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belingheri, Claudia; Giussani, Barbara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferrillo, Antonio; Vittadini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the oxidation level of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) plated onto porous starch as an alternative to spray drying. Encapsulated oils were subjected to accelerated oxidation by heat and light exposure, and peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured. Bulk oil was the control. PV increased in all samples with increased light exposure, with similar values being reached by oil carried on porous starch and spray dried oil. The encapsulation processes determined a reduced effect of light on the increase of CD in the oil, as compared to bulk oil. Spray dried oil presented the highest CD in the experimental domain considered. Since similar levels of PV and lower levels of CD were shown in the HOSO carried on porous starch compared to the spray dried HOSO, plating flavour oils on porous starch could be a suitable technological alternative to spray drying, for flavour encapsulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  6. Porous bioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai

    Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a network of smaller (<10 mum) interconnected pores. Dense layers can be removed and large pores exposed by abrasion or salt leaching techniques. Composite modulus was enhanced with the increase of glass content, due to the change in composition and pore content. The growth of bone-like apatite on and inside composites after soaking in SBF demonstrated their potential for integration with bone. Cell culture studies revealed that composite surfaces were suitable for attachment, spreading and proliferation of chondrocytes.

  7. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  8. Precision forming machine with rolling plate cross wedge rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Roller cross wedge rolling(CWR)machines have high rigidity, but sector dies are difficult to process. Plate CWR machines have low rigidity and need large floor space, but plate dies are easy to process. Neither roller CWR machine nor plate CWR machine can produce larger workpieces. Based on the above conclusions, this paper presents the mechanical principle of the precision forming machine with rolling plate CWR. Then, its design principle and machine construction are presented. There are a top press roller above the upper sliding plate and a bottom press roller under the lower sliding plate. The press rollers make rolling contact with the sliding plates. The plate dies are mounted on the upper and lower sliding plates, respectively. Furthermore, the axes of both press rollers and centerline of work-piece always keep in the identical vertical plane during forming process. These make the machine retain advantages of high rigidity for roller CWR machine and simpleness of manufacturing dies for plate CWR machine, and abandon defects of poor rigidity for plate CWR machine and difficulty of manufac-turing dies for roller CWR machine. Moreover, the machine can produce larger workpieces.

  9. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  10. Plume dynamics in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Jerome A.; Huppert, Herbert E.

    2008-11-01

    Buoyancy driven flows in layered porous media are present in many geological settings and play an important role in the mixing of fluids, from the dispersal of pollutants in underground aquifers to enhanced oil recovery techniques and, of more recent importance, the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Seismic images of the rise of a buoyant CO2 plume at Sleipner in the North Sea indicate that these plumes are greatly influenced by a vertical array of thin lenses of relatively low permeability material. We model propagation of CO2 at each layer as a gravity current in a porous medium which propagates along, and drains through, a thin, low permeability seal. Drainage, driven both by hydrostatic pressure and the body force on the draining fluid, leads to an initial rapid advance followed by a gradual retreat of the current to a steady-state. By incorporating a vertical array of these single layer models we are able to capture the rise of the buoyant plume in layered reservoirs. We find that the plume is characterized by a broad head with a tail given by the steady state extent.

  11. Luminescence of porous multicrystalline Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolic, K. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Borne, E. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Garcia Perez, M.A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Sibai, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Gauthier, R. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Laugier, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    1995-01-15

    The aim of this study was to explore the possible applications of porous SiGe material in photoluminescence and electroluminescence procedures. The SiGe alloy ingots were produced using the Polix method, Ge being doped with boron. The SiGe plates were etched by anodization. The porous structures were irradiated by the 514.5nm line of a continuous wave argon laser, showing visible luminescence around 0.75{mu}m. ((orig.))

  12. Experimental investigation on narrow gap heat transfer with porous media under downward-facing horizontal heated surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, B.X. [State Key laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an city 710049 (China); Su, G.H., E-mail: ghsu@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an city 710049 (China); Wu, Y.W. [State Key laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an city 710049 (China); Sugiyama, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Jo, Nishi 8 Chome, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Qiu, S.Z. [State Key laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an city 710049 (China)

    2009-12-15

    An experimental study of horizontal narrow gap heat transfer of porous media under a round downward-facing heated plate has been carried out, using water as the working fluid. The boiling curves are obtained with different gap size, plate diameter and solid spherules. The results show that the heat transfer increases significantly with porous media in the gap especially under boiling condition, and the occurrence of pool boiling crisis would be brought forward when the gap size is very small. The results also indicate that the heat transfer in horizontal narrow gap can be enhanced by increasing the ratio of gap size to plate diameter and using porous media with high thermal conductivity. Based on the mechanism of heat transfer of porous media, the correlations for natural convection and nucleate boiling are proposed to predict the heat flux.

  13. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail: agoikhman@ymail.com; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-09

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  14. Geologically current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

    2010-04-01

    We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also

  15. TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES MEDIANTE REACTORES ANAERÓBICOS DE PLACAS VERTICALES PARALELAS EN ACRÍLICO TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS POR REATORES ANAERÓBIOS DE PLACAS VERTICAIS PARALELAS EM ACRÍLICO WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ANAEROBIC REACTORS OF VERTICAL PARALLEL PLATES IN ACRYLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Chaux F

    2011-12-01

    % o tempo de detenção de 24 horas. A facilidade na operação do reactor torna viável como tratamento biológico anaeróbio de águas residuárias previamente decantadas.Some anaerobic filters with bed stone built in the department of Cauca (Colombia, are presenting problems of obstruction. If the stone is replaced by vertical parallel plates, it eliminates the problem of obstruction. This paper presents the development and results of a study performed in laboratory scale that evaluated the potential of anaerobic reactors of vertical parallel plates in acrylic to remove pollutants (organic matter and suspended solids.The anaerobic reactor of parallel plates in acrylic served as secondary treatment; was fed with wastewater effluent of an Imhoff Tank with average concentrations of 156 ± 14 mg/L B0D5, 438 ± 32 mg/L of COD and 98 ± 22 mg/L of total suspended solids. The reductions of COD and BOD in the reactor are over 50% and the reduction of suspended solids exceeded 60% for time of detention for 24 hours. The ease in operating the reactor makes it viable as anaerobic biological treatment of wastewater previously decanted.

  16. Free convective heat transfer with hall effects, heat absorption and chemical reaction over an accelerated moving plate in a rotating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S.M., E-mail: hussain.modassir@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, OP Jindal University, Raigarh 496109 (India); Jain, J., E-mail: jj.28481@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, OP Jindal University, Raigarh 496109 (India); Seth, G.S., E-mail: gsseth_ism@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Rashidi, M.M., E-mail: mm_rashidi@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management System, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2017-01-15

    The unsteady MHD free convective heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous and incompressible fluid over an accelerated moving vertical plate in the presence of heat absorption and chemical reaction with ramped temperature and ramped surface concentration through a porous medium in a rotating system is studied, taking Hall effects into account. The governing equations are solved analytically with the help of Laplace transform technique. The unified closed-form expressions are obtained for fluid velocity, fluid temperature, species concentration, skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers. The effects of various parameters on fluid velocity, fluid temperature and species concentration are discussed by graphs whereas numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented in tabular form for different values of pertinent flow parameters. The numerical results are also compared with free convective flow near ramped temperature plate with ramped surface concentration with the corresponding flow near isothermal plate with uniform surface concentration. - Highlights: • Magnetic field, Hall current, rotation and chemical reaction play vital role on flow field. • Hall current tends to accelerate secondary fluid velocity in the boundary layer region. • Rotation tends to retard primary fluid velocity throughout the boundary layer region. • Rotation and chemical reaction tend to enhance primary skin friction. • Solutal buoyancy force and permeability of medium reduce primary skin friction.

  17. Porous metal for orthopedics implants

    OpenAIRE

    Matassi, Fabrizio; Botti, Alessandra; Sirleo, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Porous metal has been introduced to obtain biological fixation and improve longevity of orthopedic implants. The new generation of porous metal has intriguing characteristics that allows bone healing and high osteointegration of the metallic implants. This article gives an overview about biomaterials properties of the contemporary class of highly porous metals and about the clinical use in orthopaedic surgery.

  18. FACADE SYSTEM MADE OF POROUS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed multi-component façade system is made of porous concretes employed both as bearing structures and for heat insulation and fireproofing purposes. The authors also provide their recommendations in respect of the mounting of the proposed façade system. The façade system considered in the article is composed of wall foam concrete blocks reinforced by basalt fibers (bearing elements of the structure, cellular concrete polystyrene (thermal insulation, and porous concrete (fireproofing and thermal insulation. Retained shuttering (in the fireproofing sections represents chrysolite cement sheets attached to the structures composed of glass-fiber plastic elements. The application of insulating porous concrete as a fireproofing material is based on the principle of adjustable stress-strained states of materials in the environment of variable pressure. This technology was developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, and it was initially designated for the manufacturing of tailor-made products. The above concrete is also designated for retained shuttering and modified cavity masonry walls. Porous concrete that expands inside the fireproofing cavity ensures a tight contact both with the basic material and thermal insulation plates. The use of materials of the same origin (Portland cement means the formation of strong transition zones connecting the system components in the course of its hardening and further operation. The results of the thermotechnical calculation demonstrate that the thermal resistance registered on the surface of the wall that is 3 meters high (that has a 0.4 m fireproofing cavity is equal to 3.98 sq. m. C/Wt. The value of the coefficient of thermotechnical heterogeneity (r is equal to 0.86 with account for the thickness and thermal conductivity of point and linear elements. If the thermotechnical heterogeneity is taken into consideration, the thermal resistance of the proposed wall is equal to 3.42 m2 С/Wt.

  19. Modulation power of porous materials and usage as ripple filter in particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Simeonov, Yuri; Witt, Matthias; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Kraft, Gerhard; Zink, Klemens; Weber, Uli

    2017-04-07

    Porous materials with microscopic structures like foam, sponges, lung tissues and lung substitute materials have particular characteristics, which differ from those of solid materials. Ion beams passing through porous materials show much stronger energy straggling than expected for non-porous solid materials of the same thickness. This effect depends on the microscopic fine structure, the density and the thickness of the porous material. The beam-modulating effect from a porous plate enlarges the Bragg peak, yielding similar benefits in irradiation time reduction as a ripple filter. A porous plate can additionally function as a range shifter, which since a higher energy can be selected for the same penetration depth in the body reduces the scattering at the beam line and therefore improves the lateral fall-off. Bragg curve measurements of ion beams passing through different porous materials have been performed in order to determine the beam modulation effect of each. A mathematical model describing the correlation between the mean material density, the porous pore structure size and the strength of the modulation has been developed and a new material parameter called 'modulation power' is defined as the square of the Gaussian sigma divided by the mean water-equivalent thickness of the porous absorber. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to validate the model and to investigate the Bragg peak enlargement, the scattering effects of porosity and the lateral beam width at the end of the beam range. The porosity is found to only influence the lateral scattering in a negligible way. As an example of a practical application, it is found that a 20 mm and 50 mm plate of Gammex LN300 performs similar to a 3 mm and 6 mm ripple filter, respectively, and at the same time can improve the sharpness of the lateral beam due to its multifunctionality as a ripple filter and a range shifter.

  20. Aerodynamic noise from rigid trailing edges with finite porous extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisil, A.; Ayton, L. J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the effects of finite flat porous extensions to semi-infinite impermeable flat plates in an attempt to control trailing-edge noise through bio-inspired adaptations. Specifically the problem of sound generated by a gust convecting in uniform mean steady flow scattering off the trailing edge and permeable-impermeable junction is considered. This setup supposes that any realistic trailing-edge adaptation to a blade would be sufficiently small so that the turbulent boundary layer encapsulates both the porous edge and the permeable-impermeable junction, and therefore the interaction of acoustics generated at these two discontinuous boundaries is important. The acoustic problem is tackled analytically through use of the Wiener-Hopf method. A two-dimensional matrix Wiener-Hopf problem arises due to the two interaction points (the trailing edge and the permeable-impermeable junction). This paper discusses a new iterative method for solving this matrix Wiener-Hopf equation which extends to further two-dimensional problems in particular those involving analytic terms that exponentially grow in the upper or lower half planes. This method is an extension of the commonly used "pole removal" technique and avoids the needs for full matrix factorisation. Convergence of this iterative method to an exact solution is shown to be particularly fast when terms neglected in the second step are formally smaller than all other terms retained. The final acoustic solution highlights the effects of the permeable-impermeable junction on the generated noise, in particular how this junction affects the far-field noise generated by high-frequency gusts by creating an interference to typical trailing-edge scattering. This effect results in partially porous plates predicting a lower noise reduction than fully porous plates when compared to fully impermeable plates.

  1. Electrokinetics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the PhD research on electrokinetics in porous media. Electrokinetic phenomena are induced by the relative motion between a fluid and a solid surface and are directly related to the existence of an electric double layer between the fluid and the solid grain surface.

  2. Validity of the One-Dimensional Limp Model for Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Doutres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward criterion for determining the validity ofthe limp model validity for porous materials is addressed here. The limp model is an “equivalent fluid” model which gives a better description of porous behavior than the well known “rigid frame” model. It is derived from the poroelastic Biot model, assuming that the frame has no bulk stiffness. A criterion is proposed for identifying the porous materials for which the limp model can be used. It relies on a new parameter, the Frame Stiffness Influence FSI, based on porous material properties. The critical values of FSI under which the limp model can be used are determined using 1D analytical modeling for a specific boundary set: radiation of a vibrating plate covered by a porous layer. 

  3. Conformal mapping technique for two-dimensional porous media and jet impingement heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.

    1974-01-01

    Transpiration cooling and liquid metals both provide highly effective heat transfer. Using Darcy's law in porous media and the inviscid approximation for liquid metals, the local fluid velocity in these flows equals the gradient of a potential. The energy equation and flow region are simplified when transformed into potential plane coordinates. In these coordinates, the present problems are reduced to heat conduction solutions which are mapped into the physical geometry. Results are obtained for a porous region with simultaneously prescribed surface temperature and heat flux, heat transfer in a two-dimensional porous bed, and heat transfer for two liquid metal slot jets impinging on a heated plate.

  4. Continuum-based 4D Plate Reconstructions: Linking Non-rigid Lithospheric Kinematics to Rigid Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, E. A.; Johnson, C. A.; Queffelec, T. A.; Nachtegaele, L.

    2010-12-01

    Non-rigid deformation in regions of continental extension and compression can lead to large lateral strain and changes in the shape and surface area of continental plates. This large lateral strain in turn leads to vertical strain in the lithosphere, which is a fundamental control on mechanical and thermal subsidence. Traditional plate reconstruction approaches only describe 2D changes in the shape of tectonic plates and do not include lateral strain gradients and vertical strain. Incorporating lateral and vertical strain into kinematic plate tectonic models is necessary for quantifying the past configuration of tectonic plates, modeling paleogeography and for linking subsidence and heat flow to lateral plate motion. Furthermore, traditional approaches are limited to describing processes at the surface of the Earth and cannot be used to investigate 3D slab kinematics. We build on previous work and overcome the limitations of traditional methods by developing an inverse non-rigid continuum-based plate reconstruction approach that links lateral plate tectonic motion to large-scale 4D deformation of continental plates and subducting slabs. We also describe how this approach can be implemented in open source 3D animation software that can be used to create extendable and easily maintained interactive tools. These tools allow the modeler to rapidly reconstruct deformation and map data and constrain plate models with 3D information. The methods presented in this work can improve paleogeographic reconstructions, help visualize complicated 4D deformation processes in a reconstructed framework, and constrain subsidence and lithospheric stretching, all of which are important for understanding thermal history and estimating heat flow in sedimentary basins.

  5. Comparison of pressure plate and force plate gait kinetics in sound Warmbloods at walk and trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, Maarten; Pille, Frederik; Huppes, Tsjester; Gasthuys, Frank; Back, Willem

    2010-12-01

    Modern pressure plates (PP) could be an alternative to traditional force plates (FP) for quantitative equine gait analysis, thereby providing the clinician with objective data on the horse's gait while unravelling the loading of different regions of the hoof during the stance phase. The aim of this study was to determine whether a stand-alone PP allows reliable measurement of gait kinetics, compared to simultaneously recorded FP variables. Six sound Warmblood horses were walked and trotted over a combined PP and FP system for collection of a set of five valid kinetic measurements for each forelimb. A measurement was considered valid if the horse was moving in a straight line at a constant pace while gait velocity was within a preset range and the hoof fully contacted the plate surface. Significant differences between FP and PP data were seen for peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI), time at which the PVF occurs (tPVF) and forelimb symmetry ratios (SymPVF and SymVI) (P 20%). The results indicate that a stand-alone pressure plate can be used to measure absolute (ST) and relative (tPVF) temporal variables and loading symmetry ratios and offers equine veterinarians a mobile, cost-efficient and quick gait evaluation method for routine clinical use. However, the system cannot be used interchangeably with a force plate to measure absolute values of limb loading. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water entry of a flat elastic plate at high horizontal speed

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard, M.; Korobkin, A. A.; Cooker, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of an elastic-plate impact onto an undisturbed surface of water of infinite depth is analysed. The plate is forced to move with a constant horizontal velocity component which is much larger than the vertical velocity component of penetration. The small angle of attack of the plate and its vertical velocity vary in time, and are determined as part of the solution, together with the elastic deflection of the plate and the hydrodynamic loads within the potential flow ...

  7. Heat and mass transfer in porous cavity: Assisting flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper, investigation of heat and mass transfer in a porous cavity is carried out. The governing partial differential equations are non-dimensionalised and solved using finite element method. The left vertical surface of the cavity is maintained at constant temperature and concentration which are higher than the ambient temperature and concentration applied at right vertical surface. The top and bottom walls of the cavity are adiabatic. Heat transfer is assumed to take place by natural convection and radiation. The investigation is carried out for assisting flow when buoyancy and gravity force act in same direction.

  8. Mass transport during lead-acid battery plate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazov, G.

    Mathematical equations for mass transport during the formation of the lead-acid battery positive and negative plates have been deduced. It has been shown that both the amount of material transferred between the reaction layer and the bulk of the electrolyte, and also the material flow direction depends on the paste composition and the formation current density. The zone within the plate, where the formation processes occur, is determined by the flow direction and by the maintenance of the electroneutrality of the solution. By measuring the potential of both the positive and the negative plates, with respect to a mercury reference electrode, it has been established that their polarization depends on the difficulties of mass transport through the porous structure of the plate.

  9. CAD-CAM plates versus conventional fixation plates for primary mandibular reconstruction: A biomechanical in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendenbach, Carsten; Sellenschloh, Kay; Gerbig, Lucca; Morlock, Michael M; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max; Huber, Gerd; Hanken, Henning

    2017-11-01

    CAD/CAM reconstruction plates have become a viable option for mandible reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine whether CAD/CAM plates provide higher fatigue strength compared with conventional fixation systems. 1.0 mm miniplates, 2.0 mm conventional locking plates (DePuy Synthes, Umkirch, Germany), and 2.0 mm CAD/CAM plates (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium/DePuy Synthes) were used to reconstruct a polyurethane mandible model (Synbone, Malans, CH) with cortical and cancellous bone equivalents. Mastication was simulated via cyclic dynamic testing using a universal testing machine (MTS, Bionix, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) until material failure reached a rate of 1 Hz with increasing loads on the left side. No significant difference was found between the groups until a load of 300 N. At higher loads, vertical displacement differed increasingly, with a poorer performance of miniplates (p = 0.04). Plate breakage occurred in miniplates and conventional locking plates. Screw breakage was recorded as the primary failure mechanism in CAD/CAM plates. Stiffness was significantly higher with the CAD/CAM plates (p = 0.04). CAD/CAM plates and reconstruction plates provide higher fatigue strength than miniplates, and stiffness is highest in CAD/CAM systems. All tested fixation methods seem sufficiently stable for mandible reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  11. Active chimney effect using heated porous layers: optimum heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiris, Abdelhak; Ameziani, Djamel-Edine; Rahli, Omar; Bouhadef, Khadija; Bennacer, Rachid

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present work is to treat numerically the problem of the steady mixed convection that occurs in a vertical cylinder, opened at both ends and filled with a succession of three fluid saturated porous elements, namely a partially porous duct. The flow conditions fit with the classical Darcy-Brinkman model allowing analysing the flow structure on the overall domain. The induced heat transfer, in terms of local and average Nusselt numbers, is discussed for various controlling parameters as the porous medium permeability, Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. The efficiency of the considered system is improved by the injection/suction on the porous matrices frontier. The undertaken numerical exploration particularly highlighted two possible types of flows, with and without fluid recirculation, which principally depend on the mixed convection regime. Thus, it is especially shown that recirculation zones appear in some domain areas under specific conditions, obvious by a negative central velocity and a prevalence of the natural convection effects, i.e., turnoff flow swirls. These latter are more accentuated in the areas close to the porous obstacles and for weak permeability. Furthermore, when fluid injection or suction is considered, the heat transfer increases under suction and reduces under injection. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  12. Vertical seismic prospecting system using super elastic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, T.; Horiba, N. [Nishimatsu Construction Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Yamauchi, K. [Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan); Hirata, A. [Kumamoto Inst. of Tech., Ikeda (Japan); Kaneko, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For tunneling, it is very important to understand the characteristic of the rock around the tunnel. A new method of rock property investigation by using a compact vertical seismic prospecting system is proposed. This system consists of a probe attached vibration sensor, computer and trigger system. A superelastic alloy plate is used to press the probe flexibly against borehole surface. (orig.)

  13. Convection in Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...

  14. Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the ... Help Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events ...

  16. mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Maize was milled either 'wet' or ''dry'' using locally-manufactured milling plates. Samples of milled maize were taken and analyzed for elemental iron (Fe). Results show that iron particles from milling plates contaminates the milled maize and that the level of contamination increases with the quantity of milled ...

  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday ... Foods donate en -- Limited Time MATCH Offer - limited- ...

  19. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  20. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaré, S.; Lazennec, J. Y.; Camelot, C.; Saillant, G.; Hansen, S.; Trabelsi, R.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual case of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation without medulla oblongata or spinal cord injury is reported. The pathogenic process suggested occipito-axial dislocation. The case was treated surgically with excellent results on mobility and pain.

  1. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  2. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  3. Composition of vertical gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Vertical gardens are fully functional gardens in areas where there is less oxygen and space, ideal for residential and urban cities where there is no vegetation; occupy a special place in interiors furniture. The gardens occupy an important aesthetic problem. Aesthetic task in vertical gardens can be achieved by forming sectors of identification in the urban landscape through the choice of a particular plant spatial composition and composition, to create comfort and representation in commu...

  4. Formation of vortex wakes at flow separation from plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.; Govorova, A. I.

    2017-05-01

    The plane nonlinear initial boundary value problem about the separated flow past a plate set in motion at a constant velocity from the state of rest has been considered. Results of a numerical experiment which have allowed us to trace in detail the vortex-wake formation process behind a vertical plate are reported. It is shown that, after the beginning of the plate motion, several stable vortical structures, including a Karman street, form in succession behind the plate. It is found that, on the emergence of the Karman street, there occurs a sharp and substantial growth of vortex-wake intensity and hydrodynamic drag force with a pulsating time behavior. A conclusion about the origination, in this regime, of self-sustained oscillations of the liquid in the vicinity of the plate is drawn.

  5. Mixed convection of a micropolar fluid in a vertical channel with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plate vertical channel has been investigated analytically. The plates exchange heat with an external fluid. Both conditions of equal and of different reference temperatures of the external fluid are considered. The effect of important parameters, namely vortex viscosity parameter, ratio of Grashof number to Reynolds number ...

  6. Electrochemical Device Comprising Composite Bipolar Plate and Method of Using the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Inventor); Braff, William A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical device and methods of using the same. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device may be used as a fuel cell and/or as an electrolyzer and includes a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), an anodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the anode of the MEA, a cathodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the cathode, a first bipolar plate in contact with the anodic gas diffusion medium, and a second bipolar plate in contact with the cathodic gas diffusion medium. Each of the bipolar plates includes an electrically-conductive, chemically-inert, non-porous, liquid-permeable, substantially gas-impermeable membrane in contact with its respective gas diffusion medium, as well as a fluid chamber and a non-porous an electrically-conductive plate.

  7. Splitter plate as a flow-altering pier scour countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaple, Shivakumar; Hanmaiahgari, Prashanth Reddy; Gaudio, Roberto; Dey, Subhasish

    2017-10-01

    Results of an experimental study on the countermeasure of scour depth at circular piers are presented. Experiments were conducted for pier scour with and without a splitter plate under a steady, uniform clear-water flow condition. The results of pier scour without splitter plate were used as a reference. Different combinations of lengths and thicknesses of splitter plates were tested attaching each of them to a pier at the upstream vertical plane of symmetry. Two different median sediment sizes ( d 50 = 0.96 and 1.8 mm) were considered as bed sediment. The experimental results show that the scour depth consistently decreases with an increase in splitter plate length, while the scour depth remains independent of splitter plate thickness. In addition, temporal evolution of scour depth at piers with and without a splitter plate is observed. The best combination is found to be with a splitter plate thickness of b/5 and a length of 2 b. Here, b denotes the pier diameter. An empirical formula for the estimation of equilibrium scour depth at piers with splitter plates is obtained from a multiple linear regression analysis of the experimental data. The flow fields for various combinations of circular piers with and without splitter plate including plain bed and equilibrium scour conditions were measured by using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The turbulent flow fields for various configurations are investigated by plotting the velocity vectors and the turbulent kinetic energy contours on vertical and horizontal planes. The splitter plate attached to the pier deflects the approach flow and thus weakens the strength of the downflow and the horseshoe vortex, being instrumental in reducing the equilibrium scour depth at piers. The proposed method of pier scour countermeasure is easy to install and cost effective as well.

  8. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  9. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  10. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  11. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  12. Impacts into porous asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, Kevin R.; Sweet, William J.; Holsapple, Keith A.

    2018-01-01

    Many small bodies in the solar system have bulk density well below the solid density of the constituent mineral grains in their meteorite counterparts. Those low-density bodies undoubtedly have significant porosity, which is a key factor that affects the formation of impact craters. This paper summarizes the results of lab experiments in which materials with porosity ranging from 43% to 96% were impacted at ∼1800 m/s. The experiments were performed on a geotechnical centrifuge, in order to reproduce the lithostatic overburden stress and ejecta ballistics that occur in large-scale cratering events on asteroids or planetary satellites. Experiments performed at various accelerations, up to 514G, simulate the outcomes of impacts at size scales up to several tens of km in diameter. Our experiments show that an impact into a highly porous cohesionless material generates a large ovoid-shaped cavity, due to crushing by the outgoing shock. The cavity opens up to form a transient crater that grows until the material flow is arrested by gravity. The cavity then collapses to form the final crater. During collapse, finely crushed material that lines the cavity wall is carried down and collected in a localized region below the final crater floor. At large simulated sizes (high accelerations), most of the crater volume is formed by compaction, because growth of the transient crater is quickly arrested. Nearly all ejected material falls back into the crater, leaving the crater without an ejecta blanket. We find that such compaction cratering and suppression of the ejecta blankets occur for large craters on porous bodies when the ratio of the lithostatic stress at one crater depth to the crush strength of the target exceeds ∼0.005. The results are used to identify small solar system bodies on which compaction cratering likely occurs. A model is developed that gives the crater size and ejecta mass that would result for a specified impact into a porous object.

  13. Highly Refractory Porous Ceramics,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-14

    also highly refractory porous materials based on co- rundum and magnesite were released in a limited amount.(1,6). The technology of manufacturing...there is an effect of slags and 4and other molten substances ( glasses , metals, etc.), under conditions where there is an effect of gas flows at high...slags, metal, glass , ashes, etc. (Table 53). Table 53 Ta6.,Hua 53 A Upeue~mbuas TenepaTypa npNveneas aA$MocANAEnaTNX n AunacoMux aerolecubM

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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  16. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths Common Terms Research Resources ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy- ...

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the ...

  19. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the largest ... home, the office, or somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last ...

  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... and Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion ... dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For cooking, use ...

  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ...

  4. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ... Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice Resources Ways ...

  7. Formulae to describe porous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gent, M.R.A.

    1992-01-01

    For the description of porous flow the Forchheimer equation is normally used. Several formulae have been proposed for the coefficients Cl and c2 from this equation. All these formulae are based on experiments. Those coefficients represent the friction and resistance caused by the porous medium. The

  8. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Information on pore geometry is very important in any study of the mechanical and physical behavior of porous materials. Unfortunately pores are not very accessible for direct measurements. Indirect methods have to be used which involve impregnation (sorption) experiments from which...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  9. Aerosol dynamics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazaryan, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, a computational model was developed for the simulation of aerosol formation through nucleation, followed by condensation and evaporation and filtration by porous material. Understanding aerosol dynamics in porous media can help improving engineering models that are used in various

  10. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  11. Study of the deposition process of vinpocetine on the surface of porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Lenshin

    Full Text Available Currently the most prospective way in pharmacotherapy is the obtaining of nanoparticles involving pharmaceutical substances. Application of porous inorganic materials on the basis of silicon is among the main features in solving of this problem. The present work is concerned with the problem of the deposition of pharmaceutical drug with nootropic activity – vinpocetine – into porous silicon. Silicon nanoparticles were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching of Si plates. The process of vinpocetine deposition was studied in dependence of the deposition time. As a result of the investigations it was found that infrared transmission spectra of porous silicon with the deposited vinpocetine revealed the absorption bands characteristic of vinpocetine substance. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Porous silicon, Vinpocetine

  12. A new mode of clinical failure of porous tantalum rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Kwang-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of osteonecrosis of the head of femur affected by the disease process varies from a small localized lesion to a global lesion. Without specific treatment 80% of the clinically diagnosed cases will progress, and most will eventually require arthroplasty. Therefore the goal is to diagnose and treat the condition in the earliest stage. A number of surgical procedures have been described to retard or prevent progression of the disease and to preserve the femoral head. An implant made of porous tantalum has been developed to function as a structural graft to provide mechanical support to the subchondral plate of the necrotic femoral head, and possibly allow bone growth into the avascular region. Porous tantalum implant failure with associated radiological progression of the disease is reported in the literature; however, there is no report of clinical failure of the implant without radiological progression of the disease. We report a case of clinical failure of porous tantalum implant, seven months after surgery without any radiological progression of the disease, and with histopathological evidence of new bone formation around the porous tantalum implant. The patient was succesfully treated by total hip arthroplasty.

  13. The kinetics of ice-lens growth in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2012-01-09

    Abstract We analyse the growth rate of segregated ice (ice lenses) in freezing porous media. For typical colloidal materials such as soils we show that the commonly employed Clapeyron equation is not valid macroscopically at the interface between the ice lens and the surrounding porous medium owing to the viscous dynamics of flow in premelted films. The flow in these films gives rise to an \\'interfacial resistance\\' to flow towards the growing ice which causes a significant drop in predicted ice-growth (heave) rates. This explains why many previous models predict ice-growth rates that are much larger than those seen in experiments. We derive an explicit formula for the ice-growth rate in a given porous medium, and show that this only depends on temperature and on the external pressures imposed on the freezing system. This growth-rate formula contains a material-specific function which can be calculated (with knowledge of the geometry and material of the porous medium), but which is also readily experimentally measurable. We apply the formula to plate-like particles, and show that the results can be matched with previous experimental data. Finally we show how the interfacial resistance explains the observation that the maximum heave rate in soils occurs in medium-grained particles such as silts, while heave rates are smaller for fine-and coarse-grained particles. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  14. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-24

    Jan 24, 2002 ... crustacean zooplankton but also in a Wide array of different marine zooplankton groups. (Russell 1927, McLaren 1963). Thus there is no doubt that ..... cooperation during field work and for their fruitful discussion on the draft manuscript. REFERENCES. Bayly lAE 1986 Aspects of diel vertical migration in ...

  15. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra...... this strategic behavior, yields better market performance than Cournot beliefs...

  16. Hunting Voronoi vertices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrucci, V.; Overmars, Mark; Rao, A.; Vleugels, J.

    1994-01-01

    Given three objects in the plane, a Voronoi vertex is a point that is equidistant simultaneously from each. In this paper, we consider the problem of computing Voronoi vertices for planar objects of xed but possibly unknown shape; we only require the ability to query the closest point on an object

  17. Vertical shaft windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  18. The effect of Coriolis force on nonlinear convection in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Riahi

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear convection in a porous medium and rotating about vertical axis is studied in this paper. An upper bound to the heat flux is calculated by the method initiated first by Howard [6] for the case of infinite Prandtl number.

  19. Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a vertical wavy channel containing porous and fluid layer with traveling thermal waves. ... Results for a wide range of governing parameters such as Grashof number, viscosity ratio, width ratio, conductivity ratio, and traveling thermal temperature are plotted for different values of ...

  20. The mathematical model of vertical solt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Yevhrashkina,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamics of porous media offer a range of mathematical models of vertical salt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass. designed several variants of dumps free overgrowth for the optimal performance for transpiration of wild plants.

  1. Printed two-dimensional micro-zone plates for chemical analysis and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Junfei; Li, Xu; Shen, Wei

    2011-09-07

    In this study we report a new concept of printing low-cost two-dimensional micro-zone plates for chemical and biochemical assays and ELISA. It is different from the concept of forming multi-zone micro-zones on paper by hydrophobic barriers first reported by Yagoda. Instead, the desired multi-zone micro-zone pattern was first printed using a UV-curable varnish onto a polymer film; then fine powders of cellulose or other materials were applied onto the uncured varnish, allowing the powder to stick to the varnish layer. After UV-curing, the powder particles were fixed by the cured varnish, leading to the formation of porous, water absorbing micro-zones on the polymer film. This type of micro-zone plate has the required liquid handling capacity for a variety of low-volume and portable two-dimensional plates for chemical, biochemical assays and ELISA. By suitably spacing porous micro-zones on a non-porous substrate, this type of plate eliminates inter-zone sample leaking. Rapid colorimetric analysis of the results can be performed using a portable battery-powered colour densitometer or a desktop scanner. By introducing a refractive-index-matching liquid into the micro-zones, the plate can be easily analyzed using transmission instruments. A major advantage of this plate fabrication method is that it enables the printing of different powders or functionalized powders to form micro-zones on a same plate, potentially allowing certain more difficult functionalization of materials to be performed before printing. We demonstrate the assaying performance of the plates using an analytical system that aims to clarify the analytical interference between NO(2)(-) and uric acid (UA) in the analysis of samples where both chemical species are present. We also show that ELISA assays can be performed using this type of plates.

  2. Vertical gastroplasty: evolution of vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E E; Doherty, C; Cullen, J J; Scott, D; Rodriguez, E M; Maher, J W

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize the goals, technical requirements, advantages, and potential risks of gastroplasty for treatment of severe obesity. Gastroplasty is preferred to more complex operations, as it preserves normal digestion and absorption and avoids complications that are peculiar to exclusion operations. The medical literature and a 30-year experience at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) provides an overview of vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) evolution. Preliminary 10-year results with the VBG technique currently used at UIHC are included. At UIHC the VBG is preferred to other gastroplasties because it provides weight control that extends for at least 10 years and the required objective, intraoperative quality control required for a low rate of reoperation. It is recommended that modifications of the operative technique not be attempted until a surgeon has had experience with the standardized operation--and then only under a carefully designed protocol. Realistic goals for surgery and criteria of success influence the choice of operation and the optimum, lifelong risk/benefit ratio. In conclusion, VBG is a safe, long-term effective operation for severe obesity with advantages over complex operations and more restrictive simple operations.

  3. Effect of Ligament Morphology on Electrical Conductivity of Porous Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuruzi, Abu Samah; Mazulianawati, Majid Siti

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the effect of ligament morphology on electrical conductivity of open cell porous silver (Ag). Porous Ag was formed when silver nanoparticles in an organic phase were annealed at 150°C for durations ranging from 1 to 5 min. Electrical conductivity of porous Ag was about 20% of bulk value after 5 min annealing. Porous Ag was modeled as a collection of Kelvin cell (truncated octahedrons) structures comprised of conjoined conical ligaments and spherical vertices. An analytical expression for electrical conductivity was obtained. Electrical conductivity normal to hexagonal faces of the unit cell was computed. Our model indicates contribution of grain boundary to electrical resistance increases significantly after the first minute of annealing and plateaus thereafter. Using experimental electrical conductivity data as an input, the model suggests that the ratio, n, of surfaces of one half of a conjoined cone ligament is between 0.7 and 1.0. Average deviation from experimentally determined relative electrical conductivity, Δ σ r, was minimal when n = 0.9.

  4. Peculiarities of unusual electret state in porous zeolite microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyatova, U.; Orbukh, V. I.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Lebedeva, N. N.; Agamaliev, Z. A.; Koçum, I. C.; Ozer, M.; Salamov, B. G.

    2017-11-01

    This study explores, for the first time to our knowledge, the influence of electret state on the dielectric parameters of porous zeolite of frequencies up to 106 Hz, at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure. The I-V characteristics with unusual hysteresis loop in the wide pressure range were measured on zeolite plates having three different material characteristics: A) plate, cut out from a monoblock natural zeolite; B) plate, modified by silver ions, and C) plate containing silver nanoparticles. Zeolite samples were exposed to an electric field (Ep = 2 kV cm-1) in an air atmosphere for 240 min. It is established, that the stability of electret state and value of the dielectric response ε‧ and ε″ for clinoptilolite Ag nanoparticles containing plates changed under influence of DC electric field. During some time the dielectric response is restored and observed unique phenomenon indicates on the electret behavior of clinoptilolite samples. These changes are observed within a few days consequently, there is long-term dynamics of the dielectric response changes. This interpretation is based on the assumption that due influence of the dc electric field part of the silver atoms in nanoparticles decays into ions and electrons.

  5. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  6. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fanuel@students.itb.ac.id; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: prijatna@gd.itb.ac.id; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: irwan.meilano@gd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  7. Convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A

    1992-01-01

    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches

  8. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization....... The distribution of the material in the unit cell is optimized according to a given objective (e.g. maximum bulk modulus or minimum Poisson’s ratio) and some given constraints (e.g. isotropy) using topology optimization. The manufacturability is achieved using various filtering techniques together...

  9. Filtration in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...... to understand their effects on the non-Fickian transport and the non-exponential deposition. The filtration models are validated by the comparisons between the modelling results and the experimental data.The elliptic equation with distributed filtration coefficients may be applied to model non-Fickian transport...... and hyperexponential deposition. The filtration model accounting for the migration of surface associated particles may be applied for non-monotonic deposition....

  10. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  11. Modeling plate shell structures using pyFormex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Verhegghe, Benedict; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    A shell structure made of glass combines a light-weight structural concept with glass’ high permeability to light. If the geometry of the structure is plane-based facetted (plate shell structure), the glass elements will be plane panes, and these glass panes will comprise the primary load......-bearing structure. A plate shell structure is contrary to a triangulated facetted shell structure, where the shell action is concentrated in the edges and vertices of the geometry, thereby resulting in the need for a triangulated lattice structure outlining the edges of the geometry. These two structural principles...... (plate shells and triangulated lattice shells) may not differ in complexity regarding the topology, but when it comes to the practical generation of the geometry, e.g. in CAD, the plate shell is far more troublesome to handle than the triangulated geometry. The free software tool “pyFormex”, developed...

  12. Porous media geometry and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The goal of ""Porous Media: Geometry and Transports"" is to provide the basis of a rational and modern approach to porous media. This book emphasizes several geometrical structures (spatially periodic, fractal, and random to reconstructed) and the three major single-phase transports (diffusion, convection, and Taylor dispersion).""Porous Media"" serves various purposes. For students it introduces basic information on structure and transports. Engineers will find this book useful as a readily accessible assemblage of al the major experimental results pertaining to single-phase tr

  13. Effects of Foam Rolling on Vertical Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foam rolling is a popular activity utilized by strength and conditioning coaches as it is believed to increase muscle length and break up fibrous adhesions located in connective tissue. However, there is little research investigating the effects of foam rolling on athletic performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lower body foam rolling on vertical jump performance. Methods: Twenty males (age 24.05 ± 2.02 years; height 177.43 ± 6.31 cm; mass 81.41 ± 8.76 kg volunteered to participate. Subjects completed three days of testing, separated by at least twenty-four hours. Day one consisted of baseline vertical jumps on a force plate, followed by familiarization with foam rolling and control protocols. Subjects returned on days two and three and performed 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling or mimicked foam rolling movements on a skateboard followed by vertical jumps on a force plate. The highest jump from each day was used for statistical analyses. Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant differences in Jump height, impulse, relative ground reaction force, or take-off velocity between conditions. Conclusion: 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling do not improve vertical jump performance. Keywords: Dynamic Warm-Up, Foam Rolling, Vertical Jump

  14. Biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of porous tantalum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Hui; LI, QIJIA; Ye, Lei; Gan, Hongquan; Liu, Yingjie; Wang, Hui; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Porous tantalum has been reported to be a promising material for use in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, the biocompatibility and osteogenic properties of porous tantalum were studied in vitro and in vivo. The morphology of porous tantalum was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts were cultured with porous tantalum, and cell morphology, adhesion and proliferation were investigated using optical microscopy and SEM. In addition, porous tantalum rods were i...

  15. Spirit Near 'Stapledon' on Sol 1802 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera for the images assembled into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,802nd Martian day, or sol, (January 26, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. North is at the top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. Spirit had driven down off the low plateau called 'Home Plate' on Sol 1782 (January 6, 2009) after spending 12 months on a north-facing slope on the northern edge of Home Plate. The position on the slope (at about the 9-o'clock position in this view) tilted Spirit's solar panels toward the sun, enabling the rover to generate enough electricity to survive its third Martian winter. Tracks at about the 11-o'clock position of this panorama can be seen leading back to that 'Winter Haven 3' site from the Sol 1802 position about 10 meters (33 feet) away. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about one meter (40 inches). Where the receding tracks bend to the left, a circular pattern resulted from Spirit turning in place at a soil target informally named 'Stapledon' after William Olaf Stapledon, a British philosopher and science-fiction author who lived from 1886 to 1950. Scientists on the rover team suspected that the soil in that area might have a high concentration of silica, resembling a high-silica soil patch discovered east of Home Plate in 2007. Bright material visible in the track furthest to the right was examined with Spirit's alpha partical X-ray spectrometer and found, indeed, to be rich in silica. The team laid plans to drive Spirit from this Sol 1802 location back up onto Home Plate, then southward for the rover's summer field season.

  16. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-08-19

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  17. Transport phenomena in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ingham, Derek B

    1998-01-01

    Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...

  18. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ... your year-end donation today and help fight diabetes. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a ... glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Donations Travel bookings completed through Hotels.com give 5% back to the Association. » « Connect With Us Register ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy ... Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

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  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

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  9. Thermal conductivity of porous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braginsky, L.; Shklover, V.; Witz, G.; Bossmann, H.-P.

    2007-03-01

    Thermal conductivity of porous media is considered. The model permits regular power-series expansion of the expression for thermal conductivity as a function of porosity. The coefficients of the expansion depend on two-site correlation function of local thermal conductivities, which can be calculated from the microscopy image of the structure. Thermal conductivities of some model two-dimensional structures as well as a real porous yttria-stabilized zirconia film are calculated and discussed.

  10. Polymerization and photochromism of ammonium molybdate in porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, V. N.; Borisov, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    Modification of porous glass (PG) plates is carried out by impregnation with aqueous solutions of ammonium molybdate (NH4)2MoO4 with subsequent removal of water at 120°C. A long-wavelength shift of absorption spectra upon accumulation of the salt in PG indicates polymerization of MoO 4 2- anions at low concentrations of the encapsulated salt. Photochromism manifests itself as the anionic forms in PG become larger. UV irradiation of the modified plates causes enhancement of continuous absorption in the visible range. The proposed mechanism of photoreduction of the polianions in PG involves the removal of oxygen atoms from the bridging-Mo-O-Mo-bonds and stabilization of the colored forms by means of conjugation of the electrons released from the 4 d-levels of pentavalent molybdenum.

  11. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vertically Integrated Rheology of Deforming Oceanic Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J. K.; Gordon, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    vertically integrated rheology of oceanic lithosphere determined from laboratory experiments and that the best-fitting power-law exponent for the vertically integrated rheology is insensitive to strain rate. We also find that, except for very young lithosphere (law exponent is insensitive to the age of the lithosphere, with the value of the exponent being between 14 and 16 when failing for thrust faulting for the flow laws of Kohlstedt et al [1995] and between 15 and 19 for more recently published flow laws. These results support the application of thin viscous sheet models to diffuse oceanic plate boundaries, such as the ones accommodating motion between the India, Capricorn, and Australia plates in the Indian Ocean.

  13. Epeirogeny and plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Vertical motions of the earth crust and their causes are considered in relation to epeirogenic phenomena. Factors discussed include: external loading and unloading; bending at subduction zones; internal density changes; and dynamic effects of mantle motion. The relationship between epeirogeny and drift is briefly reviewed along with oceanic epeirogeny.

  14. FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF THIN CIRCULAR SANDWICH PLATES DEFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kurachka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a thin circular sandwich plate being under the vertical load is proposed. The model employs the finite element method and takes advantage of an axisymmetric finite element that leads to the small dimension of the resulting stiffness matrix and sufficient accuracy for practical calculations. The analytical expressions for computing local stiffness matrices are found, which can significantly speed up the process of forming the global stiffness matrix and increase the accuracy of calculations. A software is under development and verification. The discrepancy between the results of the mathematical model and those of analytical formulas for homogeneous thin circularsandwich plates does not exceed 7%.

  15. GPS, su datum vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de la metodología GPS en aplicaciones topográficas y geodésicas pone en notoria evidencia la clásica separación de sistemas de referencia en horizontal y vertical. Con GPS el posicionamiento es tridimensional, pero el concepto de altura difiere del clásico. Si se desea utilizar la información altimétrica debe contemplarse la ondulación del geoide.

  16. Properties of magnetic nickel/porous-silicon composite powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Nakamura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic and photoluminescence (PL properties of nickel/porous-silicon (Ni/PSi composite powders are investigated. Ni/PSi composite powders are prepared by stain etching of Si powder in a HF/HNO3 solution followed by electroless plating of Ni nanoparticles on the stain-etched PSi powder in a NiCl2 solution. The Ni/PSi powders exhibit hydrophillicity, superparamagnetism caused by the deposited Ni nanoparticles, and orange-red PL owing to the nanostructured PSi surface. The degree of magnetization decreases with increasing Ni plating time, indicating its dependence on the size of the Ni nanoparticles. The Ni/PSi composite powders also show a stronger magnetization as compared to that of the Ni-particle-plated Si powder. The stronger magnetization results from the larger surface area of PSi. The PL intensity, peak wavelength, and lifetime of Ni/PSi are strongly dependent on the NiCl2 concentration. This dependence is due to the different thickness of the oxide overlayer on the PSi surface formed during the Ni plating process. The existence of the oxide overlayer also results in a small change in the PL intensity against excitation time.

  17. Inelastic buckling of plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, G.

    This paper concerns the inelastic stability of a thin plate under in-plane loading. In Love-Kirchhoffs approximation, using Hencky's relations and the Von Mises criterion, yield the particular stress distribution across the plate thickness for elastic and elastic-plastic prestress fields. The principle of virtual work is used to study the equilibrium of the bifurcated solution. This leads to the energy relations where explicit dependence between the stability equation coefficients and the solution is carried out. In the equilibrium equation, two nonquadratic additional terms are obtained which are neglected in the classical equation. Some applications are made using Ramberg-Osgood's formula to show the importance of the additional terms.

  18. Vertical repositioning accuracy of magnetic mounting systems on 4 articulator models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonsup; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2017-07-06

    Research of the ability of a cast mounted on an articulator on maintaining the identical position of a cast mounted on an articulator after repeated repositioning is lacking, despite the possible effects this may have on the occlusion of a mounted cast. The purpose of this in vitro study was to verify and compare the vertical repositioning accuracy of 4 different, commercially available articulator magnetic mounting plate systems. Four articulators and their associated magnetic mounting plates were selected for the study. These were the Artex AR articulator (Amann Girrbach AG), the Denar Mark II articulator (Whip Mix Corp), the Kavo Protar Evo articulator (Kavo Dental GmbH), and the SAM3 articulator (SAM Präzisionstechnik GmbH). Three new magnetic mounting plates were prepared for each articulator system. The repositioning accuracy of each mounting plate was evaluated by comparing the standard deviation of the vertical distances measured between the mounting plate and a laser displacement sensor. The lower arm of the articulator was secured, and the vertical distance was measured by positioning the laser displacement sensor positioned vertically above the mounting plate. Once the vertical distance was measured, the mounting plate was detached from the articulator and reattached manually to prepare for the next measurement. This procedure was repeated 30 times for each of the 3 magnetic mounting plates. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for 2-stage nested design and the Levene test (α=.05). Significant differences were detected among articulator systems and between magnetic mounting plates of the same type. The standard deviations of the measurements made with the Artex AR articulator, Denar Mark II articulator, Kavo Protar Evo articulator, and SAM3 articulator were 0.0027, 0.0308, 0.0214, and 0.0215 mm, respectively. Thus, the repositioning accuracy could be ranked in the order as follows: Artex AR, Kavo Protar Evo, SAM3, and Denar Mark II. The position of the

  19. Measurement of the Vertical Distribution of Reflected Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Aoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a devicefor measuring the vertical distribution of the reflected radiation to the inside of a room from terrace to building.The proposed device is attached to aluminum plates that are painted matte black at intervals of 20 cm on polystyrene insulation. The surface temperature of the aluminum plate, called the SAT (sol-air temperature, is used as an indicator of the quantity of solar radiation. In order to compare terrace materials, two of the measuring devices were located facing south.Concrete tile, artificial turf, and wood chips were selected as materials to be comparedfor the surface of the terrace and were laid in front of the measuring devices. The results indicate that the SAT reflected onto a vertical plane was higher closer to the ground for all materials. Hourly fluctuations of the vertical distribution of the reflected solar radiation differed, depending on the terrace surface material. When concrete tiles of different thicknesses were compared, the temporal heating patterns varied due to differences in heat capacity. These results lead us to the conclusion that using the developed measuringdevice enables grasping the effect of vertical distribution of reflected solar radiation from a terrace.

  20. Observing tectonic plate motions and deformations from satellite laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Klosko, S. M.; Torrence, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The scope of geodesy has been greatly affected by the advent of artificial near-earth satellites. The present paper provides a description of the results obtained from the reduction of data collected with the aid of satellite laser ranging. It is pointed out that dynamic reduction of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data provides very precise positions in three dimensions for the laser tracking network. The vertical components of the stations, through the tracking geometry provided by the global network and the accurate knowledge of orbital dynamics, are uniquely related to the center of mass of the earth. Attention is given to the observations, the methodologies for reducing satellite observations to estimate station positions, Lageos-observed tectonic plate motions, an improved temporal resolution of SLR plate motions, and the SLR vertical datum.

  1. The Influence of Uniform Suction/Injection on Heat Transfer of MHD Hiemenz Flow in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghsemi, E; Soleimani, S; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    The steady two-dimensional laminar forced magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) Hiemenz flow against a flat plate with variable wall temperature in a porous medium is analyzed. The transformed nonlinear boundary-layer equations are solved analytically by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Results for the veloc...

  2. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    composition, and it is truly commonplace in today’s communication with the diversity of VPNs and secure browser sessions. In fact, it is normal that we have several layers of secure channels: For instance, on top of a VPN-connection, a browser may establish another secure channel (possibly with a different...... end point). Even using the same protocol several times in such a stack of channels is not unusual: An application may very well establish another TLS channel over an established one. We call this selfcomposition. In fact, there is nothing that tells us that all these compositions are sound, i.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  3. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index......, an index of refraction of the second low-index layer or air being less than 2; and a thickness of the cap layer and a thickness of the grating layer, and a pitch and a duty cycle of the grating structure are selected to obtain a resonance having a free-space resonance wavelength in the interval 300 nm to 3...... microns, the cap layer comprises an active region configured to generate or absorb photons at the free-space resonance wavelength by stimulated emission or absorption when a sufficient forward or reverse bias voltage is applied across the active region, a thickness of the first low-index layer is less...

  4. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  5. Pore-fluid effects on seismic waves in vertically fractured earth with orthotropic symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-05-15

    For elastically noninteracting vertical-fracture sets at arbitrary orientation angles to each other, a detailed model is presented in which the resulting anisotropic fractured medium generally has orthorhombic symmetry overall. Some of the analysis methods and ideas of Schoenberg are emphasized, together with their connections to other similarly motivated and conceptually related methods by Sayers and Kachanov, among others. Examples show how parallel vertical-fracture sets having HTI (horizontal transversely isotropic) symmetry transform into orthotropic fractured media if some subsets of the vertical fractures are misaligned with the others, and then the fractured system can have VTI (vertical transversely isotropic) symmetry if all of the fractures are aligned randomly or half parallel and half perpendicular to a given vertical plane. An orthotropic example having vertical fractures in an otherwise VTI earth system (studied previously by Schoenberg and Helbig) is compared with the other examples treated and it is finally shown how fluids in the fractures affect the orthotropic poroelastic system response to seismic waves. The key result is that fracture-influence parameters are multiplied by a factor of (1-B), where 0 {le} B < 1 is Skempton's second coefficient for poroelastic media. Skempton's B coefficient is itself a measurable characteristic of fluid-saturated porous rocks, depending on porosity, solid moduli, and the pore-fluid bulk modulus. For heterogeneous porous media, connections between the present work and earlier related results of Brown and Korringa are also established.

  6. Cavity enhanced immunoassay measurements in microtiter plates using BBCEAS

    OpenAIRE

    Bajuszova, Z; Ali, Z; Scott, SM; Seetohul, LN; Islam, M

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first detailed use of broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) as a detection system for immunoassay. A vertical R ≥ 0.99 optical cavity was integrated with a motorised XY stage, which functioned as a receptacle for 96 well microtiter plates. The custom built cavity enhanced microplate reader was used to make measurements on a commercially available osteocalcin sandwich ELISA kit. A 30 fold increase in path length was obtained with a minimum detectable chang...

  7. Lexan Linear Shaped Charge Holder with Magnets and Backing Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Matthew W.; Dutton, Maureen L.; Hacker, Scott C.; Dean, Richard J.; Kidd, Nicholas; Long, Chris; Hicks, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed for cutting a fabric structural member in an inflatable module, without damaging the internal structure of the module, using linear shaped charge. Lexan and magnets are used in a charge holder to precisely position the linear shaped charge over the desired cut area. Two types of charge holders have been designed, each with its own backing plate. One holder cuts fabric straps in the vertical configuration, and the other charge holder cuts fabric straps in the horizontal configuration.

  8. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  9. Particle retention in porous media: Applications to water injectivity decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennberg, Kjell Erik

    1998-12-31

    This thesis studies the problem of migration and deposition of colloidal particles within porous media, theoretically and by computerized simulation. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of injectivity decline in water injection wells due to inherent particles in the injection water. The study of particle deposition within porous media requires a correct prediction of the deposition rate or filtration coefficient. A thorough review of the modeling approaches used in the past are combined with new ideas in order to arrive at an improved model for the prediction of the filtration coefficient. A new way of determining the transition time for the dominant deposition mechanism to change from internal deposition to external cake formation is proposed. From this fundamental theory, equations are given for water injectivity decline predictions. A computer program called WID for water injectivity decline predictions was developed. Using water quality, formation properties, injection rate/pressure and completion information as input, WID predicts decline in vertical and horizontal injection wells with openhole, perforated and fractured completions. The calculations agree fairly well with field data; in some cases the agreement is excellent. A poor match in a few cases indicates that more mechanisms may be responsible for injectivity decline than those presently accounted for by the simulator. The second part of the study deals with a theoretical investigation of the multi-dimensional nature of particle deposition in porous media. 112 refs., 100 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Validity and reliability of Optojump photoelectric cells for estimating vertical jump height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Julia F; Gouge, Sylvain; Nussbaumer, Silvio; Stauffacher, Simone; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2011-02-01

    Vertical jump is one of the most prevalent acts performed in several sport activities. It is therefore important to ensure that the measurements of vertical jump height made as a part of research or athlete support work have adequate validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent validity and reliability of the Optojump photocell system (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) with force plate measurements for estimating vertical jump height. Twenty subjects were asked to perform maximal squat jumps and countermovement jumps, and flight time-derived jump heights obtained by the force plate were compared with those provided by Optojump, to examine its concurrent (criterion-related) validity (study 1). Twenty other subjects completed the same jump series on 2 different occasions (separated by 1 week), and jump heights of session 1 were compared with session 2, to investigate test-retest reliability of the Optojump system (study 2). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for validity were very high (0.997-0.998), even if a systematic difference was consistently observed between force plate and Optojump (-1.06 cm; p height. We propose the following equation that allows force plate and Optojump results to be used interchangeably: force plate jump height (cm) = 1.02 × Optojump jump height + 0.29. In conclusion, the use of Optojump photoelectric cells is legitimate for field-based assessments of vertical jump height.

  11. Growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed in malic acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-11-01

    The growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed on aluminum by anodizing in malic acid solutions was investigated. High-purity aluminum plates were electropolished in CH3COOH/HClO4 solutions and then anodized in 0.5 M malic acid solutions at 293 K and constant cell voltages of 200-350 V. The anodic porous alumina grew on the aluminum substrate at voltages of 200-250 V, and a black, burned oxide film was formed at higher voltages. The nanopores of the anodic oxide were only formed at grain boundaries of the aluminum substrate during the initial stage of anodizing, and then the growth region extended to the entire aluminum surface as the anodizing time increased. The anodic porous alumina with several defects was formed by anodizing in malic acid solution at 250 V, and oxide cells were approximately 300-800 nm in diameter.

  12. Vertical allometry: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold

    2014-04-01

    In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  14. Calculating mass transfer from vertical wet fabrics using a free convection heat transfer correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Ercan, E.; Pourdeyhimi, B. [North Carolina State University, Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2006-07-15

    In this note, the evaporation rate from a vertical wet fabric sheet is calculated using a free convection heat transfer correlation. Chilton-Colburn analogy is used to derive a mass transfer correlation from a heat transfer correlation proposed by Churchill and Chu for free convection from a vertical isothermal plate. The mass transfer rate obtained from this expression has shown excellent agreement with experimental data. (orig.)

  15. Improving carbon tolerance of Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane by palladium addition for low temperature steam methane reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Won, Jong Min; Kim, Geo Jong; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sung Su; Hong, Sung Chang

    2017-10-01

    Palladium was added on the Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane by wet impregnation and electroless plating methods. Its surface morphology characteristics and carbon deposition properties for the low temperature steam methane reforming were investigated. The addition of palladium could obviously be enhanced the catalytic activity as well as carbon tolerance of the Ni-YSZ porous membrane. The porous membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), CH4 temperature-programmed reduction (CH4-TPR), and O2 temperature-programmed oxidation (O2-TPO). It was found that the Pd-Ni-YSZ catalytic porous membrane showed the superior stability as well as the deposition of carbon on the surface during carbon dissociation adsorption at 650 °C was also suppressed.

  16. Impact of Fe powder sintering and soldering in production of porous heating surface on flow boiling heat transfer in minichannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depczyński Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on identification of the impact of porous heated surface on flow boiling heat transfer in a rectangular minichannel. The heated element for Fluorinert FC-72 was a thin plate made of Haynes-230. Infrared thermography was used to determine changes in the temperature on its outer smooth side. The porous surface in contact with the fluid in the minichannel was produced in two processes: sintering or soldering of Fe powder to the plate. The results were presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the distance from the minichannel inlet and as boiling curves. Results obtained for using a smooth heated plate at the saturated boiling region were also presented to compare. In the subcooled boiling region, at a higher heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient was slightly higher for the surface prepared via soldering. In the saturated boiling region, the local heat transfer coefficients obtained for the smooth plate surface were slightly higher than those achieved from the sintered plate surface. The porous structures formed have low thermal conductivity. This may induce noticeable thermal resistance at the diffusion bridges of the sintered structures, in particular within the saturated boiling region.

  17. Impact of Fe powder sintering and soldering in production of porous heating surface on flow boiling heat transfer in minichannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depczyński, Wojciech; Piasecki, Artur; Piasecka, Magdalena; Strąk, Kinga

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on identification of the impact of porous heated surface on flow boiling heat transfer in a rectangular minichannel. The heated element for Fluorinert FC-72 was a thin plate made of Haynes-230. Infrared thermography was used to determine changes in the temperature on its outer smooth side. The porous surface in contact with the fluid in the minichannel was produced in two processes: sintering or soldering of Fe powder to the plate. The results were presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the distance from the minichannel inlet and as boiling curves. Results obtained for using a smooth heated plate at the saturated boiling region were also presented to compare. In the subcooled boiling region, at a higher heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient was slightly higher for the surface prepared via soldering. In the saturated boiling region, the local heat transfer coefficients obtained for the smooth plate surface were slightly higher than those achieved from the sintered plate surface. The porous structures formed have low thermal conductivity. This may induce noticeable thermal resistance at the diffusion bridges of the sintered structures, in particular within the saturated boiling region.

  18. Plate tectonics and sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yasuji

    1988-05-20

    The theory of continental drift which German meteorologist, Wegener had proposed was denied by the experts at that time and disappeared from the academy. However, scholars of UK measured palaeomagnetism at several parts of the world in 1950's and from this standpoint, the continental drift theory revived. Furthermore, the conditions of the ocean beds started to be discovered due to the development of oceanographic observations in 1950's and in the end of 1960's, the principle of plate tectonics was firmly established changing totally and dramatically then conventional solid earth science based upon the substantially immovable continents and ocean floors. Consequently, the geology up to that time was obliged to be reexamined in its entire fields. This article provides the general information on the above history up to the present time, states about where the sedimentary basins which formed strata do occupy its positions on the earth, and explains the concrete relationship between the geological facts which have been revealed and plate tectonics. (16 figs, 49 refs)

  19. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the p...... and the properties of lime mortar....

  20. Ultimate Porous Material - silica aerogel -

    OpenAIRE

    片桐, 成人; 安達, 信泰; 太田, 敏孝

    2014-01-01

    Aerogel is an ultra-porous material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with air. Usually, it is prepared by a supercritical drying using carbon dioxide. In this review, we introduce how to make silica aerogel as the most typical aerogel.

  1. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364172320; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087198622; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of

  2. Effect of the Wavy permeable Interface on Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Partially Porous Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mehdaoui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional, double diffusion, natural convection in a partially porous cavity satured with a binary fluid is investigated numerically. Multiple motions are driven by the external temperature and concentration differences imposed across vertical walls. The wavy interface between fluid and porous layer is horizontal. The equations which describe the fluid flow and heat and mass transfer are described by the Navier-Stokes equations (fluid region, Darcy-Brinkman equation (porous region and energy and mass equations. The finite element method was applied to solve the governing equations. The fluid flow and heat and mass transfer has been investigated for different values of the amplitude and the wave number of the interface and the buoyancy ratio. The results obtained in the form of isotherms, stream lines, isoconcentrations and the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers; show that the wavy interface has a significant effect on the flow and heat and mass transfer.

  3. Protected Vertices in Motzkin trees

    OpenAIRE

    Van Duzer, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we find recurrence relations for the asymptotic probability a vertex is $k$ protected in all Motzkin trees. We use a similar technique to calculate the probabilities for balanced vertices of rank $k$. From this we calculate upper and lower bounds for the probability a vertex is balanced and upper and lower bounds for the expected rank of balanced vertices.

  4. The influence of retention on the plate height in ion-exchange chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    The plate heights for the amino acid tyrosine (anion exchange) and the polypeptide aprotinin (cation exchange) were determined on a porous media (Resource 15) and a get filled media (HyperD 20) at salt concentrations ranging from weak to strong retention. At a constant velocity, measurements showed....... In this article, the rate of mass transfer in the particles is described by three different rate mechanisms, pore diffusion, solid diffusion, and parallel diffusion. The van Deemter equation was used to model the data to determine the mass-transfer properties. The development of the plate height with increasing...... retention revealed a characteristic behavior for each rate mechanism. In the pore diffusion model, the plate height increased toward a constant value at strong retention, while the plate height in the solid diffusion model decreased, approaching a constant value at strong retention. In the parallel...

  5. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  6. Mechanical properties of regular porous biomaterials made from truncated cube repeating unit cells: Analytical solutions and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled fabrication of open-cell porous biomaterials based on repeating unit cells. The micro-architecture of the porous biomaterials and, thus, their physical properties could then be precisely controlled. Due to their many favorable properties, porous biomaterials manufactured using AM are considered as promising candidates for bone substitution as well as for several other applications in orthopedic surgery. The mechanical properties of such porous structures including static and fatigue properties are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of the repeating unit cell based on which the porous biomaterial is built. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively new unit cell, namely truncated cube. We present analytical solutions that relate the dimensions of the repeating unit cell to the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, and buckling load of those porous structures. We also performed finite element modeling to predict the mechanical properties of the porous structures. The analytical solution and computational results were found to be in agreement with each other. The mechanical properties estimated using both the analytical and computational techniques were somewhat higher than the experimental data reported in one of our recent studies on selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V porous biomaterials. In addition to porosity, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the porous structures were found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the length of the inclined struts to that of the uninclined (i.e. vertical or horizontal) struts, α, in the truncated cube unit cell. The geometry of the truncated cube unit cell approaches the octahedral and cube unit cells when α respectively approaches zero and infinity. Consistent with those geometrical observations, the analytical solutions presented in this study approached those of the octahedral and cube unit cells when

  7. Fabrication and surface passivation of porous 6H-SiC by atomic layer deposited films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    Porous 6H-SiC samples with different thicknesses were fabricated through anodic etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron microscope images show that the dendritic pore formation in 6HSiC is anisotropic, which has different lateral and vertical formation rates. Strong photoluminesce......Porous 6H-SiC samples with different thicknesses were fabricated through anodic etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron microscope images show that the dendritic pore formation in 6HSiC is anisotropic, which has different lateral and vertical formation rates. Strong...... above the 6H-SiC crystal band gap, which suggests that the strong photoluminescence is ascribed to surface state produced during the anodic etching....

  8. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    cyanide waste products are generated during all stages of the cadmium plating lifecycle . The cadmium plating process generates spent plating bath and...X Check caustic line and PVC circulation piping for leaks X Verify pH at laboratory X Measure conductivity X Replace rinse...tank, which is then routed to the rinse tank. At the rinse tank, the chemical will be injected via appropriate fittings into to a PVC pipe loop which

  9. Flexible plate and foundation modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the most common mathematical model for a moving load on a continuously- supported flexible plate, the plate is assumed thin and elastic. An exception is the inclusion of viscoelasticity in the theory for the response of a floating ice plate, where the deflexion at the critical load speed corresponding to the minimum phase speed of hybrid flexural-gravity waves consequently approaches a steady state. This is in contrast to the elastic theory, where the response is predi...

  10. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...... of nail row, edge distance, fixed nail-plate, bending direction, unloading, and grain direction, plate and load direction on the load-displacement curves are analysed. Mean load-displacement curves from all the tests are given....

  11. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  12. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

  13. Porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric smart material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Wang, Yan; Zu, Jean W.

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates by using both analytical and numerical methods. The FGPM plates contain porosities owing to the technical issues during the preparation of FGPMs. Two types of porosity distribution, namely, even and uneven distribution, are considered. A modified power law model is adopted to describe the material properties of the porous FGPM plates. Using D’Alembert’s principle, the out-of-plane equation of motion is derived by taking into account the Kármán nonlinear geometrical relations. After that, the Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion, resulting in a set of ordinary differential equations with respect to time. These ordinary differential equations are solved analytically by employing the harmonic balance method. The approximate analytical results are verified by using the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. By means of the perturbation technique, the stability of approximate analytical solutions is examined. An interesting nonlinear broadband vibration phenomenon is detected in the FGPM plates with porosities. Nonlinear frequency-response characteristics of the present smart structures are investigated for various system parameters including the porosity type, the porosity volume fraction, the electric potential, the external excitation, the damping and the constituent volume fraction. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the nonlinear vibration characteristics of porous FGPM plates.

  14. Vertical Jump Height Estimation Algorithm based on Vertical Acceleration Profile Characteristics via Foot-Worn Inertial Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianren; Xu, Junkai; Shull, Peter B

    2017-12-13

    Vertical jump height is widely used for assessing motor development, functional ability, and motor capacity. Traditional methods for estimating vertical jump height rely on force plates or optical marker-based motion capture systems limiting assessment to people with access to specialized laboratories. This paper presents a novel algorithm for estimating vertical jump height based on foot-worn inertial sensors. Twenty healthy subjects performed countermovement jumping trials and maximum jump height was determined via inertial sensors located above the toe and under the heel and was compared with the gold standard maximum jump height estimation via optical marker-based motion capture. Vertical jump height estimation with the presented algorithm via inertial sensing showed excellent reliability at the toe (ICC_(2,1)=0.98) and heel (ICC_(2,1)=0.97). There was no significant bias in the inertial sensing at the toe, but proportional bias (b=1.22) and fixed bias (a=-10.23 cm) were detected in inertial sensing at the heel. Average vertical jump height estimation errors from inertial sensing at the toe and heel were -2.2±2.1 cm and -0.4±3.8 cm, respectively. These results indicate that the presented algorithm could be applied to foot-worn inertial sensors to estimate maximum jump height enabling assessment outside of traditional laboratory settings, and to avoid bias errors, the toe may be a more suitable location for inertial sensor placement than the heel.

  15. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

  16. [Biomechanic study on length of plate in treatment of tibial shaft fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinji; Yang, Shuhua; Xiao, Deming; Lin, Bowen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhongshi; Zhao, Weidong; Zhang, Meichao

    2008-11-01

    To research the biomechanical effect of different length bone plates on treatment of tibial shaft fracture. Forty-five tibia specimens from fresh adult corpse (20-40 years old) were donated (30-38 cm in length, 34 cm on average) and were divided into 3 groups randomly (n = 15). Under the following three conditions, the experiment was made separately. Compression stress-strain indexes of whole tibia were determined under the reverse, three spots curving and compression. The vertical elastic strain was 0-1 000 N, the reverse angle was 0-3 degrees, and three bending stress was 0-400 N. Then the center-section squint non-damage bone fracture model was made, fracture was fixed by 6, 10, 14 stainless steel AO LC-DCP, respectively. The compression stress-strain indexes were determined under reverse angle, three spots curving and compression, statistical analysis was done. The vertical direction strain value of 6, 10 and 14 hole steel plate under vertical compressions, was 0.449 +/- 0.241, 0.093 +/- 0.003, 0.139 +/- 0.005, respectively; showing significant difference between 10 and 14 hole steel plates and 6 steel plate (P 0.05). The lateral strain value of 6, 10 and 14 hole steel plate was 0.120 0 +/- 0.000 4, 0.127 5 +/- 0.010 0, 0.237 0 +/- 0.000 6 respectively, indicating a significant difference between stell plates of 6 and 10 hole and 14 hole steel plate (P 0.05). The torque of 6, 10 and 14 hole steel plate was (5.066 +/- 2.715) x 10(-3), (5.671 +/- 2.527) x 10(-3) and (4.570 +/- 2.228) x 10(-3) Nm, respectively and three spot curving vertical direction strain value was 0.049 +/- 0.009, 0.124 +/- 0.017, 0.062 +/- 0.009, respectively. There were significant differences between various steel plates (P < 0.01). For the fixation of tibial oblique fracture, 14 hole steel plate's stabilities of anti-vertical compression, anti-reverse and anti-curving are better than those of 6 hole steel plate under the condition of the same material quality, thickness, width and screw

  17. Sound absorption of porous substrates covered by foliage: experimental results and numerical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Khan, Amir

    2013-12-01

    The influence of loose plant leaves on the acoustic absorption of a porous substrate is experimentally and numerically studied. Such systems are typical in vegetative walls, where the substrate has strong acoustical absorbing properties. Both experiments in an impedance tube and theoretical predictions show that when a leaf is placed in front of such a porous substrate, its absorption characteristics markedly change (for normal incident sound). Typically, there is an unaffected change in the low frequency absorption coefficient (below 250 Hz), an increase in the middle frequency absorption coefficient (500-2000 Hz) and a decrease in the absorption at higher frequencies. The influence of leaves becomes most pronounced when the substrate has a low mass density. A combination of the Biot's elastic frame porous model, viscous damping in the leaf boundary layers and plate vibration theory is implemented via a finite-difference time-domain model, which is able to predict accurately the absorption spectrum of a leaf above a porous substrate system. The change in the absorption spectrum caused by the leaf vibration can be modeled reasonably well assuming the leaf and porous substrate properties are uniform.

  18. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  19. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  20. Application of PLT (Production Loggin Tool) surveys to select a vertical grid refinement in gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Pablo Julian [Petrosynergy Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNISIM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo. Pesquisa em Simulacao e Gerenciamento de Reservatorios

    2012-07-01

    Most of the time, the fluid segregation in porous media between gas and water makes water breakthrough reach a well structurally from the bottom, even when coning effect is present. In this paper we describe a real case of a gas reservoir when water breakthrough reach the vertical well from the middle of the perforation, above gas phase. We also expose how to upgrade the geological model to represent the high permeability channels in the numerical simulation model. (author)

  1. Controlled Synthesis and Functionalization of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-07

    lithium -ion batteries" Adv. Mater. 26, 7317–7323, 2014. 14. N. P. Wickramaratne, J. Xu, M. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Dai, M. Jaroniec. "Nitrogen enriched porous...6 1.6 Lithium -Ion Batteries Based on Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrodes and Ionic...Cl, Br, or I) Prepared by Ball-Milling and Used as Anode Materials for Lithium -Ion Batteries……………....................23 3.4 Well-Defined Two

  2. NATURAL TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF A PRESTRESSED ORTHOTROPIC PLATE-STRIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a new outlook at the boundary-value problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous pre-stressed orthotropic plate-stripe. In the paper, the motion equation represents a new approximate hyperbolic equation (rather than a parabolic equation used in the majority of papers covering the same problem describing the vibration of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe. The proposed research is based on newly derived boundary conditions describing the pin-edge, rigid, and elastic (vertical types of fixing, as well as the boundary conditions applicable to the unfixed edge of the plate. The paper contemplates the application of the Laplace transformation and a non-standard representation of a homogeneous differential equation with fixed factors. The article proposes a detailed representation of the problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe if rigidly fixed at opposite sides; besides, the article also provides frequency equations (no conclusions describing the plate characterized by the following boundary conditions: rigid fixing at one side and pin-edge fixing at the opposite side; pin-edge fixing at one side and free (unfixed other side; rigid fixing at one side and elastic fixing at the other side. The results described in the article may be helpful if applied in the construction sector whenever flat structural elements are considered. Moreover, specialists in solid mechanics and theory of elasticity may benefit from the ideas proposed in the article.

  3. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2015-04-09

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  4. Flexural waves on narrow plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andrew N

    2003-05-01

    Flexural wave speeds on beams or plates depend upon the bending stiffnesses which differ by the well-known factor (1 - nu2). A quantitative analysis of a plate of finite lateral width displays the plate-to-beam transition, and permits asymptotic analysis that shows the leading order dependence on the width. Orthotropic plates are analyzed using both the Kirchhoff and Kirchhoff-Rayleigh theories, and isotropic plates are considered for Mindlin's theory with and without rotational inertia. A frequency-dependent Young's modulus for beams or strips of finite width is suggested, although the form of the correction to the modulus is not unique and depends on the theory used. The sign of the correction for the Kirchhoff theory is opposite to that for the Mindlin theory. These results indicate that the different plate and beam theories can produce quite distinct behavior. This divergence in predictions is further illustrated by comparison of the speeds for antisymmetric flexural, or torsional, modes on narrow plates. The four classical theories predict limiting wave speeds as the plate width vanishes, but the values are different in each case. The deviations can be understood in terms of torsional waves and how each theory succeeds, or fails, in approximating the effect of torsion. Dispersion equations are also derived, some for the first time, for the flexural edge wave in each of the four "engineering" theories.

  5. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  6. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  7. The State of GPS Vertical Positioning Precision : Separation of Earth Processes by Space Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Observed signals in GPS data are the sum of noise and real crustal motions. Interpretation of the data depends on our ability to extract a signal of interest from the total signal. This workshop will highlight the difficulties associated with extracting a signal such as post-glacial rebound, plate tectonics or loading, from vertical geodetic data.

  8. Modified Vertical Bearing Capacity for Circular Foundations in Sand Using Reduced Friction Angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim André

    2012-01-01

    of a circular plate, several loading tests on small scale bucket foundations including the circular surface footings are performed at Aalborg University. In current research, the vertical bearing capacity of circular surface footings is investigated using reduced friction angle. It is also presented a linear...... relation between relative density and the reduced friction angle with reasonable accuracy....

  9. Finite Difference Study of MHD Stokes Problem for a Vertical Infinite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The explicit finite difference method is employed to study the effects of both the Hall and ionslip currents on a free convective flow of a viscous heat generating rotating fluid past an impulsively started infinite vertical plate, to which a strong magnetic field is applied perpendicularly. The velocity (both primary and secondary) ...

  10. Increase in Jumping Height Associated with Maximal Effort Vertical Depth Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, John F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    In order to assess if there existed a statistically significant increase in jumping performance when dropping from different heights, 32 males, aged 19 to 26, performed a series of maximal effort vertical jumps after dropping from eight heights onto a force plate. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

  11. Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-05-11

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating

  12. Wave trapping by dual porous barriers near a wall in the presence of bottom undulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaligatla, R. B.; Manisha; Sahoo, T.

    2017-09-01

    Trapping of oblique surface gravity waves by dual porous barriers near a wall is studied in the presence of step type varying bottom bed that is connected on both sides by water of uniform depths. The porous barriers are assumed to be fixed at a certain distance in front of a vertical rigid wall. Using linear water wave theory and Darcy's law for flow past porous structure, the physical problem is converted into a boundary value problem. Using eigenfunction expansion in the uniform bottom bed region and modified mild-slope equation in the varying bottom bed region, the mathematical problem is handled for solution. Moreover, certain jump conditions are used to account for mass conservation at slope discontinuities in the bottom bed profile. To understand the effect of dual porous barriers in creating tranquility zone and minimum load on the sea wall, reflection coefficient, wave forces acting on the barrier and the wall, and surface wave elevation are computed and analyzed for different values of depth ratio, porous-effect parameter, incident wave angle, gap between the barriers and wall and slope length of undulated bottom. The study reveals that with moderate porosity and suitable gap between barriers and sea wall, using dual barriers an effective wave trapping system can be developed which will exert less wave force on the barriers and the rigid wall. The proposed wave trapping system is likely to be of immense help for protecting various facilities/ infrastructures in coastal environment.

  13. Engineered porous metals for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsi Krishna, B.; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2008-05-01

    Interest is significant in patient-specific implants with the possibility of guided tissue regeneration, particularly for load-bearing implants. For such implants to succeed, novel design approaches and fabrication technologies that can achieve balanced mechanical and functional performance in the implants are necessary. This article is focused on porous load-bearing implants with tailored micro-as well as macrostructures using laser-engineered net shaping (LENS™), a solid freeform fabrication or rapid prototyping technique that can be used to manufacture patient-specific implants. This review provides an insight into LENS, some properties of porous metals, and the potential applications of this process to fabricate unitized structures which can eliminate longstanding challenges in load-bearing implants to increase their in-vivo lifetime, such as in a total hip prosthesis.

  14. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...... to the theoretical research on non-destructive testing of such materials relating strength to stiffness and pore geometry.It is demonstrated that solutions for stiffness, tensile strength, and pore strength (damaging pore pressure, frost, fire) for some ideal porous materials can be determined theoretically only...... from knowing about pore geometry, solid phase stiffness, and zero-porosity strength. Pore geometry is the very important common denominator which controls both both stiffness and strength.The accurate results obtained are finally used to suggest generalizations with respect to strength in general...

  15. Gas transport in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Clifford K

    2006-01-01

    This book presents a compilation of state-of-the art studies on gas and vapor transport processes in porous and fractured media. A broad set of models and processes are presented, including advection/diffusion, the Dusty Gas Model, enhanced vapor diffusion, phase change, coupled processes, solid/vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering. Numerous applications are also presented that illustrate these processes and models in current problems facing the scientific community. This book fills a gap in the general area of transport in porous and fractured media; an area that has historically been dominated by studies of liquid-phase flow and transport. This book identifies gas and vapor transport processes that may be important or dominant in various applications, and it exploits recent advances in computational modeling and experimental methods to present studies that distinguish the relative importance of various mechanisms of transport in complex media.

  16. Scattering characteristics from porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabet-Dariani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet.   In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.

  17. Transport phenomena in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Jacob; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz

    The Advanced Study Institute on Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, held July 14-23, 1985 in Newark, Del. and directed by Jacob Bear (Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa) and M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York), under the auspices of NATO, was a sequel to the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) held in 1982 (proceedings published as Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, J. Bear, and M.Y. Corapcioglu (Ed.), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1984). The meeting was attended by 106 participants and lecturers from 21 countries.As in the first NATO/ASI, the objective of this meeting—which was a combination of a conference of experts and a teaching institute— was to present and discuss selected topics of transport in porous media. In selecting topics and lecturers, an attempt was made to bridge the gap that sometimes exists between research and practice. An effort was also made to demonstrate the unified approach to the transport of mass of a fluid phase, components of a fluid phase, momentum, and heat in a porous medium domain. The void space may be occupied by a single fluid phase or by a number of such phases; each fluid may constitute a multicomponent system; the solid matrix may be deformable; and the whole process of transport in the system may take place under nonisothermal conditions, with or without phase changes. Such phenomena are encountered in a variety of disciplines, e.g., petroleum engineering, civil engineering (in connection with groundwater flow and contamination), soil mechanics, and chemical engineering. One of the goals of the 1985 NATO/ASI, as in the 1982 institute, was to bring together experts from all these disciplines and enhance communication among them.

  18. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  19. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  20. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  1. Porous squeeze-film flow

    KAUST Repository

    Knox, D. J.

    2013-11-14

    © 2013 © The authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved. The squeeze-film flow of a thin layer of Newtonian fluid filling the gap between a flat impermeable surface moving under a prescribed constant load and a flat thin porous bed coating a stationary flat impermeable surface is considered. Unlike in the classical case of an impermeable bed, in which an infinite time is required for the two surfaces to touch, for a porous bed contact occurs in a finite contact time. Using a lubrication approximation, an implicit expression for the fluid layer thickness and an explicit expression for the contact time are obtained and analysed. In addition, the fluid particle paths are calculated, and the penetration depths of fluid particles into the porous bed are determined. In particular, the behaviour in the asymptotic limit of small permeability, in which the contact time is large but finite, is investigated. Finally, the results are interpreted in the context of lubrication in the human knee joint, and some conclusions are drawn about the contact time of the cartilage-coated femoral condyles and tibial plateau and the penetration of nutrients into the cartilage.

  2. Exact Solutions of Rayleigh-Stokes Problem for Heated Generalized Maxwell Fluid in a Porous Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfeng Xue

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rayleigh-Stokes problem for a generalized Maxwell fluid in a porous half-space with a heated flat plate is investigated. For the description of such a viscoelastic fluid, a fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model is used. By using the Fourier sine transform and the fractional Laplace transform, exact solutions of the velocity and the temperature are obtained. Some classical results can be regarded as particular cases of our results, such as the classical solutions of the first problem of Stokes for Newtonian viscous fluids, Maxwell fluids, and Maxwell fluids in a porous half-space.

  3. Backward integration, forward integration, and vertical foreclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    I show that partial vertical integration may either alleviates or exacerbate the concern for vertical foreclosure relative to full vertical integration and I examine its implications for consumer welfare.

  4. Impact of the overriding plate rheology on convergence zone dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertgen, Solenn; Yamato, Philippe; Guillaume, Benjamin; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    this study, we therefore focus on the influence of the overriding plate rheology on the convergence zones dynamics. For this, we use both 2D and 3D thermo-mechanical numerical models, in which the rheological properties of both the lithosphere and the crust of the overriding plate are tested vertically but also laterally. This complementary approach allows us to test the effects of numerous parameters controlling the rheological structure (i.e., nature of the material, thickness, convergence velocity, initial thermal structure) on the convergence zone dynamics and on the deformation style occurring at plate boundaries.

  5. Nonlocal microstructure-dependent dynamic stability of refined porous FG nanoplates in hygro-thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Based on the generalized nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT), dynamic modeling and analysis of nanoporous inhomogeneous nanoplates is presented. Therefore, it is possible to capture both stiffness-softening and stiffness-hardening effects for a more accurate dynamic analysis of nanoplates. The nanoplate is in hygro-thermal environments and is subjected to an in-plane harmonic load. Porosities are incorporated to the model based on a modified rule of mixture. Modeling of the porous nanoplate is conducted according to a refined four-variable plate theory with fewer field variables than in the first-order plate theory. The governing equations and related classical and nonclassical boundary conditions are derived based on Hamilton's principle. These equations are solved for hinged nanoplates via Galerkin's method. It is shown that porosities, moisture rise, temperature rise, nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, material gradation, elastic foundation and uniform dynamic load have a remarkable influence on the dynamic behavior of nanoscale plates.

  6. Classifying Taiwan Lianas with Radiating Plates of Xylem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Zehn Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiating plates of xylem are a lianas cambium variation, of which, 22 families have this feature. This study investigates 15 liana species representing nine families with radiating plates of xylem structures. The features of the transverse section and epidermis in fresh liana samples are documented, including shapes and colors of xylem and phloem, ray width and numbers, and skin morphology. Experimental results indicated that the shape of phloem fibers in Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. hancei is gradually tapered and flame-like, which is in contrast with the other characteristics of this type, including those classified as rays. Both inner and outer cylinders of vascular bundles are found in Piper kwashoense, and the irregularly inner cylinder persists yet gradually diminishes. Red crystals are numerous in the cortex of Celastrus kusanoi. Aristolochia shimadai and A. zollingeriana develop a combination of two cambium variants, radiating plates of xylem and a lobed xylem. The shape of phloem in Stauntonia obovatifoliola is square or truncate, and its rays are numerous. Meanwhile, that of Neoalsomitra integrifolia is blunt and its rays are fewer. As for the features of a stem surface within the same family, Cyclea ochiaiana is brownish in color and has a deep vertical depression with lenticels, Pericampylus glaucus is greenish in color with a vertical shallow depression. Within the same genus, Aristolochia shimadai develops lenticels, which are not in A. zollingeriana; although the periderm developed in Clematis grata is a ring bark and tears easily, that of Clematis tamura is thick and soft.

  7. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the surface layer, is the main damage mechanism of porous asphalt surface wearing courses. In this research, an induction healing approach (namely, activating the healing process of asphalt concrete through ...

  8. Porous silicon technology for integrated microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Jin Zheng

    With the development of micro systems, there is an increasing demand for integrable porous materials. In addition to those conventional applications, such as filtration, wicking, and insulating, many new micro devices, including micro reactors, sensors, actuators, and optical components, can benefit from porous materials. Conventional porous materials, such as ceramics and polymers, however, cannot meet the challenges posed by micro systems, due to their incompatibility with standard micro-fabrication processes. In an effort to produce porous materials that can be used in micro systems, porous silicon (PS) generated by anodization of single crystalline silicon has been investigated. In this work, the PS formation process has been extensively studied and characterized as a function of substrate type, crystal orientation, doping concentration, current density and surfactant concentration and type. Anodization conditions have been optimized for producing very thick porous silicon layers with uniform pore size, and for obtaining ideal pore morphologies. Three different types of porous silicon materials: meso porous silicon, macro porous silicon with straight pores, and macro porous silicon with tortuous pores, have been successfully produced. Regular pore arrays with controllable pore size in the range of 2mum to 6mum have been demonstrated as well. Localized PS formation has been achieved by using oxide/nitride/polysilicon stack as masking materials, which can withstand anodization in hydrofluoric acid up to twenty hours. A special etching cell with electrolytic liquid backside contact along with two process flows has been developed to enable the fabrication of thick macro porous silicon membranes with though wafer pores. For device assembly, Si-Au and In-Au bonding technologies have been developed. Very low bonding temperature (˜200°C) and thick/soft bonding layers (˜6mum) have been achieved by In-Au bonding technology, which is able to compensate the potentially

  9. Plate tectonics from VLBI and SLR global data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.; Robaudo, Stefano

    1992-01-01

    This study is based on data derived from fifteen years of observations of the SLR (side-looking radar) network and six years of the VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) network. In order to use all available information VLBI and SLR global data sets were combined in a least squares fashion to calculate station horizontal velocities. All significant data pertaining to a single site contribute to the station horizontal motion. The only constraint on the solution is that no vertical motion is allowed. This restriction does not greatly affect the precision of the overall solution given the fact that the expected vertical motion for most stations, even those experiencing post glacial uplift, is well under 1 cm/yr. Since the average baseline is under 4,000 km, only a small fraction of the station vertical velocity is translated into baseline rates so that the error introduced in the solution by restricting up-down station movement is minimal. As a reference, station velocities were then compared to the ones predicted by the NUVEL-1 geological model of DeMets et al. (1990). The focus of the study is on analyzing these discrepancies for global plate tectonics as well as regional tectonic settings. The method used also allows us not only to derive horizontal motion for individual stations but also to calculate Euler vectors for those plates that have enough stations located on the stable interior like North America, Pacific, Eurasia, and Australia.

  10. Vertical mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocation. Clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha; Rajan, Sanjay

    2009-07-01

    The authors' experience with treatment of 8 patients with "vertical mobile and reducible" atlantoaxial dislocation is reviewed. The probable pathogenesis, radiological and clinical features, and management issues in such cases are discussed. Between January 2006 and March 2008, 8 patients who presented with vertical mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocations were treated at the Department of Neurosurgery at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai, India. The vertical atlantoaxial dislocation/basilar invagination reduced completely on extension of the neck, with no need of any cervical traction. According to the extent of superior migration of the odontoid process, and measurements based on the vertical atlantoaxial instability index, the dislocation was graded as mild, moderate, or severe. All patients were treated using the C-1 lateral mass and C-2 pars plate and screw method of fixation. The study group was composed of 5 male and 3 female patients (mean age 24 years, age range 8-54 years). All patients presented with the physical features of short neck, torticollis, pain in the nape of the neck, and varying degrees of quadriparesis. In 6 patients there was a history of trauma prior to the onset of major neurological symptoms. The dislocation was mild in 3 cases, moderate in 1, and severe in 4. All patients had clinical neurological improvement following surgery. The follow-up duration ranged from 4 to 30 months (mean 18 months). Vertical mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocation is a discrete clinical entity. Abnormal inclination and incompetence of the facet joint appears to be the primary causative factor that resulted in vertical dislocation or basilar invagination. Posterior fixation in the reduced dislocation position forms the basis of treatment.

  11. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  12. Macroscopic properties of fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, D.; Thovert, J.-F.; Adler, P. M.

    2010-03-01

    The macroscopic properties of fractured porous media locally governed by a Laplace equation are determined by several methods. The first one consists in discretizing the porous medium and the fractures and in solving the Laplace equation in the discretized structure. The other methods consist in successive upscalings. The first upscaling replaces the porous medium by a continuum with a given transport property. The second upscaling replaces the fractures by surfaces with equivalent properties. The results of the various methods give very close results. They suggest a simple approximation which is successful when the properties of the fluid and of the continuous porous medium are not too different.

  13. Novel Development of Phosphate Treated Porous Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiko; Kobatake, Reiko; Okazaki, Yohei; Oki, Yoshifumi; Naito, Yoshihito; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Phosphoric acid-etching treatment to the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface can modify the solubility calcium structure. The aim of the present study was to develop phosphate treated porous HA, and the characteristic structures and stimulation abilities of bone formation were evaluated to determine its suitability as a new type of bone graft material. Although the phosphoric acid-etching treatment did not alter the three-dimensional structure, a micrometer-scale rough surface topography was created on the porous HA surface. Compared to porous HA, the porosity of phosphate treated porous HA was slightly higher and the mechanical strength was lower. Two weeks after placement of the cylindrical porous or phosphate treated porous HA in a rabbit femur, newly formed bone was detected in both groups. At the central portion of the bone defect area, substantial bone formation was detected in the phosphate treated porous HA group, with a significantly higher bone formation ratio than detected in the porous HA group. These results indicate that phosphate treated porous HA has a superior surface topography and bone formation abilities in vivo owing to the capacity for both osteoconduction and stimulation abilities of bone formation conferred by phosphoric acid etching.

  14. Porous Structures in Stacked, Crumpled and Pillared Graphene-Based 3D Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Creighton, Megan; Chen, Yantao; Hurt, Robert; Külaots, Indrek

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, an atomically thin material with the theoretical surface area of 2600 m2g-1, has great potential in the fields of catalysis, separation, and gas storage if properly assembled into functional 3D materials at large scale. In ideal non-interacting ensembles of non-porous multilayer graphene plates, the surface area can be adequately estimated using the simple geometric law ~ 2600 m2g-1/N, where N is the number of graphene sheets per plate. Some processing operations, however, lead to secondary plate-plate stacking, folding, crumpling or pillaring, which give rise to more complex structures. Here we show that bulk samples of multilayer graphene plates stack in an irregular fashion that preserves the 2600/N surface area and creates regular slot-like pores with sizes that are multiples of the unit plate thickness. In contrast, graphene oxide deposits into films with massive area loss (2600 to 40 m2g-1) due to nearly perfect alignment and stacking during the drying process. Pillaring graphene oxide sheets by co-deposition of colloidal-phase particle-based spacers has the potential to partially restore the large monolayer surface. Surface areas as high as 1000 m2g-1 are demonstrated here through colloidal-phase deposition of graphene oxide with water-dispersible aryl-sulfonated ultrafine carbon black as a pillaring agent.

  15. 3-D Simulation of Vertical-Axial Tidal Current Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical-axial tidal current turbine is the key for the energy converter, which has the advantages of simple structure, adaptability to flow and uncomplex convection device. It has become the hot point for research and application recently. At present, the study on the hydrodynamic performance of vertical-axial tidal current turbine is almost on 2-D numerical simulation, without the consideration of 3-D effect. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics method and blade optimal control technique are used to improve accuracy in the prediction of tidal current turbine hydrodynamic performance. Numerical simulation of vertical-axial tidal current turbine is validated. Fixed and variable deflection angle turbine are comparatively studied to analysis the influence of 3-D effect and the character of fluid field and pressure field. The method, put the plate on the end of blade, of reduce the energy loss caused by 3-D effect is proposed. The 3-D CFD numerical model of vertical-axial tidal current turbine hydrodynamic performance in this study may provide theoretical, methodical and technical reference for the optimal design of turbine.

  16. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  17. Imaging of growth plate injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanaguizawa, Matiko; Taberner, Gustavo Sobreira; Aihara, Andre Yui; Yamaguchi, Cleudia Kazue; Guimaraes, Maria Carolina; Rosenfeld, Andre [Diagnosticos da America, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: matikoyan@uol.com.br; Fernandes, Joao Luiz [Image Memorial, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa [ Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging Diagnosis

    2008-05-15

    The structures responsible for the growth of bones include the physis (also called growth plate) and the epiphysis. Affections involving patients with immature skeletons, i.e., with a still open growth plate, may affect the bone growth, resulting in complications such as growth arrest, limb shortening and angular deformities. Traumatic conditions, many times resulting in epiphyseal fractures, are the most frequent cause of growth plate injuries. A careful evaluation of these patients by means of currently available imaging methods, especially radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, allows an early diagnosis of the involvement of structures related to the bone growth, besides an appropriate management, reducing the probability of secondary complications. (author)

  18. Dependence of thermal conductivity on structural parameters in porous samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miettinen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The in-plane thermal conductivity of porous sintered bronze plates was studied both experimentally and numerically. We developed and validated an experimental setup, where the sample was placed in vacuum and heated while its time-dependent temperature field was measured with an infrared camera. The porosity and detailed three-dimensional structure of the samples were determined by X-ray microtomography. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of thermal conductivity in the tomographic reconstructions of the samples were used to correct the contact area between bronze particles as determined by image analysis from the tomographic reconstructions. Small openings in the apparent contacts could not be detected with the imaging resolution used, and they caused an apparent thermal contact resistance between particles. With this correction included, the behavior of the measured thermal conductivity was successfully explained by an analytical expression, originally derived for regular structures, which involves three structural parameters of the porous structures. There was no simple relationship between heat conductivity and porosity.

  19. Golgi analysis of tangential neurons in the lobula plate of Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    possibly due to the shape of the compound eye of Drosophila which is reduced in the fronto-dorsal region as compared to larger flies. ... 1.2 Optomotor responses and lobula plate neurons in. Drosophila melanogaster ..... (c) A tangential element with three tufts of arbors (also see figure 3d). Two neurons of the twin vertical ...

  20. Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-11-01

    Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High aspect ratio channels in glass and porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.D. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Dang, Z.Y. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wu, J.F. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Kan, J.A. van; Qureshi, S. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ynsa, M.D.; Torres-Costa, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco Edif. 22, Faraday 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Maira, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Venkatesan, T.V. [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Breese, M.B.H., E-mail: phymbhb@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a micromachining process to produce high-aspect-ratio channels and holes in glass and porous silicon. Our process utilizes MeV proton beam irradiation of silicon using direct writing with a focused beam, followed by electrochemical etching. To increase throughput we have also developed another process for large area ion irradiation based on a radiation-resistant gold surface mask, allowing many square inches to be patterned. We present a study of the achievable channel width, depth and period and sidewall verticality for a range of channels which can be over 100 μm deep or 100 nm wide with aspect ratios up to 80. This process overcomes the difficulty of machining glass on a micro- and nanometer scale which has limited many areas of applications in different fields such as microelectronics and microfluidics.

  2. Prosthetic motility in pegged versus unpegged integrated porous orbital implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillinta, Paulo; Vasani, Sunil N; Granet, David B; Kikkawa, Don O

    2003-03-01

    To objectively measure and compare prosthetic motility in pegged versus unpegged orbital implants and to determine subjective patient assessment of motility after the pegging procedure. A prospective case series of 10 patients with integrated porous orbital implants, who had secondary motility peg placement procedure, were studied. Infrared oculography was used to quantitatively assess pegged and unpegged prosthetic eye motility in horizontal and vertical excursions. For horizontal excursions, prosthetic motility in unpegged implants retained an average of 49.6% of measured motility of the contralateral normal eye, which increased to 86.5% with peg placement (Ppeg placement (P>0.3). Nine of 10 patients judged their motility as "significantly improved," and 1 patient gave a rating of "some improvement" after peg placement. Four of 10 patients had granulomas around the peg sites. Objective assessment of prosthetic motility shows a significant increase in horizontal gaze after motility peg placement.

  3. Training methods to improve vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gomez, J; Calbet, J A L

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to review the main methods used to improve vertical jump performance (VJP). Although many training routines have been proposed, these can be grouped into four main categories: plyometric training (PT), weight training (WT), whole body vibration training (VT) and electromyostimulation training (ET). PT enhances muscular force, the rate of force development (RFD), muscular power, muscle contraction velocity, cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle stiffness allowing greater storage and release of elastic energy. WT improve muscular force, velocity, power output, and RFD during jumping on a force plate, muscle hypertrophy and neural adaptations. One of the most effective methods to improve VJP is the combination of PT with WT, which takes advantage of the enhancement of maximal dynamic force through WT and the positive effects of PT on speed and force of muscle contraction through its specific effect on type II fibers. Some authors have found an increase in VJP with the use of VT while other did not see such an effect. However, it remains unknown by which mechanisms VT could enhance VJP. ET has been shown to elicit muscle hypertrophy. The VJP may be improved when ET is applied concomitantly with PT or practice of sports. In summary, scientific evidence suggests that the best way to improve VJP is through the combination of PT with WT. Further research is needed to establish if better results are possible by more complex strategies.

  4. TEXTILE IMPACT PLATES FOR NANOPARTICLES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VISILEANU Emilia; DUMITRESCU Iuliana; VARZARU Elena; MITRAN Cornelia; CHIRIAC Laura

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents textile materials with destination impact plates, having different surface architectures and active treatments for functionalization, with influence upon the aging process of nano-Ag and nano-CeO2...

  5. corn-mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manufactured corn-mill grinding plates to investigate the possible causes of their early wear and failure. Three different samples selected from the same local manufacturer were tested for chemical composition and micro- structural, as well as wear ...

  6. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  7. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  8. Adapted MR velocimetry of slow liquid flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Mikolajczyk, Gerd; Küstermann, Ekkehard; Wilhelm, Michaela; Odenbach, Stefan; Dreher, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    MR velocimetry of liquid flow in opaque porous filters may play an important role in better understanding the mechanisms of deep bed filtration. With this knowledge, the efficiency of separating the suspended solid particles from the vertically flowing liquid can be improved, and thus a wide range of industrial applications such as wastewater treatment and desalination can be optimized. However, MR velocimetry is challenging for such studies due to the low velocities, the severe B0 inhomogeneity in porous structures, and the demand for high spatial resolution and an appropriate total measurement time during which the particle deposition will change velocities only marginally. In this work, a modified RARE-based MR velocimetry method is proposed to address these issues for velocity mapping on a deep bed filtration cell. A dedicated RF coil with a high filling factor is constructed considering the limited space available for the vertical cell in a horizontal MR magnet. Several means are applied to optimize the phase contrast RARE MRI pulse sequence for accurately measuring the phase contrast in a long echo train, even in the case of a low B1 homogeneity. Two means are of particular importance. One uses data acquired with zero flow to correct the phase contrast offsets from gradient imperfections, and the other combines the phase contrast from signals of both odd and even echoes. Results obtained on a 7T preclinical MR scanner indicate that the low velocities in the heterogeneous system can be correctly quantified with high spatial resolution and an adequate total measurement time, enabling future studies on flow during the filtration process.

  9. Further proof to the utility of polysaccharide-based chiral selectors in combination with superficially porous silica particles as effective chiral stationary phases for separation of enantiomers in high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaishvili, Qetevan; Jibuti, George; Farkas, Tivadar; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2016-10-07

    The first ever report on the preparation of chiral stationary phases (CSP) based on superficially porous silica (SPS) particles for the separation of enantiomers in HPLC demonstrated clear advantages of such materials. Higher enantioselectivity at the comparable content of a chiral selector, limited dependence of plate height on the mobile phase flow rate and higher plate numbers and resolution calculated per unit time (i.e. higher speed of separation) were observed with columns made with superficially porous CSP in comparison to columns made with fully-porous silica-based CSP. However, later studies reported diverging conclusions. In this report further evidences are described supporting the findings of our first study about the superior performance of polysaccharide-based chiral selectors in combination with SPS when compared to traditional CSPs based on fully porous silica (FPS) particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Graphene-based vertical-junction diodes and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suk-Ho

    2017-09-01

    In the last decade, graphene has received extreme attention as an intriguing building block for electronic and photonic device applications. This paper provides an overview of recent progress in the study of vertical-junction diodes based on graphene and its hybrid systems by combination of graphene and other materials. The review is especially focused on tunnelling and Schottky diodes produced by chemical doping of graphene or combination of graphene with various semiconducting/ insulating materials such as hexagonal boron nitrides, Si-quantum-dots-embedded SiO2 multilayers, Si wafers, compound semiconductors, Si nanowires, and porous Si. The uniqueness of graphene enables the application of these convergence structures in high-efficient devices including photodetectors, solar cells, resonant tunnelling diodes, and molecular/DNA sensors.

  11. Orientation tuning of motion-sensitive neurons shaped by vertical-horizontal network interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, J; Borst, A

    2003-05-01

    We measured the orientation tuning of two neurons of the fly lobula plate (H1 and H2 cells) sensitive to horizontal image motion. Our results show that H1 and H2 cells are sensitive to vertical motion, too. Their response depended on the position of the vertically moving stimuli within their receptive field. Stimulation within the frontal receptive field produced an asymmetric response: upward motion left the H1/H2 spike frequency nearly unaltered while downward motion increased the spike frequency to about 40% of their maximum responses to horizontal motion. In the lateral parts of their receptive fields, no such asymmetry in the responses to vertical image motion was found. Since downward motion is known to be the preferred direction of neurons of the vertical system in the lobula plate, we analyzed possible interactions between vertical system cells and H1 and H2 cells. Depolarizing current injection into the most frontal vertical system cell (VS1) led to an increased spike frequency, hyperpolarizing current injection to a decreased spike frequency in both H1 and H2 cells. Apart from VS1, no other vertical system cell (VS2-8) had any detectable influence on either H1 or H2 cells. The connectivity of VS1 and H1/H2 is also shown to influence the response properties of both centrifugal horizontal cells in the contralateral lobula plate, which are known to be postsynaptic to the H1 and H2 cells. The vCH cell receives additional input from the contralateral VS2-3 cells via the spiking interneuron V1.

  12. An alternative Biot's formulation for dissipative porous media with skeleton deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécot, François-Xavier; Jaouen, Luc

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative formulation of Biot's theory to account for the elastic frame effects in a porous medium in which the acoustical properties of the fluid phase are predicted with an equivalent fluid model. This approach was originally developed for a double porosity medium. In this paper, the alternative formulation is applied to predict the transmission loss and absorption coefficient in the case of a single layer fibrous material, a multi-layer system, vibrating perforated plates, and porous composite materials. In the proposed formulation the coupling coefficients in Biot's poroelasticity equations are expressed in terms of the dynamic volumic mass and dynamic bulk modulus. By doing so, the elastic properties of the material frame are considered independently from the properties of the fluid. This formulation is implemented in the form of a transfer matrix algorithm which is validated against experimental data on sound absorption and sound transmission which are obtained for a range of various sound excitations and material arrangements. It is shown that this approach is able to predict accurately the acoustical properties of vibrating perforated plates and porous composites. The proposed approach is sufficiently general to be implemented in a finite element method.

  13. Applications of porous electrodes to metal-ion removal and the design of battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, G.G.

    1983-09-01

    This dissertation treats the use of porous electrodes as electrochemical reactors for the removal of dilute metal ions. A methodology for the scale-up of porous electrodes used in battery applications is given. Removal of 4 ..mu..g Pb/cc in 1 M sulfuric acid was investigated in atmospheric and high-pressure, flow-through porous reactors. The atmospheric reactor used a reticulated vitreous carbon porous bed coated in situ with a mercury film. Best results show 98% removal of lead from the feed stream. Results are summarized in a dimensionless plot of Sherwood number vs Peclet number. High-pressure, porous-electrode experiments were performed to investigate the effect of pressure on the current efficiency. Pressures were varied up to 120 bar on electrode beds of copper or lead-coated spheres. The copper spheres showed high hydrogen evolution rates which inhibited lead deposition, even at high cathodic overpotentials. Use of lead spheres inhibited hydrogen evolution but often resulted in the formation of lead sulfate layers; these layers were difficult to reduce back to lead. Experimental data of one-dimensional porous battery electrodes are combined with a model for the current collector and cell connectors to predict ultimate specific energy and maximum specific power for complete battery systems. Discharge behavior of the plate as a whole is first presented as a function of depth of discharge. These results are combined with the voltage and weight penalties of the interconnecting bus and post, positive and negative active material, cell container, etc. to give specific results for the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide high-temperature battery. Subject to variation is the number of positive electrodes, grid conductivity, minimum current-collector weight, and total delivered capacity. The battery can be optimized for maximum energy or power, or a compromise design may be selected.

  14. Critical diameter for the transmission of a detonation wave into a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, A.; Oh, T.J.; Lee, J.H.S.; Knystautas, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    An experimental investigation has been undertaken to elucidate the existence of a critical diameter for the transmission of gaseous detonation into a porous medium. A Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation is first established in a tube and allowed to transmit through an orifice plate into a porous medium comprised of inert spheres of equal diameter. It is found that detonation can successfully transmit past the orifice for diameters much smaller than the normal critical diameter (d{sub c}) of the mixture. An immediate transition from detonation to quasi-detonation normally takes place upon wave entry in the porous medium. Failure of detonation is observed to take place downstream of the orifice in the near-limit regime and is followed by deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) within the porous medium. Wave velocities in the porous medium are found to be identical to the corresponding values measured for direct transmission (without an orifice). For subcritical conditions, there is complete quenching of combustion in the pores. The critical composition (lean and rich) for mixtures with high activation energy is found to be practically the same as the propagation limits in the porous medium without an orifice. This indicates that the phenomenon is governed by the smallest physical dimension of the pore size, and thus a local failure mechanism exists. In mixtures highly diluted with argon, i.e., (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}) + 75% Ar, which have, a lower activation energy and for which the ``d{sub c} = 13{lambda}`` correlation (where {lambda} is the cell size) is known to break down, the critical composition appears to depend on the orifice diameter. The orifice now introduces a larger controlling length scale at the limits compared to the pore size, indicating that a global failure mechanism may prevail for such mixtures. Present findings are consistent with a local and global failure mechanism for normal detonation failure recently proposed by Lee.

  15. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  16. Waves, circulation and vertical dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, George

    2013-04-01

    Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper

  17. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  18. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, E.; Liu, Q.

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  19. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Jeffrey W [Albuquerque, NM; Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK

    2011-07-19

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  20. Porous Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fei Han

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ordered porous solid-state architectures constructed via non-covalent supramolecular self-assembly have attracted increasing interest due to their unique advantages and potential applications. Porous metal-coordination organic frameworks (MOFs are generated by the assembly of metal coordination centers and organic linkers. Compared to MOFs, porous hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs are readily purified and recovered via simple recrystallization. However, due to lacking of sufficiently ability to orientate self-aggregation of building motifs in predictable manners, rational design and preparation of porous HOFs are still challenging. Herein, we summarize recent developments about porous HOFs and attempt to gain deeper insights into the design strategies of basic building motifs.