WorldWideScience

Sample records for venue heriot watt

  1. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  2. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  3. Makahiki+WattDepot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Xu, Yongwen; Brewer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    to consumers. Since 2009, we have been designing, implementing, and evaluating an open source software "stack" to facilitate this research. This software stack consists of two custom systems called WattDepot and Makahiki, along with the open source components they rely upon (Java, Restlet, Postgres, Python...

  4. James Watt's Leicester Walk

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    a poem in which James Watt, inventor of the separate condenser, walks through contemporary Leicester (his route is from Bonners Lane and alongside the canal, taking in the Statue of Liberty on its traffic island near Sage Road). It is derived from the exercise of taking a character for a walk,

  5. Micro watt thermocurrent generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustard, T.; Goslee, D.; Barr, H.

    1976-01-01

    This nuclear thermocurrent generator to feed a cardic pacemaker should have higher life expectancy and reliability than was previously achieved. For this purpose a gettering arrangement is connected to be heat conducting immediately adjacent to the nuclear fuel arrangement in an evacuated casing. The gettering arrangement can be operated to activate at as high a temperature as possible, from 121 0 C to preferably about 204 0 C, so that a high vacuum is maintained. The current generating thermal column works at a temperature difference of 55.6 0 C. As the cold end of the column is connected to the outer casing, and should be held to a mean body temperature of 37.8 0 C, the hot side of the thermal column may only be heated to 93.4 0 C. The temperature jump from 121 0 or 204 0 to 93.4 0 is produced by a thermal resistance inserted between the hot side of the thermal column and the fuel arrangement. It may consist of a spacer made of stainless steel or by a gap, while in this first arrangement the nuclear heat generator is situated between the gettering arrangement and the thermal column, another arrangement shows the gettering arrangement enclosed in the fuel arrangement and thermal column. Here the heat flows in one direction only, the required temperature gradient is produced by suitable construction of the heat contacts between the 3 elements. Detailed constructional and manufacturing data are given for both models. Plutonium oxide is welded into a double casing as heat generator, in example the casing is made of nickel alloy. 1/10 gram of plutonium supplies a thermal energy of 50m watts, which produces a thermal current of 300 to 400 micro watts at 0.3V. (RW) [de

  6. Thin Watts-Strogatz networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Alessandro P S

    2006-01-01

    A modified version of the Watts-Strogatz (WS) network model is proposed, in which the number of shortcuts scales with the network size N as Nalpha, with alpha infinity, whereas in the original WS model, this ratio is constant. We call such networks "thin Watts-Strogatz networks." We show that even though the fraction of shortcuts becomes vanishingly small for large networks, they still cause a kind of small-world effect, in the sense that the length L of the network increases sublinearly with the size. We develop a mean-field theory for these networks, which predicts that the length scales as N1-alpha ln N for large N. We also study how a search using only local information works in thin WS networks. We find that the search performance is enhanced compared to the regular network, and we predict that the search time tau scales as N1-alpha/2. These theoretical results are tested using numerical simulations. We comment on the possible relevance of thin WS networks for the design of high-performance low-cost communication networks.

  7. Reducing Leaking Electricity to 1 Watt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.; Huber, Wolfgang; Rosen, Karen

    1998-08-01

    In this study we examine some specific opportunities toreduce standby losses in electronic appliances. A review of powerconsumption levels for the major components responsible for standbyfunctions indicates that nearly all standby functions can be performedwith a total appliance standby power consumption of one watt or less. Wetherefore propose that standby losses be limited to one watt perappliance, a significant reduction from current levels for manyappliances. This target could be achieved with little or no extra cost tomanufacturers and could save over $2 billion in annual U.S. energy costs.Globally, a one-watt plan would lead to a significant reduction in carbonemissions.

  8. Watt-Lite; Energy Statistics Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Broms, Loove; Katzeff, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    of consumers its consequences are poorly understood. In order to better understand how we can use design to increase awareness of electricity consumption in everyday life, we will discuss the design of Watt-Lite, a set of three oversized torches projecting real time energy statistics of a factory...... in the physical environments of its employees. The design of Watt-Lite is meant to explore ways of representing, understanding and interacting with electricity in industrial workspaces. We discuss three design inquiries and their implications for the design of Watt-Lite: the use of tangible statistics...

  9. Multi-peta-watt laser performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, A.; Blanchot, N.; Nicolaizeau, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Bettinger, A.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-Peta-watt laser inside the 'Ligne d'integration laser' building is studied. We present simulations of the different amplification stages to reach broadband 10 kJ pulses in order to obtain a multi-Peta-watt laser beam. The results for preamplifier and power amplifier are detailed. Challenges of a multi-Peta-watt system are to increase the limit of compressed energy an order of magnitude, to perform a focal spot around 100 μm for Fast Ignitor applications, and to provide a temporal contrast better than 10 10 , for X-ray laser and plasma interaction applications. These first 1-D calculations are helpful for the design of a multi-Peta-watt laser. (authors)

  10. MOTION TO CHANGE VENUE. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Lucian Rădulescu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Change of venue is a remedy offered to a party, which in case of legitimate grounds for suspicion or public safety may require that proceedings belong to another court than the court first seized. But change of venue is not based on a case of material or territorial lack of jurisdiction of the court, taking into account exceptional circumstances or impartiality doubt regarding the case. Thus, article 140 of the Code of Civil Procedure stipulates the possible causes of change of venue, including further issues that will determine jurisdiction to hear by the courts of control.

  11. NegaWatt University 2011. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    The 2011 meeting of the NegaWatt association gathered about 150 participants during 2 days of conference devoted to the presentation of the NegaWatt energy scenario. This document brings together the available presentations: 1 - The residential and tertiary building sector in the NegaWatt 2011 energy scenario; 2 - Lessons learnt from the appraisal campaigns carried out in energy-efficient buildings: understanding the differences between forecasts and measurements (Olivier Sidler, Enertech); 3 - Agriculture sector: presentation of the Afterres 2050 scenario - Agriculture, forest and land use scenario (Christian Couturier, Elen Devauchelle, Sylvain Doublet, Solagro); 4 - Industry sector; 5 - Transportation sector, peoples mobility and freight transport; 6 - Development of renewable energy sources and power networks balancing; 7 - The phasing out of nuclear energy in a reasonable way; 8 - The post-Fukushima international perspectives of nuclear energy: nuclear decline and accelerated phasing in of intelligent systems (Mycle Schneider)

  12. Watt-Lite; Energy Statistics Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Broms, Loove; Katzeff, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Increasing our knowledge of how design affects behaviour in the workplace has a large potential for reducing electricity consumption. This would be beneficial for the environment as well as for industry and society at large. In Western society energy use is hidden and for the great mass...... in the physical environments of its employees. The design of Watt-Lite is meant to explore ways of representing, understanding and interacting with electricity in industrial workspaces. We discuss three design inquiries and their implications for the design of Watt-Lite: the use of tangible statistics...

  13. Shades of darkness : A pecking order of trading venues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, Albert J.; Yueshen, Bart Zhou; Zhu, Haoxiang

    2017-01-01

    We characterize the dynamic fragmentation of U.S. equity markets using a unique data set that disaggregates dark transactions by venue types. The “pecking order” hypothesis of trading venues states that investors “sort” various venue types, putting low-cost-low-immediacy venues on top and

  14. The psychiatrist, the historian and The Christian Watt Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Allan; Watson, Fiona

    2006-06-01

    The publication in the 1980s of The Christian Watt Papers brought to public attention the life of a previously unknown, long-term inmate of the Aberdeen Royal Asylum. Christian Watt's story inspired a play and a television documentary. This paper examines what the historical records reveal about Watt's life and how this compares with her own account.

  15. Ecolo Watt. Ecologic comparison of electricity providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    As consumers now can choose their electricity provider, Greenpeace proposes Ecolo Watt, a system which assesses the different providers, more particularly in terms of protection of the environment. This document first describes the electricity market liberalisation (principle, market opening process, a shake-up of the French electric landscape, obligations for the providers). It presents the green electricity market (original guarantees, the questionable system of green certificates, and the Eve label). It describes the methodology adopted for the Ecolo Watt comparative assessment: assessment criteria, final mark. It presents the ranking of electricity providers while analysing their energy mix, their energy policy, their energy service and sales policy, the quality and transparency of information). Detailed results are presented for each operator

  16. Recent progress on the BIPM watt balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the recent progress on the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures watt balance. The existing apparatus was transferred to the dedicated new laboratory with better thermal and vibrational conditions. The apparatus is fully operational in air. An improvement by a factor of three was achieved on the S/N ratio of both the voltage-to-velocity and force-to-current ratios. The fabrication of the parts of the new magnet is completed and its assembly is finished.

  17. High-Risk Sexual Behavior at Social Venues in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHAN, MARIA R.; RASOLOFOMANANA, JUSTIN R.; McCLAMROCH, KRISTI J.; RALISIMALALA, ANDRIAMAMPIANINA; ZAFIMANJAKA, MAURICE G.; BEHETS, FRIEDA; WEIR, SHARON S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Persistent high levels of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Madagascar indicate current prevention strategies are inadequate. STI/HIV prevention based in social venues may play an important role in reaching individuals at risk of infection. We identified venues where people meet sexual partners and measured the need and potential for venue-based prevention. Methods Interviews were conducted in 7 Madagascar towns with 1) community informants to identify social venues, 2) individuals socializing at a sample of venues to assess sexual behavior among venue patrons, and 3) venue representatives to assess the potential for venue-based intervention. Results Community informants identified numerous venues (range: 67–211 venues, depending on the town); streets, bars, and hotels were most commonly reported. Among 2982 individuals socializing at venues, 78% of men and 74% of women reported new sexual partnership or sex trade for money, goods, or services in the past 4 weeks and 19% of men and 18% of women reported symptoms suggestive of STI in the past 4 weeks. STI symptom levels were disproportionately high among respondents reporting either sex trade or new sexual partnership in the past 4 weeks. Twenty-eight percent of men and 41% of women reported condom use during the last sex act with a new partner. Although 24% to 45% of venues had hosted STI/HIV interventions, interventions were deemed possible at 73% to 90% venues according to 644 interviews with venue representatives. Conclusions Venue-based intervention is possible and would reach a spectrum of populations vulnerable to STI/HIV including sex workers, their clients, and other high-risk populations. PMID:18496471

  18. Alignment of the NPL Mark II watt balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I A

    2012-01-01

    To reach uncertainties in the region of 1 part in 10 8 a moving-coil watt balance not only requires the accurate measurement of voltage, resistance, velocity, mass and the acceleration due to gravity but, in addition, requires the apparatus to be adjusted correctly to minimize the second order effects which can reduce the accuracy of the measurement. This paper collects together the alignment and correction techniques that have been developed at NPL over many years and are required to minimize the uncertainty of the measurement. Some of these techniques are applicable to all watt balances, whilst a few are specific to watt balances that employ a conventional beam balance to support a circular coil in a radial magnetic field, such as the NPL Mark II watt balance, now known as the NRC watt balance. (paper)

  19. Taxonomy of Caribbean tourism alcohol venues: implications for HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; McCarthy, Katharine; Quiñones, Zahira; Lushin, Viktor; Skinner-Day, Molly; Padilla, Mark; Meisterlin, Leah

    2013-09-01

    Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. Limited research has explored how alcohol venues facilitate HIV transmission. We spatially mapped locations of alcohol venues in a Dominican tourism town and conducted a venue-based survey of key informants (n=135) focused on three facets of alcohol venues: structural features, type of patrons, and HIV risk behaviors. Using latent class analysis, we identified evidence-based typologies of alcohol venues for each of the three facets. Focused contrasts identified the co-occurrence of classes of structural features, classes of types of patrons, and classes of HIV risk behavior, thus elaborating the nature of high risk venues. We identified three categories of venue structural features, three for venue patrons, and five for HIV risk behaviors. Analysis revealed that alcohol venues with the greatest structural risks (e.g. sex work on-site with lack of HIV prevention services) were most likely frequented by the venue patron category characterized by high population-mixing between locals and foreign tourists, who were in turn most likely to engage in the riskiest behaviors. Our results highlight the stratification of venue patrons into groups who engage in behaviors of varying risk in structural settings that vary in risk. The convergence of high-risk patron groups in alcohol venues with the greatest structural risk suggests these locations have potential for HIV transmission. Policymakers and prevention scientists can use these methods and data to target HIV prevention resources to identified priority areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Taxonomy of Caribbean Tourism Alcohol Venues: Implications for HIV Transmission*

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUILAMO-RAMOS, Vincent; JACCARD, James; MCCARTHY, Katharine; QUIÑONES, Zahira; LUSHIN, Viktor; SKINNER-DAY, Molly; PADILLA, Mark; MEISTERLIN, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Background Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. Limited research has explored how alcohol venues facilitate HIV transmission. Methods We spatially mapped locations of alcohol venues in a Dominican tourism town and conducted a venue-based survey of key informants (n=135) focused on three facets of alcohol venues: structural features, type of patrons, and HIV risk behaviors. Using latent class analysis, we identified evidence-based typologies of alcohol venues for each of the three facets. Focused contrasts identified the co-occurrence of classes of structural features, classes of types of patrons, and classes of HIV risk behavior, thus elaborating the nature of high risk venues. Results We identified three categories of venue structural features, three for venue patrons, and five for HIV risk behaviors. Analysis revealed that alcohol venues with the greatest structural risks (e.g., sex work on site with lack of HIV prevention services) were most likely frequented by the venue patron category characterized by high population-mixing between locals and foreign tourists, who were in turn most likely to engage in the riskiest behaviors. Conclusion Our results highlight the stratification of venue patrons into groups who engage in behaviors of varying risk in structural settings that vary in risk. The convergence of high-risk patron groups in alcohol venues with the greatest structural risk suggests these locations have potential for HIV transmission. Policymakers and prevention scientists can use these methods and data to target HIV prevention resources to identified priority areas. PMID:23478154

  1. The negaWatt 2011 scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the approach adopted for the negaWatt scenario and its obtained results. It is based on sobriety (energy savings), on energy efficiency, and on the use of renewable energies. After having outlined the different reasons for an energy transition (increasing energy consumption, critics and risks related to nuclear energy, and high potential of renewable energies), the scenario is presented with its main principles. The scenario identifies possibilities ranging from half to two thirds of energy saving in the different energy consuming sectors. The building sector is presented as a major issue. The transport is described as a sector to be addressed on the long term. The necessary change of the industry sector is highlighted. The agriculture sector is presented as being at the heart of transition. Energy usages are to become sober, efficient and renewable. The scenario is based on a high rate development of renewable energies, while fossil energies are to become marginal, nuclear is to be progressively and reasonably given up, and networks are to become compatible to ensure the scenario success. Thus, the scenario demonstrates the feasibility of a 100 pc sustainable assessment for primary energy, complies with stakes and objectives by 2050. The cost of energy transition is briefly discussed

  2. Visiting Entertainment Venues and Sexual Health in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guan, Jihui; Yin, Yueping; Detels, Roger; Wu, Sheng; Lee, Sung-Jae; Cao, Haijun; Lin, Chunqing; Rou, Keming; Liu, Zhendong

    2008-01-01

    Entertainment venues in China are associated with risky sexual behavior. Most previous studies related to entertainment venues in China have focused on sex workers and commercial sex, but this study addressed sexual health in a sample of the general urban population. A randomly selected sample of market vendors (n = 4,510) from an eastern city was recruited and assessed to examine relationships between entertainment venue visits and sexual risk. Both behavioral (self-reports of unprotected se...

  3. Second-hand smoke in indoor hospitality venues in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, S M A; Moin, O; Khan, J A

    2011-07-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) constitutes a significant public health threat in countries with a high smoking prevalence. However, data assessing the quality of indoor air at public venues in Pakistan are limited. To measure mean concentrations of PM(2.5) (particulate matter ≤2.5 microns in diameter), a sensitive indicator of SHS, in hospitality venues in Pakistan. Data were collected discreetly from 39 indoor venues such as cafes, restaurants and shisha (water-pipe) bars from three major cities in Pakistan. Data were recorded using a portable air quality monitoring device. The overall mean PM(2.5) value for the visited venues was 846 μg/m(3) (95%CI 484-1205). The mean PM(2.5) value was 101 μg/m(3) (95%CI 69-135 μg/m(3)) for non-smoking venues, 689 μg/m(3) (95%CI 241-1138) for cigarette smoking venues and 1745 μg/m(3) (95%CI 925-2565) for shisha smoking venues. The significant levels of SHS recorded in this study, in particular from shisha smoking venues, could represent a major public health burden in Pakistan. Appropriate legislation needs to be enforced to protect the health of those exposed to the hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke.

  4. Visiting entertainment venues and sexual health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guan, Jihui; Yin, Yueping; Detels, Roger; Wu, Sheng; Lee, Sung-Jae; Cao, Haijun; Lin, Chunqing; Rou, Keming; Liu, Zhendong

    2009-10-01

    Entertainment venues in China are associated with risky sexual behavior. Most previous studies related to entertainment venues in China have focused on sex workers and commercial sex, but this study addressed sexual health in a sample of the general urban population. A randomly selected sample of market vendors (n = 4,510) from an eastern city was recruited and assessed to examine relationships between entertainment venue visits and sexual risk. Both behavioral (self-reports of unprotected sex) and biomedical (STD test results) measures were used. About 18% of the sample (26.8% of men and 9% of women) reported visiting entertainment venues in the past 30 days. Those who visited entertainment venues were more likely to be male, younger, single, with higher education, and to have more discretionary income. For both men and women, visiting entertainment venues was a significant predictor for unprotected sex and STD infection. Gender differences were observed in predicting unprotected sex and STD infections. Entertainment venues could be potential sites for place-based intervention programs and outreach for the general population.

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  6. Automating Visualization Service Generation with the WATT Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, E. F.; Lyness, M. D.; Erlebacher, G.; Yuen, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    As tasks and workflows become increasingly complex, software developers are devoting increasing attention to automation tools. Among many examples, the Automator tool from Apple collects components of a workflow into a single script, with very little effort on the part of the user. Tasks are most often described as a series of instructions. The granularity of the tasks dictates the tools to use. Compilers translate fine-grained instructions to assembler code, while scripting languages (ruby, perl) are used to describe a series of tasks at a higher level. Compilers can also be viewed as transformational tools: a cross-compiler can translate executable code written on one computer to assembler code understood on another, while transformational tools can translate from one high-level language to another. We are interested in creating visualization web services automatically, starting from stand-alone VTK (Visualization Toolkit) code written in Tcl. To this end, using the OCaml programming language, we have developed a compiler that translates Tcl into C++, including all the stubs, classes and methods to interface with gSOAP, a C++ implementation of the Soap 1.1/1.2 protocols. This compiler, referred to as the Web Automation and Translation Toolkit (WATT), is the first step towards automated creation of specialized visualization web services without input from the user. The WATT compiler seeks to automate all aspects of web service generation, including the transport layer, the division of labor and the details related to interface generation. The WATT compiler is part of ongoing efforts within the NSF funded VLab consortium [1] to facilitate and automate time-consuming tasks for the science related to understanding planetary materials. Through examples of services produced by WATT for the VLab portal, we will illustrate features, limitations and the improvements necessary to achieve the ultimate goal of complete and transparent automation in the generation of web

  7. A Study on Watt-hour Meter Data Acquisition Method Based on RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering that traditional watt-hour meter data acquisition was subjected to the influence of distance and occlusion, a watt-hour meter data acquisition method based on RFID technology was proposed in this paper. In detail, RFID electronic tag was embedded in the watt-hour meter to identify the meter and record electric energy information, which made RFID based wireless data acquisition for watt-hour meter come true. Eventually, overall lifecycle management of watt-hour meter is realized.

  8. Coil motion effects in watt balances: a theoretical check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shisong; Schlamminger, Stephan; Haddad, Darine; Seifert, Frank; Chao, Leon; Pratt, Jon R.

    2016-04-01

    A watt balance is a precision apparatus for the measurement of the Planck constant that has been proposed as a primary method for realizing the unit of mass in a revised International System of Units. In contrast to an ampere balance, which was historically used to realize the unit of current in terms of the kilogram, the watt balance relates electrical and mechanical units through a virtual power measurement and has far greater precision. However, because the virtual power measurement requires the execution of a prescribed motion of a coil in a fixed magnetic field, systematic errors introduced by horizontal and rotational deviations of the coil from its prescribed path will compromise the accuracy. We model these potential errors using an analysis that accounts for the fringing field in the magnet, creating a framework for assessing the impact of this class of errors on the uncertainty of watt balance results.

  9. Evaluation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-08-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumption of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Watts Bar T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  11. One watt initiative: A global effort to reduce leaking electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Alan K.; LeBot, Benoit

    1999-01-01

    Many domestic appliances and commercial equipment consume some electric power when they are switched off or not performing their primary purpose. The typical loss per appliance is low (from 1 to 25 W) but, when multiplied by the billions of appliances in houses and in commercial buildings, standby losses represent a significant fraction of total electricity use. Several initiatives to reduce standby losses have appeared in different parts of the world. One proposal, the 1-watt plan, seeks to harmonize these initiatives by establishing a single target for all appliances. This paper explains the background to the 1-watt plan, identifies some unresolved aspects, and gives some estimates of energy savings

  12. Stray capacitances in the watt balance operation: electrostatic forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Mana, G.

    2014-01-01

    In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results of a fin......In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results...

  13. Swisswoodhouse -a building for the 2000-Watt Society; Swisswoodhouse - ein Gebaeude fuer die 2000-Watt-Gesellschaft - Synthesebericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menz, T.; Wallbaum, H.; Hardziewski, R.; Graf, S.; Trachsel-Gerber, N.; Koschenz, M.; Guentert, P.

    2009-05-15

    This report deals with a building conceived to meet the requirements of the Swiss '2000-Watt Society' concept. The aims of the project are discussed which feature the demonstration of a forward-looking architectural layout, comfortable and healthy living, environmentally compatible and low resource consumption, standardisation and cost reduction. The report contains seven sections: Basics of the '2000-Watt Society' concept, optimisation of the whole building system, investor-orientated rating, use-oriented monitoring system, the development of the building, standardised building technology and, finally, a description of this pilot project.

  14. Design and construction of a low cost 50-watt capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design and construction of a stand-by mode 50-Watt Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) as an alternative power supply for electrical and electronic appliances from local materials. The development of this UPS system (a system consisting of battery source, inverter, and switching unit) is to provide ...

  15. Coulomb explosion of methyl iodide clusters using giga watt laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ... using giga watt laser pulses in the visible region: Effect of wavelength, polarisation and .... is governed by the product of ponderomotive energy and the total effec- .... gesting isotropic disintegration of multiply charged. CH3I cluster. It must be ...

  16. Development of a Soundproof Device for 950 Watt rated Portable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The noise emanating from generators has adverse effects on our health. In view of this, this paper reports the development of soundproof device for 950Watt rated generators which are widely used portable generators. Performance evaluation of the soundproof device was carried out, and the sound pressure level of the ...

  17. Theology and psychology – the interdisciplinary work of Fraser Watts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the preface to his book, Theology and Psychology, Fraser Watts, a lecturer in Theology and Natural Science at the University of Cambridge, states that he approaches “… the interface between theology and psychology by looking at each discipline from the perspective of the other. This includes a religious perspective on several current hot topics in psychology, such as evolution, neuroscience, and computer intelligence. I also consider theological topics like divine action, salvation history and eschatology, in each case using the psychological perspective in a different way”. By taking an interdisciplinary approach, Watts aims at proposing a psychology of religious experience. He considers theology to be the rational reflection on the Christian tradition. When exponents of this tradition are in dialogue with exponents of psychology, the focus falls on human nature. Watts admits that a certain lack of competence in one of the two disciplines can be a problem when working in an interdisciplinary way. However, he is willing to take the risk. Watts worked in psychology for 25 years and was also involved with a medical research council, before taking up a position at the Faculty of Divinity, University of Cambridge.

  18. Secondhand tobacco smoke in public venues in three Indonesian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Byron

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to measure secondhand tobacco (including kretek smoke (SHS concentrations in public places in Jakarta, Bogor, and Palembang before laws banning smoking in public spaces went into effect.Methods: Particulate matter (PM2.5 was measured in 15 hospitals, 15 government offices, 30 restaurants, and 26 entertainment venues throughout the three cities. Also, in Jakarta, vapor-phase nicotine was measured in 5 schools, 5 hospitals, 5 government offices, 9 restaurants, and 10 entertainment venues. Data were analyzed descriptively. Differences by city and venue characteristics were analyzed by Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Bonferroni pairwise statistical tests.Results: Geometric mean PM2.5 levels were highest in entertainment venues (96 μg/m3, followed by restaurants (78 μg/m3, government offices (57 μg/m3, and hospitals (46 μg/m3. Air nicotine levels in Jakarta were highest in designated smoking areas (4.71 μg/m3 and designated non-smoking areas (1.55 μg/m3 of entertainment venues. These were followed by government offices (0.30 μg/m3, designated smoking areas (0.24 μg/m3 and designated non-smoking areas (0.19 μg/m3 of restaurants, hospitals (0.01 μg/m3, and schools (0.01 μg/m3.Conclusion: SHS was detected in all venues in the three cities in Indonesia. High levels of air nicotine were found in non-smoking areas of restaurants and entertainment venues, indicating that designated smoking areas are not an effective solution to eliminate SHS. There is no safe level of SHS exposure and thus SHS in these venues increases the risk of adverse health effects among children and adults. These findings support the need for 100% smoke-free laws covering all public venues in these and other Indonesian cities. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:232-7. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.606 Keywords: Cigarettes, kretek, protection, protect, secondhand smoke, smoke-free policy, tobacco

  19. Rock and pop venues acoustic and architectural design

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner

    2014-01-01

    Popular music plays an substantial role in most people’s life. The demand and financial revenue of Rock and pop concerts is large and still increasing. Though 80% of the music turnover is done in Rock and Pop Music, books assess only Classical concert and opera houses. However, the requirements for pop music halls are different from classical Music and opera houses. This book closes this gap including the following features: In part one, the book A. Gives a objective methodology to assess Rock and Pop Music Venues B. Shows essential construction details and choices of building materials in the design of new venues or the renovation of old ones. In part two, the book C. Presents a set of famous European rock and pop venues, their architecture, their beauty and their properties. D. These Venues are assessed by a new and comparably simple method to objectively rate halls. Subjective data complete the assessment and give a full picture of the sound quality of a venue.

  20. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and... Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. On November 19, 2009, the TVA Board of Directors (TVA Board) decided... the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) for the Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan...

  1. Venue Recommendation and Web Search Based on Anchor Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    breweries, chocolate , art & enter- tainment, ticket sales, theater, galleries, arcades, venues, spas, massage, museums, jazz and blues, music venues, mini...query “how has african american music influence history ”. This is a long and fo- cused intent query, which could help us to gain a better un- derstanding...Figure 6: Query 276: “how has african american music in- fluence history .” E R R -I A @ 5 E R R -I A @ 10 E R R -I A @ 20 n D C G @ 5 n D C G @ 10 n

  2. Does Introductory Economic Course Venue Affect Economic Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehler, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the level of a student's performance based on incoming knowledge in an intermediate macroeconomic and microeconomic course at a major mid-western university. Analysis of student understanding of specific economic concepts was accessed through the Test of Understanding College Economics, 4th Edition (TUCE) (Walstad,Watts &…

  3. Fabrication of three 2500-watt (thermal) strontium-90 heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, J.R.; Haff, K.W.; Tompkins, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    Three 2500-watt (thermal) heat sources were fabricated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the purpose of fueling a 500-watt (electric) thermoelectric generator as part of the US Department of Energy's Byproducts Utilization Program (BUP). Each of the sources, which are the largest ever assembled, consist of hot-pressed pellets of 90 Sr fluoride, doubly encapsulated in three Haynes-25 inner capsules and in a Hastelloy-S outer capsule. The total 90 Sr inventory of all three sources is 1.12 million curies. The sources were fabricated at the ORNL Fission Product Development Laboratory (FPDL), which is a facility that is capable of processing multi-megacurie quantities of radioactive materials, chiefly 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The source was tested to determine compliance with all of the IAEA Safety Series No. 33 requirements. The source fabrication, assembly, and testing are described in the presentation

  4. Design and Performance of 20 Watts Portable Solar Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Z A Abdul; Hazali, N; Hanafiah, M A K M; Abdullah, A A; Ismail, A F; Ruslan, M H; Sopian, K; Azmi, M S Mohd

    2012-01-01

    A new portable solar generator has been developed to generate electricity. It has the potential to replace petrol generator, widely used by peddlers at night markets (pasar malam). Conventional generators are heavy, oily, have high maintenance and use fossil fuel to generate electricity. The solar generator can generate 20 Watts of electricity. This amount of power can supply up to 96 hours of electricity for the purpose of lighting and running small electrical appliances. The power output is (alternating current) AC current using 150 Watts inverter with 200 Watts surge, suitable for all commercial single phase electric appliances. Solar charge controller is used to maximize the charging rate and to protect the battery. The system has low maintenance whereby the batteries need to be changed every three to four years, depending on the usage. The main concepts of portable solar generator are to reduce installation cost and to introduce a compact design of an optimal energy sizing system. The materials used to develop the solar generator can be easily obtained from local markets, thus reducing the cost of developing the system and making it suitable for commercialization.

  5. Secondhand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria J; Nebot, Manel; Albertini, Marco; Birkui, Pierre; Centrich, Francesc; Chudzikova, Monika; Georgouli, Maria; Gorini, Giuseppe; Moshammer, Hanns; Mulcahy, Maurice; Pilali, Maria; Serrahima, Eulalia; Tutka, Piotr; Fernandez, Esteve

    2008-11-01

    Although in the last few years some European countries have implemented smoking bans in hospitality venues, the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) in this occupational sector could still be extremely high in most countries. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to SHS in hospitality venues in 10 European cities. We included 167 hospitality venues (58 discotheques and pubs, 82 restaurants and cafeterias, and 27 fast-food restaurants) in this cross-sectional study. We carried out fieldwork in 10 European cities: Vienna (Austria), Paris (France), Athens (Greece), Florence and Belluno (Italy), Galway (Ireland), Barcelona (Spain), Warsaw and Lublin (Poland), and Bratislava (Slovak Republic). We measured vapor-phase nicotine as an SHS marker. We analyzed 504 samples and found nicotine in most samples (97.4%). We found the highest median concentrations in discos/pubs [32.99 microg/m(3); interquartile range (IQR), 8.06-66.84 microg/m(3)] and lower median concentrations in restaurants/cafeterias (2.09 microg/m(3); IQR, 0.49-6.73 microg/m(3)) and fast-food restaurants (0.31 microg/m(3); IQR, 0.11-1.30 microg/m(3)) (p Hospitality venues from European cities without smoking regulations have very high levels of SHS exposure. Monitoring of SHS on a regular basis as well as a total smoking ban in hospitality sector would be needed.

  6. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  7. A critical analysis of the NegaWatt scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The author proposes a rather radical critical analysis of the NegaWatt scenario which is mainly based on the development of the use of solid and liquid biomass produced by forests and farms, and of some marginal resources like wood and urban wastes. He shows that wood resources in France are not sufficient as part of the wood is used for construction. A further exploitation of wood would lead to a dramatic increase of costs. He shows that the scenario overestimates the available wood in France, and moreover, that the promoters of the scenario overstep the physical, biological, social and economic limits of the real world of agriculture

  8. Statistical analysis and planning of multihundred-watt impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Waterman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Modular multihundred-watt (MHW) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) are used as a power source for spacecraft. Due to possible environmental contamination by radioactive materials, numerous tests are required to determine and verify the safety of the RTG. There are results available from 27 fueled MHW impact tests regarding hoop failure, fingerprint failure, and fuel failure. Data from the 27 tests are statistically analyzed for relationships that exist between the test design variables and the failure types. Next, these relationships are used to develop a statistical procedure for planning and conducting either future MHW impact tests or similar tests on other RTG fuel sources. Finally, some conclusions are given

  9. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinot Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1 an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2 a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3 a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  10. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. No Borders for Tobacco Smoke in Hospitality Venues in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Neuberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In public places many countries banned smoking as the most important indoor source of fine airborne particulate matter. In Austria partial bans have been in force since 2009, with exemptions for the hospitality industry. From February to October 2010 we investigated PM2.5 concentrations in the breathing area of guests in well frequented Viennese establishments of all sizes, and compared these chance indoor samples with PM2.5 concentrations measured during the same half hour at the next outdoor monitoring station. The laser particle counter (OPC1.108, Grimm® used for indoor measurements had been calibrated by ß-attenuation (FH 62 I-R, Eberline®, which was used outdoors. 48% of 112 venues visited did not fully comply with the law, notwithstanding its weakness.  Highest median concentrations (in µg/m3 were found in bars (443.7, followed by nightclubs/discotheques (421.1, pubs (147.7, cafes (106.1 and restaurants (23.4. Concentrations increased with number of smokers present (p < 0.01, with medians of 282.4/241,3/67.6/6.9 µg/m³ in smoking venues/smoking rooms/adjacent non-smoking rooms/exclusive non-smoking venues. Only for the latter, a significant correlation was found with outdoor concentrations (r = 0.48, p < 0.01, while concentrations in non-smoking rooms were higher (p < 0.01 and unrelated to outdoor concentrations, but significantly dependent on concentrations in the adjacent smoking room (r = 0.64, p < 0.01. In conclusion, the partial smoking ban failed and guests of Viennese hospitality venues continue to risk disease from passive smoking, even in so-called “non-smoking rooms”, which are second-hand smoke rooms.

  12. Acoustics of a Music Venue/Bar—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani Ramakrishnan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A vacant unit, once used by a Portuguese Deli, was converted to a bar/music room in Toronto. The unit was divided into two spaces along its north-south axis. The western portion was designed as a music room that would provide a performance space from a solo artist to a Jazz combo to a small rock band. The eastern part was designed as a regular bar/dining area. The plan also called for a microbrewery unit at the back of the unit. The bar music can be loud, while the music room can be pianissimo to forte depending on the type of performance. The acoustical design aspects are critical for the music room. In addition, the acoustical separation between the two spaces is equally important. The music room/bar is currently in use. The design results are compared to actual field measurements. The results showed that the music venue performed satisfactorily. The acoustical separation between the music venue and the bar/restaurant was better than expected other than an installation deficiency of the south side sound lock doors. The background sound along the northern portion was NC-35 or less. However, the southern portion’s background sound exceeded NC-35 due to the hissing of the return air grille. The acoustical design and the performance results of the music venue-bar/restaurant are presented in this paper.

  13. Development of the Sixty Watt Heat-Source hardware components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, D.C.; Wyder, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Sixty Watt Heat Source is a nonvented heat source designed to provide 60 thermal watts of power. The unit incorporates a plutonium-238 fuel pellet encapsulated in a hot isostatically pressed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium clad vent set. A molybdenum liner sleeve and support components isolate the fueled iridium clad from the T-111 strength member. This strength member serves as the pressure vessel and fulfills the impact and hydrostatic strength requirements. The shell is manufactured from Hastelloy S which prevents the internal components from being oxidized. Conventional drawing operations were used to simplify processing and utilize existing equipment. The deep drawing reqirements for the molybdenum, T-111, and Hastelloy S were developed from past heat source hardware fabrication experiences. This resulted in multiple step drawing processes with intermediate heat treatments between forming steps. The molybdenum processing included warm forming operations. This paper describes the fabrication of these components and the multiple draw tooling developed to produce hardware to the desired specifications. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. The 2017-2050 NegaWatt Scenario. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The NegaWatt Association has released a new version of its 2050 energy outlook. Using improved and updated data, as well as refined tools and calculations, it confirms that France can reach 100% renewable energy by 2050 while phasing-out nuclear. The NegaWatt approach leads to achieving the energy transition, meeting the objectives of the Paris Climate Deal, and generating net benefits for the French economy, as confirmed by a financial and job assessment. First issued in 2003, and updated several times since then, our 2050 energy scenario for France is now a well acknowledged and recognised thorough piece of work to discuss the country's energy future, and options to engage in a sustainable energy transition. The scenario is supported by a large number of civil society organisations, and has been considered in official assessment studies and national energy debates. Covering all sectors (buildings, transport, industry, agriculture...) through thousands of parameters and sophisticated details, it shows how France could shift to a climate-friendly, nuclear-free, and sustainable energy future through an approach based on: energy sufficiency (favouring low energy services and lifestyles); energy efficiency (ensuring that energy is used in the most productive way); renewables (developing first the greenest forms of energy for our supply)

  15. Venues, Patrons, and Alcohol Use Dynamics: The Creation of a High Risk Sexual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922

  16. Venues, patrons, and alcohol use dynamics: the creation of a high risk sexual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk.

  17. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Gross, Ian G.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hill, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor

  18. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  19. Watts Bar Unit 2 Startup Results with VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gentry, Cole A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ritchie, John A. [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    CASL members TVA, Westinghouse, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have successfully completed a detailed simulation of the initial startup of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 2 (WBN2) using the advanced reactor simulation tools known as VERA. WBN2 is the first commercial power reactor to join the nation’s electrical grid in over two decades, and the modern core design and availability of data make it an excellent benchmark for CASL. Calculations were performed three months prior to the startup, and in the first blind application of VERA to a new reactor, predicted criticality and physics parameters very close to those later measured by TVA. Subsequent calculations with the latest version of VERA and using exact measurement conditions improved the results even further.

  20. Parametric instability in the Watt governor with periodic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    In this work we examine a potential source of instability in the Watt governor, which can occur when the governor is subjected to periodic variation of the load torque. Floquet analysis is used to obtain the condition for existence of the unstable solutions, and results are obtained which supplement the usual Maxwell–Vyshnegradskii conditions for governor stability. Pedagogically, this paper is relevant for senior undergraduate students. It presents a detailed yet simple exposition of classical Floquet theory, a subject often ignored in undergraduate education even though the related concept of Bloch's theorem is popular in quantum mechanics courses. At the same time, it touches on certain practical engineering applications of physical concepts, with its discussion on mechanical governors. (paper)

  1. Watt-level wireless power transmission to multiple compact receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraud, A; Munzer, D J; Althar, M; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) system using a low-frequency (300 Hz) magnetic field to transmit watt-scale power levels to multiple compact receivers. As compared to inductively or resonantly coupled coils, EWPT facilitates transmission to multiple non-interacting receivers with little restriction on their orientation. A single 3.0 cm 3 receiver achieves 1.25 W power transmission with 8% efficiency at a distance of 1 cm (350 mW/cm 3 power density) from the transmitter. The same prototype achieves 9 mW at a distance of 9 cm. Moreover, we demonstrate simultaneous recharge of two wearable devices, using two receivers located in arbitrary positions and orientations. (paper)

  2. Should the next standby power target be 0-watt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Siderius, Hans-Paul [Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend (Netherlands)

    2017-06-29

    The standby power use of appliances continues to consume large amounts of electricity. Considerable success has been made in reducing each device’s use, but these savings have been offset by a huge increase in the number of products using standby power and new power requirements for maintaining network connections. Current strategies to reduce standby have limitations and may not be most appropriate for emerging energy consumption trends. A new strategy for further reductions in standby, the “Standzero” option, encourages electrical products to be designed to operate for short periods without relying on mains-supplied electricity. Energy savings are achieved through enhanced efficiency and by harvesting ambient energy. A sensitivity analysis suggests many appliances could be designed to operate for at least an hour without relying on mains power and, in some cases, may be able to operate indefinitely at zero watts until activated.

  3. World: 2508 nuclear tera-watts hour in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the nuclear power plants have produced 2508 tera-watts hour, that is to say 16% of the normal electricity production or 35% of the European electric production. At the end of 1999, 443 reactors were in operation, 53 were in building and 13 put in an order in the world. 5 reactors have been coupled to the network in South Korea, in France, in India, in Slovakia and 2 have been definitively stopped (Kazakhstan and Sweden). 1999 has seen the beginning of construction for 8 reactors (China, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan). The nuclear power has covered 40 % of needs for 8 countries: France (75%), Lithuania (73%) Belgium (58%), Sweden (46%), Slovakia (45%), Ukraine (43.5%), South Korea ( 43%), Bulgaria ( 41.5%). 18 countries have used nuclear energy to cover at least 25% of their needs. (N.C.)

  4. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Bar Dams AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority. ACTION: Issuance of Record of Decision. SUMMARY: This... the dam safety modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams. The notice of... Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams was published in the Federal Register on May 31, 2013. This...

  5. The Frequency-Watt Function: Simulation and Testing for the Hawaiian Electric Companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Anderson F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Jin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mahmud, Rasel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elkhatib, Mohamed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antonio, Chris [Hawaiian Electric Companies, Honolulu, HI (United States); Arakawa, Dean [Hawaiian Electric Companies, Honolulu, HI (United States); Fong, Ken [Hawaiian Electric Companies, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-07-25

    This interim report describes research related to frequency-watt control of solar photovoltaic (PV) inverters conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) by a regional partnership for Hawaii. The purpose of this report is to inform an ongoing discussion around frequency-watt control activation in Hawaii.

  6. Reuse of Expired Cefort Drug in Nickel Electrodeposition From Watts Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Andrada Duca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility to use ceftriaxone (CEFTR active compound from expired Cefort as additive in nickel electrodeposition from Watts baths. Electrochemical behaviour and the influence of CEFTR on nickel electroplating were studied by electrochemical methods. Experimental data recommends CEFTR as additive in nickel electroplating from Watts baths.

  7. Annual radiological environmental monitoring report: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) in 1991. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas that will not be influenced by plant operations. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. During plant operations, results from stations near the plant will be compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts to the public. Exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials, from materials commonly found in the environment a a result of atmospheric fallout, or from the operation of other nuclear facilities in the area. Since WBN has not operated, there has been no contribution of radioactivity from the plant to the environment

  8. Annual radiological environmental monitoring report, Watts Bar Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) in 1988. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas that will not be influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. During plant operations, results from stations near the plant will be compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts to the public. The exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials, from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric fallout, or from the operation of other nuclear facilities in the area. Since WBN has not operated, there has been no contribution of radioactivity from the plant to the environment. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Annual radiological environmental monitoring report: Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the preoperational environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas that will not be influenced by plant operations. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. During plant operations, results from stations near the plant will be compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts to the public. Exposures calculated from environmental samples were contributed by naturally occurring radioactive materials, from materials commonly found in the environment as a result of atmospheric fallout, or from the operation of other nuclear facilities in the area. Since WBN has not operated, there has been no contribution of radioactivity from the plant to the environment

  10. 76 FR 70169 - Draft Supplement 2 to Final Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2; Tennessee Valley Authority... on NUREG-0498, ``Final Environmental Statement, Supplement 2, Related to the Operation of Watts Bar... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Stephen J. Campbell, Chief, Watts Bar Special Projects Branch...

  11. 76 FR 80409 - Draft Supplement 2 to Final Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2; Tennessee Valley Authority..., Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant [WBN], Unit 2--Draft Report for Comment'' (draft SFES.... Stephen J. Campbell, Chief, Watts Bar Special Projects Branch, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing...

  12. Competing contact processes in the Watts-Strogatz network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Marcin; Malarz, Krzysztof; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    We investigate two competing contact processes on a set of Watts-Strogatz networks with the clustering coefficient tuned by rewiring. The base for network construction is one-dimensional chain of N sites, where each site i is directly linked to nodes labelled as i ± 1 and i ± 2. So initially, each node has the same degree k i = 4. The periodic boundary conditions are assumed as well. For each node i the links to sites i + 1 and i + 2 are rewired to two randomly selected nodes so far not-connected to node i. An increase of the rewiring probability q influences the nodes degree distribution and the network clusterization coefficient 𝓒. For given values of rewiring probability q the set 𝓝(q)={𝓝1,𝓝2,...,𝓝 M } of M networks is generated. The network's nodes are decorated with spin-like variables s i ∈ { S,D }. During simulation each S node having a D-site in its neighbourhood converts this neighbour from D to S state. Conversely, a node in D state having at least one neighbour also in state D-state converts all nearest-neighbours of this pair into D-state. The latter is realized with probability p. We plot the dependence of the nodes S final density n S T on initial nodes S fraction n S 0. Then, we construct the surface of the unstable fixed points in (𝓒, p, n S 0) space. The system evolves more often toward n S T for (𝓒, p, n S 0) points situated above this surface while starting simulation with (𝓒, p, n S 0) parameters situated below this surface leads system to n S T =0. The points on this surface correspond to such value of initial fraction n S * of S nodes (for fixed values 𝓒 and p) for which their final density is n S T=1/2.

  13. Third generation development of an 11-watt Stirling converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, W.L.; Ross, B.A.; Penswick, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes recent design enhancements, performance results, and development of an artificial neural network (ANN) model related to the Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG), an 11-watt converter designed for remote power applications. Design enhancements include minor changes to improve performance, increase reliability, facilitate fabrication and assembly for limited production, and reduce mass. Innovative modifications were effected to increase performance and improve reliability of the vacuum foil insulation (VFI) package and linear alternator. High and low operating temperature acceptance testing of the Engineering Model (EM) demonstrated the robust system characteristics. These tests were conducted for 1 week of operation each, with rejector temperatures of 95 C and 20 C, respectively. Endurance testing continues for a complete Stirling converter, the Development Model (DM), with over 25,000 hours of maintenance-free operation. Endurance testing of flexures has attained over 540 flexure-years and endurance testing of linear motors/alternators has achieved nearly 27,000 hours of operation without failure. An ANN model was developed and tested successfully on the DM. Rejection temperatures were varied between 3 C and 75 C while load voltages ranged between engine stall and displacer overstroke. The trained ANN model, based solely on externally measured parameters, predicted values of piston amplitude, displacer amplitude, and piston-displacer phase angle within ±2% of the measured values over the entire operating regime. The ANN model demonstrated its effectiveness in the long-term evaluation of free-piston Stirling machines without adding the complexity, reduced reliability, and increased cost of sophisticated diagnostic instrumentation

  14. Music venues and hearing loss: Opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions in order to reduce the risk for music-induced hearing loss in people who attend music venues. Individual semi-structured interviews were held with 20 representatives of music venues and of governmental

  15. Design and Implementation of Online Booking System of University Sports Venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the imbalanced use of university sports venues, the online booking system of university sports venues based on the table tennis hall of Zhengzhou University is designed, combining the experience of the existing online booking systems, the main methods and the major ideal of building these systems both at home and aboard. The basic functions of the system are designed according to the general requirement analysis, including user’s registration and login, online venue booking, online payment, personal center, message board and database construction. The development of the system used Java programming language, JSP (a Web platform development technology, MySQL database processing technology, JDBC data access model, MyEclipse development platform and Tomcat server. The system has accomplished such functions as online booking, online payment and online message. The tests of the system are run in good conditions. The use of the system has made up for the current luck of sports venues management, solved the problems of the online booking function of university sports venues, improved the efficiency of the venues and meet the needs of efficient use of the venues. The system can be an experience of the management of the other college sports venues.

  16. Intermediate steps towards the 2000-Watt society in Switzerland: an energy-economic scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation by Thorsten Frank Schulz the intermediate steps necessary to realise the 2000-Watt Society in Switzerland are examined. An analysis of an energy-economic scenario shows that the 2000-Watt Society should be seen as a long-term goal. According to the author, the major changes required to allow the implementation of this project concern energy-transformation and energy-demand technologies. Electricity will, according to the author, play an important role in a service-oriented society in the future. In such a transformation even intermediate steps are associated with considerable expense. The aims of the 2000-Watt Society project are listed. Energy and CO 2 balances for the domestic and transport sectors are presented and discussed. Complementary analyses are presented concerning fuel cells and wood-based fuel technologies. Finally, the implications of the 2000-Watt society and the effects of technological change are summarised and an outlook is presented

  17. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y W [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, L F [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, J P [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-07-20

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property.

  18. The Watts-Strogatz network model developed by including degree distribution: theory and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y W; Zhang, L F; Huang, J P

    2007-01-01

    By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property

  19. Noisy probability judgment, the conjunction fallacy, and rationality: Comment on Costello and Watts (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya

    2016-01-01

    According to Costello and Watts (2014), probability theory can account for key findings in human judgment research provided that random noise is embedded in the model. We concur with a number of Costello and Watts's remarks, but challenge the empirical adequacy of their model in one of their key illustrations (the conjunction fallacy) on the basis of recent experimental findings. We also discuss how our argument bears on heuristic and rational thinking. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; López, María José; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Fernández, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5μm (PM(2.5)) as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study from October to December 2007. The study population consisted of 40 hospitality venues in Barcelona selected by a random route sampling, with representation of the different types of smoking regulation included in the law (smoking allowed, smoking ban and venues with smoking areas). SHS levels were quantified by measuring PM(2.5) concentrations, which were measured using a laser photometer (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor). The measurements were carried out for 5 minutes outside the venue and for 30 minutes inside the venue. In addition, observational variables related to the characteristics of the venue and signs of tobacco consumption were recorded. The concentration of PM(2.5) in venues where smoking was still allowed was five times higher than that in venues where smoking was banned (182μg/m(3) and 34μg/m(3), respectively) and exceeded the concentration established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as harmful (35μg/m(3)). However, in venues where smoking was banned, the concentration was lower than the EPA standard and there were no significant differences with the outdoor PM(2.5) concentration. Two years after the introduction of the Spanish smoking law, SHS exposure in venues where smoking was allowed was q still very high, representing a significant health risk for hospitality workers. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction of a new watt balance with the goal to realize the kilogram in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlamminger, Stephan; Haddad, Darine; Seifert, Frank; Chao, Leon; Newell, David; Pratt, Jon

    2015-04-01

    A watt balance is a mechanical device that compares mechanical power to electrical power. Since electrical power is measured using quantum physics by employing the Josephson effect and the Quantum Hall effect, electrical power can be measured as a product of a known factor, two frequencies, and the Planck constant h. Mechanical power is given by mgv , where m is the mass of a weight, g the local acceleration, and v the velocity. Hence, the watt balance provides a link between mass and Planck's constant. Currently several watt balances worldwide are employed to measure h. A redefinition of the international system of units (SI) is currently in discussion and may become reality as early as 2018. In the new SI, the numerical value of the Planck constant will be fixed and the watt balance is a means to realize the unit of mass. Researchers at NIST are preparing for a new SI and we have started in 2011 with plans to design a new watt balance capable of realizing the kilogram with relative uncertainties of a few parts in 108. Construction of the new watt balance has started in 2014. In my talk, I will show some of the latest results achieved with this apparatus.

  2. Drinking Games as a Venue for Sexual Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana S. E. Hone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on sexual selection theory, we hypothesized that sex differences in mating effort and social competitiveness—and subsequent sex differences in sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games—are responsible for the well-documented sex differences in college students' drinking game behaviors. Participants in a cross-sectional study were 351 women and 336 men aged 17 to 26. In a mediation model, we tested sex differences in mating effort, social competitiveness, sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games, drinking game behaviors, and alcohol-related problems. Men participated in drinking games more frequently, consumed more alcohol while participating in drinking games, and experienced more problems associated with drinking. These sex differences appeared to be partially mediated by mating effort, social competitiveness, and sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games. Drinking games are a major venue in which college students engage in heavy episodic drinking, which is a risk factor for college students' behavioral and health problems. Thus, the functional perspective we used to analyze them here may help to inform public health and university interventions and enable better identification of at-risk students.

  3. Accessibility of Catering Service Venues and Adolescent Drinking in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Ren, Zhoupeng; Zhao, Jing; Chambers, Christina; Wang, Jinfeng; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-06-26

    This study assessed the association between accessibility of catering service venues and adolescents' alcohol use over the previous 30 days. The data were collected from cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014, 2223 students at 27 high schools in Chaoyang and Xicheng districts, Beijing using self-administered questionnaires to collect the adolescents information on socio-demographic characteristics and recent alcohol experiences. The accessibility of, and proximity to, catering service venues were summarized by weights, which were calculated by multiplication of the type-weight and the distance-weight. All sampled schools were categorized into three subgroups (low, middle, and high geographic density) based on the tertile of nearby catering service venues, and a multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed to explore variance between the school levels. Considering the setting characteristics, the catering service venues weighted value was found to account for 8.6% of the school level variance of adolescent alcohol use. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of drinking over the past 30-days among adolescents with medium and high accessibility of catering service venues were 1.17 (0.86, 1.57) and 1.47 (1.06, 2.02), respectively (p catering service venues around schools in China. Results suggest that the greater accessibility of catering service venues around schools is associated with a growing risk of recent drinking.

  4. Accessibility of Catering Service Venues and Adolescent Drinking in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the association between accessibility of catering service venues and adolescents’ alcohol use over the previous 30 days. The data were collected from cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014, 2223 students at 27 high schools in Chaoyang and Xicheng districts, Beijing using self-administered questionnaires to collect the adolescents information on socio-demographic characteristics and recent alcohol experiences. The accessibility of, and proximity to, catering service venues were summarized by weights, which were calculated by multiplication of the type-weight and the distance-weight. All sampled schools were categorized into three subgroups (low, middle, and high geographic density based on the tertile of nearby catering service venues, and a multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed to explore variance between the school levels. Considering the setting characteristics, the catering service venues weighted value was found to account for 8.6% of the school level variance of adolescent alcohol use. The odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of drinking over the past 30-days among adolescents with medium and high accessibility of catering service venues were 1.17 (0.86, 1.57 and 1.47 (1.06, 2.02, respectively (p < 0.001 for trend test. This study addressed a gap in the adolescent drinking influence by the catering service venues around schools in China. Results suggest that the greater accessibility of catering service venues around schools is associated with a growing risk of recent drinking.

  5. Secondhand smoke in waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katherine A; Magid, Hoda; Torrey, Christine; Rule, Ana M; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Susan, Jolie; Sun, Zhuolu; Abubaker, Salahaddin; Levshin, Vladimir; Çarkoğlu, Aslı; Radwan, Ghada Nasr; El-Rabbat, Maha; Cohen, Joanna; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking has risen in recent decades. Controlled studies suggest that waterpipe secondhand smoke (SHS) contains similar or greater quantities of toxicants than cigarette SHS, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Few studies have examined SHS from waterpipe tobacco in real-world settings. The purpose of this study was to quantify SHS exposure levels and describe the characteristics of waterpipe tobacco venues. In 2012-2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues (9 in Istanbul, 17 in Moscow, and 20 in Cairo). We administered venue questionnaires, conducted venue observations, and sampled indoor air particulate matter (PM2.5) (N=35), carbon monoxide (CO) (N=23), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs) (N=31), 4-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (N=43), and air nicotine (N=46). Venue characteristics and SHS concentrations were highly variable within and between cities. Overall, we observed a mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 5 (5) waterpipe smokers and 5 (3) cigarette smokers per venue. The overall median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) of venue mean air concentrations was 136 (82, 213) µg/m(3) for PM2.5, 3.9 (1.7, 22) ppm for CO, 68 (33, 121) ng/m(3) for p-PAHs, 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) ng/m(3) for NNK, and 5.3 (0.7, 14) µg/m(3) for nicotine. PM2.5, CO, and p-PAHs concentrations were generally higher in venues with more waterpipe smokers and cigarette smokers, although associations were not statistically significant. High concentrations of SHS constituents known to cause health effects indicate that indoor air quality in waterpipe tobacco venues may adversely affect the health of employees and customers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for multihundred-watt robotic missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bents, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) and linear alternator (LA) technology is combined with radioisotope heat sources to produce a compact dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) suitable for multihundred watt space application which appears competitive with advance radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). The small Stirling DIPS is scalable to multihundred watt power levels or lower. The FPSE/LA is a high efficiency convertor in sizes ranging from tens of kilowatts down to only a few watts. At multihundred watt unit size, the FPSE can be directly integrated with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) via radiative coupling; the resulting dynamic isotope power system has a size and weight that compares favorably with the advanced modular (Mod) RTG, but requires less than a third the amount of isotope fuel. Thus the FPSE extends the high efficiency advantage of dynamic systems into a power range never previously considered competitive for DIPS. This results in lower fuel cost and reduced radiological hazard per delivered electrical watt. 33 refs

  7. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  8. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2013-01-29

    The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study's aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. 1) Food venue availability within activity space - no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice - Shopping at farmers' markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers' markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store - those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Interventions aimed at

  9. Operations management and reform combining with the principles of public service of the university sports venue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keyi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low utilization rate of opening-use, backward management and unreasonable configurations, university sports venue cannot produce some economic benefits, which makes the operating expenses in college stadiums extremely tense. Even sometimes it comes to the precarious situation. Therefore, there should be an operations management reform for college sports venue. Firstly, the article analyzes the current situation of stadium operations management. Secondly, with the actual experience of the authors, this essay discussed on how to strengthen the operation and management of modem college sports venues and reform, which includes the way enhancing the training about modem operational management knowledge of college stadiums, strengthening the diversified operation of college stadiums, highlighting the "people-oriented" in college sports venue design concepts and vigorously developing the training services about stylistic aspects of youth and, etc.,

  10. The '2000-Watt per person'- industrial society - Utopia, vision or necessity?; Die '2000 Watt pro Kopf'-Industriegesellschaft - Utopie, Vision oder Notwendigkeit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochem, E

    2006-07-01

    This short article takes a look at the '2000-Watt per person' concept initially developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1998. The author is of the opinion that the concept is not utopian but a vision that can be realised - providing it is accepted socially and that politics can implement it. Further work on the concept done at the ETH over the years is listed and commented on. A diagram provides an overview of energy resources, energy transformation and energy flows to final energy consumption. The question as to if the realisation of such a '2000-Watt'-society is actually necessary is posed.

  11. A LEGO Watt balance: An apparatus to determine a mass based on the new SI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, L. S.; Schlamminger, S.; Newell, D. B.; Pratt, J. R.; Seifert, F.; Zhang, X.; Sineriz, G.; Liu, M.; Haddad, D.

    2015-11-01

    A global effort to redefine our International System of Units (SI) is underway, and the change to the new system is expected to occur in 2018. Within the newly redefined SI, the present base units will still exist but be derived from fixed numerical values of seven reference constants. In particular, the unit of mass (the kilogram) will be realized through a fixed value of the Planck constant h. A so-called watt balance, for example, can then be used to realize the kilogram unit of mass within a few parts in 108. Such a balance has been designed and constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. For educational outreach and to demonstrate the principle, we have constructed a LEGO tabletop watt balance capable of measuring a gram-level masses to 1% relative uncertainty. This article presents the design, construction, and performance of the LEGO watt balance and its ability to determine h.

  12. Reported fire safety and first-aid amenities in Airbnb venues in 16 American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Hudson R; Jones, Vanya C; Gielen, Andrea

    2018-05-07

    Airbnb helps hosts rent all or part of their home to guests as an alternative to traditional hospitality settings. Airbnb venues are not uniformly regulated across the USA. This study quantified the reported prevalence of fire safety and first-aid amenities in Airbnb venues in the USA. The sample includes 120 691 venues in 16 US cities. Proportions of host-reported smoke and carbon monoxide (CO) detectors, fire extinguishers and first-aid kits were calculated. The proportion of venues that reportedly contained amenities are as follows: smoke detectors 80% (n=96 087), CO detectors 57.5% (n=69 346), fire extinguishers 42% (n=50 884) and first-aid kits 36% (n=43 497). Among this sample of Airbnb venues, safety deficiencies were noted. While most venues had smoke alarms, approximately 1/2 had CO alarms and less than 1/2 reported having a fire extinguishers or first-aid kits. Local and state governments or Airbnb must implement regulations compliant with current National Fire Protection Association fire safety standards. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Constructing a Watts-Strogatz network from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Mozart B C; Kim, Seokjin; Huang, Rongbing

    2017-01-01

    Though the small-world phenomenon is widespread in many real networks, it is still challenging to replicate a large network at the full scale for further study on its structure and dynamics when sufficient data are not readily available. We propose a method to construct a Watts-Strogatz network using a sample from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution. Our method yields an estimated degree distribution which fits closely with that of a Watts-Strogatz network and leads into accurate estimates of network metrics such as clustering coefficient and degree of separation. We observe that the accuracy of our method increases as network size increases.

  14. Random walk in degree space and the time-dependent Watts-Strogatz model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa Grande, H. L.; Cotacallapa, M.; Hase, M. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a scheme that provides an analytical estimate for the time-dependent degree distribution of some networks. This scheme maps the problem into a random walk in degree space, and then we choose the paths that are responsible for the dominant contributions. The method is illustrated on the dynamical versions of the Erdős-Rényi and Watts-Strogatz graphs, which were introduced as static models in the original formulation. We have succeeded in obtaining an analytical form for the dynamics Watts-Strogatz model, which is asymptotically exact for some regimes.

  15. The '2000-Watt per person'- industrial society - Utopia, vision or necessity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochem, E.

    2006-01-01

    This short article takes a look at the '2000-Watt per person' concept initially developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1998. The author is of the opinion that the concept is not utopian but a vision that can be realised - providing it is accepted socially and that politics can implement it. Further work on the concept done at the ETH over the years is listed and commented on. A diagram provides an overview of energy resources, energy transformation and energy flows to final energy consumption. The question as to if the realisation of such a '2000-Watt'-society is actually necessary is posed

  16. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording: A Product Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  17. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter < 4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  18. A nonlinear q-voter model with deadlocks on the Watts-Strogatz graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna; Michal Suszczynski, Karol

    2014-07-01

    We study the nonlinear $q$-voter model with deadlocks on a Watts-Strogats graph. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we obtain so called exit probability and exit time. We determine how network properties, such as randomness or density of links influence exit properties of a model.

  19. Handling technology of Mega-Watt millimeter-waves for optimized heating of fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takita, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Idei, H.; Notake, T.; Shapiro, M.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Sauter, O.; Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Mutoh, T.

    2009-01-01

    Millimeter-wave components were re-examined for high power (Mega-Watt) and steady-state (greater than one hour) operation. Some millimeter-wave components, including waveguide joints, vacuum pumping sections, power monitors, sliding waveguides, and injection windows, have been improved for high

  20. Results of metallographical diagnostic examination of Navy half-watt thermoelectric converters degraded by accelerated tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, F.E. Jr.; Rouklove, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    To verify the 15-year reliability of the Navy half-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), bismuth--telluride thermoelectric converters were submitted to testing at high temperatures which accelerated the degradation and caused failure of the converters. Metallographic diagnostic examination of failed units verified failure mechanisms. Results of diagnostic examinations are presented

  1. Heuristics can produce surprisingly rational probability estimates: Comment on Costello and Watts (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Håkan; Juslin, Peter; Winman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Costello and Watts (2014) present a model assuming that people's knowledge of probabilities adheres to probability theory, but that their probability judgments are perturbed by a random noise in the retrieval from memory. Predictions for the relationships between probability judgments for constituent events and their disjunctions and conjunctions, as well as for sums of such judgments were derived from probability theory. Costello and Watts (2014) report behavioral data showing that subjective probability judgments accord with these predictions. Based on the finding that subjective probability judgments follow probability theory, Costello and Watts (2014) conclude that the results imply that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and thereby refute theories of heuristic processing. Here, we demonstrate the invalidity of this conclusion by showing that all of the tested predictions follow straightforwardly from an account assuming heuristic probability integration (Nilsson, Winman, Juslin, & Hansson, 2009). We end with a discussion of a number of previous findings that harmonize very poorly with the predictions by the model suggested by Costello and Watts (2014). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Rock the Watt: An Energy Conservation Campaign at Pacific Northwest National Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) three-month Rock the Watt campaign to reduce energy use at its main campus in Richland, Washington. The campaign objectives were to educate PNNL employees about energy conservation opportunities in their workplace and to motivate them to help PNNL save energy and costs and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Productive Resources in Students' Ideas about Energy: An Alternative Analysis of Watts' Original Interview Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students' ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper "Some alternative views of energy" ["Phys. Educ." 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts' "alternative frameworks"…

  4. Environmental secondhand smoke exposure and policy assessment at five venues in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, QingQing; Xu, ShuiYang; Xu, JinHang; Wan, Xia; Guo, YuJie

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental secondhand smoke exposure and tobacco control policy at 5 venues. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 134 settings and 2727 adults in Zhejiang, China. The results show that the proportions of venues that had complete smoking ban were as follows: health administrative organizations (71.9%), hospitals (70.0%), schools (66.7%), public transportation vehicles (24.0%), and government agencies (11.8%). The proportions of venues where smoking was noticed were as follows: public transportation vehicles (88.0%), government agencies (47.1%), hospitals (46.7%), health administrative organizations (40.6%), and schools (30.0%). Venues with completely indoor smoking ban were 5 times more likely to be smoke-free at the time of survey than other venues without smoking ban (odds ratio = 5.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.92-15.14). It indicated that implementation of indoor smoking ban can reduce indoor secondhand smoke exposure. © 2013 APJPH.

  5. Pediatric dentistry clinical education venues evaluation by pre and post-doctoral students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimstein, E; Mayes, A; Mittal, Hc

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate dental students' perspectives about pre- and post-doctoral pediatric dentistry education venues. Surveys with visual analog scales (from 0 to 100) measuring the educational contribution of pediatric dentistry venues were conducted. The pre-doctoral venues included a 3rd year university twilight clinic (UTC), a 3rd year urban community based clinic (CBC) and 4th year mobile clinics (MCs). The post-doctoral venues included treatment of children under general anesthesia, oral sedations, a regular clinic (no sedations), seminars, journal club, case conferences and studding for the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry. Analyses of variance between the scores indicated that the 3rd year CBC score (68.2 ± 4.5) was statistically significant higher (p= .007) than the one for the 3rd year UTC score (44.9 ± 6.1). The 4th year students' MCs score (61.4 ± 4.0) was statistically significant higher than their retrospective scores for the 3rd year CBC (56.4 ± 4.4) or UTC (42.2 ± 4.9) scores (p= .03 and .004 respectively). Among the didactic or clinical post-doctoral venues, the regular clinic and the seminars received the highest scores (84.3 ± 1.7 and 71.6 ± 2.8 respectively). pre-doctoral community-based clinical education and post-doctoral regular university based clinic are considered by students to provide the main contribution to pediatric dental education.

  6. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  7. Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, phospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of 350 MHz/1000 Watt intermediate power amplifier for 400 keV RFQ accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, M.M.; Patel, N.R.; Shinde, K.R.; Rao, M.K.V.; Handu, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two numbers of high power RF systems, each delivering around 35 to 40 kW of power at 350 MHz are being developed in BARC. These High Power Amplifiers (HPA) cater to the total need of 70 kW of RF power required by the 400 keV (Deuterium) RFQ accelerator. This RFQ will replace the existing 400 keV DC accelerator of 14 MeV Neutron Generator. The RFQ will accelerate a deuterium beam from 50 keV to 400 keV to impinge upon a tritium target inside a sub critical assembly. Each of these 35 / 40 KW HPA requires a drive power of around 1000 / 1500 Watt respectively. Hence a intermediate power amplifier (IPA) bas been designed to deliver the power of 1000 Watt at the rate of 350 MHz. The paper describes the development of this amplifier

  9. Constructing a Watts-Strogatz network from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart B C Menezes

    Full Text Available Though the small-world phenomenon is widespread in many real networks, it is still challenging to replicate a large network at the full scale for further study on its structure and dynamics when sufficient data are not readily available. We propose a method to construct a Watts-Strogatz network using a sample from a small-world network with symmetric degree distribution. Our method yields an estimated degree distribution which fits closely with that of a Watts-Strogatz network and leads into accurate estimates of network metrics such as clustering coefficient and degree of separation. We observe that the accuracy of our method increases as network size increases.

  10. Competing of Sznajd and Voter Dynamics in the Watts-Strogatz Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, M.; Kułakowski, K.

    We investigate the Watts-Strogatz network with the clustering coefficient C dependent on the rewiring probability. The network is an area of two opposite contact processes, where nodes can be in two states, S or D. One of the processes is governed by the Sznajd dynamics: if there are two connected nodes in D-state, all their neighbors become D with probability p. For the opposite process it is sufficient to have only one neighbor in state S; this transition occurs with probability 1. The concentration of S-nodes changes abruptly at given value of the probability p. The result is that for small p, in clusterized networks the activation of S nodes prevails. This result is explained by a comparison of two limit cases: the Watts-Strogatz network without rewiring, where C=0.5, and the Bethe lattice where C=0.

  11. Optimization of solar cell contacts by system cost-per-watt minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, D.

    1977-01-01

    New, and considerably altered, optimum dimensions for solar-cell metallization patterns are found using the recently developed procedure whose optimization criterion is the minimum cost-per-watt effect on the entire photovoltaic system. It is also found that the optimum shadow fraction by the fine grid is independent of metal cost and resistivity as well as cell size. The optimum thickness of the fine grid metal depends on all these factors, and in familiar cases it should be appreciably greater than that found by less complete analyses. The optimum bus bar thickness is much greater than those generally used. The cost-per-watt penalty due to the need for increased amounts of metal per unit area on larger cells is determined quantitatively and thereby provides a criterion for the minimum benefits that must be obtained in other process steps to make larger cells cost effective.

  12. NegaWatt 2011-2050 scenario - Hypotheses and method. Technical report, May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an analysis of the negaWatt 2011 scenario. It describes in detail the methodology adopted to elaborate this prospective scenario, and presents the major part of the hypotheses which structure this scenario. A first part presents the approach and methodology (constraints, scenario, model). The second part addresses the issue of energy saving and energy efficiency through a sector-based analysis (housing and office building, transports, industrial and agricultural production). The third part studies the substitution by renewable energies through a supply analysis: energy production based on biomass, renewable energies, and fissile and fossil energies. It outlines the major role of grids in the supply-demand balance. The results of the negaWatt 2011 scenario are presented in terms of final energy, primary energies, and impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Hypotheses and results related to the different sectors (building, transports, industry and agriculture, energy production) are given in appendix

  13. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Isler, M; Golin, C; Wang, J; Hughes, J; Justman, J; Haley, D; Kuo, I; Adimora, A; Chege, W; Hodder, S

    2016-06-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through Formal venues had "high" risk characteristics for HIV than through other venues and hence may pose less risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions can help women choose partners with fewer risk characteristics across all venue types.

  14. How important are venue-based HIV risks among male clients of female sex workers? A mixed methods analysis of the risk environment in nightlife venues in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Gallardo, Manuel; Nguyen, Lucie; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-05-01

    In 2008, 400 males ≥18 years old who paid or traded for sex with a female sex worker (FSW) in Tijuana, Mexico, in the past 4 months completed surveys and HIV/STI testing; 30 also completed qualitative interviews. To analyze environmental sources of HIV vulnerability among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, we used mixed methods to investigate correlates of clients who met FSWs in nightlife venues and clients' perspectives on venue-based HIV risk. Logistic regression identified micro-level correlates of meeting FSWs in nightlife venues, which were triangulated with clients' narratives regarding macro-level influences. In a multivariate model, offering increased pay for unprotected sex and binge drinking were micro-level factors that were independently associated with meeting FSWs in nightlife venues versus other places. In qualitative interviews, clients characterized nightlife venues as high risk due to the following macro-level features: social norms dictating heavy alcohol consumption; economic exploitation by establishment owners; and poor enforcement of sex work regulations in nightlife venues. Structural interventions in nightlife venues are needed to address venue-based risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Derivation and Implementation of a Model Teaching the Nature of Science Using Informal Science Education Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Burkett, Ruth; Leard, Cyndy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for using informal science education venues as contexts within which to teach the nature of science. The model was initially developed to enable university education students to teach science in elementary schools so as to be consistent with "National Science Education Standards" (NSES) (1996) and "A Framework for…

  16. Location and Venue | The Metastatic Niche: Models, Mechanisms and Targeting Targets into Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Location and Venue **EVENT CHANGE OF LOCATION:  **Building 10 (Clinical Center) - Masur Auditorium** Helpful links to locate the Masur Auditorium on the NIH campus:  https://www.ors.od.nih.gov/maps/Pages/NIH-Visitor-Map.aspx

  17. Gambling and the Multidimensionality of Accessibility: More than Just Proximity to Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna Christina; Bates, Glen; Moore, Susan; Kyrios, Michael; Meredyth, Denise; Jessop, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility to gambling has been linked to gambling behaviour but remains poorly understood. This study used data from semi-structured focus groups and interviews with 38 participants (Median age 42 years) to explore wider aspects of accessibility. People preferred venues which were open long hours and located close to home, work or regular…

  18. Double-Blind Review in Software Engineering Venues : The Community’s Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacchelli, A.; Beller, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The peer review process is central to the scientific method, the advancement and spread of research, as well as crucial for individual careers. However, the single-blind review mode currently used in most Software Engineering (SE) venues is susceptible to apparent and hidden biases, since reviewers

  19. Readings on L2 Reading: Publications in Other Venues 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.; Yu, Xiucheng, Ed.; Anderson, Britta, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This feature offers an archive of articles and books published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL") treating topics within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order by author, each with a complete reference as…

  20. Readings on L2 Reading: Publications in Other Venues 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Yu, Xiucheng, Ed.; Bishop, Tracy Van, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This feature offers an archive of articles and books published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order by author,…

  1. Readings on L2 Reading: Publications in Other Venues 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shenika, Ed.; Bernales, Carolina, Ed.; Romero-Ghiretti, Gabriela, Ed.; Dolosic, Haley, Ed.; Liu, Huan, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This feature offers an archive of articles published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each with a complete…

  2. Readings on L2 Reading: Publications in Other Venues 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.; Yu, Xiucheng, Ed.; Davis, Stacy, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This feature offers an archive of articles and books published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It deals with any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each…

  3. Readings on L2 Reading: Publications in Other Venues 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Schultz, Lyndsie; Aquino-Sterling, Cristian; Van Bishop, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This feature offers an archive of articles and books published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each with a…

  4. Readings on L2 Reading: Publications in Other Venues 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Dolosic, Haley, Ed.; Schultz, Lyndsie, Ed.; Aquino-Sterling, Cristian, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This feature offers an archive of articles published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each with a complete…

  5. What is the evidence for harm minimisation measures in gambling venues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rintoul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic gambling machines (EGMs in Australia and New Zealand constitutes the largest sector of the gambling industry. The costs arising from the harms of gambling detract significantly from its benefits, and in all Australian jurisdictions various policy measures have been implemented to reduce these harms. If successful, these would maximise the net benefits associated with EGM gambling. This article reviews the available evidence for a range of these practices, particularly those implemented within EGM venues via ‘codes of practice’. These codes of practice are intended to give effect to the principles of ‘responsible gambling’ within EGM venues. These measures are: self-exclusion, signage, messages, interaction with gamblers, the removal of ATMs from gambling venues, and ‘responsible gambling’ assessed overall in a venue context. In addition, we review the evidence in support of two major recommendations of the Productivity Commission’s 2010 report into gambling, pre-commitment and one-dollar maximum wagers. We conclude that there is a modest level of evidence supporting some measures, notably self-exclusion and, to a greater extent, the removal of ATMs. There is also some evidence that ‘responsible gambling’ measures have, collectively, reduced the harms associated with gambling. However, there is limited evidence to confirm the effectiveness of most individual ‘responsible gambling’ measures actually implemented in venues. Further, policy measures implemented outside the control of venues (such as ATM removal, reduction in bet limits, and the prohibition of smoking appear to be associated with more significant effects, based on analysis of EGM revenue data in Victoria. The evidence for prospective measures is necessarily limited since the ultimate test is post-implementation efficacy, but there is growing evidence to suggest that pre-commitment, one-dollar maximum bets or other machine design changes may

  6. Sex Venue-Based Network Analysis to Identify HIV Prevention Dissemination Targets for Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupa R; Luke, Douglas A; Proctor, Enola K; Powderly, William G; Chan, Philip A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Harrison, Laura C; Dhand, Amar

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sex venue-based networks among men who have sex with men (MSM) to inform HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) dissemination efforts. Using a cross-sectional design, we interviewed MSM about the venues where their recent sexual partners were found. Venues were organized into network matrices grouped by condom use and race. We examined network structure, central venues, and network subgroups. Among 49 participants, the median age was 27 years, 49% were Black and 86% reported condomless anal sex (ncAS). Analysis revealed a map of 54 virtual and physical venues with an overlap in the ncAS and with condom anal sex (cAS) venues. In the ncAS network, virtual and physical locations were more interconnected. The ncAS venues reported by Blacks were more diffusely organized than those reported by Whites. The network structures of sex venues for at-risk MSM differed by race. Network information can enhance HIV prevention dissemination efforts among subpopulations, including PrEP implementation.

  7. Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: Smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Bilal, Usama; Fernández, Esteve; Valiente, Roberto; Escobar, Francisco J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Franco, Manuel

    2018-08-01

    After the implementation of smoke-free policies in indoor hospitality venues (including bars, cafeterias, restaurants, and pubs), smokers may have been displaced to their outdoor areas. We aimed to study smoking visibility and second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues. We collected information on signs of tobacco consumption on entrances and terraces of hospitality venues in 2016 in the city of Madrid, Spain. We further measured airborne nicotine concentrations and particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) in terraces with monitors by active sampling during 30 min. We calculated the medians and the interquartile ranges (IQR) of nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations, and fitted multivariate models to characterize their determinants. We found 202 hospitality venues between May and September (summer), and 83 between October and December 2016 (fall) that were opened at the time of observation. We found signs of tobacco consumption on 78.2% of the outdoor main entrances and on 95.1% of outdoor terraces. We measured nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations in 92 outdoor terraces (out of the 123 terraces observed). Overall median nicotine concentration was 0.42 (IQR: 0.14-1.59) μg/m 3 , and overall PM2.5 concentration was 10.40 (IQR: 6.76-15.47) μg/m 3 (statistically significantly higher than the background levels). Multivariable analyses showed that nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations increased when the terraces were completely closed, and when tobacco smell was noticed. Nicotine concentrations increased with the presence of cigarette butts, and when there were more than eight lit cigarettes at a time. Outdoor hospitality venues are areas where non-smokers, both employees and patrons, continue to be exposed to second-hand smoke. These spaces should be further studied and considered in future tobacco control interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contributions to early HIV diagnosis among patients linked to care vary by testing venue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trott Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Early HIV diagnosis reduces transmission and improves health outcomes; screening in non-traditional settings is increasingly advocated. We compared test venues by the number of new diagnoses successfully linked to the regional HIV treatment center and disease stage at diagnosis. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using structured chart review of newly diagnosed HIV patients successfully referred to the region's only HIV treatment center from 1998 to 2003. Demographics, testing indication, risk profile, and initial CD4 count were recorded. Results There were 277 newly diagnosed patients meeting study criteria. Mean age was 33 years, 77% were male, and 46% were African-American. Median CD4 at diagnosis was 324. Diagnoses were earlier via partner testing at the HIV treatment center (N = 8, median CD4 648, p = 0.008 and with universal screening by the blood bank, military, and insurance companies (N = 13, median CD4 483, p = 0.05 than at other venues. Targeted testing by health care and public health entities based on patient request, risk profile, or patient condition lead to later diagnosis. Conclusion Test venues varied by the number of new diagnoses made and the stage of illness at diagnosis. To improve the rate of early diagnosis, scarce resources should be allocated to maximize the number of new diagnoses at screening venues where diagnoses are more likely to be early or alter testing strategies at test venues where diagnoses are traditionally made late. Efforts to improve early diagnosis should be coordinated longitudinally on a regional basis according to this conceptual paradigm.

  9. Intermediate steps towards the 2000-Watt society in Switzerland: an energy-economic scenario analysis[Dissertation 17314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F

    2007-07-01

    In this dissertation by Thorsten Frank Schulz the intermediate steps necessary to realise the 2000-Watt Society in Switzerland are examined. An analysis of an energy-economic scenario shows that the 2000-Watt Society should be seen as a long-term goal. According to the author, the major changes required to allow the implementation of this project concern energy-transformation and energy-demand technologies. Electricity will, according to the author, play an important role in a service-oriented society in the future. In such a transformation even intermediate steps are associated with considerable expense. The aims of the 2000-Watt Society project are listed. Energy and CO{sub 2} balances for the domestic and transport sectors are presented and discussed. Complementary analyses are presented concerning fuel cells and wood-based fuel technologies. Finally, the implications of the 2000-Watt society and the effects of technological change are summarised and an outlook is presented.

  10. Analysis of AC and DC Lighting Systems with 150-Watt Peak Solar Panel in Denpasar Based on NASA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narottama, A. A. N. M.; Amerta Yasa, K.; Suwardana, I. W.; Sapteka, A. A. N. G.; Priambodo, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy on the Earth’s surface has different magnitudes on every longitude and latitude. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provides surface meteorology and solar energy database which can be accessed openly online. This database delivers information about Monthly Averaged Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface, Monthly Averaged Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface At Indicated GMT Times and also data about Equivalent Number Of No-Sun Or Black Days for any latitude and longitude. Therefore, we investigate the lighting systems with 150-Watt peak solar panel in Denpasar City, the capital province of Bali. Based on NASA data, we analyse the received wattage by a unit of 150-Watt peak solar panel in Denpasar City and the sustainability of 150-Watt peak solar panel to supply energy for 432-Watt hour/day AC and 360-Watt hour/day DC lighting systems using 1.2 kWh battery. The result shows that the maximum received wattage by a unit of 150-Watt peak solar panel is 0.76 kW/day in October. We concluded that the 1.2 kWh installed battery has higher capacity than the battery capacity needed in March, the month with highest no-sun days, for both AC and DC lighting systems. We calculate that the installed battery can be used to store the sustainable energy from sun needed by AC and DC lighting system for about 2.78 days and 3.51 days, consecutively.

  11. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Mitsuzak, Naotoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Chen, Zhidong, E-mail: zdchen.lab@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials, Surface and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Material and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ChCl was applied as additive and conducting salt in Watts-type bath. • Progressive addition of ChCl leads to the crystal orientation (1 1 1) predominant. • The grain size and microhardness were refined and enhanced by increasing ChCl. • ChCl could be a good alternative to NiCl{sub 2} and additives for bright Ni electroplating. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl{sub 2}) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h{sup −1} when 20 g L{sup −1} ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  12. ISS National Laboratory Education Project: Enhancing and Innovating the ISS as an Educational Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Leland D.

    2011-01-01

    The vision is to develop the ISS National Laboratory Education Project (ISS NLE) as a national resource for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, utilizing the unique educational venue of the International Space Station per the NASA Congressional Authorization Act of 2005. The ISS NLE will serve as an educational resource which enables educational activities onboard the ISS and in the classroom. The ISS NLE will be accessible to educators and students from kindergarten to post-doctoral studies, at primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities. Additionally, the ISS NLE will provide ISS-related STEM education opportunities and resources for learners of all ages via informal educational institutions and venues Though U.S. Congressional direction emphasized the involvement of U.S. students, many ISS-based educational activities have international student and educator participation Over 31 million students around the world have participated in several ISS-related education activities.

  13. The role of diffusive architectural surfaces on auditory spatial discrimination in performance venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip W; Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio; Jang, Hyung Suk; Jeon, Jin Yong; Xiang, Ning

    2013-06-01

    In musical or theatrical performance, some venues allow listeners to individually localize and segregate individual performers, while others produce a well blended ensemble sound. The room acoustic conditions that make this possible, and the psycho-acoustic effects at work are not fully understood. This research utilizes auralizations from measured and simulated performance venues to investigate spatial discrimination of multiple acoustic sources in rooms. Signals were generated from measurements taken in a small theater, and listeners in the audience area were asked to distinguish pairs of speech sources on stage with various spatial separations. This experiment was repeated with the proscenium splay walls treated to be flat, diffusive, or absorptive. Similar experiments were conducted in a simulated hall, utilizing 11 early reflections with various characteristics, and measured late reverberation. The experiments reveal that discriminating the lateral arrangement of two sources is possible at narrower separation angles when reflections come from flat or absorptive rather than diffusive surfaces.

  14. Acoustic emission monitoring of preservice testing at Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Pappas, R.A.; Friesel, M.A.

    1985-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Plant in the US during hot functional preservice testing is described. Background, methodology, and results are included. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by the US NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing to AE monitoring during reactor operation. 3 refs., 6 figs

  15. Random walk in degree space and the time-dependent Watts-Strogatz model

    OpenAIRE

    Grande, H. L. Casa; Cotacallapa, M.; Hase, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a scheme that provides an analytical estimate for the time-dependent degree distribution of some networks. This scheme maps the problem into a random walk in degree space, and then we choose the paths that are responsible for the dominant contributions. The method is illustrated on the dynamical versions of the Erd\\"os-R\\'enyi and Watts-Strogatz graphs, which were introduced as static models in the original formulation. We have succeeded in obtaining an analytical for...

  16. Competing of Sznajd and voter dynamics in the Watts-Strogatz network

    OpenAIRE

    Rybak, Marcin; Kulakowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the Watts-Strogatz network with the clustering coefficient C dependent on the rewiring probability. The network is an area of two opposite contact processes, where nodes can be in two states, S or D. One of the processes is governed by the Sznajd dynamics: if there are two connected nodes in D-state, all their neighbors become D with probability p. For the opposite process it is sufficient to have only one neighbor in state S; this transition occurs with probability 1. The conc...

  17. Texture and microstructure evolution in nickel electrodeposited from an additive-free Watts electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Nickel layers with 〈100〉, 〈210〉, 〈110〉 and 〈211〉 fiber textures were electrodeposited from additive-free Watts type electrolytes by adjusting both the pH and the applied current density. Quantitative crystallographic texture analysis by XRD was supplemented by micro-texture analysis applying EBSD....... While XRD results correspond to absorption-weighted averages over the top part of the layer, EBSD on the cross section allowed studying the texture evolution as a function of distance to the substrate. Although layer growth started on amorphous substrates, implying that nucleation occurs unbiased...

  18. Lead test assembly irradiation and analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to confirm the viability of using a commercial light water reactor (CLWR) as a potential source for maintaining the nation's supply of tritium. The Proposed Action discussed in this environmental assessment is a limited scale confirmatory test that would provide DOE with information needed to assess that option. This document contains the environmental assessment results for the Lead test assembly irradiation and analysis for the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee, and the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  19. Chaos in complex motor networks induced by Newman—Watts small-world connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Du-Qu; Luo Xiao-Shu; Zhang Bo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how dynamical behaviours of complex motor networks depend on the Newman—Watts small-world (NWSW) connections. Network elements are described by the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with the values of parameters at which each individual PMSM is stable. It is found that with the increase of connection probability p, the motor in networks becomes periodic and falls into chaotic motion as p further increases. These phenomena imply that NWSW connections can induce and enhance chaos in motor networks. The possible mechanism behind the action of NWSW connections is addressed based on stability theory. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. OMEGA EP: High-energy peta-watt capability for the OMEGA laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.H.; Waxer, L.J.; Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Bromage, J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Kessler, T.J.; Loucks, S.J.; Maywar, D.N.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Oliver, J.B.; Rigatti, A.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Stoeckl, C.; Dalton, S.; Folnsbee, L.; Guardalben, M.J.; Jungquist, R.; Puth, J.; Shoup III, M.J.; Weiner, D.; Zuegel, J.D. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a peta-watt-class addition to the existing 30-kJ, 60-beam OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester. When completed, it will consist of four beamlines, each capable of producing up to 6.5 kJ at 351 nm in a 1 to 10 ns pulse. Two of the beamlines will produce up to 2.6 kJ in a pulse-width range of 1 to 100 ps at 1053 nm using chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). This paper reviews both the OMEGA EP performance objectives and the enabling technologies required to meet these goals. (authors)

  1. OMEGA EP: High-energy peta-watt capability for the OMEGA laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.H.; Waxer, L.J.; Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Bromage, J.; Kruschwitz, B.E.; Kessler, T.J.; Loucks, S.J.; Maywar, D.N.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Morse, S.F.B.; Oliver, J.B.; Rigatti, A.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Stoeckl, C.; Dalton, S.; Folnsbee, L.; Guardalben, M.J.; Jungquist, R.; Puth, J.; Shoup III, M.J.; Weiner, D.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a peta-watt-class addition to the existing 30-kJ, 60-beam OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester. When completed, it will consist of four beamlines, each capable of producing up to 6.5 kJ at 351 nm in a 1 to 10 ns pulse. Two of the beamlines will produce up to 2.6 kJ in a pulse-width range of 1 to 100 ps at 1053 nm using chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). This paper reviews both the OMEGA EP performance objectives and the enabling technologies required to meet these goals. (authors)

  2. Analysis of carbon monoxide production in multihundred-watt heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Mulford, R.N.R.

    1976-05-01

    The production of carbon monoxide observed within Multihundred Watt heat sources placed under storage conditions was analyzed. Results of compositional and isotopic analyses of gas taps performed on eight heat sources are summarized and interpreted. Several proposed CO generation mechanisms are examined theoretically and assessed by applying thermodynamic principles. Outgassing of the heat source graphite followed by oxygen isotopic exchange through the vent assemblies appears to explain the CO production at storage temperatures. Reduction of the plutonia fuel sphere by the CO is examined as a function of temperature and stoichiometry. Experiments that could be performed to investigate possible CO generation mechanisms are discussed

  3. Narrow linewidth picosecond UV pulsed laser with mega-watt peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunning; Deibele, Craig; Liu, Yun

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) burst mode laser system that generates 66 ps/402.5 MHz pulses with mega-watt peak power at 355 nm. The seed laser consists of a single frequency fiber laser (linewidth laser is operating in a 5-μs/10-Hz macropulse mode. The laser output has a transform-limited spectrum with a very narrow linewidth of individual longitudinal modes. The immediate application of the laser system is the laser-assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

  4. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exponsure to secondhand smoke in offices and hospitality venues: before-and-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Nebot, Manel; López, María José; Ariza, Carles; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu Balboa, Marcela; Schiaffino, Anna; Muñoz, Glòria; Saltó i Cerezuela, Esteve; Fernández Muñoz, Esteve; Borràs Andrés, Josep Maria

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A smoking law was passed by the Spanish Parliament in December 2005 and was enforced by 1 January 2006. The law bans smoking in all indoor workplaces but only in some hospitality venues, because owners are allowed to establish a smoking zone (venues>100 m2) or to allow smoking without restrictions (venues

  5. Impact of the Spanish Smoking Law on Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Offices and Hospitality Venues: Before-and-After Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nebot, Manel; L?pez, Maria J.; Ariza, Carles; P?rez-R?os, M?nica; Fu, Marcela; Schiaffino, Anna; Mu?oz, Gloria; Salt?, Esteve; Fern?ndez, Esteve

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A smoking law was passed by the Spanish Parliament in December 2005 and was enforced by 1 January 2006. The law bans smoking in all indoor workplaces but only in some hospitality venues, because owners are allowed to establish a smoking zone (venues>100 m2) or to allow smoking without restrictions (venues

  6. Sports Venue Security: Public Policy Options for Sear 4-5 Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    team which commands the highest attendance is the world-renowned New York Yankees franchise . The Yankees games average 10,300 people per pre-season...spectator-patron buy -in to partner with the government and private sector for funding SEAR 4–5 venue security. As shown in Chapter III, the sports...now. Further, the sports ticket buying public has also accepted the purely for profit convenience fees already attached to sporting event ticket

  7. Occupational noise exposure and regulatory adherence in music venues in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barlow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in most working environments is an unwanted by-product of the process. In most countries, noise exposure for workers has been controlled by legislation for many years. In the music industry the "noise" is actually the "desired" product, and for a long time the UK entertainment industry was exempt from these regulations. From April 2008, however, it became regulated under the Noise at Work Regulations 2005, meaning that employers from orchestras to nightclubs are legally required to adhere to the same requirements (based on ISO 9612:2009 for controlling noise exposure for their staff that have been applied to other industries for many years. A key question is to what degree, 2 years after implementation, these employers are complying with their legal responsibilities to protect the staff from noise? This study assessed four public music venues where live and/or recorded music is regularly played. Thirty staff members in different roles in the venues were monitored using noise dosimetry to determine noise exposure. Questionnaires were used to determine work patterns, attitudes to noise and hearing loss, and levels of training about noise risk. Results showed that the majority of staff (70% in all venues exceeded the daily noise exposure limit value in their working shift. Use of hearing protection was rare (<30% and not enforced by most venues. The understanding of the hazard posed by noise was low, and implementation of the noise regulations was haphazard, with staff regularly exceeding regulatory limits. The implication is that the industry is failing to meet regulatory requirements.

  8. Occupational noise exposure and regulatory adherence in music venues in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher; Castilla-Sanchez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Noise in most working environments is an unwanted by-product of the process. In most countries, noise exposure for workers has been controlled by legislation for many years. In the music industry the "noise" is actually the "desired" product, and for a long time the UK entertainment industry was exempt from these regulations. From April 2008, however, it became regulated under the Noise at Work Regulations 2005, meaning that employers from orchestras to nightclubs are legally required to adhere to the same requirements (based on ISO 9612:2009) for controlling noise exposure for their staff that have been applied to other industries for many years. A key question is to what degree, 2 years after implementation, these employers are complying with their legal responsibilities to protect the staff from noise? This study assessed four public music venues where live and/or recorded music is regularly played. Thirty staff members in different roles in the venues were monitored using noise dosimetry to determine noise exposure. Questionnaires were used to determine work patterns, attitudes to noise and hearing loss, and levels of training about noise risk. Results showed that the majority of staff (70%) in all venues exceeded the daily noise exposure limit value in their working shift. Use of hearing protection was rare (industry is failing to meet regulatory requirements.

  9. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (Phospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed.

  10. Testosterone and cortisol responses in male soccer players: The effect of home and away venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Melissa; Wolfson, Sandy; Neave, Nick

    2017-08-01

    The present studies examined the influence of playing venue on psychobiological responses in male soccer players. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of a home advantage, wherein teams perform better at home than away. A recent focus has attempted to explain this advantage from a psychobiological perspective, with studies showing hormonal differences with regard to venue, game outcome, dominance and perceived stress. Two studies investigated testosterone and cortisol responses in relation to home and away venues. In an initial study of 18 male elite Premier League academy soccer players (age, 17.47, SD, 64), salivary cortisol levels were monitored in two competitive matches, both at home and away. Higher post-game cortisol levels were observed at home (p=0.002), with the team winning all its games. In a second study involving a 12 semi-professional group of players (age, 23.17, SD, 3.8), the same post-game cortisol findings at home were replicated (p=0.001), with this team losing all its games. No effects were observed for testosterone in either study. The results extend earlier research findings on the complex relationship which surrounds the psychobiological impact on the home advantage. The findings suggest that higher levels of stress are experienced by home players in their home matches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985). Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992). Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993). Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), and Supplement No. 15 (June 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos, 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  15. Patterns of sediment accumulation in Watts Bar Reservoir based on 137Cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.C.; Rose, K.A.; Cook, R.B.; Dearstone, K.C.; Brenkert, A.L.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has recently undertaken an environmental restoration program designed to achieve remediation of hazardous materials released from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The distribution of 137 Cs was investigated in sediments from Watts Barr Reservoir and the Clinch River as a possible marker for other contaminants released from the ORR. We have performed additional analyses on the data gathered for this study to investigate possible relationships between 137 Cs accumulation and reservoir characteristics. We found that 137 Cs deposition correlates with sedimentation rate, and soft mud layers of cores have higher 137 Cs levels than sandy mud or eroded soils. No correlation was found with water depth, distance from shore or distance from release source, but it is important to note the data were not collected to test for these effects. We estimate Watts Barr Reservoir contains 267 Ci of 137 Cs, with 7% of this total in the top 16 cm of sediment, and potentially available for biological accumulation. 2 refs

  16. The effect of Sao Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Jaqueline S; Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; Ferreira, Marizete M da C; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. RESULTS The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (phospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not.

  17. '…to whom it will be extremly Usefull.' Dr William Cullen's adoption of James Watt's copying machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, H

    2016-06-01

    Dr William Cullen (1710-1790) was a leading physician of the Enlightenment era. As professor in Edinburgh he became the most influential teacher of theoretical and practical medicine in 18th century Britain. A renowned private practitioner, Cullen systematically archived his postal 'consultations', now held by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Initially Cullen preserved his replies as transcriptions, but from April 1781 he began using a mechanical copier, newly devised by the Scottish engineer James Watt. This paper describes the development, promotion and functioning of Watt's copier and considers Cullen's own adoption of the machine. It is suggested that with Cullen's adoption of Watt's copier, medical record keeping entered a new historical phase comparable with the recent digital revolution.

  18. Development and integration of high straightness flexure guiding mechanisms dedicated to the METAS watt balance Mark II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosandier, F.; Eichenberger, A.; Baumann, H.; Jeckelmann, B.; Bonny, M.; Chatagny, V.; Clavel, R.

    2014-04-01

    There is a firm will in the metrology community to redefine the kilogram in the International System of units by linking it to a fundamental physical constant. The watt balance is a promising way to link the mass unit to the Planck constant h. At the Federal Institute of Metrology METAS a second watt balance experiment is under development. A decisive part of the METAS Mark II watt balance is the mechanical linear guiding system. The present paper discusses the development and the metrological characteristics of two guiding systems that were conceived by the Laboratoire de Systèmes Robotiques of EPFL and built using flexure mechanical elements. Integration in the new setup is also described.

  19. Modelling of electric characteristics of 150-watt peak solar panel using Boltzmann sigmoid function under various temperature and irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapteka, A. A. N. G.; Narottama, A. A. N. M.; Winarta, A.; Amerta Yasa, K.; Priambodo, P. S.; Putra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy utilized with solar panel is a renewable energy that needs to be studied further. The site nearest to the equator, it is not surprising, receives the highest solar energy. In this paper, a modelling of electrical characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panels using Boltzmann sigmoid function under various temperature and irradiance is reported. Current, voltage, temperature and irradiance data in Denpasar, a city located at just south of equator, was collected. Solar power meter is used to measure irradiance level, meanwhile digital thermometer is used to measure temperature of front and back panels. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage data was also collected at different temperature and irradiance level. Statistically, the electrical characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panel can be modelled using Boltzmann sigmoid function with good fit. Therefore, it can be concluded that Boltzmann sigmoid function might be used to determine current and voltage characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panel under various temperature and irradiance.

  20. Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhang, Xijiang; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Ning; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Zhenqiang; Aliyu, Muktar; Wu, Pingsheng; Jiang, Baofa; Jia, Yujiang

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2% ever used MA; 58.3% ever had unprotected commercial sex in the past month. The prevalence rates of syphilis and MA use were 2.5% and 33.0% for participants recruited from saunas, night clubs, bars or hotels; 2.7% and 28.3% for hair/beauty salon-based participants; and 4.5% and 15.8% for street-based participants. Street-based MA users were more likely to be single, non-Shandong residents, have first lifetime sex act at younger age, and recruited in 2008 (vs. 2006). Saunas, night clubs, bars, or hotels-based MA users were more likely to be younger, sex debut at younger age, have longer duration of sex work, have unprotected commercial sex, and be syphilis-infected. Hair/beauty salon-based MA users were more likely to be non-Shandong residents, younger, and to have unprotected commercial sex. Syphilis among the sauna-, night club-, bar-, or hotel-based participants was associated with MA use and ever receipt of HIV testing. Syphilis among the hair/beauty salon-based participants was associated with longer duration of sex work. MA users who frequent commercial sex venues are engaging in high-risk behaviors and are at risk for syphilis/other sexually transmitted diseases. Better-targeted intervention efforts to curtail the epidemics of MA use and HIV/syphilis should therefore take cognizance of the role of commercial sex venues as focal points of MA use and syphilis/sexually transmitted disease transmission.

  1. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottle, Troy A.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Landis, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO 2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO 2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO 2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the

  2. Correlates of HIV infection among street-based and venue-based sex workers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy Tc; Nguyen, Quoc C; Tran, Ha Tt; Schwandt, Michael; Lim, Hyun J

    2016-10-01

    Commercial sex work is one of the driving forces of the HIV epidemic across the world. In Vietnam, although female sex workers (FSWs) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV, little is known about the risk profile and associated factors for HIV infection among this population. There is a need for large-scale research to obtain reliable and representative estimates of the measures of association. This study involved secondary data analysis of the 'HIV/STI Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance' study in Vietnam in 2009-2010 to examine the correlates of HIV among FSWs. Data collected from 5298 FSWs, including 2530 street-based sex workers and 2768 venue-based sex workers from 10 provinces in Vietnam, were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. HIV prevalence among the overall FSW population was 8.6% (n = 453). However, when stratified by FSW subpopulations, HIV prevalence was 10.6% (n = 267) for street-based sex workers and 6.7% (n = 186) for venue-based sex workers. Factors independently associated with HIV infection in the multivariate analysis, regardless of sex work types, were injecting drug use, high self-perceived HIV risk, and age ≥ 25 years. Additional factors independently associated with HIV risk within each FSW subpopulation included having ever been married among street-based sex workers and inconsistent condom use with clients and having sex partners who injected drugs among venue-based sex workers. Apart from strategies addressing modifiable risk behaviours among all FSWs, targeted strategies to address specific risk behaviours within each FSW subpopulation should be adopted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottle, Troy A., E-mail: troy.hottle@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 370 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States); Bilec, Melissa M., E-mail: mbilec@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 153 Benedum Hall, 3700 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261-3949 (United States); Brown, Nicholas R., E-mail: nick.brown@asu.edu [Arizona State University, University Sustainability Practices, 1130 East University Drive, Suite 206, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Landis, Amy E., E-mail: amy.landis@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 375 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO{sub 2} eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO{sub 2} eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night

  4. Assessment of personal exposures to optical radiation in large entertainment venues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, R.; O'Hagan, J. B.; Khazova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace exposure to optical radiation from artificial sources is regulated in Europe under the Artificial Optical Radiation Directive 2006/25/EC implemented in the UK as The Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010. The entertainment environment often presents an extremely complex situation for the assessment of occupational exposures. Multiple illumination sources, continuously changing illumination conditions and people moving during performances add further complexity to the assessment. This document proposes a methodology for assessing the risks arising from exposure to optical radiation and presents detailed case studies of practical assessment for two large entertainment venues. (authors)

  5. Gaming the Game: Honeypot Venues Against Cheaters in Location-based Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Krishnamurthy, Prashant; Zhang, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of location-based social networks (LBSNs) has provided the community with an abundant source of information that can be exploited and used in many different ways. LBSNs offer a number of conveniences to its participants, such as - but not limited to - a list of places in the vicinity of a user, recommendations for an area never explored before provided by other peers, tracking of friends, monetary rewards in the form of special deals from the venues visited as well as a chea...

  6. Economic Cost of an Algae Bloom Cleanup in China's 2008 Olympic Sailing Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. H.; Li, L.; Bao, X.; Zhao, L. D.

    2009-07-01

    In the summer of 2008, an algae bloom struck the coast of Qingdao, China, where the 2008 Olympic sailing events were to be held. The bloom was caused by the drift and proliferation of the green algae Enteromorpha (see http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2352/version/1). It lasted for more than 1 month and covered nearly the entire sailing venue. The Enteromorpha bloom was so intense that national and local governments invested a tremendous amount of labor and resources in a cleanup effort in order to achieve Olympic Games standards [Hu and He, 2008].

  7. NASA Earthdata Forums: An Interactive Venue for Discussions of NASA Data and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas J., III; Acker, James; Meyer, Dave; Northup, Emily A.; Bagwell, Ross E.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate how students and teachers can register to use the NASA Earthdata Forums. The NASA Earthdata forums provide a venue where registered users can pose questions regarding NASA Earth science data in a moderated forum, and have their questions answered by data experts and scientific subject matter experts connected with NASA Earth science missions and projects. Since the forums are also available for research scientists to pose questions and discuss pertinent topics, the NASA Earthdata Forums provide a unique opportunity for students and teachers to gain insight from expert scientists and enhance their knowledge of the many different ways that NASA Earth observations can be used in research and applications.

  8. High accuracy velocity control method for the french moving-coil watt balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Suat; Chassagne, Luc; Haddad, Darine; Alayli, Yasser; Juncar, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel method of velocity control dedicated to the French moving-coil watt balance. In this project, a coil has to move in a magnetic field at a velocity of 2 mm s -1 with a relative uncertainty of 10 -9 over 60 mm. Our method is based on the use of both a heterodyne Michelson's interferometer, a two-level translation stage, and a homemade high frequency phase-shifting electronic circuit. To quantify the stability of the velocity, the output of the interferometer is sent into a frequency counter and the Doppler frequency shift is recorded. The Allan standard deviation has been used to calculate the stability and a σ y (τ) of about 2.2x10 -9 over 400 s has been obtained

  9. How James Watt invented the copier forgotten inventions of our great scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Schils, René

    2012-01-01

    Features 25 different scientists and the ideas which may not have made them famous, but made history… Typically, we remember our greatest scientists from one single invention, one new formula or one incredible breakthrough. This narrow perspective does not give justice to the versatility of many scientists who also earned a reputation in other areas of science. James Watt, for instance, is known for inventing the steam engine, yet most people do not know that he also invented the copier. Alexander Graham Bell of course invented the telephone, but only few know that he invented artificial breathing equipment, a prototype of the ‘iron lung’. Edmond Halley, whose name is associated with the comet that visits Earth every 75 years, produced the first mortality tables, used for life insurances. This entertaining book is aimed at anyone who enjoys reading about inventions and discoveries by the most creative minds. Detailed illustrations of the forgotten designs and ideas enrich the work throughout.

  10. Safety test of an improved multihundred watt FSA: launch abort, solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabourn, C.M.

    1978-07-01

    This safety test consisted of exposing a simulant-fueled Improved Multihundred Watt Fuel Sphere Assembly, containing a Pt-3008 sphere holding the fuel simulant, to a single proximity fire of UTP-3001 solid rocket propellant for 10.5 min. The graphite outside shell sustained only minor abrasion damage. It was covered on one side with a heavy deposit of alumina from the fire mixed with silica from the test bed. The Pt-3008 shell had small amounts of carbon, alumina, and silica deposited on its surface but sustained no other damage. The PT-3008 sphere was not breached, and therefore the fuel sphere assembly would not release fuel in a solid-propellant fire of a launch abort. 12 figures

  11. Chaotic behavior of a Watt-type predator-prey system with impulsive control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang Weiming; Lin Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by using theories and methods of ecology and ODE, a predator-prey system with Watt-type functional response and impulsive perturbations on the predator is established. It proves that there exists a locally asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution when the impulse period is less than some critical value, otherwise, the system can be permanent. Further, by using the method of computer simulation, the influences of the impulsive perturbations on the inherent oscillation are investigated, which shows the more complex dynamics of the system we considered, such as quasi-periodic oscillation, narrow periodic window, wide periodic window, chaotic bands, period doubling bifurcation, symmetry-breaking pitchfork bifurcation, period-halving bifurcation and crisis, etc. It will be useful for studying the dynamical complexity of ecosystems

  12. Safety evaluation report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Watts Bar Nuclear Performance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This safety evaluation report on the information submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority in its Nuclear Performance Plan for the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant and in supporting documents has been prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff. The plan addresses the plant-specific corrective actions as part of the recovery program for licensing of Unit 1. The staff will be monitoring and inspecting the implementation of the programs. The plan does not address all licensing matters that will be required for fuel load and operation of Unit 1. Those remaining licensing matters have been addressed in previous safety evaluations or will be addressed in accordance with routing NRC licensing practices. 97 refs

  13. Cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Sallan, Jose Maria; Lordan, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Cascading failures of loads in isolated networks have been studied extensively over the last decade. Since 2010, such research has extended to interdependent networks. In this paper, we study cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks. The effects of rewiring probability and coupling strength on the resilience of interdependent WS networks have been extensively investigated. It has been found that, for small values of the tolerance parameter, interdependent networks are more vulnerable as rewiring probability increases. For larger values of the tolerance parameter, the robustness of interdependent networks firstly decreases and then increases as rewiring probability increases. Coupling strength has a different impact on robustness. For low values of coupling strength, the resilience of interdependent networks decreases with the increment of the coupling strength until it reaches a certain threshold value. For values of coupling strength above this threshold, the opposite effect is observed. Our results are helpful to understand and design resilient interdependent networks.

  14. Performance of multihundred-watt fueled-sphere assemblies in the safety verification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.

    1975-09-01

    Seven fueled-sphere assemblies equivalent to those proposed for use in multihundred-watt thermoelectric generators were subjected to conditions that simulated the sequential environments produced by an orbital abort and earth impact. The procedures were similar to those in the Safety Sequential Test, and the assemblies differed only in minor dimensional and power level changes. All assemblies met the specifications for flight quality units. Visual examination indicated that all the iridium shells had lost their containment capability; however, rupturing of two shells was not confirmed. Five were obviously ruptured, and the fuel in three was exposed. All iridium fractures were essentially intergranular. A large grain size may have promoted this type of failure. Half of the vent assemblies failed to pass helium at ambient temperature after the test. Failure was because of nonmetallic materials in the vent frits. Release of plutonia per unit area of cracks in a containment shell ruptured by simulated earth impact was determined

  15. Adaptive coupling optimized spiking coherence and synchronization in Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo; Wu, Ya'nan

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we have numerically studied the effect of adaptive coupling on the temporal coherence and synchronization of spiking activity in Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks. It is found that random shortcuts can enhance the spiking synchronization more rapidly when the increment speed of adaptive coupling is increased and can optimize the temporal coherence of spikes only when the increment speed of adaptive coupling is appropriate. It is also found that adaptive coupling strength can enhance the synchronization of spikes and can optimize the temporal coherence of spikes when random shortcuts are appropriate. These results show that adaptive coupling has a big influence on random shortcuts related spiking activity and can enhance and optimize the temporal coherence and synchronization of spiking activity of the network. These findings can help better understand the roles of adaptive coupling for improving the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  16. Interpreting the mineral reservation of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act: Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Supreme Court interpreted the Stock-Raising Homestead Act (SRHA) in Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc. as reserving common gravel deposits to the US because they are minimal in character. This ignored traditional rules of statutory construction, an adopted an all-inclusive definition of the term minerals that is limited only by fluctuating market conditions. The Court subjugated the original congressional objective of settling the West to the current policy of reserving all assets absolutely. Rather than clarifying the definition of reserved minerals, this injected additional ambiguity into the land title area in which the Court has been unwilling to upset settled expectations. Such a departure from the common use and understanding of the term and from property rights cannot be justified by either policy considerations or notions of justice and fair play

  17. Performance of multihundred-watt fueled-sphere assemblies in the safety sequential test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.

    1975-07-01

    Five fueled-sphere assemblies similar to those proposed for use in the multihundred-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator were subjected to conditions simulating earth impact after orbital abort. Of the five, one had no visible cracks, two had superficial cracks whose penetration of the iridium containment shell was not verified by metallography, one was obviously ruptured, and the fuel of one was exposed. The basic causes of containment failure were as follows: large-grained iridium provided short, straight boundary paths susceptible to intergranular fracturing; large plutonia fragments produced excessive tensile strain in the containment where it was forced to bend over their projecting edges at the moment of impact; vents failed because of sintering and CVD of nonmetallic materials in the filter frits; and, of less significance, directional grain growth in closure welds apparently caused one failure. (U.S.)

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch River. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received containments, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. Water-soluble contaminants released to ORR surface waters are rapidly diluted upon entering the Clinch River and then quickly transported downstream to the Tennessee River where further dilution occurs. Almost the entire quantity of these diluted contaminants rapidly flows through LWBR. In contrast, particle-associated contaminants tend to accumulate in the lower Clinch River and in LWBR in areas of sediment deposition. Those particle-associated contaminants that were released in peak quantities during the early years of ORR operations (e.g., mercury and 137 Cs) are buried under as much as 80 cm of cleaner sediment in LWBR. Certain contaminants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have accumulated in LWBR biota. The contamination of aquatic biota with PCBs is best documented for certain fish species and extends to reservoirs upstream of the ORR, indicating a contamination problem that is regional in scope and not specific to the ORR

  19. Watt balance experiments for the determination of the Planck constant and the redefinition of the kilogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.

    2013-02-01

    Since 1889 the international prototype of the kilogram has served as the definition of the unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). It is the last material artefact to define a base unit of the SI, and it influences several other base units. This situation is no longer acceptable in a time of ever increasing measurement precision. It is therefore planned to redefine the unit of mass by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant. At the same time three other base units, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined. As a first step, the kilogram redefinition requires a highly accurate determination of the Planck constant in the present SI system, with a relative uncertainty of the order of 1 part in 108. The most promising experiment for this purpose, and for the future realization of the kilogram, is the watt balance. It compares mechanical and electrical power and makes use of two macroscopic quantum effects, thus creating a relationship between a macroscopic mass and the Planck constant. In this paper the background for the choice of the Planck constant for the kilogram redefinition is discussed and the role of the Planck constant in physics is briefly reviewed. The operating principle of watt balance experiments is explained and the existing experiments are reviewed. An overview is given of all presently available experimental determinations of the Planck constant, and it is shown that further investigation is needed before the redefinition of the kilogram can take place. This article is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants, held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).

  20. Sex Behaviors as Social Cues Motivating Social Venue Patronage Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Michaels, Stuart; Jonas, Adam; Khanna, Aditya S; Skaathun, Britt; Morgan, Ethan; Schneider, John A

    2017-10-01

    HIV prevention programs often focus on the physical social venues where men who have sex with men (MSM) frequent as sites where sex behaviors are assumed to be practiced and risk is conferred. But, how exactly these behaviors influence venue patronage is not well understood. In this study, we present a two-mode network analysis that determines the extent that three types of sex behaviors-condomless sex, sex-drug use, and group sex-influence the patronage of different types of social venues among a population sample of young Black MSM (YBMSM) (N = 623). A network analytic technique called exponential random graph modeling was used in a proof of concept analysis to verify how each sex behavior increases the likelihood of a venue patronage tie when estimated as either: (1) an attribute of an individual only and/or (2) a shared attribute between an individual and his peers. Findings reveal that sex behaviors, when modeled only as attributes possessed by focal individuals, were no more or less likely to affect choices to visit social venues. However, when the sex behaviors of peers were also taken into consideration, we learn that individuals were statistically more likely in all three behavioral conditions to go places that attracted other MSM who practiced the same behaviors. This demonstrates that social venues can function as intermediary contexts in which relationships can form between individuals that have greater risk potential given the venues attraction to people who share the same risk tendencies. As such, structuring interventions around these settings can be an effective way to capture the attention of YBMSM and engage them in HIV prevention.

  1. Does Individual Gambling Behavior Vary across Gambling Venues with Differing Numbers of Terminals? An Empirical Real-World Study using Player Account Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Pallesen, Ståle; Griffiths, Mark D; Mentzoni, Rune A; Leino, Tony

    2018-01-01

    Research examining gambling behavior via experiments, self-report, and/or observation presents many methodical challenges particularly in relation to objectivity. However, the use of player account-based gambling data provides purely objective data. Based on this real-world data, the primary aim of the present study was to examine gambling behavior in gambling venues with different numbers of gambling terminals (i.e., venues with one terminal; 2-5 terminals; 6-10 terminals; 11-16 terminals). Player account-based gambling data aggregated over a year (2015) amounting to 153,379 observations within 93,034 individual gamblers (males = 74%; mean age = 44.1, SD = 16.4 years) were analyzed. Gambling frequency was highest in venues with 2-5 terminals (54.5%) and lowest in venues with 11-16 terminals (1.6%). Approximately half of the sample (52.5%) gambled in only one venue category, with the majority (81.5%) preferring venues with 2-5 terminals present. Only 0.8% of the sample gambled in all four venue categories. Compared to venues with one terminal, venues with two or more terminals were associated with gamblers placing more bets, and spending more time and money per session. However, gamblers had higher losses (albeit small) in venues with one terminal compared to venues with 2-5 terminals. No differences in net outcome were found between venues with one terminal and those with 6-10 and 11-16 terminals. Overall, the present study demonstrates that in the natural gambling environment, gambling behavior is reinforced in venues with multiple terminals.

  2. Does Individual Gambling Behavior Vary across Gambling Venues with Differing Numbers of Terminals? An Empirical Real-World Study using Player Account Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Sagoe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research examining gambling behavior via experiments, self-report, and/or observation presents many methodical challenges particularly in relation to objectivity. However, the use of player account-based gambling data provides purely objective data. Based on this real-world data, the primary aim of the present study was to examine gambling behavior in gambling venues with different numbers of gambling terminals (i.e., venues with one terminal; 2–5 terminals; 6–10 terminals; 11–16 terminals. Player account-based gambling data aggregated over a year (2015 amounting to 153,379 observations within 93,034 individual gamblers (males = 74%; mean age = 44.1, SD = 16.4 years were analyzed. Gambling frequency was highest in venues with 2–5 terminals (54.5% and lowest in venues with 11–16 terminals (1.6%. Approximately half of the sample (52.5% gambled in only one venue category, with the majority (81.5% preferring venues with 2–5 terminals present. Only 0.8% of the sample gambled in all four venue categories. Compared to venues with one terminal, venues with two or more terminals were associated with gamblers placing more bets, and spending more time and money per session. However, gamblers had higher losses (albeit small in venues with one terminal compared to venues with 2–5 terminals. No differences in net outcome were found between venues with one terminal and those with 6–10 and 11–16 terminals. Overall, the present study demonstrates that in the natural gambling environment, gambling behavior is reinforced in venues with multiple terminals.

  3. Examining differences in types and location of recruitment venues for young males and females from urban neighborhoods: findings from a multi-site HIV prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S; Ziff, Mauri; Auerswald, Colette; Castillo, Marné; McFadden, Antionette; Ellen, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Finding and accessing members of youth subpopulations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color or young females of color, for behavioral or disease surveillance or study recruitment, pose particular challenges. Venue-based sampling strategies--which hinge on where individuals congregate or "hang out" rather than where they live--appear to be effective alternatives. Methods used to identify venues focus on engaging members of social networks to learn where targeted populations congregate. However, it is not always clear if and how these methods differ according to gender, whether the youth accessed at a venue are actually from neighborhoods in which the venues are found, and whether the location of venues relative to neighborhoods of residence is different for young men and young women. This study illustrates the gender differences in venue type and venue location where eligible youth study participants from high-risk neighborhoods could be accessed for HIV research across 15 research sites (sites). The findings indicate that the study's method led to identifying venues where one quarter or more of the youth were eligible study participants and from the high-risk neighborhoods. Sites targeting young women of color had a higher proportion of eligible study participants who were also from the high-risk neighborhoods than sites targeting YMSM. Clubs were most commonly identified by sites targeting YMSM as recruitment venues, whereas neighborhood-based service or commercial centers were more common venues for young women of color. This study reveals how venue-based recruitment strategies can be tailored and resources maximized by understanding the key differences in the types of venues preferred by males and females and by recognizing that female-preferred venues are more likely to be closer to home.

  4. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners.

  5. Drinking reasons and alcohol problems by work venue among female sex workers in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors, but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. All identified reasons except confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol's sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs' vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking.

  6. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School–Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth’s exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Method: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles–area youth ages 11–14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. Results: African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Conclusions: Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school–age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth. PMID:27172570

  7. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School-Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth's exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles-area youth ages 11-14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school-age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth.

  8. Marketing the HIV test to MSM: ethnic differences in preferred venues and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Owczarzak, Jill T; Petroll, Andrew E

    2013-05-01

    Lack of awareness of HIV status is associated with an increased likelihood of HIV transmission. We surveyed 633 men who have sex with men (MSM) from diverse ethnic groups recruited from a variety of community venues in a U.S. Midwestern city with rising HIV infection rates. Our first aim was to describe patterns of sexual risk, annual HIV testing frequency, and venues where information about HIV and HIV testing could be disseminated to inner-city MSM. Our second aim was to identify preferred sources to receive information about HIV testing and determine whether these preferences differed by ethnic background. Results indicated that despite similar proportions of high-sexual risk behaviors, compared with African American and Latino MSM, smaller proportions of non-Hispanic White MSM had received an HIV test in the last 12 months. Despite ethnic differences in health care access, a physician's office was the most common HIV testing site. Overall, a majority conveyed a preference to see advertisements in mainstream media outlets. However, when preferences were stratified by ethnicity, African American MSM were the least likely to prefer receiving information from mainstream media and conveyed a stronger preference to receive information from authority figures than non-Hispanic White and Hispanic MSM.

  9. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

  10. S-Band AlGaN/GaN Power Amplifier MMIC with over 20 Watt Output Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Visser, G.C.; Wuerfl, J.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an S-band HPA MMIC in AlGaN/GaN CPW technology for radar TR-module application. The trade-offs of using an MMIC solution versus discrete power devices are discussed. The MMIC shows a maximum output power of 38 Watt at 37% Power Added Efficiency at 3.1 GHz. An output

  11. S-Band AlGaN/GaN power amplifier MMIC with over 20 Watt output power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijningen, M; Visser, G.C.; Wurfl, J.; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the design of an S-band HPA MMIC in AlGaN/GaN CPW technology for radar TR-module application. The trade-offs of using an MMIC solution versus discrete power devices are discussed. The MMIC shows a maximum output power of 38 Watt at 37% Power Added Efficiency at 3.1 GHz.

  12. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply with Minimized Circuit Input-to-Output Parasitic Capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Petersen, Lars Press; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 300-Watt isolated power supply for MOS gate driver circuit in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the developed power supply is having a very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, thus maximizing its noise immunity. This makes...

  13. 77 FR 76959 - Energy Conservation Program: Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... subject to energy conservation standards, the manufacturers removed the product from the market... Conservation Program: Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector Lamp From Energy Conservation Standards AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION AGENTS IN DRINKING WATER, WATTS P{REMIER ULTRA 5 REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM (POU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier Ultra 5 system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF International's Laboratory. Watts Premier submitted ten units, which were split into two groups of five. One group received 25 days of conditioning prior to challenge testing, while the secon...

  15. A compact broadband high efficient X-band 9-watt PHEMT MMIC high-power amplifier for phased array radar applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, A.P. de; Hunneman, P.A.H.; Demmler, M.; Hulsmann, A.

    1999-01-01

    ln this paper the development and measurement results of a compact broadband 9-Watt high efficient X-band high-power amplifier are discussed. The described amplifier has the following state-of-the art performance: an average ouput power of 9 Watt, a gain of 20 dB and an average Power Added

  16. WaterWatts : the world's only all-drainwater heat exchanger : introduction and test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, C. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). College of Engineering; MacKelvie, W. [Winston Works Inc., Knowlton, PQ (Canada)

    2005-05-02

    This document presented the innovative All-buildings, All-Drainwater Heat Exchanger, a new method of saving energy in buildings. Water heating is the second largest user of energy in buildings. The used hot water is typically just drained away to the sewer, resulting in a significant waste of energy and money. Winston Works developed and patented the WaterWatts product which uses the normally-wasted heat in the drainwater of showers, tubs and washing machines to preheat all of the cold water for the water heater. The result is greener hot water through a significant reduction in energy use and related emissions. Drainflow is not hindered in any way. The unit can be installed by removing a section of vertical or horizontal drainpipe and replacing it with WaterWatts. The water heater's cold water supply is then redirected to first go through WaterWatts. This type of drainwater heat recovery system has a drainwater heat exchanger (DWHEx) that cools the drainwater by transferring its heat to a cold water heat exchanger (CWHEx). In the horizontal WaterWatts, the DWHEx is hemicylindrical to provide a broad flat surface for the drainwater to transfer its heat to rapidly. The flat shape also provides an ideal outside surface for fins which keep the tube cold. The vertical DWHEx has the same large, straight copper tube as the competition. But unlike the competition, WaterWatts has no moving parts, uses no power, requires no maintenance, has an indefinitely long life and is easy to install with minimal capital investment. Every building where the cost of hot water is borne by the owner is a potential customer for this product, such as residences, laundromats and restaurants. This energy savings technology also works with industrial process drainwater of any composition and temperature. tabs., figs.

  17. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Isler, M. Roman; Golin, C.; Wang, J.; Hughes, J.; Justman, J.; Haley, D.; Kuo, I.; Adimora, A.; Chege, W.; Hodder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristic...

  18. Impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban in hospitality venues: indoor secondhand smoke exposure and influence of outdoor smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María J; Fernández, Esteve; Pérez-Rios, Mónica; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Galán, Iñaki; Moncada, Albert; Fu, Marcela; Montes, Agustín; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2013-05-01

    The Spanish tobacco control law of 2006 was modified in January 2011, banning smoking in all hospitality venues. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, and to analyze the potential impact of outdoor smokers close to entrances on indoor SHS levels after the law came into force. Before-and-after evaluation study with repeated measures. The study was carried out in three regions of Spain (Catalonia, Galicia, and Madrid) and included a random sample of 178 hospitality venues. We measured vapor-phase nicotine and particulate matter 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter (PM2.5) as SHS markers at baseline (November-December 2010) and at follow-up (April-June 2011). We also recorded tobacco consumption variables such as the presence of butts, ashtrays, and smokers. In the posttest assessment, we also recorded the number of outdoor smokers close to the entrance. A total of 351 nicotine and 160 PM2.5 measurements were taken. Both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations decreased by more than 90% (nicotine from 5.73 to 0.57 µg/m(3), PM2.5 from 233.38 to 18.82 µg/m(3)). After the law came into force, both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly higher in venues with outdoor smokers close to the entrance than in those without outdoor smokers. All the observational tobacco consumption variables significantly decreased (p hospitality venues dramatically decreased after the 2011 Spanish smoking ban. SHS from outdoor smokers close to entrances seems to drift inside venues. Smoking control legislation should consider outdoor restrictions to ensure complete protection against SHS.

  19. The Planck Constant, the International System of Units, and the 2012 North American Watt Balance Absolute Gravity Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    As outlined in Resolution 1 of the 24th Meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) on the future revision of the International System of Units (SI) [1], the current four SI base units the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined in terms of invariants of nature. The new definitions will be based on fixed numerical values of the Planck constant (h), the elementary charge (e), the Boltzmann constant (k), and the Avogadro constant (NA), respectively. While significant progress has been made towards providing the necessary experimental results for the redefinition, some disagreement among the relevant data remain. Among the set of discrepant data towards the redefinition of the SI are the determinations of the Planck constant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) watt balance [2] and the recent result from the National Research Council Canada (NRC) watt balance [3], with the discrepancy of roughly 2.5 parts in 107 being significantly outside the reported uncertainties. Of major concern is that the watt balance experiment is seen as a key component of a mise en pratique for the new kilogram definition, once such a redefinition takes place. The basic operational principle of a watt balance relates the Planck constant to mass, length, and time through h = mgvC, where m is the mass of an artifact mass standard, g is the local acceleration of gravity, v is a velocity, and C is a combination of frequencies and scalar constants. With the total uncertainty goal for the watt balance on the order of a few parts in 108, g needs to be determined at the location of the mass standard to parts in 109 such that its uncertainty is negligible in the final watt balance result. NIST and NRC have formed a collaborative effort to reconcile the relevant discrepant data and provide further progress towards preparing and testing a mise en pratique for the new kilogram definition. As an initial step, direct comparisons of

  20. Trouble in paradise: The crime and health outcomes of the Surfers Paradise licensed venue lockout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Dominique; Homel, Ross; Townsley, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The lockout intervention has become embedded in Australian alcohol policy with little scientific evidence of its effectiveness in reducing violence and disorder. This paper reports an evaluation of the Queensland lockout pilot in Surfers Paradise. Patrons could not enter or re-enter licensed venues after 3 am, while patrons inside at this time could stay until close. Using police and ambulance data, time series analyses examined the impact of tourism seasons and the lockout on rates of crime, violence, injury and intoxication. Additional analyses were also conducted to show spatial and temporal changes in crime over time. Both police and ambulance data showed that the lockout introduction had no statistically significant impact on rates of crime, violence, head and neck injuries, and intoxication over the 2 years following lockout. Hot spot maps indicated limited spatial shift of crime within Surfers Paradise following the lockout introduction, with evidence of a temporary intensification of crime in already established hot spots. We found a moderate statistically significant change in the 24 h distribution of crime after the lockout implementation, suggesting temporal displacement of crime. Results support the small existing body of evidence on lockouts that indicates they are largely ineffective in reducing crime and injuries in entertainment districts. As multi-pronged strategies that include a lockout gain in popularity, further investigation should focus on identifying the key drivers of successful interventions such as the Newcastle strategy, to better refine these interventions for replication and evaluation elsewhere. [De Andrade D, Homel R, Townsley M. Trouble in paradise: The crime and health outcomes of the Surfers Paradise licensed venue lockout. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:564-572]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Providing earplugs to young adults at risk encourages protective behaviour in music venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nielsen, Lillian; Gilliver, Megan

    2016-06-01

    For some young people, nightclubs and other music venues are a major source of noise exposure, arising from a combination of very high noise levels; relatively long attendance duration; and frequent, sustained participation over several years. Responsibility for hearing protection is largely left to individuals, many of whom choose not to wear earplugs. In order to encourage earplug use in these settings, a new approach is needed. The aim of the study was to examine whether presentation of hearing health information would result in increased use of earplugs, or whether provision of earplugs alone would be sufficient to change behaviour. A total of 51 regular patrons of music venues were allocated to either a low-information (lo-info) or high-information (hi-info) group. Both groups completed a survey about their current noise exposure, earplug usage and perceived risk of hearing damage. Both groups were also provided with one-size-fits-all filtered music earplugs. The hi-info group was also provided with audio-visual and written information about the risks of excessive noise exposure. After 4 weeks, and again after an additional 12 weeks, participants were asked about their recent earplug usage, intention to use earplugs in the future, and perceived risk of hearing damage. The results showed that after 4 weeks, the hi-info group's perceived personal risk of hearing damage was significantly higher than that of the lo-info group. After 16 weeks, these differences were no longer evident; however, at both 4 and 16 weeks, both the lo- and hi-info groups were using the earplugs equally often; and both groups intended to use earplugs significantly more often in the future. This suggests that the information was unnecessary to motivate behavioural change. Rather, the simple act of providing access to earplugs appears to have effectively encouraged young at-risk adults to increase their earplug use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Acting Law | Law Acting: A Conversation with Dr Felix Nobis and Professor Gary Watt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Alexander Mulcahy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dr Felix Nobis is a senior lecturer with the Centre for Theatre and Performance at Monash University. He has worked as a professional actor for many years. He previously played an assistant to the Crown Prosecutor in the Australian television series, Janus, which was set in Melbourne, Victoria and based on the true story of a criminal family allegedly responsible for police shootings. He also played an advisor to a medical defence firm in the Australian television series MDA. He is a writer and professional storyteller. He has toured his one-person adaptation of Beowulf (2004 and one-person show Once Upon a Barstool (2006 internationally and has written on these experiences. His most recent work Boy Out of the Country (2016 is written in an Australian verse style and has just completed a tour of regional Victoria. Professor Gary Watt is an academic in the School of Law at the University of Warwick where his teaching includes advocacy and mooting. He also regularly leads rhetoric workshops at the Royal Shakespeare Company. He is the author of Dress, Law and Naked Truth (2013 and, most recently, Shakespeare’s Acts of Will: Law, Testament and Properties of Performance (2016, which explores rhetoric in law and theatre. He also co-wrote A Strange Eventful History, which he performed with Australian choral ensemble, The Song Company, to mark the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death.

  3. Stochastic resonance on Newman-Watts networks of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with local periodic driving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Mahmut [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)], E-mail: mahmutozer2002@yahoo.com; Perc, Matjaz [University of Maribor, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Physics, Koroska cesta 160, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Uzuntarla, Muhammet [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-03-02

    We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance on Newman-Watts small-world networks consisting of biophysically realistic Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with a tunable intensity of intrinsic noise via voltage-gated ion channels embedded in neuronal membranes. Importantly thereby, the subthreshold periodic driving is introduced to a single neuron of the network, thus acting as a pacemaker trying to impose its rhythm on the whole ensemble. We show that there exists an optimal intensity of intrinsic ion channel noise by which the outreach of the pacemaker extends optimally across the whole network. This stochastic resonance phenomenon can be further amplified via fine-tuning of the small-world network structure, and depends significantly also on the coupling strength among neurons and the driving frequency of the pacemaker. In particular, we demonstrate that the noise-induced transmission of weak localized rhythmic activity peaks when the pacemaker frequency matches the intrinsic frequency of subthreshold oscillations. The implications of our findings for weak signal detection and information propagation across neural networks are discussed.

  4. Quantum transport with long-range steps on Watts-Strogatz networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2016-07-01

    We study transport dynamics of quantum systems with long-range steps on the Watts-Strogatz network (WSN) which is generated by rewiring links of the regular ring. First, we probe physical systems modeled by the discrete nonlinear schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Using the localized initial condition, we compute the time-averaged occupation probability of the initial site, which is related to the nonlinearity, the long-range steps and rewiring links. Self-trapping transitions occur at large (small) nonlinear parameters for coupling ɛ=-1 (1), as long-range interactions are intensified. The structure disorder induced by random rewiring, however, has dual effects for ɛ=-1 and inhibits the self-trapping behavior for ɛ=1. Second, we investigate continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW) on the regular ring ruled by the discrete linear schrödinger (DLS) equation. It is found that only the presence of the long-range steps does not affect the efficiency of the coherent exciton transport, while only the allowance of random rewiring enhances the partial localization. If both factors are considered simultaneously, localization is greatly strengthened, and the transport becomes worse.

  5. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  6. Ten-watt level picosecond parametric mid-IR source broadly tunable in wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyvlečka, Michal; Novák, Ondřej; Roškot, Lukáscaron; Smrž, Martin; Mužík, Jiří; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Mid-IR wavelength range (between 2 and 8 μm) offers perspective applications, such as minimally-invasive neurosurgery, gas sensing, or plastic and polymer processing. Maturity of high average power near-IR lasers is beneficial for powerful mid-IR generation by optical parametric conversion. We utilize in-house developed Yb:YAG thin-disk laser of 100 W average power at 77 kHz repetition rate, wavelength of 1030 nm, and about 2 ps pulse width for pumping of a ten-watt level picosecond mid-IR source. Seed beam is obtained by optical parametric generation in a double-pass 10 mm long PPLN crystal pumped by a part of the fundamental near-IR beam. Tunability of the signal wavelength between 1.46 μm and 1.95 μm was achieved with power of several tens of miliwatts. Main part of the fundamental beam pumps an optical parametric amplification stage, which includes a walk-off compensating pair of 10 mm long KTP crystals. We already demonstrated the OPA output signal and idler beam tunability between 1.70-1.95 μm and 2.18-2.62 μm, respectively. The signal and idler beams were amplified up to 8.5 W and 5 W, respectively, at 42 W pump without evidence of strong saturation. Thus, increase in signal and idler output power is expected for pump power increase.

  7. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  8. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  9. Attitudes towards community gambling venues and support for regulatory reform: an online panel study of residents in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestman, Amy; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Pitt, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2018-04-02

    Harmful gambling has been identified as an important public health issue that affects individuals, families and the broader community. One gambling product, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), has been associated with significant gambling harm in Australia. There has been limited research that has explored community perceptions of EGMs and attitudes towards reform. This study, conducted in NSW, Australia, aimed to explore community use of EGM venues (clubs and hotels containing EGMs), attitudes towards EGMs and whether the use of these venues influenced attitudes towards EGM reform. An online survey was conducted with 500 adults aged 16 years and over, representative of the population for age and gender. Discrete choice and open-ended questions were used to gather data on gambling behaviours, use of and attitudes towards EGMs and EGM venues and support for gambling harm reduction measures. Three quarters of participants had visited an EGM venue in the previous year. Participants who had attended such venues were significantly more likely to use EGMs at least once per month. Participants attended EGM venues for a range of reasons including use of non-gambling facilities such as restaurants, the social aspects of the venue and ease of access to the venue. Some participants also attended EGM venues specifically for the gambling facilities. Most participants identified some negative impacts of EGMs for local communities and were supportive of measures to reduce the number of EGMs and prevent children's exposure to EGMs in such venues. This study shows a high level of support for EGM reform amongst both individuals who attend EGM venues and also those who do not. There is potential for government to further regulate EGMs and the environments where they are located.

  10. HIV-Risk Behaviors and Social Support Among Men and Women Attending Alcohol-Serving Venues in South Africa: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Abler, Laurie; Skinner, Donald; Kalichman, Seth C; Dennis, Alexis C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol use is associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors, including unprotected sex and number of sex partners. Alcohol-serving venues can be places to engage in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, but are also important sites of social support for patrons, which may mitigate risks. We sought to examine the relationship between alcohol-serving venue attendance, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior, by gender, in South Africa. Adult patrons (n = 496) were recruited from six alcohol-serving venues and completed surveys assessing frequency of venue attendance, venue-based social support, and recent sexual behaviors. Generalized estimating equations tested associations between daily venue attendance, social support, and sexual behaviors, separately by gender. Interaction effects between daily attendance and social support were assessed. Models were adjusted for venue, age, education, and ethnicity. Daily attendance at venues was similar across genders and was associated with HIV-related risk behaviors, but the strength and direction of associations differed by gender. Among women, daily attendance was associated with greater number of partners and higher proportion of unprotected sex. Social support was a significant moderator, with more support decreasing the strength of the relationship between attendance and risk. Among men, daily attendance was associated with a lower proportion of unprotected sex; no interaction effects were found for attendance and social support. Frequent venue attendance is associated with additional HIV-related risks for women, but this risk is mitigated by social support in venues. These results were not seen for men. Successful HIV interventions in alcohol-serving venues should address the gendered context of social support and sexual risk behavior.

  11. A Study of How the Watts-Strogatz Model Relates to an Economic System’s Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Lunhan Luo; Jianan Fang

    2014-01-01

    Watts-Strogatz model is a main mechanism to construct the small-world networks. It is widely used in the simulations of small-world featured systems including economic system. Formally, the model contains a parameters set including three variables representing group size, number of neighbors, and rewiring probability. This paper discusses how the parameters set relates to the economic system performance which is utility growth rate. In conclusion, it is found that, regardless of the group siz...

  12. Watt-Level Continuous-Wave Emission from a Bi-Functional Quantum Cascade Laser/Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-18

    cally authorized by the U.S. Government may violate any copyrights that exist in this work. Watt-level continuous- wave emission from a bi- functional ... wave bi- functional devices, opens the perspective of on-chip dual comb spectroscopy. Also for discrete sens- ing setups, one can switch to lasers...seas.harvard.edu Abstract Bi- functional active regions, capable of light generation and detection at the same wavelength, allow a straightforward realization of

  13. Pulsed Laser Centre (CLPU). The Salamanca peta watt laser; Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU). El laser de Petavatio de Salamanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    With pulses lasting 30 photo seconds, the CLPU VEGA laser is capable of generating a peak power level of one peta watt, this making it one of the worlds most powerful lasers. When focussed it can reach extreme intensities. The way in which a pulse of this nature interacts with an atom or what its applications might be are among the questions answered by this article. (Author)

  14. Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: A multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Rusch, Melanie L.A.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M.; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs’ income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs’ health, human and labour rights are recommended. PMID:23534477

  15. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soofi, S.B.; Haq, I.U.; Khan, M.I.; Siddiqui, M.B.; Mirani, M.; Tahir, R.; Hussain, I.; Puri, M.K.; Suhag, Z.H.; Khowaja, A.R.; Lasi, A.R.; Clemens, J.D.; Favorov, M.; Ochiai, R.L.; Bhutta, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school

  17. Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: a multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Goldenberg, Shira M; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs' income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs' health, human and labour rights are recommended.

  18. Exposure to secondhand smoke in terraces and other outdoor areas of hospitality venues in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maria J; Fernández, Esteve; Gorini, Giuseppe; Moshammer, Hanns; Polanska, Kinga; Clancy, Luke; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Delrieu, Agnes; Invernizzi, Giovanni; Muñoz, Glòria; Precioso, Jose; Ruprecht, Ario; Stansty, Peter; Hanke, Wojciech; Nebot, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) concentrations are usually lower than indoor concentrations, yet some studies have shown that outdoor SHS levels could be comparable to indoor levels under specific conditions. The main objectives of this study were to assess levels of SHS exposure in terraces and other outdoor areas of hospitality venues and to evaluate their potential displacement to adjacent indoor areas. Nicotine and respirable particles (PM2.5) were measured in outdoor and indoor areas of hospitality venues of 8 European countries. Hospitality venues of the study included night bars, restaurants and bars. The fieldwork was carried out between March 2009 and March 2011. We gathered 170 nicotine and 142 PM2.5 measurements during the study. The median indoor SHS concentration was significantly higher in venues where smoking was allowed (nicotine 3.69 µg/m3, PM2.5: 120.51 µg/m3) than in those where smoking was banned (nicotine: 0.48 µg/m3, PM2.5: 36.90 µg/m3). The median outdoor nicotine concentration was higher in places where indoor smoking was banned (1.56 µg/m3) than in venues where smoking was allowed (0.31 µg/m3). Among the different types of outdoor areas, the highest median outdoor SHS levels (nicotine: 4.23 µg/m3, PM2.5: 43.64 µg/m3) were found in the semi-closed outdoor areas of venues where indoor smoking was banned. Banning indoor smoking seems to displace SHS exposure to adjacent outdoor areas. Furthermore, indoor settings where smoking is banned but which have a semi-closed outdoor area have higher levels of SHS than those with open outdoor areas, possibly indicating that SHS also drifts from outdoors to indoors. Current legislation restricting indoor SHS levels seems to be insufficient to protect hospitality workers--and patrons--from SHS exposure. Tobacco-free legislation should take these results into account and consider restrictions in the terraces of some hospitality venues to ensure effective protection.

  19. Initial clinical results of laser prostatectomy procedure for symptomatic BPH using a new 50-watt diode laser (wavelength 1000 nm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Krishna M.

    1995-05-01

    Lasers have been used for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in both contact and non-contact modes with reported success rates equivalent to that of Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP). A new high power diode laser (Phototome), capable of delivering up to 50 watts of 1000 nm wavelength laser power via a 1 mm quartz fiber, was used to treat 15 patients with symptomatic BPH. Five patients had acute retention, 3 had long term catheter (7 - 48 months), and 8 had severe prostatism. Spinal anesthesia was used in 11 patients, and 4 patients had local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Four quadrant coagulation with an angle firing probe delivering 50 watts of laser power for 60 seconds in one quadrant was used as the core of the treatment in 11 patients, contact vaporization of BPH tissue was performed in one patient using a 4.5 mm ball tip was used in one patient and three patients with bladder neck stenosis had bladder neck incision performed using a 1 mm quartz fiber delivering 30 watts of laser power. A foley catheter was left indwelling and removed after 5 - 7 days. All patients except one were catheter free after a mean of 8 days. One patient continued to have severe prostatism and had a TURP performed with good results after 3 months of his laser prostatectomy procedure. AUA symptom scores available in 11 patients was found to be 4 after 1 - 3 months of the initial procedure.

  20. Time Delay and Long-Range Connection Induced Synchronization Transitions in Newman-Watts Small-World Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay and long-range connection (LRC) probability have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs. PMID:24810595

  1. Transpiration of helium and carbon monoxide through a multihundred watt, PICS filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The transpiration of CO through the Multihundred Watt (MHW) filter can be described by Fick's first law or as a first order, reversible reaction. From Fick's first law, a ''diffusion'' coefficient of 7.8 x 10 -4 cm.L/sec (L is the average path length through the filter) was determined. For the first order reversible reaction, a rate constant of 0.0058 hr -1 was obtained for both the forward and reverse reactions (they were assumed to be equal). This corresponds to a half-life of 120 hr. It was also concluded that the rate constants and thus the transpiration rates, which were determined for the test, are smaller than those expected in the IHS. The effect of increasing the number of filters, changing the volumes, and increasing the temperature, changes the rate constant of the transpiration into the PICS to roughly 0.074 hr -1 (t/sub 1 / 2 / = 9.4 hr) and out of the PICS to 0.84 hr -1 (t/sub 1/2/ = 0.8 hr). Of the two suggested mechanisms for the generation of CO inside the IHS, the cyclic process requires a much larger rate of transpiration than the process requiring oxygen exchange of CO given off by the graphite. The data indicate that the cyclic process can provide the CO generation rates observed in the IHS gas taps if there is no delay in time for any other kinetic process involved in the formation of CO or CO 2 . Since the cyclic process (which requires the fastest rate of transpiration) appears possible, this study does not indicate which reaction is occurring but concludes both are possible

  2. Standalone BISON Fuel Performance Results for Watts Bar Unit 1, Cycles 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pawlowski, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stimpson, Shane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is moving forward with more complex multiphysics simulations and increased focus on incorporating fuel performance analysis methods. The coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics capabilities within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) have become relatively stable, and major advances have been made in analysis efforts, including the simulation of twelve cycles of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) operation. While this is a major achievement, the VERA-CS approaches for treating fuel pin heat transfer have well-known limitations that could be eliminated through better integration with the BISON fuel performance code. Several approaches are being implemented to consider fuel performance, including a more direct multiway coupling with Tiamat, as well as a more loosely coupled one-way approach with standalone BISON cases. Fuel performance typically undergoes an independent analysis using a standalone fuel performance code with manually specified input defined from an independent core simulator solution or set of assumptions. This report summarizes the improvements made since the initial milestone to execute BISON from VERA-CS output. Many of these improvements were prompted through tighter collaboration with the BISON development team at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A brief description of WBN1 and some of the VERA-CS data used to simulate it are presented. Data from a small mesh sensitivity study are shown, which helps justify the mesh parameters used in this work. The multi-cycle results are presented, followed by the results for the first three cycles of WBN1 operation, particularly the parameters of interest to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) screening (fuel-clad gap closure, maximum centerline fuel temperature, maximum/minimum clad hoop stress, and cumulative damage index). Once the mechanics of this capability are functioning, future work will target cycles with

  3. Evaluating the economics of biomass energy production in the Watts Bar region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, R.R.; English, B.C.; Bhat, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    While the commercial potential of biofuel technology is becoming more feasible, it is not clear whether the supply of biomass feedstock will be available in competitive markets. In order to exploit the potential of biomass crops as a reliable source of biofuels, a significant commitment on the part of farmers to convert large amounts of cropland would be required. Dedicated energy crops have to compete with conventional crops which could result in significant interregional shifts in crop production. Those changes could further affect overall agricultural production, food prices, consumer spending, and government spending on farm programs. Evaluating these economic impacts provides important information for the ongoing debate. This research is a case study incorporating an existing power plant. The objective of this project is to evaluate the potential of short rotation woody crops as a fuel source in the Watts Bar facility located in eastern Tennessee. The appraisal includes estimates of environmental impacts as well as of economic feasibility. This is achieved by estimating the amounts of biomass that would be supplied at a predetermined price. By changing prices of biomass at the plant in an incremental fashion, a regional supply curve for biomass is estimated. The model incorporates current agricultural production possibilities in the region along with the proposed short rotation woody crop production activities. In order to adequately model the landscape, several variables are considered. These variables include soil type, crop production, government policy, land use conversion to crop land, and distance from the plant. Environmental issues including erosion, chemical usage, and potential leaching are also incorporated within the modeling framework; however, only estimates on erosion are available in this analysis. Output from the model provides insight on where and what types of land should shift from current land use to biomass production.

  4. DOE's environmental restoration program for the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, B.

    1992-01-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Y-12 Plant, the K-25 Site,and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) into off-site surface waters since the early 1940s, The Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir are located downstream from the ORR. A comprehensive remedial investigation (the Clinch River Remedial Investigation) of off-site surface water contamination at Oak Ridge is now being conducted in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act requirements. The objectives of the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) are to: (1) define the nature and extent of off-site surface water contamination, (2) quantify the potential risks to human health and the environment associated with off-site contamination, and (3) identify and preliminarily evaluate potential remediation alternatives. The CRRI is being conducted in three phases: (1) scoping studies, in which preassessment studies based on existing data and limited sampling were conducted to preliminarily estimate the nature and extent of the problem; (2) Phase 1, in which limited sampling and risk analyses are conducted to define specifically the distributions of the contaminants of concern and the environmental and human health risks associated with the contamination. These phases allow a progressive focusing of assessment efforts on specific contaminants, pathways, and sites contributing to risk and on the evaluation of potential remediation alternatives. A brief overview of the Clinch River RI is presented, followed by a description of on going efforts to achieve control of contaminated sediments located in the White Oak Creek Embayment

  5. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Bauer, Georg F; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin

    2013-06-04

    In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine.

  6. Using tritium as an indicator for development effective radionuclide methods for identification of nuclear testing venues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyakhova, O.; Lukashenko, S.; Larionova, N.; Timonova, L. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    scene of the explosion, is a few and tens of Bq/m3. In particular, the tritium content in the atmosphere near the one of the boreholes was 70 Bq/m{sup 3}. Research of level and distribution of tritium in the different object of ecosystems within the nuclear test venues has also been done. In accordance with results the tritium content in water was about 1.10{sup 5} Bq/l, in the air was up to 1 400 Bq/m{sup 3}, in vegetation - up to 1.10{sup 6} Bq/l, in the snow cover was about 500 Bq/kg, in soil - up to 50 000 Bq/kg. Based on all of the data will be held on the selection of the most effective elements of the ecosystem, which could be used as an indicator of nuclear test. Studies have shown the fundamental possibility of determining the tritium in the different ecosystem objects and the most importantly that the tritium was detected on the surface above the nuclear testing venues. All of this confirms the possibility of using radionuclide tritium as an indicator of underground nuclear explosion venues, even after dozens of years after nuclear events. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  7. Unwanted Sexual Attention in Licensed Venues: Considering LGBTIQ Young Adults’ Experiences and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Fileborn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ communities remains largely under-researched and under-theorised. Yet, emerging research suggests that sexual violence is a significant issue within the LGBTIQ communities. Additionally, the occurrence of sexual violence and unwanted sexual attention within specific social and cultural contexts is, for the most part, insufficiently examined. This article draws on research exploring young LGBTIQ adults’ perceptions and experiences of unwanted sexual attention in licensed venues. Firstly, I consider the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of ‘unwanted sexual attention’ as a category of analysis. I then move on to consider participants’ use of licensed venues, the particular significance of pubs and clubs to LGBTIQ young people, and their perceptions and experiences of unwanted sexual attention. Finally, I discuss the implications of these findings for theoretical and conceptual understandings of unwanted sexual attention and sexual violence. En general, se ha investigado y teorizado muy poco sobre la violencia sexual dentro de las comunidades de lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, transgénero / transexuales, intersex y queer (LGBTIQ. Sin embargo, investigaciones recientes sugieren que la violencia sexual es un problema importante en estas comunidades. Además, la incidencia de la violencia sexual y atención sexual no deseada dentro de contextos sociales y culturales específicos no está, en su mayor parte, suficientemente examinada. Este artículo se basa en la investigación de la percepción y experiencias de atención sexual no deseada en locales con licencia para vender alcohol. En primer lugar, se tienen en cuenta los fundamentos teóricos y conceptuales de “atención sexual no deseada” como una categoría de análisis. A continuación, se considera el uso de locales con licencia por parte de los participantes, el significado

  8. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  10. Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Hospitality Venues Before and After Passage of Statewide Smoke-Free Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota. Particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 μm (a valid atmospheric marker of tobacco smoke pollution) was assessed. A significant 83% reduction in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred after passage of the law. Significant reductions in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred in each of the rural categories; however, no difference by rurality was noted in the analysis after passage of the law, in contrast to the study before passage. To our knowledge, this was the largest, single, rural postlaw study globally. A comprehensive statewide smoke-free law implemented in North Dakota dramatically decreased the level of tobacco smoke pollution in bars and restaurants. © 2016 The Authors. Public Health Nursing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Australian men's sexual practices in saunas, sex clubs and other male sex on premises venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Smith, Anthony M A; Grierson, Jeffrey W; von Doussa, Henry

    2010-06-01

    Sex on premises venues (SOPVs) where men have sex with men have been implicated in the spread of sexually transmissible infections, but few studies have described men's sexual encounters in SOPVs, particularly the degree to which men from different backgrounds engage in risky sexual practices. Interviewer administered surveys were conducted with 186 Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) within 48 h of visiting an SOPV. They reported their sexual practices, the characteristics of their partners and other circumstances surrounding their sexual encounters. All analyses were based on the number of sexual encounters (n = 430). Oral sex was the most common practice, occurring in 74.9% of encounters, followed by massage, frottage or kissing (53.7%), solo or mutual masturbation (36.3%), and anal sex (32.1%). Multivariate analyses revealed age as a significant factor for having protected anal sex (P = 0.001), insertive anal sex (P = 0.004) and receptive anal sex (P practices were more frequent in encounters among younger men, while masturbation (P = 0.03) was more frequent among older men. When men's sexual partners were affected by alcohol, encounters were less likely to involve unprotected anal intercourse (P = 0.006) and more likely to involve massage, frottage or kissing (P = 0.009). Men disclosed their HIV status in only 7.7% of encounters. With the likelihood of risky sexual practices varying according to background, results from this study should be used to guide interventions aiming to promote safer sex in SOPVs.

  13. Listener Habits and Choices — and Their Implications for Public Performance Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    DODD, G.

    2001-01-01

    An 11-year longitudinal survey of patterns and preferences in music listening has revealed that a large majority of people would prefer to listen to music performed live but that only a small percentage of their exposure to music actually occurs at live performances. An initial analysis of the first few years of the survey suggests that choices concerning music can be influenced by cultural background, and that predominant music sources change as new technology becomes available. Reasons given by listeners for preferring to listen to a traditional, mechanical instrument rather than an electro-acoustic version of it indicate they are sensitive to an “originality” criterion. As a consequence, concert halls should be designed to operate as passive acoustics spaces. Further, listeners' reasons for electing to attend a live performance rather than listen to a recording or a live broadcast suggest that hall designers should try to maximize the sense of two-way communication between performers and listeners. An implication of this is that where active acoustics systems are to be incorporated in variable acoustics auditoria, those active systems which use a non-in-line approach are to be preferred over in-line schemes. However, listener evolution and new expectations may require a fundamental change in our approach to the acoustics of live performance venues.

  14. Indoor air pollution (PM2.5) due to secondhand smoke in selected hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Taj, Tahir; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Lee, Kiyoung; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-09-01

    To determine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) levels at various hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at various locations in Karachi, during July 2009. Sampling was performed at 20 enclosed public places, including hospitality (restaurants and cafés) and entertainment (snooker/billiard clubs and gaming zones) venues. PM(2.5) levels were measured using an aerosol monitor. All entertainment venues had higher indoor PM(2.5) levels as compared to the immediate outdoors. The indoor PM(2.5) levels ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m(3) and the outdoor PM(2.5) levels ranged from 18 to 96 μg/m(3). The overall mean indoor PM(2.5) level was 138.8 μg/m(3) (± 112.8). Among the four types of venues, the highest mean indoor PM(2.5) level was reported from snooker/billiard clubs: 264.7 μg/m(3) (± 85.4) and the lowest from restaurants: 66.4 μg/m(3) (± 57.6) while the indoor/outdoor ratio ranged from 0.97 to 10.2, highest being at the snooker/billiard clubs. The smoking density ranged from 0.21 to 0.57, highest being at gaming zones. The indoor PM(2.5) concentration and smoking density were not significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.113; p = 0.636). This study demonstrates unacceptably high levels of PM(2.5) exposure associated with secondhand smoke (SHS) at various entertainment venues of Karachi even after 8 years since the promulgation of smoke-free ordinance (2002) in Pakistan; however, better compliance may be evident at hospitality venues. The results of this study call for effective implementation and enforcement of smoke-free environment at public places in the country.

  15. Is anyone around me using condoms? Site-specific condom-use norms and their potential impact on condomless sex across various gay venues and websites in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Stolte, Ineke G.; Roggen, Astrid; Sandfort, Theo; Prins, Maria; Davidovich, Udi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate site-specific condom-use norms as assumed by visitors of gay venues and websites across The Netherlands and their association with men's own use of condoms. In 2010, men who have sex with men (MSM) visiting 18 sex venues (e.g., saunas), 30 nonsex venues (e.g., bars), 6 dating

  16. Determinants of eating at local and western fast-food venues in an urban Asian population: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Nasheen; van Dam, Rob M; Ng, Sheryl; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chen, Shiqi; Lim, Jia Yi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; Rebello, Salome A

    2017-05-25

    Like several Southeast Asian countries, Singapore has a complex eating-out environment and a rising eating-out prevalence. However the determinants and drivers of eating-out in urban Asian environments are poorly understood. We examined the socio-demographic characteristics of persons who frequently ate away from home in local eateries called hawker centres and Western fast-food restaurants, using data from 1647 Singaporean adults participating in the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) 2010. We also assessed the underlying drivers of eating out and evaluated if these were different for eating at local eateries compared to Western fast-food restaurants using 18 focus group discussions of women (130 women). Participants reported a high eating-out frequency with 77.3% usually eating either breakfast, lunch or dinner at eateries. Main venues for eating-out included hawker centres (61.1% usually ate at least 1 of 3 daily meals at this venue) and school/workplace canteens (20.4%). A minority of participants (1.9%) reported usually eating at Western fast-food restaurants. Younger participants and those of Chinese and Malay ethnicity compared to Indians were more likely to eat at Western fast-food restaurants. Chinese and employed persons were more likely to eat at hawker centres. The ready availability of a large variety of affordable and appealing foods appeared to be a primary driver of eating out, particularly at hawker centres. Our findings highlight the growing importance of eating-out in an urban Asian population where local eating venues play a more dominant role compared with Western fast-food chains. Interventions focusing on improving the food quality at venues for eating out are important to improve the diet of urban Asian populations.

  17. Assessment of food offerings and marketing strategies in the food-service venues at California Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Hunnes, Dana E; Reyes, Phedellee; Arab, Lenore; Ryan, Gery W; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A

    2012-01-01

    Marketing strategies and food offerings in hospital cafeterias can impact dietary choices. Using a survey adapted to assess food environments, the purpose of this study was to assess the food environment available to patients, staff, and visitors at the food-service venues in all 14 California children's hospitals. We modified a widely-used tool to create the Nutritional Environment Measures Survey for Cafeterias (NEMS-C) by partnering with a hospital wellness committee. The NEMS-C summarizes the number of healthy items offered, whether calorie labeling is present, if there is signage promoting healthy or unhealthy foods, pricing structure, and the presence of unhealthy combination meals. The range of possible scores is zero (unhealthy) to 37 (healthy). We directly observed the food-service venues at all 14 tertiary care children's hospitals in California and scored them. Inter-rater reliability showed 89% agreement on the assessed items. For the 14 hospitals, the mean score was 19.1 (SD = 4.2; range, 13-30). Analysis revealed that nearly all hospitals offered diet drinks, low-fat milk, and fruit. Fewer than one-third had nutrition information at the point of purchase and 30% had signs promoting healthy eating. Most venues displayed high calorie impulse items such as cookies and ice cream at the registers. Seven percent (7%) of the 384 entrees served were classified as healthy according to NEMS criteria. Most children's hospitals' food venues received a mid-range score, demonstrating there is considerable room for improvement. Many inexpensive options are underused, such as providing nutritional information, incorporating signage that promotes healthy choices, and not presenting unhealthy impulse items at the register. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Watt-level ~2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass double-cladding fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Guang; Hu, Lili

    2010-12-15

    We report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a watt level cw fiber laser at ~2 μm from a piece of 40-cm-long newly developed highly thulium-doped (3.76 × 10(20) ions/cm(3)) tungsten tellurite glass double cladding fiber pumped by a commercial 800 nm laser diode. The maximum output power of the fiber laser reaches 1.12 W. The slope efficiency and the optical-optical efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump are 20% and 16%, respectively. The lasing threshold is 1.46 W, and the lasing wavelength is centered at 1937 nm.

  19. Comparison of the Danish step test and the watt-max test for estimation of maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Zacho, Morten; Linneberg, Allan René

    2013-01-01

    . Altogether, 795 eligible participants (response rate 35.8%) performed the watt max and the Danish step test. Correlation and agreement between the two VO(2max) test results was explored by Pearson's rho, Bland-Altman plots, Kappa(w), and gamma coefficients.Results: The correlation between VO(2max) (ml......Introduction: There is a need for simple and feasible methods for estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in large study populations, as existing methods for valid estimation of maximal oxygen consumption are generally time consuming and relatively expensive to administer. The Danish step...

  20. Ekphrasis Earos. Le topos de la venue du printemps chez des auteurs byzantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Loukaki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La description de la venue du printemps (ekphrasis earos, un topos aux composantes spécifiques dans la littérature de la seconde sophistique, devint l’ objet d’ enseignement reproduit de façon stéréotypée dans les écoles de Rhétorique protobyzantines. La symbolique de la renaissance de la nature s’ est révélée particulièrement favorable à la didascalie chrétienne comme image du Christ ressuscité ; ainsi, l’ekphrasis earos se retrouve dans plusieurs homélies sur Pâques, le Baptême, la Nativité du Christ, l’Annonciation de la Vierge, etc. La jonction de la tradition chrétienne avec la tradition païenne dans la composition des descriptions du printemps semble qu’ elle fut favorisée dans le milieu scolaire de l’ époque médio-byzantine. Les ekphraseis earos de Libanius (Progym. XII 7, de Grégoire de Nazianze (Or. 44 et de Pseudo-Méléagre (AP IX 363 furent des modèles. À partir du XIIe siècle, les nouvelles tendances de la littérature, qui ont remis à l’honneur le roman d’ amour, le monde naturel et les détails de la vie quotidienne, ont donné lieu à des compositions dépourvues de toute allusion chrétienne.

  1. BizWatts: A modular socio-technical energy management system for empowering commercial building occupants to conserve energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbinas, R.; Jain, R.K.; Taylor, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a socio-technical commercial building energy management system. • It was designed for directly engaging and connecting building occupants via feedback. • We collected an array of clickstream data for internal design validation. • A pilot study validated its ability to drive energy savings in commercial buildings. - Abstract: Commercial buildings represent a significant portion of energy consumption and environmental emissions worldwide. To help mitigate the environmental impact of building operations, building energy management systems and behavior-based campaigns designed to reduce energy consumption are becoming increasingly popular. In this paper, we describe the development of a modular socio-technical energy management system, BizWatts, which combines the two approaches by providing real-time, appliance-level power management and socially contextualized energy consumption feedback. We describe in detail the physical and virtual architecture of the system, which simultaneously engages building occupants and facility managers, as well as the main principles behind the interface design and component functionalities. A discussion about how the data collection capabilities of the system enable insightful commercial building energy efficiency studies and quantitative network analysis is also included. We conclude by commenting on the validation of the system, identifying current system limitations and introducing new research avenues that the development and deployment of BizWatts enables

  2. A Study of How the Watts-Strogatz Model Relates to an Economic System’s Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunhan Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Watts-Strogatz model is a main mechanism to construct the small-world networks. It is widely used in the simulations of small-world featured systems including economic system. Formally, the model contains a parameters set including three variables representing group size, number of neighbors, and rewiring probability. This paper discusses how the parameters set relates to the economic system performance which is utility growth rate. In conclusion, it is found that, regardless of the group size and rewiring probability, 2 to 18 neighbors can help the economic system reach the highest utility growth rate. Furthermore, given the range of neighbors and group size of a Watts-Strogatz model based system, the range of its edges can be calculated too. By examining the containment relationship between that range and the edge number of an actual equal-size economic system, we could know whether the system structure has redundant edges or can achieve the highest utility growth ratio.

  3. Local differences in human immunodeficiency virus prevalence: a comparison of social venue patrons, antenatal patients, and sexually transmitted infection patients in eastern kinshasa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Jackson, Elizabeth F; McClamroch, Kristi; Bollinger, Robert; Ryder, Robert W; Weir, Sharon S

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the sexual behavior and HIV prevalence of men and women at social venues where people meet new sexual partners in Eastern Kinshasa with that of sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment and antenatal clinic (ANC) patients in the same area. ANC patients, STI clinic patients, and social venue patrons were interviewed, asked to provide a blood sample on-site, and provided with information about obtaining test results. Every patron at identified social venues in the study area was invited to participate. One thousand one hundred sixteen pregnant women; 66 male and 229 female STI clinic patients; and 952 male and 247 female patrons of social venues were interviewed and tested for HIV. HIV prevalence differed by group: ANC patients (4%); female venue patrons (12%); female STI patients (16%); male venue patrons (2%); and male STI patients (23%). HIV prevalence among sex workers at social venues (29%) was higher than HIV prevalence among other female patrons with new or multiple partnerships in the past four weeks (19%) and higher than HIV prevalence among female patrons denying sex work (6%). However, the absolute number of infected women was higher among women reporting recent new or multiple partnerships than among the smaller group of sex workers (23 vs. 18). Two-thirds of the infected female STI patients (24/36) reported no more than one and no new sexual partner in the past year. Improving prevention programs in Kinshasa is essential. Prevention efforts should not neglect women at social venues who do not self-identify as sex workers but who have high rates of new sexual partnership formation.

  4. Who is afraid of the big bad ban? An evaluation of the effects of the Spanish clean air law on expenditure at hospitality venues

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Villar, Jaume; López-Nicolás, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background:In January 2011 Spain modified clean air legislation in force since 2006, removing all existing exceptions applicable to hospitality venues. Although this legal reform was backed by all political parties with parliamentary representation, the government's initiative was contested by the tobacco industry and its allies in the hospitality industry. One of the most voiced arguments against the reform was its potentially disruptive effect on the revenue of hospitality venues. This pape...

  5. From ivory tower to prison watchtower: The STEM Ambassador Program promotes exchange outside of traditional venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, N.; Weber, C.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists can be effective in engaging the public, due to their deep content knowledge and passion for their research. However, most training programs prepare scientists to communicate with public groups who seek out informal science education (ISE) activities at science centers and zoos, but not all Americans regularly participate in ISE activities. Opportunities for scientists to exchange information with those who may not seek out science but who hold the potential to contribute novel ideas and generate political support for our discipline can enhance the scientific enterprise. With support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), we created the "STEM Ambassador Program" (STEMAP), a research and public engagement project that aims to bridge science and society by training scientists to engage audiences outside of traditional venues. Activities are based on commonalities between the scientist's research interests and/or personal characteristics, and the interests, professions, and recreational pursuits of community groups. Scientists are encouraged to work with underserved communities (e.g., senior citizens), communities facing barriers to science learning (e.g., incarcerated men and women), and non-academic stakeholders in scientific research (e.g., decision-makers). STEMAP training is derived from three NSF-funded ISE models: Portal to the Public, the Research Ambassador Program, and Design Thinking. In 2016-2017, two cohorts of 20 scientists each, representing 15 departments at the University of Utah, received training. Examples of engagement activities included: An engineer presented his work to develop air quality monitoring devices to a local government council, and invited members to participate in his understanding of regional air quality. A microbiologist provided a microscope view of the microbes that are involved in fermentation with classes at a local cooking school. An urban planning researcher met with inmates in a horticulture training program at

  6. The effect of São Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; da C Ferreira, Marizete M; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. Objective To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. Methods In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. Results The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (phospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not. PMID:21109684

  7. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to secondhand smoke in offices and hospitality venues: before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, Manel; López, Maria J; Ariza, Carles; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Schiaffino, Anna; Muñoz, Gloria; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-03-01

    A smoking law was passed by the Spanish Parliament in December 2005 and was enforced by 1 January 2006. The law bans smoking in all indoor workplaces but only in some hospitality venues, because owners are allowed to establish a smoking zone (venues>100 m2) or to allow smoking without restrictions (venueshospitality venues. The study design is a before-and-after evaluation. We studied workplaces and hospitality venues from eight different regions of Spain. We took repeated samples of vapor-phase nicotine concentration in 398 premises, including private offices (162), public administration offices (90), university premises (43), bars and restaurants (79), and discotheques and pubs (24). In the follow-up period, SHS levels were markedly reduced in indoor offices. The median decrease in nicotine concentration ranged from 60.0% in public premises to 97.4% in private areas. Nicotine concentrations were also markedly reduced in bars and restaurants that became smoke-free (96.7%) and in the no-smoking zones of venues with separate spaces for smokers (88.9%). We found no significant changes in smoking zones or in premises allowing smoking, including discotheques and pubs. Overall, this study shows the positive impact of the law on reducing SHS in indoor workplaces. However, SHS was substantially reduced only in bars and restaurants that became smoke-free. Most hospitality workers continue to be exposed to very high levels of SHS. Therefore, a 100% smoke-free policy for all hospitality venues is required.

  8. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-08-06

    In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts) minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel.

  9. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel.

  10. Assessing knowledge and attitudes of owners or managers of hospitality venues regarding a policy banning indoor smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaaeddine, G; Al Kuhaimi, T; Al Assaad, R; Dany, M; Diab, R; Hanna, E; Hirmas, N; Ismail, H; Mahmassani, D; Sleiman Tellawi, R; Nakkash, R

    2013-05-01

    In response to accumulating evidence on the detrimental health effects of second-hand smoke, governments throughout the world have adopted laws prohibiting indoor smoking in public places. Lebanon has recently enacted a law prohibiting indoor smoking in all of its forms, rendered effective as of 3 September 2012. This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of restaurants, cafes, pubs and nightclubs in Beirut towards the ban, three months before it came into effect. Self-administered cross-sectional survey. Data were derived from a self-administered cross-sectional survey conducted in June 2012. In total, 262 hospitality venues (restaurants, cafes, pubs and nightclubs) were sampled at random to participate. The response rate was 74% (194/262). Overall, 84% of owners/managers reported that they were aware of the ban, yet the average knowledge score was only 3.43/10. A general positive attitude was noted towards customer satisfaction (44.8%), law enforcement (61.1%) and employee protection from second-hand smoke (74%), while 55% of owners/managers were concerned that their revenues would decrease. However, 83.3% expressed their willingness to implement the law. This quantitative study is the first to examine the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of hospitality venues regarding the indoor smoking ban in Lebanon. Civil society and government bodies should use the findings to develop a campaign to address the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of hospitality venues to ensure successful enforcement. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  12. Sastra dan Difabel: Menilik Citra Difabel dalam Novel Biola Tak Berdawai dari Sudut Pandang Sosiologi Sastra Ian Watt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhanif Yasin Yusuf

    2015-06-01

    Dengan menggunakan pendekatan teori sosiologi sastra Ian Watt, Biola Tak Berdawai tidak jauh berbeda dengan karya-karya Seno lainnya yang melemparkan gagasan kritis terhadap realitas sosial. Latar belakang sosial Seno yang sekaligus sebagai wartawan melemparkan gagasan kritisnya terkait kondisi difabel yang masih mendapat stigma negatif dari masyarakat. Cerminan sosial dalam novel tidak jauh berbeda dengan realitas yang terjadi di Indonesia, dimana ideologi kenormalan menyumbangkan berbagai bentuk ketidakadilan terhadap difabel. Difabel masih dianggap sebagai individu yang cacat, sebagai kutukan Tuhan, dan sebagai sumber aib bagi keluarga. Pendobrakan terhadap realitas yang ada, dilakukan pengarang lewat tokoh utama “Aku” yang difabel dengan menyajikan fakta bahwa difabel memiliki kemampuan yang berbeda, tetapi masyarakat masih belum memahaminya karena sudah terlanjur terjebak pada stigma negatif terhadap difabel.

  13. Effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Perc, Matjaž; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we study effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks. Our focus is on the impact of two parameters, namely the time delay τ and the probability of partial time delay pdelay, whereby the latter determines the probability with which a connection between two neurons is delayed. Our research reveals that partial time delays significantly affect phase synchronization in this system. In particular, partial time delays can either enhance or decrease phase synchronization and induce synchronization transitions with changes in the mean firing rate of neurons, as well as induce switching between synchronized neurons with period-1 firing to synchronized neurons with period-2 firing. Moreover, in comparison to a neuronal network where all connections are delayed, we show that small partial time delay probabilities have especially different influences on phase synchronization of neuronal networks.

  14. Simple, distance-dependent formulation of the Watts-Strogatz model for directed and undirected small-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Francis; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Small-world networks—complex networks characterized by a combination of high clustering and short path lengths—are widely studied using the paradigmatic model of Watts and Strogatz (WS). Although the WS model is already quite minimal and intuitive, we describe an alternative formulation of the WS model in terms of a distance-dependent probability of connection that further simplifies, both practically and theoretically, the generation of directed and undirected WS-type small-world networks. In addition to highlighting an essential feature of the WS model that has previously been overlooked, namely the equivalence to a simple distance-dependent model, this alternative formulation makes it possible to derive exact expressions for quantities such as the degree and motif distributions and global clustering coefficient for both directed and undirected networks in terms of model parameters.

  15. The net employment impact of energy transition in France: An input-output analysis of the 'negaWatt' scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We study the impact on employment in France of the implementation of the energy transition scenario built by negaWatt (2011), which provides a massive development of energy savings (through measures of sufficiency and energy efficiency) and renewable energy between 2012 and 2050. Compared to 2010, this scenario results in a halving of CO 2 emissions from energy sources in France in 2030 and a division by 16 in 2050, without capture and storage of CO 2 , without implementation of new nuclear power plant and closing existing plants after 40 years of operation at maximum. We calculate the effect on employment of the implementation of this scenario compared to a baseline scenario that extends recent developments and considers the policies already decided. The method used to calculate the effect on employment of each scenario is to calculate the cost of the main technical and organizational options used, to allocate these costs among the 118 branches of the French economy and multiply these costs by the employment content of each branch. The latter is estimated by input-output analysis, which enables the recording of jobs generated by the production of all inputs. One of two scenarios being more expensive than the other, one must take into account the negative effect on employment of funding such costs. For this, it is assumed that this additional cost is borne by households and that they decrease their consumption accordingly by the same amount. This avoids biasing the results in favour of the most expensive scenario. The implementation of negaWatt scenario leads to a positive effect on employment, on the order of 240 000 full-time equivalent jobs in 2020 and 630,000 in 2030. We study the sensitivity of results to assumptions on prices of imported energy, the evolution of labour productivity, the distribution of costs between households and governments, and finally the consumption-savings decision. The effect on employment is largely positive in all cases. (author)

  16. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behavior among patrons of alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Meade, Christina S; Ranby, Krista W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2011-07-01

    Alcohol-serving venues in South Africa provide a location for HIV prevention interventions due to risk factors of patrons in these establishments. Understanding the association between mental health and risk behaviors in these settings may inform interventions that address alcohol use and HIV prevention. Participants (n = 738) were surveyed in 6 alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, traumatic experiences, sexual behavior, and substance use. Logistic regression models examined whether traumatic experiences predicted PTSD and depression. Generalized linear models examined whether substance use, PTSD, and depressive symptoms predicted unprotected sexual intercourse. Men and women were analyzed separately. Participants exhibited high rates of traumatic experiences, PTSD, depression, alcohol consumption, and HIV risk behaviors. For men, PTSD was associated with being hit by a sex partner, physical child abuse, sexual child abuse and HIV diagnosis; depression was associated with being hit by a sex partner, forced sex and physical child abuse. For women, both PTSD and depression were associated with being hit by a sex partner, forced sex, and physical child abuse. Unprotected sexual intercourse was associated with age, frequency and quantity of alcohol use, drug use, and PTSD for men and frequency and quantity of alcohol use, depression, and PTSD for women. Mental health in this setting was poor and was associated with sexual risk behavior. Treating mental health and substance-use problems may aid in reducing HIV infection. Sexual assault prevention and treatment after sexual assault may strengthen HIV prevention efforts.

  17. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophi Costas A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35 were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p  Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  18. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  20. Preliminary systems-interaction results from the Digraph Matrix Analysis of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant safety-injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Champney, J.M.; Alesso, H.P.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides preliminary results generated by a Digraph Matrix Analysis (DMA) for a Systems Interaction analysis performed on the Safety Injection System of the Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. An overview of DMA is provided along with a brief description of the computer codes used in DMA

  1. Association between Secondhand Smoke in Hospitality Venues and Urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol Concentrations in Non-Smoking Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lee, Do Hoon; Kim, KyooSang

    2016-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between urinary cotinine and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) concentrations in non-smoking staff and the indoor levels of fine particles (PM 2.5 ) in hospitality venues that allow smoking, with respect to demographic and indoor environmental factors. We evaluated 62 hospitality venues that allowed smoking in Seoul, Korea. A real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure indoor PM 2.5 concentrations. Field technicians recorded indoor environmental characteristics. One non-smoking staff member in each hospitality venue was tested for urinary cotinine and total NNAL concentrations. Demographic characteristics were obtained from self-reported staff questionnaires. Natural-log (ln)-transformed PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with the ln-transformed cotinine ( r = 0.31) and the total NNAL concentrations ( r = 0.32). In multivariable regression analysis, the urinary cotinine concentrations of the staff members were significantly correlated with indoor PM 2.5 concentrations; those with the highest concentrations were more likely to be women or staff members that worked in venues with a volume hospitality venues that allow smoking.

  2. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC's extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA's operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation

  3. Reforming the Regulation of Trading Venues in the EU under the Proposed MiFID II – Levelling the Playing Field and Overcoming Fragmentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    The Directive on Markets in Financial Instruments (MiFID 2004), adopted in 2004, brought about substantial changes in the market. Competition between trading venues has increased and a substantial portion of trade in financial instruments has moved from regulated markets to other trading venues....... This has created an unlevel playing field between regulated markets on the one hand and other trading venues on the other. At the same time, the fragmentation of trade has led to problems for ensuring investor protection and market surveillance. The Commission has recently proposed a reform of the Mi......FID regime (MiFID II) to address these two problems. In this article there is an analysis of how and to what extent the proposed MiFID II will solve these problems. It is concluded that MiFID II will solve the problem of the unlevel playing field between regulated markets and multilateral trading facilities...

  4. Comparison of risk behaviors and socio-cultural profile of men who have sex with men survey respondents recruited via venues and the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly more men who have sex with men (MSM are using the internet to seek sex partners, and many HIV-related studies targeting MSM collect data from gay venues in order to inform the design of prevention programs. However, internet-based MSM may have different HIV risk behaviors and associated factors from those attending venues. This study examined differences in risk behaviors and socio-cultural profiles between MSM recruited from venues (e.g., gay bars/saunas and from the internet respectively. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 566 Chinese MSM (340 recruited from gay-venues and 226 recruited from the internet who self-reported having had anal or oral sex with another man in the last 12 months completed a structured questionnaire. Results Internet-based MSM were more likely than venue-based MSM to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (53.3% vs. 33.8% or commercial sex (as clients: 12.8% vs. 5.3%; as sex workers: 6.2% vs. 1.5%, to have sought MSM partners from the internet (51.3% vs. 20.9%, and to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STD in the last 12 months (4.4% vs. 0.3%. On the other hand, internet-based MSM were less likely to have multiple sex partners (58.4% vs. 75.6% and to have used psychoactive substances (7.1% vs. 15.6% or drunk alcohol before sex (8.8% vs. 16.2%. Moreover, internet-based MSM reported poor acceptance of their own sexual orientation, felt more discriminated against, and received less social support than venue-recruited MSM. Conclusions Significant differences were observed between the two groups of MSM. Segmentation and targeted interventions are recommended when designing preventive interventions.

  5. Comparison of risk behaviors and socio-cultural profile of men who have sex with men survey respondents recruited via venues and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hi Yi; Lau, Joseph T F

    2010-05-06

    Increasingly more men who have sex with men (MSM) are using the internet to seek sex partners, and many HIV-related studies targeting MSM collect data from gay venues in order to inform the design of prevention programs. However, internet-based MSM may have different HIV risk behaviors and associated factors from those attending venues. This study examined differences in risk behaviors and socio-cultural profiles between MSM recruited from venues (e.g., gay bars/saunas) and from the internet respectively. An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 566 Chinese MSM (340 recruited from gay-venues and 226 recruited from the internet) who self-reported having had anal or oral sex with another man in the last 12 months completed a structured questionnaire. Internet-based MSM were more likely than venue-based MSM to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (53.3% vs. 33.8%) or commercial sex (as clients: 12.8% vs. 5.3%; as sex workers: 6.2% vs. 1.5%), to have sought MSM partners from the internet (51.3% vs. 20.9%), and to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the last 12 months (4.4% vs. 0.3%). On the other hand, internet-based MSM were less likely to have multiple sex partners (58.4% vs. 75.6%) and to have used psychoactive substances (7.1% vs. 15.6%) or drunk alcohol before sex (8.8% vs. 16.2%). Moreover, internet-based MSM reported poor acceptance of their own sexual orientation, felt more discriminated against, and received less social support than venue-recruited MSM. Significant differences were observed between the two groups of MSM. Segmentation and targeted interventions are recommended when designing preventive interventions.

  6. Secondhand Smoke Concentrations in Hospitality Venues in the Pacific Basin: Findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Methods Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke-free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. Results The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Conclusions Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments. PMID:22393958

  7. Secondhand smoke concentrations in hospitality venues in the Pacific Basin: findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke- free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/ m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments.

  8. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-05

    This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was used to select hospitality sites stratified by all five divisions in Kampala. A total of 222 establishments were selected for the study. One hospitality representative from each of the visited sites agreed to take part in a face-to-face administered questionnaire. A subsample of hospitality venues were randomly selected for tobacco air quality testing (n=108). Data were collected between June and August 2016. Knowledge and opinions of the smoke-free law among hospitality venue staff and owners. The level of compliance with the smoke-free law in hospitality venues through: (1) systematic objective observations (eg, active smoking, the presence of designated smoking areas, 'no smoking' signage) and (2) air quality by measuring the levels of tobacco particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in both indoor and outdoor venues. Active smoking was observed in 18% of venues, 31% had visible 'no smoking' signage and 47% had visible cigarette remains. Among interviewed respondents, 57% agreed that they had not been adequately informed about the smoke-free law; however, 90% were supportive of the ban. Nearly all respondents (97%) agreed that the law will protect workers' health, but 32% believed that the law would cause financial losses at their establishment. Indoor PM 2.5 levels were hazardous (267.6 µg/m 3 ) in venues that allowed smoking and moderate (29.6 µg/m 3 ) in smoke-free establishments. In the early phase of Uganda's smoke-free law, the level of compliance in hospitality venues settings in Kampala was suboptimal. Civil society and the

  9. Assessing the Quality of a Local Authority Conference and Hospitality Venue Using the ServQual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Mike

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The close attention paid to service quality by successful private companies has become part of the environment within which most public service organizations now operate. The ServQual model has been used with success to help companies quantify customers' expectations and perceptions of their service and to use this analysis as the basis for improvement. More recently, the ServQual approach has been applied in public service contexts with mixed reliability and validity. This paper reports on the application of the ServQual model to a conference and hospitality venue operated by a Scottish local authority. The study investigates five distinct customer segments: conferences, meetings, receptions, performances, and weddings. The expectations-perceptions gaps are assessed for each of these segments using the ServQual model and the size and antecedents of ServQual Gap 1 is also examined.

  10. Perceived Attributes of Event Sustainability in the MICE Industry in Thailand: A Viewpoint from Governmental, Academic, Venue and Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantapop Buathong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, Event industries are as far reaching as their economic reach. The travelers who attend events patronize a wide variety of businesses: airlines, car rental agencies, hotels, restaurants, performance venues, and tour operators. The overall research objectives of this study fall on two aspects of sustainability in the event industry: the most prevalent practices that the industry employs and the relative importance of sustainability to convention consumers. This study implements mixed research methods in order to explore the perceptions of sustainable event development in the metropolitan area of Bangkok, Thailand. Empirical evidence on significant issues for event sustainability is provided. Based on the results, recommendations are made to improve sustainable event development in Thailand and offer guidance to the event industry so that it can develop its potential and gain greater prominence on the world MICE stage.

  11. Exposure to secondhand smoke in Germany: air contamination due to smoking in German restaurants, bars, and other venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Seibold, Bjoern; Schunk, Susanne; Jentzsch, Elmar; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Dresler, Carolyn; Travers, Mark J; Hyland, Andrew

    2008-03-01

    This study quantified exposure to secondhand smoke in German restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues by determining the concentration of respirable suspended particles measuring 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5) in indoor air. The measurements were taken using an inconspicuous device placed on the investigator's table in the venue. The concentration of particulate matter in the indoor air was measured for a minimum of 30 min. A total of 39 restaurants, 20 coffee bars, 12 bars, 9 discothèques, and 20 restaurant cars in trains were visited throughout Germany from September 30 to October 31, 2005. The readings disclosed a median PM2.5 of 260 microg/m3 and an arithmetic mean PM2.5 of 333 microg/m3. Median values were 378 microg/m3 in bars, 131 microg/m3 in cafes, and 173 microg/m3 in restaurants. The highest medians were measured in discothèques and restaurant cars, with values averaging 432 microg/m3 and 525 microg/m3 PM2.5, respectively. This study was the first to show the magnitude and extent of exposure to secondhand smoke on such an extensive scale in Germany. The contaminated air due to smoking is a human carcinogenic and major health hazard, which would be prevented most effectively and completely by implementing a ban on smoking. This study is important for the ongoing national debate in Germany as well as for debates in all countries without smoke-free air legislation, which includes most countries around the world.

  12. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophi, Costas A; Paisi, Martha; Pampaka, Despina; Kehagias, Martha; Vardavas, Constantine; Connolly, Gregory N

    2013-01-27

    Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation's effect on revenue and employment. Several hospitality venues (n = 35) were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, in the year following the ban, the hotel turnover rate increased by 4.1% and the restaurant revenue by 6.4%; employment increased that same year by 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  13. Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of 137 Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or ''hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

  14. Impact of Partial Time Delay on Temporal Dynamics of Watts-Strogatz Small-World Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Sun, Xiaojuan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we mainly discuss effects of partial time delay on temporal dynamics of Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world neuronal networks by controlling two parameters. One is the time delay τ and the other is the probability of partial time delay pdelay. Temporal dynamics of WS small-world neuronal networks are discussed with the aid of temporal coherence and mean firing rate. With the obtained simulation results, it is revealed that for small time delay τ, the probability pdelay could weaken temporal coherence and increase mean firing rate of neuronal networks, which indicates that it could improve neuronal firings of the neuronal networks while destroying firing regularity. For large time delay τ, temporal coherence and mean firing rate do not have great changes with respect to pdelay. Time delay τ always has great influence on both temporal coherence and mean firing rate no matter what is the value of pdelay. Moreover, with the analysis of spike trains and histograms of interspike intervals of neurons inside neuronal networks, it is found that the effects of partial time delays on temporal coherence and mean firing rate could be the result of locking between the period of neuronal firing activities and the value of time delay τ. In brief, partial time delay could have great influence on temporal dynamics of the neuronal networks.

  15. Optimal autaptic and synaptic delays enhanced synchronization transitions induced by each other in Newman–Watts neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoying; Gong, Yubing; Xie, Huijuan; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal autaptic delay enhanced synchronization transitions induced by synaptic delay in neuronal networks. • Optimal synaptic delay enhanced synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay. • Optimal coupling strength enhanced synchronization transitions induced by autaptic or synaptic delay. - Abstract: In this paper, we numerically study the effect of electrical autaptic and synaptic delays on synchronization transitions induced by each other in Newman–Watts Hodgkin–Huxley neuronal networks. It is found that the synchronization transitions induced by synaptic delay vary with varying autaptic delay and become strongest when autaptic delay is optimal. Similarly, the synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay vary with varying synaptic delay and become strongest at optimal synaptic delay. Also, there is optimal coupling strength by which the synchronization transitions induced by either synaptic or autaptic delay become strongest. These results show that electrical autaptic and synaptic delays can enhance synchronization transitions induced by each other in the neuronal networks. This implies that electrical autaptic and synaptic delays can cooperate with each other and more efficiently regulate the synchrony state of the neuronal networks. These findings could find potential implications for the information transmission in neural systems.

  16. Watt-level passively Q-switched double-cladding fiber laser based on graphene oxide saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Song, Yanrong; Dong, Xinzheng; Li, Yanlin; Tian, Jinrong; Wang, Yonggang

    2013-10-10

    A watt-level passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped double-cladding fiber laser with a graphene oxide (GO) absorber was demonstrated. The structure of the GO saturable absorber mirror (GO-SAM) was of the sandwich type. A maximum output power of 1.8 W was obtained around a wavelength of 1044 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power in Q-switched fiber lasers based on a GO saturable absorber. The pure GO was protected from the oxygen in the air so that the damage threshold of the GO-SAM was effectively raised. The gain fiber was a D-shaped ytterbium-doped double-cladding fiber. The pulse repetition rates were tuned from 120 to 215 kHz with pump powers from 3.89 to 7.8 W. The maximum pulse energy was 8.37 μJ at a pulse width of 1.7 μs.

  17. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues before and after implementation of a clean indoor air law--Western New York, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-12

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) contains more than 50 carcinogens. SHS exposure is responsible for an estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths and more than 35,000 coronary heart disease deaths among never smokers in the United States each year, and for lower respiratory infections, asthma, sudden infant death syndrome, and chronic ear infections among children. Even short-term exposures to SHS, such as those that might be experienced by a patron in a restaurant or bar that allows smoking, can increase the risk of experiencing an acute cardiovascular event. Although population-based data indicate declining SHS exposure in the United States over time, SHS exposure remains a common but preventable public health hazard. Policies requiring smoke-free environments are the most effective method of reducing SHS exposure. Effective July 24, 2003, New York implemented a comprehensive state law requiring almost all indoor workplaces and public places (e.g., restaurants, bars, and other hospitality venues) to be smoke-free. This report describes an assessment of changes in indoor air quality that occurred in 20 hospitality venues in western New York where smoking or indirect SHS exposure from an adjoining room was observed at baseline. The findings indicate that, on average, levels of respirable suspended particles (RSPs), an accepted marker for SHS levels, decreased 84% in these venues after the law took effect. Comprehensive clean indoor air policies can rapidly and effectively reduce SHS exposure in hospitality venues.

  18. Food Shopping Venues, Neighborhood Food Environment, and Body Mass Index Among Guyanese, Black, and White Adults in an Urban Community in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.S.

    1992-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), and Supplement No. 9 (June 1992) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units I and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  20. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), and Supplement No. 3 (January 1985) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the open and confirmatory items and license conditions identified in the Safety Evaluation Report

  1. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), and Supplement No. 2 (January 1984) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the open and confirmatory items and license conditions identified in the Safety Evaluation Report

  2. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), and Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  3. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391), Tennessee Valley Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG- 0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), and Supplement No. 8 (January 1992) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  4. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG- 0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1' (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), and Supplement No. 5 (November 1990) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  5. Report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs

  6. Assessment of potential impact of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant thermal effluent on the Watts Bar Reservoir striped bass population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, J.H.; McIntosh, D.; Ostrowski, P.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report is an assessment of potential adverse impact to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir caused by thermal effluent from operation of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is occupied by adult striped bass during the warmest months of the year. Concern was raised that operation of the CRBRP, specifically thermal discharges, could conflict with management of striped bass. In all cases examined the thermal plume becomes nearly imperceptible within a short distance from the discharge pipe (about 30 ft [10 m]) compared to river width (about 630 ft [190 m]). Under worst case conditions any presence of the plume in the main channel (opposite side of the river from the discharge) will be confined to the surface layer of the water. An ample portion of river cross sections containing ambient temperature water for passage or residence of adult striped bass will always be available in the vicinity of this thermal effluent. Although a small portion of river cross section would exceed the thermal tolerance of striped bass, the fish would naturally avoid this area and seek out adjacent cooler water. Therefore, it is concluded the CRBRP thermal effluent will not significantly affect the integrity of the striped bass thermal refuge in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir. At this time there is no need to consider alternative diffuser designs and thermal modeling. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL, POLICY AND PHYSICAL VENUE FEATURES AND SOCIAL COHESION ON CONDOM USE FOR PREGNANCY PREVENTION AMONG SEX WORKERS: A SAFER INDOOR WORK ENVIRONMENT SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: report on a newly developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale’ that characterizes the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers’ (SWs’) condom use for pregnancy prevention. Methods Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly-developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale’ was used to build six multivariable models with generalized estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Results Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.01–1.17) access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95%CI 1.00–1.20) access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 1.01–1.28), and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95%CI 1.03–1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 0.99–1.29). Conclusion The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalization of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (e.g., legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. PMID:25678713

  8. The relationship between social, policy and physical venue features and social cohesion on condom use for pregnancy prevention among sex workers: a safer indoor work environment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to report on a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale that characterises the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers' (SWs') condom use for pregnancy prevention. Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly developed Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale was used to build six multivariable models with generalised estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and physical venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17), access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20), access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.28) and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.29). The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalisation of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (eg, legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Factors that influence attitude and enforcement of the smoke-free law in Turkey: a survey of hospitality venue owners and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherrera, Angela; Çarkoğlu, Asli; Hayran, Mutlu; Ergör, Gül; Eirüder, Toker; Kaplan, Bekir; Susan, Jolie; Zheng, Laura; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, Turkey extended the smoke-free legislation to hospitality venues. Compliance, however, remains low in some hospitality venues. We identified characteristics associated with knowledge of health effects that can be prevented by the smoke-free law, the attitude towards and enforcement of the law. In 2014, we conducted 400 interviews with hospitality venue owners and employees in 7 cities in Turkey. The venues were identified based on a random sampling strategy in a previous phase of the study. Over one-third (37.3%) of hospitality owners and employees had adequate knowledge of the health effects from secondhand smoke (SHS), 71.3% had a positive attitude towards the law and 19.5% had personally enforced the law. Participants who worked 70 hours or more per week were more likely to have a positive attitude towards the law. Older individuals, women, participants working in bars/nightclubs, venue owners receiving fines for non-compliance and current smokers were less likely to have a positive attitude towards the law. Participants working in traditional coffee houses, former smokers, and participants with a high school education or greater were more likely to enforce the law. Smokers who quit or reduced smoking because of the law were more likely to enforce the law compared with those who were not influenced by the law. Although the attitude towards the law was positive, interventions are needed to increase knowledge on the health effects of SHS and facilitate enforcement of the law, particularly among subgroups less likely to have a positive attitude and enforce the law. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Support for and reported compliance among smokers with smoke-free policies in air-conditioned hospitality venues in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Foong, Kin; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Hamann, Stephen; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Fotuhi, Omid; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined support for and reported compliance with smoke-free policy in air-conditioned restaurants and other similar places among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Baseline data (early 2005) from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA), conducted face-to-face in Malaysia and Thailand (n = 4005), were used. Among those attending venues, reported total smoking bans in indoor air-conditioned places such as restaurants, coffee shops, and karaoke lounges were 40% and 57% in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Support for a total ban in air-conditioned venues was high and similar for both countries (82% Malaysian and 90% Thai smokers who believed there was a total ban), but self-reported compliance with bans in such venues was significantly higher in Thailand than in Malaysia (95% vs 51%, P air-conditioned venues was associated with a greater support for a ban in such venues in both countries.

  11. Erbium:ytterbium fiber-laser system delivering watt-level femtosecond pulses using divided pulse amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Robert; Zach, Armin

    2015-03-01

    We present an Erbium:Ytterbium codoped fiber-amplifer system based on Divided-Pulses-Amplification (DPA) for ultrashort pulses. The output from a saturable-absorber mode-locked polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber oscillator is amplified in a PM normal-dispersion Erbium-doped fiber. After this stage the pulses are positively chirped and have a duration of 2.0 ps at an average power of 93 mW. A stack of 5 birefringent Yttrium-Vanadate crystals divides these pulses 32 times. We amplify these pulses using a double-clad Erbium:Ytterbium codoped fiber pumped through a multimode fiber combiner. The pulses double pass the amplifier and recombine in the crystals using non-reciprocal polarization 90° rotation by a Faraday rotating mirror. Pulses with a duration of 144 fs are obtained after separation from the input beam using a polarizing beam splitter cube. These pulses have an average power of 1.85 W at a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The generation of femtosecond pulses directly from the amplifier was enabled by a positively chirped seed pulse, normally dispersive Yttrium-Vanadate crystals, and anomalously dispersive amplifier fibers. Efficient frequency doubling to 780 nm with an average power of 725 mW and a pulse duration of 156 fs is demonstrated. In summary we show a DPA setup that enables the generation of femtosecond pulses at watt-level at 1560 nm without the need for further external dechirping and demonstrate a good pulse quality by efficient frequency doubling. Due to the use of PM fiber components and a Faraday rotator the setup is environmentally stable.

  12. Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Haq, Inam-Ul; Khan, M Imran; Siddiqui, Muhammad Bilal; Mirani, Mushtaq; Tahir, Rehman; Hussain, Imtiaz; Puri, Mahesh K; Suhag, Zamir Hussain; Khowaja, Asif R; Lasi, Abdul Razzaq; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael; Ochiai, R Leon; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-01-06

    Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign. A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs) of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation. Health education programs are not part of the regular school curriculum

  13. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  14. Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soofi Sajid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign. Results A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation. Conclusions Health

  15. Watt steam governor stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2002-05-01

    The physics of the fly-ball governor, introduced to regulate the speed of steam engines, is here analysed anew. The original analysis is generalized to arbitrary governor geometry. The well-known stability criterion for the linearized system breaks down for large excursions from equilibrium; we show approximately how this criterion changes.

  16. Realizing User-Relevant Conceptual Model for the Ski Jump Venue of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teakles, Andrew; Mo, Ruping; Dierking, Carl F.; Emond, Chris; Smith, Trevor; McLennan, Neil; Joe, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    As was the case for most other Olympic competitions, providing weather guidance for the ski jump and Nordic combined events involved its own set of unique challenges. The extent of these challenges was brought to light before the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics during a series of outflow wind events in the 2008/2009 winter season. The interactions with the race officials during the difficult race conditions brought on by the outflows provided a new perspective on the service delivery requirements for the upcoming Olympic Games. In particular, the turbulent nature of the winds and its impact on the ski jump practice events that season highlighted the need of race officials for nowcasting advice at very short time scales (from 2 min to 1 h) and forecast products tailored to their decision-making process. These realizations resulted in last minute modifications to the monitoring strategy leading up to the Olympic Games and required forecasters' conceptual models for flow within the Callaghan Valley to be downscaled further to reflect the evolution of turbulence at the ski jump site. The SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) team provided support for these efforts by supplying diagnostic case analyses of important events using numerical weather data and by enhancing the real-time monitoring capabilities at the ski jump venue.

  17. Potential for smoke-free policies in social venues to prevent smoking uptake and reduce relapse: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Cameron, Melissa; Murphy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand the utility of smoking in pubs/bars and nightclubs and explore perceptions of how smoke-free policies might influence smoking behavior. Qualitative focus group methodology was used involving young social smokers and older regular smokers. Pubs/bars and nightclubs were valued as the few remaining indoor public places where people could relax and smoke. These venues were perceived to provide encouragement for smoking more cigarettes by increasing smoking rate and facilitating smoking relapse. For young social smokers, smoking provided an opportunity to be part of a "cool" in-group. Older regular smokers felt pubs/bars provided strong cues for smoking relapse. Smokers felt they would adapt to smoke-free policies and expected these policies to reduce their smoking or assist quitting. Smoke-free policies in pubs/bars and nightclubs may assist smokers to quit and make it less likely that young social smokers will progress to regular smoking.

  18. The Ability of Posters to Enhance the Comfort Level with Breastfeeding in a Public Venue in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, Alissa; Woodrow, Janine; Murphy-Goodridge, Janet; O'Neil, Courtney; Roebothan, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The acceptance and support of breastfeeding in public venues can influence breastfeeding practices and, ultimately, the health of the population. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether posters targeted at the general public could improve acceptability of breastfeeding in public places. A convenience sample of 255 participants was surveyed at shopping centers in 2 rural communities of Newfoundland and Labrador. Experimentally, questions were posed to 117 participants pre- and post-exposure to 2 specific posters designed to promote public acceptance of breastfeeding in public. Initially, we surveyed that only 51.9% of participants indicated that they were comfortable with a woman breastfeeding anywhere in public. However, context played a role, whereby a doctor's office (84.5%) or park (81.4%) were the most acceptable public places for breastfeeding, but least acceptable was a business office environment (66.7%). Of participants, 35.4% indicated previously viewing specific posters. We used a visual analog scale to test poster viewing on the acceptability of public breastfeeding in the context of a doctor's office and a restaurant. Results of pre- versus post-viewing of the promotional posters indicated significant improvements in both scenarios: in a doctor's office (P = .035) and in a restaurant (P = .021). Nearly 50% of the surveyed population indicated discomfort with a mother breastfeeding in public. Both cross-sectional and interventional evidence showed that posters significantly improved the reported level of comfort toward seeing breastfeeding in public. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  20. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Secondhand smoke exposure levels in outdoor hospitality venues: a qualitative and quantitative review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J; Chapman, Simon

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the evidence on whether outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) is present in hospitality venues at high levels enough to potentially pose health risks, particularly among employees. Searches in PubMed and Web of Science included combinations of environmental tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, or passive smoke AND outdoor, yielding 217 and 5,199 results, respectively through June, 2012. Sixteen studies were selected that reported measuring any outdoor SHS exposures (particulate matter (PM) or other SHS indicators). The SHS measurement methods were assessed for inclusion of extraneous variables that may affect levels or the corroboration of measurements with known standards. The magnitude of SHS exposure (PM2.5) depends on the number of smokers present, measurement proximity, outdoor enclosures, and wind. Annual excess PM2.5 exposure of full-time waitstaff at outdoor smoking environments could average 4.0 to 12.2 μg/m3 under variable smoking conditions. Although highly transitory, outdoor SHS exposures could occasionally exceed annual ambient air quality exposure guidelines. Personal monitoring studies of waitstaff are warranted to corroborate these modeled estimates.

  2. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen V Pitpitan

    Full Text Available Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection.To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women.Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV.Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex.For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  3. [Study on HIV-1 subtype among elderly male clients and female sex workers of low-cost venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y Q; Li, J J; Fang, N Y; Wang, B; Wang, J W; Liang, S S; Shen, Z Y; Lan, G H; Zhang, H M; Wu, X H; Lu, H X; Ge, X M

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To understand HIV-1 subtype characteristics and transmission clusters in elderly male clients and female sex workers (FSWs) of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in FSWs and elderly male clients (≥50 years) of low-cost commercial sex venues in 4 cities and 9 counties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region by convenient sampling in 2012. The blood sample was collected from each case for HIV-1 antibody detection. The pol gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from viral RNA template extracted from plasma samples. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and the subtypes were identified. Results: A total of 4 048 elderly male clients and 784 FSWs were surveyed, and 116 HIV-1 infections were detected, the positive rate was 2.5% (103/4 048) in the clients and 1.7% (13/784) in FSWs. The gene amplification and sequencing of HIV-1 detected in 84 blood samples indicated that 53 pol gene sequences were successfully determined (48 blood samples from elderly male clients and 5 blood samples from FSWs). Among 53 pol sequences, 48(90.6% ), 4(7.5% ), and 1(1.9% ) sequences were identified as CRF01_AE, CRF08_BC, and CRF07_BC, respectively. Two transmission clusters were identified among CRF01_AE, including 4 sub-clusters. One transmission cluster was identified among CRF08_BC. The transmission cluster or sub-cluster were from the infected individuals at same low-cost commercial sex venue, or different low-cost commercial sex venues in the same town, or same place, or adjacent villages and towns. Conclusions: CRF01_AE was the predominant HIV-1 subtype among elderly male clients and FSWs of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, circulating in same venue or adjacent villages and towns. The HIV-1 positive male clients and FSWs might play an important role in the spread of the strains.

  4. Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gravely, Shannon; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Okello, Gabriel; Robertson, Lindsay; Heng, Kelvin Khow Chuan; Ndikum, Achiri Elvis; Oginni, Adeniyi Samuel; Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Kakoulides, Socrates; Huffman, Mark D; Yusuf, Salim; Bianco, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. Design This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda’s comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Setting Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. Procedure and participants A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was us...

  5. Multi-Watt Near-Infrared Phototherapy for the Treatment of Comorbid Depression: An Open-Label Single-Arm Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore A. Henderson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe treatment of depression has been hampered by low efficacy of antidepressant medications and safety concerns with alternative modalities. Recent work demonstrated that multi-Watt transcranial near-infrared light therapy (NILT can effectively treat traumatic brain injury (TBI. The current objective is to explore multi-Watt NILT efficacy in a proof-of-concept study as a treatment for depression.MethodsThirty-nine sequential patients treated for TBI between March 2013 and May 2017 provided depression self-assessment data and/or were administered the Hamilton depression rating scale. Each completed the Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS before and after treatment. Patients received multi-Watt NILT using near-infrared lasers (810/980 nm at 8–15 W applied to forehead and temporal regions bilaterally for 9–12 min to each area. Pre- and posttreatment scores were analyzed by paired t-tests.ResultsAll met QIDS criteria for mild to severe depression and 69% had prior antidepressant trials. For 36 of the 39 patients, after 16.82 ± 6.26 treatments, QIDS scores indicated a robust response (decrease of QIDS total score by ≥50%. For 32 of 39 patients, posttreatment QIDS scores indicated a remission from depression (decrease of QIDS total score ≤5. Overall, the QIDS score fell from 14.10 ± 3.39 to 3.41 ± 3.30 SD (p = 6.29 × 10−19. With 12 or fewer treatments, QIDS score dropped from 14.83 ± 2.55 to 4.17 ± 3.93. Patients receiving ≥13 treatments showed a change in QIDS score from 13.67 ± 3.64 to 3.11 ± 3.14. Those (N = 15 who received the entire treatment course within ≤8 weeks (5.33 ± 1.72 weeks showed a change in QIDS score from 13.86 ± 3.14 to 4.5 ± 3.94. Suicidal ideation resolved in all, but two patients. Patients remained in remission for up to 55 months after a single course of treatment.ConclusionThis is the first report of

  6. PAMPLONA OTRA: EL ESCENARIO DE LOS ENCUENTROS 72 / A different Pamplona: the venues of the Encuentros 72 art festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García Alonso

    2016-05-01

    will study the exhibition venues described in the catalogue designed by Luis de Pablo and José Luis Alexanco. That week, the walled enclosure of Ciudadela Park made its début as a cultural centre and José Miguel de Prada Poole’s ephemeral pneumatic domes played a stellar role. Paradoxically, they were what many people remembered most about the art festival. Cinemas, museums, sports centres and other venues joined forces with the festival and, by embracing the uncommon and transforming the habitual, the city revealed itself as the perfect stage and ideal setting for artistic creation and interaction between art and people. Finally, the article examines the mark that the festival left on the city and its current cultural offerings. It explores how that parallel city, invaded by vital, public art, defined the Pamplona of today and the city’s future.

  7. Repliek op Van der Watt se artikel oor ‘Intertekstualiteit en oorinterpretasie: Verwysings na Genesis 28:12 in Johannes 1:51?’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie F. Stander

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A response to Van der Watt’s article on ‘Intertextuality and over-interpretation: References to Genesis 28:12 in John 1:51?’ This article is a response to an article of Van der Watt titled ‘Intertextuality and over-interpretation: References to Genesis 28:12 in John 1:51?’ (2016. He states in this article that his aim is ‘to illustrate the dangers of over-interpretation when dealing with intertextual relations between texts, especially when allusion is assumed’. He then gives a brief survey of different interpretations of John 1:51. Van der Watt shows in his article how theologians use themes from Genesis 28:12 (like the ladder, Jacob or Bethel, which are not mentioned in John 1:51 in their expositions of John 1:51. Van der Watt regards some of these expositions as examples of over-interpretation. The aim of my article is to show how Church Fathers interpreted Genesis 28:12 and John 1:51. I show in my article that the Church Fathers saw several parallels between these two sections from the Bible. Furthermore, I suggest that the early theologians’ interpretations formed a tradition that probably influenced modern interpreters of the Bible. I also discuss the role of typology in the history of interpretation, specifically also in the case of Genesis 28:12 and John 1:51. I then argue that it is perhaps not so far-fetched to see an intertextual relation between Genesis 28:12 and John 1:51.

  8. [Impact of the new smoke-free legislation (law 42/2010) on levels of second-hand smoke in hospitality venues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Rodrigo; Nerín, Isabel; Galindo, Virginia; Alayeto, Carmen; Villaverde-Royo, M A Victoria; Sanz, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate pollution by second-hand smoke in a sample of hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. A cross sectional, before-after study was conducted in 2008 and 2011 after the total ban. A SidePack Aerosol monitor was used both inside and outside the hospitality venues to measure fine breathable particles (PM2.5). A total of 43 places with pre- and post-legislation measurements were included. The median indoor pollution in hospitality venues was 204.2μg/m(3) in 2008 and 18.82μg/m(3) in 2011; the average outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 47.04μg/m(3) in 2008 and 18.82μg/m(3) in 2011. Pollution was higher in bars and cafeterias, followed by pubs and discos. Before the law was implemented, pollution was 4.34 times higher indoors than outdoors; in 2011 the average indoor PM2.5 concentration decreased by 90.88%. Only a complete ban is able to protect workers and customers against the health risks of second-hand smoke exposure. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakhova, O.N.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Larionova, N.V.; Tur, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on “Degelen” site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere, vegetation–atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area “Degelen”. - Highlights: ► The basic mechanisms for tritium distribution in the air of nuclear testing sites were examined. ► We researched the distribution of tritium in the systems such as water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere and vegetation–atmosphere. ► An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere was performed. ► We experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in

  10. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1994-12-01

    Supplement No. 14 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County, Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation with additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 13 was issued, and matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 13 was issued.

  11. Design of 1+ Ion Source Coupling First Design of the Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source For the Multi-Mega Watt Target Station

    CERN Document Server

    A. Olivier-Kaiser, F. Le Blanc, C. Lau

    The realisation of next-generation ion sources suitable for the EURISOL multi-mega-watt (MMW) target station needs exhaustive studies and developments. An exhaustive review was carried out to evaluate the capability of the ion-sources to operate under the irradiation conditions of the MMW target station. In addition, selectivity must be taken into account to avoid the spread of unwanted radioactivity out of the target-ion-source system (TIS).These studies led to consider RILIS (Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source) as the reference ion source for this target station.

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391): Supplement No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Supplement No. 19 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation with (1) additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 18 was issued, and (2) matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 18 was issued

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Supplement No. 8 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County, Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation of (1) additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 7 was issued, and (2) matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 7 was issued

  14. The comparability of men who have sex with men recruited from venue-time-space sampling and facebook: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C; Sullivan, Patrick S; Sanchez, Travis H; Kelley, Colleen F; Peterson, John L; Del Rio, Carlos; Salazar, Laura F; Frew, Paula M; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2014-07-17

    Recruiting valid samples of men who have sex with men (MSM) is a key component of the US human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance and of research studies seeking to improve HIV prevention for MSM. Social media, such as Facebook, may present an opportunity to reach broad samples of MSM, but the extent to which those samples are comparable with men recruited from venue-based, time-space sampling (VBTS) is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the comparability of MSM recruited via VBTS and Facebook. HIV-negative and HIV-positive black and white MSM were recruited from June 2010 to December 2012 using VBTS and Facebook in Atlanta, GA. We compared the self-reported venue attendance, demographic characteristics, sexual and risk behaviors, history of HIV-testing, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence between Facebook- and VTBS-recruited MSM overall and by race. Multivariate logistic and negative binomial models estimated age/race adjusted ratios. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess 24-month retention. We recruited 803 MSM, of whom 110 (34/110, 30.9% black MSM, 76/110, 69.1% white MSM) were recruited via Facebook and 693 (420/693, 60.6% black MSM, 273/693, 39.4% white MSM) were recruited through VTBS. Facebook recruits had high rates of venue attendance in the previous month (26/34, 77% among black and 71/76, 93% among white MSM; between-race P=.01). MSM recruited on Facebook were generally older, with significant age differences among black MSM (P=.02), but not white MSM (P=.14). In adjusted multivariate models, VBTS-recruited MSM had fewer total partners (risk ratio [RR]=0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95; P=.01) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners (RR=0.54, 95% CI 0.40-0.72; PFacebook, to 77% for black and 78% for white MSM recruited at venues. There was no statistically significant differences in retention between the four groups (log-rank P=.64). VBTS and Facebook recruitment methods yielded similar samples of MSM in

  15. On-chip power-combining techniques for watt-level linear power amplifiers in 0.18 μm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhixiong; Zhang Kefeng; Liu Lanqi; Li Cong; Chen Xiaofei; Liu Dongsheng; Liu Zhenglin; Zou Xuecheng

    2015-01-01

    Three linear CMOS power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power (more than watt-level output power) for high data-rate mobile applications are introduced. To realize watt-level output power, there are two 2.4 GHz PAs using an on-chip parallel combining transformer (PCT) and one 1.95 GHz PA using an on-chip series combining transformer (SCT) to combine output signals of multiple power stages. Furthermore, some linearization techniques including adaptive bias, diode linearizer, multi-gated transistors (MGTR) and the second harmonic control are applied in these PAs. Using the proposed power combiner, these three PAs are designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.18 μm RFCMOS process. According to the measurement results, the proposed two linear 2.4 GHz PAs achieve a gain of 33.2 dB and 34.3 dB, a maximum output power of 30.7 dBm and 29.4 dBm, with 29% and 31.3% of peak PAE, respectively. According to the simulation results, the presented linear 1.95 GHz PA achieves a gain of 37.5 dB, a maximum output power of 34.3 dBm with 36.3% of peak PAE. (paper)

  16. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  17. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER

  18. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  19. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Numbers 50-390 and 50-391)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), and Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER. These issues relate to: Design criteria -- structures, components, equipment, and systems; Reactor; Instrumentation and controls; Electrical power systems; Auxiliary systems; Conduct of operations; Accident analysis; and Quality assurance

  20. Correlates of condomless anal sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Tijuana, Mexico: The role of public sex venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Goodman-Meza, David; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Rangel, Gudelia; Torres, Karla; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-01-01

    Condomless anal sex between male partners is the primary risk factor for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Correlates of condomless anal sex have been well-studied in developed countries, but they have received less attention in lower-to-middle income countries (LMIC), where MSM are often subject to stigma, discrimination, intolerance, and even the criminalization of same sex behavior. In Mexico, a LMIC where traditional views on homosexuality are common, HIV prevalence among MSM is high (16.9%), yet little research has been conducted on the correlates of condomless anal sex in this high-risk population. The present study examined correlates of condomless anal sex among 201 MSM recruited in Tijuana, Mexico, with a focus on the role of public sex venues in relation to sexual risk behavior. Eligibility requirements were: biologically male, 18 years of age or older, resident of Tijuana, and self-reported anal or oral sex with a male partner in the past year. Participants completed an interviewer-administered, demographic and psychosocial survey, and were tested for HIV and syphilis. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model was tested to identify correlates of condomless anal sex. Thirty-eight percent of participants (N = 76) reported condomless anal sex with a male partner in the past 2 months. Higher levels of condomless anal sex were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, greater sexual compulsivity, and more frequent seeking out of sex partners in a public venue in the past 2 months. In view of these findings, we recommend the development of multi-level, "combination" interventions, which in the Mexican context should include enhanced condom promotion and distribution, improved availability and access to mental health treatment and counseling services, and expanded HIV/STI testing in public venues.

  1. ARCA : A contextual, strategic, operational and financial analysis of a Business Project for a Food & Beverage/Recreational venue in Lisbon, Portugal.

    OpenAIRE

    Barreira-Silva, Miguel; Forjaz, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    Our thesis consists of developing a Business Plan for our business idea: a food and beverage venue in Lisbon, Portugal. In this theoretical section of our body of work we will be reviewing some of the existing literature on the subject. In order to facilitate the reader’s understanding of our literature review and its structure, it seems logical to introduce it with a brief explanation of what ARCA is about. ARCA is a product of the imagination of four ambitious Lisbon locals in their early t...

  2. Optimization of the concentration level in the peak-watt cost of photovoltaic concentrator systems; Optimizacion del nivel de concentracion desde el punto de vista economico en instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illanes, R.; De la cueva, J. M.; De Francisco, A.; Prieto, E.; De Blas, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of the geometric concentration level in the peak-watt cost of photovoltaic concentrator systems is analysed. The optimum levels to make minimum cost for every cell technology is determined for the assumption of some prices. It is concluded that low and middle level concentration are the most profitable systems when cells of monocrystalline Silicon are used, being high level concentration systems the most interesting with high efficiency technologies. A reduction in the peak-watt cost between 50% and 70% of the present price of PV flat panels may be possible, although it would be desirable more data available on the price of components. (Author)

  3. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    In June 1982, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff (NRC staff or staff) issued a Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0847, regarding the application by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA or the applicant) for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Each of the following sections and appendices of this supplement is numbered the same as the section or appendix of the SER that is being updated, and the discussions are supplementary to, and not in lieu of, the discussion in the SER, unless otherwise noted. Accordingly, Appendix A continues the chronology of the safety review. Appendix E lists principal contributors to this supplement. Appendix FF is added in this supplement. The other appendices are not changed by this supplement

  4. Characterization of a fully resonant, 1-MHz, 25-watt, DC/DC converter fabricated in a rad-hard BiCMOS/high-voltage process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J.L.; Gehlhausen, M.A.; Desko, J.C. Jr.; Nguyen, T.T.; Roberts, D.J.; Shibib, M.A.; Hollenbach, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of a DC/DC converter prototype when its power integrated circuit (PIC) chip is exposed to total dose, dose rate, neutron, and heavy ion environments. This fully resonant, 1-MHZ, 25-Watt, DC/DC converter is composed of a brassboard, populated with input/output filters, isolation transformers, output rectifier, capacitors, resistors, and PIC chip, integrating the primary-side control circuitry, secondary-side control circuitry, power switch, gate-drive circuitry, and voltage references. The brassboard is built using commercial off-the-shelf components; and the PIC chip is fabricated using AT and T's rad-hard, bipolar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS)/high-voltage process. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate that the PIC chip is fabricated with a radiation-hardened process and to demonstrate that various analog, digital, and power functions can be effectively integrated

  5. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors.

  6. Who is afraid of smoking bans? An evaluation of the effects of the Spanish clean air law on expenditure at hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villar, Jaume; López-Nicolás, Ángel

    2015-11-01

    In January 2011 Spain modified clean air legislation in force since 2006, removing all existing exceptions applicable to hospitality venues. Although this legal reform was backed by all political parties with parliamentary representation, the government's initiative was contested by the tobacco industry and its allies in the hospitality industry. One of the most voiced arguments against the reform was its potentially disruptive effect on the revenue of hospitality venues. This paper evaluates the impact of this reform on household expenditure at restaurants and bars and cafeterias. We used household expenditure micro-data for years 2006-2012 to estimate models for the probability of observing expenditures and the expected level of expenditure. We applied a before-after analysis with a wide range of controls for confounding factors and a flexible modeling of time effects in order to identify the effects of the reform. Our results suggest that the reform caused a 2% reduction in the proportion of households containing smokers but did not cause reductions in households' expenditures on restaurant services or on bars and cafeteria services.

  7. Depression and its correlations with health-risk behaviors and social capital among female migrants working in entertainment venues in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaohong; Operario, Don; Zaller, Nickolas; Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo

    2018-01-01

    Among the dramatic increased internal migration in China in past three decades, a considerable proportion of young females migrated to urban areas and found employment in "entertainment venues", who may be vulnerable to psychological distress. This study examines the prevalence of depression and explores its associations with health-risk behaviors and social capital among this subgroup. 358 female migrants were recruited from entertainment venues in a rapidly growing urban city in China. A survey which included measures of depressive symptoms, health-risk behaviors, social capital, and socio-demographic characteristics was administered. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify the independent correlates of depression. Of participants, 31.0% had clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16). In multivariable models, greater likelihood of depressive symptoms was associated with working in massage centers/hotels (OR = 3.20, 95% CI: 1.80-5.70), having probable alcohol dependence (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.22-4.16), self-reported lifetime use of illicit drugs (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.26-7.06), growing up in a non-nuclear family (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.18-5.16), and poor social capital (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 2.02-17.87). Intervention strategies to address the high prevalence of depression among female migrants are needed, and should also aim to reduce problematic alcohol and drug use, improve social capital, and target women working in massage centers or hotels.

  8. Sex work in geographic perspective: a multi-disciplinary approach to mapping and understanding female sex work venues in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorway, Robert; Khan, Shamshad; Chevrier, Claudyne; Huynh, Anthony; Zhang, Juying; Ma, Xiao; Blanchard, James; Yu, Nancy

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines the findings from an extensive geographic mapping study of female sex work venues located in the south western Chinese city of Zigong, in Sichuan province. Drawing upon the findings from quantitative research, secondary historical sources and field notes, composed during participant observation, we provide a nuanced portrait of how the operation of sex work can be conceptualised in spatial terms, where 'space' is regarded as something socially constructed and historically contingent. The sex work geographies we analyse hold important implications for prevention work conducted in the region. When the sexual practices between sex workers and their clients are viewed against a wider geographic and historical backdrop, focus shifts from the properties and intentionalities of individuals towards the kinds of spaces where sex work operates, the organisation of which are underpinned by economic forces that have given rise to the rapid proliferation of small urban spaces in contemporary China.

  9. Integrating sodium reduction strategies in the procurement process and contracting of food venues in the County of Los Angeles government, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Mugavero, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County of Los Angeles government. The review used mixed methods, including a scan of the literature, key informant interviews, and lessons learned during 2010-2012 to assess program progress. Leveraging technical expertise and shared resources, the initiative strategically incorporated sodium reduction strategies into the overall work plan of a multipartnership food procurement program in Los Angeles County. To date, 3 County departments have incorporated new or updated nutrition requirements that included sodium limits and other strategies. The strategic coupling of sodium reduction to food procurement and general health promotion allowed for simultaneous advancement and acceleration of the County's sodium reduction agenda.

  10. Integrating Sodium Reduction Strategies in the Procurement Process and Contracting of Food Venues in the County of Los Angeles Government, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N.; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County of Los Angeles government. The review used mixed methods, including a scan of the literature, key informant interviews, and lessons learned during 2010–2012 to assess program progress. Leveraging technical expertise and shared resources, the initiative strategically incorporated sodium reduction strategies into the overall work plan of a multipartnership food procurement program in Los Angeles County. To date, 3 County departments have incorporated new or updated nutrition requirements that included sodium limits and other strategies. The strategic coupling of sodium reduction to food procurement and general health promotion allowed for simultaneous advancement and acceleration of the County’s sodium reduction agenda. PMID:24322811

  11. Sampling Key Populations for HIV Surveillance: Results From Eight Cross-Sectional Studies Using Respondent-Driven Sampling and Venue-Based Snowball Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-20

    In using regularly collected or existing surveillance data to characterize engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services among marginalized populations, differences in sampling methods may produce different pictures of the target population and may therefore result in different priorities for response. The objective of this study was to use existing data to evaluate the sample distribution of eight studies of female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), who were recruited using different sampling approaches in two locations within Sub-Saharan Africa: Manzini, Swaziland and Yaoundé, Cameroon. MSM and FSW participants were recruited using either respondent-driven sampling (RDS) or venue-based snowball sampling. Recruitment took place between 2011 and 2016. Participants at each study site were administered a face-to-face survey to assess sociodemographics, along with the prevalence of self-reported HIV status, frequency of HIV testing, stigma, and other HIV-related characteristics. Crude and RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated. Crude prevalence estimates from the venue-based snowball samples were compared with the overlap of the RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates, between both FSW and MSM in Cameroon and Swaziland. RDS samples tended to be younger (MSM aged 18-21 years in Swaziland: 47.6% [139/310] in RDS vs 24.3% [42/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon: 47.9% [99/306] in RDS vs 20.1% [52/259] in Snowball; FSW aged 18-21 years in Swaziland 42.5% [82/325] in RDS vs 8.0% [20/249] in Snowball; in Cameroon 15.6% [75/576] in RDS vs 8.1% [25/306] in Snowball). They were less educated (MSM: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 42.6% [109/310] in RDS vs 4.0% [7/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon 46.2% [138/306] in RDS vs 14.3% [37/259] in Snowball; FSW: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 86.6% [281/325] in RDS vs 23.9% [59/247] in Snowball, in Cameroon 87.4% [520/576] in RDS vs 77.5% [238/307] in Snowball) than the snowball

  12. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Typology of Nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil: Alcohol and Illegal Drug Consumption, Sexual Behavior and Violence in the Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Claudia M; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-02-21

    Nightclubs are venues in which excessive alcohol use and illegal drug consumption occur in addition to other high-risk behaviors, such as violence and sexual risk behaviors. Environmental factors common in nightclubs and the personal characteristics of patrons might increase the risk of these events. To better understand the relationship between these factors, typologies were formulated that clustered nightclubs according to definite profiles to identify differences to be taken into consideration in preventive interventions. The present study aim was to construct a typology of nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. This typology was constructed using mixed methods research through the triangulation of several data sources as follows: 307 hours of ethnographic observation at 31 nightclubs, 8 focus group sessions with nightclub patrons (n = 34) and 30 semi-structured interviews with nightclub employees. Content analysis and qualitative typology were used. Four nightclub types were defined based on four analyzed thematic axes (Intoxicating, Violent, Dancing and Highly Sexualized nightclubs). Excessive alcohol use was detected in almost all of the investigated nightclubs, and drug use was observed in approximately one-third of them. Triangulation of the data revealed a relationship among environmental factors (especially alcohol sales strategies and promotion and the availability of areas for sex) and a more considerable presence of high-risk behaviors. The study shows that nightclubs are settings in which high-risk behaviors are potentiated by facilitating environmental factors as well as by the lack of laws restricting excessive alcohol use stimulated by the promotion strategies applied at these venues.

  14. The established mega watt linear programming-based optimal power flow model applied to the real power 56-bus system in eastern province of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muhawesh, Tareq A.; Qamber, Isa S.

    2008-01-01

    A current trend in electric power industries is the deregulation around the world. One of the questions arise during any deregulation process is: where will be the future generation expansion? In the present paper, the study is concentrated on the wheeling computational method as a part of mega watt (MW) linear programming-based optimal power flow (LP-based OPF) method. To observe the effects of power wheeling on the power system operations, the paper uses linear interactive and discrete optimizer (LINDO) optimizer software as a powerful tool for solving linear programming problems to evaluate the influence of the power wheeling. As well, the paper uses the optimization tool to solve the economic generation dispatch and transmission management problems. The transmission line flow was taken in consideration with some constraints discussed in this paper. The complete linear model of the MW LP-based OPF, which is used to know the future generation potential areas in any utility is proposed. The paper also explains the available economic load dispatch (ELD) as the basic optimization tool to dispatch the power system. It can be concluded in the present study that accuracy is expensive in terms of money and time and in the competitive market enough accuracy is needed without paying much

  15. Properties of the relaxation time distribution underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts photoionization of the DX centers in Cd1-xMnxTe mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzmiel, J; Weron, K; Placzek-Popko, E; Janczura, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we clarify the relationship between the relaxation rate and relaxation time distributions underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) photoconductivity build-ups in indium- and gallium-doped Cd 1-x Mn x Te mixed crystals. We discuss the role of asymptotic properties of the corresponding probability density functions. We show that the relaxation rate distribution, as a completely asymmetric α-stable distribution, leads to an infinite mean value of the effective relaxation rate. In contrast, the relaxation time distribution related to it leads to a finite mean value of the effective relaxation time. It follows from the experimental data analysis that for all the investigated samples the KWW exponent α decreases linearly with increasing photon flux in the range of (0.6-0.99) and its values are more spread in the case of gallium-doped material. We also observe a linear dependence of the mean relaxation time on the characteristic material time constant, which is consistent with the theoretical model.

  16. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975).

  17. Condoms and sexual health education as evidence: impact of criminalization of in-call venues and managers on migrant sex workers access to HIV/STI prevention in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Shannon, K; Li, J; Lee, Y; Chettiar, J; Goldenberg, S; Krüsi, A

    2016-11-17

    Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vancouver, Canada. The criminalization of in-call venues and third parties explicitly limits sex workers' access to HIV/STI prevention, including manager restrictions on condoms and limited onsite access to sexual health information and HIV/STI testing. With limited labour protections and socio-cultural barriers, criminalization and policing undermine the health and human rights of migrant sex workers working in -call venues. This research supports growing evidence-based calls for decriminalization of sex work, including the removal of criminal sanctions targeting third parties and in-call venues, alongside programs and policies that better protect the working conditions of migrant sex workers as critical to HIV/STI prevention and human rights.

  18. 100 watts in a confetti; 100 watts dans un confetti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, J.Ch.

    2002-03-01

    Technologies transferred from microelectronics will allow to build miniature power generators for portable applications. This short article gives an overview of some techniques under study: the free-piston engine of the Honeywell Technology Center, the micro-combustion system with Seebeck effect of South Carolina Univ., the hydrogen micro-turbine of the MIT, the Wankel gas micro-engine of Berkeley univ. (J.S.)

  19. Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This specification establishes the requirements for a 90 SrF 2 heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source

  20. How rich is the 2000 Watt society? Impact of energy conservation policy measures on innovation, investment and long-term development of the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschger, L.; Ramer, R.; Schwark, F.

    2010-01-01

    The project has integrated endogenous growth theory into a multi-sector numerical model to evaluate the long-run effects of energy and climate policies in Switzerland. The continuous and sector-specific growth, has provided a successful foundation for predicting the development of the Swiss economy over the long and very long run. We have studied the effects of various measures aiming at realizing the goals of the 2000 Watt society and the carbon reduction commitments of the Copenhagen Accord. We find that these policies cause moderate but not negligible welfare costs, provided that we take development without consideration of climate change as a reference case. However, the reference case with considerable economic costs of undamped climate change is more likely. Compared to such a development, the costs of energy and carbon policies appear to be lower, even when the adopted measures are strict. However, to avoid the costs of climate change, international coordination of climate policies is needed. Specifically, we have to assume that the world as a whole will act according to the Copenhagen Accord; only this will lead to the desired effect on global emissions. Sectoral differences in the simulated growth rates are significant; they reflect energy intensities, sectoral linkages, and distinct specialization in capital goods. Under the considered conditions, all the sectors (except oil) will be able to grow in the future, though not with uniform, but rather sector-specific rates. The targets of the 2000 Watt society for 2035 entail somewhat lower welfare losses than the Copenhagen policy for 2050, because the required CO 2 reductions are larger in the second case. The distribution of tax revenues has an impact on consumption and welfare, which depends on the considered time horizon: in the shorter run, research subsidies cannot develop their full advantages for the economy, while in the long run, these subsidies are superior to the redistribution of revenues to

  1. How rich is the 2000 Watt society? Impact of energy conservation policy measures on innovation, investment and long-term development of the Swiss economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretschger, L.; Ramer, R.; Schwark, F.

    2010-07-01

    The project has integrated endogenous growth theory into a multi-sector numerical model to evaluate the long-run effects of energy and climate policies in Switzerland. The continuous and sector-specific growth, has provided a successful foundation for predicting the development of the Swiss economy over the long and very long run. We have studied the effects of various measures aiming at realizing the goals of the 2000 Watt society and the carbon reduction commitments of the Copenhagen Accord. We find that these policies cause moderate but not negligible welfare costs, provided that we take development without consideration of climate change as a reference case. However, the reference case with considerable economic costs of undamped climate change is more likely. Compared to such a development, the costs of energy and carbon policies appear to be lower, even when the adopted measures are strict. However, to avoid the costs of climate change, international coordination of climate policies is needed. Specifically, we have to assume that the world as a whole will act according to the Copenhagen Accord; only this will lead to the desired effect on global emissions. Sectoral differences in the simulated growth rates are significant; they reflect energy intensities, sectoral linkages, and distinct specialization in capital goods. Under the considered conditions, all the sectors (except oil) will be able to grow in the future, though not with uniform, but rather sector-specific rates. The targets of the 2000 Watt society for 2035 entail somewhat lower welfare losses than the Copenhagen policy for 2050, because the required CO{sub 2} reductions are larger in the second case. The distribution of tax revenues has an impact on consumption and welfare, which depends on the considered time horizon: in the shorter run, research subsidies cannot develop their full advantages for the economy, while in the long run, these subsidies are superior to the redistribution of revenues to

  2. Longitudinal cohort study of depression, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use in South African women who attend alcohol serving venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2014-08-06

    In South Africa, alcohol use poses a public health burden. Hazardous alcohol use often co-occurs with psychological distress (e.g., depression and post-traumatic stress). However, the majority of the research establishing the relationship between alcohol use and psychological distress has been cross-sectional, so the nature of co-occurring changes in psychological distress and alcohol use over time is not well characterized. The objective of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between psychological distress and alcohol use among South African women who attend alcohol serving venues. Four waves of data were collected over the course of a year from 560 women in a Cape Town township who attended drinking venues. At each assessment wave, participants reported depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. Multilevel growth models were used to: 1) assess the patterns of alcohol use; 2) examine how depressive symptoms uniquely, post-traumatic stress symptoms uniquely, and depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms together were associated with alcohol use; and 3) characterize the within person and between person associations of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms with alcohol use. Women reported high levels of alcohol use throughout the study period, which declined slightly over time. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were highly correlated with depressive symptoms. Modeled separately, both within person and between person depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms were uniquely associated with alcohol use. When modeled together, significant between person effects indicated that women who typically have more post-traumatic stress symptoms, when controlling for depressive symptoms, are at risk for increased alcohol use; however, women with more depressive symptoms, controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, do not have differential risk for alcohol use. Significant within person effects indicated an

  3. Transcriptome analysis of WRKY gene family in Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt and WRKY genes involved in responses to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Shen, Qingxi J; Wang, Bo; He, Bin; Xiao, Suqin; Chen, Ling; Yu, Tengqiong; Ke, Xue; Zhong, Qiaofang; Fu, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Lingxian; Yin, Fuyou; Zhang, Dunyu; Ghidan, Walid; Huang, Xingqi; Cheng, Zaiquan

    2017-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) stress in O. officinalis due to lacking of O. officinalis genome. Therefore, based on the RNA-sequencing data of O. officinalis, we performed a comprehensive study of WRKY genes in O. officinalis and identified 89 OoWRKY genes. Then 89 OoWRKY genes were classified into three groups based on the WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that the evolution of OoWRKY genes were consistent with previous studies of WRKYs, and subgroup IIc OoWRKY genes were the original ancestors of some group II and group III OoWRKYs. Among the 89 OoWRKY genes, eight OoWRKYs displayed significantly different expression (>2-fold, pWRKY family of transcription factors in O.officinalis. Insight was gained into the classification, evolution, and function of the OoWRKY genes, revealing the putative roles of eight significantly different expression OoWRKYs in Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O.officinalis. This study provided a better understanding of the evolution and functions of O. officinalis WRKY genes, and suggested that manipulating eight significantly different expression OoWRKYs would enhance resistance to bacterial blight.

  4. Olives: less kilos, more watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flandroy, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ''lasting development'' concept. 10 refs

  5. Early Impacts of a Healthy Food Distribution Program on the Availability and Price of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Small Retail Venues in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Gase, Lauren N; Webber, Eliza; Kuo, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Healthy food distribution programs that allow small retailers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at wholesale prices may increase the profitability of selling produce. While promising, little is known about how these programs affect the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved communities. This study examined the impacts of a healthy food distribution program in Los Angeles County over its first year of operation (August 2015-2016). Assessment methods included: (1) a brief survey examining the characteristics, purchasing habits, and attitudes of stores entering the program; (2) longitudinal tracking of sales data examining changes in the volume and variety of fruits and vegetables distributed through the program; and (3) the collection of comparison price data from wholesale market databases and local grocery stores. Seventeen stores participated in the program over the study period. One-fourth of survey respondents reported no recent experience selling produce. Analysis of sales data showed that, on average, the total volume of produce distributed through the program increased by six pounds per week over the study period (95% confidence limit: 4.50, 7.50); trends varied by store and produce type. Produce prices offered through the program approximated those at wholesale markets, and were lower than prices at full-service grocers. Results suggest that healthy food distribution programs may reduce certain supply-side barriers to offering fresh produce in small retail venues. While promising, more work is needed to understand the impacts of such programs on in-store environments and consumer behaviors.

  6. Behavioural and psychological responses of lower educated smokers to the smoke-free legislation in Dutch hospitality venues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Sander; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Willemsen, Marc C; Nagelhout, Gera E; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, smoke-free legislation was implemented in hospitality venues (HV) in the Netherlands. We investigated how continuing smokers with a lower educational background respond behaviourally and psychologically to the legislation and the norm it communicates. In 2010, 18 lower-educated daily smokers were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed with MAXQDA software. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were applied to interpret findings. Smokers had become more self-aware and the experience of a more negative norm surrounding smoking had made them reevaluate their smoking. Smokers had also become more self-aware of their own smoking, both in HV and in general. Feelings of increased social exclusion were reported. Participants dealt with the increased awareness and feelings of social exclusion in different ways depending on their evaluation of the smoking ban, changes in attitude towards own smoking, changes in HV patronage and changes in smoking behaviour. Theories of self-awareness and social in- and exclusion were useful in understanding consequences of a HV smoking ban on continuing smokers. Four different types of responses were identified, i.e. (1) actively trying to quit, (2) socially conscious smoking, (3) feeling victimised and (4) rejecting the norm. Implications for future smoke-free legislation are discussed.

  7. Condoms and sexual health education as evidence: impact of criminalization of in-call venues and managers on migrant sex workers access to HIV/STI prevention in a Canadian setting

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S.; Shannon, K.; Li, J.; Lee, Y.; Chettiar, J.; Goldenberg, S.; Kr?si, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Methods Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vanco...

  8. Traumatic stress and the mediating role of alcohol use on HIV-related sexual risk behavior: results from a longitudinal cohort of South African women who attend alcohol-serving venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2015-03-01

    In South Africa, alcohol contributes to the HIV epidemic, in part, by influencing sexual behaviors. For some, high levels of alcohol consumption may be driven by previous traumatic experiences that result in traumatic stress. The purpose of this study was to quantify the longitudinal association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex among women who attend drinking venues and to assess whether this association was explained by mediation through alcohol use. Data were collected in 4 waves over a year from a prospective cohort of 560 women who regularly attended alcohol-serving venues in a Cape Town township. Longitudinal mixed models examined (1) the relationship between traumatic stress and counts of unprotected sex and (2) whether alcohol use mediated the association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex. Most women reported elevated traumatic stress (80%) and hazardous alcohol use (88%) at least once during the study period. In models adjusted for covariates, traumatic stress was associated with unprotected sex (b = 0.28, SE = 0.06, t = 4.82, P traumatic stress was associated with alcohol use (b = 0.27, SE = 0.02, t = 14.25, P traumatic stress on unprotected sex. These results highlight the need to address traumatic stress among female venue patrons as an important precursor of HIV risk due to alcohol use.

  9. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM2.5 Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64 were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m3 (0–80 μg/m3 in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m3 (0–36 μg/m3 in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses.

  10. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM2.5 Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sol; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Sungcheon; Ha, Kwonchul; Kim, Sungroul

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64) were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m3 (0–80 μg/m3) in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m3 (0–36 μg/m3) in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses. PMID:26540063

  11. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM₂.₅ Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sol; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Sungcheon; Ha, Kwonchul; Kim, Sungroul

    2015-11-02

    Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64) were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m³ (0-80 μg/m³) in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m³ (0-36 μg/m³) in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms mediate the relationship between traumatic experiences and drinking behavior among women attending alcohol-serving venues in a South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Ranby, Krista W; Meade, Christina S; Sikkema, Kathleen J; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C

    2012-07-01

    South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0-7) and drinking behavior. The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0-34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT > 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17-85, SD = 16.3),with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ≥ 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the "other" category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address histories of trauma in this population, where alcohol may be

  13. Incidence of Patients With Knee Strain and Sprain Occurring at Sports or Recreation Venues and Presenting to United States Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Aaron M; Buford, William L

    2015-11-01

    Knee injuries account for a substantial percentage of all athletic injuries. The relative rates of knee injury for a variety of sports by sex and age need to be understood so we can better allocate resources, such as athletic trainers, to properly assess and treat injuries and reduce injury risk. To describe the epidemiology of patients with sport-related knee strain and sprain presenting to US emergency departments from 2002 to 2011. Cross-sectional study. Using the Consumer Products Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau, we extracted raw data to estimate national rates of patients with knee strain and sprain presenting to emergency departments. Participants were individuals sustaining a knee strain or sprain at sports or recreation venues and presenting to local emergency departments for treatment. We included 12 popular sports for males and 11 for females. Ages were categorized in six 5-year increments for ages 5 to 34 years and one 10-year increment for ages 35 to 44 years. Incidence rates were calculated using weights provided by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and reported with their 95% confidence intervals for sport, sex, and age. Strain and sprain injury rates varied greatly by sport, sex, and age group. The highest injury rates occurred in football and basketball for males and in soccer and basketball for females. The most at-risk population was 15 to 19 years for both sexes. Athletes experience different rates of knee strain and sprain according to sport, sex, and age. Increased employment of athletic trainers to care for the highest-risk populations, aged 10 to 19 years, is recommended to reduce emergency department use and implement injury-prevention practices.

  14. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  15. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, Tennessee Valley Authority. Supplement number 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), Supplement No. 16 (September 1995), Supplement No. 17 (October 1995), Supplement No. 18 (October 1995), and Supplement No. 19 (November 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the issues identified in the SER

  16. The introduction of smoke-free hospitality venues in Norway. Impact on revenues, frequency of patronage, satisfaction and compliance. Evaluation of public tobacco control work in Norway 2003 - 2007 Report 8 from HEMIL/SIRUS

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Karl Erik

    2006-01-01

    - 1.1 Background After 16 years of exceptions from §6 of the Act relating to prevention of the harmful effects of tobacco, the so-called Tobacco Act, a smoke-free regime was introduced at all hospitality venues from 1 June 2004. The previous regulations regarding smoke- free areas in bars, pubs, cafés and restaurants were thereby superseded by an absolute ban on smoking indoors. The authorities' most important reason for revoking the exception was to afford employees in t...

  17. Self-Perception of HIV Risk and Candidacy for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Testing for HIV at Commercial Sex Venues in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy; Link, Lauren; Ramos, Michael; Bottger, Edward; Aberg, Judith; Daskalakis, Demetre

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of men who have sex with men (MSM) testing for HIV at commercial sex venues to assess the following: their candidacy for pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) as defined by meeting entry criteria for the iPrEx (Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición) phase III clinical trial of PrEP, and their perception of their own HIV risk and candidacy for PrEP. Interviewers surveyed 629 MSM at three NYC commercial sex venues from June 2011 through June 2012. Questions focused on demographics, sexual activity, and drug use in the three months prior to testing, as well as perceived risk of HIV acquisition and perceived candidacy for PrEP use. Data were analyzed by Chi square and Fisher's exact test. Results show that a majority of clients (80.3%) met entry criteria for the iPrEX. Most of these men (78.0%), however, did not perceive their risk to be significant enough to warrant PrEP use (P=.000). Factors were identified which associated with a risk perception that correlated with eligibility for iPrEX.

  18. Snapshot hyperspectral imaging and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G

    2009-01-01

    Traditional broadband imaging involves the digital representation of a remote scene within a reduced colour space. Hyperspectral imaging exploits the full spectral dimension, which better reflects the continuous nature of actual spectra. Conventional techniques are all time-delayed whereby spatial or spectral scanning is required for hypercube generation. An innovative and patented technique developed at Heriot-Watt University offers significant potential as a snapshot sensor, to enable benefits for the wider public beyond aerospace imaging. This student-authored paper seeks to promote awareness of this field within the photonic community and its potential advantages for real-time practical applications.

  19. Informatization Construction Planning and Practice of Performing Venues-Taking Guangzhou Opera House for Example%演艺场馆信息化建设的规划与实践--以广州大剧院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝志; 李钟升

    2014-01-01

    Taking Guangzhou Opera House for example, the planning and practice of performing venues informatization construction were analyzed, and some aspects were expounded such as informatization infrastructure development, application and integration marketing of social media, media documentary and making, 3D virtual simulation display and research and development of self-help check-in.%以广州大剧院为例,分析演艺场馆信息化建设的规划与实践,并阐述了信息化基础开发、社会化媒体应用及整合营销、媒体化纪实及制作、三维虚拟仿真展示及自助换验票研发等方面内容。

  20. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2: Docket Numbers 50-390 and 50-391, Tennessee Valley Authority. Supplement Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Final Environmental Statement-Operating License (FES-OL) issued in 1978 represents the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) previous environmental review related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear (WBN) Plant. The NRC staff has determined that it is appropriate to re-examine the issues associated with the environmental review before issuance of an operating license. The purpose of this NRC review is to discuss the effects of observed changes in the environment and to evaluate the changes in environmental impacts that have occurred as a result of changes in the WBN Plant design and proposed methods of operations since the last environmental review. A full scope of environmental topics has been evaluated, including regional demography, land and water use, meteorology, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, radiological and non-radiological impacts on humans and the environment, socioeconomic impacts, and environmental justice. The staff concluded that there are no significant changes in the environmental impacts since the NRC 1978 FES-OL from changes in plant design, proposed methods of operations, or changes in the environment. The Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) preoperational and operational monitoring programs were reviewed and found to be appropriate for establishing baseline conditions and ongoing assessments of environmental impacts. The staff also conducted an analysis of plant operation with severe accident mitigation design alternatives (SAMDAs) and concluded that none of the SAMDAs, beyond the three procedural changes that the TVA committed to implement, would be cost-beneficial for further mitigating environmental impacts

  1. Properties of the relaxation time distribution underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts photoionization of the DX centers in Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzmiel, J; Weron, K; Placzek-Popko, E [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Janczura, J [Hugo Steinhaus Center for Stochastic Methods and Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-08-26

    In this paper we clarify the relationship between the relaxation rate and relaxation time distributions underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) photoconductivity build-ups in indium- and gallium-doped Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te mixed crystals. We discuss the role of asymptotic properties of the corresponding probability density functions. We show that the relaxation rate distribution, as a completely asymmetric alpha-stable distribution, leads to an infinite mean value of the effective relaxation rate. In contrast, the relaxation time distribution related to it leads to a finite mean value of the effective relaxation time. It follows from the experimental data analysis that for all the investigated samples the KWW exponent alpha decreases linearly with increasing photon flux in the range of (0.6-0.99) and its values are more spread in the case of gallium-doped material. We also observe a linear dependence of the mean relaxation time on the characteristic material time constant, which is consistent with the theoretical model.

  2. ‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  3. Comparative physical mapping of rice BAC clones linked to resistance genes Glh,Bph-3 and xa-5 in Oryza sativa L.and O.granulata Nees et Am.ex Watt.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhiyong; TAN Guangxuan; YOU Aiqing; HE Guangyuan; SHE Chaowen; LI Lijia; SONG Yunchun

    2004-01-01

    Oryza granulata Nees et Arn. ex Watt. is one of the three wild relatives of rice, which are the most valuable for study and utilization in China. In this study, the homology and physical locations of three rice resistance genes, Glh,Bph-3 and xa-5 are comparatively analyzed between O. sativa and O. granulata by Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results of Southern blotting indicate that there exist homologous sequences of the tested RFLP markers in O. granulata. By using three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones scanned by the tested RFLP as probes, FISH signals are detected on both mitotic and pachytene chromosomes in O. sativa and O. granulata.Dual-color FISH demonstrates that two of the three BAC clones (14E16 and 38J9) are located on the short arm of the same chromosome pair in O. granulata. Additionally, colinearity is shown for the two clones between O. sativa and O.granulata. Another BAC clone 44B4 is located on the end of the short arm of other chromosome pair in these two species.Although the phylogenetic relationship between O. sativa and O. granulata is the most distinct in Oryza and these two species have evidently different biological features and ecological habits, the relative lengths and arm ratios of the detected chromosomes and the relative positions of the tested clone signals on chromosomes in O. granulata are quite similar to those in O. sativa.

  4. Influência do subsídio financeiro e do local da realização do curso de suporte avançado de vida em cardiologia, no aprendizado da emergência cardiovascular Influence of financial subsidy and venue on advanced cardiac life support courses, in the learning of cardiovascular emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberth C. Miotto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O sucesso no aprendizado da emergência depende de muitos fatores que podem ser resumidos como: aluno, instrutores e curso. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do subsídio financeiro e do local da realização do curso no aprendizado da emergência cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se dados referentes aos cursos de Suporte Avançado de Vida em Cardiologia (ACLS no período de dezembro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006. De acordo com o subsídio financeiro, foram divididos em: grupo 1 - subsídio integral; grupo 2 - subsídio de 50%; e grupo 3 - sem subsídio. Quanto ao local do curso, foram divididos em: local A - curso em cidade com > 1 milhão de habitantes; e local B - curso em cidade com BACKGROUND: The success in learning of emergency depends on many factors that can be summarized as: student, instructors and course. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of financial subsidy and venue of course in learning cardiovascular emergency. METHODS: Data were analyzed regarding the courses of Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS in the period from December 2005 to December 2006. In agreement with the financial subsidy, they were divided in: group 1 - integral subsidy; group 2 - subsidy of 50%; and group 3 - without subsidy. As for the venue of the course, they were divided in: locality A - study in city with> 1 million inhabitants; and locality B - study in city with <1 million inhabitants. The practical and theoretical approval and the theoretical average were compared. RESULTS: 819 students participated in ACLS: 199 (24% in group 1, 122 (15% in 2 and 498 (61% in 3. The practical and theoretical approval and the average in the theoretical exam were greater in group 3 than in other groups (p <0.05. Four hundred and eighty two (482 took the course in venue A (59% and 337 (41% in venue B. The practical approval was similar for both groups (p = 0.33, however the theoretical approval was greater in venue A (73% vs. 65% - p = 0.021 - OR = 1.44 and IC

  5. Orientaciones metodológicas de la disciplina anatomía humana en las sedes universitarias municipales Methodological directions on human anatomy discipline in the municipal university venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraida Hidalgo Gato Castillo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso docente educativo en las sedes universitarias municipales se encuentran a cargo de médicos generales integrales, por lo que el colectivo de Anatomía Humana trazó orientaciones metodológicas que caracterizan la disciplina Anatomía Humana, explicando las formas de organización de la enseñanza a través de cinco sistemas: objetivos, conocimientos, habilidades, clases y evaluación. Se recomienda la bibliografía básica, complementaria, auxiliar y de consulta, así como el estudio independiente. De manera que garantizan la preparación metodológica de todos los facilitadores que están comprometidos con el proceso docente educativo del actual modelo de formación.The educative teaching process in the municipal university venues is in charge of the family doctors, so the teaching staff of Human Anatomy gave methodological directions characterizing the Human Anatomy discipline, explaining the ways of organization of Teaching by means of five systems: objectives, knowledge, training, classes and evaluation. The basic, complementary, auxiliary and consultation bibliography is recommended, as well as the individual study, so it will guarantee the methodological training of all the providers involved in the educative teaching process of the current training model.

  6. Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Title V Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. So watt? Energy: a citizens' affair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Gassin, H.; Testart, J.

    2005-02-01

    This book proposes a clear and well documented analysis of the energy debate, from the energy crisis to the climatic change. The authors explain that there is no possible CO 2 emissions abatement without energy mastery. The energy mastery must be decentralized, while the French energy policy, based on nuclear energy, is at the opposite. According to the authors, the energy independence of France is an utopia and France is dependent of fossil fuels like any other western country. Moreover, if the energy policy of some European countries is changing, the one of France remains the same. They try to analyze the reasons why our society is developing unsuitable and risky systems, and show how it would be possible to proceed differently. The key word of this demonstration is 'democracy' and a change is possible only if everyone acts as a citizen of a common world. (J.S.)

  8. HIV-related knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and utilisation of HIV counselling and testing: a venue-based intercept commuter population survey in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimoyi, Lucy; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Muloongo, Keith; Setswe, Geoffrey; Sarfo, Bismark; Nyasulu, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5%) were females and (n=780, 68.1%) were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83%) with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001). For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02-2.78, p-value: 0.041) and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15-3.47, p-value: 0.014), whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31-0.62, p-value: Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services. One favourable intervention would be the use of home-based HCT programmes.

  9. Different Venues, Different Markets, Different Experiences: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether visitors who attend the same live music performance at four different destinations/locations vary and whether their needs were the same for a memorable visitor experience. Two-way frequency tables and Chi-square tests, as well as ANOVA and Tukey's multiple ...

  10. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  11. Vulkanismus na Venuši

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Pauer, Martin

    -, č. 1 (2017) ISSN 1211-0485 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:68378289 Keywords : volcanism * Venus * pancake domes Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology (UFA-U)

  12. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Kennedy, Ryan D; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-08-31

    observe. Observation instruments were optimized for use on mobile devices and included the collection of images/photos and the geographic location of retailers. Data were uploaded in real-time to a remote ("cloud-based") server accessible via Internet and verified with the use of a data management protocol that included submission of daily field notes from the research team for review by project managers. The walking protocol was a practical means of identifying 780 relevant retail venues in Russia, in the absence of reliable sampling resources. Mobile phones were convenient tools for completing observation checklists discretely and accurately. Daily field notes and meticulous oversight of collected data were critical to ensuring data quality. Mobile technology can support timely and accurate data collection and also help monitor data quality through the use of real-time uploads. These protocols can be adapted to assess compliance with other types of public health policies.

  13. HIV-related knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and utilisation of HIV counselling and testing: a venue-based intercept commuter population survey in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Chimoyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV counselling and testing (HCT and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. Objective: To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. Design: A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. Results: 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5% were females and (n=780, 68.1% were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83% with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001. For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.78, p-value: 0.041 and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15–3.47, p-value: 0.014, whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31–0.62, p-value: <0.001. For females, having one sexual partner (aOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.19–5.90, p-value: 0.017 and a low perceived benefit for HIV testing (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.96, p-value: 0.035 were associated with HIV testing. Conclusion: The overall HIV/AIDS knowledge was generally high. Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services

  14. Intervención preventiva en lugares de interacción social de hombres que mantienen relaciones sexuales con otros hombres Preventive intervention in venues for interaction used by men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Hurtado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una intervención en saunas y pisos para contactos sexuales entre hombres que mantienen relaciones sexuales con hombres de Valencia, cuyo objetivo era prevenir la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH o, en su caso, evitar el retraso en el diagnóstico y facilitar el contacto con los circuitos sanitarios. Se proporcionó información sobre prevención y se efectuó la prueba rápida para el VIH y la sífilis. Se habló con 500 hombres y se realizó la intervención en 171. El 37% de los sujetos en las saunas y de cada en los pisos nunca se había realizado una prueba. La prevalencia del VIH fue del 1,6% (n=2 en las saunas y del 11% en los pisos (n=5; para la sífilis estos porcentajes fueron del 5 y el 2,3%, respectivamente. La intervención permitió detectar la existencia de bolsas de población poco atendidas y muy expuestas, y facilitó el acceso de estos sujetos al sistema sanitario.An intervention in venues for interaction used by men who have sex with men in Valencia (Spain was performed to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or avoid delay in diagnosis and to facilitate contact with the health circuit. Information was provided on prevention and a rapid test for HIV and syphilis was performed. We contacted 500 men and the intervention was performed in 171; 37% of the subjects in saunas and one in four of those in prostitution apartments had never been tested. The prevalence of HIV was 1.6% (n=2 in the saunas, and 11% (n=5 in the apartments (n=5. For syphilis, these percentages were 5% and 2.3% respectively. The intervention revealed the existence of highly exposed population groups with low compliance and facilitated access to the health system in these groups.

  15. Exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco en locales de hostelería de Barcelona: medición de partículas respirables Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmy Villarroel

    2011-06-01

    in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study from October to December 2007. The study population consisted of 40 hospitality venues in Barcelona selected by a random route sampling, with representation of the different types of smoking regulation included in the law (smoking allowed, smoking ban and venues with smoking areas. SHS levels were quantified by measuring PM2.5 concentrations, which were measured using a laser photometer (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. The measurements were carried out for 5 minutes outside the venue and for 30minutes inside the venue. In addition, observational variables related to the characteristics of the venue and signs of tobacco consumption were recorded. Results: The concentration of PM2.5 in venues where smoking was still allowed was five times higher than that in venues where smoking was banned (182 µg/m³ and 34 µg/m³, respectively and exceeded the concentration established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as harmful (35 µg/m³. However, in venues where smoking was banned, the concentration was lower than the EPA standard and there were no significant differences with the outdoor PM2.5 concentration. Conclusions: Two years after the introduction of the Spanish smoking law, SHS exposure in venues where smoking was allowed was q still very high, representing a significant health risk for hospitality workers.

  16. Olives: less kilos, more watts; L`olive: moins de kilos, plus de watts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandroy, L [Biofutur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ``lasting development`` concept. 10 refs.

  17. The Watts New? Collection: Columns by the SEI’s Watts Humphrey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    be to convince them to explore and ultimately adopt these technologies. Have you ever started what you thought was a two- or three-day job and have...product into test is a mistake but they don’t know how to fight the pressure. Then they feel compelled to rush through requirements and design and to...of us had ever worked before. In our first year, he took a team of rookies to the AAU championship of 13 states. What was most interesting to me was

  18. Diferencias y desigualdades entre los HSH usuarios de locales comerciales de encuentro sexual: algunas contribuciones a las estrategias comunitarias de prevención del VIH Differences and inequalities among MSM who visit commercial venues for sexual encounters: some contributions to community level strategies of HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Villaamil Pérez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una investigación etnográfica acerca de la diversidad de prácticas y representaciones y, por tanto, de subjetividades que caracterizan a los hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres (HSH que frecuentan los locales comerciales de encuentro sexual (LCES del ambiente de Madrid (España. En primer lugar, se describen las formas de pensar, actuar y sentir con respecto a estos locales de tres sectores entre los usuarios, a los que hemos denominado “integrados”, “periféricos” y “marginales”, para finalmente concluir con algunas implicaciones para la intervención comunitaria que se derivan de la heterogeneidad de prácticas y representaciones que se puede encontrar entre los usuarios de los mencionados LCES.In this article we examine some socio-political implications of the processes of construction of the gay community in Madrid in relation to community level interventions to prevent the spread of HIV. To that end, we partially present the outcomes of an ethnographical research on the diversity of practices and representations - and therefore subjectivities - that can be found among men who have sex with men (MSM who visit commercial venues for sexual encounters in the gay scene in Madrid, Spain. First, the ways of thinking, acting and feeling about those venues of three types of patrons (the “well-adjusted”, the “periphericals” and the “marginals” are described. We conclude by drawing some implications for community interventions that can be derived from the heterogeneity of practices and representations to be found among patrons of those venues.

  19. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    identify tobacco retailers to observe. Observation instruments were optimized for use on mobile devices and included the collection of images/photos and the geographic location of retailers. Data were uploaded in real-time to a remote (“cloud-based”) server accessible via Internet and verified with the use of a data management protocol that included submission of daily field notes from the research team for review by project managers. Results The walking protocol was a practical means of identifying 780 relevant retail venues in Russia, in the absence of reliable sampling resources. Mobile phones were convenient tools for completing observation checklists discretely and accurately. Daily field notes and meticulous oversight of collected data were critical to ensuring data quality. Conclusions Mobile technology can support timely and accurate data collection and also help monitor data quality through the use of real-time uploads. These protocols can be adapted to assess compliance with other types of public health policies. PMID:27580800

  20. EUROTHERM Seminar No. 18

    CERN Document Server

    Heggs, Peter; Butterworth, David

    1992-01-01

    The Eurotherm Committee was created in 1986 from member countries of the European Community. It has the purpose of organising and coordinating scientific events such as seminars and conferences in the thermal sciences. The series of Eurotherm Seminars established by the Committee has become a popular forum for high-level scientific and technical interchange of ideas in a wide range of specialist topics. While the presentation and publication of papers at the Seminars are encouraged, the primary aim is to stimulate discussion and liaison between specialist groups. The present Chairman of Eurotherm is Professor C.J. Hoogendoorn of the Technical University, Delft (Fax [NL] 15, 783251). Information on Mure Seminars is available from the Secretary, Keith Cornwell, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (Fax [UK] 31, 451, 3129). This particular Seminar No. 18 on the Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers was the first one on this topic and was held at the Universitat der Bundeswehr Hamburg (University of the Federal Ar...

  1. Internet remote control interface for a multipurpose robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Dunnigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Internet remote control interface for a MITSUBISHI PA10-6CE manipulator established for the purpose of the ROBOT museum exhibition during spring and summer 2004. The robotic manipulator is a part of the Intelligent Robotic Systems Laboratory at Heriot ? Watt University, which has been established to work on dynamic and kinematic aspects of manipulator control in the presence of environmental disturbances. The laboratory has been enriched by a simple vision system consisting of three web-cameras to broadcast the live images of the robots over the Internet. The Interface comprises of the TCP/IP server providing command parsing and execution using the open controller architecture of the manipulator and a client Java applet web-site providing a simple robot control interface.

  2. Impacto de la nueva legislación sobre tabaquismo (Ley 42/2010 en los niveles de humo ambiental de tabaco en locales de hostelería Impact of the new smoke-free legislation (law 42/2010 on levels of second-hand smoke in hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Córdoba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la contaminación por humo ambiental de tabaco en una muestra de locales de hostelería antes y después de la nueva legislación sobre tabaquismo. Métodos: Estudio evaluativo antes-después realizado en 2008 y 2011, tras la prohibición total. Medición de partículas respirables (PM2,5 mediante SidePack Aerosol Monitor en el interior de los locales y en el exterior. Se incluyeron 43 locales con mediciones antes y después de la legislación. Resultados: La concentración mediana de PM2,5 en el interior de los locales en 2008 fue 204,2μg/m³, y en 2011 fue 18,62μg/m³; en el exterior, en 2008 fue 47,04μg/m³ y en 2011 fue 18,82μg/m³. Las concentraciones más altas se encontraron en bares y cafeterías, seguidos de los locales de ocio nocturno. La contaminación en 2008 era 4,34 veces más alta en el interior de los locales que en el exterior; en 2011, la concentración de PM2,5 disminuyó un 90,88% en el interior. Conclusiones: La prohibición total de fumar en los locales de hostelería protege a trabajadores y clientes de los riesgos para la salud de la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco.Objective: To evaluate pollution by second-hand smoke in a sample of hospitality venues before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation. Methods: A cross sectional, before-after study was conducted in 2008 and 2011 after the total ban. A SidePack Aerosol monitor was used both inside and outside the hospitality venues to measure fine breathable particles (PM2.5. A total of 43 places with pre- and post-legislation measurements were included. Results: The median indoor pollution in hospitality venues was 204.2μg/m³ in 2008 and 18.82μg/m³ in 2011; the average outdoor PM2.5 concentration was 47.04μg/m³ in 2008 and 18.82μg/m³ in 2011. Pollution was higher in bars and cafeterias, followed by pubs and discos. Before the law was implemented, pollution was 4.34 times higher indoors than outdoors; in 2011 the average

  3. Núcleos de desarrollo pedagógico endógenos: su impacto en la calidad del trabajo metodológico en las Sedes Universitarias Municipales de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río Nucleus of endogenous pedagogical development: its impact in the quality of methodological work in Medical Municipal University Venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Luís Herrera Miranda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Las insuficiencias en el trabajo metodológico en las Sedes Universitarias Municipales de Ciencias Médicas, han incidido negativamente en la calidad del proceso docente educativo. Problema: ¿cómo contribuir a fortalecer el trabajo metodológico en las SUM, que permita perfeccionar el proceso formativo y la calidad de los futuros profesionales de la salud? Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de los Núcleos de Desarrollo Pedagógico Endógenos, en el fortalecimiento del trabajo metodológico en las Sedes Universitarias Municipales de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río. Resultados: se logró aumentar el número y la calidad de cursos de superación pedagógica y talleres en todas las Sedes Universitarias Municipales de Ciencias Médicas, lo que tributó al fortalecimiento del trabajo del tutor, así como el mejor uso de los medios de enseñanza y el perfeccionamiento de las nuevas formas de organización de la enseñanza. Aumentó el número de proyectos, resultados de las investigaciones pedagógicas y la calidad de las actividades del sistema de trabajo metodológico, al ser impartidas por los miembros de estos núcleos, así como los controles a actividades docentes, contribuyendo a una mayor calidad de los ejercicios de promoción de categoría docente. Conclusiones: la introducción de esta nueva estructura organizativa para el desarrollo del trabajo metodológico en las Sedes Universitarias Municipales de Ciencias Médicas en Pinar del Río, ha permitido perfeccionar el trabajo metodológico y propiciado un clima institucional favorable a este trabajo, con lo que se ha logrado hacer más sistémico e integrador el trabajo metodológico en los niveles de la carrera, disciplina y año académico.Insufficiencies of the methodological work in Medical Municipal University Venues has negatively influenced on the quality of teaching-learning process. Problem: how to contribute to the reinforcement of methodological work in Medical Municipal University

  4. 279 Watt Metal-Wrap-Through module using industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillevin, N.; Heurtault, B.; Geerligs, L.J.; Anker, J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Bennett, I.J.; Jansen, M.J.; Berkeveld, L.D.; Weeber, A.W.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Wenchao, Zhao; Jianming, Wang; Ziqian, Wang; Yingle, Chen; Yanlong, Shen; Zhiyan, Hu; Gaofei, Li; Jianhui, Chen; Bo, Yu; Shuquan, Tian; Jingfeng, Xiong [Yingli Solar, 3399 Chaoyang North Street, Baoding (China)

    2012-09-15

    This paper describes results of metal wrap through (MWT) cells produced from n-type Czochralski silicon wafers, and modules produced from those cells. The use of n-type silicon as base material allows for high efficiencies: for front emitter contacted industrial cells, efficiencies up to 20% have been reported. MWT cells allow even higher cell efficiency due to reduced front metal coverage, and additionally full back-contacting of the MWT cells in a module results in reduced cell to module (CTM) fill factor losses. MWT cells were produced by industrial process technologies. The efficiency of the MWT cells reproducibly exceeds the efficiency of front contact cells based on the same technology by about 0.2-0.3%, and routes for further improvement are analyzed. 60-cell modules were produced from both types of cells (MWT and H-pattern front emitter). In a direct module performance comparison, the MWT module, based on integrated backfoil, produced 3% higher power output than the comparable tabbed front emitter contact module. CTM current differences arise from the higher packing density, and in this experiment from a lower reflectance of the backfoil, in MWT modules. CTM FF differences are related to resistive losses in copper circuitry on the backfoil versus tabs. The CTM FF loss of the MWT module was reduced by 2.2%abs compared to the tabbed front emitter contact module. Finally, simple process optimizations were tested to improve the n-type MWT cell and module efficiency. A module made using MWT cells of 19.6% average efficiency resulted in a power output of 279W. The cell and module results are analyzed and routes for improvements are discussed.

  5. Performance of one hundred watt HVM LPP-EUV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Abe, Tamotsu; Nowak, Krzysztof M.; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yukio; Hori, Tsukasa; Kodama, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Soumagne, Georg; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Taku; Okazaki, Shinji; Saitou, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    We have been developing CO2-Sn-LPP EUV light source which is the most promising solution as the 13.5nm high power light source for HVM EUVL. Unique and original technologies such as: combination of pulsed CO2 laser and Sn droplets, dual wavelength laser pulses shooting, and mitigation with magnetic field, have been developed in Gigaphoton Inc. The theoretical and experimental data have clearly showed the advantage of our proposed strategy. Based on these data we are developing first practical source for HVM - "GL200E". This data means 250W EUV power will be able to realize around 20kW level pulsed CO2 laser. We have reported engineering data from our recent test such around 43W average clean power, CE=2.0%, with 100kHz operation and other data 19). We have already finished preparation of higher average power CO2 laser more than 20kW at output power cooperate with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation 14). Recently we achieved 92W with 50kHz, 50% duty cycle operation 20). We have reported component technology progress of EUV light source system. We report promising experimental data and result of simulation of magnetic mitigation system in Proto #1 system. We demonstrated several data with Proto #2 system: (1) emission data of 140W in burst under 70kHz 50% duty cycle during 10 minutes. (2) emission data of 118W in burst under 60kHz 70% duty cycle during 10 minutes. (3) emission data of 42W in burst under 20kHz 50% duty cycle (10000pls/0.5ms OFF) during 3 hours (110Mpls). Also we report construction of Pilot #1 system. Final target is week level operation with 250W EUV power with CE=4%, more than 27kW CO2 laser power by the end of Q2 of 2015.

  6. Experience with small turbomachinery in a 400 watt refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    A refrigerator similar to one of the Fermilab Tevatron satellites was reconfigured to use turbomachinery instead of the reciprocating equipment typical of the installations. A Sulzer dry turboexpander, Creare wet turboexpander, and IHI centrifugal cold compressor have been installed and operated for about 8000 hours. Experience was gained both with the rotating machinery and with the refrigerator itself as it interfaced with the load. Equipment was set up to regulate in the same manner as the reciprocating devices had. Heat load and operating mode were adjusted and evaluations made regarding the behavior of the devices. Individual equipment performance is described as well as system behavior and overall integration of the machinery. In particular, attention is paid to the Creare wet turboexpander. This device is operated for the first time as part of a full scale refrigeration system, testing not only its performance at the design point but also its off design characteristics and behavior in transient situations

  7. Development of a Soundproof Device for 950 Watt rated Portable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. N.A Musa

    ABSTRACT: The noise emanating from generators has adverse effects on ... soundproof device was carried out, and the sound pressure level of the ... Heat resistance rubber pipe and. 8. ... attached to the exhaust of the generator, respectively.

  8. The war of watts - Energy policies and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhomme, Jean-Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the author lift the veil of the day-to-day operation of the European power distribution network and the capacities of new energy resources to answer the question: is the 'green' energy transition policy really possible or shall it stay an utopia? The titles of the various chapters are: the choices between transitions; the architecture of the new 'mix'; the economic basis of the mix; fossil hydrocarbons, a Grail quest; electro-coal at the end of the line; water energies, the master of fluxes; electronuclear power amongst the greats; biomass, the living energy; wind power, the key of mix?; ten thousand suns on planet Earth; geothermal energy, the other nuclear

  9. Test and evaluation of the Navy half-watt RTG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, F.E. Jr.; Eggers, P.E.; Gawthrop, W.E.; Rouklove, P.G.; Truscello, V.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the autumn of 1975 the Navy took delivery of eight small-sized, plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) from four contractors (each contractor provided two RTGs). The purpose of these demonstration models is to prove conclusively that it is possible with state-of-the-art technology and materials to produce a super-battery with a 15-year life for use in the form of distributed power sources for remote undersea applications. It is easy to determine the RTG's beginning-of-life performance by actual measurements, but to forecast accurately its end-of-life performance requires rigorous determination of its reliability. This article discusses the test and evaluation program (TEP) used and the results obtained in determining that reliability. The TEP is divided into three general areas: mechanical-electrical, thermochemical-physical, and thermoelectric

  10. Etiese Besluitneming Volgens 1 Johannes | van der Watt | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/actat.v33i2.12 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  11. 5 Watt GaN HEMT Power Amplifier for LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niotaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design and implementation of a stand-alone linear power amplifier at 2.4 GHz with high output power. A GaN HEMT transistor is selected for the design and implementation of the power amplifier. The device exhibits a gain of 11.7 dB and a drain efficiency of 39% for an output power of 36.7 dBm at 2.4 GHz for an input power of 25dBm. The carrier to intermodulation ratio is better than 25 dB for a two tone input signal of 25 dBm of total power and a spacing of 5 MHz. The fabricated device is also tested with LTE input signals of different bandwidths (5MHz to 20MHz.

  12. Laser cutting - from 200 Watt to 12 Kilowatt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2004-01-01

    Laser cutting is the most widespread industrial application of high power lasers. The development of this process was initiated around 1970, when scientists at TWI first demonstrated laser cutting with coaxial gas assistance. 10 years later, the polarisation problem was solved and the technology ...... got its breakthrough. Since then some 30,000 laser cutting systems have been installed worldwide, making the laser an important cutting tool in modern industry....

  13. Experience with small turbomachinery in a 400 watt refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    A refrigerator similar to one of the Fermilab Tevatron satellites was re-configured to use turbomachinery instead of the reciprocating equipment typical of the installations. A Sulzer dry turboexpander, Creare wet turboexpander, and IHI centrifugal cold compressor have been installed and operated for about 8000 hours. Experience was gained both with the rotating machinery and with the refrigerator itself as it interfaced with the load. Equipment was set up to regulate in the same manner as the reciprocating devices had. Heat loads and operating mode were adjusted and evaluations made regarding the behavior of the devices. Individual equipment performance is described, as well as system behavior and overall integration of the machinery. In particular, attention is paid to the Creare wet turboexpander. This device is operated for the first time as part of a full scale refrigeration system, testing not only its performance at the design point but also its off design characteristics and behavior in transient situations

  14. High Efficiency S-Band 20 Watt Amplifier

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project includes the design and build of a prototype 20 W, high efficiency, S-Band amplifier.   The design will incorporate the latest semiconductor technology,...

  15. So watt? Energy: a citizens' affair; So watt? l'energie: une affaire de citoyens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Gassin, H.; Testart, J

    2005-02-15

    This book proposes a clear and well documented analysis of the energy debate, from the energy crisis to the climatic change. The authors explain that there is no possible CO{sub 2} emissions abatement without energy mastery. The energy mastery must be decentralized, while the French energy policy, based on nuclear energy, is at the opposite. According to the authors, the energy independence of France is an utopia and France is dependent of fossil fuels like any other western country. Moreover, if the energy policy of some European countries is changing, the one of France remains the same. They try to analyze the reasons why our society is developing unsuitable and risky systems, and show how it would be possible to proceed differently. The key word of this demonstration is 'democracy' and a change is possible only if everyone acts as a citizen of a common world. (J.S.)

  16. Design as a Cultural Venue for Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Jørgen; Volf, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Sense Making has become the strategic fuel for meaningful Change Making in organizations today. 1 When designers enter into and facilitate large interdisciplinary teams it changes the role of the designer from being characterised by aesthetic professionalism to thinking strategically and facilita......Sense Making has become the strategic fuel for meaningful Change Making in organizations today. 1 When designers enter into and facilitate large interdisciplinary teams it changes the role of the designer from being characterised by aesthetic professionalism to thinking strategically...... and visual skills can be the link between mental models and languages that occur in interdisciplinary teams. The designer's methods such as visualization and prototyping as well as their Sensemaking methods2 can strengthen a team's chance to imagine future scenarios and their implications. It provides...... a common ground for discussing and reflecting on choices made. The article describes two different cases in which the visual methods of designers made Sensemaking possible in the organisation. The methods used are elements within the design process: visual sensemaking, user observations, interviews...

  17. Assisting Problem Gamblers in the Gaming Venue: A Counsellor Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Nuske, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Governments now recognise gambling as a social and public health issue that invites a collaborative approach to responsible gambling and help-seeking involving the gambling industry, gambling help agencies and the wider community. In this paper, we report on findings from interviews with 23 counsellors working in Queensland Gambling Help agencies…

  18. First aid provision in nightclubs and other entertainment venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, R; Mulligan, J

    This article discusses the role and responsibilities of the registered nurse in providing first aid in challenging environments, such as crowded nightclubs. Basic assistance for common emergencies, including substance misuse, wounds, choking and anaphylaxis, are discussed. This article emphasises the importance of risk assessment and reminds readers of the need to maintain personal safety.

  19. The importance of bass clarity in pop and rock venues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert

    2008-01-01

    and monitor system goes to these 1.5 octaves. A recent survey [Adelman-Larsen et al., 2007] showed that the most important subjective parameter for a rock and pop music hall to score a high rating was 'bass clarity' which correlated with a coefficient of 0.74 to 'overall impression'. Informal discussions...

  20. For deliberative disagreement: Its venues, varieties and values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2017-01-01

    this follows several characteristics, primarily that there will normally be good reasons on both sides of an issue. I criticize prevalent conceptions of argumentation and outline an alternative, discussing contexts and varieties of deliberation and proposing normative criteria based on a citizen-centered view......I outline a theory of deliberative debate, its distinctive features and the kind of normative criteria that may be posited for it in light of its distinctive features. Deliberative debate is a type of practical reasoning: ultimately it is not about what is true, but about what to do. From...

  1. Museums as a venue for public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-12-01

    Big Food: Health, Culture, and the Evolution of Eating broke numerous records for museum attendance, highlighting the public's appetite for public health. During its 10-month run at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, more than 120 000 visitors attended Big Food, including 25 000 students through the museum's public education program, an increase of 30% more than the average student attendance in the past decade. Big Food cost approximately $100 000 to build, comprising printed panels and objects, installation displays (e.g., custom-built cases to house such objects as sugar-sweetened beverages and healthy and diseased organs), temporary walls, video monitors, food products, and more. At less than $1 per visitor, this provided extraordinary public health value.

  2. Faith-Based Institutions as Venues for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Maria J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this current narrative review is to critique the scope and value of recent studies with a focus on obesity-related health promotion in faith organizations. Electronic database searches, scanning of the reference lists of identified articles, and hand searching of journals for articles written in English and published in 2013-2016 revealed 16 studies. Half of the studies involved African-Americans, in churches and with predominantly female participants. Research among other ethnic groups was more likely to be exploratory. All of the 11 studies reporting the impact of programmes on weight-related measures showed favourable outcomes. However, due to study limitations (small sample size, short duration, attrition), significant unbiased effects cannot yet be concluded for most of the interventions reviewed. Study strengths included application of theory in community engagement and detailed description of cultural tailoring. Faith organizations show promise as settings for obesity prevention among high-risk groups, particularly African-Americans. Support for progressing formative work to adequately powered, randomized controlled trials is vital. Wider involvement of diverse faith settings and targeting obesity in men and childhood would be valuable developments.

  3. Venue Shifts and Policy Change in EU Fisheries Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades profound changes have taken place in the European Union's (EU) fisheries policy. Partly these changes have occurred within the EU's Common Fisheries Policy itself, but partly policy change has been effected by the application of environmental legislation and policy

  4. From Planck Constant to Isomorphicity Through Justice Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-05-01

    Robert E. Scott in his ``Chaos theory and the Justice Paradox'', William & Mary Law Review, v 35, I 1, 329 (1993) wrotes''...As we approach the 21-st Century, the signs of social disarray are everywhere. Social critics observe the breakdown of core structure - the nuclear family, schools, neighborhoods & political groups''. For completions for ``soliton'' first coined by Morikazu TODA, comparing the ``Soliton on Scott-Russell aqueduct on the Union Canal near Heriot-WATT University, July 12, 1995 to Michael Stock works: ``a Fine WATT-Balance: Determination of Planck constant & Redefinition of Kilogram'', January 2011, we can concludes the inherencies between `chaos' & `soliton'. Further through ``string theory'' from Michio KAKU sought statements from Peter Mayr: Stringy world brane & Exponential hierarchy'', JHEP 11 (2000): ``if the 5-brane is embedded in flat 10-D space time, the 6-D Planck mass on the brane is infinite'' who also describes the relation of isomorphicity & ``string theory'', from whom denotes the smart city. Replace this text with your abstract body. Incredible acknowledgments to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Dr-HC Jakob OETAMA.

  5. Terrestrial laser scanning for heritage conservation: the Cologne Cathedral documentation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D.; Sperner, J.; Hoepner, S.; Tenschert, R.

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary terrestrial laser scanners and photogrammetric imaging systems are an invaluable tool in providing objectively precise, as-built records of existing architectural, engineering and industrial sites. The comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) recording of culturally important sites such as heritage buildings, monuments, and sites can serve a variety of invaluable purposes; the data can assist in the conservation, management, and repair of a structure, as well as provide a visually engaging educational resource for both the public and scholars. The acquired data acts as a form of digital preservation, a timeless virtual representation of the as-built structure. The technical capability of these systems is particularly suited for the documentation of a richly articulated and detailed building such as the high Gothic Cologne Cathedral. The 3D documentation of the Cologne Cathedral UNESCO World Heritage Site is a multiphase project developed by Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh in partnership with the Fresenius University of Applied Sciences, Cologne, and the Metropolitankapitel der Hohen Domkirche Köln Dombauhütte. The project has also received generous support from Zoller + Fröhlich (Z+F) and the City of Cologne.

  6. Steady-state CFD modelling and experimental analysis of the local microclimate in Dubai (UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Syeda Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urban growth and development over the past few years in Dubai has increased the rate at which the mean maximum temperatures are rising. Progressive soaring temperatures have greater effect of heat islands that add on to the high cooling demands. This work numerically explicated the effect of HIs in a tropical desert climate by adopting Heriot-Watt University Dubai Campus (HWUDC as a case study. The study analysed thermal flow behaviour around the campus by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD as a numerical tool. The three dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations were solved under FLUENT commercial code to simulate temperature and wind flow parameters at each discretised locations. Field measurements were carried out to validate the results produced by CFD for closer approximation in the representation of the actual phenomenon. Results established that the air temperature is inversely proportional to wind velocity. Hotspots were formed in the zone 1 and 3 region with a temperature rise of 9.1% that caused a temperature increase of 2.7 °C. Observations illustrated that the building configuration altered the wind flow pattern where the wind velocity was higher in the zone 2 region. Findings determined increase in the sensible cooling load by 19.61% due to 1.22 °C temperature rise. This paper highlighted the application of CFD in modelling an urban micro-climate and also shed light into future research development to quantify the HIs.

  7. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Noel, J.P.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1992-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser-cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air, and by laser beam in air. The same team was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick, grade 304 stainless-steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and in some cases 20 mm thick, grade 304, stainless-steel plates were cut by laser beam in five different facilities: CEA-CEN Fontenay, CEA-CEN Saclay, Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde of Universitaet Hannover and ENEA/Frascati. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, and the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the involved facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory) and by some particularities in the cutting parameters (an additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Universitaet Hannover, for example)

  8. Measurements of secondary emissions from plasma arc and laser cutting in standard experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Noel, M.; Leautier, R.; Steiner, H.; Tarroni, G.; Waldie, B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an inter-facility comparison of secondary emissions from plasma-arc and laser cutting techniques, standard cutting tests have been done by plasma arc underwater and in air and laser beam in air. The same team, CEA/DPT/SPIN, was commissioned to measure the secondary emissions (solid and gaseous) in each contractor's facility with the same measuring rig. 20 mm and 40 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by plasma-torch in three different facilities: Heriot Watt University of Edinburgh, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and CEA/CEN Cadarache. 10 mm and sometimes 20 mm thick grade 304 stainless steel plates were cut by laser beam in four different facilities: CEA/CEN Fontenay, CEA/CEN Saclay, Institute fuer Werkstoffkunde of Hannover and ENEA/FRASCATI. The results obtained in the standard experiments are rather similar, the differences that appear can be explained by the various scales of the facilities (semi-industrial and laboratory scale) and by some particularity in the cutting parameters (additional secondary gas flow of oxygen in plasma cutting at Hannover for example). Some supplementary experiments show the importance of some cutting parameters. (author)

  9. University Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cox

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experiences and general observations of the author at Heriot-Watt University and concerns the transfer of university technology for the purposes of commercialisation. Full commercial exploitation of a university invention generally requires transferring that technology into the industrial arena, usually either by formation of a new company or licensing into an existing company. Commercialisation activities need to be carried out in unison with the prime activities of the university of research and teaching. Responsibility for commercialising university inventions generally rests with a specific group within the university, typically referred to as the technology transfer group. Each technology transfer should be considered individually and appropriate arrangements made for that particular invention. In general, this transfer process involves four stages: identification, evaluation, protection and exploitation. Considerations under these general headings are outlined from a university viewpoint. A phased approach is generally preferred where possible for the evaluation, protection and exploitation of an invention to balance risk with potential reward. Evaluation of the potential opportunity for a university invention involves essentially the same considerations as for an industrial invention. However, there are a range of commercial exploitation routes and potential deals so that only general guidelines can be given. Naturally, the final deal achieved is that which can be negotiated. The potential rewards for the university and inventor are both financial (via licensing income and equity realisation and non-financial.

  10. Watt-level dysprosium fiber laser at 315 μm with 73% slope efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.; Majewski, M. R.; Bharathan, G.; Hudson, D. D.; Fuerbach, A.; Jackson, S. D.

    2018-04-01

    Rare-earth-doped fiber lasers are emerging as promising high-power mid-infrared sources for the 2.6-3.0 {\\mu}m and 3.3-3.8 {\\mu}m regions based on erbium and holmium ions. The intermediate wavelength range, however, remains vastly underserved, despite prospects for important manufacturing and defense applications. Here, we demonstrate the potential of dysprosium-doped fiber to solve this problem, with a simple in-band pumped grating-stabilized linear cavity generating up to 1.06 W at 3.15 {\\mu}m. A slope efficiency of 73% with respect to launched power (77% relative to absorbed power) is achieved: the highest value for any mid-infrared fiber laser to date, to the best of our knowledge. Opportunities for further power and efficiency scaling are also discussed.

  11. 77 FR 71454 - Notice of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Reconstitution, Tennessee Valley Authority (Watts Bar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule. See 10 CFR 2.302 et seq. Issued at Rockville, Maryland this 16th day of November 2012. E. Roy Hawkens, Chief Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel...

  12. Waste to Watts and Water: Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    98; “Project to Turn Beer Wastewater into Power,” ; Yokoyama et al., “Treatment of Cow-Waste Slurry,” 634; Catal et al., “Electricity Production...Fuel Cells Bulletin 2006, no. 7 (2006): 7. “Project to Turn Beer Wastewater into Power.” Fuel Cells Bulletin 2007, no. 7 (2007): 11. Rabaey, K., J...Biomass Fermentation , edited by Piet Lens, Peter Westermann, Marianne Haberbauer, and Angelo Moreno, 377–400. Integrated Environmental Technology Series

  13. 100-watt sonoluminescence generated by 2.5-atmosphere-pressure pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Brian; Khalid, Shahzad; Putterman, Seth

    2011-05-01

    A Xenon gas bubble introduced into a vertically suspended steel cylinder is driven to sonoluminescence by impacting the apparatus against a solid steel base. This produces a 150-ns flash of broadband light that exceeds 100-W peak intensity and has a spectral temperature of 10 200 K. This bubble system, which yields light with a single shot, emits very powerful sonoluminescence. A jet is visible following bubble collapse, which demonstrates that spherical symmetry is not necessary to produce sonoluminescence.

  14. Small bore pipe acceptance criteria for watts bar nuclear plant Tennessee Valley Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.S.; Lee, R.L.; Kalyanan, N.

    1991-01-01

    Small bore pipe (≤2 inches NPS) is traditionally analyzed by simplified techniques using Cook Book approach, which yield conservative results. However, reconciliation of these systems for as-built condition where the original criteria is observed to have been exceeded (or due to additions etc.) generally becomes a time consuming and expensive operation since a rigorous computer aided analysis or a detailed hand calculation becomes necessary. The acceptance criteria in this paper can be effectively used in such cases. The approach involves utilizing basic engineering principles and plant specific parameters (such as earthquake spectra) to estimate the system response such as pipe stress due to various loading conditions, piping frequency, support and anchor loads, valve acceleration etc

  15. Draft statement by the Watt Committee on Safety and related topics as respects nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The following topics are examined, with particular reference to nuclear power: the nature of risk; waste disposal to the environment (ecological damage and radiation damage due to nuclear plants and fossil-fuel plants); the benefits of nuclear power (including discussion of the following matters: need to conserve fossil fuels; safety; and possibility of diversion to nuclear weapons).

  16. Ultra-short time sciences. From the atto-second to the peta-watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book presents the recent advances in the scientific and technical domains linked with ultra-short time physics. It deals first with the conceptual and technological aspects of ultra-intense and ultra-brief lasers. Then, it describes the different domains of research (atoms, molecules and aggregates; gaseous phase dynamics using the pump-probe technique; femto-chemistry in dense phase; condensed matter; plasma physics; consistent control; aerosols; functional femto-biology) and the different domains of application (medical diagnosis; ophthalmology; telecommunications; technological and industrial developments). A last part is devoted to the teaching of ultra-short time sciences. (J.S.)

  17. The Mormon Passage of George D. Watt: First British Convert, Scribe for Zion

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    Nineteenth century Mormonism was a frontier religion with roots so entangled with the American experience as to be seen by some scholars as the most American of religions and by others as a direct critique of that experience. Yet it was also a missionary religion that through proselytizing quickly gained an international, if initially mostly Northern European, makeup. This mix brought it a roster of interesting characters: frontiersmen and hardscrabble farmers; preachers and theologians; dre...

  18. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply for Ultra-Fast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Ouyang, Ziwei; Petersen, Lars Press

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a medium-powerrating isolated power supply for ultra-fast tracking converters and MOS-gate driver circuits in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the design is its very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, which maximizes its...

  19. Mega-Watt Class High Voltage, Variable Frequency, Propulsor Power Unit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC (BT) proposes to adapt technologies developed by and resident in BT and The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  20. The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; /SLAC; Little, William A.; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

    2014-05-28

    The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology’s Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

  1. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-02-03

    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared with traditional sodium acetate media due in part to its acidophilic pH and its higher organics content. Although high internal resistance remains a big concern, this simple, curiosity-driven experiment gave us the preliminary results to say that energy could be extracted from the reuse of waste resources such the collection of our afternoon-tea\\'s leftovers.

  2. Korea's 1-watt plan ''Standby Korea 2010''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yungrae

    2010-09-15

    Korea announced standby power of all electronics shall be reduced to below 1W by 2010. Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korean government) and Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO) established ''Standby Korea 2010'' which is a roadmap to limit standby power below 1W by 2010. Korea implemented mandatory program over a relatively short period of time, incorporating the better elements from the more established national program and adding new initiatives, such as the threat of using mandatory warning label for products that fail to meet standby power targets.

  3. Sustainable development - billions of watts under the seas - Marine current turbines play simple - Technological waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Th.

    2011-01-01

    The author evokes the opportunities of power generation by the development of sea current or tidal stream turbines. Some developments are already tested by Norwegian, French, Danish, British and American companies. Some specific turbines are briefly presented. In order to reduce the cost of the electricity production from sea currents, manufacturers are using simple and robust technologies, and exploit the experience gained on wind turbines. Some designs and prototypes are evoked for the production of electricity by sea waves (Pelamis and Oyster projects). Principles, strengths and production projects are briefly indicated. The challenge of maintenance in sea environment is outlined for these projects

  4. 78 FR 35989 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ..., Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elaine N. Keegan, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U....Keegan@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA or the applicant...

  5. 78 FR 62709 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., therefore, in accordance with 10 CFR 2.109(a), the existing construction permit will remain in effect until... runoff at a different location from that originally proposed in the FES-CP, and (3) the relocation of the... that were either not included in the previous versions of NUREG-0498, or issues that needed updating...

  6. Multi-hundred watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator program. Annual report, 1976--1977. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    During the reporting period, 1976 to 1977, development, fabrication and testing of the MHW-MJS RTGs were completed. The seven flight qualified units, six for flight and one spare, were delivered to KSC during May and June 1977. The two Voyager launches are scheduled for Aug. 20 and Sept. 1, 1977. The significant events and activities occurring on the MHW-MJS Program are summarized

  7. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt Transmitter Experiment Package for CTS. [Communication Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Measured performance characteristics from ground test of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite are presented. The experiment package consists of a 200 W Output Stage Tube (OST) powered by a Power Processing System (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 per cent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 per cent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, intermodulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  8. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β 0 e β1•E-1), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R2>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12cm in diameter and 550cm3 of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80g•cm-3), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC•ha-1) at the highest density of 2500 trees•ha-1 (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC•ha-1 are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits. PMID:25992905

  9. A Multi Mega Watt Continuous Wave RF Window for Particle Accelerator Applications. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vguyen-Tuong, V.

    2004-01-01

    In this analysis the proposed 10MW window design is free of multipacting on the ceramic surface for the full power range, both in the traveling wave and full reflection mode. Near 7MW and 8MW in the traveling wave mode, multipacting might show up on the outer conductor of the matching section. These multipacting barriers are however very soft and are expected to be easily eliminated by regular RF processing. The multipacting analysis can identify early design problems while it is unable to provide certainty in design success and testing of window designs is the only certain measure of freedom from multipacting

  10. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Alqarni, Wejdan Mohammed Mofleh; Kalantan, Kalthom Kamil Saleh; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Mink, Justine E.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared

  11. Crimson Viper, Phase IV: Field Experimentation Venue Report and CV14 Combined Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    battery sources. The system consists of a master node and other nodes used to create a wireless dark network. The wireless mesh nodes are self...create a wireless dark network. The wireless mesh nodes are self-configuring and self-healing. During CV14 Phase IV, separation of nodes averaged...the southern tip of the province, close to the tourism center Pattaya. The Sattahip Naval Base is the largest base of the Royal Thai Navy and is home

  12. English Bar as a Venue to Boost Students' Speaking Self-Efficacy at the Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxu

    2013-01-01

    Research in EFL and ESL has confirmed that self-efficacy affects language learners' choices of learning tasks, persistence, motivation and achievement. As a cognitive construct, self-efficacy can be strengthened by both outcomes of behaviors and input from the environment. This paper studies the effects of an English Bar, a self-access center for…

  13. From Sharing Time to Showtime! Valuing Diverse Venues for Storytelling in Technology-Rich Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Paige D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two nine-year-old children who used different oral, written, visual, and digital modes as resources to create meaning and to position themselves socially through multimodal stories. Their diverging experiences with technology as a resource for storytelling draw attention to the importance of studying "the ways that old and new…

  14. Do organizational and clinical ethics in a hospital setting need different venues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

    2014-06-01

    The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives.

  15. University career centres – venues of non-formal learning for students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Žnidaršič Žagar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of young people, including tertiary graduates, into the labour market is facing stagnation in Slovenia. Besides external factors that are beyond the control of an individual, good employability also depends on personal characteristics of the employment seeker. Awareness of the importance of good employability means empowering and strengthening individuals through process of lifelong learning, thus enabling them to find and retain sustainable employment within the labour market. This consequently enables them to fulfil their career goals and creatively contribute to their own personal satisfaction and success, as well as that of society as a whole. Universities in Slovenia have established careers centres. The University of Ljubljana opened its first careers centre years ago (in 2008, and we are now beginning to see the results, which are similar to those achieved by careers centres of other European universities. This confirms that promotion and facilitation of good employability is more effective when careers centres are closely involved in the study process.

  16. Regulating different trading venues: The European experience based on MiFID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    a legal analysis of the changes in trading pattern for securities that had accured sind the implementation of MiFID in 2007......a legal analysis of the changes in trading pattern for securities that had accured sind the implementation of MiFID in 2007...

  17. The Effect of Venue and Wind on the Distance of a Hammer Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iain

    2005-01-01

    In track and field, gravity and air resistance act on the hammer after it has been released. Both of these forces depend on altitude and latitude. In addition, air resistance also depends on wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Often, air resistance and varying gravity throughout the earth are not considered when throwing…

  18. Service-Learning: A Venue for Enhancing Pre-Service Educators' Knowledge Base for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen; Griffin, Kent; Bohler, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Scholarship of Teaching and Learning research examining the impact of service-learning on student's personal qualities has shown positive results. Findings indicate that students participating in high quality service-learning programs show increases in their perceptions of self-efficacy, civic responsibility, social justice, and diversity…

  19. International telepharmacy education: another venue to improve cancer care in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaar, Ahmad S; Kamal, Sherif; Abouelnaga, Sherif; Greene, William L; Quintana, Yuri; Ribeiro, Raul C; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim A

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, pharmacists play a crucial role in designing and implementing cancer treatments as part of a multidisciplinary oncology team. However, developing countries have a shortage of pharmacists, and their role is generally limited to dispensing and selling drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of providing clinical pharmacy educational activities via international teleconferencing to improve cancer care in developing countries. Meticulous preparation and intense promotion of the workshop were done in Egypt before the telepharmacy conferences began. Multiple connectivity tests were performed to resolve technical problems. Nine telepharmacy conferences were delivered during 3-h sessions that were held on three consecutive days. Talks were subsequently made available via Web streaming. Attendees were requested to complete a survey to measure their satisfaction with the sessions. The teleconference was attended by a total of 345 persons, and it was subsequently reviewed online via 456 log-in sessions from 10 countries. Technical issues (e.g., poor auditory quality) were resolved on the first day of the event. The rate of attendees' responses on the survey was 30.1%, and satisfaction with the event was generally good. Telecommunication is a relatively inexpensive approach that may improve pharmacy practices, especially those used to treat patients with cancer in developing countries. Special attention to patient-based telepharmacy education, including the use of cost-effective technology, should be considered.

  20. Gun buyback programs: a venue to eliminate unwanted guns in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violano, Pina; Driscoll, Cassandra; Chaudhary, Neil K; Schuster, Kevin M; Davis, Kimberly A; Borer, Esther; Winters, Jane K; Hirsh, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    The United States has a high rate of death due to firearms, and gun buyback programs may mitigate these high death rates. Understanding the demographics, motivation, and geographic region of participants may improve program efficacy. Three Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback programs, in collaboration with the local police, were studied: Phoenix, Arizona; Worcester, Massachusetts; and New Haven, Connecticut. Participants were defined as those who relinquished a firearm. A self-administered, anonymous, paper survey elicited information from participants regarding demographic data, formal training on the use of the firearm, how the firearm was acquired, potential child access, knowledge of others injured by a firearm, whether the firearm was stored unlocked, factors motivating the surrender of the firearm, and other factors. Survey results were entered into a composite database and analyzed for differences in location, race, sex, and other factors. Participants (n = 301) were predominantly male (73.5%), white (80.9%), and older than 55 years (59.0%). They lived an average of 19.0 miles from the event by zip codes and had an average median household income of $65,731. More than half (54.5%) did not purchase the firearm, acquiring it through inheritance, gift, or random find. Most (74.8%) had previous firearms training and were relinquishing for safety reasons (68.3%). Those relinquishing firearms for safety reasons were less likely to have purchased the firearm (odds ratio [OR], 2.46, p gun lock (OR, 0.15; p gun-wielding criminal acts were burglarized from the home of legal gun owners that had failed to secure them properly. The gun buyback program is solely one prong of a multipronged approach in reducing firearm-based interpersonal violence. Additional research is necessary to determine effective methods to target individuals who would have the greatest impact on gun violence if they relinquished their weapons. Through the forging of relationships and enhancement of firearm knowledge among medical, law enforcement, judicial, and school communities, the prevention of intentional and unintentional firearm-related injuries will be able to be managed more effectively.

  1. Building Community: Stakeholder Perspectives on Walking in Malls and Other Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Miyawaki, Christina E; Allen, Peg; King, Diane K; Marquez, David X; Jones, Dina L; Janicek, Sarah; Rosenberg, Dori; Brown, David R

    2017-10-01

    Mall walking has been a popular physical activity for decades. However, little is known about why mall managers support these programs or why adults choose to walk. Our study aim was to describe mall walking programs from the perspectives of walkers, managers, and leaders. Twenty-eight walkers, 16 walking program managers, and six walking program leaders from five states participated in a telephone or in-person semi-structured interview (N = 50). Interview guides were developed using a social-ecological model. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. All informants indicated satisfaction with their program and environmental features. Differences in expectations were noted in that walkers wanted a safe, clean, and social place whereas managers and leaders felt a need to provide programmatic features. Given the favorable walking environments in malls, there is an opportunity for public health professionals, health care organizations, and providers of aging services to partner with malls to promote walking.

  2. Une technologie de pointe venue d'Asie modernise un secteur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... En assurant une combustion plus efficace, ajoute-t-il, on utilise moins d'arbres et on réduit la pollution de l'air. En 1996, le ministre du Commerce international du Canada a remis un certificat de reconnaissance à Hari Gunasingham pour souligner sa contribution à l'avancement de la science, des affaires ...

  3. Working in the Shadow of Hierarchy : Organisational Autonomy and Venues of External Influence in European Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harry; Bleiklie, Ivar; Enders, Jürgen; Lepori, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    Over recent decades, ‘autonomy’ has become a buzz word in higher education reform and universities were thought to be empowered to determine their own destiny. This chapter examines the organisational autonomy of universities in Europe. The multidimensional analyses of autonomy show that

  4. 2017 Solar Eclipse in Hopkinsville, KY: E/PO Feedback from Two Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Consolmagno, Guy

    2017-10-01

    Hopkinsville, Kentucky was the largest town in the region of maximum totality for the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse, and transformed itself into “Eclipseville” with extensive media attention. Here we give 2 on-the-ground reports on education and public outreach (E/PO) activities from Hopkinsville. One of us (TD) partnered with the Kentucky Division of Emergency Management (KYEM) and was in the Hopkinsville VIP area, and the other (GC) led a series of E/PO events at the Hopkinsville Church of Ss. Peter & Paul, which were nationally advertised in diocesan newspapers. In addition, both of us were interviewed extensively by local and national media before the event. Pre-event planning by KYEM extended for over a year, and culminated in a 6-hour, 12 July 2017 Tabletop Exercise (TTX) run by FEMA. This face-to-face workshop drew over 250 participants, including Kentucky’s Lt. Governor, health and public safety officials at the state-level and from the 21 Kentucky counties in the path of totality, mayors and convention-bureau officials from the affected KY towns, the KY National Guard, the U.S. Depts. of Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and Transportation, the National Weather Service, the U.S. Coast Guard for riverboat traffic, the U.S. Forest Service, the American Red Cross, representatives from ATT, Verizon and Sprint, and representatives from local universities—it was the largest TTX in Kentucky’s history. Here, we report on E/PO feedback we assembled from the VIP and parochial sites, including the most frequently asked questions, which types of answers seemed to be most effective, and how actual events compared with the large-crowd preparations and planning.

  5. Insights into the Issues of Commercial and Non-commercial Sports Venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rasputin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Рассматриваются некоторые особенности проектирования спортивных объектов в Иркутске и Ангарске. Акцентируется внимание на отличии коммерческих и некоммерческих спортивных клубов от спорткомплексов, реализуемых за счет бюджетного финансирования. В бюджетном варианте предусмотрены крупногабаритные универсальные залы; в коммерческом – залы средних параметров, используемые для спортивных занятий, большие спортивные залы играют дополнительную роль.

  6. Thermal disinfection of hotels, hospitals, and athletic venues hot water distribution systems contaminated by Legionella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2007-11-01

    Legionella spp. (> or = 500 cfu liter(-1)) were detected in 92 of 497 water distribution systems (WDS) examined. Thermal disinfection was applied at 33 WDS. After the first and second application of the disinfection procedure, 15 (45.4%) and 3 (9%) positive for remedial actions WDS were found, respectively. Legionella pneumophila was more resistant to thermal disinfection than Legionella non-pneumophila spp. (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=1-35). WDS of hotels with oil heater were more easily disinfected than those with electrical or solar heater (RR=0.4 95% CI=0.2-0.8). Thermal disinfection seems not to be efficient enough to eliminate legionellae, unless repeatedly applied and in combination with extended heat flushing, and faucets chlorine disinfection.

  7. Quand la bise fut venue: l'imaginaire alimentaire de la sub-culture prepper

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of food in survivalism. Based on a netnography of the French Survivalist Network (RSF), it aims to understand the value system developed by this culture obsessed with the end of the world.

  8. Une technologie de pointe venue d'Asie modernise un secteur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2010 ... Nanotech extends shelf life of fresh fruit. An international research team is developing nanotechnology-based applications of hexanal, a natural plant extract that extends the storage lif. View moreNanotech extends shelf life of fresh fruit ...

  9. Libraries as a venue for exciting education technology, both high tech and low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J. B.; Dusenbery, P.; Holland, A.

    2016-12-01

    Public libraries provide a broad range of possibilities for reaching diverse audiences with NASA and STEM related content and activities, from hands-on activities, to interactive kiosks incorporating science based games, simulations, and real-time data. NCIL/SSI has been developing STEM-based exhibits and program activities for public libraries since 2007, and is currently managing 7 national tours in partnership with the American Library Association and other organizations. Past and current exhibitions will reach over 100 libraries and an estimated 1.5 million patrons. In this paper we will discuss a range of findings from almost a decade of deploying both high and low tech STEM learning strategies into libraries, including usage and engagement by library patrons, and challenges (and solutions) for deploying technologically sophisticated components into libraries which may or may not have dedicated technical staff.

  10. How Are African Americans Currently Represented in Various Social Work Venues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold E.; Holosko, Michael J.; Banks, Leon; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Parker, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored how African Americans are currently represented in social work journals, research, and schools. Method: Journal publication content and editorship, research methods and designs, and school mission statements and course titles were examined. Results: Only 14% of publications in the top 5 social work journals targeted…

  11. Developing Army Leaders: Lessons for Teaching Critical Thinking in Distributed, Resident, and Mixed-Delivery Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Arulampalam, Naylor, and Smith, 2004; Cantwell, Archer, and Bourke , 2001; Hoskins, Newstead, and Dennis, 1997); race (Miller and Ewell, 2005; Talbert...1996, pp. 26–48. Cantwell, Robert, Jennifer Archer, and Sid Bourke , “A Comparison of the Academic Experiences and Achievement of University

  12. Successfully Engaging Family and Student Audiences in Climate Science Workshops in an Informal Learning Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancis, G.; Haynes, R.; Schroer, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Montshire Museum of Science, a regional science center serving families, teachers, and students in rural Vermont and New Hampshire, has been actively engaged in in climate literacy initiatives for over 10 years. The Museum's visitor evaluation data shows that before audiences can be engaged in conversations around climate change, they need to be introduced to the underlying earth processes that drive climate, and to the nature of how climate science is done. Through this work, the Museum has developed a suite of climate science programs that can be incorporated in informal science programming at museums, science centers, and libraries, and in the formal K-8 classroom environment. Front-end and formative evaluation data was used in the program design, and summative evaluation showed an increase in concept understanding in the topic presented. Family science and student workshops developed focused on Albedo and the Earth's energy budget, properties and characteristics of sea ice, sediment cores and ice cores to study changes in the climate over time, and the geography of the polar regions. We found that successful climate literacy learning experiences require meaningful hands-on, inquiry-based activities focused on a single earth process, and leads to an increase in science talk and conversation about climate change between the program instructor and audience members as learners begin to understand how these processes interact in the Earth's climate system.

  13. Preselecting Well Test Interpretation Models Using External Data Présélection de modèles d'interprétation de tests de puits par l'utilisation de données externes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison I.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The first stage in interpreting a well test is concerned with identifying a well test interpretation (WTI model for the reservoir that is consistent with all the known data and whose theoretical output response is qualitatively similar to the actual well test response. Conventionally, engineers identify WTI models by using WTI software to plot functions of well test pressure against time and then diagnose components of WTI models from their characteristic curve signatures, together with evidence from external (geological and engineering data. This paper focuses on the use of external data for preselecting WTI models, which can then be verified using conventional well test analysis techniques. The KADS methodology for developing knowledge based systems (KBS was adopted and the inference layer structure for the WTI model preselection task was derived. The WTI model preselection task will form one part of a KBS for well test interpretation, SPIRIT, being developed jointly by Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute and Heriot-Watt University. La première étape dans l'interprétation d'un test de puits est celle de l'identification d'un modèle d'interprétation (WTI pour le réservoir, qui soit en accord avec l'ensemble des données connues, et dont la sortie théorique est qualitativement semblable à celle du puits testé. Pour ceci, les ingénieurs de réservoir utilisent habituellement des logiciels WTI qui calculent et tracent la pression de test de puits en fonction du temps. Cela leur permet de diagnostiquer les composantes des modèles WTI à partir de leurs signatures caractéristiques, le diagnostic étant complété par la prise en compte d'informations externes, de géologie ou d'ingénierie. Cet article est consacré à l'utilisation de données externes pour la préselection des modèles WTI, modèles qui peuvent être ensuite validés au moyen de techniques classiques d'analyse de tests de puits. La méthodologie de d

  14. Sustainable development - billions of watts under the seas - Marine current turbines play simple - Technological waves; Developpement durable - Des milliards de watts sous les mers - Les hydroliennes jouent la simplicite - Vagues technologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Th.

    2011-10-27

    The author evokes the opportunities of power generation by the development of sea current or tidal stream turbines. Some developments are already tested by Norwegian, French, Danish, British and American companies. Some specific turbines are briefly presented. In order to reduce the cost of the electricity production from sea currents, manufacturers are using simple and robust technologies, and exploit the experience gained on wind turbines. Some designs and prototypes are evoked for the production of electricity by sea waves (Pelamis and Oyster projects). Principles, strengths and production projects are briefly indicated. The challenge of maintenance in sea environment is outlined for these projects

  15. 78 FR 72120 - Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit No. 2; Order Approving Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all adjudicatory documents over... below. To comply with the procedural requirements of E-Filing, at least ten 10 days prior to the filing...

  16. 1.34 µm picosecond self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 watt-level laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Peng, Jiying; Li, Zuohan; Cao, Qiuyuan; Yuan, Ruixia

    2017-01-01

    With a simple linear configuration, a diode-pumped, self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.34 µm is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Based on the aberrationless theory of self-focusing and thermal lensing effect, through designing and optimizing the resonator, a pulse width as short as 9.1 ps is generated at a repetition rate of 2.0 GHz and the average output power is 2.51 W. The optical conversion efficiency and the slope efficiency for the stable mode-locked operation are approximately 16.7% and 19.2%, respectively.

  17. Half-Watt average power femtosecond source spanning 3-8 µm based on subharmonic generation in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolski, Viktor; Vasilyev, Sergey; Moskalev, Igor; Mirov, Mike; Ru, Qitian; Muraviev, Andrey; Schunemann, Peter; Mirov, Sergey; Gapontsev, Valentin; Vodopyanov, Konstantin

    2018-06-01

    Frequency combs with a wide instantaneous spectral span covering the 3-20 µm molecular fingerprint region are highly desirable for broadband and high-resolution frequency comb spectroscopy, trace molecular detection, and remote sensing. We demonstrate a novel approach for generating high-average-power middle-infrared (MIR) output suitable for producing frequency combs with an instantaneous spectral coverage close to 1.5 octaves. Our method is based on utilizing a highly-efficient and compact Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr2+:ZnS laser operating at 2.35-µm central wavelength with 6-W average power, 77-fs pulse duration, and high 0.9-GHz repetition rate; to pump a degenerate (subharmonic) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on a quasi-phase-matched GaAs crystal. Such subharmonic OPO is a nearly ideal frequency converter capable of extending the benefits of frequency combs based on well-established mode-locked pump lasers to the MIR region through rigorous, phase- and frequency-locked down conversion. We report a 0.5-W output in the form of an ultra-broadband spectrum spanning 3-8 µm measured at 50-dB level.

  18. IEEE Computer Society/Software Engineering Institute Watts S. Humphrey Software Process Achievement (SPA) Award 2016: Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-05

    better able to manage demand, and predict project success. Strategic Aspirations • Business leaders rely on IT for trusted advice and technology... strategic alignment, business value, and our ability to deliver. By ensuring that we are working on the right things at the right time, we are...one of over 20 different business unit leaders . In this model Nationwide benefited from deep business partner relationships and strong domain

  19. Outcome of slow pathway modulation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with 50 versus 30 watts-more power, more effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechering, Dirk G; Schleberger, Ruben; Greiser, Eva; Dickow, Jannis; Koebe, Julia; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Willems, Stephan; Eckardt, Lars; Hoffmann, Boris A; Wasmer, Kristina

    2018-03-19

    Slow pathway modulation is the treatment of choice in patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). No comparative data on ablation strategies exist. Therefore, we sought to compare two common ablation approaches. We analyzed prospective ablation databases of two high-volume tertiary centers (> 1000 ablations/year) using either 30 or 50 W for slow pathway modulation from 2012 to 2013. We analyzed procedural characteristics as well as short- and long-term outcomes. Mean follow-up was 36 ± 9 months. Six hundred thirty-four patients (50 W center: n = 342, 30 W center: n = 292) were ablated. Slow pathway modulation was successful in 99% in both groups (p = ns). Periprocedural AV block occurred in nine patients (2.6%) in the 50 W and five patients (1.7%) in the 30 W group (p = 0.59), respectively. We documented no permanent higher-degree AV block. The number of RF lesions and seconds of RF delivery was significantly less in the 50 W group (p = 0.04 for number of lesions; p modulation are highly effective and safe. Significantly, fewer RF duration was necessary to modulate the slow pathway with higher power output (50 W). Our subgroup analysis suggests that males and females might benefit most from different modulation approaches.

  20. Experimental study on an S-band near-field microwave magnetron power transmission system on hundred-watt level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Jiang, Wan; Yang, Yang; Yu, Chengyang; Huang, Kama; Liu, Changjun

    2015-11-01

    A multi-magnetron microwave source, a metamaterial transmitting antenna, and a large power rectenna array are presented to build a near-field 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission system. The square 1 m2 rectenna array consists of sixteen rectennas with 2048 Schottky diodes for large power microwave rectifying. It receives microwave power and converts them into DC power. The design, structure, and measured performance of a unit rectenna as well as the entail rectenna array are presented in detail. The multi-magnetron microwave power source switches between half and full output power levels, i.e. the half-wave and full-wave modes. The transmission antenna is formed by a double-layer metallic hole array, which is applied to combine the output power of each magnetron. The rectenna array DC output power reaches 67.3 W on a 1.2 Ω DC load at a distance of 5.5 m from the transmission antenna. DC output power is affected by the distance, DC load, and the mode of microwave power source. It shows that conventional low power Schottky diodes can be applied to a microwave power transmission system with simple magnetrons to realise large power microwave rectifying.

  1. Analysis of Passive RF-DC Power Rectification and Harvesting Wireless RF Energy for Micro-watt Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwi Nimo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, analytical modeling of passive rectifying circuits and the harvesting of electromagnetic (EM power from intentionally generated as well as from ubiquitous sources are presented. The presented model is based on the linearization of rectifying circuits. The model provides an accurate method of determining the output characteristics of rectifying circuits. The model was verified with Advance Design System (ADS Harmonic balance (HB simulations and measurements. The results from the presented model were in agreement with simulations and measurements. Consequently design considerations and trade-off of radio frequency (RF harvesters are discussed. To verify the exploitation of ambient RF power sources for operation of sensors, a dual-band antenna with a size of ~λ/4 at 900MHz and a passive dual-band rectifier that is able to power a commercial Thermo-Hygrometer requiring ~1.3V and 0.5MΩ from a global system for mobile communications (GSM base station is demonstrated. The RF power delivered by the receiving dual-band antenna at a distance of about 110 m from the GSM base station ranges from -27 dBm to -50 dBm from the various GSM frequency bands. Additionally, wireless range measurements of the RF harvesters in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM band 868MHz is presented at indoor conditions.

  2. 76 FR 34799 - Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... notice is provided in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality's regulations (40 CFR parts... interconnected, fabric-lined, sand-filled HESCO containers in order to safely pass predicted worst-case..., but will not necessarily be limited to, the potential impacts on water quality, aquatic and...

  3. Low-watt lamps seen bad in many retrofits: said to burn out pre-1978 standard ballasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, L.

    1982-06-21

    The standard ballasts used in early energy-efficient fluorescent lamps are vulnerable to premature burnout. Retrofitting expensive new ballasts will eliminate any savings from the lamps. GTE/Sylvania, Norelco, and Westinghouse acknowledged the problem, while General Electric had no comment. Ballasts made in the last four years have been made compatible with energy-efficient lamps. The vendors claim it is the ballast manufacturers' responsibility to inform users that their product risks early burnout. (DCK)

  4. Operational Art in the Campaign of Stephen Watts Kearny to Conquer New Mexico and California, 1846-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    achieved the stated political objectives of the United States nearly two months before General Winfield Scott landed at Vera Cruz . Kearny’s pursuit...planning his campaign. He had information from sources in and around Santa Fe that Governor Manuel Armijo could field approximately five thousand men for

  5. Aspects of the winter predator--prey relationship between sauger and threadfin shad in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M.V.; Griffith, J.S.; McLean, R.B.

    1978-04-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of cold-induced mortality and impingement of threadfin shad (Dorsoma petenense) on the food consumption and prey selection of sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and to estimate the ability of sauger to digest meals consumed at low temperatures in winter. Prey selection of sauger was monitored from November 1976 through April 1977. Stomach contents of 536 sauger indicated threadfin provided the entire forage base for sauger through January. Food consumption of sauger was reduced and prey selection shifted to other species after January due to the combined effects of predation, impingement, and natural mortality of cold-stressed threadfin. Threadfin shad of a size available to most sauger were virtually eliminated by February. From February through April some sauger utilized alternate prey species. Laboratory digestion rate studies of sauger indicated digestion of force-fed meals of 4 to 7 g fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) could proceed to 90 percent completion in 54 h at 5 C, 47 hr at 10 C, and 25 hr at 15 C. Conclusions of this study are: (1) that threadfin shad were the most abundant and vulnerable prey species available to and utilized by sauger during the late fall and winter months; (2) extensive mortalities of threadfin due to cold-stress increased sauger predation on four alternate prey species; (3) sauger continued feeding and digesting meals at temperatures between 5 and 15 C every 1 to 3 days; (4) sauger stored excess energy available from threadfin early in the winter as visceral fat which was available later when food consumption was reduced.

  6. Aspects of the winter predator--prey relationship between sauger and threadfin shad in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, M.V.; Griffith, J.S.; McLean, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    This study sought to determine the impact of cold-induced mortality and impingement of threadfin shad (Dorsoma petenense) on the food consumption and prey selection of sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and to estimate the ability of sauger to digest meals consumed at low temperatures in winter. Prey selection of sauger was monitored from November 1976 through April 1977. Stomach contents of 536 sauger indicated threadfin provided the entire forage base for sauger through January. Food consumption of sauger was reduced and prey selection shifted to other species after January due to the combined effects of predation, impingement, and natural mortality of cold-stressed threadfin. Threadfin shad of a size available to most sauger were virtually eliminated by February. From February through April some sauger utilized alternate prey species. Laboratory digestion rate studies of sauger indicated digestion of force-fed meals of 4 to 7 g fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) could proceed to 90 percent completion in 54 h at 5 C, 47 hr at 10 C, and 25 hr at 15 C. Conclusions of this study are: (1) that threadfin shad were the most abundant and vulnerable prey species available to and utilized by sauger during the late fall and winter months; (2) extensive mortalities of threadfin due to cold-stress increased sauger predation on four alternate prey species; (3) sauger continued feeding and digesting meals at temperatures between 5 and 15 C every 1 to 3 days; (4) sauger stored excess energy available from threadfin early in the winter as visceral fat which was available later when food consumption was reduced

  7. A 10kWatt 36GHz Solid-State Power Amplifier using GaN-on-Diamond, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase-I SBIR proposal proposes for the first time ever, the use of a new class of materials - Gallium Nitride-on-diamond - in the manufacture of very high...

  8. Multi-hundred watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator program. Annual report, 1 January 1974--31 December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant events, activities and achievements on the MHW-RTG program during the calendar year Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1974 are summarized. It is primarily concerned with work performed for the Atomic Energy Commission (now Energy Research and Development Administration) on Lincoln Laboratory's LES 8/9 Program, but includes some of the effort on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mariner-Jupiter Saturn Program, because much of the work is applicable to both programs

  9. Safety-analysis report for packaging (SARP) general-purpose heat-source module 750-Watt shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, M.A.; Burgan, C.E.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Zocher, R.W.; Bronisz, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Extensive tests and evaluations were performed to show that the container will function effectively with respect to all required standards and when subjected to normal transportation conditions and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion). In addition, a steady state temperature profile and radiation profile were measured using two heat sources that very closely resemble the GPHS. This gave an excellent representation of the GPHS temperature and radiation profile. A nuclear criticality safety analysis determined that all safety requirements are met

  10. High Watts per Kilogram - Advanced Integration and Heat Management solar array technology (HaWK-AIHM ), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Small satellite architectures have become a desirable low cost alternative to larger heritage spacecraft for advanced scientific missions. Unfortunately, the...

  11. 75 FR 66797 - Watts Regulator, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Employment Control, D/B/A Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Employment Control, D/B/A Employment Staffing, Inc., Spindale, NC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with... a Certification of Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on May 27, 2010, applicable...

  12. 76 FR 61749 - SpectraWatt, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services Hopewell Junction, NY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... to the production of solar cells for their application in solar panels. The worker group includes on..., during the period of investigation, imports of articles like or directly competitive with solar cells produced by the subject firm have increased, and that the increased imports of solar cells (or like or...

  13. 78 FR 68331 - Energy Conservation Program: Request for Exclusion of 100 Watt R20 Short Incandescent Reflector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... attempt to replace the same lamp that was previously installed. It is not typical consumer behavior to... energy conservation standards for certain commercial and industrial equipment and various consumer... Characteristics in Substitutes 1. Improved R20 Short Lamp 2. 60 W PAR16 Lamp 3. LED Lamps 4. Consumer Use of...

  14. Development of a Watt-level gamma-ray source based on high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, D.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.

    2017-07-01

    A high-brilliance (~1022 photon s-1 mm-2 mrad-2 /0.1%) gamma-ray source experiment is currently being planned at Fermilab (Eγ≃1.1 MeV). The source implements a high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering by colliding electron bunches formed in a ~300-MeV superconducting linac with a high-intensity laser pulse. This paper describes the design rationale along with some of technical challenges associated to producing high-repetition-rate collision. The expected performances of the gamma-ray source are also presented.

  15. 75 FR 3945 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes or different types of... impacts to historical and cultural resources. There would be no impact to socioeconomic resources...

  16. 76 FR 55609 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Request for Exclusion of 120 Volt, 100 Watt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... a particular MOL and was specially designed to meet underwater illumination requirements of hot tub.... However, the lamp must also have a wide beam spread to provide diffuse illumination. Further, the lamps... technologies such as compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) or light-emitting diode (LED) could meet spa application...

  17. Watt-level dysprosium fiber laser at 3.15  μm with 73% slope efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R I; Majewski, M R; Bharathan, G; Hudson, D D; Fuerbach, A; Jackson, S D

    2018-04-01

    Rare-earth-doped fiber lasers are emerging as promising high-power mid-infrared sources for the 2.6-3.0 μm and 3.3-3.8 μm regions based on erbium and holmium ions. The intermediate wavelength range, however, remains vastly underserved, despite prospects for important manufacturing and defense applications. Here, we demonstrate the potential of dysprosium-doped fiber to solve this problem, with a simple in-band pumped grating-stabilized linear cavity generating up to 1.06 W at 3.15 μm. A slope efficiency of 73% with respect to launched power (77% relative to absorbed power) is achieved-the highest value for any mid-infrared fiber laser to date, to the best of our knowledge. Opportunities for further power and efficiency scaling are also discussed.

  18. Loss of power output and laser fibre degradation during 120 watt lithium-triborate HPS laser vaporisation of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, Thomas; Sulser, Tullio; Hefermehl, Lukas J.; Strebel, Daniel; Michel, Maurice-Stephan; Müntener, Michael; Meier, Alexander H.; Seifert, Hans-Helge

    2009-02-01

    It has recently been shown that laser fibre deterioration leads to a significant decrease of power output during 80 W potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser vaporisation (LV) of the prostate. This decrease results in inefficient vaporisation especially towards the end of the procedure. For the new 120 W lithium-triborate (LBO) High Performance System (HPS) laser not only higher power but also changes in beam characteristics and improved fibre quality have been advertised. However, high laser power has been identified as a risk factor for laser fibre degradation. Between July and September 2008 25 laser fibres were investigated during routine 120 W LBO-LV in 20 consecutive patients. Laser beam power was measured at baseline and after the application of every 25 kJ during the LV procedure. Postoperatively, the surgeon subjectively rated the performance of the respective fibre on a scale from 1 to 4 (1 indicating perfect and 4 insufficient performance). Additionally, microscopic examination of the fibre tip was performed. Median energy applied was 212 kJ. Changes of power output were similar for all fibres. Typically, a steep decrease of power output within the first 50 kJ was followed by a continuous mild decrease until the end of the procedure. After the application of 50 kJ the median power output was 63% (58-73% interquartile range) of the baseline value. The median power output at the end of the 275 kJ-lifespan of the fibres was 42% (40-47%). The median surgeons' rating of the overall performance of the laser fibres was 2 and the median estimated final decrease of power output 60%. Some degree of degradation at the emission window was microscopically detectable in all cases after the procedure. However, even after the application of 275 kJ, these structural changes were only moderate. Minor degradation of the laser fibre was associated with a significant decrease of power output during 120 W LBO-LV. However, following an early, steep decrease, power output remained relatively constant on a medium level for the rest of the fibre's lifespan. The subjective rating by the surgeons is in accordance with these findings. Improved properties of the LBO laser and enhanced fibre quality resulted in an only moderate decrease of power output which allowed for a consistently effective performance.

  19. 77 FR 41811 - In the Matter of Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Plant EA-12-021; Confirmatory Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... ADR session mediated by a professional mediator, arranged through Cornell University's Institute on... representative) to digitally sign documents and access the E-Submittal server for any proceeding in which it is... for accessing the E-Submittal server are detailed in NRC's ``Guidance for Electronic Submission...

  20. Future directions in 980-nm pump lasers: submarine deployment to low-cost watt-class terrestrial pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgazov, Vadim N.; Jackson, Gordon S.; Lascola, Kevin M.; Major, Jo S.; Parke, Ross; Richard, Tim; Rossin, Victor V.; Zhang, Kai

    1999-09-01

    The demands of global bandwidth and distribution are rising rapidly as Internet usage grows. This fundamentally means that more photons are flowing within optical cables. While transmitting sources launches some optical power, the majority of the optical power that is present within modern telecommunication systems originates from optical amplifiers. In addition, modern optical amplifiers offer flat optical gain over broad wavelength bands, thus making possible dense wavelength de-multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Optical amplifier performance, and by extension the performance of the laser pumps that drive them, is central to the future growth of both optical transmission and distribution systems. Erbium-doped amplifiers currently dominate optical amplifier usage. These amplifiers absorb pump light at 980 nm and/or 1480 nm, and achieve gain at wavelengths around 1550 nm. 980 nm pumps achieve better noise figures and are therefore used for the amplification of small signals. Due to the quantum defect, 1480 nm lasers deliver more signal photon per incident photon. In addition, 1480 nm lasers are less expensive than 980 nm lasers. Thus, 1480 nm pump lasers are used for amplification in situations where noise is not critical. The combination of these traits leads to the situation where many amplifiers contain 980 nm lasers to pump the input section of the Er- doped fiber with 1480 nm lasers being used to pump the latter section of Er fiber. This can be thought of as using 980 nm lasers to power an optical pre-amplifier with the power amplification function being pump with 1480 nm radiation. This paper will focus on 980 nm pump lasers and the impact that advances in 980 nm pump technology will have on optical amplification systems. Currently, 980 nm technology is rapidly advancing in two areas, power and reliability. Improving reliability is becoming increasingly important as amplifiers move towards employing more pump lasers and using these pump lasers without redundancy. Since the failure rate allowable for an amplifier is not a function of the number of pumps employed in the amplifier, the allowable failure rate of an individual pump laser is decreasing for next-generation amplifiers. This will lead to specifications for terrestrial pumps well below 1000 FIT, and may lead to the case where high power amplifiers need laser pump reliability to approach 100 FIT. In addition, 980 nm laser diodes are now being deployed in submarine systems where failure rates lower than 100 FIT are commonly specified. It is obvious that both terrestrial and submarine markets are pushing allowable failure rates for pumps for optical amplifiers to continually decrease. A second push for improvement is in the output power of 980 nm pump modules. There exist a number of motivations for increasing the output power of pump lasers. First, each additional channel in a DWDM system requires additional power. To first order, a doubling in channel count implies a doubling in pump power. Second, larger amplifiers require multiple pumps. Higher output power from pump modules allows for fewer pumps, less complicated control systems and smaller size amplifiers. The discussion of this paper will focus on how current development progress of 980 nm laser diodes addresses these issues: better reliability and higher output powers.

  1. The Institutional Anchoring of Social Media Venues as Arenas for Local Political Communication. Perceptions by Voters and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Segaard, Signe Bock

    2017-01-01

    The article explores social media as institutions for political communication between voters and politicians. While observers have focused on the political use of social media when exploring their democratic potential, little is known about the users’ perceptions of these media. But as institutions are more than just behavior – they are also about formal as well as informal rules, norms and understandings – these perceptions could well be important to understanding the institutional anchoring...

  2. For a Green Stadium: Economic Feasibility of Sustainable Renewable Electricity Generation at the Jeju World Cup Venue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the 2002 FIFA World Cup in South Korea and Japan, the local governments of South Korea were left in charge of several large-scale soccer stadiums. Although these governments have made significant efforts toward creating profits from the stadiums, it is proving to be too difficult for several administrations to cover their full operational, maintenance, and conservation costs. In order to overcome this problem, one of the governments, Seogwipo City, which owns Jeju World Cup Stadium (JWCS, is attempting to provide an independent renewable electricity generation system for the operation of the stadium. The current study therefore examines potential configurations of an independent renewable electricity generation system for JWCS, using HOMER software. The simulation results yield three optimal system configurations with a renewable fraction of 1.00 and relatively low values for the cost of energy ($0.405, $0.546, and $0.692 per kWh. Through the examination of these three possible optimal configurations, the implications and limitations of the current study are presented.

  3. Assessing the Quality of a Local Authority Conference and Hospitality Venue Using the ServQual Model

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly Mike; White Edward P

    2014-01-01

    The close attention paid to service quality by successful private companies has become part of the environment within which most public service organizations now operate. The ServQual model has been used with success to help companies quantify customers' expectations and perceptions of their service and to use this analysis as the basis for improvement. More recently, the ServQual approach has been applied in public service contexts with mixed reliability and validity. This paper reports on t...

  4. Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James

    2004-09-01

    How do the concentrations of indoor air pollutants known to increase risk of respiratory disease, cancer, heart disease, and stroke change after a smoke-free workplace law? Real-time measurements were made of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in a casino, six bars, and a pool hall before and after a smoking ban. Secondhand smoke contributed 90% to 95% of the RSP air pollution during smoking, and 85% to 95% of the carcinogenic PPAH, greatly exceeding levels of these contaminants encountered on major truck highways and polluted city streets. This air-quality survey demonstrates conclusively that the health of hospitality workers and patrons is endangered by tobacco smoke pollution. Smoke-free workplace laws eliminate that hazard and provide health protection impossible to achieve through ventilation or air cleaning.

  5. Utah Valley University Field Station at Capitol Reef National Park: A Venue for Improved Student Learning and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K.; Schultz, M.; Williams, B.; Gay, J.; Johnson, S.; Dunn, P.

    2015-12-01

    The unique geo-environment offered in Capitol Reef National Park and its surrounding areas has a long-standing history of inspiring geological scientific exploration. The Capitol Reef Field Station was established in 2008 as part of collaboration between the National Park and Utah Valley University in order to support teaching and research of the natural environment found within the park and on the Colorado Plateau. The facility itself situated deep within the park, well off any public road system offers state of the art alternative energy and sustainable construction and makes extensive use of passive heating and cooling, in order to maintain its status of being "off-grid." The field station is a 6200 square foot complex of classrooms and dormitories supporting university level education and field studies of the Colorado Plateau. The complex includes a classroom and dining area, professional kitchen, and two separate dormitories, which can sleep up to 24 overnight visitors, while the daytime usage can accommodate up to 40 visitors. The vision of the facility is to support teaching and research toward responsible, respectful, and sustainable stewardship of the natural world - including Interdisciplinary learning between arts and sciences Student internships and service learning in collaboration with the National Park Service Field-based scientific research (as well as inventorying and assessing Park ecosystems changes) Field training in scientific research Collaboration between National Park Service scientists and local, regional, and national institutions The park is situated at 38°N 249°E at elevations greater than 2000 m in Southern Utah. In contrast to the more famous neighboring sister parks such as Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks, which are in relatively close proximity to large road systems and cities, Capitol Reef offers what is believed to be the darkest night sky in the US. The culmination of features creates an ideal location for studies of the faint upper atmospheric airglow emissions. This presentation details the upper atmospheric undergraduate educational program at UVU, and will also include a section regarding the newly established interdisciplinary air pollution educational program, and how communities outside of UVU can use the facility.

  6. The UN, National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs), and Regional Networks: : New Venues for raising LGBT Issues in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The UN is increasingly a place where a critical discussion about human rights and sexual orientation and identity is taking place. An important institutional component of the UN system of protection of human rights is the creation of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs). These NHRIs are funded

  7. Heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV infection risks in the context of alcohol serving venues, Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Kate B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most efficient sexual behavior for HIV transmission is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. However, it is unclear what role heterosexual unprotected anal sex is playing in the world's worst HIV epidemics of southern Africa. The objective is to examine the prevalence of heterosexual unprotected anal intercourse among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens in South Africa. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were collected from a convenience sample of 5037 patrons of 10 shebeens in a peri-urban township of Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses concentrated on establishing the rates of unprotected anal intercourse practiced by men and women as well as the factors associated with practicing anal intercourse. Results We found that 15% of men and 11% of women reported anal intercourse in the previous month, with 8% of men and 7% of women practicing any unprotected anal intercourse. Multiple logistic regression showed that younger age, having primary and casual sex partners, and meeting sex partners at shebeens were independently associated with engaging in anal intercourse. Mathematical modeling showed that individual risks are significantly impacted by anal intercourse but probably not to the degree needed to drive a generalized HIV epidemic. Conclusions Anal intercourse likely plays a significant role in HIV infections among a small minority of South Africans who patronize alcohol serving establishments. Heterosexual anal intercourse, the most risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission, should not be ignored in HIV prevention for South African heterosexuals. However, this relatively infrequent behavior should not become the focus of prevention efforts.

  8. Zrození Venuše na zimní Olympiádě roku 2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobalová, Sylva

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2006), s. 8-11 ISSN 0862-612X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Sandro Botticelli * Birth of Venus * renaissance festival Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    volume method. The parabolic and hyperbolic problem can be solved separately by operator-splitting. The resulting system of linear equations is solved by the algebraic multigrid library SAMG, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing, Germany. CSMP++ is developed at Montan University of Leoben, ETH Zuerich, Imperial College London and Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. This study examines barometric pumping-driven subsurface transport of Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133, Xe-131m including I-131, I-133 and I-135 on arrival times and isotopic activity ratios. This work was funded by the CTBTO Research Award for Young Scientist and Engineers (2013).

  10. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    : Heriot-Watt University 4 Nov: Strathclyde University 17 Nov: York University 24 Nov: Bristol University 1 Dec: Open University 7 Dec: Kent University 14 Dec: Cardiff University 15 Dec: University of Wales, Swansea 24 Jan: Reading University 10 Feb: Abingdon School 16 Feb: Plymouth University 2 Mar: Sheffield University 7 Mar: CLRC Daresbury Laboratory 8 Mar: Liverpool University 9 Mar: Manchester 10 Mar: Lancaster University 15 Mar: Surrey University 16 Mar: Brighton University 17 Mar: St Vincent College, Gosport 22 Mar: Leeds University 23 Mar: Loughborough Grammar School 24 Mar: Oakham School 30 Mar: St Peter's School, Wolverhampton 18 May: University of Hertfordshire 11 Jul: Science Museum 12 Jul: Royal Institution The assistance of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, CLRC Daresbury Laboratory and DERA Malvern is acknowledged in staging this year's events. Courses, lectures and competitions `Physics in perspective', the study course for sixth-formers and college students, will take place in London on 6 - 8 February 2000, offering insights into many different aspects of physics. The programme commences during the afternoon of Sunday 6 February at King's College London with a Balloon debate, followed by Brian O'Rourke's talk on the `Physics of Formula 1 cars'. On Monday 7 February at the Royal Institution, John Avison (former Honorary Editor of Physics Education) will develop the `Thinking physics' theme by presenting the audience with varied topics in an unusual and challenging way. The second talk of the afternoon, by Professor Roy Sambles, will cover `Lasers, light and liquid crystals'. On the final day (Tuesday 8 February), again at the Royal Institution, Sara Ellison will lead the audience in `Heavenly pursuits', whilst later Dr Colin Wright will entertain with `Juggling - theory and practice'. Futher information and bookings for the course can be made by contacting Mrs Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH

  11. 120 watt continuous wave solar-pumped laser with a liquid light-guide lens and an Nd:YAG rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T H; Ohkubo, T; Yabe, T; Kuboyama, H

    2012-07-01

    We propose a simple and efficient pumping approach for a high-power solar-pumped laser by using a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL) and a hybrid pumping cavity. A 2×2 m Fresnel lens is used as a primary concentrator to collect natural sunlight; 120 W cw laser power and a 4.3% total slope efficiency are achieved with a 6-mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a 14-mm diameter LLGL. The corresponded collection efficiency is 30.0 W/m(2), which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. This result is unexpectedly better than that of Cr:Nd:YAG ceramics. It is because the scattering coefficient of Cr:Nd:YAG ceramics is 0.004cm(1), which is 2 times larger than that of the Nd:YAG crystal, although both have similar saturation gains.

  12. Fast ignition realization experiment with high-contrast kilo-joule peta-watt LFEX laser and strong external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Kojima, Sadaoki; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Sawada, Hiroshi; Lee, Seung Ho; Shiroto, Takashi; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Morace, Alessio; Vaisseau, Xavier; Sakata, Shohei; Abe, Yuki; Matsuo, Kazuki; Farley Law, King Fai; Tosaki, Shota; Yogo, Akifumi; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Zhang, Zhe; Sunahara, Atsushi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Mima, Kunioki; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Yamanoi, Kohei; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Tokita, Shigeki; Nakata, Yoshiki; Kawanaka, Junji; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kotaro; Bailly-Grandvaux, Mathieu; Bellei, Claudio; Santos, João Jorge; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    A petawatt laser for fast ignition experiments (LFEX) laser system [N. Miyanaga et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 81 (2006)], which is currently capable of delivering 2 kJ in a 1.5 ps pulse using 4 laser beams, has been constructed beside the GEKKO-XII laser facility for demonstrating efficient fast heating of a dense plasma up to the ignition temperature under the auspices of the Fast Ignition Realization EXperiment (FIREX) project [H. Azechi et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104024 (2009)]. In the FIREX experiment, a cone is attached to a spherical target containing a fuel to prevent a corona plasma from entering the path of the intense heating LFEX laser beams. The LFEX laser beams are focused at the tip of the cone to generate a relativistic electron beam (REB), which heats a dense fuel core generated by compression of a spherical deuterized plastic target induced by the GEKKO-XII laser beams. Recent studies indicate that the current heating efficiency is only 0.4%, and three requirements to achieve higher efficiency of the fast ignition (FI) scheme with the current GEKKO and LFEX systems have been identified: (i) reduction of the high energy tail of the REB; (ii) formation of a fuel core with high areal density using a limited number (twelve) of GEKKO-XII laser beams as well as a limited energy (4 kJ of 0.53-μm light in a 1.3 ns pulse); (iii) guiding and focusing of the REB to the fuel core. Laser-plasma interactions in a long-scale plasma generate electrons that are too energetic to efficiently heat the fuel core. Three actions were taken to meet the first requirement. First, the intensity contrast of the foot pulses to the main pulses of the LFEX was improved to >109. Second, a 5.5-mm-long cone was introduced to reduce pre-heating of the inner cone wall caused by illumination of the unconverted 1.053-μm light of implosion beam (GEKKO-XII). Third, the outside of the cone wall was coated with a 40-μm plastic layer to protect it from the pressure caused by imploding plasma. Following the above improvements, conversion of 13% of the LFEX laser energy to a low energy portion of the REB, whose slope temperature is 0.7 MeV, which is close to the ponderomotive scaling value, was achieved. To meet the second requirement, the compression of a solid spherical ball with a diameter of 200-μm to form a dense core with an areal density of ˜0.07 g/cm2 was induced by a laser-driven spherically converging shock wave. Converging shock compression is more hydrodynamically stable compared to shell implosion, while a hot spot cannot be generated with a solid ball target. Solid ball compression is preferable also for compressing an external magnetic field to collimate the REB to the fuel core, due to the relatively small magnetic Reynolds number of the shock compressed region. To meet the third requirement, we have generated a strong kilo-tesla magnetic field using a laser-driven capacitor-coil target. The strength and time history of the magnetic field were characterized with proton deflectometry and a B-dot probe. Guidance of the REB using a 0.6-kT field in a planar geometry has been demonstrated at the LULI 2000 laser facility. In a realistic FI scenario, a magnetic mirror is formed between the REB generation point and the fuel core. The effects of the strong magnetic field on not only REB transport but also plasma compression were studied using numerical simulations. According to the transport calculations, the heating efficiency can be improved from 0.4% to 4% by the GEKKO and LFEX laser system by meeting the three requirements described above. This efficiency is scalable to 10% of the heating efficiency by increasing the areal density of the fuel core.

  13. IEEE Computer Society/Software Engineering Institute Watts S. Humphrey Software Process Achievement Award 2016: Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems Design for Six Sigma Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    worldwide • $23 billion in sales for 2015 Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems (IDS) is one of five businesses within Raytheon Company and is headquartered...Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems DFSS team has developed and implemented numerous leading-edge improvement and optimization methodologies resulting in...our software systems . In this section, we explain the first methodology, the application of statistical test optimization (STO) using Design of

  14. Watt-level widely tunable single-mode emission by injection-locking of a multimode Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Paul; Piccardo, Marco; Anand, Sajant; Mejia, Enrique A.; Wang, Yongrui; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Xie, Feng; Lascola, Kevin; Belyanin, Alexey; Capasso, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Free-running Fabry-Perot lasers normally operate in a single-mode regime until the pumping current is increased beyond the single-mode instability threshold, above which they evolve into a multimode state. As a result of this instability, the single-mode operation of these lasers is typically constrained to few percents of their output power range, this being an undesired limitation in spectroscopy applications. In order to expand the span of single-mode operation, we use an optical injection seed generated by an external-cavity single-mode laser source to force the Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser into a single-mode state in the high current range, where it would otherwise operate in a multimode regime. Utilizing this approach, we achieve single-mode emission at room temperature with a tuning range of 36 cm-1 and stable continuous-wave output power exceeding 1 W at 4.5 μm. Far-field measurements show that a single transverse mode is emitted up to the highest optical power, indicating that the beam properties of the seeded Fabry-Perot laser remain unchanged as compared to free-running operation.

  15. Focusing of undulator light at SPEAR with a lacquer-coated mirror to power densities of 10/sup 9/ watts/cm/sup 2/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Csonka, P.; Kilic, H.; Watanabe, H.; Fuller, A.; Beck, M.; Toor, A.; Underwood, J.; Catura, R.

    1987-01-01

    A lacquer-coated, diamond turned Cu ellipsoid has been used to micro-focus undulator light from Beam Line V at SPEAR down to a half-power diameter of about 13 microns. This spot was source-size limited, as has been demonstrated with ray tracings of the optical system. The symmetry of the image, as well as its size and power density, clearly make this optic ideal for many soft x-ray applications, in particular for x-ray microscopy, microprobes, and for pumping soft x-ray transitions in various media

  16. RANCANG BANGUN SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLER MENGGUNAKAN SYNCRONOUS NON-INVERTING BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER PADA PANEL SURYA 50 WATT PEAK (WP) BERBASIS ARDUINO NANO V3.0

    OpenAIRE

    Mahrubi, Irfan; Bintoro, Jusuf; Djatmiko, Wisnu

    2018-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang bangun rangkaian synchronous non-inverting buck-boost converter (SNIBBC) untuk solar charge controller guna melakukan manajemen pengisian baterai dan manajemen beban dengan menggunakan Arduino Nano V3.0 ATMega 328. Rancang bangun rangkaian synchronous non-inverting buck-boost converter (SNIBBC) menggunakan empat mosfet yang bekerja secara saling singkron dengan dikontrol oleh pulsa PWM dari Timer1 arduino nano V3.0 ATMega 328 dengan frekuensi 10KHz men...

  17. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2: Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Additional information is presented concerning the seismic and dynamic qualification of Seismic Category 1 mechanical and electrical equipment; steam generators; physical security plan; and report to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

  18. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, Tennessee Valley Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste system; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analysis; and quality assurance

  19. Development and evaluation of a solid oral dosage form for an artesunate and mefloquine drug combination / Abel Hermanus van der Watt

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Watt, Abel Hermanus

    2014-01-01

    Malaria affects about forty percent of the world’s population. Annually more than 1.5 million fatalities due to malaria occur and parasite resistance to existing antimalarial drugs such as mefloquine has already reached disturbingly high levels in South-East Asia and on the African continent. Consequently, there is a dire need for new drugs or formulations in the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Artesunate, an artemisinin derivative, represents a new category of antimalarials that is eff...

  20. Self-mode-locking operation of a diode-end-pumped Tm:YAP laser with watt-level output power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Zhang, Xinlu; Huang, Jinjer; Wang, Tianhan; Dai, Junfeng; Dong, Guangzong

    2018-03-01

    We report on a high power continuous wave (CW) self-mode-locked Tm:YAP laser pumped by a 792 nm laser diode. Without any additional mode-locking elements in the cavity, stable and self-starting mode-locking operation has been realized. The threshold pump power of the CW self-mode-locked Tm:YAP laser is only 5.4 W. The maximum average output power is as high as 1.65 W at the pump power of 12 W, with the repetition frequency of 468 MHz and the center wavelength of 1943 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CW self-mode-locked Tm:YAP laser. The experiment results show that the Tm:YAP crystal is a promising gain medium for realizing the high power self-mode-locking operation at 2 µm.