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Sample records for ventral mesencephalon grown

  1. FETAL PORCINE VENTRAL MESENCEPHALON GRAFTS - DISSECTION PROCEDURE AND CELLULAR CHARACTERIZATION IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANROON, WMC; COPRAY, JCVM; HOGENESCH, RI; KEMA, [No Value; MEYER, EM; MOLENAAR, G; LUGARD, C; STAAL, MJ; GO, KG

    The objective of this study was to develop an optimal dissection procedure for fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon (VM) grafts and to characterize the cellular composition of such an explant, in particular with respect to the dopaminergic and GABAergic components. We have used a monolayer cell

  2. Fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon graft. Determination of the optimal gestational age for implantation in Parkinsonian patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, RI; Koopmans, J; Copray, JCVM; van Roon, WMC; Kema, [No Value; Molenaar, G; Go, KG; Staal, MJ

    Human fetal ventral mesencephalon tissue has been used as dopaminergic striatal implants in Parkinsonian patients, so far with variable effects. Fetuses from animals that breed in large litters, e.g., pigs, have been considered as alternative donors of dopaminergic tissue. The optimal gestational

  3. Rat fetal ventral mesencephalon grown as solid tissue cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglinger, G U; Sautter, J; Meyer, Morten

    1998-01-01

    in vitro (DIV) in the presence or absence (controls) of BDNF [100 ng/ml]. The dopamine content in the culture medium, analyzed by HPLC, was significantly higher (4-5 fold) in the BDNF group at DIV 8 and DIV 12 compared to the corresponding control levels (40 pg/ml). The number of tyrosine hydroxylase...... immunoreactive neurons was significantly higher for BDNF treated cultures (2729+/-300) at DIV 8, as compared to controls (1679+/-217). At DIV 12, the culture volume was significantly increased by BDNF (1.05+/-0.12 vs. 0.71+/-0.04 mm3). Similar results were obtained for total protein. Western blot analysis...... demonstrated increasing signals for GFAP with increasing time in culture, but levels for control and BDNF treated cultures did not differ at any time-point investigated. In conclusion, it is suggested that the time window for effective storage of dopaminergic tissue prior to grafting can be extended by using...

  4. Glutamate stimulation of (/sup 3/H)dopamine release from dissociated cell cultures of rat ventral mesencephalon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, H.; Welner, S.; Quirion, R.; Boksa, P.

    1989-04-01

    In dissociated cell cultures of fetal rat ventral mesencephalon preloaded with (3H)dopamine, glutamate (10(-5)-10(-3) M) stimulated the release of (3H)dopamine. Glutamate stimulation of (3H)dopamine release was Ca2+ dependent and was blocked by the glutamate antagonist, cis-2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid. Glutamate stimulation of (3H)dopamine release was not due to glutamate neurotoxicity because (1) glutamate did not cause release of a cytosolic marker, lactate dehydrogenase, and (2) preincubation of cultures with glutamate did not impair subsequent ability of the cells to take up or release (3H)dopamine. Thus, these dissociated cell cultures appear to provide a good model system to characterize glutamate stimulation of dopamine release. Release of (3H)dopamine from these cultures was stimulated by veratridine, an activator of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels, and this stimulation was blocked by tetrodotoxin. However, glutamate-stimulated (3H)dopamine release was not blocked by tetrodotoxin or Zn2+. Substitution of NaCl in the extracellular medium by sucrose, LiCl, or Na2SO4 had no effect on glutamate stimulation of (3H)dopamine release; however, release was inhibited when NaCl was replaced by choline chloride or N-methyl-D-glucamine HCl. Glutamate-stimulated (3H)-dopamine release was well maintained (60-82% of control) in the presence of Co2+, which blocks Ca2+ action potentials, and was unaffected by the local anesthetic, lidocaine. These results are discussed in terms of the receptor and ionic mechanisms involved in the stimulation of dopamine release by excitatory amino acids.

  5. Effect of leukemia inhibitory factor on long-term propagation of precursor cells derived from rat forebrain subventricular zone and ventral mesencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Zimmer, Jens; Wahlberg, Lars U

    2008-01-01

    propagated and maintained for more than 6 months with a cell population doubling time of 21.5 days. The replacement of EGF by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) resulted in a cell population doubling time of 19.8 days, corresponding to a 10-fold increase in estimated cell numbers over a period of 70 days......Tissue blocks containing neural precursor cells were isolated from the rat forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and ventral mesencephalon (VM) and propagated as neural tissue-spheres (NTS). In the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), SVZ-derived NTS were......, at which point these NTS ceased to grow. In the presence of FGF2 and LIF, VM-derived NTS displayed a cell population doubling time of 24.6 days, which was maintained over a period of more than 200 days. However, when LIF was replaced by EGF, the cell numbers only increased 1.2 fold over 50 days. Using...

  6. Cryopreservation of porcine fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue for intrastriatal transplantation in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, J.; Hogenesch, I.; Copray, S.; Middel, B.; van Dijk, H.; Go, K-G.; Staal, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the efficacy of cryopreserving porcine fetal mesencephalic tissue. After microscopical dissection of the ventral mesencephalon (VM) from E28 pig fetuses, the collection of explants was randomly divided into two equal parts. One part was directly prepared as cell suspension.

  7. A subpopulation of dopaminergic neurons co-expresses serotonin in ventral mesencephalic cultures but not after intrastriatal transplantation in a rat model of Parkinsons disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie; Ducray, Angélique

    2017-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy is a promising avenue into the investigation and treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in some cases significant long-term motor improvements have been demonstrated. The main source of donor tissue is the human fetal ventral mesencephalon (VM), which consists...

  8. Respiratory Neuron Activity in the Mesencephalon, Diencephalon and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Jüch, P.J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The functional properties, localization and connections of neurons with a respiratory-rhythmic firing pattern in the mesencephalon, diencephalon and cerebellum of the carp were studied. Some neurons acquire respiratory rhythm only as a side effect of respiration via sensory stimulation by movements

  9. Ontogenesis of embryonic porcine ventral mesencephalon in the perspective of its potential use as a xenograft in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, GJ; Hogenesch, RI; Sprengers, MES; Staal, MJ

    1997-01-01

    Human fetal neural dopaminergic tissue can be transplanted and can ameliorate neurological deficiencies in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Donor tissue from other species has been used experimentally for several years in animal experiments and is now being considered an attractive

  10. Hematoencephalic barrier. Ultrastructure and histophysiology of the endothelium capillary of the neuronal nuclei of the mesencephalon

    OpenAIRE

    González Santander, R.; Martínez Cuadrado, G.; González-Santander Martínez, M.; Toledo Lobo, M.V.; Martínez Alonso, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ultrastucture of the dorsal periaqueductal nucleus capillaries of the mesencephalon in the cat was studied under the electron microscope in relation to the hematoencephalic barrier, and its four structural levels: l. Endothelium; 2. Basa1 membrane; 3, Pericytes; and 4. Glial prolongations. An analysis was performed of what occurs in these four components (in a non-experimental histophysiological state, and without manipulation by markers) in the thinnest ...

  11. Neurotropin®inhibits calpain activity upregulated by specific alternation of rhythm in temperature in the mesencephalon of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Hiroki; Numazawa, Takumi; Kawamura, Minoru; Naiki, Mitsuru

    2017-02-15

    Neurotropin® (NTP), an analgesic for chronic pain, has antihyperalgesic effects in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART)-stressed rats. Previous studies have shown that SART stress induces hyperalgesia, as well as post-translational modification of proteins (including substrates for calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease) in the mesencephalon of rats. To better understand the mechanism of action of NTP, we investigated whether SART stress activates calpain in the mesencephalon of rats and whether NTP inhibits this activation. Wistar rats were exposed to SART stress for 5days. NTP (200NU/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally every day from the onset of SART stress. The mechanical pain threshold was measured using the Randall-Selitto test on the 6th day. Thereafter, the rat mesencephalon was immediately collected and calpain activity was examined using western blot analysis with a calpain cleavage site-specific antibody. SART stress induced hyperalgesia and increased the calpain activity in the mesencephalon of rats. In contrast, NTP treatment attenuated the hyperalgesia and prevented the increase in calpain activity in the mesencephalon of SART-stressed rats. Interestingly, a negative correlation was identified between calpain activity and mechanical pain threshold in SART-stressed rats treated with or without NTP. Furthermore, NTP inhibited calpain activity on mammalian uncoordinated-18 in rat mesencephalon homogenate and Ac-LLY-AFC as substrates in an in vitro cell-free system. Our data demonstrate that NTP treatment prevents SART stress-induced calpain activation in the mesencephalon of rats and suggests that NTP-mediated antihyperalgesia is associated with an inhibition of calpain activity in the mesencephalon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro....... Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal...

  13. Expansion and characterization of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells: effect of mitogens and investigation of FA1 as a potential dopaminergic marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Bauer, Matthias; Jensen, Charlotte H

    2007-01-01

    Methods for identification and in vitro expansion of ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic precursor cells are of interest in the search for transplantable neurons for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the potential use of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and fibroblast growth...... factor 8 (FGF8) for expansion of such dopaminergic precursor cells, and fetal antigen-1 (FA1), a secreted neuronal protein of unknown function, as a non-invasive dopaminergic marker. Tissue from embryonic day (ED) 12 rat ventral mesencephalon was dissociated mechanically and cultured for 4 days...... in the presence of FGF2, FGF8, or without mitogens (control). After mitogen withdrawal and addition of 0.5% bovine serum, cells were differentiated for 6 days. Before differentiation, significantly more cells incorporated BrdU in cultures exposed to FGF2 (19-fold; P

  14. Ventral Abdominal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old Caucasian female patient presented with redness of the both foot and lower legs, as well as edema of the left lower leg, accompanied by subjective complaints of burning. Fever was not reported. Well-circumscribed oval shaped tumor formation was revealed also on the abdominal wall, with hyperpigmented and depigmented areas on its ulcerated surface, measuring approximately 10/10cm in diameter, with soft-elastic texture on palpation.  The lesion occurred in 2011, according to the patient’s history. No subjective complaints were reported in association. The performed ultrasonography revealed intestinal loops in the hernial sac, without incarceration. The diagnosis of ventral abdominal hernia without mechanical ileus was made. The patient was referred for planned surgical procedure, because of her refusal on this stage.The clinical manifestation of the tumor formation on the abdominal wall, required wide spectrum of differential diagnosis, including aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, abdominal tumor, subcutaneous tumor or metastasis or hernia. In the presented cases, the abdominal wall mass was a sporadic clinical finding in the framework of the total-body skin examination in patient with erysipelas. The lack of subjective symptoms, as well as the reported history for hysterectomy and previously abscessus were not enough indicative symptoms for the correct diagnosis. The diagnosis of non-complicated hernia was made via ultrasonography, while the clinical differentiation between hernia and other life-threatening conditions as aneurysms or tumor was not possible.

  15. The Danish ventral hernia database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation...... of operations and is an excellent tool for observing changes over time, including adjustment of several confounders. This national database registry has impacted on clinical practice in Denmark and led to a high number of scientific publications in recent years....

  16. Ventral pallidum roles in reward and motivation.

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    Smith, Kyle S; Tindell, Amy J; Aldridge, J Wayne; Berridge, Kent C

    2009-01-23

    In recent years the ventral pallidum has become a focus of great research interest as a mechanism of reward and incentive motivation. As a major output for limbic signals, the ventral pallidum was once associated primarily with motor functions rather than regarded as a reward structure in its own right. However, ample evidence now suggests that ventral pallidum function is a major mechanism of reward in the brain. We review data indicating that (1) an intact ventral pallidum is necessary for normal reward and motivation, (2) stimulated activation of ventral pallidum is sufficient to cause reward and motivation enhancements, and (3) activation patterns in ventral pallidum neurons specifically encode reward and motivation signals via phasic bursts of excitation to incentive and hedonic stimuli. We conclude that the ventral pallidum may serve as an important 'limbic final common pathway' for mesocorticolimbic processing of many rewards.

  17. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

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    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T.; Seiz, Emma G.; Ramos, Milagros [Center of Molecular Biology ' Severo Ochoa' , Autonomous University of Madrid-C.S.I.C., Campus Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain); Meyer, Morten [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 21,st, DK-500, Odense C (Denmark); Juliusson, Bengt; Kusk, Philip [NsGene A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Martinez-Serrano, Alberto, E-mail: amserrano@cbm.uam.es [Center of Molecular Biology ' Severo Ochoa' , Autonomous University of Madrid-C.S.I.C., Campus Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro. Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal of growth factors, proliferation and expression of v-myc were dramatically reduced and the cells differentiated into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. hVM1 cells yield a large number of dopaminergic neurons (about 12% of total cells are TH{sup +}) after differentiation, which also produce dopamine. In addition to proneural genes (NGN2, MASH1), differentiated cells show expression of several genuine mesencephalic dopaminergic markers such as: LMX1A, LMX1B, GIRK2, ADH2, NURR1, PITX3, VMAT2 and DAT, indicating that they retain their regional identity. Our data indicate that this cell line and its clonal derivatives may constitute good candidates for the study of development and physiology of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro, and to develop tools for Parkinson's disease cell replacement preclinical research and drug testing.

  18. Clonal human fetal ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron precursors for cell therapy research.

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    Tania Ramos-Moreno

    Full Text Available A major challenge for further development of drug screening procedures, cell replacement therapies and developmental studies is the identification of expandable human stem cells able to generate the cell types needed. We have previously reported the generation of an immortalized polyclonal neural stem cell (NSC line derived from the human fetal ventral mesencephalon (hVM1. This line has been biochemically, genetically, immunocytochemically and electrophysiologically characterized to document its usefulness as a model system for the generation of A9 dopaminergic neurons (DAn. Long-term in vivo transplantation studies in parkinsonian rats showed that the grafts do not mature evenly. We reasoned that diverse clones in the hVM1 line might have different abilities to differentiate. In the present study, we have analyzed 9 hVM1 clones selected on the basis of their TH generation potential and, based on the number of v-myc copies, v-myc down-regulation after in vitro differentiation, in vivo cell cycle exit, TH⁺ neuron generation and expression of a neuronal mature marker (hNSE, we selected two clones for further in vivo PD cell replacement studies. The conclusion is that homogeneity and clonality of characterized NSCs allow transplantation of cells with controlled properties, which should help in the design of long-term in vivo experiments.

  19. Survival, differentiation, and connectivity of ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons following transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lachlan; Björklund, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The reconstruction of midbrain dopamine (DA) circuitry through intracerebral transplantation of new DA neurons contained in embryonic ventral mesencephalon (VM) is a promising therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the early open-label trials have provided proof-of-principal that VM grafts can provide sustained improvement of motor function in some patients, subsequent trials showed that the functional response can be highly variable. This chapter reviews an extensive body of basic and clinical research on the survival, differentiation, and connectivity of DA neurons in VM grafts, and also looks at how these parameters are affected by certain host- and donor-specific variables. We also review how technical advances in the tools available to study the integration of grafted DA neurons, such as transgenic reporter mice, have made significant contributions to our understanding of the capacity of different DA neuronal subtypes for target-directed growth and innervation of appropriate host brain structures. Our established and on-going understanding of the capacity of grafted DA neurons to structurally and functionally integrate following transplantation forms an important basis for the refinement and optimization of VM grafting procedures, and also the development of new procedures based on the use of stem cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Laparoscopic Ventral and Incisional Hernia Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ventral and incisional hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed operations in daily surgical practice. Laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair (LVIHR) is gaining increasing adoption in surgical practice. It has theoretical advantages but improvements in technique can still be

  1. Primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, Erling; Bay-Nielsen, M; Jensen, K K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence, management, and risk of emergency operation for primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy and the potential risks for elective and emergency repair...... was conducted to identify patients registered with a primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy. Follow-up was conducted by review of medical record notes within the Capital Region of Denmark supplemented with structured telephone interviews on indication. RESULTS: In total, 20,714 pregnant women were...... included in the study cohort. Seventeen (0.08%) and 25 (0.12%) women were registered with a primary ventral and groin hernia, respectively. None underwent elective or emergency repair in pregnancy, and all had uncomplicated childbirth. In 10 women, the groin bulge disappeared spontaneously after delivery...

  2. Cell fate analysis of embryonic ventral mesencephalic grafts in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Sonya Carvalho Neto

    Full Text Available Evidence from carefully conducted open label clinical trials suggested that therapeutic benefit can be achieved by grafting fetal dopaminergic (DAergic neurons derived from ventral mesencephalon (VM into the denervated striatum of Parkinson's disease (PD patients. However, two double-blind trials generated negative results reporting deleterious side effects such as prominent dyskinesias. Heterogeneous composition of VM grafts is likely to account for suboptimal clinical efficacy.We consider that gene expression patterns of the VM tissue needs to be better understood by comparing the genetic signature of the surviving and functioning grafts with the cell suspensions used for transplantation. In addition, it is crucial to assess whether the grafted cells exhibit the DAergic phenotype of adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc. To investigate this further, we used a GFP reporter mouse as source of VM tissue that enabled the detection and dissection of the grafts 6 weeks post implantation. A comparative gene expression analysis of the VM cell suspension and grafts revealed that VM grafts continue to differentiate post-implantation. In addition, implanted grafts showed a mature SNpc-like molecular DAergic phenotype with similar expression levels of TH, Vmat2 and Dat. However, by comparing gene expression of the adult SNpc with dissected grafts we detected a higher expression of progenitor markers in the grafts. Finally, when compared to the VM cell suspension, post-grafting there was a higher expression of markers inherent to glia and other neuronal populations.In summary, our data highlight the dynamic development of distinctive DAergic and non-DAergic gene expression markers associated with the maturation of VM grafts in vivo. The molecular signature of VM grafts and its functional relevance should be further explored in future studies aimed at the optimization of DAergic cell therapy approaches in PD.

  3. The human substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. A neuroanatomical study with notes on aging and aging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Domburg, P H; ten Donkelaar, H J

    1991-01-01

    The present study comprises a cytoarchitectonic analysis of the human substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA); a discussion of their chemoarchitecture and fiber connections (mainly based on tract-tracing studies in primates) preceded by an overview of the wealth of tract-tracing data in rodents; a discussion of the involvement of the SN/VTA complex in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders and in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including some quantitative data; and finally, some functional and pathophysiological considerations, relating nigral organization to pathophysiology and hypotheses on the etiology and distribution of AD and PD. DAergic cell populations in the mesencephalon (SN pars compacta, VTA, and the retrorubral area A8) which give rise to well-developed, DAergic, mesotelencephalic pathways, including a distinct mesostriatal system, and a substance P-immunoreactive striatotegmental system which projects to the SN pars reticulata and VTA appear to be common to reptiles, birds, and mammals (Sect. 3.1). The extensive literature on the organization of the SN/VTA complex in rats is summarized in Sect. 3.2. The mesotelencephalic projection is organized along inverted dorsal to ventral, medial to lateral, and rostral to caudal topographies. A dense DAergic innervation is characteristic of the entire striatal complex, including the caudate-putamen (the dorsal striatum), the nucleus accumbens, and the olfactory tubercle (the ventral striatum). This mesostriatal projection is compartmentally organized with distinct sets of DAergic neurons projecting to striosomes and extrasriosomal matrix, respectively, suggesting specialized channels directed at DAergic modulation of sensorimotor processing in the striatal matrix and limbic related mechanisms represented in the striosomal system. The VTA and medial part of the SN give rise to the DAergic mesolimbocortical system with extensive projections to limbic, allocortical, and neocortical structures. The

  4. Laceration of the muscle ventral serrato

    OpenAIRE

    Dragonetti, Ana María; Boccia, Francisco Osvaldo; Luna, M. M.; Leone, F.

    2005-01-01

    La presentación es informar al profesional veterinario sobre el desgarro bilateral del músculo serrato ventral, una afección de escasa incidencia en la clínica de pequeños animales, a través de la descripción detallada de un caso clínico y su resolución quirúrgica exitosa. The presentation of the work has as objective to inform the veterinary professional on an affection of scarce incidence in the clinic of the small animals, like is the bilateral laceration of the muscle ventral serrato, ...

  5. Dorsal and Ventral Pathways for Prosody.

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    Sammler, Daniela; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Anwander, Alfred; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Belin, Pascal

    2015-12-07

    Our vocal tone--the prosody--contributes a lot to the meaning of speech beyond the actual words. Indeed, the hesitant tone of a "yes" may be more telling than its affirmative lexical meaning. The human brain contains dorsal and ventral processing streams in the left hemisphere that underlie core linguistic abilities such as phonology, syntax, and semantics. Whether or not prosody--a reportedly right-hemispheric faculty--involves analogous processing streams is a matter of debate. Functional connectivity studies on prosody leave no doubt about the existence of such streams, but opinions diverge on whether information travels along dorsal or ventral pathways. Here we show, with a novel paradigm using audio morphing combined with multimodal neuroimaging and brain stimulation, that prosody perception takes dual routes along dorsal and ventral pathways in the right hemisphere. In experiment 1, categorization of speech stimuli that gradually varied in their prosodic pitch contour (between statement and question) involved (1) an auditory ventral pathway along the superior temporal lobe and (2) auditory-motor dorsal pathways connecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal/premotor areas. In experiment 2, inhibitory stimulation of right premotor cortex as a key node of the dorsal stream decreased participants' performance in prosody categorization, arguing for a motor involvement in prosody perception. These data draw a dual-stream picture of prosodic processing that parallels the established left-hemispheric multi-stream architecture of language, but with relative rightward asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ventral-clap modes of hovering passerines

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    Chang, Yu-Hung; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Su, Jian-Yuan; Soong, Chyi-Yeou; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2013-02-01

    Some small birds typically clap their wings ventrally, particularly during hovering. To investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed the kinematic motion and wake flow field of two passerine species that hover with the same flapping frequency. For these two birds, the ventral clap is classified as direct and cupping. Japanese White-eyes undertake a direct clap via their hand wings, whereas Gouldian Finches undertake a cupping clap with one wing overlaying the other. As a result of their morphological limitation, birds of both greater size and wing span cup their wings to increase the wing speed during a ventral clap because of the larger wing loading. This morphological limitation leads also to a structural discrepancy of the wake flow fields between these two passerine species. At the instant of clapping, the direct clap induces a downward air velocity 1.68 times and generates a weight-normalized lift force 1.14 times that for the cupping clap. The direct clap produces a small upward jet and a pair of counter-rotating vortices, both of which abate the transient lift at the instant of clapping, but they are not engendered by the cupping clap. The aerodynamic mechanisms generated with a ventral clap help the small birds to avoid abrupt body swinging at the instant of clapping so as to maintain their visual stability during hovering.

  7. Effects of Forskolin on Trefoil factor 1 expression in cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) belongs to a family of secreted peptides that are mainly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Notably, TFF1 has been suggested to operate as a neuropeptide, however, its specific cellular expression, regulation and function remain largely unknown. We have previously...... shown that TFF1 is expressed in developing and adult rat ventral mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons. Here, we investigated the expression of TFF1 in rat ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (embryonic day 14) grown in culture for 5, 7 or 10days...... in the absence (controls) or presence of either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Forskolin or the combination. No TFF1-ir cells were identified at day 5 and only a few at day 7, whereas TH was markedly expressed at both time points. At day 10, several TFF1-ir cells were detected...

  8. Neuromuscular blockade during laparoscopic ventral herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Roar; Madsen, Matias V; Asadzadeh, Sami

    2015-01-01

    's rating of surgical conditions during suturing, duration of surgery and duration of the suturing of the hernia. CONCLUSION: This randomised cross-over study investigated a potential effect on the surgical workspace in laparoscopic ventral herniotomy using deep NMB compared with no NMB. The study may......INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic herniotomy is the preferred technique for some ventral hernias. Several factors may influence the surgical conditions, one being the depth of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) applied. We hypothesised that deep neuromuscular blockade defined as a post-tetanic count below eight...... would provide a better surgical workspace. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, assessor- and patient-blinded randomised cross-over study. A total of 34 patients with planned laparoscopic umbilical, incisional and linea alba herniotomy were studied. Patients would be randomised to receive deep...

  9. Enhanced recovery after giant ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Brøndum, T L; Harling, H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Giant ventral hernia repair is associated with a high risk of postoperative morbidity and prolonged length of stay (LOS). Enhanced recovery (ERAS) measures have proved to lead to decreased morbidity and LOS after various surgical procedures, but never after giant hernia repair. The current...... study prospectively examined the results of implementation of an ERAS pathway including high-dose preoperative glucocorticoid, and compared the outcome with patients previously treated according to standard care (SC). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent giant ventral hernia repair were included...... was 0.92. There were no differences when comparing readmission (5 vs. 2, P = 0.394), postoperative complications (7 vs. 4, P = 0. 458), or reoperation (5 vs. 1, P = 0.172) in ERAS versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that an ERAS pathway including preoperative high...

  10. Neuromuscular blockade during laparoscopic ventral herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Roar; Madsen, Matias V; Asadzadeh, Sami

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic herniotomy is the preferred technique for some ventral hernias. Several factors may influence the surgical conditions, one being the depth of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) applied. We hypothesised that deep neuromuscular blockade defined as a post-tetanic count below eight......'s rating of surgical conditions during suturing, duration of surgery and duration of the suturing of the hernia. CONCLUSION: This randomised cross-over study investigated a potential effect on the surgical workspace in laparoscopic ventral herniotomy using deep NMB compared with no NMB. The study may...... provide knowledge relevant to other laparoscopic techniques. FUNDING: The study is funded by a research grant from the Investigator Initiated Studies Program of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02247466....

  11. Attentional functions in dorsal and ventral simultanagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, John; Bundesen, Claus; Olson, Andrew; Humphreys, Glyn; Ward, Robert; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; van Raamsdonk, Monique; Rorden, Chris; Chavda, Swarup

    2003-12-01

    Whole report of brief letter arrays is used to analyse basic attentional deficits in dorsal and ventral variants of simultanagnosia. Using Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), a number of previous theoretical suggestions are formalised and tested, including primary deficit in processing more than one display element, attentional stickiness, foveal bias, and global weakness of the visual representation. Interestingly, data from two cases, one dorsal and one ventral, show little true deficit in simultaneous perception, or selective deficit in those TVA parameters (short-term memory capacity, attentional weighting) specifically associated with multi-element displays. Instead there is a general reduction in speed of visual processing (processing rate in TVA), effective even for a single display element but compounded when two or more elements compete.

  12. Ambulatory groin and ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, P; Pélissier, E; Levard, H; Perniceni, T; Denet, C; Gayet, B

    2010-10-01

    Ambulatory surgery is not commonly practiced in France today. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of ambulatory hernia repair in a consecutive series of unselected patients. From June 2008 to October 2009, 257 patients (238 men and 19 women, median age 65 years) were treated in a same-day surgery unit for 270 hernias (244 groin hernias, 25 ventral hernias and one Spiegelian hernia). For groin hernia, the techniques included the totally extraperitoneal repair (TEP) in 108 cases, the transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP) approach in 106 cases and other alternative techniques in 30 cases; for ventral hernias, the technique was an open suture in 20 cases, an open prosthetic repair in four cases and laparoscopic repair in one case. Anesthesia was general in 145 cases, local in 121 cases and spinal in four cases. Repair was completed in a same-day surgery setting in 242 (89.6%) cases; hospital stay greater than 23 hours was planned for 21 (7.8%) patients while non-programmed hospitalizations were necessary for seven (2.6%) patients. There were two (0.7%) readmissions and nine (3.3%) benign postoperative complications. These results suggest that groin and ventral hernia repair can be performed in an outpatient setting in nearly 90% of unselected patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Ventral hernia repair with simultaneous panniculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K C; Weider, L; Fischer, J; Hopkins, J; Antonetti, A; Manders, E K; Dunn, E

    1996-08-01

    The repair of a ventral hernia in an obese patient presents an interesting clinical challenge. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 55 patients who, over a 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, concomitantly underwent both ventral herniorrhaphy and panniculectomy or abdominoplasty. In six of 55 patients, the hernia was recurrent. Forty-six patients had primary abdominal wall hernias or diastasis recti. Nineteen of 55 patients had weight greater than 200 lbs. This last subset of patients had a significantly higher incidence of complications, such as seroma, cellulitis, and persistent wound drainage. In our 55 patients, we experienced only two hernia recurrences (3.6%) during an average patient follow-up of 53 weeks. From this experience, we believe that simultaneous ventral hernia repair and panniculectomy is a safe and efficacious approach to these two problems so commonly found in the obese patient. Patients with a preoperative weight greater than 200 lbs can be expected to have a greater risk of wound complications. In all cases, the wounds eventually healed with no long-term sequelae.

  14. Laparoscopic management of nonmidline ventral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Romesh; Sharma, Deborshi; Hazrah, Priya; Kumar, Pawan; Borgharia, Saurabh; Agarwal, Abhinav

    2014-07-01

    Ventral hernias may be primary or incisional and classified as midline ventral hernias (MVHs) or non-MVHs (NMVHs). NMVHs are rarer, and their laparoscopic management is technically challenging because of varied anatomic locations, differences in patient positioning at time of surgery, and lack of adequate lateral space for mesh fixation, compounded by the proximity of major organs and bony landmarks. A retrospective review of all the NMVHs operated on in a clinical unit is presented. One hundred eighty-three cases met the criteria of ventral hernia, with 25 cases (13.66%) as NMVH. These NMVHs included lumbar (n=5), suprapubic (n=7), iliac (n=10), and subcostal (n=3). Univariate and multivariate analyses were done using SPSS version 19 software (IBM, Armonk, NY). Continuous data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test/t test, and categorical data were analyzed using the chi-squared test. A P value of ≤.05 was considered significant. Demographic profile and presentation were similar in all groups. One case each had seromuscular intestinal injury in the iliac group (P=.668), splenic injury in the lumbar group, and liver injury in the subcostal group (P=.167). In the iliac group there was 1 patient with hematoma (P=.668), whereas seroma was seen in 1 lumbar group patient and 2 iliac group patients (P=.518). Persistent cough impulse was seen in 1 case each in the iliac and lumbar groups (P=.593). One case in the iliac group recurred after primary surgery (P=.668). NMVHs have a similar spectrum of difficulty and complication profile as those of laparoscopic MVH repairs. Laparoscopic repair of a non-midline hernia is technically challenging but definitely feasible. The incidence of complications and recurrence rate might be more than those for MVHs, but its actual validation needs a much larger comparative study having a longer follow-up.

  15. MIECTOMÍA SACROCOCCIGEA VENTRAL EN EQUINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastoby Martínez M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una técnica quirúrgica basada en una incisión pequeña del músculo sacrococcigeo ventral,con el fin de realzar la elegancia del caballo al andar teniendo presente los aspectos bioéticos dela medicina veterinaria. En los animales intervenidos no se presento complicación y se logró elobjetivo, por lo que se propone esta técnica quirúrgica para que sea practicada por los veterianriosdurante su ejercicio profesional.

  16. Complex Ventral Hernias: A Review of Past to Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Charles N; Fowler, Aaron; Al-Temimi, Mohammed H; Ali, Aamna; Johna, Samir; Tessier, Deron

    2018-01-01

    With the incidence of ventral hernias increasing, surgeons are faced with greater complexity in dealing with these conditions. Proper knowledge of the history and the advancements made in managing complex ventral hernias will enhance surgical results. This review article highlights the literature regarding complex ventral hernias, including a shift from a focus that stressed surgical technique toward a multimodal approach, which involves optimization and identification of suboptimal characteristics.

  17. Conceptual size representation in ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2016-01-29

    Recent findings suggest that visual objects may be mapped along the ventral occipitotemporal cortex according to their real-world size (Konkle and Oliva, 2012). It has been argued that such mapping does not reflect an abstract, conceptual size representation, but rather the visual or functional properties associated with small versus big real-world objects. To determine whether a more abstract conceptual size representation may affect visual cortical activation we used meaningless geometrical shapes, devoid of semantic or functional associations, which were associated with specific size representations by virtue of extensive training. Following training, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a conceptual size comparison task on the geometrical shapes. In addition, a size comparison task was conducted for numeral digits denoting small and big numbers. A region-of-interest analysis revealed larger blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses for conceptually 'big' than for conceptually 'small' shapes, as well as for big versus small numbers, within medial (parahippocampal place area, PPA) and lateral (occipital place area, OPA) place-selective regions. Processing of the 'big' visual shapes further elicited enhanced activation in early visual cortex, possibly reflecting top-down projections from PPA. By using arbitrary shapes and numbers we minimized visual, categorical, or functional influences on fMRI measurement, providing evidence for a possible neural mechanism underlying the representation of abstract conceptual size within the ventral visual stream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perinatal asphyxia leads to PARP-1 overactivity, p65 translocation, IL-1β and TNF-α overexpression, and apoptotic-like cell death in mesencephalon of neonatal rats: prevention by systemic neonatal nicotinamide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Peña, T; Rojas-Mancilla, E; Munoz-Vio, V; Perez, R; Gutierrez-Hernandez, M; Bustamante, D; Morales, P; Hermoso, M A; Gebicke-Haerter, P; Herrera-Marschitz, M

    2015-05-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a leading cause of neuronal damage in newborns, resulting in long-term neurological and cognitive deficits, in part due to impairment of mesostriatal and mesolimbic neurocircuitries. The insult can be as severe as to menace the integrity of the genome, triggering the overactivation of sentinel proteins, including poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 overactivation implies increased energy demands, worsening the metabolic failure and depleting further NAD(+) availability. Using a global PA rat model, we report here evidence that hypoxia increases PARP-1 activity, triggering a signalling cascade leading to nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65, modulating the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, pro-inflammatory molecules, increasing apoptotic-like cell death in mesencephalon of neonate rats, monitored with Western blots, qPCR, TUNEL and ELISA. PARP-1 activity increased immediately after PA, reaching a maximum 1-8 h after the insult, while activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway was observed 8 h after the insult, with a >twofold increase of p65 nuclear translocation. IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels were increased 24 h after the insult, together with a >twofold increase in apoptotic-like cell death. A single dose of the PARP-1 inhibitor nicotinamide (0.8 mmol/kg, i.p.), 1 h post delivery, prevented the effect of PA on PARP-1 activity, p65 translocation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptotic-like cell death. The present study demonstrates that PA leads to PARP-1 overactivation, increasing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death in mesencephalon, effects prevented by systemic neonatal nicotinamide administration, supporting the idea that PARP-1 inhibition represents a therapeutic target against the effects of PA.

  19. A vertex model of Drosophila ventral furrow formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Spahn

    Full Text Available Ventral furrow formation in Drosophila is an outstanding model system to study the mechanisms involved in large-scale tissue rearrangements. Ventral cells accumulate myosin at their apical sides and, while being tightly coupled to each other via apical adherens junctions, execute actomyosin contractions that lead to reduction of their apical cell surface. Thereby, a band of constricted cells along the ventral epithelium emerges which will form a tissue indentation along the ventral midline (the ventral furrow. Here we adopt a 2D vertex model to simulate ventral furrow formation in a surface view allowing easy comparison with confocal live-recordings. We show that in order to reproduce furrow morphology seen in vivo, a gradient of contractility must be assumed in the ventral epithelium which renders cells more contractile the closer they lie to the ventral midline. The model predicts previous experimental findings, such as the gain of eccentric morphology of constricting cells and an incremental fashion of apical cell area reduction. Analysis of the model suggests that this incremental area reduction is caused by the dynamical interplay of cell elasticity and stochastic contractility as well as by the opposing forces from contracting neighbour cells. We underpin results from the model through in vivo analysis of ventral furrow formation in wildtype and twi mutant embryos. Our results show that ventral furrow formation can be accomplished as a "tug-of-war" between stochastically contracting, mechanically coupled cells and may require less rigorous regulation than previously thought.For the developmental biologist it is a fascinating question how cells can coordinate major tissue movements during embryonic development. The so-called ventral furrow of the Drosophila embryo is a well-studied example of such a process when cells from a ventral band, spanning nearly the entire length of the embryo, undergo dramatic shape change by contracting their

  20. "Limulus" Psychophysics: Spectral Sensitivity of the Ventral Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Gerald S.

    1976-01-01

    The ventral eye of "Limulus" (horseshoe crab) contains only one type of photoreceptor. Behaviors mediated by the ventral eye provide an unambiguous representation of the function of that single-receptor type. Compares such behaviors with results of acute, single-cell investigations to assay for the contributions of candidate neural codes in the…

  1. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos

  2. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the ongoing role of ventral onlay oral mucosa free graft in the treatment of bulbar urethral stricture. Methods: Detailed review of technical consideration and outcomes from the author's institution along with review of other peer reviewed literature. Results: Of 62 patients undergoing ventral onlay buccal ...

  3. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    increased over time the use of Ventral Graft and decreased the use of dorsal graft [7]. From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach ... seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a similar rate of fistula with both ventral and dorsal grafting. The disadvantage of the dorsal approach is that it ...

  4. Trap-door durotomy for ventral calcified thoracic meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob D. Dickerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventral calcified meningiomas of the upper thoracic spine provide a unique challenge due to their location. The posterior approach has long been utilized for resection of ventral meningiomas with high success rates and low morbidity. There are a number of anatomical factors that can increase the difficulty in the case including patient body habitus, calcified tumors ventrally located can be adherent to the cord or anterior spinal artery, angle of the ribs and the vascularity in and around the tumor. We present a very challenging case of a large ventral calcified meningioma at T4 in a patient with body mass index of 50 (5′6, 337 lbs who presented with progressive paraplegia.

  5. Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Takao; Reimer, James D; Morov, Arseniy R; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Deuterostomes (animals with 'secondary mouths') are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuterostome groups. Unlike other bilaterians, in amphioxus the mouth initially opens on the left lateral side. This peculiar morphology has not been fully explained in the evolutionary developmental context. We studied the developmental process of the amphioxus mouth to understand whether amphioxus acquired a new mouth, and if so, how it is related to or differs from mouths in other deuterostomes. The left first somite in amphioxus produces a coelomic vesicle between the epidermis and pharynx that plays a crucial role in the mouth opening. The vesicle develops in association with the amphioxus-specific Hatschek nephridium, and first opens into the pharynx and then into the exterior as a mouth. This asymmetrical development of the anterior-most somites depends on the Nodal-Pitx signaling unit, and the perturbation of laterality-determining Nodal signaling led to the disappearance of the vesicle, producing a symmetric pair of anterior-most somites that resulted in larvae lacking orobranchial structures. The vesicle expressed bmp2/4, as seen in ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canals, and the mouth did not open when Bmp2/4 signaling was blocked. We conclude that the amphioxus mouth, which uniquely involves a mesodermal coelomic vesicle, shares its evolutionary origins with the ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canal. Our observations suggest that there are at least three types of mouths in deuterostomes, and that the new acquisition of chordate mouths was likely related to the dorso-ventral inversion that occurred in the last common ancestor of chordates.

  6. Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic progenitor cells overexpressing high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, R; Hohmann, M; Klein, A; Wesemann, M; Baumgärtner, W; Ratzka, A; Grothe, C

    2015-02-12

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent neurotrophic factor promoting survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. FGF-2 is expressed in different isoforms representing distinct translation products from a single mRNA. For this study, we focused on the high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, which, after non-viral plasmid-based overexpression in embryonic day 12 (E12) rat ventral mesencephalon (VM)-derived cells, revealed increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells in a 'colayer' cell culture model. To determine the therapeutic potential of VM cells producing FGF-2-HMW as their 'own' neurotrophic factor, we transplanted cell suspensions obtained from such in vitro modified and differentiated cell cultures into the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemiparkinsonian rat model. Animals, having received either non-transfected cells, empty-control transfected, or FGF-2-HMW-plasmid transfected cells, were analyzed in two different transplantation paradigms each using 172,000 or 520,000 cells, respectively. The behavioral performances in the amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced rotational test as well as in the cylinder test were evaluated for up to thirteen weeks post transplantation (postTX). Finally, the integration of the grafted cells into the host striatum was analyzed by immunohistochemical measurements. Those analyses revealed improvements of behavioral deficits in all five groups receiving DA neuron grafts, except for amphetamine-induced rotation of the FGF-2-HMW small graft group. Altogether, genetic modification with the FGF-2-HMW-plasmid did not further improve functional recovery compared to the control groups and had no influence on either the number of surviving DA neurons or on the density of outgrowing TH(+) fibers. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Subpopulation of Dopaminergic Neurons Coexpresses Serotonin in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures But Not After Intrastriatal Transplantation in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie; Ducray, Angélique D; Meyer, Morten; Widmer, Hans Rudolf

    2017-04-13

    Cell replacement therapy is a promising avenue into the investigation and treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), and in some cases, significant long-term motor improvements have been demonstrated. The main source of donor tissue is the human fetal ventral mesencephalon (FVM), which consists of a mixed neuronal population, and its heterogeneity likely contributes to the inconsistent outcome observed in clinical trials. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the neuronal subpopulations in the VM seems essential for successful cell transplantation. Interestingly, it has been reported that some tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons in the VM of adult rats and in cultured midbrain-derived neuroblasts coexpress additional neurotransmitters. Thus, the present study investigated, by means of colocalization analyses, the possible expression of GABA or serotonin in TH+ neurons. For that purpose, both fetal rat and human dissociated, organotypic and neurosphere FVM cultures as well as an animal model of PD were investigated. In dissociated rat FVM cultures, approximately 30% of the TH+ neurons coexpressed serotonin, while no colocalization with GABA was observed. Interestingly, coexpression of TH and serotonin was found to be dependent on the time in culture, the plating density, and the exposure to neurotrophic factors, that is, higher cell densities and treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor resulted in a significantly reduced coexpression rate. Notably, even though approximately 30% of the dopaminergic neurons in the donor tissue coexpressed serotonin, no colocalization could be detected in grafts 1 month after intrastriatal transplantation into hemiparkinsonian rats. In conclusion, a significant and susceptible subpopulation of dopaminergic neurons in FVM tissues coexpresses serotonin. This might have potential implications for the future selection and handling of cells prior to transplantation in PD.

  8. Financial implications of ventral hernia repair: a hospital cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Drew; Davenport, Daniel L; Korosec, Ryan L; Roth, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    Complicated ventral hernias are often referred to tertiary care centers. Hospital costs associated with these repairs include direct costs (mesh materials, supplies, and nonsurgeon labor costs) and indirect costs (facility fees, equipment depreciation, and unallocated labor). Operative supplies represent a significant component of direct costs, especially in an era of proprietary synthetic meshes and biologic grafts. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of complex abdominal wall hernia repair at a tertiary care referral facility. Cost data on all consecutive open ventral hernia repairs (CPT codes 49560, 49561, 49565, and 49566) performed between 1 July 2008 and 31 May 2011 were analyzed. Cases were analyzed based upon hospital status (inpatient vs. outpatient) and whether the hernia repair was a primary or secondary procedure. We examined median net revenue, direct costs, contribution margin, indirect costs, and net profit/loss. Among primary hernia repairs, cost data were further analyzed based upon mesh utilization (no mesh, synthetic, or biologic). Four-hundred and fifteen patients underwent ventral hernia repair (353 inpatients and 62 outpatients); 173 inpatients underwent ventral hernia repair as the primary procedure; 180 inpatients underwent hernia repair as a secondary procedure. Median net revenue ($17,310 vs. 10,360, p financial loss was $8,370. Outpatient ventral hernia repairs, with and without synthetic mesh, resulted in median net losses of $1,560 and 230, respectively. Ventral hernia repair is associated with overall financial losses. Inpatient synthetic mesh repairs are essentially budget neutral. Outpatient and inpatient repairs without mesh result in net financial losses. Inpatient biologic mesh repairs result in a negative contribution margin and striking net financial losses. Cost-effective strategies for managing ventral hernias in a tertiary care environment need to be developed in light of the financial implications of this patient

  9. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  10. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  11. [Collagen types ratio in prediction of postoperative ventral hernias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarenko, V A; Ivanov, S V; Ivanov, I S; Rosberg, E P; Tsukanov, A V; Popova, L P; Tarabrin, D V; Obyedkov, E G

    To analyze collagen types ratio in skin and aponeurosis in order to predict postoperative ventral hernias. The trial included 141 patients for the period 2012-2015. Group I (n=65) of patients without ventral hernias was divided into subgroup AI (primary operation, n=41) and BI (re-operation, n=24). Group II consisted of 76 patients with ventral hernias. We performed histological examination of skin and aponeurosis to define the collagen structure of connective tissue. There were significant differences between collagen type I/III ratio in skin (2.81±0.52 in group I vs. 1.13±0.48 in group II) and aponeurosis (2.69±0.41 vs. 1.09±0.21, respectively, p≤0.05). We revealed strong direct correlation (r=+0.92) between aponeurosis and skin specimens in one group. Collagen type I level was 73.81±2.74% in subgroup AI and 72.03±2.47% in subgroup BI. Collagen type I was predominant (p≤0.05). In patients with ventral hernias collagen type I/III ratio in skin is 2.54 times lower than in patients without hernias. Significant correlation of collagen types in skin and aponeurosis (r= +0.92) allows to predict the risk of postoperative ventral hernias on basis of skin fragment.

  12. Human V4 and ventral occipital retinotopic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The ventral surface of the human occipital lobe contains multiple retinotopic maps. The most posterior of these maps is considered a potential homolog of macaque V4, and referred to as human V4 (‘hV4’). The location of the hV4 map, its retinotopic organization, its role in visual encoding, and the cortical areas it borders have been the subject of considerable investigation and debate over the last 25 years. We review the history of this map and adjacent maps in ventral occipital cortex, and consider the different hypotheses for how these ventral occipital maps are organized. Advances in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and characterization of the nearby anatomical landmarks and functional brain areas have improved our understanding of where human V4 is and what kind of visual representations it contains. PMID:26241699

  13. Normative development of ventral striatal resting state connectivity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Gee, Dylan G.; Lumian, Daniel S.; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-01-01

    Incentives play a crucial role in guiding behavior throughout our lives, but perhaps no more so than during the early years of life. The ventral striatum is a critical piece of an incentive-based learning circuit, sharing robust anatomical connections with subcortical (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and cortical structures (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insula) that collectively support incentive valuation and learning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a powerful method that provides insight into the development of the functional architecture of these connections involved in incentive-based learning. We employed a seed-based correlation approach to investigate ventral striatal rsFC in a cross-sectional sample of typically developing individuals between the ages of 4.5 and 23-years old (n=66). Ventral striatal rsFC with the mPFC showed regionally specific linear age-related changes in connectivity that were associated with age-related increases in circulating testosterone levels. Further, ventral striatal connectivity with the posterior hippocampus and posterior insula demonstrated quadratic age-related changes characterized by negative connectivity in adolescence. Finally, across this age range, the ventral striatum demonstrated positive coupling with the amygdala beginning during childhood and remaining consistently positive across age. In sum, our findings suggest normative ventral striatal rsFC development is dynamic and characterized by early establishment of connectivity with medial prefrontal and limbic structures supporting incentive-based learning, as well as substantial functional reorganization with later developing regions during transitions into and out of adolescence. PMID:26087377

  14. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  15. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  16. Ventral Striatum Connectivity During Reward Anticipation in Adolescent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollans, Lee; Zhipeng, Cao; Icke, Ilknur; Greene, Ciara; Kelly, Clare; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Smolka, Michael N.; Walter, Henrik; Schumann, Gunter; Whelan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Substance misusers, including adolescent smokers, often have reduced reward system activity during processing of non-drug rewards. Using a psychophysiological interaction approach, we examined functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in a large (n=206) sample of adolescent smokers. Increased smoking frequency was associated with 1) increased connectivity with regions involved in saliency and valuation, including the orbitofrontal cortex; 2) reduced connectivity between the ventral striatum and regions associated with inhibition and risk aversion, including the right inferior frontal gyrus. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity during reward processing is relevant to adolescent addiction. PMID:27074029

  17. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  18. Graphic Grown Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  19. Early Experience of Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interest in less morbid herniorrhaphies and the appeal of minimally invasive surgery encouraged development of laparoscopic methods for repairing ventral hernias. The technique is based on the same physical and surgical Pascal's principle as the open underlay procedure (7,8,9). Since the first report of laparoscopic ...

  20. Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity during Emotion Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

    2011-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed…

  1. Specialization of Binaural Responses in Ventral Auditory Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nathan C.; Storace, Douglas A.; Escabí, Monty A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate orientation to sound under challenging conditions requires auditory cortex, but it is unclear how spatial attributes of the auditory scene are represented at this level. Current organization schemes follow a functional division whereby dorsal and ventral auditory cortices specialize to encode spatial and object features of sound source, respectively. However, few studies have examined spatial cue sensitivities in ventral cortices to support or reject such schemes. Here Fourier optical imaging was used to quantify best frequency responses and corresponding gradient organization in primary (A1), anterior, posterior, ventral (VAF), and suprarhinal (SRAF) auditory fields of the rat. Spike rate sensitivities to binaural interaural level difference (ILD) and average binaural level cues were probed in A1 and two ventral cortices, VAF and SRAF. Continuous distributions of best ILDs and ILD tuning metrics were observed in all cortices, suggesting this horizontal position cue is well covered. VAF and caudal SRAF in the right cerebral hemisphere responded maximally to midline horizontal position cues, whereas A1 and rostral SRAF responded maximally to ILD cues favoring more eccentric positions in the contralateral sound hemifield. SRAF had the highest incidence of binaural facilitation for ILD cues corresponding to midline positions, supporting current theories that auditory cortices have specialized and hierarchical functional organization. PMID:20980610

  2. Task constraints modulate activation in right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2005-10-01

    Lesion data suggest that right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in open-ended problem solving. To test this hypothesis, we scanned fifteen normal subjects with fMRI as they completed three types of anagram problems varying in the level of constraints placed on the search space. On unconstrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions (e.g., Can you make a "Word with ZJAZ?"). On semantically constrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions within particular semantic categories (e.g., Can you make a type of "Music with ZJAZ?"). On baseline trials, they rearranged letters to make specific words (e.g., Can you make the word "JAZZ with ZJAZ?"). As predicted, the critical comparison of unconstrained vs. semantically constrained trials revealed significant activation in right ventral lateral PFC, as well as left superior frontal gyrus, frontopolar cortex, right superior parietal lobe, right post central gyrus, and the occipital-parietal sulcus. Furthermore, activation in right ventral lateral PFC (BA 47) increased as the constraints placed on the anagram search space were reduced. We argue that the activation in right ventral lateral PFC is related to hypothesis generation in unconstrained settings, whereas activation in other structures is related to additional processes linked to anagram problems such as semantic retrieval, semantic categorization, and cognitive monitoring. These results extend the lesion data and imaging studies by demonstrating that a relative absence of constraints on the solution space is sufficient to engage right ventral lateral PFC in hypothesis generation tasks.

  3. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Wessells

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... web page of the journal www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Review. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using ..... use and increase probability of long term success in patients with compromised urethras. Conflict of interest. No conflict of interest. References. [1] Santucci RA, Joyce GF, ...

  4. Establishment and initial experiences from the Danish Ventral Hernia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, F; Rosenberg, J; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Outcome after ventral hernia repair is not optimal. The surgical technique relies on personal preferences or evidence from small-scale studies, rather than large-scale prospective data with high external validity. The purpose of this paper was to describe the establishment and potential...

  5. [Indication and results of ventral approach spinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, O

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on 168 cases with pathologic alterations on the columna vertebralis that were operated from the ventral approach. After listing the indications of various operations (lumbarscoliosis, spondylolisthesis, tumorosteolysis, spondylitis, traumatic alterations, kyphosis, degenerative changes, spondyloepiphyseodesis) it is reported on the results.

  6. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  7. Control of REM sleep by ventral medulla GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Franz; Chung, Shinjae; Beier, Kevin T; Xu, Min; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2015-10-15

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a distinct brain state characterized by activated electroencephalogram and complete skeletal muscle paralysis, and is associated with vivid dreams. Transection studies by Jouvet first demonstrated that the brainstem is both necessary and sufficient for REM sleep generation, and the neural circuits in the pons have since been studied extensively. The medulla also contains neurons that are active during REM sleep, but whether they play a causal role in REM sleep generation remains unclear. Here we show that a GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing) pathway originating from the ventral medulla powerfully promotes REM sleep in mice. Optogenetic activation of ventral medulla GABAergic neurons rapidly and reliably initiated REM sleep episodes and prolonged their durations, whereas inactivating these neurons had the opposite effects. Optrode recordings from channelrhodopsin-2-tagged ventral medulla GABAergic neurons showed that they were most active during REM sleep (REMmax), and during wakefulness they were preferentially active during eating and grooming. Furthermore, dual retrograde tracing showed that the rostral projections to the pons and midbrain and caudal projections to the spinal cord originate from separate ventral medulla neuron populations. Activating the rostral GABAergic projections was sufficient for both the induction and maintenance of REM sleep, which are probably mediated in part by inhibition of REM-suppressing GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey. These results identify a key component of the pontomedullary network controlling REM sleep. The capability to induce REM sleep on command may offer a powerful tool for investigating its functions.

  8. Experience With Ventral Penile Skin Island Flap urethroplasty | Ntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Island flap techniques currently used in urethroplasty utilize the prepuce and the dorsal penile skin. Our experience with a one-stage island flap urethroplasty for urethral strictures utilizing the ventral penile skin is described. Patients and Method: This is a longitudinal study of seventy six consecutive patients ...

  9. Early Experience of Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) is gaining popularity amongst minimal access surgeons with numerous advantages over conventional open repair. We present the first local series of LVHR and analyse morbidity profile of the patients. Methods: Records of all patients who had LVHR were analysed in ...

  10. Dynamic intermittent strain can rapidly impair ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinowski, Friedrich; Baumann, Elena; Harder, Felix; Siassi, Michael; Mahn, Axel; Vollmer, Matthias; Morlock, Michael M

    2015-11-26

    Ventral hernia repair fails frequently despite advanced mesh inserting surgery. A model for dynamic intermittent straining (DIS) of ventral hernia repairs was developed. The influence of phospholipids, position, overlap, fixation and tissue quality of various meshes on the durability of hernia repair was studied. DIS comprises the repetition of submaximal impacts delivered via a hydraulically driven plastic containment. Pig tissues simulate a ventral hernia with a standardized 5cm defect. Commercially available meshes strengthened with tacks, glue and sutures were used to bridge this defect in an underlay (IPOM) or sublay (retromuscular) position starting with a 5cm overlap in all directions. We tested 35 different ways of ventral hernia repair with up to 425 submaximal intermittent dynamic impacts until mesh dislocation occurred 10 times or a maximum of 4000 impacts each were withstood. The likelihood of a failing repair was related to the mesh, the lubricants, the position, the overlap, the fixation and the tissue quality. Most meshes dislocated easily and required fixation. One of the meshes tested was stable without fixation with a 5cm overlap and failed after reducing the overlap. Phospholipids exerted a strong influence on the biomaterial tested. The sublay position was about 10% more durable in comparison to the IPOM position. DIS revealed distinct degrees of stability with primarily stable, intermediate and primarily unstable repairs. Based on the DIS results available, the currently used ventral hernia repair options can be classified. In the future, DIS investigations can improve the durability of hernia repair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal control of the Drosophila dorsal–ventral body axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David S.; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2016-01-01

    The pathway that generates the dorsal–ventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo has been the subject of intense investigation over the previous three decades. The initial asymmetric signal originates during oogenesis by the movement of the oocyte nucleus to an anterior corner of the oocyte, which establishes DV polarity within the follicle through signaling between Gurken, the Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-α homologue secreted from the oocyte, and the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) that is expressed by the follicular epithelium cells that envelop the oocyte. Follicle cells that are not exposed to Gurken follow a ventral fate and express Pipe, a sulfotransferase that enzymatically modifies components of the inner vitelline membrane layer of the eggshell, thereby transferring DV spatial information from the follicle to the egg. These ventrally sulfated eggshell proteins comprise a localized cue that directs the ventrally restricted formation of the active Spätzle ligand within the perivitelline space between the eggshell and the embryonic membrane. Spätzle activates Toll, a transmembrane receptor in the embryonic membrane. Transmission of the Toll signal into the embryo leads to the formation of a ventral-to-dorsal gradient of the transcription factor Dorsal within the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm stage embryo. Dorsal controls the spatially specific expression of a large constellation of zygotic target genes, the Dorsal gene regulatory network, along the embryonic DV circumference. This article reviews classic studies and integrates them with the details of more recent work that has advanced our understanding of the complex pathway that establishes Drosophila embryo DV polarity. PMID:25124754

  12. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ∼ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira® reconstruction and cinema 4D® remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the ‘closure’ of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. PMID:26467243

  13. Preferential reactivation of motivationally relevant information in the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Lankelma, Jan V; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; McNaughton, Bruce L; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2008-06-18

    Spontaneous "off-line" reactivation of neuronal activity patterns may contribute to the consolidation of memory traces. The ventral striatum exhibits reactivation and has been implicated in the processing of motivational information. It is unknown, however, whether reactivating neuronal ensembles specifically recapitulate information relating to rewards that were encountered during wakefulness. We demonstrate a prolonged reactivation in rat ventral striatum during quiet wakefulness and slow-wave but not rapid eye movement sleep. Reactivation of reward-related information processed in this structure was particularly prominent, and this was primarily attributable to spike trains temporally linked to reward sites. It was accounted for by small, strongly correlated subgroups in recorded cell assemblies and can thus be characterized as a sparse phenomenon. Our results indicate that reactivated memory traces may not only comprise feature- and context-specific information but also contain a value component.

  14. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    suggest a dopaminergic basis of monetary losses in pathological gambling, which might explain loss-chasing behavior. The findings may have implications for the understanding of dopamine dysfunctions and impaired decision-making in pathological gambling and substance-related addictions.......Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...

  15. Evaluation of Composite Mesh for Ventral Hernia Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Jim F.; Agee, Neal; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Heath, Jessica J.; Lau, Kwan N.; Mckillop, Iain H.; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B.; Iannitti, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Composite mesh prostheses incorporate the properties of multiple materials for ventral hernia repair. This study evaluated a polypropylene/ePTFE composite mesh with a novel internal polydioxanone (PDO) absorbable ring. Methods: Composite mesh was placed intraperitoneally in 16 pigs through an open laparotomy and explanted at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Intraabdominal adhesions were measured laparoscopically. Host tissue in-growth was assessed histologically and tensiometrically. Degr...

  16. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using only 5-mm ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Allen, Nicholas; O'Rourke, Harriet; Hong, Lisa; O'Rourke, Nicholas

    2017-10-12

    The technique of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has been evolving since it was first described over 20 years ago. We report a new technique where polyester mesh was back loaded through a 5-mm port site, coming into contact with the skin. This avoids the need for any 10-12-mm ports. A prospective database of laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs was examined. A single surgeon performed 344 laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs using this technique over 60 months. Follow-up was conducted by both clinical and independent phone review. Laparoscopic access was achieved via a 5-mm optical port, adding two, or occasionally three, 5-mm extra ports. Hernia contents were reduced and the extra-peritoneal fat excised; 5-mm tooth graspers were placed through the lateral port and then in a retrograde fashion through the uppermost port. The port was removed, and the mesh pulled back into the abdominal cavity and positioned with a minimum of 3-cm overlap. The mesh was fixed using absorbable tacks and sutures. Most patients had primary umbilical hernias. There was one case of mesh infection due to enteric organisms. This occurred in a patient undergoing repair of a stoma site hernia, resulting from a Hartmann's procedure for perforated diverticulitis. There was no other evidence of acute or chronic mesh infection despite cutaneous contact with the mesh. In this series, there was an overall hernia recurrence rate of 2.4%. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using only 5-mm ports is a safe, effective technique with no extra risk of infection. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Ventral Tegmental Area Afferents and Drug-Dependent Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Idaira eOliva; Matthew eWanat

    2016-01-01

    Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects o...

  18. Dorsal and ventral language pathways in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that affects an individual's ability to fluently produce speech. While the disorder mainly manifests in situations that require language production, it is still unclear whether persistent developmental stuttering is indeed a language impairment, and if so, which language stream is implicated in people who stutter. In this study, we take a neuroanatomical approach to this question by examining the structural properties of the dorsal and ventral language pathways in adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. We use diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and individualized tract identification to extract white matter volumes and diffusion properties of these tracts in samples of adults who do and do not stutter. We further quantify diffusion properties at multiple points along the tract and examine group differences within these diffusivity profiles. Our results show differences in the dorsal, but not in the ventral, language-related tracts. Specifically, AWS show reduced volume of the left dorsal stream, as well as lower anisotropy in the right dorsal stream. These data provide neuroanatomical support for the view that stuttering involves an impairment in the bidirectional mapping between auditory and articulatory cortices supported by the dorsal pathways, not in lexical access and semantic aspects of language processing which are thought to rely more heavily on the left ventral pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissociation between the panicolytic effect of cannabidiol microinjected into the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, and fear-induced antinociception elicited by bicuculline administration in deep layers of the superior colliculus: The role of CB1-cannabinoid receptor in the ventral mesencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Cecílio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-07-05

    Many studies suggest that the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), a tegmental mesencephalic structure rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and cannabinoid receptor-containing neurons, is involved in the complex control of defensive responses through the neostriatum-nigral disinhibitory and nigro-tectal inhibitory GABAergic pathways during imminently dangerous situations. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role played by CB1-cannabinoid receptor of GABAergic pathways terminal boutons in the SNpr or of SNpr-endocannabinoid receptor-containing interneurons on the effect of intra-nigral microinjections of cannabidiol in the activity of nigro-tectal inhibitory pathways. GABAA receptor blockade in the deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) elicited vigorous defensive behaviour. This explosive escape behaviour was followed by significant antinociception. Cannabidiol microinjection into the SNpr had a clear anti-aversive effect, decreasing the duration of defensive alertness, the frequency and duration of defensive immobility, and the frequency and duration of explosive escape behaviour, expressed by running and jumps, elicited by transitory GABAergic dysfunction in dlSC. However, the innate fear induced-antinociception was not significantly changed. The blockade of CB1 endocannabinoid receptor in the SNpr decreased the anti-aversive effect of canabidiol based on the frequency and duration of defensive immobility, the frequency of escape expressed by running, and both the frequency and duration of escape expressed by jumps. These findings suggest a CB1 mediated endocannabinoid signalling in cannabidiol modulation of panic-like defensive behaviour, but not of innate fear-induced antinociception evoked by GABAA receptor blockade with bicuculline microinjection into the superior colliculus, with a putative activity in nigro-collicular GABAergic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Target-specific deep brain stimulation of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chencheng; Li, Dianyou; Jin, Haiyan; Zeljic, Kristina; Sun, Bomin

    2017-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. An accumulating body of evidence supports the extension of DBS application for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders. The ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) is the most common anatomical target for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addiction, and depression. However, no specific electrode is available for the clinical targeting of these areas for DBS. According to the anatomical features of the VC/VS, a novel electrode was developed for simultaneous and independently programmed stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC). This VC/VS-specific electrode has the potential to enhance stimulus intensity, provide independent and flexible target stimulation.

  1. A multicenter prospective study of patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair with intraperitoneal positioning using the monofilament polyester composite ventral patch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrevoet, Frederik; Doerhoff, Carl; Muysoms, Filip

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the recurrence rate and other safety and efficacy parameters following ventral hernia repair with a polyester composite prosthesis (Parietex™ Composite Ventral Patch [PCO-VP]). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-arm, multicenter prospective study of 126 patients undergoing...

  2. Posterolateral approach for spinal intradural meningioma with ventral attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Takami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal meningioma with ventral attachment is a challenging pathology. Several technical modifications have been proposed to secure safe and precise resection of these tumors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study focused on the precise and safe surgery of spinal meningiomas with strictly ventral attachment of cervical or thoracic spine. The surgical technique included a lateral oblique position for the patient, laminectomy with unilateral medial facetectomy on the tumor side, and spinal cord rotation with the dentate ligament. The neurological status of patients was assessed using the modified McCormick functional schema (mMFS and sensory pain scale (SPS before and at least 3 months after surgery. Patients were followed-up for a mean of 23.7 months. Tumor removal was graded using the Simpson grade for removal of meningiomas, and the extent of excision was confirmed using early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Simpson grade 1 or 2 resections were achieved in all cases. No major surgery-related complications were encountered, postoperatively. The mean mMFS score before surgery was 3.1, improving significantly to 1.7 after surgery (P < 0.05. The mean SPS score before surgery was 2.4, improving significantly to 1.6 after surgery (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This surgical technique offers a posterolateral surgical corridor to the ventral canal of both cervical and thoracic spine. The present preliminary analysis suggests that functional outcomes were satisfactory with minimal surgery-related complications, although considerable surgical experience is needed to achieve a high level of surgical confidence.

  3. Two-criteria optimisation problem for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Czesław; Lubowiecka, Izabela; Szepietowska, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka

    2017-05-01

    Two-criteria optimisation problem related to laparoscopic ventral hernia repair is formulated in this paper. An optimal implant from a given set and its orientation is sought. The implant is subjected to kinematic extortions due to a patient's body movement and intra-abdominal pressure. The first criterion of the optimisation problem deals with the reaction force in the implant fastener, while the deflection of the implant constitutes the second criterion. A two-stage optimization procedure is proposed and the optimal solution is determined with the aid of minimization of an additional objective function. Numerical examples for typical locations of hernia are provided.

  4. [Alloplastics of median ventral hernias with polypropylene gauze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkova, T A

    2008-01-01

    The article summarizes an experience with 83 alloplastics with polypropylene gauze performed in 75 patients with median ventral hernias. An original method is described of confrontation and retention of the rectal abdominal muscles in the middle position with the help of prosthesis. The proposed method of operation improves its results: postoperative complications developed two times rarer, less amount of the implanted synthetic material used, the patients were at the hospital for a shorter time. In these patients there were no recurrent hernias and diastasis recti abdominis.

  5. Fatal attraction: ventral striatum predicts costly choice errors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbley, J R; Tobler, P N; Fehr, E

    2014-04-01

    Animals approach rewards and cues associated with reward, even when this behavior is irrelevant or detrimental to the attainment of these rewards. Motivated by these findings we study the biology of financially-costly approach behavior in humans. Our subjects passively learned to predict the occurrence of erotic rewards. We show that neuronal responses in ventral striatum during this Pavlovian learning task stably predict an individual's general tendency towards financially-costly approach behavior in an active choice task several months later. Our data suggest that approach behavior may prevent some individuals from acting in their own interests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Grown on Novel Microcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Falk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells have been tested as a cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease but will require additional study before further clinical trials can be planned. We now show that the long-term survival and neurotrophic potential of hRPE cells can be enhanced by the use of FDA-approved plastic-based microcarriers compared to a gelatin-based microcarrier as used in failed clinical trials. The hRPE cells grown on these plastic-based microcarriers display several important characteristics of hRPE found in vivo: (1 characteristic morphological features, (2 accumulation of melanin pigment, and (3 high levels of production of the neurotrophic factors pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Growth of hRPE cells on plastic-based microcarriers led to sustained levels (>1 ng/ml of PEDF and VEGF-A in conditioned media for two months. We also show that the expression of VEGF-A and PEDF is reciprocally regulated by activation of the GPR143 pathway. GPR143 is activated by L-DOPA (1 μM which decreased VEGF-A secretion as opposed to the previously reported increase in PEDF secretion. The hRPE microcarriers are therefore novel candidate delivery systems for achieving long-term delivery of the neuroprotective factors PEDF and VEGF-A, which could have a value in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

  7. Evaluation of composite mesh for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Jim F; Agee, Neal; Nguyen, Phuong H; Heath, Jessica J; Lau, Kwan N; McKillop, Iain H; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A

    2011-01-01

    Composite mesh prostheses incorporate the properties of multiple materials for ventral hernia repair. This study evaluated a polypropylene/ePTFE composite mesh with a novel internal polydioxanone (PDO) absorbable ring. Composite mesh was placed intraperitoneally in 16 pigs through an open laparotomy and explanted at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Intraabdominal adhesions were measured laparoscopically. Host tissue in-growth was assessed histologically and tensiometrically. Degradation of the internal PDO ring component was also measured tensiometrically. Appropriate statistical tests were used, and P ≤.05 indicated significance. No adhesions were formed in 50% of the grafts explanted at 8 weeks and 25% of grafts explanted at 12 weeks. There were significantly more vascular structures at 8 weeks, 73.5 ± 28, compared with 2 weeks, 6.75 ± 2 (P ≤.01). The T-peel force at the mesh-host tissue interface was not significantly different among time points. The absorbable PDO ring underwent complete degradation by 12 weeks. This composite mesh was associated with minimal intraabdominal adhesions, progressive in-growth of host tissues, and complete degradation of a novel internal PDO ring that aided mesh positioning. This composite hernia mesh showed a favorable performance in a porcine model of open ventral hernia repair.

  8. Specificity of intraabdominal endoprosthesis of umbilical and postoperative ventral hernias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriev S.G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research work objective was to examine the results of intraperitoneal plastics in the hernias of anterior abdominal wall. The experience of treatment of 89 patients with uncomplicated umbilical and postoperative ventral hernias was analized. The surgical treatment included an open intraperitoneal prosthetic hernioplasty. The hernial sac was not removed during the operation. The original techniques of treatment of hernia sac were used. Anatomical and morphological features in the structure of middle ventral hernias and their pathophysiological assessment were revealed. Practical recommendations for technology of intraperitoneal prosthesis were given. The early postoperative complications occurred: seroma (n=2, the outflow of serous fluid drainage for 5 days (n=1, infiltration of the umbilical area (n=3, suppuration of wounds (n=1. Vacuum drainage was performed in 24 patients after removal of large hernial defects. During the period from 6 months to 4 years recurrences were not revealed. The intraperitoneal surgery using a complex of musculo-aponeurotic tissues provided hernial implant fixation. Operation without the removal of the hernial sac reduced the trauma intervention. Method of suturing the surgical wound reduced the time of drainage and reduced the number of wound complications

  9. Expectancies in decision making, reinforcement learning, and ventral striatum

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    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Decisions can arise in different ways, such as a gut feeling, doing what worked last time, or planful deliberation. Different decision-making systems are dissociable behaviorally, map onto distinct brain systems, and require different computational demands. For instance, ’model-free’ decision strategies use prediction errors to estimate scalar action values from previous experience, while ’model-based’ strategies leverage internal forward models to generate and evaluate potentially rich outcome expectancies. Animal learning studies indicate that expectancies may arise from different sources, including not only forward models but also Pavlovian associations, and the flexibility with which such representations impact behavior may depend on how they are generated. In the light of these considerations, we review the results of van der Meer and Redish (2009a, who found that ventral striatal neurons that respond to reward delivery can also be activated at other points, notably at a decision point where hippocampal forward representations were also observed. These data suggest the possibility that ventral striatal reward representations contribute to model-based expectancies used in deliberative decision-making.

  10. Effective Connectivity between Ventral Occipito-Temporal and Ventral Inferior Frontal Cortex during Lexico-Semantic Processing. A Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

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    Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that dorsal and ventral pathways support distinct aspects of language processing. Yet, the full extent of their involvement and their inter-regional connectivity in visual word recognition is still unknown. Studies suggest that they might reflect the dual-route model of reading, with the dorsal pathway more involved in grapho-phonological conversion during phonological tasks, and the ventral pathway performing lexico-semantic access during semantic tasks. Furthermore, this subdivision is also suggested at the level of the inferior frontal cortex, involving ventral and dorsal parts for lexico-semantic and phonological processing, respectively. In the present study, we assessed inter-regional brain connectivity and task-induced modulations of brain activity during a phoneme detection and semantic categorization tasks, using fMRI in healthy subject. We used a dynamic causal modeling approach to assess inter-regional connectivity and task demand modulation within the dorsal and ventral pathways, including the following network components: the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC; dorsal and ventral, the superior temporal gyrus (STG; dorsal, the dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG; dorsal, and the ventral IFG (vIFG; ventral. We report three distinct inter-regional interactions supporting orthographic information transfer from vOTC to other language regions (vOTC -> STG, vOTC -> vIFG and vOTC -> dIFG regardless of task demands. Moreover, we found that (a during semantic processing (direct ventral pathway the vOTC -> vIFG connection strength specifically increased and (b a lack of modulation of the vOTC -> dIFG connection strength by the task that could suggest a more general involvement of the dorsal pathway during visual word recognition. Results are discussed in terms of anatomo-functional connectivity of visual word recognition network.

  11. Single centre observational study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Proceed™ Ventral Patch to repair small ventral hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontinck, J; Kyle-Leinhase, I; Pletinckx, P; Vergucht, V; Beckers, R; Muysoms, F

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence that mesh repair for primary umbilical hernias results in less recurrences and similar wound complication rates compared to tissue repair. In recent years, several mesh devices for the repair of small ventral hernias have been developed, but some reports have been published on serious complications and adverse effects encountered with those mesh devices. The Proceed™ Ventral Patch (PVP™) is a partially absorbable lightweight polypropylene mesh. We introduced PVP™ in our department in April 2009 and collected patient data and outcome in an observational study of 101 consecutive patients until December 2011 (Clinical.Trials.gov: NCT01307696). In addition to the routine control 3 weeks postoperative, prospective follow-up included a questionnaire, clinical investigation and ultrasound after 12 months. The study included 91 primary (76 umbilical/15 epigastric) and 10 incisional ventral hernias (including 6 trocar hernias). In all patients a PVP™ with a diameter of 6.4 cm was used. Wound problems were the most frequent complication (n = 18). Follow-up of at least 12 months was achieved in 98 patients (97 %) and the mean follow-up time was 15.9 months. Follow-up by clinical examination diagnosed a recurrence in 11/92 patients (12.0 %). Only four patients were aware of their recurrent hernia, the seven others reported no problems in the questionnaire. The additional ultrasound performed did not reveal recurrences that were not already diagnosed by clinical examination. In five patients a reoperation for repair of the recurrence was performed (reoperation rate 5/98 = 5.1 %). Hernia defect size (p = 0.032) and type of hernia (p = 0.029) were found to be a significant risk factors for development of a recurrent hernia (Fisher's exact test). Hernia size was a significant risk factor both in a univariate (p = 0.005) and in a multivariate Cox model (p = 0.017). Incisional hernia was of borderline significance in a univariate (p

  12. Ventral free oral mucous membrane graft for bulbar urethral stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M E; Rahman, M A; Islam, M F; Siddique, F H; Uddin, M M; Khondoker, M I; Kaiser, I; Siddiqui, O; Karim, M M; Saha, P; Salam, M A

    2012-10-01

    The use of oral mucous membrane graft onlay urethroplasty represents the most widespread method of bulbar urethral stricture repair. We investigated the short term result of oral mucous membrane graft placed on the ventral surface for management of bulbar urethral stricture. Patients with Bulbar urethral stricture of any length, infection free urinary tract and informed consent for oral mucosa harvesting and urethroplasty were selected for study. We enrolled 108 cases of bulbar urethral stricture patients from January 2004 to July 2009. The mean ± SD preoperative maximum flow rate of 5.2 ± 2.6 ml/sec and mean ± SD PVR 87 ± 58.3 ml were treated by substitution urethroplasty with oral mucous membrane by a single surgical team in a private hospital. Causes of stricture were trauma 26(24.1%), infection 58(53.7%), catheter induced 8(7.4%), post TURP 11(10.2%) and unknown 5(4.6%). Oral mucous membrane was harvested from the cheek or from the inner side of lower lip. Defect of the urethra displayed by longitudinal ventral urethrotomy and the graft was sutured over the edges of the incised urethral mucosa over a 14 Fr latex Foley's catheter. Spongiosum tissue was closed over the graft. Pericatheter urethrogram was performed in all cases to check for the anastomotic leakage and the Catheter was removed after 2 weeks of the procedure. After removal of catheter uroflowmetry & ultrasound scan of bladder were performed to estimate the maximum flow rate and post voidal residue. The patient was followed-up every 3 months with uroflowmetry & ultrasonography. The median (range) age of the patients was 32(21-72) years. Mean follow up period was 36 months (range 12-54). Mean ± SD stricture length was 3.7 ± 2.6 cm. The overall success rate was 91.7%. Mean ± SD flow rate was 23 ± 4.2 ml/sec, mean ± SD post void residue was 25 ± 15.5 ml and patient quality of life (QOL) was excellent in almost all patients. Overall complications were seen in 9(8.3%) cases. Of which

  13. Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Make Distinct Contributions to Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D; Dal Monte, Olga; Lucas, Daniel R; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2016-10-19

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with an RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys' choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy trade-off that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1......) assess the intensity and impact of postoperative pain by detailed patient-reported description of pain and convalescence after LVHR (Study I), 2) evaluate the feasibility of fibrin sealant (FS) for mesh fixation in an experimental pig model (Study II), and 3) investigate FS vs. tacks for mesh fixation...... at POD 14. In Study II - a randomised experimental study in pigs - nine pigs were operated laparoscopically with insertion of two different meshes fixed with either FS or tacks. All pigs were euthanized on POD 30. The primary outcome parameter was strength of ingrowth between the mesh and the anterior...

  15. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation

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    MacInnes, Jeff J.; Dickerson, Kathryn C.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants’ motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-Test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. PMID:26948894

  16. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

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    Niki H. Kamkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

  17. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

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    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  18. Functional specialization in dorsal and ventral premotor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Eiji; Tanji, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The premotor cortex (PM) in the bilateral lateral hemisphere of nonhuman primates and the human has been implicated in the sensorial guidance of movements. This is in contrast to more medial motor areas that are involved more in the temporal structuring of movements based on memorized information. The PM is further subdivided into dorsal (PMd) and ventral (PMv) parts. In this chapter, we describe our attempts to find differences in the use of these two areas in a nonhuman primate for programming future motor actions based on visual signals. We show that neurons in the PMv are involved primarily in receiving visuospatial signals and in specifying the spatial location of the target to be reached. In contrast, neurons in the PMd are involved more in integrating information about which arm to use and the target to be reached. Thus, PMd neurons are more implicated than those of the PMv in the preparation for a future motor action.

  19. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    , and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain...... to group assignment. The primary outcome was average pain from POD 0-2 (VAS score). Secondary outcome parameters were fatigue, general well-being and time to resume normal daily activity. Follow-up was one month for all. Patients in the FS group reported significantly less pain at POD 0-2 (median VAS 38...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects period of convalescence. Long...

  20. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    , and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain...... to group assignment. The primary outcome was average pain from POD 0-2 (VAS score). Secondary outcome parameters were fatigue, general well-being and time to resume normal daily activity. Follow-up was one month for all. Patients in the FS group reported significantly less pain at POD 0-2 (median VAS 38...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects period of convalescence. Long...

  1. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... histological parameters. In Study III - a randomised, controlled, double-blinded, multicenter trial - 40 patients with umbilical hernia defects between 1.5-5 cm, were randomly assigned to receive FS or titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR. Patients, care givers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded...... difference was found in fatigue score between groups. No significant difference in hospital stay, hernia diameter, or morphine consumption in the post anesthesia care unit was found between groups. Patients in the FS group resumed normal daily activity at POD 7 (1-66) versus POD 18 (1-95) in the tack group...

  2. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... histological parameters. In Study III - a randomised, controlled, double-blinded, multicenter trial - 40 patients with umbilical hernia defects between 1.5-5 cm, were randomly assigned to receive FS or titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR. Patients, care givers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded...... difference was found in fatigue score between groups. No significant difference in hospital stay, hernia diameter, or morphine consumption in the post anesthesia care unit was found between groups. Patients in the FS group resumed normal daily activity at POD 7 (1-66) versus POD 18 (1-95) in the tack group...

  3. Oral, intestinal, and skin bacteria in ventral hernia mesh implants

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    Odd Langbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In ventral hernia surgery, mesh implants are used to reduce recurrence. Infection after mesh implantation can be a problem and rates around 6–10% have been reported. Bacterial colonization of mesh implants in patients without clinical signs of infection has not been thoroughly investigated. Molecular techniques have proven effective in demonstrating bacterial diversity in various environments and are able to identify bacteria on a gene-specific level. Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect bacterial biofilm in mesh implants, analyze its bacterial diversity, and look for possible resemblance with bacterial biofilm from the periodontal pocket. Methods: Thirty patients referred to our hospital for recurrence after former ventral hernia mesh repair, were examined for periodontitis in advance of new surgical hernia repair. Oral examination included periapical radiographs, periodontal probing, and subgingival plaque collection. A piece of mesh (1×1 cm from the abdominal wall was harvested during the new surgical hernia repair and analyzed for bacteria by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From patients with positive PCR mesh samples, subgingival plaque samples were analyzed with the same techniques. Results: A great variety of taxa were detected in 20 (66.7% mesh samples, including typical oral commensals and periodontopathogens, enterics, and skin bacteria. Mesh and periodontal bacteria were further analyzed for similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences. In 17 sequences, the level of resemblance between mesh and subgingival bacterial colonization was 98–100% suggesting, but not proving, a transfer of oral bacteria to the mesh. Conclusion: The results show great bacterial diversity on mesh implants from the anterior abdominal wall including oral commensals and periodontopathogens. Mesh can be reached by bacteria in several ways including hematogenous spread from an oral site. However, other sites such as gut and skin may also

  4. The increased cost of ventral hernia recurrence: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, D G; Parikh, N; Frelich, M J; Goldblatt, M I

    2016-12-01

    Over 300,000 ventral hernia repairs (VHRs) are performed each year in the US. We sought to assess the economic burden related to ventral hernia recurrences with a focused comparison of those with the initial open versus laparoscopic surgery. The Premier Alliance database from 2009 to 2014 was utilized to obtain patient demographics and comorbid indices, including the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Total hospital cost and resource expenses during index laparoscopic and open VHRs and subsequent recurrent repairs were also obtained. The sample was separated into laparoscopic and open repair groups from the initial operation. Adjusted and propensity score matched cost outcome data were then compared amongst groups. One thousand and seventy-seven patients were used for the analysis with a recurrence rate of 3.78 %. For the combined sample, costs were significantly higher during recurrent hernia repair hospitalization ($21,726 versus $19,484, p cost and department level costs were similar during the index and the recurrent visit. The costs and resource utilization did not go up due to recurrence, even though these patients had greater severity during the recurrent visit (CCI score 0.92 versus 1.06; p = 0.0092). Using a matched sample, the total hospital recurrence cost was higher for the initial open group compared to laparoscopic group ($14,520 versus $12,649; p = 0.0454). Based on our analysis, need for recurrent VHR adds substantially to total hospital costs and resource utilization. Following initial laparoscopic repair, however, the total cost of recurrent repair is not significantly increased, as it is following initial open repair. When comparing the initial laparoscopic repair versus open, the cost of recurrence was higher for the prior open repair group.

  5. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Suture, synthetic, or biologic in contaminated ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondre, Ioana L; Holihan, Julie L; Askenasy, Erik P; Greenberg, Jacob A; Keith, Jerrod N; Martindale, Robert G; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2016-02-01

    Data are lacking to support the choice between suture, synthetic mesh, or biologic matrix in contaminated ventral hernia repair (VHR). We hypothesize that in contaminated VHR, suture repair is associated with the lowest rate of surgical site infection (SSI). A multicenter database of all open VHR performed at from 2010-2011 was reviewed. All patients with follow-up of 1 mo and longer were included. The primary outcome was SSI as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcome was hernia recurrence (assessed clinically or radiographically). Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression for SSI and Cox proportional hazard model for recurrence) was performed. A total of 761 VHR were reviewed for a median (range) follow-up of 15 (1-50) mo: there were 291(38%) suture, 303 (40%) low-density and/or mid-density synthetic mesh, and 167(22%) biologic matrix repair. On univariate analysis, there were differences in the three groups including ethnicity, ASA, body mass index, institution, diabetes, primary versus incisional hernia, wound class, hernia size, prior VHR, fascial release, skin flaps, and acute repair. The unadjusted outcomes for SSI (15.1%; 17.8%; 21.0%; P = 0.280) and recurrence (17.8%; 13.5%; 21.5%; P = 0.074) were not statistically different between groups. On multivariate analysis, biologic matrix was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in both SSI and recurrences, whereas synthetic mesh associated with fewer recurrences compared to suture (hazard ratio = 0.60; P = 0.015) and nonsignificant increase in SSI. Interval estimates favored biologic matrix repair in contaminated VHR; however, these results were not statistically significant. In the absence of higher level evidence, surgeons should carefully balance risk, cost, and benefits in managing contaminated ventral hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  8. The Role of the Ventral and Dorsal Pathways in Reading Chinese Characters and English Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yafeng; Yang, Yanhui; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature in alphabetic languages suggests that the occipital-temporal region (the ventral pathway) is specialized for automatic parallel word recognition, whereas the parietal region (the dorsal pathway) is specialized for serial letter-by-letter reading (and). However, few studies have directly examined the role of the ventral and…

  9. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  10. Deep neural networks reveal a gradient in the complexity of neural representations across the ventral stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güçlü, U.; Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the primate ventral visual pathway encodes increasingly complex stimulus features in downstream areas. We quantitatively show that there indeed exists an explicit gradient for feature complexity in the ventral pathway of the human brain. This was achieved by mapping

  11. The role of the ventral dentate gyrus in olfactory pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Christy S S; Hu, Nathan J; Ho, Liana U N; Kesner, Raymond P

    2014-05-01

    Dorsoventral lesion studies of the hippocampus have indicated that the dorsal axis of the hippocampus is important for spatial processing and the ventral axis of the hippocampus is important for olfactory learning and memory and anxiety. There is some evidence to suggest that the ventral CA3 and ventral CA1 conduct parallel processes for pattern completion and temporal processing, respectively. Studies have indicated that the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) is importantly involved in processes reflecting underlying pattern separation activity for spatial information. However, the ventral DG is less understood. The current study investigated the less-understood role of the ventral DG in olfactory pattern separation. A series of odor stimuli that varied on only one level, number of carbon chains (methyl groups), was used in a matching-to-sample paradigm in order to investigate ventral DG involvement in working memory for similar and less similar odors. Rats with ventral DG lesions were impaired at delays of 60 sec, but not at delays of 15 sec. A memory-based pattern separation effect was observed performance was poorest with only one carbon chain separation between trial odors and was highest for trials with four separations. The present study indicates that the ventral DG plays an important role in olfactory learning and memory processes for highly similar odors. The results also indicate a role for the ventral DG in pattern separation for odor information, which may have further implications for parallel processing across the dorsoventral axis for the DG in spatial (dorsal) and olfactory (ventral) pattern separation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Differential Sampling of Visual Space in Ventral and Dorsal Early Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silson, Edward H; Reynolds, Richard C; Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I

    2018-02-28

    A fundamental feature of cortical visual processing is the separation of visual processing for the upper and lower visual fields. In early visual cortex (EVC), the upper visual field is processed ventrally, with the lower visual field processed dorsally. This distinction persists into several category-selective regions of occipitotemporal cortex, with ventral and lateral scene-, face-, and object-selective regions biased for the upper and lower visual fields, respectively. Here, using an elliptical population receptive field (pRF) model, we systematically tested the sampling of visual space within ventral and dorsal divisions of human EVC in both male and female participants. We found that (1) pRFs tend to be elliptical and oriented toward the fovea with distinct angular distributions for ventral and dorsal divisions of EVC, potentially reflecting a radial bias; and (2) pRFs in ventral areas were larger (∼1.5×) and more elliptical (∼1.2×) than those in dorsal areas. These differences potentially reflect a tendency for receptive fields in ventral temporal cortex to overlap the fovea with less emphasis on precise localization and isotropic representation of space compared with dorsal areas. Collectively, these findings suggest that ventral and dorsal divisions of EVC sample visual space differently, likely contributing to and/or stemming from the functional differentiation of visual processing observed in higher-level regions of the ventral and dorsal cortical visual pathways. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The processing of visual information from the upper and lower visual fields is separated in visual cortex. Although ventral and dorsal divisions of early visual cortex (EVC) are commonly assumed to sample visual space equivalently, we demonstrate systematic differences using an elliptical population receptive field (pRF) model. Specifically, we demonstrate that (1) ventral and dorsal divisions of EVC exhibit diverging distributions of pRF angle, which are biased

  13. New surgical technique for ventral penile curvature without circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alei, Giovanni; Letizia, Piero; Alei, Lavinia; Massoni, Francesco; Ricci, Serafino

    2014-06-01

    To describe and report on our variant of penile corporoplasty, the ‘double-breasted’ corporoplasty, with penoscrotal and infrapubic access not requiring circumcision. The medicolegal aspects of treatment are also discussed. Between February 1995 and October 2012, double-breasted corporoplasty was performed in 93 patients with congenital ventral penile curvature. Preoperative assessment comprised RigiScan monitoring, prostaglandin E1 injection with photographic documentation and measurement of penile angulation, administration of the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire, and biothesiometry up until 5 years ago when it was substituted with the Genito Sensory Analyser for testing sensitivity. Dorsal infrapubic access was used in the patients with ventral curvature. After preparation and incision of Colles' fascia, the penis is degloved and double-breasted corporoplasty is performed at the site established at preoperative assessment. The tunica albuginea is prepared, an incision is made, and the cavernous tissue is isolated from the albuginea to obtain two flaps that are then overlaid and sutured asymmetrically with interrupted 2-0 polyglactin 910 (Vicryl®) sutures. After the free edge of the albuginea is sutured with a running polyglactin 910 suture, a non-absorbable monofilament and uncoated suture made of polypropylene (Premicron®) suture is placed at the point of maximum traction. Complete correction of penile curvature was achieved in 96% of patients; recurrence occurred in 4%. No major complications were reported, nor were there neurovascular lesions or change in erectile function. Palpable subcutaneous irregularities at the site of the corporoplasty, without functional or aesthetic impairment, were reported by 35% of patients. There was no change in the appearance of the penis as circumcision was not performed and the residual scar was barely noticeable as it was hidden in the infrapubic fold. The corporoplasty technique can

  14. Primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy: a cohort study of 20,714 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, E; Bay-Nielsen, M; Jensen, K K; Jorgensen, L N; Pinborg, A; Bisgaard, T

    2017-06-01

    Prevalence, management, and risk of emergency operation for primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy and the potential risks for elective and emergency repair. This single-institutional retrospective study included all pregnant women attending one or more prenatal consultations at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, during a 3-year period. Patients' medical records were electronically retrieved. A free-text search algorithm and subsequent manual review was conducted to identify patients registered with a primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy. Follow-up was conducted by review of medical record notes within the Capital Region of Denmark supplemented with structured telephone interviews on indication. In total, 20,714 pregnant women were included in the study cohort. Seventeen (0.08%) and 25 (0.12%) women were registered with a primary ventral and groin hernia, respectively. None underwent elective or emergency repair in pregnancy, and all had uncomplicated childbirth. In 10 women, the groin bulge disappeared spontaneously after delivery. During postpartum follow-up of median 4.4 years (range 0.2-6.0 years), five (0.02%) and four (0.02%) underwent elective primary ventral and groin hernia repair, respectively. Primary ventral or groin hernia seems rare in pregnancy, and the incidence of emergency repair is extremely low. Watchful waiting strategy is recommended during pregnancy in women suspected for a primary ventral or groin hernia.

  15. Nicotinic receptors in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulate contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Justin W; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Gould, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    Nicotine administration alters various forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Increasing work has found that the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially contribute to multiple behaviors. Thus, the present study examined whether the effects of nicotine in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus have distinct influences on contextual fear learning in male C57BL/6J mice. Direct infusion of nicotine into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in an enhancement of contextual fear learning, whereas nicotine infused into the ventral hippocampus resulted in deficits. Nicotine infusions into the ventral hippocampus did not alter hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning or time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze, a measure of anxiety, suggesting that the effects are due to alterations in contextual learning and not other general processes. Finally, results from using direct infusions of MLA, a low-affinity α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, in conjunction with systemic nicotine, provide evidence that α7-nAChRs in the ventral hippocampus mediate the detrimental effect of ventral hippocampal nicotine on contextual fear learning. These results suggest that with systemic nicotine administration, competition exists between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus for behavioral control over contextual learning. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Laparoscopic versus open ventral hernia repair: longitudinal outcomes and cost analysis using statewide claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Brett L; Kuo, Lindsay E Y; Simmons, Kristina D; Fischer, John P; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2016-03-01

    There is still considerable debate regarding the best operative approach to ventral hernia repair. Using two large statewide databases, this study sought to evaluate the longitudinal outcomes and associated costs of laparoscopic and open ventral hernia repair. All patients undergoing elective ventral hernia repair from 2007-2011 were identified from inpatient discharge data from California and New York. In-hospital morbidity, in-hospital mortality, incidence of readmission, and incidence of revisional ventral hernia repair were evaluated as a function of surgical technique. The associated costs of medical care for laparoscopic versus open ventral hernia repair were evaluate for both the index procedure and all subsequent admissions and procedures within the study period. A total of 13,567 patients underwent elective ventral hernia repair with mesh; 9228 (69%) underwent OVHR and 4339 (31%) underwent LVHR. At time of the index procedure, LVHR was associated with a lower incidence of reoperation (OR 0.29, CI 0.12-0.58, p = 0.001), wound disruption (OR 0.35, CI 0.16-0.78, p = 0.01), wound infection (OR 0.50, CI 0.25-0.70, p Open ventral hernia repair was associated with a higher incidence of perioperative complications, postoperative readmissions and need for revisional hernia repair when compared to laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, even when controlling for patient sociodemographics. In congruence, open ventral hernia repair was associated with higher costs for both the index hernia repair and tallied over the length of follow-up for readmissions and revisional hernia repair.

  17. A fate map of the murine pancreas buds reveals a multipotent ventral foregut organ progenitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse R Angelo

    Full Text Available The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2-4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS. The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL. Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification.

  18. A Fate Map of the Murine Pancreas Buds Reveals a Multipotent Ventral Foregut Organ Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2–4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS). The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL). Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815796

  19. Cocaine-Induced Endocannabinoid Mobilization in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huikun Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a highly addictive drug that acts upon the brain’s reward circuitry via the inhibition of monoamine uptake. Endogenous cannabinoids (eCB are lipid molecules released from midbrain dopamine (DA neurons that modulate cocaine’s effects through poorly understood mechanisms. We find that cocaine stimulates release of the eCB, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, in the rat ventral midbrain to suppress GABAergic inhibition of DA neurons, through activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Cocaine mobilizes 2-AG via inhibition of norepinephrine uptake and promotion of a cooperative interaction between Gq/11-coupled type-1 metabotropic glutamate and α1-adrenergic receptors to stimulate internal calcium stores and activate phospholipase C. The disinhibition of DA neurons by cocaine-mobilized 2-AG is also functionally relevant because it augments DA release in the nucleus accumbens in vivo. Our results identify a mechanism through which the eCB system can regulate the rewarding and addictive properties of cocaine.

  20. Commissural neurons in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, John R; Lenihan, Nicole M; May, Bradford J

    2009-06-01

    Commissural neurons connect the cochlear nucleus complexes of both ears. Previous studies have suggested that the neurons may be separated into two anatomical subtypes on the basis of percent apposition (PA); that is, the percentage of the soma apposed by synaptic terminals. The present study combined tract tracing with synaptic immunolabeling to compare the soma area, relative number, and location of Type I (low PA) and Type II (high PA) commissural neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of rats. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that 261 of 377 (69%) commissural neurons have medium-sized somata with Type I axosomatic innervation. The commissural neurons also showed distinct topographical distributions. The majority of Type I neurons were located in the small cell cap of the VCN, which serves as a nexus for regulatory pathways within the auditory brainstem. Most Type II neurons were found in the magnocellular core. This anatomical dichotomy should broaden current views on the function of the commissural pathway that stress the fast inhibitory interactions generated by Type II neurons. The more prevalent Type I neurons may underlie slow regulatory influences that enhance binaural processing or the recovery of function after injury.

  1. Seroma in ventral incisional herniorrhaphy: incidence, predictors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Hur, Kwan; Hirter, Angie; Kim, Lawrence T; Thomas, Anthony; Berger, David H; Reda, Domenic; Itani, Kamal M F

    2009-11-01

    Factors leading to seroma following ventral incisional herniorrhaphy (VIH) are poorly understood. Between 2004 and 2006, patients were prospectively randomized at 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals to undergo laparoscopic or open VIH. Patients who developed seromas within 8 weeks postoperatively were compared with those who did not. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of seroma. Of 145 patients who underwent VIH, 24 (16.6%) developed seromas. Patients who underwent open VIH had more seromas than those who underwent laparoscopic VIH (23.3% vs 6.8%, P = .011). Seroma patients had hernias that were never spontaneously reducible (0% vs 21%, P = .015), had more abdominal incisions preoperatively (mean, 2.4 vs 1.8; P = .037), and were less likely to have drain catheters placed than those without seromas (30.0% vs 63.1%, P = .011). In multivariate analyses, open VIH predicted seroma (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.8), as well as the specific hospital at which the procedure was performed. Spontaneous resolution occurred in 71% of seromas; 29% required aspiration. Procedural characteristics and hernia characteristics rather than patient comorbidities predicted seroma in VIH.

  2. Laryngeal dislocation after ventral fusion of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Krauel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 70-year-old patient who underwent ventral fusion of the cervical spine (C3/4 and C4/5 for spinal canal stenosis performed by the neurosurgery department. The patient suffered an exceedingly rare complication of the surgery - laryngeal dislocation. Had the deformed laryngeal structures been overlooked and the patient extubated as usual after surgery, reintubation would have been impossible due to the associated swelling, which might have had disastrous consequences. Leftward dislocation of the larynx became apparent post-operatively, but prior to extubation. Extubation was therefore postponed and a subsequent computed tomography (CT scan revealed entrapment of laryngeal structures within the osteosynthesis. A trial of repositioning using microlaryngoscopy performed by otolaryngology (ears, nose and throat specialists failed, making open surgical revision necessary. At surgery, the entrapped laryngeal tissue was successfully mobilised. Laryngeal oedema developed despite prompt repositioning; thus, necessitating tracheotomy and long-term ventilation. Laryngeal dislocation may be an unusual cause of post-operative neck swelling after anterior cervical spine surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if surgical site haematoma and other causes have been ruled out. Imaging studies including CT of the neck may be needed before extubation to confirm the suspicion and should be promptly obtained to facilitate specific treatment.

  3. Ventral tegmental area afferents and drug-dependent behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idaira eOliva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA, a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects of drugs. In this review we present evidence implicating the VTA in drug-related behaviors, highlight the diversity of neuronal populations in the VTA, and discuss the behavioral effects of selectively manipulating VTA afferents. Future experiments are needed to determine which VTA afferents and what neuronal populations in the VTA mediate specific drug-dependent behaviors. Further studies are also necessary for identifying the afferent-specific synaptic alterations onto dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA following drug administration. The identification of neural circuits and adaptations involved with drug-dependent behaviors can highlight potential neural targets for pharmacological and deep brain stimulation interventions to treat substance abuse disorders.

  4. Ventralization of an indirect developing hemichordate by NiCl₂ suggests a conserved mechanism of dorso-ventral (D/V) patterning in Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttinger, E; Martindale, M Q

    2011-06-01

    One of the earliest steps in embryonic development is the establishment of the future body axes. Morphological and molecular data place the Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) within the Deuterostomia and as the sister taxon to chordates. Extensive work over the last decades in echinoid (sea urchins) echinoderms has led to the characterization of gene regulatory networks underlying germ layer specification and axis formation during embryogenesis. However, with the exception of recent studies from a direct developing hemichordate (Saccoglossus kowalevskii), very little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying early hemichordate development. Unlike echinoids, indirect developing hemichordates retain the larval body axes and major larval tissues after metamorphosis into the adult worm. In order to gain insight into dorso-ventral (D/V) patterning, we used nickel chloride (NiCl₂), a potent ventralizing agent on echinoderm embryos, on the indirect developing enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava. Our present study shows that NiCl₂ disrupts the D/V axis and induces formation of a circumferential mouth when treated before the onset of gastrulation. Molecular analysis, using newly isolated tissue-specific markers, shows that the ventral ectoderm is expanded at expense of dorsal ectoderm in treated embryos, but has little effect on germ layer or anterior-posterior markers. The resulting ventralized phenotype, the effective dose, and the NiCl₂ sensitive response period of Ptychodera flava, is very similar to the effects of nickel on embryonic development described in larval echinoderms. These strong similarities allow one to speculate that a NiCl₂ sensitive pathway involved in dorso-ventral patterning may be shared between echinoderms, hemichordates and a putative ambulacrarian ancestor. Furthermore, nickel treatments ventralize the direct developing hemichordate, S. kowalevskii indicating that a common pathway patterns both larval and adult

  5. The treatment of ventral penile chordee without hypospadias by dorsal midline plication in an adolescent boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Coban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report of a case with isolated ventral penile chordee who underwent dorsal midline plication procedure. We aimed to present our experience and to review of the literature on current management.

  6. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    composition. RESULTS: Treatment with EGF increased the weight of the ventral prostate, relative to body weight, by 50% compared with placebo (p coagulating glands were affected by EGF. Prostate tissue showed a significant increase in the volume...

  7. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    composition.RESULTS: Treatment with EGF increased the weight of the ventral prostate, relative to body weight, by 50% compared with placebo (p coagulating glands were affected by EGF. Prostate tissue showed a significant increase in the volume...

  8. 'Batman excision' of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair (point of technique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, P B; De Kuyper, P; Van Laecke, E

    2002-11-01

    In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars' flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars' flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results. The clue in this reconstruction is an inverted triangle shaped excision of ventral skin expanding over the edges of the hooded prepuce (which makes it look like Batman). After excision of the ventral skin it is possible to close the penile skin in the midline, thus mimicking the natural raphe. In case of preputial reconstruction the excised ventral skin makes the prepuce look more natural. The trend of further refining aesthetic appearance of the hypospadiac penis often neglects the penile skin reconstruction. A technique is presented by which the total penile appearances after surgery ameliorates due to better skin reconstruction.

  9. Transient inactivation of the neonatal ventral hippocampus impairs attentional set-shifting behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Julie M; Pershing, Michelle L; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects...

  10. Large Contaminated Ventral Hernia Repair Using Component Separation Technique with Synthetic Mesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, N.J.; Knaapen, L.; Bökkerink, W.J.V.; Biemans, M.J.; Buyne, O.R.; Ulrich, D.J.O.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Goor, H. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large ventral hernia repair represents a major reconstructive surgical challenge, especially under contaminated conditions. Synthetic mesh is usually avoided in these circumstances because of fear of mesh infection, although evidence is outdated and does not regard new materials and

  11. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wai Yiu Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

  12. Transcolonic ventral wall hernia mesh fixation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, D G; Ryou, M; Pai, R D; Tavakkolizadeh, A; Rattner, D W; Thompson, C C

    2007-10-01

    A natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to ventral wall hernia repair may represent a potentially less invasive alternative to current transabdominal surgical techniques. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using transcolonic NOTES to deliver hernia repair mesh into the peritoneal cavity, as well as the ability to manipulate composite mesh and secure it to the abdominal wall. Five pigs weighing 20 to 25 kg were used in this feasibility study involving two acute and three survival experiments. A prototype mesh delivery system was used to transfer 1.5 - 2-cm x 2.5 - 3-cm pieces of composite hernia mesh into the peritoneal cavity. Neodymium magnets on a prototype control arm were used to help position the mesh by magnetically engaging previously placed endoscopic clips. Transfascial fixation of the mesh with 3-0 monofilament sutures was achieved using a 19-gauge hollow needle, pusher wire, and a suture tag system. Composite hernia mesh was successfully transferred and secured in 5/5 attempts. All three survival animals thrived for 14 days prior to elective sacrifice. At necropsy, the mesh sites were found to be well peritonealized without adhesions. Suture placement through the posterior fascia was confirmed in 10/12 sutures. Of these, four sutures were within the abdominal musculature, and two sutures were through the anterior fascia (transfascial). Transcolonic delivery, transcutaneous magnetic manipulation, and fixation of composite hernia mesh are technically feasible in a porcine model with animal survival. An effective suturing method that allows consistent anchoring through the anterior fascia would be preferred and may require the development of novel devices.

  13. Reading without the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Neufeld, Nicholas H.; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P.; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who acquired dyslexia following extensive LvOT damage. The patient followed a reading trajectory typical of that associated with pure alexia, re-gaining the ability to read aloud many words with declining performance as the length of words increased. Using functional MRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we found that, when short (three to five letter) familiar words were read successfully, visual inputs to the patient’s occipital cortex were connected to left motor and premotor regions via activity in a central part of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS). The patient analysis therefore implied a left hemisphere “reading-without-LvOT” pathway that involved STS. We then investigated whether the same reading-without-LvOT pathway could be identified in 29 skilled readers and whether there was inter-subject variability in the degree to which skilled reading engaged LvOT. We found that functional connectivity in the reading-without-LvOT pathway was strongest in individuals who had the weakest functional connectivity in the LvOT pathway. This observation validates the findings of our patient’s case study. Our findings highlight the contribution of a left hemisphere reading pathway that is activated during the rapid identification of short familiar written words, particularly when LvOT is not involved. Preservation and use of this pathway may explain how patients are still able to read short words accurately when LvOT has been damaged. PMID:23017598

  14. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  15. Identification of Rat Ventral Tegmental Area GABAergic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Elyssa B.; Toy, Brian; Himmels, Patricia; Morales, Marisela; Fields, Howard L.

    2012-01-01

    The canonical two neuron model of opioid reward posits that mu opioid receptor (MOR) activation produces reward by disinhibiting midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons through inhibition of local GABAergic interneurons. Although indirect evidence supports the neural circuit postulated by this model, its validity has been called into question by growing evidence for VTA neuronal heterogeneity and the recent demonstration that MOR agonists inhibit GABAergic terminals in the VTA arising from extrinsic neurons. In addition, VTA MOR reward can be dopamine-independent. To directly test the assumption that MOR activation directly inhibits local GABAergic neurons, we investigated the properties of rat VTA GABA neurons directly identified with either immunocytochemistry for GABA or GAD65/67, or in situ hybridization for GAD65/67 mRNA. Utilizing co-labeling with an antibody for the neural marker NeuN and in situ hybridization against GAD65/67, we found that 23±3% of VTA neurons are GAD65/67(+). In contrast to the assumptions of the two neuron model, VTA GABAergic neurons are heterogeneous, both physiologically and pharmacologically. Importantly, only 7/13 confirmed VTA GABA neurons were inhibited by the MOR selective agonist DAMGO. Interestingly, all confirmed VTA GABA neurons were insensitive to the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (0/6 inhibited), while all confirmed dopamine neurons were inhibited (19/19). The heterogeneity of opioid responses we found in VTA GABAergic neurons, and the fact that GABA terminals arising from neurons outside the VTA are inhibited by MOR agonists, make further studies essential to determine the local circuit mechanisms underlying VTA MOR reward. PMID:22860119

  16. Reading without the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Neufeld, Nicholas H; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M; Humphreys, Glyn W; Price, Cathy J

    2012-12-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who acquired dyslexia following extensive LvOT damage. The patient followed a reading trajectory typical of that associated with pure alexia, re-gaining the ability to read aloud many words with declining performance as the length of words increased. Using functional MRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we found that, when short (three to five letter) familiar words were read successfully, visual inputs to the patient's occipital cortex were connected to left motor and premotor regions via activity in a central part of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS). The patient analysis therefore implied a left hemisphere "reading-without-LvOT" pathway that involved STS. We then investigated whether the same reading-without-LvOT pathway could be identified in 29 skilled readers and whether there was inter-subject variability in the degree to which skilled reading engaged LvOT. We found that functional connectivity in the reading-without-LvOT pathway was strongest in individuals who had the weakest functional connectivity in the LvOT pathway. This observation validates the findings of our patient's case study. Our findings highlight the contribution of a left hemisphere reading pathway that is activated during the rapid identification of short familiar written words, particularly when LvOT is not involved. Preservation and use of this pathway may explain how patients are still able to read short words accurately when LvOT has been damaged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contraction of the ventral abdomen potentiates extracardiac retrograde hemolymph propulsion in the mosquito hemocoel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Andereck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. Wave-like peristaltic contractions of the heart alternate in propelling hemolymph in anterograde and retrograde directions, where it empties into the hemocoel at the terminal ends of the insect. During our analyses of hemolymph propulsion in Anopheles gambiae, we observed periodic ventral abdominal contractions and hypothesized that they promote extracardiac hemolymph circulation in the abdominal hemocoel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We devised methods to simultaneously analyze both heart and abdominal contractions, as well as to measure hemolymph flow in the abdominal hemocoel. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that ventral abdominal contractions occur as series of bursts that propagate in the retrograde direction. Periods of ventral abdominal contraction begin only during periods of anterograde heart contraction and end immediately following a heartbeat directional reversal, suggesting that ventral abdominal contractions function to propel extracardiac hemolymph in the retrograde direction. To test this functional role, fluorescent microspheres were intrathoracically injected and their trajectory tracked throughout the hemocoel. Quantitative measurements of microsphere movement in extracardiac regions of the abdominal cavity showed that during periods of abdominal contractions hemolymph flows in dorsal and retrograde directions at a higher velocity and with greater acceleration than during periods of abdominal rest. Histochemical staining of the abdominal musculature then revealed that ventral abdominal contractions result from the contraction of intrasegmental lateral muscle fibers, intersegmental ventral muscle bands, and the ventral transverse muscles that form the ventral diaphragm. CONCLUSIONS

  18. Opposing interactions between homothorax and Lobe define the ventral eye margin of Drosophila eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Tare, Meghana; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Son, Won-Seok; Cho, Kyung-Ok; Choi, Kwang-wook

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Patterning in multi-cellular organisms involves progressive restriction of cell fates by generation of boundaries to divide an organ primordium into smaller fields. We have employed the Drosophila eye model to understand the genetic circuitry responsible for defining the boundary between the eye and the head cuticle on the ventral margin. The default state of the early eye is ventral and depends on the function of Lobe (L) and the Notch ligand Serrate (Ser). We identified homothorax (hth) as a strong enhancer of the L mutant phenotype of loss of ventral eye. Hth is a MEIS class gene with a highly conserved Meis-Hth (MH) domain and a homeodomain (HD). Hth is known to bind Extradenticle (Exd) via its MH domain for its nuclear translocation. Loss-of-function of hth, a negative regulator of eye, results in ectopic ventral eye enlargements. This phenotype is complementary to the L mutant phenotype of loss-of-ventral eye. However, if L and hth interact during ventral eye development remains unknown. Here we show that (i) L acts antagonistically to hth, (ii) Hth is upregulated in the L mutant background, and (iii) MH domain of Hth is required for its genetic interaction with L, while its homeodomain is not, (iv) in L mutant background ventral eye suppression function of Hth involves novel MH domain-dependent factor(s), (v) Nuclear localization of Exd is not sufficient to mediate the Hth function in the L mutant background. Further, Exd is not a critical rate-limiting factor for the Hth function. Thus, optimum levels of L and Hth are required to define the boundary between the developing eye and head cuticle on the ventral margin. PMID:21920354

  19. Contraction of the Ventral Abdomen Potentiates Extracardiac Retrograde Hemolymph Propulsion in the Mosquito Hemocoel

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    Andereck, Jonathan W.; King, Jonas G.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. Wave-like peristaltic contractions of the heart alternate in propelling hemolymph in anterograde and retrograde directions, where it empties into the hemocoel at the terminal ends of the insect. During our analyses of hemolymph propulsion in Anopheles gambiae, we observed periodic ventral abdominal contractions and hypothesized that they promote extracardiac hemolymph circulation in the abdominal hemocoel. Methodology/Principal Findings We devised methods to simultaneously analyze both heart and abdominal contractions, as well as to measure hemolymph flow in the abdominal hemocoel. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that ventral abdominal contractions occur as series of bursts that propagate in the retrograde direction. Periods of ventral abdominal contraction begin only during periods of anterograde heart contraction and end immediately following a heartbeat directional reversal, suggesting that ventral abdominal contractions function to propel extracardiac hemolymph in the retrograde direction. To test this functional role, fluorescent microspheres were intrathoracically injected and their trajectory tracked throughout the hemocoel. Quantitative measurements of microsphere movement in extracardiac regions of the abdominal cavity showed that during periods of abdominal contractions hemolymph flows in dorsal and retrograde directions at a higher velocity and with greater acceleration than during periods of abdominal rest. Histochemical staining of the abdominal musculature then revealed that ventral abdominal contractions result from the contraction of intrasegmental lateral muscle fibers, intersegmental ventral muscle bands, and the ventral transverse muscles that form the ventral diaphragm. Conclusions/Significance These data show that

  20. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction.

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    Brand, Matthias; Snagowski, Jan; Laier, Christian; Maderwald, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    One type of Internet addiction is excessive pornography consumption, also referred to as cybersex or Internet pornography addiction. Neuroimaging studies found ventral striatum activity when participants watched explicit sexual stimuli compared to non-explicit sexual/erotic material. We now hypothesized that the ventral striatum should respond to preferred pornographic compared to non-preferred pornographic pictures and that the ventral striatum activity in this contrast should be correlated with subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. We studied 19 heterosexual male participants with a picture paradigm including preferred and non-preferred pornographic materials. Subjects had to evaluate each picture with respect to arousal, unpleasantness, and closeness to ideal. Pictures from the preferred category were rated as more arousing, less unpleasant, and closer to ideal. Ventral striatum response was stronger for the preferred condition compared to non-preferred pictures. Ventral striatum activity in this contrast was correlated with the self-reported symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. The subjective symptom severity was also the only significant predictor in a regression analysis with ventral striatum response as dependent variable and subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, general sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and sexual behavior in the last days as predictors. The results support the role for the ventral striatum in processing reward anticipation and gratification linked to subjectively preferred pornographic material. Mechanisms for reward anticipation in ventral striatum may contribute to a neural explanation of why individuals with certain preferences and sexual fantasies are at-risk for losing their control over Internet pornography consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion

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    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral “form” visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se. PMID:25583504

  2. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tünnerhoff, Johannes; Noppeney, Uta

    2015-08-12

    Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down control signals to guide responses in line with current goals and task demands. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has suggested that the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attentional systems are recruited interactively in this process. This fMRI study used concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a causal perturbation approach to investigate the interactions between dorsal and ventral attentional systems and sensory processing areas. In a sustained spatial attention paradigm, human participants detected weak visual targets that were presented in the lower-left visual field on 50% of the trials. Further, we manipulated the presence/absence of task-irrelevant auditory signals. Critically, on each trial we applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). IPS-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection. Conversely, they decreased activations in the ventral visual areas. Importantly, IPS-TMS abolished target-evoked activation increases in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of the ventral attentional system, whereas it eliminated target-evoked activation decreases in the right fusiform. Our results demonstrate that IPS-TMS exerts profound directional causal influences not only on visual areas but also on the TPJ as a critical component of the ventral attentional system. They reveal a complex interplay between dorsal and ventral attentional systems during target detection under sustained spatial attention. Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down attentional control. Although the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal systems are key players in

  3. Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Damage Is Associated with Decreased Ventral Striatum Volume and Response to Reward.

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    Pujara, Maia S; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2016-05-04

    The ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are two central nodes of the "reward circuit" of the brain. Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated coincident activation and functional connectivity between these brain regions, and animal studies have demonstrated that the vmPFC modulates ventral striatum activity. However, there have been no comparable data in humans to address whether the vmPFC may be critical for the reward-related response properties of the ventral striatum. In this study, we used fMRI in five neurosurgical patients with focal vmPFC lesions to test the hypothesis that the vmPFC is necessary for enhancing ventral striatum responses to the anticipation of reward. In support of this hypothesis, we found that, compared with age- and gender-matched neurologically healthy subjects, the vmPFC-lesioned patients had reduced ventral striatal activity during the anticipation of reward. Furthermore, we observed that the vmPFC-lesioned patients had decreased volumes of the accumbens subregion of the ventral striatum. Together, these functional and structural neuroimaging data provide novel evidence for a critical role for the vmPFC in contributing to reward-related activity of the ventral striatum. These results offer new insight into the functional and structural interactions between key components of the brain circuitry underlying human affective function and decision-making. Maladaptive decision-making is a common problem across multiple mental health disorders. Developing new pathophysiologically based strategies for diagnosis and treatment thus requires a better understanding of the brain circuits responsible for adaptive decision-making and related psychological subprocesses (e.g., reward valuation, anticipation, and motivation). Animal studies provide evidence that these functions are mediated through direct interactions between two key nodes of a posited "reward circuit," the ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal

  4. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-12-01

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1) assess the intensity and impact of postoperative pain by detailed patient-reported description of pain and convalescence after LVHR (Study I), 2) evaluate the feasibility of fibrin sealant (FS) for mesh fixation in an experimental pig model (Study II), and 3) investigate FS vs. tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR in a randomised, double-blinded, clinical controlled study with acute postoperative pain as the primary outcome (Study III). In Study I - a prospective descriptive study - 35 patients were prospectively included and underwent LVHR. Scores of pain, quality of life, convalescence, fatigue, and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain was 7%. No parameter predicted postoperative pain significantly. Significant correlations were found between pain, and general well-being (rS= -0.8, p pigs - nine pigs were operated laparoscopically with insertion of two different meshes fixed with either FS or tacks. All pigs were euthanized on POD 30. The primary outcome parameter was strength of ingrowth between the mesh and the anterior abdominal wall. A mechanical peel test was performed for each tissue sample. The secondary outcome parameters were grade and strength of adhesions to the mesh, shrinkage and displacement/folding of the mesh and histological parameters. All nine pigs survived without complications until sacrifice. No meshes were displaced from their initial position at autopsy, but in two cases mesh folding was

  5. Transgastric ventral hernia repair: a controlled study in a live porcine model (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsevoy, Sergey V; Dray, Xavier; Shin, Eun Ji; Buscaglia, Jonathan M; Magno, Priscilla; Assumpcao, Lia; Marohn, Michael R; Redan, Jay; Giday, Samuel A; Schweitzer, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Ventral hernia repair is currently performed via open surgery or laparoscopic approach. To develop an alternative ventral hernia repair technique. Acute and survival experiments on twelve 50-kg pigs. An endoscope was introduced transgastrically into the peritoneal cavity. An abdominal wall hernia was created through a 5-mm skin incision followed by a 5-cm-long incision of the abdominal wall muscles and aponeurosis. A hernia repair technique was developed in 3 acute experiments. Then animals were randomized into 2 groups. In the experimental group (5 animals) Gore-Tex mesh was transgastrically attached to the abdominal wall, repairing the previously created abdominal wall hernia. In the control group (4 animals), the hernia was not repaired. In both groups, the endoscope was then withdrawn into the stomach, and the gastric wall incision was closed with T-bars. The animals survived for 2 weeks and were then euthanized. The presence of ventral hernia on necropsy. In the control group, the ventral hernia was present on necropsy in all animals. In the experimental group, the ventral hernia was easily repaired, with no evidence of hernia on necropsy. In the first animal in the experimental group, necropsy revealed infected mesh. After this discovery, we used sterilized cover for mesh delivery and did not find any signs of infection in 4 subsequent study animals. The study was performed in a porcine model. Transgastric ventral hernia repair is feasible, technically easy, and effective. It can become a less invasive alternative to the currently used laparoscopic and surgical ventral hernia repair.

  6. Gene expression suggests decoupled dorsal and ventral segmentation in the millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda).

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    Janssen, Ralf; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Damen, Wim G M

    2004-04-01

    Diplopods (millipedes) are known for their irregular body segmentation. Most importantly, the number of dorsal segmental cuticular plates (tergites) does not match the number of ventral structures (e.g., sternites). Controversial theories exist to explain the origin of this so-called diplosegmentation. We have studied the embryology of a representative diplopod, Glomeris marginata, and have analyzed the segmentation genes engrailed (en), hedgehog (hh), cubitus-interruptus (ci), and wingless (wg). We show that dorsal segments can be distinguished from ventral segments. They differ not only in number and developmental history, but also in gene expression patterns. engrailed, hedgehog, and cubitus-interruptus are expressed in both ventral and dorsal segments, but at different intrasegmental locations, whereas wingless is expressed only in the ventral segments, but not in the dorsal segments. Ventrally, the patterns are similar to what has been described from Drosophila and other arthropods, consistent with a conserved role of these genes in establishing parasegment boundaries. On the dorsal side, however, the gene expression patterns are different and inconsistent with a role in boundary formation between segments, but they suggest that these genes might function to establish the tergite borders. Our data suggest a profound and rather complete decoupling of dorsal and ventral segmentation leading to the dorsoventral discrepancies in the number of segmental elements. Based on gene expression, we propose a model that may resolve the hitherto controversial issue of the correlation between dorsal tergites and ventral leg pairs in basal diplopods (e.g., Glomeris) and is suggestive also for derived, ring-forming diplopods (e.g., Juliformia).

  7. In vivo detection of lateral-ventral tier nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Daniel E; Langley, Jason; Sedlacik, Jan; Boelmans, Kai; Factor, Stewart A; Hu, Xiaoping P

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure neuromelanin-sensitive MRI contrast changes in the lateral-ventral tier of substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease (PD). Histopathological studies of PD have demonstrated both massive loss of melanized dopamine neurons and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Neurodegeneration is most profound in the lateral-ventral tier of this structure. We have previously shown in both healthy controls and individuals with PD that neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and iron-sensitive MRI contrast regions in substantia nigra overlap. This overlap region is located in the lateral-ventral tier. Exploiting this area of contrast overlap for region of interest selection, we developed a semi-automated image processing approach to characterize the lateral-ventral tier in MRI data. Here we apply this approach to measure magnetization transfer contrast, which corresponds to local neuromelanin density, in both the lateral-ventral tier and the entire pars compacta in 22 PD patients and 19 controls. Significant contrast reductions were seen in PD in both the entire pars compacta (P = 0.009) and in its lateral-ventral tier (P = 0.0002); in PD contrast was significantly lower in the lateral-ventral tier than in the entire pars compacta (P = 0.0008). These findings are the first in vivo evidence of the selective vulnerability of this nigral subregion in PD, and this approach may be developed for high impact biomarker applications. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2627-2634, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The ventral habenulae of zebrafish develop in prosomere 2 dependent on Tcf7l2 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The conserved habenular neural circuit relays cognitive information from the forebrain into the ventral mid- and hindbrain. In zebrafish, the bilaterally formed habenulae in the dorsal diencephalon are made up of the asymmetric dorsal and symmetric ventral habenular nuclei, which are homologous to the medial and lateral nuclei respectively, in mammals. These structures have been implicated in various behaviors related to the serotonergic/dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The dorsal habenulae develop adjacent to the medially positioned pineal complex. Their precursors differentiate into two main neuronal subpopulations which differ in size across brain hemispheres as signals from left-sided parapineal cells influence their differentiation program. Unlike the dorsal habenulae and despite their importance, the ventral habenulae have been poorly studied. It is not known which genetic programs underlie their development and why they are formed symmetrically, unlike the dorsal habenulae. A main reason for this lack of knowledge is that the vHb origin has remained elusive to date. Results To address these questions, we applied long-term 2-photon microscopy time-lapse analysis of habenular neural circuit development combined with depth color coding in a transgenic line, labeling all main components of the network. Additional laser ablations and cell tracking experiments using the photoconvertible PSmOrange system in GFP transgenic fish show that the ventral habenulae develop in prosomere 2, posterior and lateral to the dorsal habenulae in the dorsal thalamus. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the ventral habenular nuclei only develop in the presence of functional Tcf7l2, a downstream modulator of the Wnt signaling cascade. Consistently, photoconverted thalamic tcf7l2exl/exl mutant cells do not contribute to habenula formation. Conclusions We show in vivo that dorsal and ventral habenulae develop in different regions of prosomere 2. In the process of ventral

  9. Reward-associated gamma oscillations in ventral striatum are regionally differentiated and modulate local firing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias; Lansink, Carien S; Lankelma, Jan V; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2010-03-01

    Oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs) in the gamma range are found in many brain regions and are supposed to support the temporal organization of cognitive, perceptual, and motor functions. Even though gamma oscillations have also been observed in ventral striatum, one of the brain's most important structures for motivated behavior and reward processing, their specific function during ongoing behavior is unknown. Using a movable tetrode array, we recorded LFPs and activity of neural ensembles in the ventral striatum of rats performing a reward-collection task. Rats were running along a triangle track and in each round collected one of three different types of rewards. The gamma power of LFPs on subsets of tetrodes was modulated by reward-site visits, discriminated between reward types, between baitedness of reward locations and was different before versus after arrival at a reward site. Many single units in ventral striatum phase-locked their discharge pattern to the gamma oscillations of the LFPs. Phase-locking occurred more often in reward-related than in reward-unrelated neurons and LFPs. A substantial number of simultaneously recorded LFPs correlated poorly with each other in terms of gamma rhythmicity, indicating that the expression of gamma activity was heterogeneous and regionally differentiated. The orchestration of LFPs and single-unit activity by way of gamma rhythmicity sheds light on the functional architecture of the ventral striatum and the temporal coordination of ventral striatal activity for modulating downstream areas and regulating synaptic plasticity.

  10. Integrating early results on ventral striatal gamma oscillations in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Matthijs A A; Kalenscher, Tobias; Lansink, Carien S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Berke, Joshua D; Redish, A David

    2010-01-01

    A vast literature implicates the ventral striatum in the processing of reward-related information and in mediating the impact of such information on behavior. It is characterized by heterogeneity at the local circuit, connectivity, and functional levels. A tool for dissecting this complex structure that has received relatively little attention until recently is the analysis of ventral striatal local field potential oscillations, which are more prominent in the gamma band compared to the dorsal striatum. Here we review recent results on gamma oscillations recorded from freely moving rats. Ventral striatal gamma separates into distinct frequency bands (gamma-50 and gamma-80) with distinct behavioral correlates, relationships to different inputs, and separate populations of phase-locked putative fast-spiking interneurons. Fast switching between gamma-50 and gamma-80 occurs spontaneously but is influenced by reward delivery as well as the application of dopaminergic drugs. These results provide novel insights into ventral striatal processing and highlight the importance of considering fast-timescale dynamics of ventral striatal activity.

  11. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 in a dog

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    Harumichi Itoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia. The dog underwent foramen magnum decompression, dorsal laminectomy of C1, and ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Soon after the operation, voluntary movements of the legs were recovered. Finally, the dog could stand and walk without assistance. The dog had complicated malformations at the craniocervical junction but foramen magnum decompression and dorsal laminectomy for Chiari-like malformation, and ventral fixation for atlantoaxial subluxation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.

  12. White matter anisotropy in the ventral language pathway predicts sound-to-word learning success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Francis C K; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Garibaldi, Kyla; Wong, Patrick C M

    2011-06-15

    According to the dual stream model of auditory language processing, the dorsal stream is responsible for mapping sound to articulation and the ventral stream plays the role of mapping sound to meaning. Most researchers agree that the arcuate fasciculus (AF) is the neuroanatomical correlate of the dorsal steam; however, less is known about what constitutes the ventral one. Nevertheless, two hypotheses exist: one suggests that the segment of the AF that terminates in middle temporal gyrus corresponds to the ventral stream, and the other suggests that it is the extreme capsule that underlies this sound-to-meaning pathway. The goal of this study was to evaluate these two competing hypotheses. We trained participants with a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use a foreign phonetic contrast for signaling word meaning. Using diffusion tensor imaging, a brain-imaging tool to investigate white matter connectivity in humans, we found that fractional anisotropy in the left parietal-temporal region positively correlated with the performance in sound-to-word learning. In addition, fiber tracking revealed a ventral pathway, composed of the extreme capsule and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, that mediated auditory comprehension. Our findings provide converging evidence supporting the importance of the ventral steam, an extreme capsule system, in the frontal-temporal language network. Implications for current models of speech processing are also discussed.

  13. Morphological and immunohistochemical comparison of three rat prostate lobes (lateral, dorsal and ventral in experimental hyperprolactinemia.

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    Dariusz Gącarzewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The prolactin plays an important role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of prostate gland besides androgens. The goal of this study was to reveal the influence of elevated prolactin concentration on epithelial cells of prostate. We compared the morphology of epithelial cells of prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes and expression of androgen receptors in these cells in rats with hyperprolactinemia and in control rats. We used sexually mature male Wistar rats. The experimental rats received metoclopramide; the control group received saline in the same way. The prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes were collected routinely for light and electron microscopy. The intensity of immunohistochemical reaction of androgen receptor in epithelial cells of dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes was evaluated by measure of optical density with computer image analysis. The light and electron (transmission and scanning microscopes were used for morphological observations. Results: In experimental rats twofold increase in prolactin and twofold decrease in testosterone found. In experimental group the expression of androgen receptor was lower in columnar epithelial cells of dorsal and ventral lobes but higher in lateral one. We observed morphological abnormalities in columnar epithelial cells of lateral and dorsal lobes. The columnar epithelial cells of ventral lobes didn't show any morphological changes in hyperprolactinemia.

  14. Sustained attentional states require distinct temporal involvement of the dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex

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    Antonio Luchicchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Attending the sensory environment for cue detection is a cognitive operation that occurs on a time scale of seconds. The dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC contribute to separate aspects of attentional processing. Pyramidal neurons in different parts of the mPFC are active during cognitive behavior, yet whether this activity is causally underlying attentional processing is not known. We aimed to determine the precise temporal requirements for activation of the mPFC subregions during the seconds prior to cue detection. To test this, we used optogenetic silencing of dorsal or ventral mPFC pyramidal neurons at defined time windows during a sustained attentional state. We find that the requirement of ventral mPFC pyramidal neuron activity is strictly time-locked to stimulus detection. Inhibiting the ventral mPFC two seconds before or during cue presentation reduces response accuracy and hampers behavioral inhibition. The requirement for dorsal mPFC activity on the other hand is temporally more loosely related to a preparatory attentional state, and short lapses in pyramidal neuron activity in dorsal mPFC do not affect performance. This only occurs when the dorsal mPFC is inhibited during the entire preparatory period. Together, our results reveal that a dissociable temporal recruitment of ventral and dorsal mPFC is required during attentional processing.

  15. Sustained Attentional States Require Distinct Temporal Involvement of the Dorsal and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Terra, Huub; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; de Kloet, Sybren F; Obermayer, Joshua; Heistek, Tim S; de Haan, Roel; de Kock, Christiaan P J; Deisseroth, Karl; Pattij, Tommy; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2016-01-01

    Attending the sensory environment for cue detection is a cognitive operation that occurs on a time scale of seconds. The dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contribute to separate aspects of attentional processing. Pyramidal neurons in different parts of the mPFC are active during cognitive behavior, yet whether this activity is causally underlying attentional processing is not known. We aimed to determine the precise temporal requirements for activation of the mPFC subregions during the seconds prior to cue detection. To test this, we used optogenetic silencing of dorsal or ventral mPFC pyramidal neurons at defined time windows during a sustained attentional state. We find that the requirement of ventral mPFC pyramidal neuron activity is strictly time-locked to stimulus detection. Inhibiting the ventral mPFC 2 s before or during cue presentation reduces response accuracy and hampers behavioral inhibition. The requirement for dorsal mPFC activity on the other hand is temporally more loosely related to a preparatory attentional state, and short lapses in pyramidal neuron activity in dorsal mPFC do not affect performance. This only occurs when the dorsal mPFC is inhibited during the entire preparatory period. Together, our results reveal that a dissociable temporal recruitment of ventral and dorsal mPFC is required during attentional processing.

  16. ANI inactivation: unconditioned anxiolytic effects of anisomycin in the ventral hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Anastasia; Ward-Flanagan, Rachel; Dickson, Clayton T; Treit, Dallas

    2014-11-01

    Although hippocampal function is typically described in terms of memory, recent evidence suggests a differentiation along its dorsal/ventral axis, with dorsal regions serving memory and ventral regions serving emotion. While long-term memory is thought to be dependent on de novo protein synthesis because it is blocked by translational inhibitors such as anisomycin (ANI), online (moment-to-moment) functions of the hippocampus (such as unconditioned emotional responding) should not be sensitive to such manipulations since they are unlikely to involve neuroplasticity. However, ANI has recently been shown to suppress neural activity which suggests (1) that protein synthesis is critical for neural function and (2) that paradigms using ANI are confounded by its inactivating effects. We tested this idea using a neurobehavioral assay which compared the influence of intrahippocampal infusions of ANI at dorsal and ventral sites on unconditioned emotional behavior of rats. We show that ANI infusions in ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus produced a suppression of anxiety-related responses in two well-established rodent tests: the elevated plus maze and shock-probe burying tests. These results are similar to those previously observed when ventral hippocampal activity is directly suppressed (e.g., by using sodium channel blockers). The present study offers compelling behavioral evidence for the proposal that ANI adversely affects ongoing neural function and therefore its influence is not simply limited to impairing the consolidation of long-term memories Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Imaging findings in patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of neural tissue

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    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany); Psenner, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Allgemeines Regionalkrankenhaus Bozen (Italy); Hamburger, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and imaging findings in three patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of the spinal cord or cauda equina. The literature is reviewed and the clinical, radiological and operative findings are compared. Three patients with ventral dural defects of different etiologies are presented. One patient gave a longstanding history of ankylosing spondylitis, the second patient presents 37 years after spinal trauma, and the third patient presents with spontaneous spinal cord herniation. All patients had typically slowly progressive neurological symptoms with multiple hospitalizations until diagnosis was made. Characteristic findings in postmyelographic CT included a ventral or ventrolateral displacement with deformation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina. Sagittal MRI showed this abrupt and localized anterior deviation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina to the posterior portions of a vertebral body with or without a bony vertebral defect optimally. Additionally, due to the ventral displacement of the spinal cord, the dorsal subarachnoid space was relatively enlarged without evidence of an arachnoid cyst, in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelographic CT can diagnose ventral dural defects with spinal cord herniation or nerve root entrapment. Dural defects must be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms in cases of longstanding ankylosing spondylitis, late sequelae of fractures of vertebral bodies, and without history of spinal trauma or surgery. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  18. Ventral striatal prediction error signaling is associated with dopamine synthesis capacity and fluid intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Florian; Rapp, Michael A.; Huys, Quentin J. M.; Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deserno, Lorenz; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Kalbitzer, Jan; Buchert, Ralph; Kienast, Thorsten; Cumming, Paul; Plotkin, Michail; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Grace, Anthony A.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence represents the capacity for flexible problem solving and rapid behavioral adaptation. Rewards drive flexible behavioral adaptation, in part via a teaching signal expressed as reward prediction errors in the ventral striatum, which has been associated with phasic dopamine release in animal studies. We examined a sample of 28 healthy male adults using multimodal imaging and biological parametric mapping with 1) functional magnetic resonance imaging during a reversal learning task and 2) in a subsample of 17 subjects also with positron emission tomography using 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA to assess dopamine synthesis capacity. Fluid intelligence was measured using a battery of nine standard neuropsychological tests. Ventral striatal BOLD correlates of reward prediction errors were positively correlated with fluid intelligence and, in the right ventral striatum, also inversely correlated with dopamine synthesis capacity (FDOPA Kinapp). When exploring aspects of fluid intelligence, we observed that prediction error signaling correlates with complex attention and reasoning. These findings indicate that individual differences in the capacity for flexible problem solving may be driven by ventral striatal activation during reward-related learning, which in turn proved to be inversely associated with ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. PMID:22344813

  19. Integrating early results on ventral striatal gamma oscillations in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A vast literature implicates the ventral striatum in the processing of reward-related information and in mediating the impact of such information on behavior. It is characterized by heterogeneity at the local circuit, connectivity, and functional levels. A tool for dissecting this complex structure that has received relatively little attention until recently is the analysis of ventral striatal local field potential oscillations, which are more prominent in the gamma band compared to the dorsal striatum. Here we review recent results on gamma oscillations recorded from freely moving rats. Ventral striatal gamma separates into distinct frequency bands (gamma-50 and gamma-80 with distinct behavioral correlates, relationships to different inputs, and separate populations of phase-locked putative fast-spiking interneurons. Fast switching between gamma-50 and gamma-80 occurs spontaneously but is influenced by reward delivery as well as the application of dopaminergic drugs. These results provide novel insights into ventral striatal processing and highlight the importance of considering fast-timescale dynamics of ventral striatal activity.

  20. Microelectrode array recordings from the ventral roots in chronically implanted cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham eDebnath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ventral spinal roots contain the axons of spinal motoneurons and provide the only location in the peripheral nervous system where recorded neural activity can be assured to be motor rather than sensory. This study demonstrates recordings of single unit activity from these ventral root axons using floating microelectrode arrays (FMAs. Ventral root recordings were characterized by examining single unit yield and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR with 32-channel FMAs implanted chronically in the L6 and L7 spinal roots of 9 cats. Single unit recordings were performed for implant periods of up to 12 weeks. Motor units were identified based on active discharge during locomotion and inactivity under anesthesia. Motor unit yield and SNR were calculated for each electrode, and results were grouped by electrode site size, which were varied systematically between 25-160 μm to determine effects on signal quality. The unit yields and SNR did not differ significantly across this wide range of electrode sizes. Both SNR and yield decayed over time, but electrodes were able to record spikes with SNR > 2 up to 12 weeks post-implant. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to record single unit activity from multiple isolated motor units with penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted chronically in the ventral spinal roots. This approach could be useful for creating a spinal nerve interface for advanced neural prostheses, and results of this study will be used to improve design of microelectrodes for chronic neural recording in the ventral spinal roots.

  1. Direct and recurrent inguinal hernias are associated with ventral hernia repair: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Sorensen, Lars T; Bay-Nielsen, Morten; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-02-01

    A systemically altered connective tissue metabolism has been demonstrated in patients with abdominal wall hernias. The most pronounced connective tissue changes are found in patients with direct or recurrent inguinal hernias as opposed to patients with indirect inguinal hernias. The aim of the present study was to assess whether direct or recurrent inguinal hernias are associated with an elevated rate of ventral hernia surgery. In the nationwide Danish Hernia Database, a cohort of 92,457 patients operated on for inguinal hernias was recorded from January 1998 until June 2010. Eight-hundred forty-three (0.91 %) of these patients underwent a ventral hernia operation between January 2007 and June 2010. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess an association between inguinal and ventral hernia repair. Direct (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.28 [95 % CI, 1.08-1.51]) and recurrent (OR = 1.76, [95 % CI, 1.39-2.23]) inguinal hernias were significantly associated with ventral hernia repair after adjustment for age, gender, and surgical approach (open or laparoscopic). Patients with direct and recurrent inguinal herniation are more prone to ventral hernia repair than patients with indirect inguinal herniation. This is the first study to show that herniogenesis is associated with type of inguinal hernia.

  2. Laparoscopic Repair Reduces Incidence of Surgical Site Infections for All Ventral Hernias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Nestor A.; Nguyen, Mylan T.; Nguyen, Duyen H.; Berger, Rachel L.; Lew, Debbie F.; Suliburk, James T.; Askenasy, Erik P.; Kao, Lillian S.; Liang, Mike K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias remains incompletely defined. We hypothesize that laparoscopy, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases surgical site infection (SSI) for all ventral hernia types. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were reviewed to identify studies evaluating outcomes of laparoscopic versus open repair with mesh of ventral hernias and divided into groups (primary or incisional). Studies with high risk of bias were excluded. Primary outcomes of interest were recurrence and SSI. Fixed effects model was used unless significant heterogeneity, assessed with the Higgins I-square (I2), was encountered. Results There were five and fifteen studies for primary and incisional cohorts. No difference was seen in recurrence between laparoscopic and open repair in the two hernia groups. SSI was more common with open repair in both hernia groups: primary (OR 4.17, 95%CI [2.03–8.55]) and incisional (OR 5.16, 95%CI [2.79–9.57]). Conclusions Laparoscopic repair, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases rates of SSI in all types of ventral hernias with no difference in recurrence. This data suggests that laparoscopic approach may be the treatment of choice for all types of ventral hernias. PMID:25294541

  3. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Eva Maria Meier; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2014-01-01

    by releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice...... an inhibition occurring at the presynaptic side of synapses. In the presence of blockers for extracellular ectonucleotidases, TFLLR did not induce presynaptic inhibition. Puffing adenosine reproduced the effect of TFLLR and blocking adenosine A1 receptors with 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine prevented it....... Altogether our results show that ventral horn astrocytes are responsible for a tonic and a phasic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by releasing ATP, which gets converted into adenosine that binds to inhibitory presynaptic A1 receptors....

  5. The transition in the ventral stream from feature to real-world entity representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Guy A; Zhu, Qi; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that the ventral visual pathway of human and non-human primates is organized into three levels: (1) ventral retinotopic cortex including what is known as TEO in the monkey but corresponds to V4A and PITd/v, and the phPIT cluster in humans, (2) area TE in the monkey and its homolog LOC and neighboring fusiform regions, and more speculatively, (3) TGv in the monkey and its possible human equivalent, the temporal pole. We attribute to these levels the visual representations of features, partial real-world entities (RWEs), and known, complete RWEs, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the middle level, TE and its homolog, is organized into three parallel substreams, lower bank STS, dorsal convexity of TE, and ventral convexity of TE, as are their corresponding human regions. These presumably process shape in depth, 2D shape and material properties, respectively, to construct RWE representations.

  6. The transition in the ventral stream from features to real world entities representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy A Orban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the ventral visual pathway of human and non-human primates is organized into three levels: 1 ventral retinotopic cortex including what is known as TEO in the monkey but corresponds to V4A and PITd/v, and the phPIT cluster in humans, 2 area TE in the monkey and its homologue LOC and neighboring fusiform regions, and more speculatively, 3 TGv in the monkey and its possible human equivalent, the temporal pole. We attribute to these levels the visual representations of features, partial real-world entities (RWEs, and known, complete RWEs, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the middle level, TE and its homologue, is organized into three parallel substreams, lower bank STS, dorsal convexity of TE and ventral convexity of TE, as are their corresponding human regions. These presumably process shape in depth, 2D shape and material properties, respectively, to construct RWE representations.

  7. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    detected weak visual targets that were presented in the lower-left visual field on 50% of the trials. Further, we manipulated the presence/absence of task-irrelevant auditory signals. Critically, on each trial we applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). IPS......-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection....... Conversely, they decreased activations in the ventral visual areas. Importantly, IPS-TMS abolished target-evoked activation increases in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of the ventral attentional system, whereas it eliminated target-evoked activation decreases in the right fusiform. Our results...

  8. The clinical effects of closure of the hernia gap after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Westen, Mikkel; Assaadzadeh, Sami

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Closure of the hernia gap in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair before mesh reinforcement has gained increasing acceptance among surgeons despite creating a tension-based repair. Beneficial effects of this technique have been reported sporadically, but no evidence is available from...... randomised controlled trials. The primary purpose of this paper is to compare early post-operative activity-related pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with closure of the gap with patients undergoing standard laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (non-closure of the gap). Secondary...... outcomes are patient-rated cosmesis and hernia-specific quality of life. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, double-blinded study is planned. Based on power calculation, we will include 40 patients in each arm. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic umbilical, epigastric or umbilical trocar-site hernia...

  9. The clinical effects of closure of the hernia gap after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Westen, Mikkel; Assadzadeh, Sami

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Closure of the hernia gap in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair before mesh reinforcement has gained increasing acceptance among surgeons despite creating a tension-based repair. Beneficial effects of this technique have been reported sporadically, but no evidence is available from...... randomised controlled trials. The primary purpose of this paper is to compare early post-operative activity-related pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with closure of the gap with patients undergoing standard laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (non-closure of the gap). Secondary...... outcomes are patient-rated cosmesis and hernia-specific quality of life. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, double-blinded study is planned. Based on power calculation, we will include 40 patients in each arm. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic umbilical, epigastric or umbilical trocar-site hernia...

  10. Hippocampus leads ventral striatum in replay of place-reward information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Lankelma, Jan V; McNaughton, Bruce L; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2009-08-01

    Associating spatial locations with rewards is fundamental to survival in natural environments and requires the integrity of the hippocampus and ventral striatum. In joint multineuron recordings from these areas, hippocampal-striatal ensembles reactivated together during sleep. This process was especially strong in pairs in which the hippocampal cell processed spatial information and ventral striatal firing correlated to reward. Replay was dominated by cell pairs in which the hippocampal "place" cell fired preferentially before the striatal reward-related neuron. Our results suggest a plausible mechanism for consolidating place-reward associations and are consistent with a central tenet of consolidation theory, showing that the hippocampus leads reactivation in a projection area.

  11. A pharmacological study of the inhibition of ventral group Ia-excited spinal interneurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, D; Curtis, D R; Brand, S J

    1977-08-08

    In cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone a pharmacological investigation was made of the inhibition by volleys in afferent fibres and ventral roots of physiologically identified Ia interneurones in the ventral horn. The recurrent inhibition of Ia interneurones by Renshaw cells, and the "mutual" inhibition between Ia interneurones, were suppressed by electrophoretic strychnine and are presumably mediated by glycine. Short latency and duration inhibitions by impulses in muscle and cutaneous afferents were also suppressed by strychnine. Electrophoretic GABA inhibited the firing of Ia interneurones and the effects of bicuculline methochloride suggested that this amino acid mediates longer latency and duration inhibition produced by afferent impulses of muscle and cutaneous origin.

  12. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex neuronal ensembles mediate context-induced relapse to heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Jennifer M; Stern, Anna L; Theberge, Florence R M; Cifani, Carlo; Koya, Eisuke; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-04-01

    In a rat model of context-induced relapse to heroin, we identified sparsely distributed ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons that were activated by the heroin-associated context. Selective pharmacogenetic inactivation of these neurons inhibited context-induced drug relapse. A small subset of ventral mPFC neurons formed neuronal ensembles that encode the learned associations between heroin reward and heroin-associated contexts; re-activation of these neuronal ensembles by drug-associated contexts during abstinence provoked drug relapse.

  13. Cephalad-renal ectopia: Bilateral subdiaphragmatic kidneys in a patient of omphalocele with ventral hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Parmar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly. Thoracic ectopic kidney was being considered as rarest, however no case of bilateral subdiaphragmatic kidneys in omphalocele patients presented with ventral hernia has been reported yet, as per our best of knowledge. This is a report of a 5- year-old male patient who presented with ventral hernia after omphalocele. A thorough examination, laboratory, and radiological investigations including ultrasonography, plain abdominal x-ray, intravenous urogram, and computerized tomography revealed bilateral subdiaphragmatic ectopic kidneys with azygos continuation of inferior vena cava, retro-aortic left renal vein and spina bifida

  14. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  15. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    Several findings suggest a functional and anatomical differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Lesion studies in rats have indicated that the dorsal hippocampus preferentially plays a role in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampus is involved in anxiety...

  16. Regulation of dorso‐ventral polarity by the nerve cord during annelid regeneration: A review of experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boilly‐Marer, Yolande; Bely, Alexandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An important goal for understanding regeneration is determining how polarity is conferred to the regenerate. Here we review findings in two groups of polychaete annelids that implicate the ventral nerve cord in assigning dorso‐ventral polarity, and specifically ventral identity, to the regenerate. In nereids, surgical manipulations indicate that parapodia develop where dorsal and ventral body wall territories contact. Without a nerve cord at the wound site, the regenerate differentiates no evident polarity (with no parapodia) and only dorsal identity, while with two nerve cords the regenerate develops a twinned dorso‐ventral axis (with four parapodia per segment instead of the normal two). In sabellids, a striking natural dorso‐ventral inversion in parapodial morphology occurs along the body axis and this inversion is morphologically correlated with the position of the nerve cord. Parapodial inversion also occurs in segments in which the nerve cord has been removed, even without any segment amputation. Together, these data strongly support a role for the nerve cord in annelid dorso‐ventral pattern regulation, with the nerve cord conferring ventral identity. PMID:28616245

  17. Reward-associated gamma oscillations in ventral striatum are regionally differentiated and modulate local firing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalenscher, T.; Lansink, C.S.; Lankelma, J.V.; Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs) in the gamma range are found in many brain regions and are supposed to support the temporal organization of cognitive, perceptual, and motor functions. Even though gamma oscillations have also been observed in ventral striatum, one of the brain's most

  18. Reward cues in space: commonalities and differences in neural coding by hippocampal and ventral striatal ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Jackson, Jadin C; Lankelma, Jan V; Ito, Rutsuko; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2012-09-05

    Forming place-reward associations critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampal-ventral striatal system. The ventral striatum (VS) receives a strong hippocampal input conveying spatial-contextual information, but it is unclear how this structure integrates this information to invigorate reward-directed behavior. Neuronal ensembles in rat hippocampus (HC) and VS were simultaneously recorded during a conditioning task in which navigation depended on path integration. In contrast to HC, ventral striatal neurons showed low spatial selectivity, but rather coded behavioral task phases toward reaching goal sites. Outcome-predicting cues induced a remapping of firing patterns in the HC, consistent with its role in episodic memory. VS remapped in conjunction with the HC, indicating that remapping can take place in multiple brain regions engaged in the same task. Subsets of ventral striatal neurons showed a "flip" from high activity when cue lights were illuminated to low activity in intertrial intervals, or vice versa. The cues induced an increase in spatial information transmission and sparsity in both structures. These effects were paralleled by an enhanced temporal specificity of ensemble coding and a more accurate reconstruction of the animal's position from population firing patterns. Altogether, the results reveal strong differences in spatial processing between hippocampal area CA1 and VS, but indicate similarities in how discrete cues impact on this processing.

  19. Porcine fetal ventral mesencephalic cells are targets for primed xenoreactive human T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Jan; de Haan, Aalzen; Bruin -van Dijk, Elinda; van der Gun, Ieneke; Van Dijk, Henk; Rozing, Jan; de Leij, Lou; Staal, Michiel

    2006-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine fetal ventral mesencephalic (pfVM) cells to overcome the dopamine shortage in the striatum of patients with Parkinson's disease seems a viable alternative to allotransplantion of human fetal donor tissue, especially because the latter is complicated by both practical

  20. Dorsal-ventral patterning in amphioxus: current understanding, unresolved issues, and future directions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmiková, Iryna; Yu, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 10-12 (2017), s. 601-610 ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-21285J Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : dorsal-ventral patterning * organizer * signaling pathway * chordate * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2016

  1. Surgery for ventral intradural thoracic spinal tumors with a posterolateral transpedicular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiyoshi; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Miyaoka, Yoshinari; Seguchi, Tatsuya; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Surgery for ventrally seated thoracic tumors requires an anatomically specific approach that is distinct from cervical or lumbar spinal cord surgery as the narrower spinal canal of the thoracic spinal cord makes it sensitive to surgical procedures. However, reports describing this operative technique are few. To obtain a wide operative field and minimize thoracic spinal cord retraction, we employed a posterolateral transpedicular approach in ventral-located tumors and investigated the efficacy and limitations of this technique. Eighteen patients with lesions (meningioma or neurinoma) located in the ventral intradural thoracic region were surgically treated between 2009 and 2014. The relationship among the clinical outcome, tumor location, and postoperative spinal alignment was analyzed. Postoperative neurological function improved in all patients, namely those with meningioma (p = 0.012) and schwannoma (p = 0.018). One patient who underwent removal of two facet joints suffered a postoperative compression fracture. Removal of two facet joints and pedicles resulted in a worsening of spinal alignment (p = 0.03), while this was not the case for the removal of one facet joint and pedicle (p = 0.72). This case series clarified the benefits of the posterolateral transpedicular approach for resection of ventral intradural extramedullary tumors. Removal of one pedicle and facet joint seems to be more beneficial.

  2. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  3. Robust mechanisms of ventral furrow invagination require the combination of cellular shape changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Vito; Muñoz, José J.; Baum, Buzz; Miodownik, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Ventral furrow formation in Drosophila is the first large-scale morphogenetic movement during the life of the embryo, and is driven by co-ordinated changes in the shape of individual epithelial cells within the cellular blastoderm. Although many of the genes involved have been identified, the details of the mechanical processes that convert local changes in gene expression into whole-scale changes in embryonic form remain to be fully understood. Biologists have identified two main cell deformation modes responsible for ventral furrow invagination: constriction of the apical ends of the cells (apical wedging) and deformation along their apical-basal axes (radial lengthening/shortening). In this work, we used a computer 2D finite element model of ventral furrow formation to investigate the ability of different combinations of three plausible elementary active cell shape changes to bring about epithelial invagination: ectodermal apical-basal shortening, mesodermal apical-basal lengthening/shortening and mesodermal apical constriction. We undertook a systems analysis of the biomechanical system, which revealed many different combinations of active forces (invagination mechanisms) were able to generate a ventral furrow. Two important general features were revealed. First that combinations of shape changes are the most robust to environmental and mutational perturbation, in particular those combining ectodermal pushing and mesodermal wedging. Second, that ectodermal pushing plays a big part in all of the robust mechanisms (mesodermal forces alone do not close the furrow), and this provides evidence that it may be an important element in the mechanics of invagination in Drosophila.

  4. Reconciling Time, Space and Function: A New Dorsal-Ventral Stream Model of Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We present a new dorsal-ventral stream framework for language comprehension which unifies basic neurobiological assumptions (Rauschecker & Scott, 2009) with a cross-linguistic neurocognitive sentence comprehension model (eADM; Bornkessel & Schlesewsky, 2006). The dissociation between (time-dependent) syntactic structure-building and…

  5. Reduced amygdala and ventral striatal activity to happy faces in PTSD is associated with emotional numbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Felmingham

    Full Text Available There has been a growing recognition of the importance of reward processing in PTSD, yet little is known of the underlying neural networks. This study tested the predictions that (1 individuals with PTSD would display reduced responses to happy facial expressions in ventral striatal reward networks, and (2 that this reduction would be associated with emotional numbing symptoms. 23 treatment-seeking patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were recruited from the treatment clinic at the Centre for Traumatic Stress Studies, Westmead Hospital, and 20 trauma-exposed controls were recruited from a community sample. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during the presentation of happy and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. PTSD participants rated happy facial expression as less intense than trauma-exposed controls. Relative to controls, PTSD participants revealed lower activation to happy (-neutral faces in ventral striatum and and a trend for reduced activation in left amygdala. A significant negative correlation was found between emotional numbing symptoms in PTSD and right ventral striatal regions after controlling for depression, anxiety and PTSD severity. This study provides initial evidence that individuals with PTSD have lower reactivity to happy facial expressions, and that lower activation in ventral striatal-limbic reward networks may be associated with symptoms of emotional numbing.

  6. Analysis of responses to noise in the ventral cochlear nucleus using Wiener kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; van Dijk, Pim

    2006-01-01

    Responses to noise were recorded in ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons of anesthetized chinchillas and cats, then analyzed using Wiener-kernel theory. First-order kernels, which are proportional to reverse-correlation functions, of primary-like (PL) and primary-like with notch (PLN) neurons

  7. Role of the Ventral Tegmental Area in Methamphetamine Extinction: AMPA Receptor-Mediated Neuroplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Han-Ting; Chen, Jin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying drug extinction remain largely unknown, although a role for medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate neurons has been suggested. Considering that the mPFC sends glutamate efferents to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), we tested whether the VTA is involved in methamphetamine (METH) extinction via conditioned…

  8. Integrating early results on ventral striatal gamma oscillations in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, M.A.A.; Kalenscher, T.; Lansink, C.S.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Berke, J.D.; Redish, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    A vast literature implicates the ventral striatum in the processing of reward-related information and in mediating the impact of such information on behavior. It is characterized by heterogeneity at the local circuit, connectivity, and functional levels. A tool for dissecting this complex structure

  9. Morphine withdrawal enhances constitutive μ-opioid receptor activity in the ventral tegmental area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meye, F.J.; van Zessen, R.; Smidt, M.P.; Adan, R.A.H.; Ramakers, G.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are pivotally involved in addictive behavior. While MORs are typically activated by opioids, they can also become constitutively active in the absence of any agonist. In the current study, we present evidence that MOR constitutive

  10. Feasibility and outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using Proceed mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Burcharth, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many different meshes available for laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias. A relatively new product is the Proceed mesh with a bioresorbable layer against the bowels and a polypropylene layer against the abdominal wall. There are, however, no human data available. The aim...

  11. Components separation technique and laparoscopic approach: a review of two evolving strategies for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Rehnke, Robert D; Ramaswamy, Archana; Smith, C Daniel; Clarke, John M; Ramshaw, Bruce J

    2005-07-01

    When faced with large ventral hernias, surgeons frequently must choose between higher incidence of recurrence after primary repair and higher incidence of wound complications after repair with mesh. The aim of this study is to compare early outcomes between laparoscopic repair (LR) and components separation technique (CST), two evolving strategies for the management of large ventral hernias. We reviewed 42 consecutive patients who underwent CST and 45 consecutive patients who underwent LR of ventral hernia defects of at least 12 cm2. Demographics, hernia characteristics, and short-term outcomes were compared between groups. Patients in the LR group were younger (53 +/- 2 vs 68 +/- 2 years, P advantage over the CST in terms of incidence of ileus, wound complications, and hospital stay. Because of their unique advantage over traditional hernia repairs, both techniques may play a significant role in the future treatment of large ventral hernias. Adequate training will be essential for the safe and effective implementation of these techniques within the surgical community.

  12. Direct and Recurrent Inguinal Hernias are Associated with Ventral Hernia Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Sorensen, Lars T; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    A systemically altered connective tissue metabolism has been demonstrated in patients with abdominal wall hernias. The most pronounced connective tissue changes are found in patients with direct or recurrent inguinal hernias as opposed to patients with indirect inguinal hernias. The aim...... of the present study was to assess whether direct or recurrent inguinal hernias are associated with an elevated rate of ventral hernia surgery....

  13. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral striatum increases BDNF in the fear extinction circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio H Do-Monte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS reduces the symptoms of treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and improves response to extinction-based therapies. We recently reported that DBS-like stimulation of a rat homologue of VC/VS, the dorsal-VS, reduced conditioned fear and enhanced extinction memory (Rodriguez-Romaguera et al, 2012. In contrast, DBS of the ventral-VS had the opposite effects. To examine possible mechanisms, we assessed the effects of VS DBS on the expression of the neural activity marker Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a key mediator of extinction plasticity in prefrontal-amygdala circuits. Consistent with decreased fear expression, DBS of dorsal-VS increased Fos expression in prelimbic and infralimbic prefrontal cortices and in the lateral division of the central nucleus of amygdala, an area that inhibits amygdala output. Consistent with improved extinction memory, we found that DBS of dorsal-VS, but not ventral-VS, increased neuronal BDNF expression in prelimbic and infralimbic prefrontal cortices. These rodent findings are consistent with the idea that clinical DBS of VC/VS may augment fear extinction through an increase in BDNF expression.

  14. Synthetic Versus Biological Mesh-Related Erosion After Laparoscopic Ventral Mesh Rectopexy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Andrea; Quaresima, Silvia; Smolarek, Sebastian; Shalaby, Mostafa; Missori, Giulia; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    This review reports the incidence of mesh-related erosion after ventral mesh rectopexy to determine whether any difference exists in the erosion rate between synthetic and biological mesh. A systematic search of the MEDLINE and the Ovid databases was conducted to identify suitable articles published between 2004 and 2015. The search strategy capture terms were laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy, laparoscopic anterior rectopexy, robotic ventral rectopexy, and robotic anterior rectopexy. Eight studies (3,956 patients) were included in this review. Of those patients, 3,517 patients underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR) using synthetic mesh and 439 using biological mesh. Sixty-six erosions were observed with synthetic mesh (26 rectal, 32 vaginal, 8 recto-vaginal fistulae) and one (perineal erosion) with biological mesh. The synthetic and the biological mesh-related erosion rates were 1.87% and 0.22%, respectively. The time between rectopexy and diagnosis of mesh erosion ranged from 1.7 to 124 months. No mesh-related mortalities were reported. The incidence of mesh-related erosion after LVR is low and is more common after the placement of synthetic mesh. The use of biological mesh for LVR seems to be a safer option; however, large, multicenter, randomized, control trials with long follow-ups are required if a definitive answer is to be obtained.

  15. Characterization of organotypic ventral mesencephalic cultures from embryonic mice and protection against MPP toxicity by GDNF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B; Gramsbergen, J B; Møller Dall, A

    2005-01-01

    We characterized organotypic ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures derived from embryonic day 12 (E12) mice (CBL57/bL6) in terms of number of dopaminergic neurons, cell soma size and dopamine production in relation to time in vitro and tested the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and ...

  16. Novel technique for closure of defect in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deborshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic repair of ventral hernia is the standard of care in today`s era. With increasing experience, different theories and techniques have been described by different authors to overcome the intraoperative and postoperative problems. We describe a novel technique for closure of defect in laparoscopic hernia repair which has the added advantage.

  17. Clinical and neurobiological advances in promoting regeneration of the ventral root avulsion lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, R.; Tannemaat, Martijn R; De Winter, F.; Malessy, Martijn J A; Verhaagen, J.

    Root avulsions due to traction to the brachial plexus causes complete and permanent loss of function. Until fairly recent, such lesions were considered impossible to repair. Here we review clinical repair strategies and current progress in experimental ventral root avulsion lesions. The current gold

  18. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  19. Visually guided grasping produces fMRI activation in dorsal but not ventral stream brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culham, Jody C; Danckert, Stacey L; DeSouza, Joseph F X; Gati, Joseph S; Menon, Ravi S; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2003-11-01

    Although both reaching and grasping require transporting the hand to the object location, only grasping also requires processing of object shape, size and orientation to preshape the hand. Behavioural and neuropsychological evidence suggests that the object processing required for grasping relies on different neural substrates from those mediating object recognition. Specifically, whereas object recognition is believed to rely on structures in the ventral (occipitotemporal) stream, object grasping appears to rely on structures in the dorsal (occipitoparietal) stream. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether grasping (compared to reaching) produced activation in dorsal areas, ventral areas, or both. We found greater activity for grasping than reaching in several regions, including anterior intraparietal (AIP) cortex. We also performed a standard object perception localizer (comparing intact vs. scrambled 2D object images) in the same subjects to identify the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral stream area believed to play a critical role in object recognition. Although LOC was activated by the objects presented on both grasping and reaching trials, there was no greater activity for grasping compared to reaching. These results suggest that dorsal areas, including AIP, but not ventral areas such as LOC, play a fundamental role in computing object properties during grasping.

  20. Ventral Premotor to Primary Motor Cortical Interactions during Noxious and Naturalistic Action Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Angel; Koch, Giacomo; Cheeran, Binith; Marquez, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Jose Andres; Ezquerro, Milagros; Giraldez, Manolo; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Within the motor system, cortical areas such as the primary motor cortex (M1) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), are thought to be activated during the observation of actions performed by others. However, it is not known how the connections between these areas become active during action observation or whether these connections are modulated…

  1. Differential roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Melissa E; Fraize, Nicolas P; Yin, Linda; Yuan, Robin K; Petsagourakis, Despina; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2013-06-01

    The study of fear memory is important for understanding various anxiety disorders in which patients experience persistent recollections of traumatic events. These memories often involve associations of contextual cues with aversive events; consequently, Pavlovian classical conditioning is commonly used to study contextual fear learning. The use of predator odor as a fearful stimulus in contextual fear conditioning has become increasingly important as an animal model of anxiety disorders. Innate fear responses to predator odors are well characterized and reliable; however, attempts to use these odors as unconditioned stimuli in fear conditioning paradigms have proven inconsistent. Here we characterize a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using coyote urine as the unconditioned stimulus. We found that contextual conditioning induced by exposure to coyote urine produces long-term freezing, a stereotypic response to fear observed in mice. This paradigm is context-specific and parallels shock-induced contextual conditioning in that it is responsive to extinction training and manipulations of predator odor intensity. Region-specific lesions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus indicate that both areas are independently required for the long-term expression of learned fear. These results in conjunction with c-fos immunostaining data suggest that while both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are required for forming a contextual representation, the ventral region also modulates defensive behaviors associated with predators. This study provides information about the individual contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to ethologically relevant fear learning. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked superoxide dismutase in ventral horns, liver, and kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, P.A.; Bergemalm, D.; Andersen, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mutant superoxide dismutases type 1 (SOD1s) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by an unidentified toxic property. In a patient carrying the G127X truncation mutation, minute amounts of SOD1 were found in ventral horns using a mutant-specific antibody. Still, both absolute levels and ratios versus...

  3. Reducing Ventral Tegmental Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Selectively Boosts Incentive Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johannes W.; Roelofs, Theresia J M; Mol, Frédérique M U; Hillen, Anne E J; Meijboom, Katharina E.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Van Der Eerden, Harrie A M; Garner, Keith M.; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Altered mesolimbic dopamine signaling has been widely implicated in addictive behavior. For the most part, this work has focused on dopamine within the striatum, but there is emerging evidence for a role of the auto-inhibitory, somatodendritic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the ventral tegmental area

  4. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holz, N.E.; Boecker-Schlier, R.; Buchmann, A.F.; Blomeyer, D.; Jennen-Steinmetz, C.; Baumeister, S.; Plichta, M.M.; Cattrell, A.; Schumann, G.; Esser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Brandeis, D.; Laucht, M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At

  5. Genetic analysis of Hedgehog signaling in ventral body wall development and the onset of omphalocele formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumaru, D.; Haraguchi, R.; Miyagawa, S.; Motoyama, J.; Nakagata, N.; Meijlink, F.; Yamada, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In

  6. Contributions of the Ventral Striatum to Conscious Perception: An Intracranial EEG Study of the Attentional Blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter, Heleen A; Mazaheri, Ali; Reteig, Leon C; Smolders, Ruud; Figee, Martijn; Mantione, Mariska; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-02-01

    The brain is limited in its capacity to consciously process information, necessitating gating of information. While conscious perception is robustly associated with sustained, recurrent interactions between widespread cortical regions, subcortical regions, including the striatum, influence cortical activity. Here, we examined whether the ventral striatum, given its ability to modulate cortical information flow, contributes to conscious perception. Using intracranial EEG, we recorded ventral striatum activity while 7 patients performed an attentional blink task in which they had to detect two targets (T1 and T2) in a stream of distractors. Typically, when T2 follows T1 within 100-500 ms, it is often not perceived (i.e., the attentional blink). We found that conscious T2 perception was influenced and signaled by ventral striatal activity. Specifically, the failure to perceive T2 was foreshadowed by a T1-induced increase in α and low β oscillatory activity as early as 80 ms after T1, indicating that the attentional blink to T2 may be due to very early T1-driven attentional capture. Moreover, only consciously perceived targets were associated with an increase in θ activity between 200 and 400 ms. These unique findings shed new light on the mechanisms that give rise to the attentional blink by revealing that conscious target perception may be determined by T1 processing at a much earlier processing stage than traditionally believed. More generally, they indicate that ventral striatum activity may contribute to conscious perception, presumably by gating cortical information flow. What determines whether we become aware of a piece of information or not? Conscious access has been robustly associated with activity within a distributed network of cortical regions. Using intracranial electrophysiological recordings during an attentional blink task, we tested the idea that the ventral striatum, because of its ability to modulate cortical information flow, may contribute to

  7. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  8. Penile septoplasty for congenital ventral penile curvature: results in 51 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Giovanni; Piediferro, Guido; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Contalbi, Gianfranco; Carmignani, Luca

    2009-10-01

    The technique most widely used to correct congenital ventral penile curvature is still corporoplasty as originally described by Nesbit. We present results in patients treated with a variation of Nesbit corporoplasty used specifically for congenital ventral penile curvature. From June 2000 to June 2007 we treated 51 patients with congenital ventral penile curvature using modified corporoplasty (septoplasty), consisting of accessing the bed of the penile dorsal vein and excising 1 or more diamonds of tunica albuginea from it, extending in wedge-like formation 4 to 5 mm deep into the septum, until the penis is completely straightened. Patient history, clinical findings, self-photography results and the International Index of Erectile Function score were assessed. Curvature grade is expressed using the equation, 180 degrees - X, where X represents the deviation in degrees from the penis axis. Mean preoperative ventral curvature was 131.4 degrees (median 135, range 145 to 110). Of the patients 13 also had erectile dysfunction. At followup postoperative mean ventral curvature was 178.3 degrees (median 179.1, range 180 to 175). A total of 49 stated that they were completely satisfied. Penile shortening was 5 to 15 mm. Compared to preoperative values there were marked improvements in the International Index of Erectile Function score in the various groups. No major postoperative complications developed. In 4 patients wound healing occurred by secondary intent. This technique provides excellent straightening of the curved penis. By avoiding isolation of the whole dorsal neurovascular bundle there is no risk of neurovascular lesions. Suture perception is minimized.

  9. Ventral Slit Scrotal Flap: A New Outpatient Surgical Option for Reconstruction of Adult Buried Penis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mary E; Tausch, Timothy J; Zhao, Lee C; Siegel, Jordan A; Starke, Nathan; Klein, Alexandra K; Morey, Allen F

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel technique using ventral slit with scrotal skin flaps (VSSF) for the reconstruction of adult buried penis without skin grafting. An initial ventral slit is made in the phimotic ring, and the penis is exposed. To cover the defect in the ventral shaft skin, local flaps are created by making a ventral midline scrotal incision with horizontal relaxing incisions. The scrotal flaps are rotated to resurface the ventral shaft. Clinical data analyzed included preoperative diagnoses, length of stay, blood loss, and operative outcomes. Complications were also recorded. Fifteen consecutive patients with a penis trapped due to lichen sclerosus (LS) or phimosis underwent repair with VSSF. Each was treated in the outpatient setting with no perioperative complications. Mean age was 51 years (range, 26-75 years), and mean body mass index was 42.6 kg/m(2) (range, 29.8-53.9 kg/m(2)). The majority of patients (13 of 15, 87%) had a pathologic diagnosis of LS. Mean estimated blood loss was 57 cc (range, 25-200 cc), mean operative time was 83 minutes (range, 35-145 minutes), and all patients were discharged on the day of surgery. The majority of patients (11 of 15, 73.3%) remain satisfied with their results and have required no further intervention. Recurrences in 3 of 15 (20.0%) were due to LS, panniculus migration, and concealment by edematous groin tissue; 2 of these patients underwent subsequent successful skin grafting. VSSF is a versatile, safe, and effective reconstructive option in appropriately selected patients with buried penis, which enables reconstruction of penile shaft skin defects without requiring complex skin grafting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Key Role for Nectin-1 in the Ventral Hippocampus in Contextual Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Jocelyn; Krummenacher, Claude; Sandi, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Nectins are cell adhesion molecules that are widely expressed in the brain. Nectin expression shows a dynamic spatiotemporal regulation, playing a role in neural migratory processes during development. Nectin-1 and nectin-3 and their heterophilic trans-interactions are important for the proper formation of synapses. In the hippocampus, nectin-1 and nectin-3 localize at puncta adherentia junctions and may play a role in synaptic plasticity, a mechanism essential for memory and learning. We evaluated the potential involvement of nectin-1 and nectin-3 in memory consolidation using an emotional learning paradigm. Rats trained for contextual fear conditioning showed transient nectin-1—but not nectin-3—protein upregulation in synapse-enriched hippocampal fractions at about 2 h posttraining. The upregulation of nectin-1 was found exclusively in the ventral hippocampus and was apparent in the synaptoneurosomal fraction. This upregulation was induced by contextual fear conditioning but not by exposure to context or shock alone. When an antibody against nectin-1, R165, was infused in the ventral-hippocampus immediately after training, contextual fear memory was impaired. However, treatment with the antibody in the dorsal hippocampus had no effect in contextual fear memory formation. Similarly, treatment with the antibody in the ventral hippocampus did not interfere with acoustic memory formation. Further control experiments indicated that the effects of ventral hippocampal infusion of the nectin-1 antibody in contextual fear memory cannot be ascribed to memory non-specific effects such as changes in anxiety-like behavior or locomotor behavior. Therefore, we conclude that nectin-1 recruitment to the perisynaptic environment in the ventral hippocampus plays an important role in the formation of contextual fear memories. Our results suggest that these mechanisms could be involved in the connection of emotional and contextual information processed in the amygdala and dorsal

  11. Age-related differences in oligodendrogenesis across the dorsal-ventral axis of the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Jinno, Shozo

    2014-08-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) continue to divide and generate new oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the healthy adult brain. Although recent studies have indicated that adult oligodendrogenesis may be vital for the maintenance of normal brain function, the significance of adult oligodendrogenesis in brain aging remains unclear. In this study, we report a stereological estimation of age-related oligodendrogenesis changes in the mouse hippocampus: the dorsal subdivision is related to learning and memory, while the ventral subdivision is involved in emotional behaviors. To identify OPCs and OLs, we used a set of molecular markers, OL lineage transcription factor (Olig2) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFαR). Intracellular dye injection shows that PDGFαR+/Olig2+ cells and PDGFαR-/Olig2+ cells can be defined as OPCs and OLs, respectively. In the dorsal Ammon's horn, the numbers of OPCs decreased with age, while those of OLs remained unchanged during aging. In the ventral Ammon's horn, the numbers of OPCs and OLs generally decreased with age. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) fate-tracing analysis revealed that the numbers of BrdU+ mitotic OPCs in the Ammon's horn remained unchanged during aging in both the dorsal and ventral subdivisions. Unexpectedly, the numbers of BrdU+ newly generated OLs increased with age in the dorsal Ammon's horn, but remained unchanged in the ventral Ammon's horn. Together, the numbers of OLs in the dorsal Ammon's horn may be maintained during aging by increased survival of adult born OLs, while the numbers of OLs in the ventral Ammon's horn may be reduced with age due to the lack of such compensatory mechanisms. These observations provide new insight into the involvement of adult oligodendrogenesis in age-related changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Role of ventral medial prefrontal cortex in incubation of cocaine craving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Eisuke; Uejima, Jamie L.; Wihbey, Kristina A.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Hope, Bruce T.; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-01-01

    Cue-induced drug-seeking in rodents progressively increases after withdrawal from cocaine, suggesting that cue-induced cocaine craving incubates over time. Here, we explored the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a brain area previously implicated in cue-induced cocaine seeking) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer cocaine for 10 d (6 h/d, infusions were paired with a tone-light cue), and then assessed after 1 or 30 withdrawal days the effect of exposure to cocaine cues on lever presses in extinction tests. We found that cue-induced cocaine-seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 30 withdrawal days than after 1 day. The time-dependent increases in extinction responding were associated with large (ventral mPFC) or modest (dorsal mPFC) increases in ERK phosphorylation (a measure of ERK activity and an index of neuronal activation). After 30 withdrawal days, ventral but not dorsal injections of muscimol+baclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor agonists that inhibit neuronal activity) decreased extinction responding. After 1 withdrawal day, ventral but not dorsal mPFC injections of bicuculline+saclofen (GABAa+GABAb receptor antagonists that increase neuronal activity) strongly increased extinction responding. Finally, muscimol+baclofen had minimal effect on extinction responding after 1 day, and in cocaine-experienced rats, ventral mPFC injections of muscimol+baclofen or bicuculline+saclofen had no effect on lever presses for an oral sucrose solution. The present results indicate that ventral mPFC neuronal activity plays an important role in the incubation of cocaine craving. PMID:18565549

  13. Long-term outcomes of sandwich ventral hernia repair paired with hybrid vacuum-assisted closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Poruk, Katherine E; Baltodano, Pablo A; Soares, Kevin C; Azoury, Said C; Cooney, Carisa M; Cornell, Peter; Eckhauser, Frederic E

    2016-08-01

    Sandwich ventral hernia repair (SVHR) may reduce ventral hernia recurrence rates, although with an increased risk of surgical site occurrences (SSOs) and surgical site infections (SSIs). Previously, we found that a modified negative pressure wound therapy (hybrid vacuum-assisted closure [HVAC]) system reduced SSOs and SSIs after ventral hernia repair. We aimed to describe our outcomes after SVHR paired with HVAC closure. We conducted a 4-y retrospective review of all complex SVHRs (biologic mesh underlay and synthetic mesh overlay) with HVAC closure performed at our institution by a single surgeon. All patients had fascial defects that could not be reapproximated primarily using anterior component separation. Descriptive statistics were used to report the incidence of postoperative complications and hernia recurrence. A total of 60 patients (59.3 ± 11.4 y, 58.3% male, 75% American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥3) with complex ventral hernias being underwent sandwich repair with HVAC closure. Major postoperative morbidity (Dindo-Clavien class ≥3) occurred in 14 (23.3%) patients, but incidence of SSO (n = 13, 21.7%) and SSI (n = 4, 6.7%) was low compared with historical reports. Median follow-up time for all patients was 12 mo (interquartile range 5.8-26.5 mo). Hernia recurrence occurred in eight patients (13.3%) after a median time of 20.6 months (interquartile range 16.4- 25.4 months). Use of a dual layer sandwich repair for complex abdominal wall reconstruction is associated with low rates of hernia recurrence at 1 year postoperatively. The addition of the HVAC closure system may reduce the risk of SSOs and SSIs previously reported with this technique and deserves consideration in future prospective studies assessing optimization of ventral hernia repair approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Resting state functional connectivity of the ventral auditory pathway in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-08-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to recognize pitch chroma of tonal sound without external references, providing a unique model of the human auditory system (Zatorre: Nat Neurosci 6 () 692-695). In a previous study (Kim and Knösche: Hum Brain Mapp () 3486-3501), we identified enhanced intracortical myelination in the right planum polare (PP) in musicians with AP, which could be a potential site for perceptional processing of pitch chroma information. We speculated that this area, which initiates the ventral auditory pathway, might be crucially involved in the perceptual stage of the AP process in the context of the "dual pathway hypothesis" that suggests the role of the ventral pathway in processing nonspatial information related to the identity of an auditory object (Rauschecker: Eur J Neurosci 41 () 579-585). To test our conjecture on the ventral pathway, we investigated resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from musicians with varying degrees of AP. Should our hypothesis be correct, RSFC via the ventral pathway is expected to be stronger in musicians with AP, whereas such group effect is not predicted in the RSFC via the dorsal pathway. In the current data, we found greater RSFC between the right PP and bilateral anteroventral auditory cortices in musicians with AP. In contrast, we did not find any group difference in the RSFC of the planum temporale (PT) between musicians with and without AP. We believe that these findings support our conjecture on the critical role of the ventral pathway in AP recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3899-3916, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Genetic analysis of Hedgehog signaling in ventral body wall development and the onset of omphalocele formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Matsumaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In spite of its clinical importance, the etiology of omphalocele formation is still controversial. Hedgehog (Hh signaling is one of the essential growth factor signaling pathways involved in the formation of the limbs and urogenital system. However, the relationship between Hh signaling and ventral body wall formation remains unclear.To gain insight into the roles of Hh signaling in ventral body wall formation and its malformation, we analyzed phenotypes of mouse mutants of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, GLI-Kruppel family member 3 (Gli3 and Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (Alx4. Introduction of additional Alx4(Lst mutations into the Gli3(Xt/Xt background resulted in various degrees of severe omphalocele and pubic diastasis. In addition, loss of a single Shh allele restored the omphalocele and pubic symphysis of Gli3(Xt/+; Alx4(Lst/Lst embryos. We also observed ectopic Hh activity in the ventral body wall region of Gli3(Xt/Xt embryos. Moreover, tamoxifen-inducible gain-of-function experiments to induce ectopic Hh signaling revealed Hh signal dose-dependent formation of omphaloceles.We suggest that one of the possible causes of omphalocele and pubic diastasis is ectopically-induced Hh signaling. To our knowledge, this would be the first demonstration of the involvement of Hh signaling in ventral body wall malformation and the genetic rescue of omphalocele phenotypes.

  16. Genetic Analysis of Hedgehog Signaling in Ventral Body Wall Development and the Onset of Omphalocele Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumaru, Daisuke; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Motoyama, Jun; Nakagata, Naomi; Meijlink, Frits; Yamada, Gen

    2011-01-01

    Background An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In spite of its clinical importance, the etiology of omphalocele formation is still controversial. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is one of the essential growth factor signaling pathways involved in the formation of the limbs and urogenital system. However, the relationship between Hh signaling and ventral body wall formation remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insight into the roles of Hh signaling in ventral body wall formation and its malformation, we analyzed phenotypes of mouse mutants of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), GLI-Kruppel family member 3 (Gli3) and Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (Alx4). Introduction of additional Alx4Lst mutations into the Gli3Xt/Xt background resulted in various degrees of severe omphalocele and pubic diastasis. In addition, loss of a single Shh allele restored the omphalocele and pubic symphysis of Gli3Xt/+; Alx4Lst/Lst embryos. We also observed ectopic Hh activity in the ventral body wall region of Gli3Xt/Xt embryos. Moreover, tamoxifen-inducible gain-of-function experiments to induce ectopic Hh signaling revealed Hh signal dose-dependent formation of omphaloceles. Conclusions/Significance We suggest that one of the possible causes of omphalocele and pubic diastasis is ectopically-induced Hh signaling. To our knowledge, this would be the first demonstration of the involvement of Hh signaling in ventral body wall malformation and the genetic rescue of omphalocele phenotypes. PMID:21283718

  17. Reward Expectancy Strengthens CA1 Theta and Beta Band Synchronization and Hippocampal-Ventral Striatal Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Meijer, Guido T; Lankelma, Jan V; Vinck, Martin A; Jackson, Jadin C; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2016-10-12

    The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation. The beta band component, also labeled theta's harmonic, involves selective hippocampal CA1 cell groups showing frequency doubling of firing periodicity relative to theta rhythmicity and it partitions the theta cycle into segments showing clear versus poor spike timing organization. We found that theta phase precession occurred over a wider range than previously reported. This was apparent from spikes emitted near the peak of the theta cycle exhibiting large "phase precessing jumps" relative to spikes in foregoing cycles. Neither this phenomenon nor the regular manifestation of theta phase precession was affected by reward expectancy. Ventral striatal neuronal firing phase-locked not only to hippocampal theta, but also to beta band activity. Both hippocampus and ventral striatum showed increased synchronization between neuronal firing and local field potential activity during cued compared with uncued goal approaches. These results suggest that cue-triggered reward expectancy intensifies hippocampal output to target structures, such as the ventral striatum, by which the hippocampus may gain prioritized access to systems modulating motivated behaviors. Here we show that temporally discrete cues raising reward expectancy enhance both theta and beta band activity in the hippocampus once goal-directed navigation has been initiated. These rhythmic activities are associated with increased synchronization of neuronal firing

  18. Biomimetic collagen/elastin meshes for ventral hernia repair in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Silvia; Taraballi, Francesca; Wang, Xin; Cabrera, Fernando J; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Robbins, Andrew B; Sandri, Monica; Moreno, Michael R; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-03-01

    Ventral hernia repair remains a major clinical need. Herein, we formulated a type I collagen/elastin crosslinked blend (CollE) for the fabrication of biomimetic meshes for ventral hernia repair. To evaluate the effect of architecture on the performance of the implants, CollE was formulated both as flat sheets (CollE Sheets) and porous scaffolds (CollE Scaffolds). The morphology, hydrophylicity and in vitro degradation were assessed by SEM, water contact angle and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The stiffness of the meshes was determined using a constant stretch rate uniaxial tensile test, and compared to that of native tissue. CollE Sheets and Scaffolds were tested in vitro with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (h-BM-MSC), and finally implanted in a rat ventral hernia model. Neovascularization and tissue regeneration within the implants was evaluated at 6weeks, by histology, immunofluorescence, and q-PCR. It was found that CollE Sheets and Scaffolds were not only biomechanically sturdy enough to provide immediate repair of the hernia defect, but also promoted tissue restoration in only 6weeks. In fact, the presence of elastin enhanced the neovascularization in both sheets and scaffolds. Overall, CollE Scaffolds displayed mechanical properties more closely resembling those of native tissue, and induced higher gene expression of the entire marker genes tested, associated with de novo matrix deposition, angiogenesis, adipogenesis and skeletal muscles, compared to CollE Sheets. Altogether, this data suggests that the improved mechanical properties and bioactivity of CollE Sheets and Scaffolds make them valuable candidates for applications of ventral hernia repair. Due to the elevated annual number of ventral hernia repair in the US, the lack of successful grafts, the design of innovative biomimetic meshes has become a prime focus in tissue engineering, to promote the repair of the abdominal wall, avoid recurrence. Our meshes (Coll

  19. [Comparison of ventral and dorsal lymph node metastases of obturator nerve in radical prostatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Kato, Haruaki; Inoue, Hiroo; Komiyama, Itsuki; Yoneyama, Takehisa; Nakazawa, Koh; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the significance of complete dissection of the dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve during radical prostatectomy. Fifty-six patients undergoing open radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection for treatment of prostate cancer were included in this study. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and radiation therapy were not performed in any of the patients. First, pelvic lymph node dissection was performed between the external iliac vein and obturator nerve and classified as "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve". Then, the tissue located in the area between the obturator nerve and the surface of the obturator internus muscle was removed and classified as "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve". Both lymph nodes were meticulously examined by identical pathologist. Lymph node yields, lymph node positive rate, and the factors associated with lymph node metastasis were studied. Eight of the 56 patients had pelvic lymph node metastases (6 were high risk and 2 were intermediate risk according to the D'Amico's criteria). In the 8 node-positive patients, only 1 patient had positive lymph node in "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve" exclusively. Four patients had positive lymph node exclusively in "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve" and 3 patients had in both "ventral and dorsal lymph nodes of the obturator nerve". The total lymph node yields from "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve" and "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve" were 459 (8.2 per patient) and 117 (2.1 per patient), respectively. The total numbers of positive lymph nodes from "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve" and "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve" were 6 and 12, respectively. Lymph node positive rate was significantly higher in "dorsal lymph node of the obturator nerve" (10%) than "ventral lymph node of the obturator nerve" (1.3%) (P or = 20 ng ml), Gleason score sum at prostate biopsy (> or = 9), and lymph node yield (> or = 16

  20. Region-specific upregulation of parvalbumin-, but not calretinin-positive cells in the ventral hippocampus during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Adriana; Diah, Kimberly C; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2013-12-01

    Animal studies have highlighted the role of the ventral hippocampus-prefrontal cortex pathway in the acquisition of mature cortical function through refinement of GABAergic circuits during adolescence. Inhibitory GABAergic responses are mediated by highly specialized interneurons, which have distinct functional properties and are characterized by the expression of calcium binding proteins. Among these, we recently found that parvalbumin (PV)- and calretinin (CR)-positive interneurons in the prefrontal cortex follow opposite developmental trajectories during the periadolescent transition period. In the present study, we asked whether interneurons expressing PV and CR in the ventral hippocampus follow similar periadolescent trajectories as seen in the prefrontal cortex. By measuring the relative abundance of these interneurons in three age groups (postnatal days (PD) 25-40, 45-55, and 60-85), we found that regions within the dorso-ventral axis of the ventral hippocampus undergo distinct developmental trajectories in PV expression during the periadolescent transition. Specifically, the ventral subiculum displayed a dramatic increase in PV-positive interneurons from PD25-40 to PD45-55 with an increasing rostro-caudal gradient, whereas negligible changes were found in the dorsal and middle regions. In contrast, the number of CR-positive interneurons in the ventral hippocampus remained unchanged across the three age groups studied. Together, these results describe for the first time that GABAergic circuits in the ventral hippocampus undergo protracted development during adolescence, in particular the PV-positive cell population circumscribed to the ventral region of the ventral hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tribological Analysis of Ventral Scale Structure in a Python Regius in Relation to Laser Textured Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aal, Hisham A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Texturing is one of the leading technologies applied to modify surface topography. To date, however, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic textures is virtually non-existent. In nature, especially in squamata, there are many examples of deterministic structured textures that allow species to control friction and condition their tribological response for efficient function. In this work, we draw a comparison between industrial surfaces and reptilian surfaces. We chose the python regius species as a bio-analogue with a deterministic surface. We first study the structural make up of the ventral scales of the snake (both construction and metrology). We further compare the metrological features of the ventral scales to experimentally recommended performance indicators of industrial surfaces extracted from open literature. The results indicate the feasibility of engineering a Laser Textured Surface based on the reptilian ornamentation constructs. It is shown that the metrological features, key to...

  2. Afferent Inputs to Neurotransmitter-Defined Cell Types in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Faget

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA plays a central role in the neural circuit control of behavioral reinforcement. Though considered a dopaminergic nucleus, the VTA contains substantial heterogeneity in neurotransmitter type, containing also GABA and glutamate neurons. Here, we used a combinatorial viral approach to transsynaptically label afferents to defined VTA dopamine, GABA, or glutamate neurons. Surprisingly, we find that these populations received qualitatively similar inputs, with dominant and comparable projections from the lateral hypothalamus, raphe, and ventral pallidum. However, notable differences were observed, with striatal regions and globus pallidus providing a greater share of input to VTA dopamine neurons, cortical input preferentially on to glutamate neurons, and GABA neurons receiving proportionally more input from the lateral habenula and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. By comparing inputs to each of the transmitter-defined VTA cell types, this study sheds important light on the systems-level organization of diverse inputs to VTA.

  3. Effects of ventral striatal lesions on first- and second-order appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannald, Michael A; Setlow, Barry; Holland, Peter C

    2013-08-01

    Rats with bilateral lesions of the ventral striatal nucleus accumbens failed to acquire Pavlovian second-order conditioning to auditory stimuli paired with visual stimuli that had previously received first-order pairings with food. This deficit in second-order conditioning was specific to learning driven by incentive properties of the first-order cues, and was observed whether the first-order training had occurred prior to or after lesion surgery. Lesions also produced deficits in the display of conditioned responses to the first-order conditioned stimulus, but only when they were made after first-order training. These results suggest a specific role for the ventral striatum in acquiring and expressing incentive properties of conditioned stimuli through second-order conditioning, as well as a more general role in expressing previously acquired Pavlovian conditioned responses. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Clinical Study of 23 Male Patients with Congenital Ventral Penile Angulation without Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Patoulias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Congenital ventral penile angulation without hypospadias is a rare disease and causes great anxiety to the parents. The aim of our study is the presentation of this disease, especially the indications of surgical treatment and the protocol applied in our clinic. We retrospectively studied 23 male patients aged 2.5 to 7 years old (av 5.2 y with important penile angulation (over 45° without hypospadias, treated during the past 15 years in our department. In 9 patients the cause was the skin chordee (fibrosis of the ventral part of the prepuce, in 4 the fibrotic fascia (incomplete development of dartos and Buck’s fascia and in 10 the disproportion of the corpora cavernosa. No case of congenital short urethra was reported. In our opinion, the appliance of the algorithm suggested by Donnahoo KK et al. in uncomplicated cases, along with the experience of the surgical team, results in satisfactory treatment and avoidance of complications.

  5. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Eva Maria Meier; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2014-01-01

    Spinal neuronal networks are essential for motor function. They are involved in the integration of sensory inputs and the generation of rhythmic motor outputs. They continuously adapt their activity to the internal state of the organism and to the environment. This plasticity can be provided...... by different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters...... by releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice...

  6. Reelin signaling in the migration of ventral brain stem and spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBlaess

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix protein Reelin is an important orchestrator of neuronal migration during the development of the central nervous system. While its role and mechanism of action have been extensively studied and reviewed in the formation of dorsal laminar brain structures like the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, its functions during the neuronal migration events that result in the nuclear organization of the ventral central nervous system are less well understood. In an attempt to delineate an underlying pattern of Reelin action in the formation of neuronal cell clusters, this review highlights the role of Reelin signaling in the migration of neuronal populations that originate in the ventral brain stem and the spinal cord.

  7. Hippocampus leads ventral striatum in replay of place-reward information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien S Lansink

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Associating spatial locations with rewards is fundamental to survival in natural environments and requires the integrity of the hippocampus and ventral striatum. In joint multineuron recordings from these areas, hippocampal-striatal ensembles reactivated together during sleep. This process was especially strong in pairs in which the hippocampal cell processed spatial information and ventral striatal firing correlated to reward. Replay was dominated by cell pairs in which the hippocampal "place" cell fired preferentially before the striatal reward-related neuron. Our results suggest a plausible mechanism for consolidating place-reward associations and are consistent with a central tenet of consolidation theory, showing that the hippocampus leads reactivation in a projection area.

  8. Ultrastructure of male reproductive system of Eurydema ventrale Kolenati 1846 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2015-08-01

    The male reproductive system of Eurydema ventrale Kolenati 1846 is studied morphologically and histologically by using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The reproductive system of the male E.ventrale consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands, a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, and differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens that is a specialized in sperm storage. Sperm have an elongated head and a tail (flagellum) with an axonema and two mitochondrial derivatives. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles are fine, long, and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius, which is balloon shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which is connected to the aedeagus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Wrist ultrasound examination – scanning technique and ultrasound anatomy. Part 2: Ventral wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprian Olchowy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal system is an important element of the diagnostic and therapeutic protocol. Clinical decisions, including those regarding surgical procedures, are often based solely on ultrasound imaging. However, detailed knowledge on the anatomy and a correct scanning technique are crucial for an accurate diagnosis. Modern ultrasonographic equipment allows obtaining detailed anatomical images of muscle tendons, ligaments, nerves and vessels of the carpal area. Ventral wrist ultrasound is one of the most common diagnostic procedures in patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome. Ventral wrist evaluation is also often performed in patients with wrist pain of unclear etiology, rheumatic diseases, wrist injuries or symptoms of ulnar neuropathy. The aim of this paper is to present ultrasound images with corresponding anatomical schemes. The technique of ultrasound examination of the ventral wrist along with practical guidance to help obtain highly diagnostic images is also discussed. The present paper is the second part of an article devoted to ultrasound anatomy and wrist ultrasound technique – the part discussing the dorsal side of the wrist was published in the Journal of Ultrasonography, Vol. 15, No 61. The following anatomical structures should be visualized during an ultrasound examination of the ventral wrist, both in the carpal tunnel as well as proximally and distally to it: four flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, four flexor digitorum profundus tendons, flexor pollicis longus, flexor carpi radialis tendon, median nerve and flexor retinaculum; in the carpal tunnel as well as proximally and distally to it: the ulnar nerve, ulnar artery and veins; the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle; carpal joints.

  10. Effects of ventral striatal lesions on first- and second-order appetitive conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    McDannald, Michael A.; Setlow, Barry; Holland, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Rats with bilateral lesions of the ventral striatal nucleus accumbens failed to acquire Pavlovian second-order conditioning to auditory stimuli paired with visual stimuli that had previously received first-order pairings with food. This deficit in second-order conditioning was specific to learning driven by incentive properties of the first-order cues, and was observed whether the first-order training had occurred prior to or after lesion surgery. Lesions also produced deficits in the display...

  11. Quality of Life after Ventral Hernia Repair with Endoscopic Component Separation Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C Ø; Brøndum, T L; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    of the hernia size. Demographic data, operative information, and postoperative complications were recorded. All patients completed two similar questionnaires regarding their function level, cosmetic satisfaction, analgesic medication, alcohol consumption, and self-estimated physical and mental health before......, cosmetic satisfaction, and self-estimated physical and mental health improved significantly. Alcohol consumption was significantly reduced. Endoscopic components separation is a reliable method to repair large ventral hernias, although further studies are required to determine the exact benefits...

  12. Fuxianhuiid ventral nerve cord and early nervous system evolution in Panarthropoda

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jie; Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Butterfield, Nicholas J.; Liu,Yu; Boyan, George S.; Hou, Jin-bo; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Xi-guang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of the CNS is fundamental for resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Panarthropoda (Euarthropoda, Tardigrada, Onychophora). The ground pattern of the panarthropod CNS remains elusive, however, as there is uncertainty on which neurological characters can be regarded as ancestral among extant phyla. Here we describe the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis, an early Cambrian euarthropod from South China. The VNC reveals extraordinary det...

  13. Delta-like 1 participates in the specification of ventral midbrain progenitor derived dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Matthias; Szulc, Jolanta; Meyer, Morten

    2008-01-01

    function of Dlk1 in VM neuron development, we investigated the effect of soluble Dlk1 protein as well as the intrinsic Dlk1 function in the course of VM progenitor expansion and dopaminergic (DA) neuron differentiation in vitro. Dlk1 treatment during expansion increased DA progenitor proliferation...... in vitro. The study presented here is the first publication identifying Dlk1 effects on ventral midbrain-derived DA precursor differentiation....

  14. Genetic variation in components of dopamine neurotransmission impacts ventral striatal reactivity associated with impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, EE; Brown, SM; Kimak, M; Ferrell, RE; Manuck, SB; Hariri, AR

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in traits such as impulsivity involve high reward sensitivity and are associated with risk for substance use disorders. The ventral striatum (VS) has been widely implicated in reward processing, and individual differences in its function are linked to these disorders. Dopamine (DA) plays a critical role in reward processing and is a potent neuromodulator of VS reactivity. Moreover, altered DA signaling has been associated with normal and pathological reward-related beha...

  15. Vulnerability of the ventral language network in children with focal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeweg, Torsten; Sepeta, Leigh; Zimmaro, Lauren; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with focal epilepsy are at increased risk of language impairment, yet the neural substrate of this dysfunction is not yet known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated the impact of focal epilepsy on the developing language system using measures of network topology (spatial organization of activation) and synchrony (functional connectivity). We studied healthy children (n = 48, 4–12 years, 24 females) and children with focal epilepsy (n = 21, 5–12 years, nine females) with left hemisphere language dominance. Participants performed an age-adjusted auditory description decision task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, to identify perisylvian language regions. Mean signal change was extracted from eight left perisylvian regions of interest and compared between groups. Paired region of interest functional connectivity analysis was performed on time course data from the same regions, to investigate left network synchrony. Two principal component analyses were performed to extract (i) patterns of activation (using mean signal change data); and (ii) patterns of synchronized regions (using functional connectivity data). For both principal component analyses two components (networks) were extracted, which mapped onto the functional anatomy of dorsal and ventral language systems. Associations among network variables, age, epilepsy-related factors and verbal ability were assessed. Activated networks were affected by age and epilepsy [F(2,60) = 3.74, P = 0.03]: post hoc analyses showed, for healthy children, activation in both ventral and dorsal networks decreased with age (P = 0.02). Regardless of age and task performance, children with epilepsy showed reduced activation of the ventral network (P language outcome ( = 0.47, P = 0.002). This suggests childhood onset epilepsy preferentially alters maturation of the ventral language system, and this is related to poorer language ability. PMID:24941948

  16. Watchful waiting as a treatment strategy for patients with a ventral hernia appears to be safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, D; Sjølander, H; Gögenur, I

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to risks of postoperative morbidity and recurrence some patients with a ventral hernia are not offered surgical repair. There is limited data on the rate and consequences of a watchful waiting (WW) strategy for these patients. The objective of this cohort study was to analyse outcome...... and umbilical/epigastric hernias. CONCLUSIONS: Watchful waiting appears to be a safe strategy in the treatment of incisional, umbilical and epigastric hernias....

  17. Preoperative Chlorhexidine Gluconate Use Can Increase Risk for Surgical Site Infections after Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ajita S; Krpata, David M; Phillips, Sharon; Huang, Li-Ching; Haskins, Ivy N; Rosenblatt, Steven; Poulose, Benjamin K; Rosen, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    There is varying evidence about the use of preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate to decrease surgical site infection for elective surgery. This intervention has never been studied in ventral hernia repair, the most common general surgery procedure in the US. We aimed to determine whether preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate decreases the risk of 30-day wound morbidity in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair. All patients undergoing ventral hernia repair in the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative were separated into 2 groups: 1 group received preoperative chlorhexidine scrub and the other did not. The 2 groups were evaluated for 30-day wound morbidity, including surgical site occurrence (SSO), surgical site infection (SSI), and SSO requiring procedural intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression analysis and propensity score modeling. Multiple factors were controlled for statistical analysis, including patient-related factors and operative factors. In total, 3,924 patients were included for comparison. After multivariate logistic regression modeling, the preoperative chlorhexidine scrub group had a higher incidence of SSOs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.61) and SSIs (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.07). After propensity score modeling, the increased risk of SSO and SSI persisted (SSO: OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.70; SSI: OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.011 to 2.072, respectively). Prehospital chlorhexidine gluconate scrub appears to increase the risk of 30-day wound morbidity in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair. These findings suggest that the generalized use of prehospital chlorhexidine might not be desirable for all surgical populations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Representation of body identity and body actions in extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Candidi, Matteo; Ionta, Silvio; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2007-01-01

    Although inherently linked, body form and body action may be represented in separate neural substrates. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy individuals, we show that interference with the extrastriate body area impairs the discrimination of bodily forms, and interference with the ventral premotor cortex impairs the discrimination of bodily actions. This double dissociation suggests that whereas extrastriate body area mainly processes actors' body identity, premotor cortex is crucial for visual discriminations of actions.

  19. Modified components separation technique: experience treating large, complex ventral hernias at a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa-Gallud, A; Sancho Muriel, J; Bueno-Lledó, J; García Pastor, P; Iserte-Hernandez, J; Bonafé-Diana, S; Carreño-Sáenz, O; Carbonell-Tatay, F

    2017-08-01

    An increasing number of patients have large or complex abdominal wall defects. Component separation technique (CST) is a very effective method for reconstructing complex midline abdominal wall defects in a manner that restores innervated muscle function without excessive tension. Our goal is to show our results by a modified CST for treating large ventral hernias. A total of 351 patients with complex ventral hernias have been treated over a 10-year period. Pre- and postoperative CT scans were performed in all patients. All ventral hernias were W3, according to the EHS classification 1. We analyzed demographic variables, co-morbidities, hernia characteristics, operative, and postoperative variables. One hundred and seventy patients (48.4%) were men; the average age of the study population was 51.6 ± 23.2 years with an average BMI of 32.3 ± 1.3. The hernia was located in the midline in 321 cases (91.5%) versus the flank in 30 (8.5%). In 45 patients, preoperative botulinum toxin (BT) and progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) were needed due to giant hernia defects when the VIH/VAC ratio was >20%. Postoperative complications related to the surgical site were seroma (35.1%), hematoma (9.1%), infection (7.2%), and wound necrosis (8.8%). Complications related to the repair were evisceration in 3 patients (1.1%), small bowel fistula in 4 patients (1.5%), 11 cases of mesh infection (2.9%), and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in 2 patients. There were 29 hernia recurrences (8.2%) with a mean follow-up of 31.6 ± 8.1 months. The modified CST is an effective strategy for managing complex ventral hernias that enables primary fascial closure with low rates of morbidity and hernia recurrence.

  20. Patient profiles and outcomes following repair of irreducible and reducible Ventral Wall Hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, M R; Stey, A M; Yin, S S; Qiu, S; Divino, C M

    2016-04-01

    The belief that irreducible hernias are repaired less successfully and with higher morbidity drives patients to seek elective repair. The aims of this study were threefold. First, this study sought to compare characteristics of patients undergoing irreducible and reducible ventral hernia repair. Second, to compare morbidity rates. Third, to determine which factors, including irreducibility, might be associated with recurrence. This observational study was a retrospective review of 252 consecutive ventral hernia patients divided into two cohorts: 101 patients who underwent repair of an irreducible ventral hernia, and 152 patients underwent repair of a reducible ventral hernia. The mean follow-up time was approximately 4 years in both groups. Patients undergoing repair of irreducible hernias had higher median BMI (31 vs. 27 kg/m2, p = 0.005), had their hernias longer (median 34 months compared to 12 months, p = 0.043), had more defects on average (mean 1.8 vs. 1.4, p hernia size (p = 0.821), nor the location of hernia (p = 0.261) differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity rates, including rates of surgical site infection, obstruction, and recurrence, did not differ significantly; nor did recurrence-free survival (RFS) distributions. Risk factors for hernia recurrence on multivariate analysis included the repaired hernia being itself recurrent (HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.07-3.99, p = 0.031), the occurrence of post-operative surgical site infection (HR = 5.10, 95% CI = 2.18-11.91, p hernias did not have statistically significant differences in morbidity. Recurrence was not observed to be associated with irreducibility but was found to be associated with other post-operative complications.

  1. Peroral transgastric endoscopic primary repair of a ventral hernia in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B; Kalloo, A N; Chung, S S C; Cotton, P B; Gostout, C J; Hawes, R H; Pasricha, P J; Isakovich, N V; Nakajima, Y; Kawashima, K; Kantsevoy, S V

    2007-05-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated the feasibility of peroral transgastric endoscopic procedures in animal models. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of a peroral transgastric endoscopic approach to repair abdominal wall hernias. We performed acute experiments under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation using 50-kg pigs. Following peroral intubation an incision of the gastric wall was made and the endoscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity. An internal anterior abdominal wall incision was performed with a needle knife to create an animal model of a ventral hernia. After hernia creation an endoscopic suturing device was used for primary repair of the hernia. After completion of the hernia repair the endoscope was withdrawn into the stomach and the gastric wall incision was closed with endoscopic clips. Then the animals were killed for necropsy. Two acute experiments were performed. Incision of the gastric wall was easily achieved with a needle knife and a pull-type sphincterotome. A large (3 x 2 cm) defect of the abdominal wall (ventral hernia model) was closed with five or six sutures using the endoscopic suturing device. Postmortem examination revealed complete closure of the hernia without any complications. Transgastric endoscopic primary repair of ventral hernias in a porcine model is feasible and may be technically simpler than laparoscopic surgery.

  2. Functional organization of locomotor interneurons in the ventral lumbar spinal cord of the newborn rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Antri

    Full Text Available Although the mammalian locomotor CPG has been localized to the lumbar spinal cord, the functional-anatomical organization of flexor and extensor interneurons has not been characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flexor and extensor interneuronal networks for walking are physically segregated in the lumbar spinal cord. For this purpose, we performed optical recordings and lesion experiments from a horizontally sectioned lumbar spinal cord isolated from neonate rats. This ventral hemi spinal cord preparation produces well-organized fictive locomotion when superfused with 5-HT/NMDA. The dorsal surface of the preparation was visualized using the Ca(2+ indicator fluo-4 AM, while simultaneously monitoring motor output at ventral roots L2 and L5. Using calcium imaging, we provided a general mapping view of the interneurons that maintained a stable phase relationship with motor output. We showed that the dorsal surface of L1 segment contains a higher density of locomotor rhythmic cells than the other segments. Moreover, L1 segment lesioning induced the most important changes in the locomotor activity in comparison with lesions at the T13 or L2 segments. However, no lesions led to selective disruption of either flexor or extensor output. In addition, this study found no evidence of functional parcellation of locomotor interneurons into flexor and extensor pools at the dorsal-ventral midline of the lumbar spinal cord of the rat.

  3. Assessing segmental versus non-segmental features in the ventral nervous system of onychophorans (velvet worms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christine; Gross, Vladimir; Pflüger, Hans-Joachim; Stevenson, Paul A; Mayer, Georg

    2017-01-03

    Due to their phylogenetic position as one of the closest arthropod relatives, studies of the organisation of the nervous system in onychophorans play a key role for understanding the evolution of body segmentation in arthropods. Previous studies revealed that, in contrast to the arthropods, segmentally repeated ganglia are not present within the onychophoran ventral nerve cords, suggesting that segmentation is either reduced or might be incomplete in the onychophoran ventral nervous system. To assess segmental versus non-segmental features in the ventral nervous system of onychophorans, we screened the nerve cords for various markers, including synapsin, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, RFamide, dopamine, tyramine and octopamine. In addition, we performed retrograde fills of serially repeated commissures and leg nerves to localise the position of neuronal somata supplying those. Our data revealed a mixture of segmental and non-segmental elements within the onychophoran nervous system. We suggest that the segmental ganglia of arthropods evolved by a gradual condensation of subsets of neurons either in the arthropod or the arthropod-tardigrade lineage. These findings are in line with the hypothesis of gradual evolution of segmentation in panarthropods and thus contradict a loss of ancestral segmentation within the onychophoran lineage.

  4. Ventral Prostate Fibrosis in the Akita Mouse Is Associated with Macrophage and Fibrocyte Infiltration

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    Sanghee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS among diabetic men is unexplained. Recently, prostate inflammation and fibrosis have been implicated as major contributing factors to bladder outlet obstruction and LUTS. We characterized the inflammatory cell infiltrate and collagen content of the anterior, dorsal, and ventral lobes of 18-week-old DBA2J.Ins2-Akita mice (Akita and age-matched control mice. We performed hematoxylin and eosin staining to score tissue injury and inflammation, picrosirius red staining to quantitate collagen content, and immunostaining to identify monocytes/macrophages and infiltrating fibrocytes. We observed significantly greater numbers of monocytes/macrophages and fibrocytes specifically in the ventral prostate of the Akita mice and found that this was associated with significant greater collagen content specifically in the ventral prostate of the Akita mice. These observations support the inference that diabetes elicits monocyte/macrophage infiltration and collagen accumulation in the prostate and suggest that further study of Akita mice may inform translational studies of diabetes in the genesis prostatic inflammation, prostatic fibrosis, and LUTS.

  5. Lateral and medial ventral occipitotemporal regions interact during the recognition of images revealed from noise

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    Barbara eNordhjem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral ventral sections in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial regions, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, thirteen subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM – a method to characterize network interactions – to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1, the lingual gyrus (LG in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO. We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape – rather than by a single categorically specialized region – within the ventral visual cortex.

  6. The Danish Ventral Hernia Database - a valuable tool for quality assessment and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation of evidence-based treatment strategies. This paper describes the design and purpose of DVHD. Adult (≥18 years) patients with a Danish Civil Registration Number and undergoing surgery under elective or emergency conditions for ventral hernia in a Danish surgical department from 2007 and beyond. A total of 80% of all ventral hernia repairs performed in Denmark were reported to the DVHD. Demographic data (age, sex, and center), detailed hernia description (eg, type, size, surgical priority), and technical aspects (open/laparoscopic and mesh related factors) related to the surgical repair are recorded. Data registration is mandatory. Data may be merged with other Danish health registries and information from patient questionnaires or clinical examinations. More than 37,000 operations have been registered. Data have demonstrated high agreement with patient files. The data allow technical proposals for surgical improvement with special emphasis on reduced incidences of postoperative complications, hernia recurrence, and chronic pain. DVHD is a prospective and mandatory registration system for Danish surgeons. It has collected a high number of operations and is an excellent tool for observing changes over time, including adjustment of several confounders. This national database registry has impacted on clinical practice in Denmark and led to a high number of scientific publications in recent years.

  7. [Transient compensatory hypertrophy and limited regeneration of the surgically removed rat ventral prostate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrovarty, Sumana; Wadhwa, Shashi; Diwan, Manish; Malhotra, Ritu; Wadhwa, S N; Talwar, G P

    2003-09-01

    To confirm whether regeneration of prostate lobe indeed takes place on surgical lobectomy and if so, to what extent. Other issues studied are 1. whether the lobe regenerated is similar morphologically to that developing normally from neonatal origin to adulthood, and 2. the consequences of partial lobectomy on the contralateral lobe and the influence of sex steroid hormones on the regeneration process. The effect of surgical removal of one of the ventral prostate lobes on the size of the contralateral lobe has been studied at various time intervals after lobectomy. The surgically extirpated ventral prostate lobe in rats regenerates attaining plateau size at 8-16 weeks post lobectomy. The regenerated lobe, however, remains significantly smaller than the original size. In early phase of post lobectomy (at 2 weeks) the contralateral lobe was significantly hypertrophied. It reverts to normal size on regeneration of the extirpated lobe with time. Orchiectomy carried out at the time of lobectomy caused a drastic reduction in the size of the remaining lobe, which was prevented by exogenous treatment with androgens. In animals receiving treatment with estrogens, the remaining lobe was partially but not fully atrophied. However, estrogens did not support the regeneration of the surgically removed lobe, which requires androgens. These studies demonstrate that surgical removal of one of the ventral prostate lobe leads to a process of regeneration. However, the regenerated lobe does not attain the normal size.

  8. A biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Conte

    Full Text Available The article provides a biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Ventral furrow formation is the first large-scale morphogenetic movement in the fly embryo. It involves deformation of a uniform cellular monolayer formed following cellularisation, and has therefore long been used as a simple system in which to explore the role of mechanics in force generation. Here we use a quantitative framework to carry out a systematic perturbation analysis to determine the role of each of the active forces observed. The analysis confirms that ventral furrow invagination arises from a combination of apical constriction and apical-basal shortening forces in the mesoderm, together with a combination of ectodermal forces. We show that the mesodermal forces are crucial for invagination: the loss of apical constriction leads to a loss of the furrow, while the mesodermal radial shortening forces are the primary cause of the internalisation of the future mesoderm as the furrow rises. Ectodermal forces play a minor but significant role in furrow formation: without ectodermal forces the furrow is slower to form, does not close properly and has an aberrant morphology. Nevertheless, despite changes in the active mesodermal and ectodermal forces lead to changes in the timing and extent of furrow, invagination is eventually achieved in most cases, implying that the system is robust to perturbation and therefore over-determined.

  9. Asymmetric development of dorsal and ventral attention networks in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Kristafor; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-04-01

    Two neural systems for goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention have been described in the adult human brain; the dorsal attention network (DAN) centered in the frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the ventral attention network (VAN) anchored in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and ventral frontal cortex (VFC). Little is known regarding the processes governing typical development of these attention networks in the brain. Here we use resting state functional MRI data collected from thirty 7 to 12 year-old children and thirty 18 to 31 year-old adults to examine two key regions of interest from the dorsal and ventral attention networks. We found that for the DAN nodes (IPS and FEF), children showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with adults, whereas adults showed greater functional connectivity between the FEF and extra-network regions including the posterior cingulate cortex. For the VAN nodes (TPJ and VFC), adults showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with children. Children showed greater functional connectivity between VFC and nodes of the salience network. This asymmetric pattern of development of attention networks may be a neural signature of the shift from over-representation of bottom-up attention mechanisms to greater top-down attentional capacities with development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Decreased ventral striatal activity with impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hengyi; Mamikonyan, Eugenia; Detre, John A; Siderowf, Andrew D; Stern, Matthew B; Potenza, Marc N; Weintraub, Daniel

    2010-08-15

    A range of impulse control disorders (ICDs) are reported to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, alterations in brain activity at rest and during risk taking occurring with ICDs in PD are not well understood. We used both arterial spin labeling perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to directly quantify resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI to measure neural responses to risk taking during performance on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Eighteen PD patients, either with a diagnosis of one or more ICDs (N = 9) or no lifetime ICD history (N = 9), participated. BOLD fMRI data demonstrated that PD patients without an ICD activate the mesocorticolimbic pathway during risk taking. Compared with non-ICD patients, ICD patients demonstrated significantly diminished BOLD activity in the right ventral striatum during risk taking and significantly reduced resting CBF in the right ventral striatum. ICDs in PD are associated with reduced right ventral striatal activity at rest and diminished striatal activation during risk taking, suggesting that a common neural mechanism may underlie ICDs in individuals with PD and those without PD. Thus, treatments for ICDs in non-PD patients warrant consideration in PD patients with ICDs.

  11. Long-term Results of Ventral Penile Curvature Repair in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Dor; Sivan, Bezalel; Livne, Pinhas M; Nevo, Amihay; Ben-Meir, David

    2017-10-16

    To assess the postpubertal outcome of ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy in terms of recurrence and aesthetics. Postpubertal patients treated for hypospadias and ventral penile curvature in infancy at a tertiary medical center were invited to undergo assessment of the quality of the repair. Findings were compared between patients with a straight penis after skin release and patients who required dorsal plication. The cohort included 27 patients of mean age 16.5 years who were reported with straight penis after surgery. Postpubertal curvature was found in 6 of 14 patients (43%) successfully treated by skin release and 10 of 13 patients (77%) who underwent dorsal plication (P = .087). Significant curvature (≥30 degrees) was found in 1 of 14 patients in the skin-release group and 4 of 13 in the dorsal plication group (P = .16). Rates of redo urethroplasty were 2 of 14 (14%) and 5 of 10 (50%), respectively. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of the penis did not differ significantly. Ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy often recurs after puberty. The need for dorsal plication has a trend-level association with recurrence of penile curvature in puberty. It might also be related to the degree of postpubertal penile curvature and the need for redo urethroplasty. Procedure type does not affect patient satisfaction with the postpubertal appearance of the penis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stimulus selectivity in dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex after training in working memory tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis; Qi, Xue-Lian; Stanford, Terrence R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is known to represent different types of information in working memory. Contrasting theories propose that the dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex are innately specialized for the representation of spatial and non-spatial information respectively (Goldman-Rakic, 1996), or that the two regions are shaped by the demands of cognitive tasks imposed on them (Miller, 2000). To resolve this issue, we recorded from neurons in the two regions, prior to and at multiple stages of training monkeys on visual working memory tasks. Prior to training, substantial functional differences were present between the two regions. Dorsal prefrontal cortex exhibited higher overall responsiveness to visual stimuli and higher selectivity for spatial information. After training, stimulus selectivity generally decreased, though dorsal prefrontal cortex retained higher spatial selectivity regardless of task performed. Ventral prefrontal cortex appeared to be affected to a greater extent by the nature of task performed. Our results indicate that regional specialization for stimulus selectivity is present in the primate prefrontal cortex regardless of training. Dorsal areas of the prefrontal cortex are inherently organized to represent spatial information and training has little influence on this spatial bias. Ventral areas are biased toward non-spatial information although they are more influenced by training both in terms of activation and changes in stimulus selectivity. PMID:21525266

  13. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike C. Herbort

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  14. Asymmetric development of dorsal and ventral attention networks in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristafor Farrant

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two neural systems for goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention have been described in the adult human brain; the dorsal attention network (DAN centered in the frontal eye fields (FEF and intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and the ventral attention network (VAN anchored in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ and ventral frontal cortex (VFC. Little is known regarding the processes governing typical development of these attention networks in the brain. Here we use resting state functional MRI data collected from thirty 7 to 12 year-old children and thirty 18 to 31 year-old adults to examine two key regions of interest from the dorsal and ventral attention networks. We found that for the DAN nodes (IPS and FEF, children showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with adults, whereas adults showed greater functional connectivity between the FEF and extra-network regions including the posterior cingulate cortex. For the VAN nodes (TPJ and VFC, adults showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with children. Children showed greater functional connectivity between VFC and nodes of the salience network. This asymmetric pattern of development of attention networks may be a neural signature of the shift from over-representation of bottom-up attention mechanisms to greater top-down attentional capacities with development.

  15. Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Damage to Ventral and Dorsal Language Pathways in Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mi; Li, Yibo; Li, Jiao; Yao, Dezhong; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2017-03-01

    Previous regional-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies focused on impairment of the arcuate fasciculus in aphasia; little is known about the extent to which aphasia severity is affected by damage to both ventral and dorsal language white matter (WM) pathways. To understand whether disconnection of these pathways contributes to clinical symptoms, we assessed the relationship between the alterations of WM integrity and clinical characteristics in acute aphasia after stroke. Eighteen patients with acute aphasia and age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent language assessment and DTI scanning. The whole brain unbiased tract-based spatial statistics method was employed to quantitate WM integrity (fractional anisotropy) for both groups. Linear correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between WM integrity and clinical features. The aphasic patients showed decreased WM integrity in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus/inferior longitudinal fasciculus (IFOF/ILF) and the left uncinate fasciculus, which represents components of ventral language pathway, and the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), which relates to dorsal language pathway. In addition, WM integrity of the left IFOF and SLF showed a positive correlation with aphasia quotient, performance quotient, and cortical quotient, respectively. These findings suggested that impaired WM integrity in both language pathways not only contributed to language performance, but also to general cognitive status. We suggest that aphasia involves a breakdown of multiple connections of dorsal and ventral streams that directly contributes to language deficits. Damage to these dual-streams may serve as a neuromarker for aphasias after stroke.

  16. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  17. Effects of neonatal excitotoxic lesions in ventral thalamus on social interaction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rainer; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Nullmeier, Sven; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schwegler, Herbert

    2017-03-30

    The role of the thalamus in schizophrenia has increasingly been studied in recent years. Deficits in the ventral thalamus have been described in only few postmortem and neuroimaging studies. We utilised our previously introduced neurodevelopmental animal model, the neonatal excitotoxic lesion of the ventral thalamus of Sprague-Dawley rats (Wolf et al., Pharmacopsychiatry 43:99-109, 22). At postnatal day (PD7), male pubs received bilateral thalamic infusions with ibotenic acid (IBA) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control). In adulthood, social interaction of two animals not familiar to each other was studied by a computerised video tracking system. This study displays clear lesion effects on social interaction of adult male rats. The significant reduction of total contact time and the significant increase in distance between the animals in the IBA group compared to controls can be interpreted as social withdrawal modelling a negative symptom of schizophrenia. The significant increase of total distance travelled in the IBA group can be hypothesised as agitation modelling a positive symptom of schizophrenia. Using a triple concept of social interaction, the percentage of no social interaction (Non-SI%) was significantly larger, and inversely, the percentage of passive social interaction (SI-passive%) was significantly smaller in the IBA group when compared to controls. In conclusion, on the background of findings in schizophrenic patients, the effects of neonatal ventral thalamic IBA lesions in adult male rats support the hypothesis of face and construct validity as animal model of schizophrenia.

  18. Reward processing dysfunction in ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Stéfan; Bossert, Meija; Vink, Matthijs; van den Heuvel, Leigh; Bardien, Soraya; Emsley, Robin; Buckle, Chanelle; Seedat, Soraya; Carr, Jonathan

    2017-12-24

    Parkinson's disease is a growing concern as the longevity of the world's population steadily increases. Both ageing and Parkinson's disease have an impact on dopamine neurotransmission. It is therefore important to investigate their relative impact on the fronto-striatal reward system. There has been little investigation of reward processing in terms of anticipation and reward outcome in Parkinson's disease. Abnormal responses during reward processing have previously been demonstrated in whole-brain analysis of Parkinson's patients with mild lateralized disease, but the exact impact in regions specific to reward processing is still unknown. Here we aim to investigate the impact of Parkinson's disease on the orbitofrontal ventral striatal reward system in patients with moderate to severe clinical symptoms. We utilized a monetary incentive delay (MID) task in 17 Parkinson's patients who were compared to two control groups stratified by age. The MID paradigm reliably activates the ventral striatum during reward anticipation and the orbitofrontal cortex during reward outcome processing. Relative to the two control groups, Parkinson's disease patients had abnormal task related activity during both reward anticipation in the ventral striatum and reward outcome in the orbitofrontal cortex. There were no effects of ageing. These findings demonstrate abnormalities in anticipatory as well as reward outcome processing while treated primarily with levodopa. The orbitofrontal dysfunction during reward outcome processing may have specificity in Parkinson's disease, as it has been shown to be relatively unaffected by normal ageing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Operative treatment of massive ventral hernia using polypropylene mesh: a challenge for surgeon and anesthesiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paajanen, H; Laine, H

    2005-03-01

    Surgical repair of very large ventral hernias has become feasible after the introduction of synthetic meshes and developments in intensive-care treatment. In addition to the operative challenges, postoperative disorders in the cardiovascular system, tissue oxygenation, increased intra-abdominal pressure, and pulmonary embolism expose the patient to severe risks. From 1997-2002 we operated on ten patients with giant ventral incisional or umbilical hernia (mean defect size 240 cm(2)) by using retromuscular polypropylene mesh. All patients were morbidly obese [mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 39+/-7.2 kg/m(2)]. Four of the operations were emergencies because of an acute intestinal occlusion, bowel gangrene, and skin complications. The patients were reinvestigated after the mean follow-up of 2.5 years to find out the frequency of recurrence and degree of disability. There was no intraoperative mortality, but one patient died at home after 5 weeks because of myocardial infarct and prolonged wound infection. She had mild stable coronary heart disease preoperatively. Although minor wound complications were observed in three patients, there was no need to remove the meshes. One small recurrent hernia was observed in the follow-up, but it was too small to be repaired. The quality of life after surgery was good for all patients, and they were satisfied with the operation. Retromuscular mesh hernioplasty associated with careful patient monitoring in intensive care is safe and feasible in the selected patients with massive ventral hernia.

  20. Ultrastructure and wear patterns of the ventral epidermis of four snake species (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-10-01

    Snakes are limbless tetrapods highly specialized for sliding locomotion. This locomotion leads to the skin being exposed to friction loads, especially on the ventral body side, which leads to wear. It is presumed that snakes therefore have specific optimizations for minimizing abrasion. Scales from snakes with habitat, locomotor and/or behavior specializations have specific gradients in material properties that may be due to different epidermal architecture. To approach this issue we examined the skin of Lampropeltis getula californiae (terrestrial), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (generalist), Morelia viridis (arboreal), and Gongylophis colubrinus (burrowing) with a focus on (i) the ultrastructure of the ventral epidermis and (ii) the qualitative abrasion pattern of the ventral scales. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed variations in the structure, thickness, layering, and material composition of the epidermis between the species. Furthermore, SEM and white light interferometer images of the scale surface showed that the abrasion patterns differed, even when the snakes were reared on the same substrate. These data support the idea that (i) a specific gradient in material properties may be due to a variation in epidermis architecture (thickness/ultrastructure) and (ii) this variation may be an optimization of material properties for specific ways of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Delayed presentation of osteochondroma on the ventral surface of the scapula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O S; Kelly, J I V

    2012-04-01

    Osteochondroma is a cartilage-covered bony excrescence that arises from the surface of a bone. It is the most common benign bone tumor in the scapula and can also present as multiple masses in multiple hereditary exostosis. A solitary scapular lesion might lead to "snapping scapula" syndrome, which is characterized by a sometimes audible but usually palpable grinding sensation experienced with scapular abduction. Snapping scapula is usually painless without specific symptoms; however, discomfort may result from the mechanical effects of a ventral scapular mass projecting onto a normally smooth, gliding scapulothoracic joint. Furthermore, malignant transformation of the cartilaginous cap, by virtue of the increased mass, may precipitate symptoms. The visual deformities and interference with major joint function are the most frequent musculoskeletal complaints related by patients. Indications for operative intervention include painful mechanical dysfunction unresponsive to conservative measures and sarcomatous change. Ventral scapular osteochondromas have been reported to cause scapular asymmetry and should be ruled out as part of a differential diagnosis to a "winged" scapula. A solitary osteochondroma can be excised either by arthroscopic or by open means, with the size of the lesion dictating precise management. Scapular osteochondromas usually are detected early during maturation due to mechanical symptoms or gross deformity. Unfortunately, most require surgical excision. Most surgical excisions have been reported in adolescents and young adults. We report an unusual case of osteochondroma from the ventral surface of the scapula in 56-year-old woman who had experienced delayed onset mechanical symptoms which required surgical excision.

  2. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non......-drug-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked’ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs......) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27). All participants also underwent 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA positron emission tomography to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation...

  3. Spinal cord direct current stimulation differentially modulates neuronal activity in the dorsal and ventral spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Martin, John H

    2017-03-01

    Spinal cord direct current stimulation (sDCS) has the potential for promoting motor function after injury through its modulatory actions on sensory processing, reflex functions, the motor cortex (M1) motor map, and motor output. Here we addressed systems-level mechanisms underlying sDCS neuromodulation of spinal circuits activated by M1 and peripheral forelimb electrical stimulation in anesthetized healthy rats. We determined the effects of cathodal and anodal sDCS (c- and a-sDCS) on local field potentials (LFP) and single-unit activity recorded at 32 sites simultaneously within the sixth cervical segment using a silicon multielectrode array. M1 stimulation produced distinctive dorsomedial and ventral LFP responses that showed polarity-dependent sDCS modulation. c-sDCS enhanced and a-sDCS depressed significantly ventral M1 responses; neither modulated dorsal responses significantly. Using evoked changes in β- and γ-oscillations to assay network function, c-sDCS enhanced and a-sDCS reduced oscillation power ventrally. c-sDCS increased and a-sDCS decreased background firing and firing synchrony of recorded pairs of single units. Peripheral stimulation produced a region-dependent response that showed polarity-dependent sDCS modulation. The dorsomedial LFP was unaffected by c-sDCS and weakly suppressed with a-sDCS. Peripheral-evoked unit responses showed limited polarity dependence. Our findings stress that ventral motor network behavior is enhanced by the neuromodulatory actions of c-sDCS. The combined actions of c-sDCS on M1-evoked neural responses and network behavior in the cervical spinal cord help explain the reported enhanced motor effects of this neuromodulation approach and inform the mechanisms of sDCS for promoting motor rehabilitation after spinal cord or brain injury. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Spinal cord direct current stimulation (sDCS) modulates spinal functions and shows potential for neural rehabilitation after motor systems injury. Using a multichannel

  4. A cross-validated cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human ventral visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenke, Mona; Weiner, Kevin S; Barnett, Michael A; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Goebel, Rainer; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-02-16

    The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas that are considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale. Therefore, the goal of this study was to (a) generate a cross-validated cytoarchitectonic atlas of the human ventral visual stream on a whole brain template that is commonly used in neuroimaging studies and (b) to compare this atlas to a recently published retinotopic parcellation of visual cortex (Wang et al., 2014). To achieve this goal, we generated an atlas of eight cytoarchitectonic areas: four areas in the occipital lobe (hOc1-hOc4v) and four in the fusiform gyrus (FG1-FG4), then we tested how the different alignment techniques affect the accuracy of the resulting atlas. Results show that both cortex-based alignment (CBA) and nonlinear volumetric alignment (NVA) generate an atlas with better cross-validation performance than affine volumetric alignment (AVA). Additionally, CBA outperformed NVA in 6/8 of the cytoarchitectonic areas. Finally, the comparison of the cytoarchitectonic atlas to a retinotopic atlas shows a clear correspondence between cytoarchitectonic and retinotopic areas in the ventral visual stream. The successful performance of CBA suggests a coupling between cytoarchitectonic areas and macroanatomical landmarks in the human ventral visual stream, and furthermore, that this coupling can be utilized for generating an accurate group atlas. In addition, the coupling between cytoarchitecture and retinotopy highlights

  5. Wdr68 Mediates Dorsal and Ventral Patterning Events for Craniofacial Development.

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    Estibaliz Alvarado

    Full Text Available Birth defects are among the leading causes of infant mortality and contribute substantially to illness and long-term disability. Defects in Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP signaling are associated with cleft lip/palate. Many craniofacial syndromes are caused by defects in signaling pathways that pattern the cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs along the dorsal-ventral axis. For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1 signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling. The BMP, Edn1, and Jag1b pathways intersect because BMP signaling is required for ventral edn1 expression that, in turn, restricts jag1b to dorsal CNCC territory. In zebrafish, the scaffolding protein Wdr68 is required for edn1 expression and subsequent formation of the ventral Meckel's cartilage as well as the dorsal Palatoquadrate. Here we report that wdr68 activity is required between the 17-somites and prim-5 stages, that edn1 functions downstream of wdr68, and that wdr68 activity restricts jag1b, hey1, and grem2 expression from ventral CNCC territory. Expression of dlx1a and dlx2a was also severely reduced in anterior dorsal and ventral 1st arch CNCC territory in wdr68 mutants. We also found that the BMP agonist isoliquiritigenin (ISL can partially rescue lower jaw formation and edn1 expression in wdr68 mutants. However, we found no significant defects in BMP reporter induction or pSmad1/5 accumulation in wdr68 mutant cells or zebrafish. The Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β signaling pathway is also known to be important for craniofacial development and can interfere with BMP signaling. Here we further report that TGF-β interference with BMP signaling was greater in wdr68 mutant cells relative to control cells. To determine whether interference might also act in vivo, we treated wdr68 mutant zebrafish embryos with the TGF-β signaling inhibitor SB431542 and found partial rescue of edn1 expression and

  6. A Prospective Assessment of Clinical and Patient-Reported Outcomes of Initial Non-Operative Management of Ventral Hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holihan, Julie L; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan R; Mo, Jiandi; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the clinical or patient-reported outcomes with non-operative management of ventral hernias. The aim of this prospective study is to determine the clinical and patient-reported outcomes of patients undergoing initial non-operative treatment of their ventral hernia. This was a prospective observational study of patients undergoing non-operative management of ventral hernias. Primary outcome was rate of surgical repair of the ventral hernias. Secondary outcomes included rate of emergency repair, elective repair, and emergency room visits. In addition, validated measurement tools for patient satisfaction and cosmetic satisfaction with their abdomen, abdominal pain, and patient function (modified Activities Assessment Scale, AAS) were utilized. Of 128 patients who underwent non-operative management of a ventral hernia, 99(77.3%) patients were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 12.2(10.4-13.5) months. Twenty (20.2%) patients had at least 1 emergency room visit associated with their hernia. One-quarter (n = 2323.2%) underwent ventral hernia repair following enrollment. Twenty (20.2%) underwent elective repair, and 3 (3.0%) underwent emergent repair. Based on the modified AAS survey, patients who were managed non-operatively experienced no change in patient centered outcomes, while patients converted to operative management had improved scores. While the short-term risk of emergency surgery with non-operative management of ventral hernias is moderate, the chance of an emergency room visit and surgery is high. Patients who undergo non-operative management of their ventral hernias have no change in patient-reported outcomes at one year, while those converted to operative management experience improvement.

  7. Effects of combined BDNF and GDNF treatment on cultured dopaminergic midbrain neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sautter, J; Meyer, Morten; Spenger, C

    1998-01-01

    Neural transplantation is an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease. Pretreatment of fetal donor tissue with neurotrophic factors may improve survival of grafted dopaminergic neurons. Free-floating roller tube cultures of fetal rat ventral mesencephalon were treated with brain...

  8. Nutrient management of soil grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The management of the fertilization of soil grown crops in greenhouses can be distinguished in the addition of fertilizers before cultivation, the base dressing and those added during the cultivations period of the crops, the top dressing. The growing period of the crops in greenhouse production

  9. Comparison of mesencephalic free-floating tissue culture grafts and cell suspension grafts in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Morten; Widmer, H R; Wagner, B

    1998-01-01

    , calbindin, and parvalbumin showed no differences in the neuronal expression of these proteins between the two graft types. In conclusion, we found comparable dopaminergic cell survival and functional effects of tissue-culture grafts and cell-suspension grafts, which currently is the type of graft most......Ventral mesencephalon (VM) of fetal rat and human origin grown as free-floating roller-tube (FFRT) cultures can survive subsequent grafting to the adult rat striatum. To further explore the functional efficacy of such grafts, embryonic day 13 ventral mesencephalic tissue was grafted either after 7...... days in culture or directly as dissociated cell suspensions, and compared with regard to neuronal survival and ability to normalize rotational behavior in adult rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Other lesioned rats received injections of cell-free medium and served as controls...

  10. Cell death atlas of the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus: effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Todd H; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V; Murray, Elaine K; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estrous detection by monitoring ventral tail base surface temperature using a wearable wireless sensor in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ryotaro; Yoshioka, Koji; Miyamoto, Toru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Okada, Hironao; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the ventral tail base surface temperature (ST) was monitored using a wearable wireless sensor for estrus detection in cattle. Relationships among ST, behavioral estrus expression, ovulation, and changes in hormone profiles during the estrous cycle were examined. Holstein Friesian or Japanese Black female cattle were used in summer (August-September), autumn (October-November) and winter (January-February; three animals per season). On Day 11 of the estrous cycle (Day 0=the day of ovulation), the sensor was attached to the surface of the ventral tail base and ST was measured every 2min until Day 11 of the next estrous cycle. Hourly maximum ST values were used for analysis. To exclude circadian rhythm and seasonal effects, ST changes were expressed as residual temperatures (RT=actual ST - mean ST for the same hour on the previous 3days). Obvious circadian rhythms of the ST were observed and daily changes in the ST significantly differed among seasons. There was no significant seasonal difference, however, in the RT. The mean RT increased significantly ∼24 compared with ∼48h before ovulation. The mean maximum RT was 1.27±0.30°C, which was observed 5.6±2.4h after the onset of estrus, 2.4±1.3h before LH peak, and 26.9±1.2h before ovulation. The ST of the ventral tail base could be monitored throughout the estrous cycle and could detect a substantial change around the time of expression of behavioral estrus. Calculation and analysis of the RT could be useful for automatic estrous detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diets rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids induce morphological alterations in the rat ventral prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Furriel

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of dietary lipid quality on the body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of the rat ventral prostate.Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, HF-S (high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids, HF-P (high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and HF-SP (high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. We analyzed body mass, fat mass deposits, plasma blood, insulin resistance and the ventral prostate structure.Groups that received high-fat diets were heavier and presented larger fat deposits than SC group. The HF-S and HF-SP groups had higher glucose, insulin and total cholesterol serum levels and insulin resistance compared with the SC. The acinar area, epithelium height and area density of the lumen were higher in the HF-SP than in the other groups. The epithelium area density and epithelial cell proliferation were greater in the HF-P and HF-SP than in the SC group. All of the groups that received high-fat diets had greater area density of the stroma, area density of smooth muscle cells and stromal cell proliferation compared with the SC group.Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids induced overweight. Independently of insulin resistance, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation. Saturated fatty acids influenced only stromal cellular proliferation. These structural and morphometric alterations may be considered risk factors for the development of adverse remodeling process in the rat ventral prostate.

  13. Molecular mechanism regulating 24-hour rhythm of dopamine D3 receptor expression in mouse ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Eriko; Matsunaga, Naoya; Kakimoto, Keisuke; Hamamura, Kengo; Hayashi, Akane; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2013-05-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) in the ventral striatum is thought to influence motivation and motor functions. Although the expression of DRD3 in the ventral striatum has been shown to exhibit 24-hour variations, the mechanisms underlying the variation remain obscure. Here, we demonstrated that molecular components of the circadian clock act as regulators that control the 24-hour variation in the expression of DRD3. The transcription of DRD3 was enhanced by the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα), and its activation was inhibited by the orphan receptor REV-ERBα, an endogenous antagonist of RORα. The serum or dexamethasone-induced oscillation in the expression of DRD3 in cells was abrogated by the downregulation or overexpression of REV-ERBα, suggesting that REV-ERBα functions as a regulator of DRD3 oscillations in the cellular autonomous clock. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of the DRD3 promoter indicated that the binding of the REV-ERBα protein to the DRD3 promoter increased in the early dark phase. DRD3 protein expression varied with higher levels during the dark phase. Moreover, the effects of the DRD3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT)-induced locomotor hypoactivity were significantly increased when DRD3 proteins were abundant. These results suggest that RORα and REV-ERBα consist of a reciprocating mechanism wherein RORα upregulates the expression of DRD3, whereas REV-ERBα periodically suppresses the expression at the time of day when REV-ERBα is abundant. Our present findings revealed that a molecular link between the circadian clock and the function of DRD3 in the ventral striatum acts as a modulator of the pharmacological actions of DRD3 agonists/antagonists.

  14. Neurogenesis in the crustacean ventral nerve cord: homology of neuronal stem cells in Malacostraca and Branchiopoda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzsch, S

    2001-01-01

    In Insecta and malacostracan Crustacea, neurons in the ventral ganglia are generated by the unequal division of neuronal stem cells, the neuroblasts (Nbs), which are arranged in a stereotyped, grid-like pattern. In malacostracans, however, Nbs originate from ectoteloblasts by an invariant lineage, whereas Nbs in insects differentiate without a defined lineage by cell-to-cell interactions within the neuroectoderm. As the ventral ganglia in entomostracan crustaceans were thought to be generated by a general inward proliferation of ectodermal cells, the question arose as to whether neuroblasts in Euarthropoda represent a homologous type of stem cell. In the current project, neurogenesis in metanauplii of the entomostracan crustaceans Triops cancriformis Fabricius, 1780 (Branchiopoda, Phyllopoda) and Artemia salina Linné, 1758 (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) was examined by in vivo incorporation of the mitosis marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and compared to stem cell proliferation in embryos of the malacostracan Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 (Eucarida, Decapoda). The developmental expression of synaptic proteins (synapsins) was studied immunohistochemically. Results indicate that in the ventral neurogenic zone of Branchiopoda, neuronal stem cells with cellular characteristics of malacostracan neuroblasts are present. However, a pattern similar to the lineage-dependent, grid-like arrangement of the malacostracan neuroblasts was not found. Therefore, the homology of entomostracan and malacostracan neuronal stem cells remains uncertain. It is now well established that during arthropod development, identical and most likely homologous structures can emerge, although the initiating steps or the mode of generation of these structures are different. Recent evidence suggests that adult Entomostraca and Malacostraca share corresponding sets of neurons so that the present report provides an example that those homologous neurons may be generated via divergent developmental

  15. A detailed look at the cytoskeletal architecture of the Giardia lamblia ventral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna R; Schwartz, Cindi L; Heumann, John M; Dawson, Scott C; Hoenger, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protistan parasite that infects and colonizes the small intestine of mammals. It is widespread and particularly endemic in the developing world. Here we present a detailed structural study by 3-D negative staining and cryo-electron tomography of a unique Giardia organelle, the ventral disc. The disc is composed of a regular array of microtubules and associated sheets, called microribbons that form a large spiral, held together by a myriad of mostly unknown associated proteins. In a previous study we analyzed by cryo-electron tomography the central microtubule portion (here called disc body) of the ventral disc and found a large portion of microtubule associated inner (MIPs) and outer proteins (MAPs) that render these microtubules hyper-stable. With this follow-up study we expanded our 3-D analysis to different parts of the disc such as the ventral and dorsal areas of the overlap zone, as well as the outer disc margin. There are intrinsic location-specific characteristics in the composition of microtubule-associated proteins between these regions, as well as large differences between the overall architecture of microtubules and microribbons. The lateral packing of microtubule-microribbon complexes varies substantially, and closer packing often comes with contracted lateral tethers that seem to hold the disc together. It appears that the marginal microtubule-microribbon complexes function as outer, laterally contractible lids that may help the cell to clamp onto the intestinal microvilli. Furthermore, we analyzed length, quantity, curvature and distribution between different zones of the disc, which we found to differ from previous publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intracellular responses and morphology of rat ventral complex of the lateral lemniscus neurons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, David A X; Clarey, Janine C; Paolini, Antonio G

    2006-09-10

    The function of the ventral and intermediate nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL and INLL), collectively termed ventral complex of the lateral lemniscus (VCLL), is unclear. Several studies have suggested that it plays a role in coding the temporal aspects of sound. In our study, a sample (n = 161) of intracellular responses to dichotically presented noise or tone bursts was collected from the VCLL of urethane-anesthetized rats in vivo. Intracellular recordings revealed six distinct response types to tones, distinguished by their synaptic and membrane characteristics as well as firing pattern. Three of these response types were correlated with distinct cellular morphologies revealed by intracellular injection of neurobiotin. 3D reconstructions of recorded neurons within the VCLL showed the spatial distribution of various response properties, including response type, laterality, characteristic frequency (CF), and binaural influences. Cells that responded to monaural (55%) or binaural (45%) stimulation were distributed throughout the VCLL. Almost all VCLL units were responsive to contralateral stimulation (97%). Most neurons were excited by contralateral stimulation (83%), many exclusively (43%), and some in conjunction with ipsilateral inhibition (28%) or excitation (12%). The INLL contained mostly binaural neurons (65%), typically with ipsilateral inhibition and contralateral excitation. These results indicate that the VCLL is not a monaural structure and there is a dorsal-ventral segregation of binaural and monaural cells. 3D reconstructions of intracellular CFs did not reveal the presence of any tonotopic arrangement within the VCLL. Presumably, the proposed timing role of this structure does not require a systematic representation of tonal frequency. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Sir Ganga Ram Hospital classification of groin and ventral abdominal wall hernias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowbey Pradeep

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous classifications for groin and ventral hernias have been proposed over the past five to six decades. The old, simple classification of groin hernia in to direct, inguinal and femoral components is no longer adequate to understand the complex pathophysiology and management of these hernias. The most commonly followed classification for ventral hernias divide them into congenital, acquired, incisional and traumatic, which also does not convey any information regarding the predicted level of difficulty. Aim: All the previous classification systems were based on open hernia repairs and have their own fallacies particularly for uncommon hernias that cannot be classified in these systems. With the advent of laparoscopic/ endoscopic approach, surgical access to the hernia as well as the functional anatomy viewed by the surgeon changed. This change in the surgical approach and functional anatomy opened the doors for newer classifications. The authors have thus proposed a classification system based on the expected level of intraoperative difficulty for endoscopic hernia repair. Classification: In the proposed classification higher grades signify increasing levels of expected intraoperative difficulty. This functional classification grades groin hernias according to the: a Pre -operative predictive level of difficulty of endoscopic surgery, and b Intraoperative factors that lead to a difficult repair. Pre operative factors include multiple or pantaloon hernias, recurrent hernias, irreducible and incarcerated hernias. Intraoperative factors include reducibility at operation, degree of descent of the hernial sac and previous hernia repairs. Hernial defects greater than 7 cm in diameter are categorized one grade higher. Conclusion: Though there have been several classification systems for groin or inguinal hernias, none have been described for total classification of all ventral hernias of the abdomen. The system proposed by us includes

  18. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Meier Carlsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal neuronal networks are essential for motor function. They are involved in the integration of sensory inputs and the generation of rhythmic motor outputs. They continuously adapt their activity to the internal state of the organism and to the environment. This plasticity can be provided by different neuromodulators. These substances are usually thought of being released by dedicated neurons. However, in other networks from the central nervous system synaptic transmission is also modulated by transmitters released from astrocytes. The star-shaped glial cell responds to neurotransmitters by releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice. Neurons responded to electrical stimulation by monosynaptic EPSCs. We used mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the glial fibrillary acidic protein to identify astrocytes. Chelating calcium with BAPTA in a single neighboring astrocyte increased the amplitude of synaptic currents. In contrast, when we selectively stimulated astrocytes by activating PAR-1 receptors with the peptide TFLLR, the amplitude of EPSCs evoked by a paired stimulation protocol was reduced. The paired-pulse ratio was increased, suggesting an inhibition occurring at the presynaptic side of synapses. In the presence of blockers for extracellular ectonucleotidases, TFLLR did not induce presynaptic inhibition. Puffing adenosine reproduced the effect of TFLLR and blocking adenosine A1 receptors with DPCPX prevented it. Altogether our results show that ventral horn astrocytes are responsible for a tonic and a phasic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by releasing ATP, which gets converted into adenosine that binds to inhibitory

  19. Face-Likeness and Image Variability Drive Responses in Human Face-Selective Ventral Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Remus, David A.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2012-01-01

    The human ventral visual stream contains regions that respond selectively to faces over objects. However, it is unknown whether responses in these regions correlate with how face-like stimuli appear. Here, we use parameterized face silhouettes to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli and measure responses in face- and object-selective ventral regions with high-resolution fMRI. We first use “concentric hyper-sphere” (CH) sampling to define face silhouettes at different distances from the prototype face. Observers rate the stimuli as progressively more face-like the closer they are to the prototype face. Paradoxically, responses in both face- and object-selective regions decrease as face-likeness ratings increase. Because CH sampling produces blocks of stimuli whose variability is negatively correlated with face-likeness, this effect may be driven by more adaptation during high face-likeness (low-variability) blocks than during low face-likeness (high-variability) blocks. We tested this hypothesis by measuring responses to matched-variability (MV) blocks of stimuli with similar face-likeness ratings as with CH sampling. Critically, under MV sampling, we find a face-specific effect: responses in face-selective regions gradually increase with perceived face-likeness, but responses in object-selective regions are unchanged. Our studies provide novel evidence that face-selective responses correlate with the perceived face-likeness of stimuli, but this effect is revealed only when image variability is controlled across conditions. Finally, our data show that variability is a powerful factor that drives responses across the ventral stream. This indicates that controlling variability across conditions should be a critical tool in future neuroimaging studies of face and object representation. PMID:21823208

  20. Regulation of actions and habits by ventral hippocampal trkB and adolescent corticosteroid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Elizabeth T; Gerber, Kyle J; Zimmermann, Kelsey S; Ressler, Kerry J; Parsons, Ryan G; Gourley, Shannon L

    2017-11-01

    In humans and rodents, stress promotes habit-based behaviors that can interfere with action-outcome decision-making. Further, developmental stressor exposure confers long-term habit biases across rodent-primate species. Despite these homologies, mechanisms remain unclear. We first report that exposure to the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) in adolescent mice recapitulates multiple neurobehavioral consequences of stressor exposure, including long-lasting biases towards habit-based responding in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task. In both adolescents and adults, CORT also caused a shift in the balance between full-length tyrosine kinase receptor B (trkB) and a truncated form of this neurotrophin receptor, favoring the inactive form throughout multiple corticolimbic brain regions. In adolescents, phosphorylation of the trkB substrate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 42/44 (ERK42/44) in the ventral hippocampus was also diminished, a long-term effect that persisted for at least 12 wk. Administration of the trkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) during adolescence at doses that stimulated ERK42/44 corrected long-lasting corticosterone-induced behavioral abnormalities. Meanwhile, viral-mediated overexpression of truncated trkB in the ventral hippocampus reduced local ERK42/44 phosphorylation and was sufficient to induce habit-based and depression-like behaviors. Together, our findings indicate that ventral hippocampal trkB is essential to goal-directed action selection, countering habit-based behavior otherwise facilitated by developmental stress hormone exposure. They also reveal an early-life sensitive period during which trkB-ERK42/44 tone determines long-term behavioral outcomes.

  1. Abdominoplasty and simultaneous laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. Clinical study about 45 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, H; Reibel, N; De Runz, A; Epstein, J; Brix, M

    2017-04-01

    Abdominoplasty procedures sometimes reveal the presence of ventral hernias (umbilical or trocar-site hernias). Our objective is then to deal with the excess abdominal skin and fat tissue at the same time as the ventral hernia. This can be done with a single surgical procedure combining abdominoplasty with umbilical transposition and laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) with mesh. The main objective of our study is to assess the outcome of the combined procedure of abdominoplasty and LVHR with mesh, compared to abdominoplasty alone. A retrospective single-centre cohort study was conducted, including patients operated on with the combined method (ABDO-LVHR group) and patients who underwent abdominoplasty alone (ABDO group). We noted major and minor complications, with infection issues as our main concern. We included 15 patients in the ABDO-LVHR group and 30 in the ABDO group. The results show no statistically significant difference for infectious complications in the ABDO-LVHR group compared to the ABDO group (20% vs 3.3%; P=0.100). There was no instance of complete umbilical necrosis. Other major and minor complications occurred at the rates typically described in the literature without difference between the two groups. There was no significant difference between our two groups in terms of infectious complications. LVHR carried out at the same time as abdominoplasty with umbilical transposition is a positive combination of procedures. Further studies are necessary to confirm that the risk in terms of infectious complications is no higher than for abdominoplasty alone. III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Application of "Renal Pedicle Rotation" Method in Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Ventral Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiyu; Zhang, Hongxian; Ma, Lulin; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Guoliang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shudong

    2015-09-01

    To present preliminary experience of "renal pedicle rotation" method in retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RLPN) for renal ventral tumors. A retrospective analysis of renal surgery database about patients undergoing RLPN was conducted. We identified 14 consecutive cases of all the surgeries from December 2013 to October 2014 with renal ventral tumors. The 14 surgeries were all in the application of renal pedicle rotation method, an intraoperative skill in which surgeons rotates the kidney on renal pedicle axis after separating renal artery and vein for a better tumor exposure. A total of 14 patients underwent RLPN. All surgeries were successful without conversion to radical nephrectomy or open partial nephrectomy. The mean operative time was 171.1±47.2 min (range 83-246), the mean warm ischemia time was 15.9±9.8 min (range 7-35) and the mean estimated blood loss was 89.3±102.2 mL (range 10-300). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.2±1.9 days (range 4-10) and mean retroperitoneal drainage was 4.2±1.4 days (range 2-8). No intraoperative complications occurred. Postoperative complications developed in four patients. All patients had negative margins and pathological examination revealed 10 (71.4%) clear cell carcinomas, two (14.2%) epithelial renal angiomyolipoma, one (7.1%) papillary carcinoma and one (7.1%) nephrotuberculosis. The review of the early oncologic outcomes revealed no local recurrence and distant metastasis. The renal pedicle rotation method might be a feasible and safe procedure to get a better tumor exposure for incision and suture in renal ventral tumors RLPN surgeries with acceptable postoperative outcomes.

  3. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum complementing chemical component relaxation in complex ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstner, Kristen E; Read, John W; Rodriguez-Acevedo, Omar; Ho-Shon, Kevin; Magnussen, John; Ibrahim, Nabeel

    2017-04-01

    A rarely used technique for enabling closure of large ventral hernias with loss of domain is preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP), which uses intermittent insufflation to gradually stretch the contracted abdominal wall muscles, increasing the capacity of the abdominal cavity. This allows the re-introduction of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity and assists in closure of giant hernias which may otherwise be considered inoperable. This was a prospective study assessing 16 patients between 2013 and 2015 with multi-recurrent ventral hernia. All patients were treated preoperatively with both Botulinum Toxin A (BTA) injections to the lateral abdominal wall muscles to confer flaccid paralysis, and short-term PPP to passively expand the abdominal cavity. All patients underwent serial abdominal CT imaging, with pre- and post-treatment circumference measurements of the peritoneal cavity and hernia sac, prior to undergoing operative mesh repair of their hernia. The mean hernia defect size was 236 cm2, with mean 28 % loss of domain. The mean overall duration of PPP was 6.2 days. The mean gain in abdominal circumference was 4.9 cm (5.6 %) (p 0.002) after BTA and PPP. Fascial closure and mesh hernia repair were performed in all 16 patients, with no patients suffering from postoperative abdominal hypertension, ventilatory impairment, or wound dehiscence. There are no hernia recurrences to date. Eight patients (50 %) experienced PPP-related complications, consisting of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumocardium, and metabolic acidosis. No complication required intervention. PPP is a useful adjunct in the repair of complex ventral hernia. It passively expands the abdominal cavity, allowing viscera to re-establish right of domain. At the same time, it helps to minimize the risks of postoperative abdominal compartment syndrome and the sequelae of fascial closure under tension. However, its benefits must be carefully weighed with

  4. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxytocin induces penile erection when injected into the ventral subiculum: role of nitric oxide and glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Maria Rosaria; Succu, Salvatora; Cocco, Cristina; Caboni, Emanuela; Sanna, Fabrizio; Boi, Antonio; Ferri, Gian Luca; Argiolas, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Oxytocin (100 ng) induces penile erection when injected unilaterally into the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus of male rats. The pro-erectile effect started mostly 30 min after treatment and occurred 15 min after an increase in both nitric oxide (NO) production, measured by the concentration of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-), the main metabolites of newly formed NO, and extra-cellular glutamic acid concentration in the dialysate obtained from the ventral subiculum by intracerebral microdialysis. These responses were abolished by d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (2 microg), an oxytocin receptor antagonist, S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC), a selective inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase (25 microg), and haemoglobin, a NO scavenger (25 microg), given into the ventral subiculum before oxytocin. Unlike d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, SMTC and haemoglobin, (+)MK-801 (5 microg), a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors abolished oxytocin-induced penile erection, but reduced only partially the increase in NO production and extra-cellular glutamic acid. As NMDA (0.25-1 microg) injected into the ventral subiculum induces penile erection episodes, which also occurred with an increase of NO production and extra-cellular glutamic acid, and NMDA responses were abolished by (+)MK-801 (5 microg), but not by SMTC (25 microg) or haemoglobin (25 microg), injected into the ventral subiculum, these results show that oxytocin injected into the ventral subiculum increases NO production by activating its own receptors. NO in turn increases glutamic acid neurotransmission, leading to penile erection, possibly through neural (glutamatergic) efferent projections from the ventral subiculum to extra-hippocampal brain areas (e.g., prefrontal cortex) modulating the activity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A ventral glomerular deficit in Parkinson's disease revealed by whole olfactory bulb reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapiec, Bolek; Dieriks, Birger V; Tan, Sheryl; Faull, Richard L M; Mombaerts, Peter; Curtis, Maurice A

    2017-10-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease and is an early symptom, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Hindering progress in our mechanistic understanding of olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is the paucity of literature about the human olfactory bulb, both from normal and Parkinson's disease cases. Qualitatively it is well established that the neat arrangement of the glomerular array seen in the mouse olfactory bulb is missing in humans. But rigorous quantitative approaches to describe and compare the thousands of glomeruli in the human olfactory bulb are not available. Here we report a quantitative approach to describe the glomerular component of the human olfactory bulb, and its application to draw statistical comparisons between olfactory bulbs from normal and Parkinson's disease cases. We subjected horizontal 10 µm sections of olfactory bulbs from six normal and five Parkinson's disease cases to fluorescence immunohistochemistry with antibodies against vesicular glutamate transporter-2 and neural cell adhesion molecule. We scanned the immunostained sections with a fluorescence slide scanner, segmented the glomeruli, and generated 3D reconstructions of whole olfactory bulbs. We document the occurrence of atypical glomerular morphologies and glomerular-like structures deep in the olfactory bulb, both in normal and Parkinson's disease cases. We define a novel and objective parameter: the global glomerular voxel volume, which is the total volume of all voxels that are classified immunohistochemically as glomerular. We find that the global glomerular voxel volume in Parkinson's disease cases is half that of normal cases. The distribution of glomerular voxels along the dorsal-ventral dimension of the olfactory bulb in these series of horizontal sections is significantly altered in Parkinson's disease cases: whereas most glomerular voxels reside within the ventral half of olfactory bulbs from normal cases, glomerular voxels are

  7. Transvaginal Repair of a Large Chronic Porcine Ventral Hernia with Synthetic Mesh Using NOTES

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ben; Whang, Susan H.; Bachman, Sharon L.; Andres Astudillo, J.; Sporn, Emanuel; Miedema, Brent W.; Thaler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ventral incisional hernias still remain a common surgical problem. We tested the feasibility of transvaginal placement of a large synthetic mesh to repair a porcine hernia. Methods: Seven pigs were used in this survival model. Each animal had creation of a 5-cm hernia defect and underwent a transvaginal repair of the defect with synthetic mesh. A single colpotomy was made using a 12-cm trocar for an overtube. The mesh was cut to size and placed through the trocar. A single-channel...

  8. Separate Populations of Neurons in Ventral Striatum Encode Value and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Ronny N.; Goldstein, Brandon L.; Hearn, Taylor N.; Barnett, Brian R.; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in the ventral striatum (VS) fire to cues that predict differently valued rewards. It is unclear whether this activity represents the value associated with the expected reward or the level of motivation induced by reward anticipation. To distinguish between the two, we trained rats on a task in which we varied value independently from motivation by manipulating the size of the reward expected on correct trials and the threat of punishment expected upon errors. We found that separate populations of neurons in VS encode expected value and motivation. PMID:23724077

  9. Minimally invasive approach for small ventrally located intradural lesions of the craniovertebral junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicker, Sven O; Mende, Klaus Christian; Dührsen, Lasse; Schmidt, Nils Ole

    2015-04-01

    The surgical management of lesions ventral to the neuraxis at the level of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and upper cervical spine is challenging. Here, the authors describe a minimally invasive dorsal approach for small ventrally located intradural lesions at the CVJ as an alternative for the more extensive classic transoral approach or variants of suboccipital approaches. Between 2012 and 2014, 6 symptomatic patients with a small lesion of the ventral aspect at the CVJ level were treated using a minimally invasive dorsal approach at the University Medical Center in Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. The anatomical distance between the posterior atlantooccipital membrane and the posterior atlantoaxial ligament, as determined by CT images, was assessed in the treated patients and in 100 untreated persons. The authors treated 6 patients (mean age 54.7 years) who had a clinical presentation of mild neurological symptoms that disappeared after resection. Minimally invasive surgical dorsal access was achieved by using tubular systems and using the natural space between the occiput (C-0) and C-1, and in 1 case between C-1 and C-2, without having to remove bony structures. The postoperative course in each of the 6 patients was uneventful. The neuropatho-logical findings confirmed a meningotheliomatous meningioma (WHO Grade I) in 5 cases and an extramedullary cavernous hemangioma in 1 case. MRI confirmed complete resection of all the lesions. The atlantooccipital distances ranged from 3 to 17 mm (mean 8.98 mm) in the supine neutral position, and the atlantoaxial distances ranged from 5 to 17 mm (mean 10.56 mm). There were no significant differences between women and men (atlantooccipital p = 0.14; atlantoaxial p = 0.72). The results of this study demonstrate that the minimally invasive dorsal approach using the space between C-0 and C-1 or C-1 and C-2 provides direct and sufficient exposure for the safe surgical resection of small ventrally located intradural lesions at the

  10. Effect of Urtica dioica extract on stereological structure of ventral prostate in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    HAMIDIAN, Gholamreza; Zangisheh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common and important metabolic disorder that can be associated with many functional and structural complications in male sex organs and infertility. Many studies showed that Urtica dioica caused hypoglycemia and prevented diabetes undesirable side effects on the different organs. This study was done to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Urtica dioica on ventral prostate in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. In this study, 15 adult male wistar rats were div...

  11. Hypergravity susceptibility of ventral root activity during fictive swimming in tadpoles (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böser, S; Horn, E R

    2006-05-01

    1. Fictive swimming is an experimental model to study early motor development. As vestibular activity also affects the development of spinal motor projections, the present study focused on the question whether in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, the rhythmic activity of spinal ventral roots (VR) during fictive swimming revealed age-dependent modifications after hypergravity exposure. In addition, developmental characteristics for various features of fictive swimming between stages 37/38 and 47 were determined. Parameters of interest were duration of fictive swimming episodes, burst duration, burst frequency (i.e., cycle length), and rostrocaudal delay. 2. Ventral root recordings were performed between developmental stage 37/38, which is directly after hatching and stage 47 when the hind limb buds appear. The location of recording electrodes extended from myotome 4 to 17. 3. Hypergravity exposure by 3 g-centrifugation lasted 9 to 11 days. It started when embryos had just terminated gastrulation (stage 11/19-group), when first rhythmical activity in the ventral roots appeared (stage 24/27-group), and immediately after hatching (stage 37/41-group). Ventral root recordings were taken for 8 days after termination of 3 g-exposure. 4. Between stage 37/38 (hatching) and stage 47 (hind limb bud stage) burst duration, cycle length and rostrocaudal delay recorded between the 10th and 14th postotic myotome increased while episode duration decreased significantly. In tadpoles between stage 37 and 43, the rostrocaudal delay in the proximal tail part was as long as in older tadpoles while in caudal tail parts, it was shorter. During this period of development, there was also an age-dependent progression of burst extension in the proximal tail area that could not be observed between the 10th and 14th myotome. 6. After termination of the 3 g-exposure, the mean burst duration of VR activity increased significantly (p VR activity such as cycle length, rostrocaudal delay and episode duration

  12. A multicenter prospective study of patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair with intraperitoneal positioning using themonofilament polyester composite ventral patch: interim results of the PANACEA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrevoet F

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Frederik Berrevoet,1 Carl Doerhoff,2 Filip Muysoms,3 Steven Hopson,4 Marco Gallinella Muzi,5 Simon Nienhuijs,6 Eric Kullman,7 Tim Tollens,8 Mark R Schwartz,9 Karl LeBlanc,10 Vic Velanovich,11 Lars Nannestad Jørgensen12 1Department of General and Hepatopancreaticobiliary Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2General Surgery, Surgicare of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO, USA; 3Department of Surgery, AZ Maria Middelares Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; 4Bon Secours Hernia Center, Mary Immaculate Hospital, Newport News, VA, USA; 5University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 6Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 7Medicinskt Centrum Linköping, Linköping, Sweden; 8Imelda Hospital-General Surgery Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden, Belgium; 9Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, NJ, 10Our Lady of Lakes Regional Medical Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 11Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 12Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: This study assessed the recurrence rate and other safety and efficacy parameters following ventral hernia repair with a polyester composite prosthesis (Parietex™ Composite Ventral Patch [PCO-VP].Patients and methods: A single-arm, multicenter prospective study of 126 patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair with the PCO-VP was performed. Patient outcomes were assessed at discharge and at 10 days, 1, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative.Results: All patients had hernioplasty for umbilical (n = 110, 87.3% or epigastric hernia (n = 16, 12.7%. Mean hernia diameter was 1.8 ± 0.8 cm. Mean operative time was 36.2 ±15.6 minutes, with a mean mesh positioning time of 8.1 ± 3.4 minutes. Surgeons reported satisfaction with mesh ease of use in 95% of surgeries. The cumulative hernia recurrence rate at 1 year was 2.8% (3/106. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS pain scores showed improvement from 2.1 ± 2.0 at preoperative baseline to 0.5 ± 0.7 at 1

  13. Acute stimulation effect of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum in patients with refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder – a double-blinded trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai HC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-Chi Tsai,1,2 Chun-Hung Chang,3,4 Jiann-I Pan,5 Hung-Jen Hsieh,6 Sheng-Tzung Tsai,7 Hsiang-Yi Hung,7 Shin-Yuan Chen1,71Institute of Medical Science, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien City, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Medical Informatics, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; 6Nuclear Medicine, Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, Taiwan; 7Department of Neurosurgery, Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien City, TaiwanObjective: Deep-brain stimulation (DBS for treating refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD has shown positive results in small clinical trials. Ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS is one of the promising targets; however, whether or not acute stimulation test can provide substantial information for chronic stimulation is not yet known. We evaluated postoperative test stimulation and examined the relationship of acute simulation-induced smile/laughter and 15-month clinical outcome.Methods: Four adult patients with refractory OCD were implanted with Model 3387 leads bilaterally in an area of VC/VS. Postoperative test stimulation was performed at least 2 weeks after surgery. We performed double-blinded postoperative test stimulation with different contact and voltage. The relationship of stimulation-induced smile/laughter and chronic response was examined.Results: Patients presented smile, laughter, euphoria, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, smell, chest vibration, dizziness, nausea, heat, or increased sexual drive during acute stimulation. We found that the higher the percentage of smile/laughter (34.3%, 31.3%, 56.3%, and 12.5% for four cases, the greater the reduction in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (30.6%, 38.9%, 58.8%, and 7.7% respectively at 15-month DBS.Conclusion: This study showed that acute DBS

  14. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapraz, François; Besnardeau, Lydia; Lepage, Thierry

    2009-11-01

    Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally, we show that

  15. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally

  16. Astroglial MicroRNA-219-5p in the Ventral Tegmental Area Regulates Nociception in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Yang, Xiao-Na; Zang, Ting; Luo, Jun; Pan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Lei; Liu, He; Liu, Di; Li, Yan-Qiang; Zhang, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Hongxing; Ding, Hai-Lei; Cao, Jun-Li

    2017-09-01

    The authors previously reported that noncoding microRNA miR-219-5p is down-regulated in the spinal cord in a nociceptive state. The ventral tegmental area also plays critical roles in modulating nociception, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that miR-219-5p in the ventral tegmental area also may modulate nociception. The authors studied the bidirectional regulatory role of ventral tegmental area miR-219-5p in a rat complete Freund's adjuvant model of inflammatory nociception by measuring paw withdrawal latencies. Using molecular biology technologies, the authors measured the effects of astroglial coiled-coil and C2 domain containing 1A/nuclear factor κB cascade and dopamine neuron activity on the down-regulation of ventral tegmental area miR-219-5p-induced nociceptive responses. MiR-219-5p expression in the ventral tegmental area was reduced in rats with thermal hyperalgesia. Viral overexpression of ventral tegmental area miR-219-5p attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant-induced nociception from 7 days after complete Freund's adjuvant injection (paw withdrawal latencies: 6.09 ± 0.83 s vs. 3.96 ± 0.76 s; n = 6/group). Down-regulation of ventral tegmental area miR-219-5p in naïve rats was sufficient to induce thermal hyperalgesia from 7 days after lentivirus injection (paw withdrawal latencies: 7.09 ± 1.54 s vs. 11.75 ± 2.15 s; n = 8/group), which was accompanied by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (fold change: 2.81 ± 0.38; n = 3/group) and reversed by intraventral tegmental area injection of the astroglial inhibitor fluorocitrate. The nociceptive responses induced by astroglial miR-219-5p down-regulation were inhibited by interfering with astroglial coiled-coil and C2 domain containing 1A/nuclear factor-κB signaling. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons alleviated this hyperalgesia. Down-regulation of astroglial miR-219-5p in ventral

  17. Influence of Chronic Amphetamine Treatment and Acute Withdrawal on Serotonin Synthesis and Clearance Mechanisms in the Rat Ventral Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jeffrey L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Solanki, Rajeshwari R.; Watt, Michael J.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2012-01-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal in both humans and rats is associated with increased anxiety states, which are thought to contribute to drug relapse. Serotonin in the ventral hippocampus mediates affective behaviors, and reduced serotonin levels in this region are observed in rat models of high anxiety, including during withdrawal from chronic amphetamine. This goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms by which reduced ventral hippocampus serotonergic neurotransmission occurs during amphetamine withdrawal. Serotonin synthesis (assessed by accumulation of serotonin precursor as a measure of the capacity of in vivo tryptophan hydroxylase activity), expression of serotonergic transporters, and in vivo serotonergic clearance using in vivo microdialysis, were assessed in the ventral hippocampus in adult male Sprague Dawley rats at 24 hours withdrawal from chronic amphetamine. Overall, results showed that diminished extracellular serotonin at 24 hours withdrawal from chronic amphetamine was not accompanied by a change in capacity for serotonin synthesis (in vivo tryptophan hydroxylase activity), nor serotonin transporter expression or function in the ventral hippocampus, but instead was associated with increased expression and function of organic cation transporters (low affinity, high capacity serotonin transporters). These findings suggest that 24 hours withdrawal from chronic amphetamine reduces the availability of extracellular serotonin in the ventral hippocampus by increasing organic cation transporter-mediated serotonin clearance, which may represent at future pharmacological target for reversing anxiety states during drug withdrawal. PMID:23157166

  18. Timing and expectation of reward: a neuro-computational model of the afferents to the ventral tegmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eVitay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural activity in dopaminergic areas such as the ventral tegmental area is influenced by timing processes, in particular by the temporal expectation of rewards during Pavlovian conditioning. Receipt of a reward at the expected time allows to compute reward-prediction errors which can drive learning in motor or cognitive structures. Reciprocally, dopamine plays an important role in the timing of external events. Several models of the dopaminergic system exist, but the substrate of temporal learning is rather unclear. In this article, we propose a neuro-computational model of the afferent network to the ventral tegmental area, including the lateral hypothalamus, the pedunculopontine nucleus, the amygdala, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the ventral basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens and the ventral pallidum, as well as the lateral habenula and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus. Based on a plausible connectivity and realistic learning rules, this neuro-computational model reproduces several experimental observations, such as the progressive cancellation of dopaminergic bursts at reward delivery, the appearance of bursts at the onset of reward-predicting cues or the influence of reward magnitude on activity in the amygdala and ventral tegmental area. While associative learning occurs primarily in the amygdala, learning of the temporal relationship between the cue and the associated reward is implemented as a dopamine-modulated coincidence detection mechanism in the nucleus accumbens.

  19. Expressions of ECE-CYC2 clade genes relating to abortion of both dorsal and ventral stamens in Opithandra (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yin-Zheng

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ECE-CYC2 clade genes known in patterning floral dorsoventral asymmetry (zygomorphy in Antirrhinum majus are conserved in the dorsal identity function including arresting the dorsal stamen. However, it remains uncertain whether the same mechanism underlies abortion of the ventral stamens, an important morphological trait related to evolution and diversification of zygomorphy in Lamiales sensu lato, a major clade of predominantly zygomorphically flowered angiosperms. Opithandra (Gesneriaceae is of particular interests in addressing this question as it is in the base of Lamiales s.l., an early representative of this type zygomorphy. Results We investigated the expression patterns of four ECE-CYC2 clade genes and two putative target cyclinD3 genes in Opithandra using RNA in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. OpdCYC gene expressions were correlated with abortion of both dorsal and ventral stamens in Opithandra, strengthened by the negatively correlated expression of their putative target OpdcyclinD3 genes. The complement of OpdcyclinD3 to OpdCYC expressions further indicated that OpdCYC expressions were related to the dorsal and ventral stamen abortion through negative effects on OpdcyclinD3 genes. Conclusion These results suggest that ECE-CYC2 clade TCP genes are not only functionally conserved in the dorsal stamen repression, but also involved in arresting ventral stamens, a genetic mechanism underlying the establishment of zygomorphy with abortion of both the dorsal and ventral stamens evolved in angiosperms, especially within Lamiales s.l.

  20. Prior auditory information shapes visual category-selectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta

    2010-10-01

    Objects in our natural environment generate signals in multiple sensory modalities. This fMRI study investigated the influence of prior task-irrelevant auditory information on visually-evoked category-selective activations in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Subjects categorized pictures as landmarks or animal faces, while ignoring the preceding congruent or incongruent sound. Behaviorally, subjects responded slower to incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the neural level, the lateral and medial prefrontal cortices showed increased activations for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli consistent with their role in response selection. In contrast, the parahippocampal gyri combined visual and auditory information additively: activation was greater for visual landmarks than animal faces and landmark-related sounds than animal vocalizations resulting in increased parahippocampal selectivity for congruent audiovisual landmarks. Effective connectivity analyses showed that this amplification of visual landmark-selectivity was mediated by increased negative coupling of the parahippocampal gyrus with the superior temporal sulcus for congruent stimuli. Thus, task-irrelevant auditory information influences visual object categorization at two stages. In the ventral occipito-temporal cortex auditory and visual category information are combined additively to sharpen visual category-selective responses. In the left inferior frontal sulcus, as indexed by a significant incongruency effect, visual and auditory category information are integrated interactively for response selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct demonstration of bacterial biofilms on prosthetic mesh after ventral herniorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathju, Sandeep; Nistico, Laura; Melton-Kreft, Rachael; Lasko, Leslie-Ann; Stoodley, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Prosthetic mesh is employed routinely in the treatment of ventral and parastomal hernias, but its use can lead to major complications, including infection, extrusion, and fistula. Bacterial biofilms have been posited to play a role in mesh-related infection, but although bacteria have been noted to form biofilms on mesh surfaces in vitro, they have never been visualized directly in biofilms on mesh recovered from patients experiencing infectious complications. Five patients who developed complications after ventral hernia repair with prosthetic mesh were operated on again. Explanted mesh was examined for biofilm with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In two cases, a novel molecular assay (the Ibis T5000) was used to characterize the biofilm-forming bacteria. The CLSM examination demonstrated adherent biofilms on mesh surfaces in all five patients. Biofilms also were noted on investing fibrous tissue. The FISH study was able to discriminate between bacterial species in polymicrobial biofilms. In two patients the Ibis T5000 detected more species of constituent biofilm bacteria than did standard culture. Removal of the mesh and reconstruction with autologous tissues or biologic materials resolved the presenting complaints in all cases. Bacterial biofilms should be considered an important contributor to the pathology and complications associated with prosthetic mesh implanted in the abdominal wall. If biofilms are present, complete removal of the mesh and repair of the resulting defect without alloplastic materials is an effective intervention.

  2. Transgelin-expressing myofibroblasts orchestrate ventral midline closure through TGFβ signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeiri, Bashar; Roostalu, Urmas; Albertini, Alessandra; Wong, Jason; Morabito, Antonino; Cossu, Giulio

    2017-09-15

    Ventral body wall (VBW) defects are among the most common congenital malformations, yet their embryonic origin and underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterised. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling is essential for VBW closure, but the responding cells are not known. Here, we identify in mouse a population of migratory myofibroblasts at the leading edge of the closing VBW that express the actin-binding protein transgelin (TAGLN) and TGFβ receptor (TGFβR). These cells respond to a temporally regulated TGFβ2 gradient originating from the epithelium of the primary body wall. Targeted elimination of TGFβR2 in TAGLN(+) cells impairs midline closure and prevents the correct subsequent patterning of the musculature and skeletal components. Remarkably, deletion of Tgfbr2 in myogenic or chondrogenic progenitor cells does not manifest in midline defects. Our results indicate a pivotal significance of VBW myofibroblasts in orchestrating ventral midline closure by mediating the response to the TGFβ gradient. Altogether, our data enable us to distinguish highly regulated epithelial-mesenchymal signalling and successive cellular migration events in VBW closure that explain early morphological changes underlying the development of congenital VBW defects. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  4. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witts, Emily C.; Nascimento, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925–1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output. PMID:26311185

  5. Characterization of Porcine Ventral Mesencephalic Precursor Cells following Long-Term Propagation in 3D Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia S. Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of predifferentiated neural precursor cells for treatment of a neurological disorder like Parkinson’s disease combines stem cell research with previous experimental and clinical transplantation of developing dopaminergic neurons. One current obstacle is, however, the lack of ability to generate dopaminergic neurons after long-term in vitro propagation of the cells. The domestic pig is considered a useful nonprimate large animal model in neuroscience, because of a better resemblance of the larger gyrencephalic pig brain to the human brain than the commonly used brains of smaller rodents. In the present study, porcine embryonic (28–30 days, ventral mesencephalic precursor cells were isolated and propagated as free-floating neural tissue spheres in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2. For passaging, the tissue spheres were cut into quarters, avoiding mechanical or enzymatic dissociation in order to minimize cellular trauma and preserve intercellular contacts. Spheres were propagated for up to 237 days with analysis of cellular content and differentiation at various time points. Our study provides the first demonstration that porcine ventral mesencephalic precursor cells can be long-term propagated as neural tissue spheres, thereby providing an experimental 3D in vitro model for studies of neural precursor cells, their niche, and differentiation capacity.

  6. Covert expectation-of-reward in rat ventral striatum at decision points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible decision-making strategies (such as planning are a key component of adaptive behavior, yet their neural mechanisms have remained resistant to experimental analysis. Theories of planning require prediction and evaluation of potential future rewards, suggesting that reward signals may covertly appear at decision points. To test this idea, we recorded ensembles of ventral striatal neurons on a spatial decision task, in which hippocampal ensembles are known to represent future possibilities at decision points. We found representations of reward which were not only activated at actual reward delivery sites, but also at a high-cost choice point and before error correction. This expectation-of-reward signal at decision points was apparent at both the single cell and the ensemble level, and vanished with behavioral automation. We conclude that ventral striatal representations of reward are more dynamic than suggested by previous reports of reward- and cue-responsive cells, and may provide the necessary signal for evaluation of internally generated possibilities considered during flexible decision-making.

  7. Histomorphometric features of ventral prostate in different aged rats after central ghrelin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecas-Solarovic, Bosiljka A; Nesic, Dejan M; Stevanovic, Darko M; Obradovic, Aleksandar Lj; Djelic, Marina N; Milosevic, Verica Lj; Starcevic, Vesna P

    2012-06-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), has emerged as pleiotropic modulator of diverse biological functions, including energy homeostasis and recently, reproduction. The influence of intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered ghrelin (1 μg/day/rat for 5 days) to rats of different ages, i.e, peripubertal (38 days), adult (60 days) and middle-aged (180 days) on the ventral prostate size and morphology, serum testosterone levels and testis weight was examined. Ghrelin treatment significantly increased (p prostate weight in peripubertal and middle-aged rats, by 27% and 37% respectively, due to enhancement of epithelial and/or luminal compartment of the gland. In adult rats, both absolute and relative volumes of the acinar lumen were significantly decreased (p prostate weigh was unchanged. Irrespective of animal age, ghrelin did not affect serum testosterone levels. These are the first results of ghrelin treatment effects on healthy prostate appearance, which allow us to conclude that the rat ventral prostate response to ghrelin depends on the developmental stage of animals. Our results merit further investigations and may have clinical implications, especially in the light of data on possible role of ghrelin in prostate hypertrophy and adenomas.

  8. Passive Mechanical Forces Control Cell-Shape Change during Drosophila Ventral Furrow Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Oleg; He, Bing; Swan, Michael; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Kaschube, Matthias; Wieschaus, Eric

    2014-01-01

    During Drosophila gastrulation, the ventral mesodermal cells constrict their apices, undergo a series of coordinated cell-shape changes to form a ventral furrow (VF) and are subsequently internalized. Although it has been well documented that apical constriction is necessary for VF formation, the mechanism by which apical constriction transmits forces throughout the bulk tissue of the cell remains poorly understood. In this work, we develop a computational vertex model to investigate the role of the passive mechanical properties of the cellular blastoderm during gastrulation. We introduce to our knowledge novel data that confirm that the volume of apically constricting cells is conserved throughout the entire course of invagination. We show that maintenance of this constant volume is sufficient to generate invagination as a passive response to apical constriction when it is combined with region-specific elasticities in the membranes surrounding individual cells. We find that the specific sequence of cell-shape changes during VF formation is critically controlled by the stiffness of the lateral and basal membrane surfaces. In particular, our model demonstrates that a transition in basal rigidity is sufficient to drive VF formation along the same sequence of cell-shape change that we observed in the actual embryo, with no active force generation required other than apical constriction. PMID:25140436

  9. Androgenic regulation of ventral epithelial bud number and pattern in mouse urogenital sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Sarah H; Lin, Tien-Min; Moore, Robert W; Vezina, Chad M; Abler, Lisa L; Peterson, Richard E

    2010-02-01

    The ventral urogenital sinus (UGS) of control male mice has two rows of 3-4 prostatic buds at birth, but how androgens regulate ventral bud (VB) number and patterning is unclear. VBs in both sexes appeared to be a mixture of prostatic and urethral buds. UGSs from Tfm male and antiandrogen (flutamide)-exposed mice had small VBs, suggesting that initiation of some VBs is androgen independent. Tfm male mice are widely considered completely androgen insensitive yet their UGSs were 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)- responsive. VBs (6-8) were generally distributed bimodally on the left-right axis at both minimal and normal male androgen signaling. Yet control females and DHT-exposed Tfm males had 13-14 VBs, whose left-right distribution was fairly uniform. These results suggest that VB number and distribution respond biphasically as androgen signaling increases from minimal, and that androgens regulate bud specification. Complete VB agenesis by the selective budding inhibitor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) required high androgen signaling.

  10. Eyes with basic dorsal and specific ventral regions in the glacial Apollo, Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroko; Matsushita, Atsuko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies on butterflies have indicated that their colour vision system is almost species specific. To address the question of how this remarkable diversity evolved, we investigated the eyes of the glacial Apollo, Parnassius glacialis, a living fossil species belonging to the family Papilionidae. We identified four opsins in the Parnassius eyes--an ultraviolet- (PgUV), a blue- (PgB), and two long wavelength (PgL2, PgL3)-absorbing types--and localized their mRNAs within the retina. We thus found ommatidial heterogeneity and a clear dorso-ventral regionalization of the eye. The dorsal region consists of three basic types of ommatidia that are similar to those found in other insects, indicating that this dorsal region retains the ancestral state. In the ventral region, we identified two novel phenomena: co-expression of the opsins of the UV- and B-absorbing type in a subset of photoreceptors, and subfunctionalization of long-wavelength receptors in the distal tier as a result of differential expression of the PgL2 and PgL3 mRNAs. Interestingly, butterflies from the closely related genus Papilio (Papilionidae) have at least three long-wavelength opsins, L1-L3. The present study indicates that the duplication of L2 and L3 occurred before the Papilio lineage diverged from the rest, whereas L1 was produced from L3 in the Papilio lineage.

  11. Dorsal and ventral working memory-related brain areas support distinct processes in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginelli, Angela A; Baumgartner, Florian; Pollmann, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    Behavioral evidence suggests that the use of implicitly learned spatial contexts for improved visual search may depend on visual working memory resources. Working memory may be involved in contextual cueing in different ways: (1) for keeping implicitly learned working memory contents available during search or (2) for the capture of attention by contexts retrieved from memory. We mapped brain areas that were modulated by working memory capacity. Within these areas, activation was modulated by contextual cueing along the descending segment of the intraparietal sulcus, an area that has previously been related to maintenance of explicit memories. Increased activation for learned displays, but not modulated by the size of contextual cueing, was observed in the temporo-parietal junction area, previously associated with the capture of attention by explicitly retrieved memory items, and in the ventral visual cortex. This pattern of activation extends previous research on dorsal versus ventral stream functions in memory guidance of attention to the realm of attentional guidance by implicit memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating the contribution of ventral-lexical and dorsal-sublexical pathways during reading in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Reyhaneh; Boliek, Carol; Cummine, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest the existence of ventral-lexical and dorsal-sublexical systems for reading. The relative contribution of these pathways can be manipulated by stimulus type and task demands. However, little is known about how bilinguals use these systems to read in their second language. In this study diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between white matter (WM) integrity and reaction time in a group of 12 Chinese-English bilingual and 11 age-matched English monolingual adults. Considering a dual-route model of reading, the following four tracts were isolated in both the left and right hemispheres using a tractography measurement approach. Ventral tracts included the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The dorsal tracts of interest were the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). A significant correlation between the reaction time in a reading task and the mean diffusivity (MD) value was observed in the right UF in both bilingual and monolingual groups. Moreover, in the bilingual group we observed significantly more positive relationships between reaction time and MD in the right AF, and bilaterally in the SLF. We concluded that the relative contribution of the dorsal system for reading is greater in bilinguals than monolinguals. Further, these findings implicate a role of the right hemisphere in reading.

  13. Ventral dermatitis in rowi (Apteryx rowi due to cutaneous larval migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Gartrell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rowi is a critically endangered species of kiwi. Young birds on a crèche island showed loss of feathers from the ventral abdomen and a scurfy dermatitis of the abdominal skin and vent margin. Histology of skin biopsies identified cutaneous larval migrans, which was shown by molecular sequencing to be possibly from a species of Trichostrongylus as a cause of ventral dermatitis and occasional ulcerative vent dermatitis. The predisposing factors that led to this disease are suspected to be the novel exposure of the rowi to parasites from seabirds or marine mammals due to the island crèche and the limited management of roost boxes. This is the first instance of cutaneous larval migrans to be recorded in birds. Severe and fatal complications of the investigation resulted in the death of eight birds of aspergillosis and pulmonary complications associated with the use of bark as a substrate in hospital. Another bird died of renal failure during the period of hospitalisation despite oral and intravenous fluid therapy. The initiating cause of the renal failure was not determined. These complications have the potential to undermine the working relationship between wildlife veterinarians and conservation managers. This case highlights that intensive conservation management can result in increased opportunities for novel routes of cross-species pathogen transmission.

  14. ART FOR REWARD’S SAKE: VISUAL ART RECRUITS THE VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M.; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R.; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non -art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value. PMID:21111833

  15. Inhibitory synaptic transmission from the substantia nigra pars reticulata to the ventral medial thalamus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Daisuke; Uta, Daisuke; Ishihara, Hiromi; Imoto, Keiji

    2015-08-01

    The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop circuit is involved in variety of motor, association and limbic functions. The basal ganglia receive neural information from various areas of the cerebral cortex and transfer them back to the frontal and motor cortex via the ventral medial (VM), and the anterior-ventral lateral thalamic complex. The projection from the basal ganglia to the thalamus is GABAergic, and, therefore, the output from the basal ganglia cannot directly evoke excitation in the thalamic nuclei. The mechanism underlying the information transfer via the inhibitory projection remains unclear. To address this issue, we recorded electrophysiological properties of nigro-thalamic synapses from the VM neuron. We developed a nigro-thalamic slice preparation, in which the projection from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to VM nucleus is stored, to enable the selective activation of the projection from the SNr. We characterized synaptic properties and membrane properties of the VM neuron, and developed a VM neuron model to simulate the impacts of SNr inputs on VM neuron activity. Neural simulation suggested that the inhibitory projection from SNr can control neural activity in two ways: a disinhibition from the spontaneous nigral inhibition and a β-band synchronization evoked by combination of excitation and inhibition of SNr activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrinsic connectivity between the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral tegmental area in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, I; Shohamy, D

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that memory formation in the hippocampus is modulated by the motivational significance of events, allowing past experience to adaptively guide behavior. The effects of motivation on memory are thought to depend on interactions between the hippocampus, the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Indeed, animal studies reveal anatomical pathways for circuit-level interaction between these regions. However, a homologue circuit connectivity in humans remains to be shown. We characterized this circuitry in humans by exploiting spontaneous low-frequency modulations in the fMRI signal (termed resting-state functional connectivity), which are thought to reflect functionally related regions and their organization into functional networks in the brain. We examined connectivity in this network across two datasets (hi-resolution, n = 100; standard resolution, n = 894). Results reveal convergent connectivity between the hippocampus, and both the NAcc and the VTA centered on ventral regions in the body of the hippocampus. Additionally, we found individual differences in the strength of connectivity within this network. Together, these results provide a novel task-independent characterization of circuitry underlying interactions between the hippocampus, NAcc, and VTA and provide a framework with which to understand how connectivity might reflect and constrain the effects of motivation on memory. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Autologous dermal grafts for rectus sheath reconstruction and application in closure of ventral myofascial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Kapila, Shivam; Enajat, Morteza; Tan, Michelle J M L; Whitaker, Iain S; Acosta, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    Ventral abdominal hernias pose a reconstructive challenge, with recurrence rates after primary closure exceeding 50 % and synthetic options at high risk for infection. We describe our experience with using autologous dermis, sourced from the redundant overlying abdominal skin, for reconstruction of ventral abdominal wall defects. We describe the surgical technique, applied anatomy and an analysis of short- and long-term outcomes. Twelve consecutive patients undergoing repair of medium-large size, reducible abdominal wall defects were recruited. The dermal graft technique was used in each case, utilizing an autologous running strip of abdominal skin for reconstruction. Both short- and long-term outcomes were assessed prospectively. Scores were given on a scale of 1-10, with 1 = least/worst and 10 = most/best. The described technique was successfully undertaken in all patients. Long-term follow-up demonstrated a 100 % resumption of normal activities, with an improvement in quality of life and physical activity scores postoperatively, and no recurrences. Short-term complications were notable, with five patients requiring postoperative intensive care unit admission, and seven patients requiring respiratory support. In conclusion, the use of autologous rectus sheath reinforcement may achieve good surgical outcomes and high patient satisfaction. While early respiratory complications should be noted, the potential utility of this technique is worthy of future investigation.

  18. Riluzole is a promising pharmacological inhibitor of bilirubin-induced excitotoxicity in the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guo-Ying; Li, Chun-Yan; Shi, Hai-Bo; Wang, Ji-Ping; Su, Kai-Ming; Yin, Xin-Lu; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Bilirubin encephalopathy as a result of hyperbilirubinemia is a devastating neurological disorder that occurs mostly in the neonatal period. To date, no effective drug treatment is available. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is likely an important factor causing bilirubin encephalopathy. Thus, drugs suppressing the overrelease of glutamate may protect the brain against bilirubin excitotoxicity. Riluzole is a prescription drug known for its antiglutamatergic function. This study was conducted in the rat's ventral cochlear nucleus, a structure highly sensitive to bilirubin toxicity, to find whether riluzole can be used to inhibit bilirubin toxicity. Electrophysiology changes were detected by perforated patch clamp technique. Calcium imaging using Rhod-2-AM as an indicator was used to study the intracellular calcium. Cell apoptosis and necrosis were measured by PI/Hoechst staining. In the absence of bilirubin, riluzole effectively decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and suppressed neuronal firing but did not change the amplitude of sEPSC and glutamate-activated currents (I(Glu)). Moreover, riluzole inhibited bilirubin-induced increases in the frequency of sEPSC and neuronal firing. Riluzole could prevent the bilirubin-induced increase in intracellular calcium, mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors. Furthermore, riluzole significantly reduced bilirubin-induced cell death. These data suggest that riluzole can protect neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus from bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation and excitotoxicity through reducing presynaptic glutamate release. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal sensitivity to reward and punishment in male problem gamblers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Michiel B; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim

    2009-03-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is associated with maladaptive perseverative behavior, but the underlying mechanism and neural circuitry is not completely clear. Here, the hypothesis was tested that PG is characterized by response perseveration and abnormalities in reward and/or punishment sensitivity in the ventral frontostriatal circuit. Executive functioning was assessed to verify if these effects are independent of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit. A group of smokers was also included to examine whether impairments in PG generalize to substance use disorders. Response perseveration and reward/punishment sensitivity were measured with a probabilistic reversal-learning task, in which subjects could win and lose money. Executive functioning was measured with a planning task, the Tower of London. Performance and fMRI data were acquired in 19 problem gamblers, 19 smokers, and 19 healthy controls. Problem gamblers showed severe response perseveration, associated with reduced activation of right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to both monetary gain and loss. Results did not fully generalize to smokers. Planning performance and related activation of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit were intact in both problem gamblers and smokers. PG is related to response perseveration and diminished reward and punishment sensitivity as indicated by hypoactivation of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex when money is gained and lost. Moreover, intact planning abilities and normal dorsal frontostriatal responsiveness indicate that this deficit is not due to impaired executive functioning. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal hyporesponsiveness to monetary loss may be markers for maladaptive behavior seen in chemical and nonchemical addictions.

  20. Interest in politics modulates neural activity in the amygdala and ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Marta; Zamboni, Giovanna; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-11-01

    Studies on political participation have found that a person's interest in politics contributes to the likelihood that he or she will be involved in the political process. Here, we looked at whether or not interest in politics affects patterns of brain activity when individuals think about political matters. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned individuals (either interested or uninterested in politics based on a self-report questionnaire) while they were expressing their agreement or disagreement with political opinions. After scanning, participants were asked to rate each political opinion presented in the scanner for emotional valence and emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed that those political opinions participants agreed with were perceived as more emotionally intense and more positive by individuals interested in politics relative to individuals uninterested in politics. In addition, individuals interested in politics showed greater activation in the amygdala and the ventral striatum (ventral putamen) relative to individuals uninterested in politics when reading political opinions in accordance with their own views. This study shows that having an interest in politics elicits activations in emotion- and reward-related brain areas even when simply agreeing with written political opinions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Characterization of Porcine Ventral Mesencephalic Precursor Cells following Long-Term Propagation in 3D Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pia S.; Lyck, Lise; Jensen, Pia; Zimmer, Jens; Meyer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The potential use of predifferentiated neural precursor cells for treatment of a neurological disorder like Parkinson's disease combines stem cell research with previous experimental and clinical transplantation of developing dopaminergic neurons. One current obstacle is, however, the lack of ability to generate dopaminergic neurons after long-term in vitro propagation of the cells. The domestic pig is considered a useful nonprimate large animal model in neuroscience, because of a better resemblance of the larger gyrencephalic pig brain to the human brain than the commonly used brains of smaller rodents. In the present study, porcine embryonic (28–30 days), ventral mesencephalic precursor cells were isolated and propagated as free-floating neural tissue spheres in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2. For passaging, the tissue spheres were cut into quarters, avoiding mechanical or enzymatic dissociation in order to minimize cellular trauma and preserve intercellular contacts. Spheres were propagated for up to 237 days with analysis of cellular content and differentiation at various time points. Our study provides the first demonstration that porcine ventral mesencephalic precursor cells can be long-term propagated as neural tissue spheres, thereby providing an experimental 3D in vitro model for studies of neural precursor cells, their niche, and differentiation capacity. PMID:23258982

  2. Ventral hernias in morbidly obese patients: a suggested algorithm for operative repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, George M; Wikiel, Krzysztof J; Entabi, Fateh; Saleem, Mark

    2013-05-01

    With the rise in prevalence of obesity, most general surgeons will have to face the problem of the obese patient with an abdominal wall defect. Treatment of these bariatric patients raises unique challenges, and at this time there is still no consensus on the best treatment option. This study was performed in a high-volume bariatric and minimally invasive surgery center at a tertiary care facility in the USA. Twenty-eight morbidly obese patients treated at our facility between 2003 and 2008 were separated into four groups according to anatomic features and symptoms. Patients with the following characteristics were classified as having a favorable anatomy: body mass index not exceeding 50 kg/m(2), gynecoid body habitus, reducible hernias found in a central location, abdominal wall thickness less than 4 cm, and the defect's largest diameter not exceeding 8 cm. All other patients were classified as having an unfavorable anatomy. In this study, we report a systematic treatment approach for the morbidly obese patient presenting with a ventral hernia based on whether the hernia is symptomatic or asymptomatic, as well as the distinct characteristics of the hernia and body habitus features. We followed up on these patients postoperatively for at least 2 years, with a mean follow-up period of 30 months. Only a total of three hernia recurrences were observed. Successful treatment of ventral hernias in morbidly obese patients should be individualized based on the patient's symptoms and defined hernia characteristics.

  3. Local but not long-range microstructural differences of the ventral temporal cortex in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sunbin; Garrido, Lúcia; Nagy, Zoltan; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Steel, Adam; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Ray J; Duchaine, Bradley; Furl, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) experience face recognition impairments despite normal intellect and low-level vision and no history of brain damage. Prior studies using diffusion tensor imaging in small samples of subjects with DP (n=6 or n=8) offer conflicting views on the neurobiological bases for DP, with one suggesting white matter differences in two major long-range tracts running through the temporal cortex, and another suggesting white matter differences confined to fibers local to ventral temporal face-specific functional regions of interest (fROIs) in the fusiform gyrus. Here, we address these inconsistent findings using a comprehensive set of analyzes in a sample of DP subjects larger than both prior studies combined (n=16). While we found no microstructural differences in long-range tracts between DP and age-matched control participants, we found differences local to face-specific fROIs, and relationships between these microstructural measures with face recognition ability. We conclude that subtle differences in local rather than long-range tracts in the ventral temporal lobe are more likely associated with developmental prosopagnosia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A ventral root avulsion injury model for neurogenic underactive bladder studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2016-11-01

    Detrusor underactivity (DU) is defined as a contraction of reduced strength and/or duration during bladder emptying and results in incomplete and prolonged bladder emptying. The clinical diagnosis of DU is challenging when present alone or in association with other bladder conditions such as detrusor overactivity, urinary retention, detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractility, aging, and neurological injuries. Several etiologies may be responsible for DU or the development of an underactive bladder (UAB), but the pathobiology of DU or UAB is not well understood. Therefore, new clinically relevant and interpretable models for studies of UAB are much needed in order to make progress towards new treatments and preventative strategies. Here, we review a neuropathic cause of DU in the form of traumatic injuries to the cauda equina (CE) and conus medullaris (CM) portions of the spinal cord. Lumbosacral ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury models in rats mimic the clinical phenotype of CM/CE injuries. Bilateral VRA injuries result in bladder areflexia, whereas a unilateral lesion results in partial impairment of lower urinary tract and visceromotor reflexes. Surgical re-implantation of avulsed ventral roots into the spinal cord and pharmacological strategies can augment micturition reflexes. The translational research need for the development of a large animal model for UAB studies is also presented, and early studies of lumbosacral VRA injuries in rhesus macaques are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropsychological outcome after deep brain stimulation in the ventral capsule/ventral striatum for highly refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder or major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubu, Cynthia S; Malone, Donald A; Chelune, Gordon; Malloy, Paul; Rezai, Ali R; Frazier, Tom; Machado, Andre; Rasmussen, Steven; Friehs, Gerhard; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown promise as a treatment for severe, highly treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or major depressive disorder (MDD). We describe the neuropsychological outcome in 21 patients (10 OCD and 11 MDD) who received DBS in the anterior limb of the internal capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS). All patients completed a preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological battery. Average duration of DBS stimulation was 8.91 months (SD = 4.63) at the time of follow-up testing. Data were analyzed using practice-effect-corrected change scores. No significant cognitive declines were seen. There were significant improvements in prose passage recall after chronic DBS. The cognitive improvements were not related to change in severity of OCD, depression or global impairment. This preliminary study suggests that VC/VS DBS does not result in cognitive declines. The observations that verbal memory improved are consistent with current theories on the role of the VS in the memory, but require replication in larger studies.

  6. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  7. Effects of dorsal and ventral vertical lobe electrolytic lesions on spatial learning and locomotor activity in Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Nicolas; Alves, Christelle; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects of electrolytic lesion, restricted to either the ventral or the dorsal parts of the vertical lobe (VL), on the behavior of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). Two behavioral tests were performed on sham-operated and lesioned cuttlefish: assessment of locomotor activity in an open field and determination of spatial learning abilities in a T maze. The results showed that ventral lesions of the VL led to marked impairment in the acquisition of spatial learning, whereas dorsal lesions of the VL increased locomotor activity in the open field and impaired long-term retention of spatial learning. This study establishes for the first time the existence of distinct functions in the ventral and the dorsal parts of the VL in cephalopods.

  8. Comparison of the Schirmer tear test I values after placement in ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Ghazal; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Faghihi, Houman

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the Schirmer tear test I values obtained from placement of Schirmer tear test (STT) strips in ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices and to investigate any correlation between age, body weight and STT values in clinically normal cats. Methods Twenty-eight intact adult domestic shorthair and Persian were used in this study. The cats were gently physically restrained in a sternal position, and a Schirmer tear strip was placed on each eye in the ventral conjunctival fornix at one-third of the distance from the temporal to nasal canthus for 60 s. Then, the wetted portion of the strips was measured as mm/min (L-STT I). After 48 h, the same procedure was performed on each eye in the dorsal conjunctival fornix (U-STT I). Results Mean ± SD STT values of the ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices were 20.80 ± 2.25 mm/min (range 14-25 mm/min; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.92-21.67) and 18.28 ± 2.27 mm/min (range 15-22 mm/min; 95% CI 17.39-19.16) in all of the study population, respectively. A significant difference was found between STT values obtained from the ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices ( P values. Conclusions and relevance This study compared the STT I values of the dorsal and ventral conjunctival fornices in cats. The difference was significant between the L-STT I and U-STT I values; however, the L-STT I and U-STT I values were within normal reference intervals. The U-STT I data have diagnostic value that might be of benefit in cases where there is a problem in the ventral conjunctival fornix.

  9. Role of projections from ventral medial prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens shell in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Jennifer M; Stern, Anna L; Theberge, Florence R M; Marchant, Nathan J; Wang, Hui-Ling; Morales, Marisela; Shaham, Yavin

    2012-04-04

    In humans, exposure to contexts previously associated with heroin use can provoke relapse. In rats, exposure to heroin-paired contexts after extinction of drug-reinforced responding in different contexts reinstates heroin seeking. This effect is attenuated by inhibition of glutamate or dopamine transmission in nucleus accumbens shell, or inactivation of ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used an anatomical asymmetrical disconnection procedure to demonstrate that an interaction between glutamatergic projections from ventral mPFC to accumbens shell and local dopamine D(1) postsynaptic receptors contributes to context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. We also combined the marker of neuronal activity, Fos, with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold to assess activation in this pathway during context-induced reinstatement. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin for 12 d; drug infusions were paired with a discrete tone-light cue. Lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in a nondrug-associated context in the presence of the discrete cue. Rats were then tested in the heroin- or extinction-associated contexts under extinction conditions. Injections of muscimol + baclofen into ventral mPFC in one hemisphere and D(1)-family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 into the contralateral or ipsilateral accumbens shell decreased context-induced reinstatement. Unilateral injections of muscimol + baclofen into ventral mPFC or SCH 23390 into the accumbens shell had no effect. Context-induced reinstatement was associated with increased Fos expression in ventral mPFC neurons, including those projecting to accumbens shell, with higher double-labeling in the ipsilateral projection than in the contralateral projection. Our results demonstrate that activation of glutamatergic projections from ventral mPFC to accumbens shell, previously implicated in inhibition of cocaine relapse, promotes heroin relapse.

  10. Dopamine and glutamate interaction mediates reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by stimulation of the ventral subiculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taepavarapruk, Pornnarin; Butts, Kelly A; Phillips, Anthony G

    2014-10-31

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by recurrent episodes of relapse to drug-seeking/-taking behaviors. The ventral subiculum, the primary output of the hippocampus, plays a critical role in mediating drug-seeking behavior. A d-amphetamine intravenous self-administration rat model was employed along with focal electrical stimulation of the ventral subiculum (20 Hz/200 pulses) to examine its role in reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens was measured by in vivo microdialysis and subsequent HPLC-ED analyses. Pharmacological antagonism of dopamine and ionotropic glutamate receptors locally within the nucleus accumbens was employed to assess the role of glutamate and dopamine in reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior induced by stimulation of the ventral subiculum. Here, we demonstrate that reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior following extinction of d-amphetamine self-administration by rats was induced by electrical stimulation in the ventral subiculum but not the cortex. This reinstatement was accompanied by a significant increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and was disrupted by microinfusion of a dopamine D1 or D2 antagonist into the nucleus accumbens. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate or non- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors had no effect on the reinstatement induced by ventral subiculum stimulation, whereas co-infusion of D1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists at formerly ineffective doses prevented drug-seeking behavior. These data support the hypothesis that dopamine/glutamate interactions within the ventral striatum related to memory processes are involved in relapse to addictive behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Ventral hernia repair in patients with abdominal loss of domain: an observational study of one institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, F K; Crawford, T C; Poruk, K E; Farrow, N; Cornell, P; Nadra, O; Azoury, S C; Soares, K C; Cooney, C M; Eckhauser, F E

    2017-04-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are a common problem. The success of abdominal wall reconstruction decreases with increasing hernia size. This study summarizes the outcomes of one surgeon's experience using a "sandwich" technique for hernia repair in patients with loss of abdominal domain. We reviewed our ventral hernia repair (VHR) experience from 2008 to 2015 among patients with loss of domain, as defined by a hernia defect greater than 300 cm2. The percent of herniation through the defect, defined by a hernia sac-to-abdominal cavity volume ratio, was measured on preoperative CT scans by four independent reviewers and averaged. Outcomes were compared among those with giant ventral hernias (hernia sac-to-abdominal cavity volume >30%) and those with smaller defect ratios. Over the study period, 21 patients underwent VHR. In 17 patients (81%), a "sandwich" technique was utilized. Ten patients had hernia sac-to-abdominal cavity defects less than 30%, and 11 had defects greater than 30%. Preoperative characteristics were similar in both groups with the exception of a higher ASA score in those with giant ventral hernias and more Ventral Hernia Working Group Grade 3 hernias in those without giant ventral hernias. Postoperative outcomes were similar in both groups. There were no mortalities. There were two recurrences (18%) in the giant VHR group and none in the smaller defect group (p = 0.16). Surgical site occurrences were noted in 48% of patients and did not differ between giant and non-giant VHR groups (50 vs 45%, p = 0.84). Average postoperative length of stay was significantly longer in the giant VHR group (31 vs. 17 days, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that the "sandwich" technique for VHR is a safe and durable method to restore abdominal wall integrity in those with LOD, even in patients with giant ventral hernias.

  12. Systematic review and network meta-analysis of methods of mesh fixation during laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J J; Öberg, S; Andresen, K

    2018-01-01

    review included studies with human adults with a ventral hernia repaired with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh. The outcome was recurrence at least 6 months after operation. Cohort studies with 50 or more participants and all RCTs were included. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched on 22......BACKGROUND: Ventral hernia repairs are common and have high recurrence rates. They are usually repaired laparoscopically with an intraperitoneal mesh, which can be fixed in various ways. The aim was to evaluate the recurrence rates for the different fixation techniques. METHODS: This systematic...

  13. Neuronal migration and ventral subtype identity in the telencephalon depend on SOX1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigoni Ekonomou

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular mechanisms and intrinsic factors that are responsible for the emergence of neuronal subtype identity. Several transcription factors that are expressed mainly in precursors of the ventral telencephalon have been shown to control neuronal specification, but it has been unclear whether subtype identity is also specified in these precursors, or if this happens in postmitotic neurons, and whether it involves the same or different factors. SOX1, an HMG box transcription factor, is expressed widely in neural precursors along with the two other SOXB1 subfamily members, SOX2 and SOX3, and all three have been implicated in neurogenesis. SOX1 is also uniquely expressed at a high level in the majority of telencephalic neurons that constitute the ventral striatum (VS. These neurons are missing in Sox1-null mutant mice. In the present study, we have addressed the requirement for SOX1 at a cellular level, revealing both the nature and timing of the defect. By generating a novel Sox1-null allele expressing beta-galactosidase, we found that the VS precursors and their early neuronal differentiation are unaffected in the absence of SOX1, but the prospective neurons fail to migrate to their appropriate position. Furthermore, the migration of non-Sox1-expressing VS neurons (such as those expressing Pax6 was also affected in the absence of SOX1, suggesting that Sox1-expressing neurons play a role in structuring the area of the VS. To test whether SOX1 is required in postmitotic cells for the emergence of VS neuronal identity, we generated mice in which Sox1 expression was directed to all ventral telencephalic precursors, but to only a very few VS neurons. These mice again lacked most of the VS, indicating that SOX1 expression in precursors is not sufficient for VS development. Conversely, the few neurons in which Sox1 expression was maintained were able to migrate to the VS. In conclusion, Sox1 expression in precursors is not

  14. Cauda equina repair in the rat: part 2. Time course of ventral root conduction failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Samuel J; Smirnov, Igor; Calancie, Blair

    2012-05-20

    Treatment for cauda equina (CE) ventral root injury is currently limited. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the time course of nerve root functional degeneration after such injury has occurred. Using a previously developed method for identifying spinal nerve roots that innervate the rat tail, we transected S2, S3, and S4 ventral roots and measured their ability to activate tail muscles out to 72 h post-injury by way of stimulus-evoked electromyography (EMG) recording. Immediately following transection, all distal ventral root stumps successfully activated muscles in the tail upon stimulation with no change in stimulus threshold (0.07±0.04 to 0.07±0.06 V using 0.1-msec pulse duration; 0.04±0.02 to 0.04±0.02 V using 1.0-msec pulse duration). Thresholds increased incrementally at each later time point (24 h: 0.27±0.33 V using 0.1-msec pulse duration; 0.09±0.07 V using 1-msec pulse duration; 48 h: 0.57±1.00 V using 0.1-msec pulse duration; 0.56±1.09 V using 1-msec pulse duration), with the first complete absence of EMG noted at 48 h post-transection in a subset of nerve roots (4/12). We were not able to elicit EMG at 72 h post-transection without moving distally along the nerve root stump. Based on neurofilament staining, only 51% of axons were identifiably intact nearest the site of injury at 24 h post-injury. This percentage dropped to 39% at 48 h, and just 18% at 72 h. Moving 5 mm from the site of injury, we identified 83% intact axons at 24 h post-transection, 77% at 48 h, and 68% at 72 h. Regenerative implications aside, if electrophysiological mapping of injured nerve roots is to be carried out for repair purposes, the rapid nature of conduction failure needs to be considered.

  15. First human use of hybrid synthetic/biologic mesh in ventral hernia repair: a multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; El-Hayek, Kevin; Strong, Andrew T; LaPinska, Melissa Phillips; Yoo, Jin S; Pauli, Eric M; Kroh, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Mesh options for reinforcement of ventral/incisional hernia (VIH) repair include synthetic or biologic materials. While each material has known advantages and disadvantages, little is understood about outcomes when these materials are used in combination. This multicenter study reports on the first human use of a novel synthetic/biologic hybrid mesh (Zenapro ® Hybrid Hernia Repair Device) for VIH repair. This prospective, multicenter post-market clinical trial enrolled consecutive adults who underwent elective VIH repair with hybrid mesh placed in the intraperitoneal or retromuscular/preperitoneal position. Patients were classified as Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) grades 1-3 and had clean or clean-contaminated wounds. Outcomes of ventral and incisional hernia were compared using appropriate parametric tests. In all, 63 patients underwent VIH repair with hybrid mesh. Most were females (54.0%), had a mean age of 54.8 ± 10.9 years and mean body mass index of 34.5 ± 7.8 kg/m 2 , and classified as VHWG grade 2 (87.3%). Most defects were midline (92.1%) with a mean area of 106 ± 155 cm 2 . Cases were commonly classified as clean (92.1%) and were performed laparoscopically (60.3%). Primary fascial closure was achieved in 82.5% with 28.2% requiring component separation. Mesh location was frequently intraperitoneal (69.8%). Overall, 39% of patients available for follow-up at 12 months suffered surgical site events, which were generally more frequent after incisional hernia repair. Of these, seroma (23.7%) was most common, but few (8.5%) required procedural intervention. Other surgical site events that required procedural intervention included hematoma (1.7%), wound dehiscence (1.7%), and surgical site infection (3.4%). Recurrence rate was 6.8% (95% CI 2.2-16.6%) at 12-months postoperatively. Zenapro ® Hybrid Hernia Repair Device is safe and effective in VHWG grade 1-2 patients with clean wounds out to 12 months. Short-term outcomes and recurrence rate

  16. Preoperative Botulinum toxin A enabling defect closure and laparoscopic repair of complex ventral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Acevedo, Omar; Elstner, Kristen E; Jacombs, Anita S W; Read, John W; Martins, Rodrigo Tomazini; Arduini, Fernando; Wehrhahm, Michael; Craft, Colette; Cosman, Peter H; Dardano, Anthony N; Ibrahim, Nabeel

    2018-02-01

    Operative management of complex ventral hernia still remains a significant challenge for surgeons. Closure of large defects in the unprepared abdomen has serious pathophysiological consequences due to chronic contraction and retraction of the lateral abdominal wall muscles. We report outcomes of 56 consecutive patients who had preoperative Botulinum toxin A (BTA) abdominal wall relaxation facilitating closure and repair. This was a prospective observational study of 56 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided BTA into the lateral abdominal oblique muscles prior to elective ventral hernia repair between November 2012 and January 2017. Serial non-contrast abdominal CT imaging was performed to evaluate changes in lateral oblique muscle length and thickness. All hernias were repaired laparoscopically, or laparoscopic-open-laparoscopic (LOL) using intraperitoneal onlay mesh. 56 patients received BTA injections at predetermined sites to the lateral oblique muscles, which were well tolerated. Mean patient age was 59.7 years, and mean BMI was 30.9 kg/m 2 (range 21.8-54.0). Maximum defect size was 24 × 27 cm. A subset of 18 patients underwent preoperative pneumoperitoneum as an adjunct procedure. A comparison of pre-BTA to post-BTA imaging demonstrated an increase in mean lateral abdominal wall length from 16.1 cm to 20.1 cm per side, a mean gain of 4.0 cm/side (range 1.0-11.7 cm/side) (p LOL primary closure was achieved in all cases, with no clinical evidence of raised intra-abdominal pressures. One patient presented with a new fascial defect 26 months post-operative. Preoperative BTA to the lateral abdominal wall muscles is a safe and effective technique for the preparation of patients prior to operative management of complex ventral hernias. BTA temporary flaccid paralysis relaxes, elongates and thins the chronically contracted abdominal musculature. This in turn reduces lateral traction forces facilitating laparoscopic repair and fascial closure of large

  17. Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain

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    Goldstein-Kral Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b and cryptochrome 3 (cry3, in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2, involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their

  18. A case of ventral hernia mesh migration with splenosis mimicking a gastric mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Gavin A; Means, John Ryan; Pryor, Auora Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This case reports the presentation and investigation of a 64-year-old woman presenting with symptoms of bowel obstruction and found to have synchronous intraluminal migration of a polypropylene mesh from a ventral hernia repair and splenosis compressing the stomach wall. The use of synthetic mesh in any type of hernia repair has a number of risks, one of which is transmigration. This is a very rare complication but has been reported in a number of cases following both open and transabdominal pre-peritoneal repairs of inguinal hernias. Heterotopic splenic tissue or “splenosis” can be a cause of a soft tissue mass, which can mimic a neoplasm leading to misdiagnosis. These implants result from either splenic trauma or after splenic surgery. PMID:21954401

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  20. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

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    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  1. Mere Exposure: Preference Change for Novel Drinks Reflected in Human Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ian C; Hennigan, Kelly; McClure, Samuel M

    2017-05-01

    Preferences for novel stimuli tend to develop slowly over many exposures. Psychological accounts of this effect suggest that it depends on changes in the brain's valuation system. Participants consumed a novel fluid daily for 10 days and underwent fMRI on the first and last days. We hypothesized that changes in activation in areas associated with the dopamine system would accompany changes in preference. The change in activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) between sessions scaled with preference change. Furthermore, a network comprising the sensory thalamus, posterior insula, and ventrolateral striatum showed differential connectivity with the VTA that correlated with individual changes in preference. Our results suggest that the VTA is centrally involved in both assigning value to sensory stimuli and influencing downstream regions to translate these value signals into subjective preference. These results have important implications for models of dopaminergic function and behavioral addiction.

  2. Blindness alters the microstructure of the ventral but not the dorsal visual stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reislev, Nina L; Kupers, Ron; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-01-01

    pathways in 12 congenitally blind, 15 late blind and 15 normal sighted controls. We also studied six prematurely born individuals with normal vision to control for the effects of prematurity on brain connectivity. Our data revealed a reduction in fractional anisotropy in the ventral but not the dorsal......Visual deprivation from birth leads to reorganisation of the brain through cross-modal plasticity. Although there is a general agreement that the primary afferent visual pathways are altered in congenitally blind individuals, our knowledge about microstructural changes within the higher-order...... visual stream for both congenitally and late blind individuals. Prematurely born individuals, with normal vision, did not differ from normal sighted controls, born at term. Our data suggest that although the visual streams are structurally developing without normal visual input from the eyes, blindness...

  3. The visual neuroscience of robotic grasping achieving sensorimotor skills through dorsal-ventral stream integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chinellato, Eris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents interdisciplinary research that pursues the mutual enrichment of neuroscience and robotics. Building on experimental work, and on the wealth of literature regarding the two cortical pathways of visual processing - the dorsal and ventral streams - we define and implement, computationally and on a real robot, a functional model of the brain areas involved in vision-based grasping actions. Grasping in robotics is largely an unsolved problem, and we show how the bio-inspired approach is successful in dealing with some fundamental issues of the task. Our robotic system can safely perform grasping actions on different unmodeled objects, denoting especially reliable visual and visuomotor skills. The computational model and the robotic experiments help in validating theories on the mechanisms employed by the brain areas more directly involved in grasping actions. This book offers new insights and research hypotheses regarding such mechanisms, especially for what concerns the interaction between the...

  4. Incarceration of Meckel's diverticulum through a ventral incisional defect: a rare presentation of Littre's hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemis, N S

    2009-08-01

    Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract and is the result of the incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric duct. Herniation of Meckel's diverticulum is called Littre's hernia and is a rare occurrence. Herein is described an extremely rare case of incarcerated and strangulated Meckel's diverticulum through an incisional ventral defect in a 59-year-old female patient, who presented with manifestations of acute surgical abdomen. At emergency laparotomy, a strangulated small-bowel loop containing a Meckel's diverticulum was found, which had migrated through the subcutaneous tissues to the right iliac fossa, where a painful mass was palpated on admission. Segmental resection of the ischemic ileum was performed and the abdomen was closed without the use of a prosthetic mesh. Histopathological findings were suggestive of a true diverticulum containing heterotopic gastric mucosa.

  5. Functional organization and visual representations of human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie W.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) even in the absence of working memory (WM) demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the VLPFC remain unclear. In a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the VLPFC? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the VLPFC to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex. PMID:23847558

  6. Head Tilting Elicited by Head Turning in Three Dogs with Hypoplastic Cerebellar Nodulus and Ventral Uvula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Tamura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The nodulus and ventral uvula (NU of the cerebellum play a major role in vestibular function in humans and experimental animals; however, there is almost no information about NU function in the veterinary clinical literature. In this report, we describe three canine cases diagnosed with presumptive NU hypoplasia. Of them, one adult dog presented with cervical intervertebral disk disease, and two juvenile dogs presented with signs of central vestibular disease. Interestingly, an unusual and possibly overlooked neurological sign that we called positioning head tilt was observed in these dogs. The dogs were able to turn freely in any direction at will. The head was in a level position when static or when the dog walked in a straight line. However, the head was tilted to the opposite side when the dog turned. Veterinary clinicians should be aware of this neurological sign, which has not been reported previously, and its application in lesion localization in dogs.

  7. Rhythmic activity of feline dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons during fictive motor actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedirchuk, Brent; Stecina, Katinka; Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl

    2013-01-01

    (without phasic afferent feedback). In this study, we compared the activity of DSCT and VSCT neurons during fictive rhythmic motor behaviors. We used decerebrate cat preparations in which fictive motor tasks can be evoked while the animal is paralyzed and there is no rhythmic sensory input from hindlimb......Neurons of the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts (DSCT) have been described to be rhythmically active during walking on a treadmill in decerebrate cats, but this activity ceased following deafferentation of the hindlimb. This observation supported the hypothesis that DSCT neurons primarily relay...... the activity of hindlimb afferents during locomotion, but lack input from the spinal central pattern generator. The ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) neurons, on the other hand, were found to be active during actual locomotion (on a treadmill) even after deafferentation, as well as during fictive locomotion...

  8. Left-right functional asymmetry of ventral hippocampus depends on aversiveness of situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yukitoshi; Sakurai, Yoshio

    2017-05-15

    Many studies suggest that animals exhibit lateralized behaviors during aversive situations, and almost all animals exhibit right hemisphere-dominant behaviors associated with fear or anxiety. However, which brain structure in each hemisphere underlies such lateralized function is unclear. In this study, we focused on the hippocampus and investigated the effects of bilateral and unilateral lesions of the ventral hippocampus (VH) on anxiety-like behavior using the successive alleys test. We also examined the expression of c-fos in the VH, which was induced by an aversive situation. Results revealed that consistent right VH dominance trended with the anxiety level. Weaker anxiety induced both right and left VH functions, whereas stronger anxiety induced right VH function. From these results, we conclude that animals are able to adaptively regulate their behaviors to avoid aversive stimuli by changing the functional dominance of their left and right VH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute Portomesenteric Venous Thrombosis following Laparoscopic Small Bowel Resection and Ventral Hernia Repair

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    Bhradeev Sivasambu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but life-threatening complication of laparoscopic surgery that has been described in literature. Prompt diagnosis and early initiation of treatment are vital to prevent life-threatening complications such as mesenteric ischemia and infarction. A 51-year-old lady had laparoscopic small bowel resection and primary anastomosis with ventral hernia repair 4 weeks earlier for partial small bowel obstruction. Her postoperative period was uneventful and she was discharged home. Four weeks after surgery she developed watery diarrhea and generalized abdominal pain for four-day duration. A computed tomography of the abdomen revealed portomesenteric venous thrombosis although a computed tomography of abdomen before surgery 4 weeks back did not show any portomesenteric venous thrombosis. We are reporting a case of acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis as a complication of laparoscopic surgery.

  10. Neurotensin Receptor-1 Identifies a Subset of Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons that Coordinates Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary L. Woodworth

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA are heterogeneous and differentially regulate ingestive and locomotor behaviors that affect energy balance. Identification of which VTA DA neurons mediate behaviors that limit weight gain has been hindered, however, by the lack of molecular markers to distinguish VTA DA populations. Here, we identified a specific subset of VTA DA neurons that express neurotensin receptor-1 (NtsR1 and preferentially comprise mesolimbic, but not mesocortical, DA neurons. Genetically targeted ablation of VTA NtsR1 neurons uncouples motivated feeding and physical activity, biasing behavior toward energy expenditure and protecting mice from age-related and diet-induced weight gain. VTA NtsR1 neurons thus represent a molecularly defined subset of DA neurons that are essential for the coordination of energy balance. Modulation of VTA NtsR1 neurons may therefore be useful to promote behaviors that prevent the development of obesity.

  11. Organization and morphology of thalamocortical neurons of mouse ventral lateral thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlamsa, Aileen P; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2010-01-01

    The ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus (VL) serves as a central integrative center for motor control, receiving inputs from the cerebellum, striatum, and cortex and projecting to the primary motor cortex. We aimed to determine the somatotopy and morphological features of the thalamocortical neurons within mouse VL. Retrograde tracing studies revealed that whisker-related VL neurons were found relatively anterior and medial to those labeled following injection of retrograde tracer into hindpaw motor areas. Simultaneous injections of fluorescent microspheres in both cortical regions did not result in double-labeled neurons in VL. Quantitative analysis of dendritic and somatic morphologies did not reveal any differences between hindpaw and whisker thalamocortical neurons within VL. The morphology of the thalamocortical neurons within mouse VL is similar to those in other mammals and suggests that mouse can be used as a model system for studying thalamocortical transformations within the motor system as well as plasticity following sensory deprivation or enrichment.

  12. Prominent burst firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area during paradoxical sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Lionel; Astier, Bernadette; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Urbain, Nadia; Kocsis, Bernat; Chouvet, Guy

    2007-06-01

    Dopamine is involved in motivation, memory, and reward processing. However, it is not clear whether the activity of dopamine neurons is related or not to vigilance states. Using unit recordings in unanesthetized head restrained rats we measured the firing pattern of dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area across the sleep-wake cycle. We found these cells were activated during paradoxical sleep (PS) via a clear switch to a prominent bursting pattern, which is known to induce large synaptic dopamine release. This activation during PS was similar to the activity measured during the consumption of palatable food. Thus, as it does during waking in response to novelty and reward, dopamine could modulate brain plasticity and thus participate in memory consolidation during PS. By challenging the traditional view that dopamine is the only aminergic group not involved in sleep physiology, this study provides an alternative perspective that may be crucial for understanding the physiological function of PS and dream mentation.

  13. Targeted Differentiation of Regional Ventral Neuroprogenitors and Related Neuronal Subtypes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Liankai Chi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryoid body (EB formation and adherent culture (AD paradigms are equivalently thought to be applicable for neural specification of human pluripotent stem cells. Here, we report that sonic hedgehog-induced ventral neuroprogenitors under EB conditions are fated to medial ganglionic eminence (MGE, while the AD cells mostly adopt a floor-plate (FP fate. The EB-MGE later on differentiates into GABA and cholinergic neurons, while the AD-FP favors dopaminergic neuron specification. Distinct developmental, metabolic, and adhesion traits in AD and EB cells may potentially account for their differential patterning potency. Gene targeting combined with small-molecule screening experiments identified that concomitant inhibition of Wnts, STAT3, and p38 pathways (3i could largely convert FP to MGE under AD conditions. Thus, differentiation paradigms and signaling regulators can be integrated together to specify distinct neuronal subtypes for studying and treating related neurological diseases, such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

  14. Ventral tegmental area dopamine revisited: effects of acute and repeated stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Elizabeth N.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are strongly activated by reward and reward-predictive cues while inhibited by aversive stimuli. How can these divergent processes both be mediated by VTA dopamine neurons? The answer may lie within the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of the VTA. We focus on VTA heterogeneity in anatomy, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and afferent/efferent connectivity. Second, recent evidence for a critical role of VTA dopamine neurons in response to both acute and repeated stress will be discussed. Understanding which dopamine neurons are activated by stress, the neural mechanisms driving the activation, and where these neurons project will provide valuable insight into how stress can promote psychiatric disorders associated with the dopamine system, such as addiction and depression. PMID:26676983

  15. Cognitive Contributions of the Ventral Parietal Cortex: An Integrative Theoretical Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Roberto; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Moscovitch, Morris

    2012-01-01

    Although ventral parietal cortex (VPC) activations can be found in a variety of cognitive domains, these activations have been typically attributed to cognitive operations specific to each domain. In this article, we propose a hypothesis that can account for VPC activations across all the cognitive domains reviewed. We first review VPC activations in the domains of perceptual and motor reorienting, episodic memory retrieval, language and number processing, theory of mind, and episodic memory encoding. Then, we consider the localization of VPC activations across domains, and conclude that they are largely overlapping with some differences around the edges. Finally, we assess how well four different hypotheses of VPC function can explain findings in various domains, and conclude that a bottom-up attention hypothesis provides the most complete and parsimonious account. PMID:22609315

  16. Computational Modelling of the Neural Representation of Object Shape in the Primate Ventral Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro eEguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in successive stages of the primate ventral visual pathway encode the spatial structure of visual objects. In this paper, we investigate through computer simulation how these cell firing properties may develop through unsupervised visually-guided learning. Individual neurons in the model are shown to exploit statistical regularity and temporal continuity of the visual inputs during training to learn firing properties that are similar to neurons in V4 and TEO. Neurons in V4 encode the conformation of boundary contour elements at a particular position within an object regardless of the location of the object on the retina, while neurons in TEO integrate information from multiple boundary contour elements. This representation goes beyond mere object recognition, in which neurons simply respond to the presence of a whole object, but provides an essential foundation from which the brain is subsequently able to recognise the whole object.

  17. Dopamine Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area: An Autopsy Case of Disorganized Type of Schizophrenia

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    Keiko Ikemoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic dopamine (DA system has been associated with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, we examined DA-containing neuronal structures of the ventral tegmental area (VTA of an autopsy case of disorganized type of schizophrenia (75-year-old female, using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunohistochemistry. A free floating method using 50-μm cryostat sections and three-dimensional imaging analyzer AxioVision were applied to observe the wide range structures of TH-immunoreactive (-ir neurons. TH-ir neuronal cell bodies in the VTA of the present case had irregular shape and various size, and TH-ir neuronal processes had irregular thickness and straightened shape or curved shape having many corners, when compared to a control autopsy case with no detectable neurological and psychiatric diseases (64-year-old male. The mechanisms underlying the morphological characteristics of DA neurons of the brains with schizophrenia should be elucidated epigenetically as well as genetically.

  18. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  19. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  20. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

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    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  1. Leptin into the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM augments renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure

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    Maria J Barnes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone released from adipose tissue. While this hormone normally acts to reduce feeding behavior and increase energy expenditure, in obesity, resistance to these effects occurs even though the hormone is released in large amounts. Although leptin no longer works to suppress feeding in the obese, leptin retains its potent effects on other autonomic functions such as blood pressure regulation. Leptin has been associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic autonomic activity. Therefore, leptin is emerging as a major contributor to the hypertensive state observed in obesity. Sympathetic control of blood pressure is maintained principally by autonomic reflex control circuits in the caudal brainstem. The rostral ventral-lateral medulla (RVLM is the primary regulator of the sympathetic nervous system, sending excitatory fibers to sympathetic preganglionic neurons to regulate sympathetic control over resistance vessels and blood pressure. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that neurons in the ventral lateral medulla express leptin receptors (ObRb. Our present study using pseudo-rabies multi-synaptic retrograde tract tracing and immunohistochemical methods revealed that neurons within the RVLM that send sympathetic projections to the kidney express leptin receptors. Acute microinjection of leptin (1 and 3µg; 40nL into the RVLM evoked a significant increase in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. When the 3µg dose of leptin was preceded with a leptin antagonist, (SLAN-4; 1ng, it attenuated the cardiovascular response of leptin. Taken together, these data suggest that leptin’s actions within the RVLM may influence blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

  2. Effects of Ventral Striatum Lesions on Stimulus-Based versus Action-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenhoefer, Kathryn M; Costa, Vincent D; Bartolo, Ramón; Vicario-Feliciano, Raquel; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2017-07-19

    Learning the values of actions versus stimuli may depend on separable neural circuits. In the current study, we evaluated the performance of rhesus macaques with ventral striatum (VS) lesions on a two-arm bandit task that had randomly interleaved blocks of stimulus-based and action-based reinforcement learning (RL). Compared with controls, monkeys with VS lesions had deficits in learning to select rewarding images but not rewarding actions. We used a RL model to quantify learning and choice consistency and found that, in stimulus-based RL, the VS lesion monkeys were more influenced by negative feedback and had lower choice consistency than controls. Using a Bayesian model to parse the groups' learning strategies, we also found that VS lesion monkeys defaulted to an action-based choice strategy. Therefore, the VS is involved specifically in learning the value of stimuli, not actions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Reinforcement learning models of the ventral striatum (VS) often assume that it maintains an estimate of state value. This suggests that it plays a general role in learning whether rewards are assigned based on a chosen action or stimulus. In the present experiment, we examined the effects of VS lesions on monkeys' ability to learn that choosing a particular action or stimulus was more likely to lead to reward. We found that VS lesions caused a specific deficit in the monkeys' ability to discriminate between images with different values, whereas their ability to discriminate between actions with different values remained intact. Our results therefore suggest that the VS plays a specific role in learning to select rewarded stimuli. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376902-13$15.00/0.

  3. Sleep deprivation impairs object-selective attention: a view from the ventral visual cortex.

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    Julian Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most prior studies on selective attention in the setting of total sleep deprivation (SD have focused on behavior or activation within fronto-parietal cognitive control areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of SD on the top-down biasing of activation of ventral visual cortex and on functional connectivity between cognitive control and other brain regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-three healthy young adult volunteers underwent fMRI after a normal night of sleep (RW and after sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced manner while performing a selective attention task. During this task, pictures of houses or faces were randomly interleaved among scrambled images. Across different blocks, volunteers responded to house but not face pictures, face but not house pictures, or passively viewed pictures without responding. The appearance of task-relevant pictures was unpredictable in this paradigm. SD resulted in less accurate detection of target pictures without affecting the mean false alarm rate or response time. In addition to a reduction of fronto-parietal activation, attending to houses strongly modulated parahippocampal place area (PPA activation during RW, but this attention-driven biasing of PPA activation was abolished following SD. Additionally, SD resulted in a significant decrement in functional connectivity between the PPA and two cognitive control areas, the left intraparietal sulcus and the left inferior frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SD impairs selective attention as evidenced by reduced selectivity in PPA activation. Further, reduction in fronto-parietal and ventral visual task-related activation suggests that it also affects sustained attention. Reductions in functional connectivity may be an important additional imaging parameter to consider in characterizing the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

  4. Radio-anatomical analysis of the pericranial flap "money box approach" for ventral skull base reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Alfonso; Langdon, Cristóbal; López-Chacon, Mauricio; Cordero, Arturo; Enseñat, Joaquim; Carrau, Ricardo; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Alobid, Isam

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the versatility of the pericranial flap (PCF) to reconstruct the ventral skull base, using the frontal sinus as a gate for its passage into the sinonasal corridor "money box approach." Anatomic-radiological study and case series. Various approaches and their respective defects (cribriform, transtuberculum, clival, and craniovertebral junction) were completed in 10 injected specimens. The PCF was introduced into the nose through the uppermost portion of the frontal sinus (money box approach). Computed tomography (CT) scans (n = 50) were used to measure the dimensions of the PCF and the skull base defects. The vertical projection of the external ear canal was used as the reference point to standardize the incisions for the PCF. The surface area and maximum length of the PCF were 121.5 ± 19.4 cm2 and 18.3 ± 1.3 cm, respectively. Using CT scans, we determined that to reconstruct defects secondary to transcribriform, transtuberculum, clival, and craniovertebral approaches, the PCF distal incision must be placed respectively at -3.7 ± 2.0 cm (angle -17.4 ± 8.5°), -0.2 ± 2.0 cm (angle -1.0 ± 9.3°), +5.5 ± 2.3 cm (angle +24.4 ± 9.7°), +8.4 ± 2.4 cm (angle +36.6 ± 11.5°), as related to the reference point. Skull base defects in our clinical cohort (n = 6) were completely reconstructed uneventfully with the PCF. The PCF renders enough surface area to reconstruct all possible defects in the ventral and median skull base. Using the uppermost frontal sinus as a gateway into the nose (money box approach) is feasible and simple. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2482-2489, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Effect of xenon on excitatory and inhibitory transmission in rat spinal ventral horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Baba, Hiroshi; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2012-05-01

    The minimum alveolar concentration is determined in the spinal cord rather than in the brain. Xenon inhibits glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn neurons. However, its actions in the ventral horn neurons have not been investigated. The effects of 50 or 75% xenon on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission were examined in the spinal lamina IX neurons of neonatal rats by using a whole cell patch clamp technique. Fifty percent xenon inhibited the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid-induced currents (amplitudes = 72 ± 9% and integrated area = 73 ± 13% of the control values), and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor-mediated electrically evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (amplitudes = 69 ± 13% of the control values). Seventy-five percent xenon similarly inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid-induced currents. However, xenon had no effect on the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced currents or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated electrically evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents. Xenon decreased the amplitude, but not the frequency, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. There were no discernible effects on the currents induced by γ-aminobutyric acid or glycine or on miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Xenon inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor-mediated glutamatergic excitatory transmission in the spinal lamina IX neurons via a postsynaptic mechanism. In contrast, there are no substantial effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated or inhibitory synaptic transmission. The suppressive effects on excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn neurons partly account for the mechanism behind xenon's ability to produce immobility in response to noxious stimuli and to determine the minimum alveolar concentration.

  6. Honeybees' speed depends on dorsal as well as lateral, ventral and frontal optic flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Portelli

    Full Text Available Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS ("AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System" model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.

  7. Sleep Deprivation Impairs Object-Selective Attention: A View from the Ventral Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Tan, Jiat Chow; Parimal, Sarayu; Dinges, David F.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Most prior studies on selective attention in the setting of total sleep deprivation (SD) have focused on behavior or activation within fronto-parietal cognitive control areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of SD on the top-down biasing of activation of ventral visual cortex and on functional connectivity between cognitive control and other brain regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three healthy young adult volunteers underwent fMRI after a normal night of sleep (RW) and after sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced manner while performing a selective attention task. During this task, pictures of houses or faces were randomly interleaved among scrambled images. Across different blocks, volunteers responded to house but not face pictures, face but not house pictures, or passively viewed pictures without responding. The appearance of task-relevant pictures was unpredictable in this paradigm. SD resulted in less accurate detection of target pictures without affecting the mean false alarm rate or response time. In addition to a reduction of fronto-parietal activation, attending to houses strongly modulated parahippocampal place area (PPA) activation during RW, but this attention-driven biasing of PPA activation was abolished following SD. Additionally, SD resulted in a significant decrement in functional connectivity between the PPA and two cognitive control areas, the left intraparietal sulcus and the left inferior frontal lobe. Conclusions/Significance SD impairs selective attention as evidenced by reduced selectivity in PPA activation. Further, reduction in fronto-parietal and ventral visual task-related activation suggests that it also affects sustained attention. Reductions in functional connectivity may be an important additional imaging parameter to consider in characterizing the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition. PMID:20140099

  8. Ventral frontal satiation-mediated responses to food aromas in obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Mattes, Richard D; Cyders, Melissa A; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

    2014-06-01

    Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese and normal-weight individuals targeting ventral frontal regions known to be involved in coding for stimulus reward value. Forty-eight women (25 normal weight; 23 obese) participated in a 2-day (fed compared with fasting) fMRI study while smelling odors of 2 foods and an inedible, nonfood object. Analyses were conducted to permit an examination of both general and sensory-specific satiation (satiation effects specific to a given food). Normal-weight subjects showed significant blood oxygen level-dependent responses in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to food aromas compared with responses induced by the odor of an inedible object. Normal-weight subjects also showed general (but not sensory-specific) satiation effects in both the vmPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Obese subjects showed no differential response to the aromas of food and the inedible object when fasting. Within- and between-group differences in satiation were driven largely by changes in the response to the odor of the inedible stimulus. Responses to food aromas in the obese correlated with trait negative urgency, the tendency toward negative affect-provoked impulsivity. Ventral frontal signaling of reward value may be disordered in obesity, with negative urgency heightening responses to food aromas. The observed nature of responses to food and nonfood stimuli suggests that future research should independently quantify each to fully understand brain reward signaling in obesity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Concomitant release of ventral tegmental acetylcholine and accumbal dopamine by ghrelin in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Jerlhag

    Full Text Available Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, regulates energy balance specifically via hypothalamic circuits. Growing evidence suggest that ghrelin increases the incentive value of motivated behaviours via activation of the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. It encompasses the cholinergic afferent projection from the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg to the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the mesolimbic dopamine system projecting from the VTA to nucleus accumbens (N.Acc.. Ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A are expressed in these reward nodes and ghrelin administration into the LDTg increases accumbal dopamine, an effect involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the VTA. The present series of experiments were undertaken directly to test this hypothesis. Here we show that ghrelin, administered peripherally or locally into the LDTg concomitantly increases ventral tegmental acetylcholine as well as accumbal dopamine release. A GHS-R1A antagonist blocks this synchronous neurotransmitter release induced by peripheral ghrelin. In addition, local perfusion of the unselective nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine into the VTA blocks the ability of ghrelin (administered into the LDTg to increase N.Acc.-dopamine, but not VTA-acetylcholine. Collectively our data indicate that ghrelin activates the LDTg causing a release of acetylcholine in the VTA, which in turn activates local nicotinic acetylcholine receptors causing a release of accumbal dopamine. Given that a dysfunction in the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward system is involved in addictive behaviours, including compulsive overeating and alcohol use disorder, and that hyperghrelinemia is associated with such addictive behaviours, ghrelin-responsive circuits may serve as a novel pharmacological target for treatment of alcohol use disorder as well as binge eating.

  10. Fast and automatic activation of an abstract representation of money in the human ventral visual pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tallon-Baudry

    Full Text Available Money, when used as an incentive, activates the same neural circuits as rewards associated with physiological needs. However, unlike physiological rewards, monetary stimuli are cultural artifacts: how are monetary stimuli identified in the first place? How and when does the brain identify a valid coin, i.e. a disc of metal that is, by social agreement, endowed with monetary properties? We took advantage of the changes in the Euro area in 2002 to compare neural responses to valid coins (Euros, Australian Dollars with neural responses to invalid coins that have lost all monetary properties (French Francs, Finnish Marks. We show in magneto-encephalographic recordings, that the ventral visual pathway automatically distinguishes between valid and invalid coins, within only ∼150 ms. This automatic categorization operates as well on coins subjects were familiar with as on unfamiliar coins. No difference between neural responses to scrambled controls could be detected. These results could suggest the existence of a generic, all-purpose neural representation of money that is independent of experience. This finding is reminiscent of a central assumption in economics, money fungibility, or the fact that a unit of money is substitutable to another. From a neural point of view, our findings may indicate that the ventral visual pathway, a system previously thought to analyze visual features such as shape or color and to be influenced by daily experience, could also able to use conceptual attributes such as monetary validity to categorize familiar as well as unfamiliar visual objects. The symbolic abilities of the posterior fusiform region suggested here could constitute an efficient neural substrate to deal with culturally defined symbols, independently of experience, which probably fostered money's cultural emergence and success.

  11. Identification of genes differentially expressed in dorsal and ventral chick midbrain during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, A; Volff, Jn; Wizenmann, A

    2009-04-27

    During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), patterning processes along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the neural tube generate different neuronal subtypes. As development progresses these neurons are arranged into functional units with varying cytoarchitecture, such as laminae or nuclei for efficient relaying of information. Early in development ventral and dorsal regions are similar in size and structure. Different proliferation rates and cell migration patterns are likely to result in the formation of laminae or nuclei, eventually. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that establish these different structural arrangements are not well understood.We undertook a differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) screen to identify genes with distinct expression patterns between dorsal and ventral regions of the chick midbrain in order to identify genes which regulate the sculpturing of such divergent neuronal organisation. We focused on the DV axis of the early chick midbrain since mesencephalic alar plate and basal plate develop into laminae and nuclei, respectively. We identified 53 differentially expressed bands in our initial screen. Twenty-six of these could be assigned to specific genes and we could unambiguously show the differential expression of five of the isolated cDNAs in vivo by in situ mRNA expression analysis. Additionally, we verified differential levels of expression of a selected number of genes by using reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR method with gene-specific primers.One of these genes, QR1, has been previously cloned and we present here a detailed study of its early developmental time course and pattern of expression providing some insights into its possible function. Our phylogenetic analysis of QR1 shows that it is the chick orthologue of Sparc-like 1/Hevin/Mast9 gene in mice, rats, dogs and humans, a protein involved in cell adhesion. This study reveals some possible networks, which might be involved in directing

  12. Epidemiology and cost of ventral hernia repair: making the case for hernia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, B K; Shelton, J; Phillips, S; Moore, D; Nealon, W; Penson, D; Beck, W; Holzman, M D

    2012-04-01

    Ventral hernia repair (VHR) lacks standardization of care and exhibits variation in delivery. Complications of VHR, notably recurrence and infection, increase costs. Efforts at obtaining federal funding for VHR research are frequently unsuccessful, in part due to misperceptions that VHR is not a clinical challenge and has minimal impact on healthcare resources. We analyzed national trends for VHR performance and associated costs to demonstrate potential savings resulting from an improvement in outcomes. Inpatient non-federal discharges for VHR were identified from the 2001-2006 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, supplemented by the Center for Disease Control 2006 National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery for outpatient estimates. The total number of VHRs performed in the US was estimated along with associated costs. Costs were standardized to 2010 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index and reported as mean with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The number of inpatient VHRs increased from 126,548 in 2001 to 154,278 in 2006. Including 193,543 outpatient operations, an estimated 348,000 VHRs were performed for 2006. Inpatient costs consistently rose with 2006 costs estimated at US $15,899 (95% CI $15,394-$16,404) per operation. Estimated cost for outpatient VHR was US $3,873 (95% CI $2,788-$4,958). The total cost of VHR for 2006 was US $3.2 billion. VHRs continue to rise in incidence and cost. By reducing recurrence rate alone, a cost saving of US $32 million dollars for each 1% reduction in operations would result. Further research is necessary for improved understanding of ventral hernia etiology and treatment and is critical to cost effective healthcare.

  13. The absence of CD47 promotes nerve fiber growth from cultured ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Marschinke

    Full Text Available In ventral mesencephalic organotypic tissue cultures, two timely separated sequences of nerve fiber growth have been observed. The first appearing nerve fiber pattern is a long-distance outgrowth that occurs before astrocytes start to proliferate and migrate to form an astrocytic monolayer that finally surrounds the tissue slice. These long-distance growing nerve fibers are retracted as the astrocytes migrate, and are followed by a secondary outgrowth. The secondary outgrowth is persistent in time but reaches short distances, comparable with outgrowth seen from a dopaminergic graft implanted to the brain. The present study was focused on the interaction between the astrocytes and the long-distance growing non-glial associated nerve fibers. Cross talk between astroglia and neurite formation might occur through the integrin-associated protein CD47. CD47 serves as a ligand for signal regulatory protein (SIRP α and as a receptor for the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1. Embryonic day 14 ventral mesencephalic tissue from CD47(+/+ and CD47(-/- mice was used to investigate astrocytic migration and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH -positive outgrowth that occurred remote from the astrocytes. TH-immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the non-glial-associated nerve fiber outgrowth in CD47(-/- cultures reached significantly longer distances and higher density compared to nerve fibers formed in CD47(+/+ cultures at 14 days in vitro. These nerve fibers often had a dotted appearance in CD47(+/+ cultures. No difference in the astrocytic migration was observed. Further investigations revealed that the presence of CD47 in control culture did neither hamper non-glial-associated growth through SIRPα nor through TSP-1 since similar outgrowth was found in SIRPα mutant cultures and in CD47(+/+ cultures treated with blocking antibodies against the TSP-1, respectively, as in the control cultures. In conclusion, long-distance growing nerve fiber

  14. The ventral nerve cord in Cephalocarida (Crustacea): new insights into the ground pattern of Tetraconata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegner, Martin E J; Brenneis, Georg; Richter, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Cephalocarida are Crustacea with many anatomical features that have been interpreted as plesiomorphic with respect to crustaceans or Tetraconata. While the ventral nerve cord (VNC) has been investigated in many other arthropods to address phylogenetic and evolutionary questions, the few studies that exist on the cephalocarid VNC date back 20 years, and data pertaining to neuroactive substances in particular are too sparse for comparison. We reinvestigated the VNC of adult Hutchinsoniella macracantha in detail, combining immunolabeling (tubulin, serotonin, RFamide, histamine) and nuclear stains with confocal laser microscopy, complemented by 3D-reconstructions based on serial semithin sections. The subesophageal ganglion in Cephalocarida comprises three segmental neuromeres (Md, Mx1, Mx2), while a separate ganglion occurs in all thoracic segments and abdominal segments 1-8. Abdominal segments 9 and 10 and the telson are free of ganglia. The maxillar neuromere and the thoracic ganglia correspond closely in their limb innervation pattern, their pattern of mostly four segmental commissures and in displaying up to six individually identified serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per body side, which exceeds the number found in most other tetraconates. Only two commissures and two serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per side are present in abdominal ganglia. The stomatogastric nervous system in H. macracantha corresponds to that in other crustaceans and includes, among other structures, a pair of lateral neurite bundles. These innervate the gut as well as various trunk muscles and are, uniquely, linked to the unpaired median neurite bundle. We propose that most features of the cephalocarid ventral nerve cord (VNC) are plesiomorphic with respect to the tetraconate ground pattern. Further, we suggest that this ground pattern includes more serotonin-like neurons than hitherto assumed, and argue that a sister-group relationship between Cephalocarida and Remipedia, as

  15. Biomechanical properties of feline ventral abdominal wall and celiotomy closure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina Rodriguez, Fernando S; Buckley, Conor T; Milgram, Joshua; Kirby, Barbara M

    2017-11-18

    To compare biomechanical properties and mechanism of failure of 3 regions of ventral abdominal wall in cats by using 2 suture materials, 2 suture bite-to-stitch intervals (SBSI), and full-thickness versus fascia-only closure. Randomized, cadaveric, ex vivo mechanical testing. 16 adult cat cadavers, 3 samples per cat. Three regions of ventral abdominal wall were mechanically tested (N = 48 samples). Preumbilical, umbilical (U), and postumbilical (POU) regions were harvested by using a template. The thickness of the linea alba was recorded. Six samples without celiotomy served as controls. Twenty-eight samples were randomized to SBSI (2 × 2 or 5 × 5 mm) and suture material (3-0 polyglactin 910 or 3-0 polydioxanone) for simple continuous celiotomy closure. Fourteen samples were randomized to full-thickness or fascia-only closure. Samples were tested by linear distraction; tensile strength and mechanism of failure were recorded. Effects of body weight, thickness of linea alba, anatomic region, SBSI, type of closure, and suture material were evaluated by mixed model linear analysis. Load to failure was compared between males and females, full-thickness and fascia-only closure by independent t test, with P < .05 considered statistically significant. The POU region achieved lower loads to failure. Load to failure was greater in males compared with females. No difference was detected between full-thickness and fascia-only closure. Failure most commonly occurred by tearing of suture through tissues. Tissue failure with suture line loosening occurred mainly in the 5 × 5-mm SBSI group. The POU region is biomechanically weak and may therefore be predisposed to incisional herniation. © 2017 The Authors Veterinary Surgery published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Microscopy of nitride layers grown on diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécz, B.; Tóth, L.; Barna, Á.

    2011-01-01

    are determined by selected area electron diffraction. Besides threading dislocations a high number of inversion domains (ID) were formed in some GaN films. The preparation of the diamond surface and the growth conditions proved to affect significantly the formation of crystal defects such as threading...... dislocations and IDs. Single polarity GaN films with a low density of dislocations were achieved for the optimized growth conditions. The highest quality GaN layers were grown on AlN buffer in which two crystalline variants were nucleated, but one of them was overgrown already in the thickness of the buffer...

  17. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Manipulating Instructions Strategically Affects Reliance on the Ventral-Lexical Reading Stream: Converging Evidence from Neuroimaging and Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Gould, Layla; Zhou, Crystal; Hrybouski, Stan; Siddiqi, Zohaib; Chouinard, Brea; Borowsky, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Neurobiology of reading research has yet to explore whether reliance on the ventral-lexical stream during word reading can be enhanced by the instructed reading strategy, or whether it is impervious to such strategies. We examined Instructions: "name all" vs. "name words" (based on spelling), Word Type: "regular words" vs. "exception words", and…

  19. Increased ventral-striatal activity during monetary decision making is a marker of problem poker gambling severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Dynamic anticipatory processing of hierarchical sequential events: A common role for Broca's area and ventral premotor cortex across domains?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebach, C.J.; Schubotz, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a domain-general model for the functional contribution of ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and adjacent Broca's area to perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. We propose to understand this frontal region as a highly flexible sequence processor, with the PMv mapping sequential

  1. [EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVANCED SKIN FLAP AND V-SHAPED VENTRAL INCISION ALONG THE ROOT OF PENILE SHAFT FOR CONCEALED PENIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junshan; Li, Dumiao; Zhang, Jianxing; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Yali; Lin, Li

    2015-09-01

    To investigate effectiveness of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft for concealed penis in children. Between July 2007 and January 2015, 121 boys with concealed penis were treated with advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft. The age varied from 18 months to 13 years (mean, 7.2 years). Repair was based on a vertical incision in median raphe, complete degloving of penis and tacking its base to the dermis of the skin. Advanced skin flap and a V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft were used to cover the penile shaft. The operation time ranged from 60 to 100 minutes (mean, 75 minutes). Disruption of wound occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; and primary healing of incision was obtained in the others. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 7 years (median, 24 months). All patients achieved good to excellent cosmetic results with a low incidence of complications. The results were satisfactory in exposure of penis and prepuce appearance. No obvious scar was observed. The penis had similar appearance to that after prepuce circumcision. A combination of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for concealed penis with a similar appearance result to the prepuce circumcision.

  2. Ventral striatal dopamine reflects behavioral and neural signatures of model-based control during sequential decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Huys, Quentin J M; Boehme, Rebecca; Buchert, Ralph; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Grace, Anthony A; Dolan, Raymond J; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-02-03

    Dual system theories suggest that behavioral control is parsed between a deliberative "model-based" and a more reflexive "model-free" system. A balance of control exerted by these systems is thought to be related to dopamine neurotransmission. However, in the absence of direct measures of human dopamine, it remains unknown whether this reflects a quantitative relation with dopamine either in the striatum or other brain areas. Using a sequential decision task performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging, combined with striatal measures of dopamine using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography, we show that higher presynaptic ventral striatal dopamine levels were associated with a behavioral bias toward more model-based control. Higher presynaptic dopamine in ventral striatum was associated with greater coding of model-based signatures in lateral prefrontal cortex and diminished coding of model-free prediction errors in ventral striatum. Thus, interindividual variability in ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine reflects a balance in the behavioral expression and the neural signatures of model-free and model-based control. Our data provide a novel perspective on how alterations in presynaptic dopamine levels might be accompanied by a disruption of behavioral control as observed in aging or neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and addiction.

  3. Endogenous Opioid-Induced Neuroplasticity of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area Influences Natural and Opiate Reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitchers, Kyle K.; Coppens, Caroline M.; Beloate, Lauren N.; Fuller, Jonathan; Van, Sandy; Frohmader, Karla S.; Laviolette, Steven R.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural reward and drugs of abuse converge on the mesolimbic pathway and activate common mechanism of neural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Chronic exposure to opiates induces plasticity in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which regulates morphine reward tolerance.

  4. The ventral striatum in off-line processing: ensemble reactivation during sleep and modulation by hippocampal ripples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennartz, C.M.A.; Lee, E.; Verheul, J.; Lipa, P.; Barnes, C.A.; Mc. Naughton, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that the hippocampus and neocortex can spontaneously reactivate ensemble activity patterns during post-behavioral sleep and rest periods. Here we examined whether such reactivation also occurs in a subcortical structure, the ventral striatum, which receives a direct

  5. Exploring the Behavioral and Metabolic Phenotype Generated by Re-Introduction of the Ghrelin Receptor in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Louise J; Jensen, Morten; Christiansen, Søren H

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin receptor (Ghr-R) signaling in neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) can modulate dopaminergic function and the reward-related effects of both palatable foods and drugs of abuse. In this study, we re-introduced the Ghr-R in VTA neurons in Ghr-R knockout mice (Ghr-R(VTA) mice) to spec...

  6. Functional dissociation of ventral frontal and dorsomedial default mode network components during resting state and emotional autobiographical recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, Patricia; Engel, Annerose; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Bramati, Ivanei E; Paiva, Fernando F; Basilio, Rodrigo; Sato, João R; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Humans spend a substantial share of their lives mind-wandering. This spontaneous thinking activity usually comprises autobiographical recall, emotional, and self-referential components. While neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that a specific brain "default mode network" (DMN) is consistently engaged by the "resting state" of the mind, the relative contribution of key cognitive components to DMN activity is still poorly understood. Here we used fMRI to investigate whether activity in neural components of the DMN can be differentially explained by active recall of relevant emotional autobiographical memories as compared with the resting state. Our study design combined emotional autobiographical memory, neutral memory and resting state conditions, separated by a serial subtraction control task. Shared patterns of activation in the DMN were observed in both emotional autobiographical and resting conditions, when compared with serial subtraction. Directly contrasting autobiographical and resting conditions demonstrated a striking dissociation within the DMN in that emotional autobiographical retrieval led to stronger activation of the dorsomedial core regions (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex), whereas the resting state condition engaged a ventral frontal network (ventral striatum, subgenual and ventral anterior cingulate cortices) in addition to the IPL. Our results reveal an as yet unreported dissociation within the DMN. Whereas the dorsomedial component can be explained by emotional autobiographical memory, the ventral frontal one is predominantly associated with the resting state proper, possibly underlying fundamental motivational mechanisms engaged during spontaneous unconstrained ideation.

  7. Cytoreduction of diaphragmatic metastasis from ovarian cancer with involvement of the liver using a ventral liver mobilization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuyoshi; Katsuda, Takahiro; Takeshima, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Upper abdominal spreading of advanced-stage ovarian cancer often involves the diaphragm. In addition, bulky diaphragmatic tumors occasionally infiltrate the liver. Here, we describe our early experiences with a ventral liver mobilization technique to remove diaphragmatic tumors with liver involvement. Two patients with primary ovarian cancer and 1 patient with recurrent ovarian cancer underwent en bloc resections of a diaphragmatic tumor together with the full-thickness diaphragm and the liver tissue using a ventral liver mobilization technique. The surgical technique involved a full-thickness division of the diaphragm at the central tendon and a ventral mobilization of the right lobe of the liver, with entry into the pleural cavity. During the parenchymal transection of the liver, the posterior area of the right lobe of the liver was pressed using the surgeon's hand to reduce bleeding from the resection surface. After the completion of the en bloc resection, the diaphragmatic opening was closed using running sutures. All the diaphragmatic tumors were completely removed without severe bleeding in the current series. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Diaphragmatic tumors with involvement of the liver can be safely and effectively removed using a ventral liver mobilization technique. This surgical procedure may be suitable for the management of bulky diaphragmatic tumors in select patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic assignment and maintenance of positional identity in the ventral neural tube by the morphogen sonic hedgehog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dessaud

    Full Text Available Morphogens are secreted signalling molecules that act in a graded manner to control the pattern of cellular differentiation in developing tissues. An example is Sonic hedgehog (Shh, which acts in several developing vertebrate tissues, including the central nervous system, to provide positional information during embryonic patterning. Here we address how Shh signalling assigns the positional identities of distinct neuronal subtype progenitors throughout the ventral neural tube. Assays of intracellular signal transduction and gene expression indicate that the duration as well as level of signalling is critical for morphogen interpretation. Progenitors of the ventral neuronal subtypes are established sequentially, with progressively more ventral identities requiring correspondingly higher levels and longer periods of Shh signalling. Moreover, cells remain sensitive to changes in Shh signalling for an extended time, reverting to antecedent identities if signalling levels fall below a threshold. Thus, the duration of signalling is important not only for the assignment but also for the refinement and maintenance of positional identity. Together the data suggest a dynamic model for ventral neural tube patterning in which positional information corresponds to the time integral of Shh signalling. This suggests an alternative to conventional models of morphogen action that rely solely on the level of signalling.

  9. Treatment for Alexia with Agraphia Following Left Ventral Occipito-Temporal Damage: Strengthening Orthographic Representations Common to Reading and Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther S.; Rising, Kindle; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Damage to left ventral occipito-temporal cortex can give rise to written language impairment characterized by pure alexia/letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, as well as surface alexia and agraphia. The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of a combined treatment approach to address concurrent LBL reading with surface…

  10. The improbability of dorso-ventral axis inversion during animal evolution, as presumed by Geoffroy Saint Hilaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggelaar, van den J.A.M.; Edsinger-Gonzales, E.; Schram, F.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent discoveries in the field of developmental genetics have lead to the resurrection of the old idea, first proposed in the early 19th century, that the dorso-ventral axis of deuterostomes, such as vertebrates, has been inverted during the course of evolution from that noted in protostomes, i.e.,

  11. Effects of sustained serotonin reuptake inhibition on the firing of dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

    Background: Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are efficacious in depression because of their ability to increase 5-HT neurotransmission. However, owing to a purported inhibitory effect of 5- HT on dopamine (DA) neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), this increase

  12. Ca2+ -Mediated Plateau Potentials in a Subpopulation of Interneurons in the Ventral Horn of the Turtle Spinal Cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Kjaerulff, O.

    1992-01-01

    The response properties of interneurons in the ventral horn were studied in transverse slices of segments D8 to S2 from the turtle spinal cord, using the current clamp technique. In about half of the neurons the response properties were dominated by their ability to generate plateau potentials...

  13. Lipid-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer to cultured porcine ventral mesencephalic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Matthias; Meyer, Morten; Brevig, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Transplantation of dopaminergic ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue into the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) shows at best moderate symptomatic relief in some of the treated cases. Experimental animal studies and clinical trials with allogenic and xenogenic pig-derived VM ti...

  14. Basolateral Amygdala Projections to Ventral Hippocampus Modulate the Consolidation of Footshock, but Not Contextual, Learning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mary L.; Emmons, Eric B.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory consolidation for a variety of types of learning, whereas other brain regions play more selective roles in specific kinds of learning suggesting a role for differential consolidation via distinct BLA pathways. The ventral hippocampus (VH), an efferent target of the BLA, has been suggested to…

  15. The Pathogenesis of Ventral Idiopathic Herniation of the Spinal Cord: A Hypothesis Based on the Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Brunner, H.G.; Hosman, A.J.; Alfen, N. van; Grotenhuis, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic ventral herniation of the spinal cord (SC) is not often encountered in daily practice. Its clinical prevalence, however, will increase through increasing awareness and more frequent use of MRI. A clear explanation of its pathophysiology has never been formulated. It was hypothesized that

  16. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  17. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin K Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections, when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections, when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between MS-275 or vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by the restraint necessary for the injections leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization.

  18. Stimulation of androgen-dependent gene expression by the adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione in the rat ventral prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrie, C.; Simard, J.; Zhao, H.F.; Belanger, A.; Pelletier, G.; Labrie, F. (Laval Univ. Medical Center, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-06-01

    Androgens play a major role in the development, growth, and function of accessory sexual organs, especially the prostate. However, the testis is not the sole source of circulating androgens in man, since the adrenal gland secretes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione (delta 4-dione) in large quantities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of DHEA and delta 4-dione similar to those found in adult man on sensitive and specific markers of androgen action in the rat ventral prostate. In addition to ventral prostate weight, we have measured the steady state levels of the mRNAs encoding the C1 component of rat prostatic binding protein (PBP-C1) and spermine-binding protein (SBP) using 35S-labeled cDNA probes for in situ hybridization. One week after castration, ventral prostate weight fell 84%, while prostatic 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androgen-dependent mRNAs were undetectable. When administered via Silastic implants to castrated adult rats for 1 week, plasma concentrations of 1.37 +/- 0.06 ng/ml DHEA or 0.43 +/- 0.08 ng/ml delta 4-dione independently caused increases in ventral prostate weight to 33% and 65% of normal values, respectively. The same plasma levels of DHEA and delta 4-dione resulted in high intraprostatic levels of DHT to 1.19 +/- 0.34 and 3.66 +/- 0.89 ng/g tissue, respectively. Furthermore, DHEA caused an increase in the steady state levels of PBP-C1 and SBP mRNAs to 50% and 57% of the normal state, respectively, while delta 4-dione caused increases corresponding to 80% and 119% of control values, respectively. Castrated adult rats receiving testosterone at a concentration of 1.66 +/- 0.37 ng/ml plasma maintained normal ventral prostate weight and gene expression levels.

  19. Association of contextual cues with morphine reward increases neural and synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvandi, Mina Sadighi; Bourmpoula, Maria; Homberg, Judith R; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2017-11-01

    Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Therefore, we measured adult neurogenesis, dendritic spine density and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB mRNA expression as parameters for synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to the CPP (conditioned place preference) paradigm and received 10 mg/kg morphine. Half of the rats were used to evaluate neurogenesis by immunohistochemical markers Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX). The other half was used for Golgi staining to measure spine density and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to assess BDNF/TrkB expression levels. We found that morphine-treated rats exhibited more place conditioning as compared with saline-treated rats and animals that were exposed to the CPP without any injections. Locomotor activity did not change significantly. Morphine-induced CPP significantly increased the number of Ki67 and DCX-labeled cells in the ventral dentate gyrus. Additionally, we found increased dendritic spine density in both CA1 and dentate gyrus and an enhancement of BDNF/TrkB mRNA levels in the whole ventral hippocampus. Ki67, DCX and spine density were significantly correlated with CPP scores. In conclusion, we show that morphine-induced reward-related memory is associated with neural and synaptic plasticity changes in the ventral hippocampus. Such neural changes could underlie context-induced drug relapse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Complex ventral hernia repair using components separation with or without biologic mesh: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Krishnan, Naveen M; Rosen, Joseph M

    2015-04-01

    A complex ventral hernia requiring abdominal wall reconstruction presents a challenging scenario to the surgeon. The use of biologic mesh in addition to performing a components separation (CS) is controversial. Our goal was to perform the first cost-utility analysis on the use of biologic mesh in addition to performing CS when performing complex ventral hernia repair. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify published complication and recurrence rates for ventral hernia repairs requiring CS with or without biologic mesh. The probabilities of the most common complications were combined with Medicare Current Procedural Terminology reimbursement codes, diagnosis related group reimbursement codes, and expert utility estimates to fit into a decision model to evaluate the cost utility of CS with and without biologic mesh in reconstructing ventral hernias. The decision model revealed a baseline cost increase of $775.65 and a 0.0517 increase in the quality-adjusted life-years when using biologic mesh yielding an incremental cost-utility ratio of $15,002.90/quality-adjusted life-year. One-way sensitivity analysis revealed that using biologic mesh was cost-effective using Medicare reimbursement rates but not at retail costs. The maximum price of biologic mesh to be cost-effective was $1813.53. The cost utility of biologic mesh when used with CS in ventral hernia repair is dependent on the financial perspective. It is cost-ineffective for hospitals and physicians paying retail costs but cost-effective for third-party payers providing Medicare reimbursement.

  1. Clinical analysis on the treatment of 24 cases of severe traumatic brain injury with non ventral intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical treatment for severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI with non ventral intestinal obstruction. Methods A total of 48 patients with sTBI were enrolled in this study, including 24 with (observation group and 24 without (control group non ventral intestinal obstruction. Among 24 patients with non ventral intestinal obstruction, 3 cases (12.50% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma, 5 cases (20.83% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and decompressive craniectomy, and 16 cases (66.67% were treated by conservative treatment. They were all treated by gastrointestinal decompression and parenteral nutrition. Among 24 patients without non ventral intestinal obstruction, 4 cases (16.67% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma, 6 cases (25% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and decompressive craniectomy, and 14 cases (58.33% were treated by conservative treatment. They were all treated by enteral nutrition. Hemoglobin (Hb, albumin (ALB and prealbumin (PA were detected 10 and 20 d after treatment. Results Compared with control group, the level of Hb (P = 0.008, ALB (P = 0.002 and PA (P = 0.031 were significantly reduced in observation group. Compared with 10 d after treatment, the level of Hb (P = 0.003, ALB (P = 0.000 and PA (P = 0.005 were significantly reduced 20 d after treatment. Conclusions Early diagnosis and timely treatment for non ventral intestinal obstruction in patients with severe traumatic brain injury could effectively relieve the symptoms of intestinal obstruction, and is favorable to early enteral nutrition, so as to enhance the patients' recovery. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.01.012

  2. Induced superconductivity in graphene grown on rhenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnoir, C; Kimouche, A; Coraux, J; Magaud, L; Delsol, B; Gilles, B; Chapelier, C

    2013-12-13

    We report a new way to strongly couple graphene to a superconductor. The graphene monolayer has been grown directly on top of a superconducting Re(0001) thin film and characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We observed a moiré pattern due to the mismatch between Re and graphene lattice parameters that we have simulated with ab initio calculations. The density of states around the Fermi energy appears to be position dependent on this moiré pattern. Tunneling spectroscopy performed at 50 mK shows that the superconducting behavior of graphene on Re is well described by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory and stands for a very good interface between the graphene and its metallic substrate.

  3. Ventral hernia repair using allogenic acellular dermal matrix in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, R P; Li, E N; Holton, L H; Sawan, K T; Goldberg, N H

    2004-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the long-term efficacy of allogenic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) used as an interpositional graft for ventral hernia repair in a swine model. We created 12x4-cm full-thickness abdominal wall defects in 22 Yucatan miniature pigs. The defect was repaired with either two 6x4-cm pieces of AlloDerm (acellular dermal matrix processed from pig skin in order to avoid a xenogenic response, LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ USA) (n = 12), or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene mesh (ePTFE) (Gore-Tex, W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Newark, DE USA) (n = 10). In six pigs, a separate 3-cm fascial incision was made, which was then suture repaired as a control for tensiometry testing. The surgical sites were evaluated at either 3 months or 9 months for the presence of a hernia, stretching of the implant, adhesions, vascularity, and biomechanical strength. Two hernias occurred in both the ADM and the ePTFE groups. There was minimal stretching of the implants and minimal adhesions in both groups. Fluorescein testing and histology indicated vascular ingrowth into the ADM. There was no statistical difference between the mean breaking strengths of the ADM-fascial interface (106.5 N +/- SD 40.1), the interface between two pieces of ADM (149.1 N +/- SD 76.7), and the primary fascial repair (108.1 N +/- SD 20.9) at 9 months. The ADM-fascial interface had a significantly higher breaking strength than that of the ePTFE-fascia interface (66.1 N +/- SD 30.1) (P = 0.017, t-test, P = 0.043 Wilcoxon rank sum test). In this study, we were unable to demonstrate a difference between ADM and ePTFE in their ability to repair ventral hernias at 9 months in a swine model. The ADM additionally supports vascular ingrowth and exhibits increased breaking strength at the fascia-implant interface.

  4. Biomechanical evaluation of fixation properties of fibrin glue for ventral incisional hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoikes, N; Sharpe, J; Tasneem, H; Roan, E; Paulus, E; Powell, B; Webb, D; Handorf, C; Eckstein, E; Fabian, T; Voeller, G

    2015-02-01

    Use of adhesives for mesh fixation in hernia is increasing. There has been minimal study of mesh incorporation and interface strength with adhesive fixation for ventral hernia repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fixation properties of fibrin glue as it compared to suture fixation of mesh in an onlay position. Twenty-four mongrel pigs were divided into three study arms based on time points for biomechanical evaluation: 24 h (n = 8), 7 days (n = 8), and 14 days (n = 8). Initial procedures included placement of two 4 × 6 cm pieces of wide-pore polypropylene mesh in an onlay position. One was fixated with 4 ml of fibrin glue and the other with four interrupted 2-0 polypropylene sutures. The shear strength of fixation was evaluated using a uniaxial testing device along with histological evaluation. Maximum force was normalized by the width of the mesh. Mesh-tissue interface of glued and sutured specimens at 7 and 14 days did not fail in our testing configuration. Only at the 24-h time point the mesh detached from the tissue, and the sutured interface (10.4 N/cm) was significantly stronger than glued interface (4.9 N/cm, p = 0.004). Histopathologic and gross evaluations of the specimens revealed similar histologic features at all time points for both glued and sutured specimens. With mesh in the onlay position, fixation to the abdominal wall occurs quickly. Though sutures were stronger at 24 h, as early as 1 week, the strength of the fixation exceeded the tissue or the mesh strength in our testing configuration for both glue and suture groups. Fixation strength is independent of technique at the latter time points. There are potential clinical advantages to the exclusive use of fibrin glue for fixation including acute post-operative pain, chronic post-operative pain, and recurrence for ventral incisional hernia repair.

  5. Early Wound Morbidity after Open Ventral Hernia Repair with Biosynthetic or Polypropylene Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sambit; Haskins, Ivy N; Huang, Li-Ching; Krpata, David M; Derwin, Kathleen A; Poulose, Benjamin K; Rosen, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Recently introduced slow-resorbing biosynthetic and non-resorbing macroporous polypropylene meshes are being used in hernias with clean-contaminated and contaminated wounds. However, information about the use of biosynthetic meshes and their outcomes compared with polypropylene meshes in clean-contaminated and contaminated cases is lacking. Here we evaluate the use of biosynthetic mesh and polypropylene mesh in elective open ventral hernia repair (OVHR) and investigate differences in early wound morbidity after OVHR within clean-contaminated and contaminated cases. All elective, OVHR with biosynthetic mesh or uncoated polypropylene mesh from January 2013 through October 2016 were identified within the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative. Association of mesh type with 30-day wound events in clean-contaminated or contaminated wounds was investigated using a 1:3 propensity-matched analysis. Biosynthetic meshes were used in 8.5% (175 of 2,051) of elective OVHR, with the majority (57.1%) used in low-risk or comorbid clean cases. Propensity-matched analysis in clean-contaminated and contaminated cases showed no significant difference between biosynthetic mesh and polypropylene mesh groups for 30-day surgical site occurrences (20.7% vs 16.7%; p = 0.49) or unplanned readmission (13.8% vs 9.8%; p = 0.4). However, surgical site infections (22.4% vs 10.9%; p = 0.03), surgical site occurrences requiring procedural intervention (24.1% vs 13.2%; p = 0.049), and reoperation rates (13.8% vs 4.0%; p = 0.009) were significantly higher in the biosynthetic group. Biosynthetic mesh appears to have higher rates of 30-day wound morbidity compared with polypropylene mesh in elective OVHR with clean-contaminated or contaminated wounds. Additional post-market analysis is needed to provide evidence defining best mesh choices, location, and surgical technique for repairing contaminated ventral hernias. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  6. Impaired communication between the dorsal and ventral stream: indications from apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carys eEvans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with apraxia perform poorly when demonstrating how an object is used, particularly when pantomiming the action. However, these patients are able to accurately identify, and to pick up and move objects, demonstrating intact ventral and dorsal stream visuomotor processing. Appropriate object manipulation for skilled use is thought to rely on integration of known and visible object properties associated with ‘ventro-dorsal’ stream neural processes. In apraxia, it has been suggested that stored object knowledge from the ventral stream may be less readily available to incorporate into the action plan, leading to an over-reliance on the objects’ visual affordances in object-directed motor behaviour. The current study examined grasping performance in left hemisphere stroke patients with (N = 3 and without (N = 9 apraxia, and in age-matched healthy control participants (N = 14, where participants repeatedly grasped novel cylindrical objects of varying weight distribution. Across two conditions, object weight distribution was indicated by either a memory-associated cue (object colour or visual-spatial cue (visible dot over the weighted end. Participants were required to incorporate object-weight associations to effectively grasp and balance each object. Control groups appropriately adjusted their grasp according to each object’s weight distribution across each condition, whereas throughout the task two of the three apraxic patients performed poorly on both the memory-associated and visual-spatial cue conditions. A third apraxic patient seemed to compensate for these difficulties but still performed differently to control groups. Patients with apraxia performed normally on the neutral control condition when grasping the evenly weighted version. The pattern of behaviour in apraxic patients suggests impaired integration of visible and known object properties attributed to the ventro-dorsal stream: in learning to grasp the weighted object

  7. Impaired Communication Between the Dorsal and Ventral Stream: Indications from Apraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carys; Edwards, Martin G.; Taylor, Lawrence J.; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Patients with apraxia perform poorly when demonstrating how an object is used, particularly when pantomiming the action. However, these patients are able to accurately identify, and to pick up and move objects, demonstrating intact ventral and dorsal stream visuomotor processing. Appropriate object manipulation for skilled use is thought to rely on integration of known and visible object properties associated with “ventro-dorsal” stream neural processes. In apraxia, it has been suggested that stored object knowledge from the ventral stream may be less readily available to incorporate into the action plan, leading to an over-reliance on the objects’ visual affordances in object-directed motor behavior. The current study examined grasping performance in left hemisphere stroke patients with (N = 3) and without (N = 9) apraxia, and in age-matched healthy control participants (N = 14), where participants repeatedly grasped novel cylindrical objects of varying weight distribution. Across two conditions, object weight distribution was indicated by either a memory-associated cue (object color) or visual-spatial cue (visible dot over the weighted end). Participants were required to incorporate object-weight associations to effectively grasp and balance each object. Control groups appropriately adjusted their grasp according to each object’s weight distribution across each condition, whereas throughout the task two of the three apraxic patients performed poorly on both the memory-associated and visual-spatial cue conditions. A third apraxic patient seemed to compensate for these difficulties but still performed differently to control groups. Patients with apraxia performed normally on the neutral control condition when grasping the evenly weighted version. The pattern of behavior in apraxic patients suggests impaired integration of visible and known object properties attributed to the ventro-dorsal stream: in learning to grasp the weighted object accurately, apraxic

  8. Laparoscopic ventral/incisional hernia repair: updated Consensus Development Conference based guidelines [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silecchia, Gianfranco; Campanile, Fabio Cesare; Sanchez, Luis; Ceccarelli, Graziano; Antinori, Armando; Ansaloni, Luca; Olmi, Stefano; Ferrari, Giovanni Carlo; Cuccurullo, Diego; Baccari, Paolo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Vettoretto, Nereo; Piccoli, Micaela

    2015-09-01

    The Executive board of the Italian Society for Endoscopic Surgery (SICE) promoted an update of the first evidence-based Italian Consensus Conference Guidelines 2010 because a large amount of literature has been published in the last 4 years about the topics examined and new relevant issues. The scientific committee selected the topics to be addressed: indications to surgical treatment including special conditions (obesity, cirrhosis, diastasis recti abdominis, acute presentation); safety and outcome of intraperitoneal meshes (synthetic and biologic); fixing devices (absorbable/non-absorbable); abdominal border and parastomal hernia; intraoperative and perioperative complications; and recurrent ventral/incisional hernia. All the recommendations are the result of a careful and complete literature review examined with autonomous judgment by the entire panel. The process was supervised by experts in methodology and epidemiology from the most qualified Italian institution. Two external reviewers were designed by the EAES and EHS to guarantee the most objective, transparent, and reliable work. The Oxford hierarchy (OCEBM Levels of Evidence Working Group*. "The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence") was used by the panel to grade clinical outcomes according to levels of evidence. The recommendations were based on the grading system suggested by the GRADE working group. The availability of recent level 1 evidence (a meta-analysis of 10 RCTs) allowed to recommend that not only laparoscopic repair is an acceptable alternative to the open repair, but also it is advantageous in terms of shorter hospital stay and wound infection rate. This conclusion appears to be extremely relevant in a clinical setting. Indications about specific conditions could also be issued: laparoscopy is recommended for the treatment of recurrent ventral hernias and obese patients, while it is a potential option for compensated cirrhotic and childbearing-age female patients. Many relevant and controversial

  9. Organic milk production based entirely on home-grown feed

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. project was to examine the consequences for the farm of an organic milk production based entirely on home-grown feed. The project included interviews that identified what in farmers’ opinion is crucial for obtaining organic milk production based entirely on home-grown feed, production experiments that examined the effects of different types of home-grown concentrated feed on milk production and scenario calculations that described the consequences for productivity, econom...

  10. Correction of Residual Ventral Penile Curvature After Division of the Urethral Plate in the First Stage of a 2-Stage Proximal Hypospadias Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce J

    2017-02-01

    The first stage of a 2-stage proximal hypospadias repair involves division of the urethral plate and correction of any residual ventral penile curvature (VPC). Options to correct residual VPC include dorsal corporal shortening or ventral corporal lengthening techniques. This review discusses these options and suggests an approach to management. Recent reports of 2-stage proximal hypospadias repairs indicate low rates of recurrent VPC with either dorsal corporal shortening or ventral corporal lengthening. Dorsal corporal shortening with dorsal plication may be preferentially used for mild to moderate residual VPC after division of urethral plate and ventral corporal lengthening reserved for severe residual VPC. Ventral corporal lengthening with grafts has been associated with urethroplasty complications after the second stage hypospadias surgery. Ventral corporal lengthening with relaxing incisions of corpora has been reported, but concerns about adverse effects require longer term studies. Little guidance exists to choose the best technique for VPC correction during first stage hypospadias repair after division of urethral plate. Reported literature suggests good results with dorsal plication techniques and ventral corporal lengthening. A practical approach is to use dorsal plication techniques for mild to moderate residual VPC after division of urethral plate (45°).

  11. Staged hernia repair preceded by gastric bypass for the treatment of morbidly obese patients with complex ventral hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, W L; Polhill, J L; Chen, A Y; Kuwada, T S; Gersin, K S; Getz, S B; Kercher, K W; Heniford, B T

    2008-10-01

    Obesity may be the most predominant risk factor for recurrence following ventral hernia repair. This is secondary to significantly increased intra-abdominal pressures, higher rates of wound complications, and the technical difficulties encountered due to obesity. Medically managed weight loss prior to surgery is difficult. One potential strategy is to provide a surgical means to correct patient weight prior to hernia repair. After institutional review board approval, we reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent gastric bypass surgery prior to the definitive repair of a complex ventral hernia at our medical center. Twenty-seven morbidly obese patients with an average of 3.7 (range 1-10) failed ventral hernia repairs underwent gastric bypass prior to definitive ventral hernia repair. Twenty-two of the gastric bypasses were open operations and five were laparoscopic. The patients' average pre-bypass body mass index (BMI) was 51 kg/m2 (range 39-69 kg/m2), which decreased to an average of 33 kg/m2 (range 25-37 kg/m2) at the time of hernia repair at a mean of 1.3 years (range 0.9-3.1 years) after gastric bypass. Seven patients had hernia repair at the same time as their gastric bypass (four sutured, three biologic mesh), all of which recurred. Of the 27 patients, 19 had an open hernia repair and eight had a laparoscopic repair. Panniculectomy was performed concurrently in 15 patients who had an open repair. Prior to formal hernia repair, one patient required an urgent operation to repair a hernia incarceration and a small-bowel obstruction 11 months after gastric bypass. The average hernia and mesh size was 203 cm2 (range 24-1,350 cm2) and 1,040 cm2 (range 400-2,700 cm2), respectively. There have been no recurrences at an average follow-up of 20 months (range 2 months-5 years). Gastric bypass prior to staged ventral hernia repair in morbidly obese patients with complex ventral hernias is a safe and definitive method to effect weight loss and facilitate a

  12. Transvaginal repair of a large chronic porcine ventral hernia with synthetic mesh using NOTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ben; Whang, Susan H; Bachman, Sharon L; Astudillo, J Andres; Sporn, Emanuel; Miedema, Brent W; Thaler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Ventral incisional hernias still remain a common surgical problem. We tested the feasibility of transvaginal placement of a large synthetic mesh to repair a porcine hernia. Seven pigs were used in this survival model. Each animal had creation of a 5-cm hernia defect and underwent a transvaginal repair of the defect with synthetic mesh. A single colpotomy was made using a 12-cm trocar for an overtube. The mesh was cut to size and placed through the trocar. A single-channel gastroscope with an endoscopic atraumatic grasper was used for grasping sutures. Further fascial sutures were placed every 5 cm. Mesh repair was feasible in all 7 animals. Mean operative time was 133 minutes. Technical difficulties were encountered. No gross contamination was seen at the time of necropsy. However, 5 animals had positive mesh cultures; 7 had positive cultures in the rectouterine space in enrichment broth or on direct culture. Transvaginal placement of synthetic mesh to repair a large porcine hernia using NOTES is challenging but feasible. Future studies need to be conducted to develop better techniques and determine the significance of mesh contamination.

  13. Effect of prosthetic material on adhesion formation after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrazzo, E C; Belmont, M F; Boffa, D; Fowler, D L

    2004-05-01

    Intraperitoneal placement of prosthetic mesh causes adhesion formation after laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. A prosthesis that prevents or reduces adhesion formation is desirable. In this study, 21 pigs were randomized to receive laparoscopic placement of plain polypropylene mesh (PPM), expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), or polypropylene coated on one side with a bioresorbable adhesion barrier (PPM/HA/CMC). The animals were sacrificed after 28 days and evaluated for adhesion formation. Mean area of adhesion formation was 14% (SD+/-15) in the PPM/HA/CMC group, 40% (SD+/-17) in the PPM group, and 41% (SD+/-39) in the ePTFE group. The difference between PPM/HA/CMC and PPM was significant ( P=0.013). A new visceral layer of mesothelium was present in seven out of seven PPM/HA/CMC cases, six out of seven PPM cases, and two out of seven ePTFE cases. Thus, laparoscopic placement of PPM/HA/CMC reduces adhesion formation compared to other mesh types used for laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs.

  14. Prosthetic strap system for simplified ventral hernia repair: results of a porcine experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G; Romano, G; Agrusa, A; Cassata, G; Salamone, G; Gulotta, G

    2010-08-01

    Aiming to achieve a simplified ventral hernia repair, a proprietary oval-shaped mesh was experimentally tested in a porcine model. The mesh is structured with a large central body and radiating straps. The friction of the straps passing through the tissues are hypothesized to be adequate to maintain the position of the mesh during tissue ingrowth, avoiding classic point fixation while ensuring a wide coverage of the abdomen. The mesh, having six radial straps, was placed using a sublay preperitoneal technique in four pigs. All straps were passed laterally through the abdominal wall and exteriorized from the skin. The straps were trimmed at the level of the skin, allowing the stumps to recoil into the subcutaneous space. The animals were euthanized at 1 and 4 months to determine the integration of the straps. Macroscopically, all 24 straps were firmly incorporated within the abdominal wall. The tension-free placement of the mesh by using the straps was effective. The friction of the straps passing through the tissues was adequate to keep the mesh well orientated. No dislocation of the implants was observed. The strap system also allowed a broader coverage of the abdominal wall, far beyond the wound opening. The described arm system of the aforementioned implant seems to be effective in eliminating point fixation of the mesh. The fixation arms seemed to have ensured that the mesh stayed orientated in all of the animals. A very wide lateral mesh placement was accomplished, assuring sufficient defect overlap when shrinkage occurs.

  15. Experience Shapes the Development of Neural Substrates of Face Processing in Human Ventral Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golarai, Golijeh; Liberman, Alina; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-02-01

    In adult humans, the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) represents faces in a reproducible topology. However, it is unknown what role visual experience plays in the development of this topology. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in children and adults, we found a sequential development, in which the topology of face-selective activations across the VTC was matured by age 7, but the spatial extent and degree of face selectivity continued to develop past age 7 into adulthood. Importantly, own- and other-age faces were differentially represented, both in the distributed multivoxel patterns across the VTC, and also in the magnitude of responses of face-selective regions. These results provide strong evidence that experience shapes cortical representations of faces during development from childhood to adulthood. Our findings have important implications for the role of experience and age in shaping the neural substrates of face processing in the human VTC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sustained happiness? Lack of repetition suppression in right-ventral visual cortex for happy faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Goh, Joshua O S; Hebrank, Andrew; Sutton, Bradley P; Jenkins, Lucas; Flicker, Blair A; Park, Denise C

    2011-09-01

    Emotional stimuli have been shown to preferentially engage initial attention but their sustained effects on neural processing remain largely unknown. The present study evaluated whether emotional faces engage sustained neural processing by examining the attenuation of neural repetition suppression to repeated emotional faces. Repetition suppression of neural function refers to the general reduction of neural activity when processing a repeated stimulus. Preferential processing of emotional face stimuli, however, should elicit sustained neural processing such that repetition suppression to repeated emotional faces is attenuated relative to faces with no emotional content. We measured the reduction of functional magnetic resonance imaging signals associated with immediate repetition of neutral, angry and happy faces. Whereas neutral faces elicited the greatest suppression in ventral visual cortex, followed by angry faces, repetition suppression was the most attenuated for happy faces. Indeed, happy faces showed almost no repetition suppression in part of the right-inferior occipital and fusiform gyri, which play an important role in face-identity processing. Our findings suggest that happy faces are associated with sustained visual encoding of face identity and thereby assist in the formation of more elaborate representations of the faces, congruent with findings in the behavioral literature.

  17. Conjunctive encoding of movement and reward by ventral tegmental area neurons in the freely navigating rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puryear, Corey B.; Kim, Min Jung; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    As one of the two main sources of brain dopamine, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is important for several complex functions, including motivation, reward prediction, and contextual learning. Although many studies have identified the potential neural substrate of VTA dopaminergic activity in reward prediction functions during Pavlovian and operant conditioning tasks, less is understood about the role of VTA neuronal activity in motivated behaviors and more naturalistic forms of context-dependent learning. Therefore, VTA neural activity was recorded as rats performed a spatial memory task under varying context conditions. In addition to reward- and reward predicting cue-related firing commonly observed during conditioning tasks, the activity of a large proportion of VTA neurons was also related to the velocity and/or acceleration of the animal’s movement. Importantly, movement-related activity was strongest when rats displayed more motivation to obtain reward. Furthermore, many cells displayed a dual code of movement- and reward-related activity. These two modes of firing, however, were differentially regulated by context information, suggesting that movement- and reward-related firing are two independently regulated modes of VTA neuronal activity and may serve separate functions. PMID:20364883

  18. Functional specialization of the left ventral parietal cortex in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ventral parietal cortex (VPC is subject to much debate. Many studies suggest a lateralization of function in the VPC, with the left hemisphere facilitating verbal working memory and the right subserving stimulus-driven attention. However, many attentional tasks elicit activity in the VPC bilaterally. To elucidate the potential divides across the VPC in function, we assessed the pattern of activity in the VPC bilaterally across two tasks that require different demands, an oddball attentional task with low working memory demands and a working memory task. An anterior region of the VPC was bilaterally active during novel targets in the oddball task and during retrieval in WM, while more posterior regions of the VPC displayed dissociable functions in the left and right hemisphere, with the left being active during the encoding and retrieval of WM, but not during the oddball task and the right showing the reverse pattern. These results suggest that bilateral regions of the anterior VPC subserve non-mnemonic processes, such as stimulus-driven attention during WM retrieval and oddball detection. The left posterior VPC may be important for speech-related processing important for both working memory and perception, while the right hemisphere is more lateralized for attention.

  19. Fuxianhuiid ventral nerve cord and early nervous system evolution in Panarthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Butterfield, Nicholas J; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George S; Hou, Jin-Bo; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Xi-Guang

    2016-03-15

    Panarthropods are typified by disparate grades of neurological organization reflecting a complex evolutionary history. The fossil record offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct early character evolution of the nervous system via exceptional preservation in extinct representatives. Here we describe the neurological architecture of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in the upper-stem group euarthropod Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis from the early Cambrian Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte (South China). The VNC of C. kunmingensis comprises a homonymous series of condensed ganglia that extend throughout the body, each associated with a pair of biramous limbs. Submillimetric preservation reveals numerous segmental and intersegmental nerve roots emerging from both sides of the VNC, which correspond topologically to the peripheral nerves of extant Priapulida and Onychophora. The fuxianhuiid VNC indicates that ancestral neurological features of Ecdysozoa persisted into derived members of stem-group Euarthropoda but were later lost in crown-group representatives. These findings illuminate the VNC ground pattern in Panarthropoda and suggest the independent secondary loss of cycloneuralian-like neurological characters in Tardigrada and Euarthropoda.

  20. Somatosensory-motor adaptation of orofacial actions in posterior parietal and ventral premotor cortices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Grabski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have provided evidence for sensory-motor adaptive changes and action goal coding of visually guided manual action in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. To extend these results to orofacial actions, devoid of auditory and visual feedback, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging during repeated intransitive and silent lip, jaw and tongue movements. In the motor domain, this paradigm refers to decreased activity in specific neural populations due to repeated motor acts and has been proposed to reflect sensory-motor adaptation. Orofacial movements activated a set of largely overlapping, common brain areas forming a core neural network classically involved in orofacial motor control. Crucially, suppressed neural responses during repeated orofacial actions were specifically observed in the left ventral premotor cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, the inferior parietal lobule and the superior parietal lobule. Since no visual and auditory feedback were provided during orofacial actions, these results suggest somatosensory-motor adaptive control of intransitive and silent orofacial actions in these premotor and parietal regions.

  1. Electrical Stimulation of the Ventral Tegmental Area Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ken; Van Dort, Christa J.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Taylor, Norman E.; Kenny, Jonathan D.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methylphenidate or a D1 dopamine receptor agonist induce reanimation (active emergence) from general anesthesia. We tested whether electrical stimulation of dopaminergic nuclei also induces reanimation from general anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, a bipolar insulated stainless steel electrode was placed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, n = 5) or substantia nigra (SN, n = 5). After a minimum 7-day recovery period, the isoflurane dose sufficient to maintain loss of righting was established. Electrical stimulation was initiated and increased in intensity every 3 min to a maximum of 120μA. If stimulation restored the righting reflex, an additional experiment was performed at least 3 days later during continuous propofol anesthesia. Histological analysis was conducted to identify the location of the electrode tip. In separate experiments, stimulation was performed in the prone position during general anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol, and the electroencephalogram was recorded. RESULTS To maintain loss of righting, the dose of isoflurane was 0.9% ± 0.1 vol%, and the target plasma dose of propofol was 4.4 μg/ml ± 1.1 μg/ml (mean ± SD). In all rats with VTA electrodes, electrical stimulation induced a graded arousal response including righting that increased with current intensity. VTA stimulation induced a shift in electroencephalogram peak power from δ (anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dopamine release by VTA, but not SN, neurons induces reanimation from general anesthesia. PMID:24398816

  2. ALPHA-1 ADRENORECEPTORS MODULATE GABA RELEASE ONTO VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA DOPAMINE NEURONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Martínez, M.C.; Vázquez-Torres, R.; Rojas, L.V.; Sanabria, P.; Jiménez-Rivera, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an important role in reward and motivational processes involved in drug addiction. Previous studies have shown that alpha1-adrenoreceptors (α1-AR) are primarily found presynaptically at this area. We hypothesized that GABA released onto VTA-dopamine (DA) cells is modulated by presynaptic α1-AR. Recordings were obtained from putative VTA-DA cells of male Sprague-Dawley rats (28–50 days postnatal) using whole-cell voltage clamp technique. Phenylephrine (10µM; α1-AR agonist) decreased the amplitude of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) evoked by electrical stimulation of afferent fibers (n=7; p0.05). Phenylephrine in low Ca2+ (1mM) medium decreased IPSC amplitude (n=7; p<0.05). Chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) blocked the α1-AR action on IPSC amplitude (n=6; p<0.05). Phenylephrine failed to decrease IPSCs amplitude in the presence of paxilline, a BK channel blocker (n=7; p<0.05). Taken together, these results demonstrate that α1-ARs at presynaptic terminals can modulate GABA release onto VTA-DA cells. Drug-induced changes in α1-AR could contribute to the modifications occurring in the VTA during the addiction process. PMID:25261018

  3. Ventral striatum lesions enhance stimulus and response encoding in dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Lichtenberg, Nina T; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2014-01-15

    The development of addiction is thought to reflect a transition from goal-directed to stimulus-response driven behavior, functions attributed to ventral (VS) and dorsal striatum (DS), respectively. In line with this theory, neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged drug use progress from VS to DS. Here we ask if VS dysfunction alone, independent of drug use, can affect neural selectivity in DS. To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in DS while rats performed an odor-guided choice task for differently valued rewards in rats with and without unilateral VS lesions. In a separate group of animals, we used bilateral VS lesions to determine if VS was critical for performance on this task. We describe data showing that unilateral lesions of VS enhance neural representations in DS during performance of a task that is dependent on VS. Furthermore, we show that VS is critical for reward-guided decision-making initially, but that rats regain function after several days. These results suggest that loss of VS function, independent of chronic drug use, can trigger stronger encoding in DS in a reward-guided decision-making task and that the transition from VS to DS governed behavior observed in addiction might be due, in part, to initial loss of VS function. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Somatosensory-Motor Adaptation of Orofacial Actions in Posterior Parietal and Ventral Premotor Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabski, Krystyna; Lamalle, Laurent; Sato, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for sensory-motor adaptive changes and action goal coding of visually guided manual action in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. To extend these results to orofacial actions, devoid of auditory and visual feedback, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging during repeated intransitive and silent lip, jaw and tongue movements. In the motor domain, this paradigm refers to decreased activity in specific neural populations due to repeated motor acts and has been proposed to reflect sensory-motor adaptation. Orofacial movements activated a set of largely overlapping, common brain areas forming a core neural network classically involved in orofacial motor control. Crucially, suppressed neural responses during repeated orofacial actions were specifically observed in the left ventral premotor cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, the inferior parietal lobule and the superior parietal lobule. Since no visual and auditory feedback were provided during orofacial actions, these results suggest somatosensory-motor adaptive control of intransitive and silent orofacial actions in these premotor and parietal regions. PMID:23185300

  5. The Temporal Pole Top-Down Modulates the Ventral Visual Stream During Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Zaki, Jamil; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Jacobs, Arthur M; Kuchinke, Lars; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The temporal pole (TP) has been associated with diverse functions of social cognition and emotion processing. Although the underlying mechanism remains elusive, one possibility is that TP acts as domain-general hub integrating socioemotional information. To test this, 26 participants were presented with 60 empathy-evoking film clips during fMRI scanning. The film clips were preceded by a linguistic sad or neutral context and half of the clips were accompanied by sad music. In line with its hypothesized role, TP was involved in the processing of sad context and furthermore tracked participants' empathic concern. To examine the neuromodulatory impact of TP, we applied nonlinear dynamic causal modeling to a multisensory integration network from previous work consisting of superior temporal gyrus (STG), fusiform gyrus (FG), and amygdala, which was extended by an additional node in the TP. Bayesian model comparison revealed a gating of STG and TP on fusiform-amygdalar coupling and an increase of TP to FG connectivity during the integration of contextual information. Moreover, these backward projections were strengthened by emotional music. The findings indicate that during social cognition, TP integrates information from different modalities and top-down modulates lower-level perceptual areas in the ventral visual stream as a function of integration demands. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ofd1 controls dorso-ventral patterning and axoneme elongation during embryonic brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D'Angelo

    Full Text Available Oral-facial-digital type I syndrome (OFDI is a human X-linked dominant-male-lethal developmental disorder caused by mutations in the OFD1 gene. Similar to other inherited disorders associated to ciliary dysfunction OFD type I patients display neurological abnormalities. We characterized the neuronal phenotype that results from Ofd1 inactivation in early phases of mouse embryonic development and at post-natal stages. We determined that Ofd1 plays a crucial role in forebrain development, and in particular, in the control of dorso-ventral patterning and early corticogenesis. We observed abnormal activation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a major pathway modulating brain development. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated that early Ofd1 inactivation results in the absence of ciliary axonemes despite the presence of mature basal bodies that are correctly orientated and docked. Ofd1 inducible-mediated inactivation at birth does not affect ciliogenesis in the cortex, suggesting a developmental stage-dependent role for a basal body protein in ciliogenesis. Moreover, we showed defects in cytoskeletal organization and apical-basal polarity in Ofd1 mutant embryos, most likely due to lack of ciliary axonemes. Thus, the present study identifies Ofd1 as a developmental disease gene that is critical for forebrain development and ciliogenesis in embryonic life, and indicates that Ofd1 functions after docking and before elaboration of the axoneme in vivo.

  7. A universal role of the ventral striatum in reward-based learning: Evidence from human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Reka; Pollmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning enables organisms to adjust their behavior in order to maximize rewards. Electrophysiological recordings of dopaminergic midbrain neurons have shown that they code the difference between actual and predicted rewards, i.e., the reward prediction error, in many species. This error signal is conveyed to both the striatum and cortical areas and is thought to play a central role in learning to optimize behavior. However, in human daily life rewards are diverse and often only indirect feedback is available. Here we explore the range of rewards that are processed by the dopaminergic system in human participants, and examine whether it is also involved in learning in the absence of explicit rewards. While results from electrophysiological recordings in humans are sparse, evidence linking dopaminergic activity to the metabolic signal recorded from the midbrain and striatum with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is available. Results from fMRI studies suggest that the human ventral striatum (VS) receives valuation information for a diverse set of rewarding stimuli. These range from simple primary reinforcers such as juice rewards over abstract social rewards to internally generated signals on perceived correctness, suggesting that the VS is involved in learning from trial-and-error irrespective of the specific nature of provided rewards. In addition, we summarize evidence that the VS can also be implicated when learning from observing others, and in tasks that go beyond simple stimulus-action-outcome learning, indicating that the reward system is also recruited in more complex learning tasks. PMID:24825620

  8. Stimulation of the mesencephalic ventral tegmental area blunts the sensitivity of cardiac baroreflex in decerebrate cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Ishida, Tomoko; Nagai, Atsushi; Liang, Nan

    2015-05-01

    We have examined for the first time whether electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic ventral tegmental area (VTA) or the substantia nigra (SN) was capable of suppressing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in decerebrate cats. After decerebration was performed by electrocoagulation at the precollicular-premammillary level and inhalation anesthesia was stopped, the animals were able to show spontaneous motor activity intermittently. Electrical stimulations of the mesencephalic areas (the VTA and SN) for 30s were conducted with a monopolar tungsten microelectrode (current intensity of pulse trains, 50-100 μA; frequency, 40-50 Hz; pulse duration, 0.5-1.0 ms), without producing tibial motor discharge. Stimulation of the VTA evoked the significant increases in heart rate (HR, 12 ± 2 beats/min) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, 12 ± 3 mm Hg). When the baroreflex bradycardia and the slope of the cardiac baroreflex curve were examined using a pressor response with brief occlusion of the abdominal aorta, the VTA stimulation blunted both the baroreflex bradycardia and the maximal slope of the baroreflex MAP-HR curve by 63-74% in the same manner as spontaneously-evoked motor activity. In contrast, stimulation of the SN elicited no modulation of cardiac baroreflex. It is likely that stimulation of the mesencephalic VTA suppresses cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and has the similar features of the effects on the cardiac baroreflex function as those during spontaneously-evoked motor activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Outcomes of robot-assisted versus laparoscopic repair of small-sized ventral hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Julia; Huynh, Desmond; Nguyen, Scott; Chin, Edward; Divino, Celia; Zhang, Linda

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the outcomes of the da Vinci robot-assisted laparoscopic hernia repair of small-sized ventral hernias with circumferential suturing of the mesh compared to the traditional laparoscopic repair with trans-fascial suturing. A retrospective review was conducted of all robot-assisted umbilical, epigastric and incisional hernia repairs performed at our institution between 2013 and 2015 compared to laparoscopic umbilical or epigastric hernia repairs. Patient characteristics, operative details and postoperative complications were collected and analyzed using univariate analysis. Three primary minimally invasive fellowship trained surgeons performed all of the procedures included in the analysis. 72 patients were identified during the study period. 39 patients underwent robot- assisted repair (21 umbilical, 14 epigastric, 4 incisional), and 33 patients laparoscopic repair (27 umbilical, 6 epigastric). Seven had recurrent hernias (robot: 4, laparoscopic: 3). There were no significant differences in preoperative characteristics between the two groups. Average operative time was 156 min for robot-assisted repair and 65 min for laparoscopic repair (p robot group [3.07 cm (1-9 cm)] than that for the laparoscopic group [2.02 cm (0.5-5 cm)] (p robot-assisted technique versus the standard laparoscopic repair.

  10. The economic burden of incisional ventral hernia repair: a multicentric cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillion, J-F; Sanders, D; Miserez, M; Muysoms, F

    2016-12-01

    A systematic review of literature led us to take note that little was known about the costs of incisional ventral hernia repair (IVHR). Therefore we wanted to assess the actual costs of IVHR. The total costs are the sum of direct (hospital costs) and indirect (sick leave) costs. The direct costs were retrieved from a multi-centric cost analysis done among a large panel of 51 French public hospitals, involving 3239 IVHR. One hundred and thirty-two unitary expenditure items were thoroughly evaluated by the accountants of a specialized public agency (ATIH) dedicated to investigate the costs of the French Health Care system. The indirect costs (costs of the post-operative inability to work and loss of profit due to the disruption in the ongoing work) were estimated from the data the Hernia Club registry, involving 790 patients, and over a large panel of different Collective Agreements. The mean total cost for an IVHR in France in 2011 was estimated to be 6451€, ranging from 4731€ for unemployed patients to 10,107€ for employed patients whose indirect costs (5376€) were slightly higher than the direct costs. Reducing the incidence of incisional hernia after abdominal surgery with 5 % for instance by implementation of the European Hernia Society Guidelines on closure of abdominal wall incisions, or maybe even by use of prophylactic mesh augmentation in high risk patients could result in a national cost savings of 4 million Euros.

  11. Turning visual shapes into sounds: early stages of reading acquisition revealed in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Bertolotti, M; Vidal, J R; de Palma, L; Hamamé, C M; Ossandon, T; Kahane, P; Minotti, L; Bertrand, O; Lachaux, J-P

    2014-04-15

    The exact role of the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) during the initial stages of reading acquisition is a hotly debated issue, especially regarding the comparative effect of learning on early stimulus-dependent vs. later task-dependent processes. We show that this controversy can be solved with high-temporal resolution intracerebral EEG recordings of the VOTC. We measured High-Frequency Activity (50-150 Hz) as a proxy of population-level spiking activity while participants learned Japanese Katakana symbols, and found that learning primarily affects top-down/task-dependent neural processing, after a few minutes only. In contrast, adaptation of early bottom-up/stimulus-dependent processing takes several days to adapt and provides the basis for fluent reading. Such evidence that two consecutive stages of neural processing, stimulus- and task-dependent are differentially affected by learning, can reconcile seemingly opposite hypotheses on the role of the VOTC during reading acquisition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Zebrafish Rfx4 controls dorsal and ventral midline formation in the neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, Irina; Keller, Abigail N; Yoon, Baul; Roberson, Laura; Moskvin, Oleg V; Grinblat, Yevgenya

    2017-12-15

    Rfx winged-helix transcription factors, best known as key regulators of core ciliogenesis, also play ciliogenesis-independent roles during neural development. Mammalian Rfx4 controls neural tube morphogenesis via both mechanisms. We set out to identify conserved aspects of rfx4 gene function during vertebrate development and to establish a new genetic model in which to analyze these mechanisms further. To this end, we have generated frame-shift alleles in the zebrafish rfx4 locus using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis. Using RNAseq-based transcriptome analysis, in situ hybridization and immunostaining we identified a requirement for zebrafish rfx4 in the forming midlines of the caudal neural tube. These functions are mediated, least in part, through transcriptional regulation of several zic genes in the dorsal hindbrain and of foxa2 in the ventral hindbrain and spinal cord (floor plate). The midline patterning functions of rfx4 are conserved, since rfx4 regulates transcription of foxa2 and zic2 in zebrafish and in mouse. In contrast, zebrafish rfx4 function is dispensable for forebrain morphogenesis, while mouse rfx4 is required for normal formation of forebrain ventricles in a ciliogenesis-dependent manner. Collectively, this report identifies conserved aspects of rfx4 function and establishes a robust new genetic model for in-depth dissection of these mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dorsal and ventral target strength measurements on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) in sea cages

    CERN Document Server

    Soliveres, Ester; Espinosa, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a relationship between target strength (TS) and total body length of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), in order to monitor its growth in sea cages. Five classes of commercial size gilthead sea bream are characterized, comprising lengths from 20 to 25 cm, corresponding to weights between 160 and 270 g. A few specimens were introduced into a sea cage of 3 m in diameter and a height of 2.7 m. We measure TS directly using a Simrad EK60 echosounder with a 7^{\\circ} split-beam transducer working at 200 kHz. The transducer was located in the center of the cage during measurements, at the bottom facing upwards for ventral recordings and on the surface facing downwards to perform dorsal recordings. Two analyses based on single echo detection were performed: the first one obtains compensated transducer directivity TS values from intensity and angular echosounder data; while the second one omit phase information, affording uncompensated TS values (TSu). Two algorithms have bee...

  14. A Ventral Visual Stream Reading Center Independent of Sensory Modality and Visual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Reich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Visual Word Form Area (VWFA is a ventral-temporal-visual area that develops expertise for visual reading. It encodes letter-strings irrespective of case, font, or location in the visual-field, with striking anatomical reproducibility across individuals. In the blind, reading can be achieved using Braille, with a comparable level-of-expertise to that of sighted readers. We investigated which area plays the role of the VWFA in the blind. One would expect it to be at either parietal or bilateral occipital cortex, reflecting the tactile nature of the task and crossmodal plasticity, respectively. However, according to the notion that brain areas are task specific rather than sensory-modality specific, we predicted recruitment of the left-hemispheric VWFA, identically to the sighted and independent of visual experience. Using fMRI we showed that activation during Braille reading in congenitally blind individuals peaked in the VWFA, with striking anatomical consistency within and between blind and sighted. The VWFA was reading-selective when contrasted to high-level language and low-level sensory controls. Further preliminary results show that the VWFA is selectively activated also when people learn to read in a new language or using a different modality. Thus, the VWFA is a mutlisensory area specialized for reading regardless of visual experience.

  15. Hyper-influence of the orbitofrontal cortex over the ventral striatum in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshinari; Sakai, Yuki; Nishida, Seiji; Nakamae, Takashi; Yamada, Kei; Fukui, Kenji; Narumoto, Jin

    2015-11-01

    Dysfunction of the fronto-striato-thalamic circuit routing through the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is thought to play the main role in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Repetitious stimulation of the OFC-ventral striatum (VS) projections in mice has been shown to increase the firing of the postsynaptic VS cells and the frequency of OCD-like symptoms. Moreover, increased functional connectivity (FC) between the OFC and the VS has been reported in patients with OCD. While FC is a synchronous, non-directed correlation, the directed influence between these brain regions remains unclear in patients with OCD. We obtained resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from 37 non-medicated patients with OCD and 38 matched healthy volunteers, and calculated bivariative voxel-wise Granger Causality (GC) to and from three striatal regions of interest (ROI) using a blind deconvolution procedure. Additionally, we conducted multivariative GC analysis to determine if the effect revealed by the bivariative voxel-wise GCA is mediated by another seed ROI. We found a significant hyper-influence of the OFC over the VS of subjects with OCD (ploop in non-medicated patients with OCD. We confirmed the hyperactive connection from the OFC to the VS that is consistent with previous animal studies. These findings provide evidence for the more detailed pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  17. Modification of behavioral responses induced by electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T; Morimoto, K; Nakamura, M; Suwaki, H

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the role of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a source of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, in paranoid psychosis, a detailed analysis of the behavioral responses induced by electrical stimulation of the VTA was made. Abnormal behavior induced by bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the VTA consisted of two components: forward locomotion and exploration. Similar responses were obtained when the nucleus accumbens (NAC) or prefrontal cortex (PFC) were stimulated. The expression of behavioral responses to stimulation was significantly attenuated by dopamine (DA) receptor or antagonists, such as haloperidol, YM-09151-2 and SCH23390. These results indicate that VTA stimulation causes a transient hyperdopaminergic state in the brain, that resembles psychostimulant-induced abnormal behavior. The effects of chronic administration of methamphetamine (MAP) on the behavioral responses to electrical stimulation of the VAT were also investigated. Although an acute administration of MAP did not affect the behavioral responses to electrical stimulation of the VTA, chronic treatment with MAP (for 2 weeks) caused a long-lasting reduction in the electrical threshold for the induction of abnormal behavior, compared with chronic saline-treated rats. It is suggested that a lasting enhancement in the behavioral response to stimulation of VTA neurons may contribute to the etiology of paranoid schizophrenia and amphetamine psychosis.

  18. Influence of spaceflight on succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of rat ventral horn neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1996-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities and soma cross-sectional areas (CSA) of neurons in the dorsolateral region of the ventral horn at the L5 segmental level of the spinal cord in the rat were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after 9 days of recovery on earth. The results were compared to those in age-matched ground-based control rats. Spinal cords were quick-frozen, and the SDH activity and CSA of a sample of neurons with a visible nucleus were determined using a digitizer and a computer-assisted image analysis system. An inverse relationship between CSA and SDH activity of neurons was observed in all groups of rats. No change in mean CSA or mean SDH activity or in the size distribution of neurons was observed following spaceflight or recovery. However, there was a selective decrease in the SDH activity of neurons with soma CSA between 500 and 800 microns2 in the flight rats, and this effect persisted for at least 9 days following return to 1 g. It remains to be determined whether the selected population of motoneurons or the specific motor pools affected by spaceflight may be restricted to specific muscles.

  19. Aphasia severity in chronic stroke patients: a combined disconnection in the dorsal and ventral language pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Vargas, Patricia; Valabregue, Romain; Arbizu, Céline; Henry-Amar, François; Leger, Anne; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Samson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of lesion size and location in poststroke aphasia is debated, especially the extent to which aphasia severity is affected by damage to specific white matter areas. To identify specific white matter areas critical for poststroke aphasia global severity and to determine whether injury to these areas had more impact on aphasia severity than the infarct volume. Twenty-three chronic poststroke aphasic patients were assessed with the Aphasia Rapid Test (ART) and the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Examination (BDAE) global severity scales and underwent diffusion tensor and structural imaging. Voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging regression analysis was used to determine in which areas fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormalities were correlated with ART and BDAE severity scales. The relationships between aphasia severity, FA values, and infarct volumes were investigated using global and partial correlations. We found a critical area associated with aphasia severity overlapping with the arcuate and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, resulting in a combined disconnection of the dorsal and ventral pathways. ART scores were inversely correlated with FA values in this region, with greater severity present with lower FA values (correlation coefficient = -0.833, P aphasia severity disappeared when damage to this critical white matter area was taken into account (P = .38). The assessment of the integrity of this region may potentially have a clinical impact in neurorehabilitation and acute decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Scratch resistance of the ventral skin surface in four snake species (Squamata, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marie-Christin G; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-04-01

    Snakes are limbless tetrapods highly specialized for sliding locomotion on various substrates. Their skin is constantly exposed to high friction forces, which promotes abrasion. Snake skin has material and surface specializations, presumably optimized for friction and abrasion resistance. We found that different snake species living in different habitats have different abrasion patterns and hypothesized that this correlates with specific epidermal architecture and surface topography. To test this hypothesis artificial scratches, under controlled load conditions, were created on the ventral skin material (epidermis) of four snake species adapted to different habitats: Lampropeltis getula californiae (stony and sandy soil substrates), Epicrates cenchria cenchria (trees, soil and water), Morelia viridis (trees), and Gongylophis colubrinus (burrowing in sand). Abrasion appearance on the skin surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry. The material failure was different between the species, which we attribute to differences in the epidermis' response to the same abrasive challenge. We also discuss abrasion resistance mechanisms and the correlation with the different ultrastructure and surface microstructure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Ventral striatum response during reward and punishment reversal learning in unmedicated major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver J; Cools, Roshan; Carlisi, Christina O; Sahakian, Barbara J; Drevets, Wayne C

    2012-02-01

    Affective biases may underlie many of the key symptoms of major depressive disorder, from anhedonia to altered cognitive performance. Understanding the cause of these biases is therefore critical in the quest for improved treatments. Depression is associated, for example, with a negative affective bias in reversal learning. However, despite the fact that reversal learning is associated with striatal response in healthy individuals and depressed individuals exhibit attenuated striatal function on multiple tasks, studies to date have not demonstrated striatal involvement in the negative bias in reversal learning in depression. In this study, the authors sought to determine whether this may be because reversal learning tasks conventionally used to study behavior examine reversals only on the basis of unexpected punishment and therefore do not adequately separate reward- and punishment-based behavior. The authors used functional MRI to compare the hemodynamic response to a reversal learning task with mixed reward- and punishment-based reversal stages between individuals with unmedicated major depressive disorder (N=13) and healthy comparison subjects (N=14). Impaired reward (but not punishment) reversal accuracy was found alongside attenuated anteroventral striatal response to unexpected reward in depression. Attenuated neurophysiological response of the anteroventral striatum may reflect dysfunction in circuits involving afferent projections from the orbitofrontal, limbic, and/or mesostriatal dopaminergic pathways, which conceivably may, together with the ventral striatum, underlie anhedonia in depression. Learning to appreciate and enjoy positive life experiences is critical for recovery from depression. This study pinpoints a neural target for such recovery.

  2. Neuron-type-specific signals for reward and punishment in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Haesler, Sebastian; Vong, Linh; Lowell, Bradford B; Uchida, Naoshige

    2012-01-18

    Dopamine has a central role in motivation and reward. Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) signal the discrepancy between expected and actual rewards (that is, reward prediction error), but how they compute such signals is unknown. We recorded the activity of VTA neurons while mice associated different odour cues with appetitive and aversive outcomes. We found three types of neuron based on responses to odours and outcomes: approximately half of the neurons (type I, 52%) showed phasic excitation after reward-predicting odours and rewards in a manner consistent with reward prediction error coding; the other half of neurons showed persistent activity during the delay between odour and outcome that was modulated positively (type II, 31%) or negatively (type III, 18%) by the value of outcomes. Whereas the activity of type I neurons was sensitive to actual outcomes (that is, when the reward was delivered as expected compared to when it was unexpectedly omitted), the activity of type II and type III neurons was determined predominantly by reward-predicting odours. We 'tagged' dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons with the light-sensitive protein channelrhodopsin-2 and identified them based on their responses to optical stimulation while recording. All identified dopaminergic neurons were of type I and all GABAergic neurons were of type II. These results show that VTA GABAergic neurons signal expected reward, a key variable for dopaminergic neurons to calculate reward prediction error.

  3. PLD-grown thin film saturable absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellkamp, Friedjof

    2012-11-01

    The subject of this thesis is the preparation and characterization of thin films made of oxidic dielectrics which may find their application as saturable absorber in passively Q-switched lasers. The solely process applied for fabrication of the thin films was the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which stands out against other processes by its flexibility considering the composition of the systems to be investigated. Within the scope of this thesis the applied saturable absorbers can be divided into two fundamentally different kinds of functional principles: On the one hand, saturable absorption can be achieved by ions embedded in a host medium. Most commonly applied bulk crystals are certain garnets like YAG (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) or the spinel forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), in each case with chromium as dopant. Either of these media was investigated in terms of their behavior as PLD-grown saturable absorber. Moreover, experiments with Mg{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and further garnets like YSAG or GSGG took place. The absorption coefficients of the grown films of Cr{sup 4+}:YAG were determined by spectroscopic investigations to be one to two orders of magnitude higher compared to commercially available saturable absorbers. For the first time, passive Q-switching of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with Cr{sup 4+}:YAG thin films could be realized as well as with Cr:Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. On the other hand, the desirable effect of saturable absorption can also be generated by quantum well structures. For this purpose, several layer system like YAG/LuAG, Cu{sub 2}O/MgO, and ZnO/corumdum were investigated. It turned out that layer systems with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) did not only grew in an excellent way but also showed up a behavior regarding their photo luminescence which cannot be explained by classical considerations. The observed luminescence at roughly 3 eV (410 nm) was assumed to be of excitonic nature and its

  4. Haloperidol treatment at pre-exposure phase reduces the disturbance of latent inhibition in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Animals with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions develop during or after adolescence abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia such as anxiety and latent inhibition disruption. The aim of this study was to test whether haloperidol injection prior to pre-exposure session in the latent inhibition test would facilitate latent inhibition. Lesioned animals showed a significant decrease in the number and duration of social interactions, a decrease in the marbles buried, a significant increase in locomotor activity, and a disruption of latent inhibition. In the conditioned taste aversion test, injection of haloperidol produced the recovery of latent inhibition. These findings demonstrate that neonatal lidocaine lesion of the ventral hippocampus can induce behavioral changes related to schizophrenia, and injection of haloperidol, when restricted only to a three-day pre-exposure, is sufficient to facilitate latent inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. How bumblebees use lateral and ventral optic flow cues for position control in environments of different proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linander, Nellie; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2017-05-01

    Flying insects frequently navigate through environments of different complexity. In this study, buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were trained to fly along tunnels of different widths, from 60 to 240 cm. In tunnel widths of 60 and 120 cm, bumblebees control their lateral position by balancing the magnitude of translational optic flow experienced in the lateral visual field of each eye. In wider tunnels, bumblebees use translational optic flow cues in the ventral visual field to control their lateral position and to steer along straight tracks. Our results also suggest that bumblebees prefer to fly over surfaces that provide strong ventral optic flow cues, rather than over featureless ones. Together, these strategies allow bumblebees to minimize the risk of collision and to maintain relatively straight flight paths in a broad range of environments.

  6. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Aims Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls. Design Pathological Gamblers...... and Healthy Controlswere experimentally compared in a non-gambling (baseline) and gambling condition. Measurements We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the tracer raclopride to measure dopamine D 2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum during a non-gambling and gambling condition...... of the Iowa GamblingTask (IGT). After each condition participants rated their excitement level. Setting Laboratory experiment. Participants 18 Pathological Gamblers and 16 Healthy Controls. Findings Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had significantly higher excitement levels...

  7. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  8. Rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurones and variation in ventral horn area within a segment of the feline thoracic spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; Ford, Tim W; Road, Jeremy D

    2004-01-01

    Retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase, applied to cut peripheral nerves, was used to determine the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurones supplying different branches of the ventral ramus for a single mid- or caudal thoracic segment in the cat. The motoneurones occupied a length...... of spinal cord equal to the segmental length but displaced rostrally from the segment as defined by the dorsal roots, with the number of motoneurones per unit length of cord higher in the rostral part of a segment (close to the entry of the most rostral dorsal root) than in the caudal part. The cross......-sectional area of the ventral horn showed a rostrocaudal variation that closely paralleled the motoneurone distribution. The ratio between the number of motoneurones per unit length in the caudal and rostral regions of a segment (0.70) was similar to the ratio previously reported for the strength of functional...

  9. A Rare Case of Strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an Incarcerated Ventral Incisional Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incisional or postoperative hernia, one of the most common surgical procedure in general surgery practice, mostly occurs in the first years following abdominal operations. Incarceration or strangulation is a serious complication of these hernias, and mostly requires emergent surgery. Meckel%u2019s diverticulum, the most frequent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, is rarely found within a hernial sac and this unusual condition is called as Littre%u2019s hernia. In addition, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual condition is rather difficult and it is almost always first discovered during operation. A small number of cases of strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an incarcerated ventral incisional hernia have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum through a ventral incisional hernia in a 65 year-old woman who presented with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction.

  10. Prior high corticosterone exposure reduces activation of immature neurons in the ventral hippocampus in response to spatial and nonspatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Chan, Melissa Y T; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-03-01

    Chronic stress or chronically high glucocorticoids attenuate adult hippocampal neurogenesis by reducing cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in male rodents. Neurons are still produced in the dentate gyrus during chronically high glucocorticoids, but it is not known whether these new neurons are appropriately activated in response to spatial memory. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether immature granule neurons generated during chronically high glucocorticoids (resulting in a depressive-like phenotype) are differentially activated by spatial memory retrieval. Male Sprague Dawley rats received either 40 mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle for 18 days prior to behavioral testing. Rats were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and then tested in a spatial (hippocampus-dependent) or cued (hippocampus-independent) Morris Water Maze. Tissue was then processed for doublecortin (DCX) to identify immature neurons and zif268, an immediate early gene product. As expected, CORT increased depressive-like behavior (greater immobility in the FST) however, prior CORT modestly enhanced spatial learning and memory compared with oil. Prior CORT reduced the number of DCX-expressing cells and proportion of DCX-expressing cells colabeled for zif268, but only in the ventral hippocampus. Prior CORT shifted the proportion of cells in the ventral hippocampus away from postmitotic cells and toward immature, proliferative cells, likely due to the fact that postmitotic cells were produced and matured during CORT exposure but proliferative cells were produced after high CORT exposure ceased. Compared with cue training, spatial training slightly increased DCX-expressing cells and shifted cells toward the postmitotic stage in the ventral hippocampus. These data suggest that the effects of CORT and spatial training on immature neurons are more pronounced in the ventral hippocampus. Further, high CORT reduced activation of immature neurons, suggesting that exposure

  11. Amygdaloid projections to the ventral striatum in mice: Direct and indirect chemosensory inputs to the brain reward system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo eNovejarque

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rodents constitute good models for studying the neural basis of socio-sexual behaviour. Recent findings in mice have revealed the molecular identity of the some pheromonal molecules triggering intersexual attraction. However, the neural pathways mediating this basic socio-sexual behaviour remain elusive. Since previous work indicates that the dopaminergic tegmento-striatal pathway is not involved in pheromone reward, the present report explores alternative pathways linking the vomeronasal system with the tegmento-striatal system (the limbic basal ganglia by means of tract-tracing experiments studying direct and indirect projections from the chemosensory amygdala to the ventral striato-pallidum. Amygdaloid projections to the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and adjoining structures are studied by analysing the retrograde transport in the amygdala from dextranamine and fluorogold injections in the ventral striatum, as well as the anterograde labelling found in the ventral striato-pallidum after dextranamine injections in the amgydala. This combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments reveals direct projections from the vomeronasal cortex to the ventral striato-pallidum, as well as indirect projections through different nuclei of the basolateral amygdala. Direct projections innervate mainly the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja, whereas indirect projections are more widespread and reach the same structures and the shell and core of nucleus accumbens. These pathways are likely to mediate innate responses to pheromones (direct projections and conditioned responses to associated chemosensory and non-chemosensory stimuli (indirect projections. Comparative studies indicate that similar connections are present in all the studied amniote vertebrates and might constitute the basic circuitry for emotional responses to conspecifics in most vertebrates, including humans.

  12. Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas presenting as an enlarging ventral hernia: Radiologic-pathologic correlation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Crossley, BS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are fat-containing tumors that are rare, usually small, and unilateral, as well as asymptomatic. They can, however, occur bilaterally and enlarge significantly, resulting in clinical symptoms. A middle-aged male presented with an enlarging ventral hernia that was attributed to giant bilateral adrenal myelolipomas. With a combined measurement of at least 20 × 15 cm, to our knowledge, the size of the masses is one of the largest reported for this particular entity.

  13. Congenital cranial ventral abdominal hernia, peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia and sternal cleft in a 4-year-old multiparous pregnant queen

    OpenAIRE

    Camille Bismuth; Claire Deroy

    2017-01-01

    Case summary Cranial ventral midline hernias, most often congenital, can be associated with other congenital abnormalities, such as sternal, diaphragmatic or cardiac malformations. A 4-year-old multiparous queen with a substernal hernia was admitted for evaluation of a mammary mass. During CT examination, a bifid sternum, the abdominal hernia containing the intestines, spleen, omentum, three fetuses, a mammary mass and an incidental peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia were identified. S...

  14. Deep Brain Stimulation of Medial Dorsal and Ventral Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in OCD: A Retrospective Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Maarouf, Mohammad; Neudorfer, Clemens; El Majdoub, Faycal; Lenartz, Doris; Kuhn, Jens; Sturm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background The current notion that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has instigated the search for the most suitable target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, despite extensive research, uncertainty about the ideal target remains with many structures being underexplored. The aim of this report is to address a new target for DBS, the medial dorsal (MD) and the ventral anterior (VA) nucleus of the thalamu...

  15. The ventral hippocampus, but not the dorsal hippocampus is critical for learned approach-avoidance decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anett; Vlassov, Ekaterina; Ito, Rutsuko

    2016-04-01

    The resolution of an approach-avoidance conflict induced by ambivalent information involves the appraisal of the incentive value of the outcomes and associated stimuli to orchestrate an appropriate behavioral response. Much research has been directed at delineating the neural circuitry underlying approach motivation and avoidance motivation separately. Very little research, however, has examined the neural substrates engaged at the point of decision making when opposing incentive motivations are experienced simultaneously. We hereby examine the role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (HPC) in a novel approach-avoidance decision making paradigm, revisiting a once popular theory of HPC function, which posited the HPC to be the driving force of a behavioral inhibition system that is activated in situations of imminent threat. Rats received pre-training excitotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral HPC, and were trained to associate different non-spatial cues with appetitive, aversive and neutral outcomes in three separate arms of the radial maze. On the final day of testing, a state of approach-avoidance conflict was induced by simultaneously presenting two cues of opposite valences, and comparing the time the rats spent interacting with the superimposed 'conflict' cue, and the neutral cue. The ventral HPC-lesioned group showed significant preference for the conflict cue over the neutral cue, compared to the dorsal HPC-lesioned, and control groups. Thus, we provide evidence that the ventral, but not dorsal HPC, is a crucial component of the neural circuitry concerned with exerting inhibitory control over approach tendencies under circumstances in which motivational conflict is experienced. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Peripheral chemoreceptors tune inspiratory drive via tonic expiratory neuron hubs in the medullary ventral respiratory column network

    OpenAIRE

    Segers, L. S.; Nuding, S. C.; Ott, M. M.; Dean, J. B.; Bolser, D C; O?Connor, R.; Morris, K. F.; Lindsey, B. G.

    2014-01-01

    Models of brain stem ventral respiratory column (VRC) circuits typically emphasize populations of neurons, each active during a particular phase of the respiratory cycle. We have proposed that “tonic” pericolumnar expiratory (t-E) neurons tune breathing during baroreceptor-evoked reductions and central chemoreceptor-evoked enhancements of inspiratory (I) drive. The aims of this study were to further characterize the coordinated activity of t-E neurons and test the hypothesis that peripheral c...

  17. Microstructural development: organizational differences of the fiber architecture between children and adults in dorsal and ventral visual streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneker, Thomas; Klaver, Peter; Bucher, Kerstin; Lichtensteiger, Janine; Imfeld, Adrian; Martin, Ernst

    2011-06-01

    Visual perceptual skills are basically mature by the age of 7 years. White matter, however, continues to develop until late adolescence. Here, we examined children (aged 5-7 years) and adults (aged 20-30 years) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking to investigate the microstructural maturation of the visual system. We characterized the brain volumes, DTI indices, and architecture of visual fiber tracts passing through white matter structures adjacent to occipital and parietal cortex (dorsal stream), and to occipital and temporal cortex (ventral stream). Dorsal, but not ventral visual stream pathways were found to increase in volume during maturation. DTI indices revealed expected maturational differences, manifested as decreased mean and radial diffusivities and increased fractional anisotropy in both streams. Additionally, fractional anisotropy was increased and radial diffusivity was decreased in the adult dorsal stream, which can be explained by specific dorsal stream myelination or increasing fiber compaction. Adult dorsal stream architecture showed additional intra- and interhemispheric connections: Dorsal fibers penetrated into contralateral hemispheres via commissural structures and projection fibers extended to the superior temporal gyrus and ventral association pathways. Moreover, intra-hemispheric connectivity was particularly strong in adult dorsal stream of the right hemisphere. Ventral stream architecture also differed between adults and children. Adults revealed additional connections to posterior lateral areas (occipital-temporal gyrus), whereas children showed connections to posterior medial areas (posterior parahippocampal and lingual gyrus). Hence, in addition to dorsal stream myelination or fiber compaction, progressing maturation of intra- and interhemispheric connectivity may contribute to the development of the visual system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Germanium nanowires grown using different catalyst metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, R.C., E-mail: riama@ifsp.edu.br [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Área de Ciências, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Rua Américo Ambrósio, 269, Jd. Canaã, Sertãozinho, CEP 14169-263 (Brazil); Kamimura, H.; Munhoz, R.; Rodrigues, A.D. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Leite, E.R. [Departamento de Química – LIEC, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Germanium nanowires have been synthesized by the well known vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using gold, silver, cooper, indium and nickel as catalyst metals. The influence of metal seeds on nanowires structural and electronic transport properties was also investigated. Electron microscopy images demonstrated that, despite differences in diameters, all nanowires obtained presented single crystalline structures. X-ray patterns showed that all nanowires were composed by germanium with a small amount of germanium oxide, and the catalyst metal was restricted at the nanowires' tips. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the long range order in the crystalline structure of each sample. Electrical measurements indicated that variable range hopping was the dominant mechanism in carrier transport for all devices, with similar hopping distance, regardless the material used as catalyst. Then, in spite of the differences in synthesis temperatures and nanowires diameters, the catalyst metals have not affected the composition and crystalline quality of the germanium nanowires nor the carrier transport in the germanium nanowire network devices. - Highlights: • Ge nanowires were grown by VLS method using Au, Ag, Cu, In and Ni as catalysts. • All nanowires presented high single crystalline quality and long range order. • Devices showed semiconducting behavior having VRH as dominant transport mechanism. • The metal catalyst did not influence structural properties or the transport mechanism.

  19. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. Cytoskeleton and gravity at work in the establishment of dorso-ventral polarity in the egg of Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.; Brom, Tim G.

    The establishment of polarities during early embryogenesis is essential for normal development. Amphibian eggs are appropriate models for studies on embryonic pattern formation. The animal-vegetal axis of the axially symmetrical amphibian egg originates during oogenesis and foreshadows the main body axis of the embryo. The dorso-ventral polarity is epigenetically established before first cleavage. Recent experiments strongly suggest that in the monospermic eggs of the anuran Xenopus laevis both the cytoskeleton and gravity act in the determination of the dorso-ventral polarity. In order to test the role of gravity in this process, eggs will be fertilized under microgravity conditions during the SL-D1 flight in 1985. In a fully automatic experiment container eggs will be kept under well-defined conditions and artificially fertilized as soon as microgravity is reached; eggs and embryos at different stages will then be fixed for later examination. Back on earth the material will be analysed and we will know whether fertilization under microgravity conditions is possible. If so, the relation of the dorso-ventral axis to the former sperm entry point will be determined on the whole embryos; in addition eggs and embryos will be analysed cytologically.

  1. Bilateral dorsal and ventral fiber pathways for the processing of affective prosody identified by probabilistic fiber tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Gschwind, Markus; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Dorsal and ventral pathways for syntacto-semantic speech processing in the left hemisphere are represented in the dual-stream model of auditory processing. Here we report new findings for the right dorsal and ventral temporo-frontal pathway during processing of affectively intonated speech (i.e. affective prosody) in humans, together with several left hemispheric structural connections, partly resembling those for syntacto-semantic speech processing. We investigated white matter fiber connectivity between regions responding to affective prosody in several subregions of the bilateral superior temporal cortex (secondary and higher-level auditory cortex) and of the inferior frontal cortex (anterior and posterior inferior frontal gyrus). The fiber connectivity was investigated by using probabilistic diffusion tensor based tractography. The results underscore several so far underestimated auditory pathway connections, especially for the processing of affective prosody, such as a right ventral auditory pathway. The results also suggest the existence of a dual-stream processing in the right hemisphere, and a general predominance of the dorsal pathways in both hemispheres underlying the neural processing of affective prosody in an extended temporo-frontal network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sternites and spiracles - the unclear homology of ventral sclerites in the basal millipede order Glomeridesmida (Myriapoda, Diplopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas; Sierwald, Petra; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a ventral plate in the basal and little-known chilognath millipede order Glomeridesmida. This ventral plate, interpreted here as a 'true sternite', is clearly separate from both the coxa and the more lateral stigma-carrying plates commonly referred to as 'diplopod sternites'. Therefore, the lateral, stigma-carrying plates of the Diplopoda, previously referred to as sternites, are not sternal elements, but subcoxal elements associated with the limb base. This discovery changes the nomenclature used for the ventral plates in Diplopoda, with the formerly named 'sternite' better referred to as 'stigma-carrying plate'. In helminthomorph Diplopoda, the stigma-carrying plates are apparently secondarily fused with the sternite. The main argument for the independent evolution of tracheae in insects and myriapods, the different location of their respective spiracles, no longer holds true. In all Myriapoda and Hexapoda the spiracles associated with subcoxal elements are located lateral to the limb base. This discovery shows that the arguments for an independent origin of tracheae in insects and myriapods are not uncontestable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Boolean modelling reveals new regulatory connections between transcription factors orchestrating the development of the ventral spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lovrics

    Full Text Available We have assembled a network of cell-fate determining transcription factors that play a key role in the specification of the ventral neuronal subtypes of the spinal cord on the basis of published transcriptional interactions. Asynchronous Boolean modelling of the network was used to compare simulation results with reported experimental observations. Such comparison highlighted the need to include additional regulatory connections in order to obtain the fixed point attractors of the model associated with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where the transcription factors were overexpressed. Furthermore the network predicted the inhibition of Irx3 by Nkx2.2 and this prediction was tested experimentally. Our results provide evidence for the existence of an as yet undescribed inhibitory connection which could potentially have significance beyond the ventral spinal cord. The work presented in this paper demonstrates the strength of Boolean modelling for identifying gene regulatory networks.

  4. Prolonged sleep deprivation decreases cell proliferation and immature newborn neurons in both dorsal and ventral hippocampus of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yusuke; Oka, Ayana; Iseki, Ayaka; Mori, Masayoshi; Ohe, Kenji; Mine, Kazunori; Enjoji, Munechika

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sleep deprivation negatively affects hippocampal neurogenesis, which may explain the reason for the relation between sleep loss and depression. Increasing evidence indicates that the hippocampus is anatomically and functionally segregated along a dorsolateral (cognitive function)/ventromedial (control for mood and stress response) axis. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate regional differences in the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sleep deprivation using the "platform on the water" method for 24- or 72-h. Quantification of hippocampal cell proliferation and immature newborn neurons was stereologically estimated using immunostaining with Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively, by optical fractionator method. A consecutive three days of sleep deprivation significantly reduced the density of Ki-67- and DCX-immunopositive cells both in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal subgranular zone and the decrease in DCX-labeled cells was more pronounced in the ventral hippocampus than in dorsal region. Our results indicate that prolonged sleep deprivation decreases hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in both the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus. Future studies will be needed to clarify the impact of sleep deprivation-induced decreases in hippocampal neurogenesis on the development of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. The nodal target gene Xmenf is a component of an FGF-independent pathway of ventral mesoderm induction in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Gaku; Smith, William C

    2002-10-01

    The interplay of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and nodal signaling in the Xenopus gastrula marginal zone specifies distinct populations of presumptive mesodermal cells. Cells in the vegetal marginal zone, making up the presumptive leading edge mesoderm, are exposed to nodal signaling, as evidenced by SMAD2 activation, but do not appear to be exposed to FGF signaling, as evidenced by the lack of MAP kinase (MAPK) activation. However, in the animal marginal zone, activation of both SMAD2 and MAPK occurs. The differential activation of these two signaling pathways in the marginal zone results in the vegetal and animal marginal zones expressing different genes at gastrulation, and subsequently having different fates, with the vegetal marginal zone contributing to ventral mesoderm (e.g. ventral blood island) and the animal marginal zone giving rise to dorsal fates (e.g. notochord and somite). We report here the cloning of a cDNA encoding a novel nuclear protein, Xmenf, that is expressed in the vegetal marginal zone. The expression of Xmenf is induced by nodal signaling and negatively regulated by FGF signaling. Results from animal cap studies indicate that Xmenf plays a role in the pathway of ventral mesoderm induction in the vegetal marginal zone.

  6. Boolean modelling reveals new regulatory connections between transcription factors orchestrating the development of the ventral spinal cord.

    KAUST Repository

    Lovrics, Anna

    2014-11-14

    We have assembled a network of cell-fate determining transcription factors that play a key role in the specification of the ventral neuronal subtypes of the spinal cord on the basis of published transcriptional interactions. Asynchronous Boolean modelling of the network was used to compare simulation results with reported experimental observations. Such comparison highlighted the need to include additional regulatory connections in order to obtain the fixed point attractors of the model associated with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where the transcription factors were overexpressed. Furthermore the network predicted the inhibition of Irx3 by Nkx2.2 and this prediction was tested experimentally. Our results provide evidence for the existence of an as yet undescribed inhibitory connection which could potentially have significance beyond the ventral spinal cord. The work presented in this paper demonstrates the strength of Boolean modelling for identifying gene regulatory networks.

  7. Increased functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams during retrieval of novel words in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Valizadeh, Seyed Abolfazl; Jäncke, Lutz; Besson, Mireille; Elmer, Stefan

    2017-11-03

    Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations. In accordance with the dual stream model, word learning was generally associated with increased beta functional connectivity in the ventral stream compared to the dorsal stream. In addition, in the linguistically most demanding "semantic task," musicians outperformed nonmusicians, and this behavioral advantage was accompanied by increased left-hemispheric theta connectivity in both streams. Moreover, theta coherence in the left dorsal pathway was positively correlated with the number of years of music training. These results provide evidence for a complex interplay within a network of brain regions involved in semantic processing and verbal memory functions, and suggest that intensive music training can modify its functional architecture leading to advantages in novel word learning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Recovering stimulus locations using populations of eye-position modulated neurons in dorsal and ventral visual streams of nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B Sereno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We recorded visual responses while monkeys fixated the same target at different gaze angles, both dorsally (lateral intraparietal cortex, LIP and ventrally (anterior inferotemporal cortex, AIT. While eye-position modulations occurred in both areas, they were both more frequent and stronger in LIP neurons. We used an intrinsic population decoding technique, multidimensional scaling, to recover eye positions, equivalent to recovering fixated target locations. We report that eye-position based visual space in LIP was more accurate (i.e., metric. Nevertheless, the AIT spatial representation remained largely topologically correct, perhaps indicative of a categorical spatial representation (i.e., a qualitative description such as left of or above as opposed to a quantitative, metrically precise description. Additionally, we developed a simple neural model of eye position signals and illustrate that differences in single cell characteristics can influence the ability to recover target position in a population of cells. We demonstrate for the first time that the ventral stream contains sufficient information for constructing an eye-position based spatial representation. Furthermore we demonstrate, in dorsal and ventral streams as well as modeling, that target locations can be extracted directly from eye position signals in cortical visual responses without computing coordinate transforms of visual space.

  9. Ventral Striatum Functional Connectivity as a Predictor of Adolescent Depressive Disorder in a Longitudinal Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pedro Mario; Sato, João R; Salum, Giovanni A; Rohde, Luis A; Gadelha, Ary; Zugman, Andre; Mari, Jair; Jackowski, Andrea; Picon, Felipe; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Stringaris, Argyris

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have implicated aberrant reward processing in the pathogenesis of adolescent depression. However, no study has used functional connectivity within a distributed reward network, assessed using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), to predict the onset of depression in adolescents. This study used reward network-based functional connectivity at baseline to predict depressive disorder at follow-up in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 637 children 6-12 years old underwent resting-state fMRI. Discovery and replication analyses tested intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) among nodes of a putative reward network. Logistic regression tested whether striatal node strength, a measure of reward-related iFC, predicted onset of a depressive disorder at 3-year follow-up. Further analyses investigated the specificity of this prediction. Increased left ventral striatum node strength predicted increased risk for future depressive disorder (odds ratio=1.54, 95% CI=1.09-2.18), even after excluding participants who had depressive disorders at baseline (odds ratio=1.52, 95% CI=1.05-2.20). Among 11 reward-network nodes, only the left ventral striatum significantly predicted depression. Striatal node strength did not predict other common adolescent psychopathology, such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance use. Aberrant ventral striatum functional connectivity specifically predicts future risk for depressive disorder. This finding further emphasizes the need to understand how brain reward networks contribute to youth depression.

  10. Adhesive F-actin Waves: A Novel Integrin-Mediated Adhesion Complex Coupled to Ventral Actin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Lindsay B.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in “ventral F-actin waves” that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the extracellular matrix downstream of ventral F-actin waves in several mammalian cell lines as well as in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These “adhesive F-actin waves” require a cycle of integrin engagement and disengagement to the extracellular matrix for their formation and propagation, and exhibit morphometry and a hierarchical assembly and disassembly mechanism distinct from other integrin-containing structures. After Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, zyxin and VASP are co-recruited to adhesive F-actin waves, followed by paxillin and vinculin, and finally talin and integrin. Adhesive F-actin waves thus represent a previously uncharacterized integrin-based adhesion complex associated with Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. PMID:22069459

  11. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  12. Glans wings are separated ventrally by the septum glandis and frenulum penis: MRI documentation and surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbey, Hüseyin; Kumbasar, Ali

    2017-12-01

    In the normal human penis, the glans wings are in apposition in the midline ventrally, and are separated by the "septum glandis" and "frenulum" of the prepuce. However, most of the hypospadias repair techniques include dissection of the glans wings and their approximation enclosing the neourethra within the glans. In order to obtain detailed information about the normal anatomy of glans penis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the penis were studied in three adults. Transverse, and sagittal sections of the penis were performed with a 1.5-T MRI scanner. The present MRI study has confirmed that the glans wings do not fuse at the ventral midline and they are seperated by a fibrous tissue (septum glandis). This fibrous tissue is connected to the frenulum, traversing the wings of the glans penis. The glanular urethra forming the fossa navicularis has a wider caliber than the proximal urethra, and its walls are radiologically seen as the extension of that fibrous tissue. The male urethra is not a uniform tubular structure and has distinct attachments in glans penis. The glans wings are separated ventrally by the septum glandis and frenulum. In hypospadias, the septum glandis and frenulum are entirely missing structures. Therefore, in hypospadias surgery, the anatomical features of the glanular urethra must be taken into consideration.

  13. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka; Gjedde, Albert; Doudet, Doris

    2011-02-01

    Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls. Pathological Gamblers and Healthy Controls were experimentally compared in a non-gambling (baseline) and gambling condition. We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the tracer raclopride to measure dopamine D 2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum during a non-gambling and gambling condition of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). After each condition participants rated their excitement level. Laboratory experiment. 18 Pathological Gamblers and 16 Healthy Controls. Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had significantly higher excitement levels than Healthy Controls despite lower IGT performance. No differences in excitement levels and IGT performance were found between Pathological Gamblers and Healthy Controls without dopamine release. Pathological Gamblers showed a significant correlation between dopamine release and excitement level, while no such interaction was found in Healthy Controls. In pathological gamblers dopamine release in the ventral striatum appears to be associated with increased excitement levels despite lower IGT performance. The results might suggest a 'double deficit' function of dopamine in pathological gambling, where dopamine release reinforces maladaptive gambling through increasing excitement levels, reducing inhibition of risky decisions, or a combination of both. These findings may have implications for the understanding of dopamine in pathological gambling and other forms of addiction. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Structural Reliability of the Nigerian Grown Abura Timber Bridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...

  15. Ventral extradural spinal meningeal cyst causing cord compression: neurosurgical treatment Cisto meníngeo extradural ventral do canal espinhal causando compressão medular: tratamento neurocirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monte-Serrat Prevedello

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Spinal extradural meningeal cysts are typically formed by a thin fibrotic membranous capsule, macroscopically similar that of an arachnoid membrane, filled by cerebro spinal fluid and related to a nerve root or to the posterior midline. Ventral location is extremely rare and when it occurs they usually cause spinal cord herniation through the ventral dural gap. A 61 year-old man who began with a two years long history of insidious tetraparesis, spasticity and hyperreflexia in lower extremities, and flaccid atrophy of upper limbs, without sensory manifestations, is presented. Investigation through magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extensive spinal ventral extradural cystic collection from C6 to T11. The lesion was approached through a laminectomy and a cyst-peritoneal shunt was introduced. The cyst reduced in size significantly and the patient is asymptomatic over a 48 months follow-up. This is the first reported case of a spontaneous ventral extradural spinal meningeal cyst causing cord compression. Cyst-peritoneal shunt was effective in the treatment of the case and it should be considered in cases in which complete resection of the cyst is made more difficult or risky by the need of more aggressive surgical maneuvers.Cistos meníngeos extradurais espinhais são formados tipicamente por estreita cápsula membranosa fibrótica, macroscopicamente semelhante a uma membrana de aracnóide, repleta de líquor e relacionada com uma raiz nervosa ou com a linha média posterior. Eles são extremamente raros em posição anterior e, quando ocorrem, habitualmente causam herniação da medula espinhal pela falha dural ventral. O caso de um homem de 61 anos de idade que iniciou com tetraparesia, espasticidade e hiperreflexia em membros inferiores, e flacidez com hipotrofia nos membros superiores, sem manifestação sensitiva, é apresentado. A investigação com ressonância magnética demonstrou extensa coleção cística extradural ventral

  16. YF-12 Lockalloy ventral fin program, volume 1. [design analysis, fabrication, and manufacturing of aircraft structures using aluminum and beryllium alloys for the lockheed YF-12 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duba, R. J.; Haramis, A. C.; Marks, R. F.; Payne, L.; Sessing, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of the YF-12 Lockalloy Ventral Fin Program which was carried out by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation - Advanced Development Projects for the joint NASA/USAF YF-12 Project. The primary purpose of the program was to redesign and fabricate the ventral fin of the YF-12 research airplane (to reduce flutter) using Lockalloy, and alloy of beryllium and aluminum, as a major structural material. A secondary purpose, was to make a material characterization study (thermodynamic properties, corrosion; fatigue tests, mechanical properties) of Lockalloy to validate the design of the ventral fin and expand the existing data base on this material. All significant information pertinent to the design and fabrication of the ventral fin is covered. Emphasis throughout is given to Lockalloy fabrication and machining techniques and attendant personnel safety precautions. Costs are also examined. Photographs of tested alloy specimens are shown along with the test equipment used.

  17. Passive Avoidance Training and Recall are Associated With Increased Glutamate Levels in the Intermediate Medial Hyperstriatum Ventrale of the Day-Old Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan N. Daisley

    1998-01-01

    glutamate levels in the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale accompany pecking at either the water- or the methylanthranylate-bead. The taste of the aversant may be responsible for the greater increases found in methylanthranylate-trained birds.

  18. Salsolinol facilitates glutamatergic transmission to dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqin Xie

    Full Text Available Although in vivo evidence indicates that salsolinol, the condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine, has properties that may contribute to alcohol abuse, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We have reported previously that salsolinol stimulates dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area (p-VTA partly by reducing inhibitory GABAergic transmission, and that ethanol increases glutamatergic transmission to VTA-dopamine neurons via the activation of dopamine D(1 receptors (D(1Rs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that salsolinol stimulates dopamine neurons involving activation of D(1Rs. By using whole-cell recordings on p-VTA-dopamine neurons in acute brain slices of rats, we found that salsolinol-induced increase in spike frequency of dopamine neurons was substantially attenuated by DL-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid and 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione, the antagonists of glutamatergic N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Moreover, salsolinol increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs. Additionally, SKF83566, a D(1R antagonist attenuated the salsolinol-induced facilitation of EPSCs and of spontaneous firing of dopamine neurons. Our data reveal that salsolinol enhances glutamatergic transmission onto dopamine neurons via activation of D(1Rs at the glutamatergic afferents in dopamine neurons, which contributes to salsolinol's stimulating effect on p-VTA dopamine neurons. This appears to be a novel mechanism which contributes toward rewarding properties of salsolinol.

  19. Development of a critical-sized ventral hernia model in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sambit; Baker, Andrew R; Haskins, Ivy N; Krpata, David M; Rosen, Michael J; Derwin, Kathleen A

    2017-04-01

    The pig is commonly used as a preclinical model for ventral hernia repair. However, no study has verified that an unrepaired surgically induced hernia (control) in the pig does not heal spontaneously but rather develops a persistent hernia. Without such verification in any given model, one cannot draw conclusions on the efficacy of the repair technique investigated. Three surgically induced hernia models with increasing severity were created in eight pigs. These included 10-cm retrorectus partial-thickness (model 1) and 15-cm preperitoneal full-thickness (model 2) incisional defects and an 8 × 8 cm preperitoneal full-thickness excisional defect (model 3). Postoperative management included use of an abdominal binder, and in some cases, suction drainage, for 2 wk to support the repair and prevent seroma. Models were evaluated for persistence of hernia at 5 wk using clinical and radiographic assessments. All pigs developed clinical hernias after 2 wk of defect creation, but only models 1 and 3 had clinically persistent hernias at 5 wk. At 5 wk, the average defect area was 97 cm(2) in model 1, 66 cm(2) in model 2, and 245 cm(2) in model 3. Dense fibrotic scarring was observed in the models with resolved hernias. Our results highlight the need to verify an unrepaired hernia injury model does not heal spontaneously prior to using it for hernia repair studies. The partial-thickness incisional model 1 and full-thickness excisional model 3 formed persistent hernias in pigs at 5 wk and should be further explored as models for investigating hernia repair strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of the main generator source of longitudinal muscle contraction in the earthworm ventral nerve cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. Chang

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The main generator source of a longitudinal muscle contraction was identified as an M (mechanical-stimulus-sensitive circuit composed of a presynaptic M-1 neuron and a postsynaptic M-2 neuron in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Amynthas hawayanus, by simultaneous intracellular response recording and Lucifer Yellow-CH injection with two microelectrodes. Five-peaked responses were evoked in both neurons by a mechanical, but not by an electrical, stimulus to the mechanoreceptor in the shaft of a seta at the opposite side of an epidermis-muscle-nerve-cord preparation. This response was correlated to 84% of the amplitude, 73% of the rising rate and 81% of the duration of a longitudinal muscle contraction recorded by a mechano-electrical transducer after eliminating the other possible generator sources by partitioning the epidermis-muscle piece of this preparation. The pre- and postsynaptic relationship between these two neurons was determined by alternately stimulating and recording with two microelectrodes. Images of the Lucifer Yellow-CH-filled M-1 and M-2 neurons showed that both of them are composed of bundles of longitudinal processes situated on the side of the nerve cord opposite to stimulation. The M-1 neuron has an afferent process (A1 in the first nerve at the stimulated side of this preparation and the M-2 neuron has two efferent processes (E1 and E3 in the first and third nerves at the recording side where their effector muscle cell was identified by a third microelectrode.

  1. A universal role of the ventral striatum in reward-based learning: evidence from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Reka; Pollmann, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Reinforcement learning enables organisms to adjust their behavior in order to maximize rewards. Electrophysiological recordings of dopaminergic midbrain neurons have shown that they code the difference between actual and predicted rewards, i.e., the reward prediction error, in many species. This error signal is conveyed to both the striatum and cortical areas and is thought to play a central role in learning to optimize behavior. However, in human daily life rewards are diverse and often only indirect feedback is available. Here we explore the range of rewards that are processed by the dopaminergic system in human participants, and examine whether it is also involved in learning in the absence of explicit rewards. While results from electrophysiological recordings in humans are sparse, evidence linking dopaminergic activity to the metabolic signal recorded from the midbrain and striatum with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is available. Results from fMRI studies suggest that the human ventral striatum (VS) receives valuation information for a diverse set of rewarding stimuli. These range from simple primary reinforcers such as juice rewards over abstract social rewards to internally generated signals on perceived correctness, suggesting that the VS is involved in learning from trial-and-error irrespective of the specific nature of provided rewards. In addition, we summarize evidence that the VS can also be implicated when learning from observing others, and in tasks that go beyond simple stimulus-action-outcome learning, indicating that the reward system is also recruited in more complex learning tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Observation of reward delivery to a conspecific modulates dopamine release in ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtelyan, Vadim; Lichtenberg, Nina T; Chen, Mindy L; Cheer, Joseph F; Roesch, Matthew R

    2014-11-03

    Dopamine (DA) neurons increase and decrease firing for rewards that are better and worse than expected, respectively. These correlates have been observed at the level of single-unit firing and in measurements of phasic DA release in ventral striatum (VS). Here, we ask whether DA release is modulated by delivery of reward, not to oneself, but to a conspecific. It is unknown what, if anything, DA release encodes during social situations in which one animal witnesses another animal receive reward. It might be predicted that DA release will increase, suggesting that watching a conspecific receive reward is a favorable outcome. Conversely, DA release may be entirely dependent on personal experience, or perhaps observation of receipt of reward might be experienced as a negative outcome because another individual, rather than oneself, receives the reward. Our data show that animals display a mixture of affective states during observation of conspecific reward, first exhibiting increases in appetitive calls (50 kHz), then exhibiting increases in aversive calls (22 kHz). Like ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), DA signals were modulated by delivery of reward to the conspecific. We show stronger DA release during observation of the conspecific receiving reward relative to observation of reward delivered to an empty box, but only on the first trial. During the following trials, this relationship reversed: DA release was reduced during observation of the conspecific receiving reward. These findings suggest that positive and negative states associated with conspecific reward delivery modulate DA signals related to learning in social situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Top-down modulation of ventral occipito-temporal responses during visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Tae; Kawabata Duncan, Keith J; Price, Cathy J; Devlin, Joseph T

    2011-04-01

    Although interactivity is considered a fundamental principle of cognitive (and computational) models of reading, it has received far less attention in neural models of reading that instead focus on serial stages of feed-forward processing from visual input to orthographic processing to accessing the corresponding phonological and semantic information. In particular, the left ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) cortex is proposed to be the first stage where visual word recognition occurs prior to accessing nonvisual information such as semantics and phonology. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether there is evidence that activation in vOT is influenced top-down by the interaction of visual and nonvisual properties of the stimuli during visual word recognition tasks. Participants performed two different types of lexical decision tasks that focused on either visual or nonvisual properties of the word or word-like stimuli. The design allowed us to investigate how vOT activation during visual word recognition was influenced by a task change to the same stimuli and by a stimulus change during the same task. We found both stimulus- and task-driven modulation of vOT activation that can only be explained by top-down processing of nonvisual aspects of the task and stimuli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that vOT acts as an interface linking visual form with nonvisual processing in both bottom up and top down directions. Such interactive processing at the neural level is in agreement with cognitive and computational models of reading but challenges some of the assumptions made by current neuro-anatomical models of reading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative Single-Embryo Profile of Drosophila Genome Activation and the Dorsal–Ventral Patterning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Jeremy E.; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster, the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) marks a significant and rapid turning point when zygotic transcription begins and control of development is transferred from maternally deposited transcripts. Characterizing the sequential activation of the genome during the MZT requires precise timing and a sensitive assay to measure changes in expression. We utilized the NanoString nCounter instrument, which directly counts messenger RNA transcripts without reverse transcription or amplification, to study >70 genes expressed along the dorsal–ventral (DV) axis of early Drosophila embryos, dividing the MZT into 10 time points. Transcripts were quantified for every gene studied at all time points, providing the first dataset of absolute numbers of transcripts during Drosophila development. We found that gene expression changes quickly during the MZT, with early nuclear cycle 14 (NC14) the most dynamic time for the embryo. twist is one of the most abundant genes in the entire embryo and we use mutants to quantitatively demonstrate how it cooperates with Dorsal to activate transcription and is responsible for some of the rapid changes in transcription observed during early NC14. We also uncovered elements within the gene regulatory network that maintain precise transcript levels for sets of genes that are spatiotemporally cotranscribed within the presumptive mesoderm or dorsal ectoderm. Using these new data, we show that a fine-scale, quantitative analysis of temporal gene expression can provide new insights into developmental biology by uncovering trends in gene networks, including coregulation of target genes and specific temporal input by transcription factors. PMID:26896327

  5. GABAA receptor drugs and neuronal plasticity in reward and aversion: focus on the ventral tegmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eVashchinkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors are the main fast inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain, and targets for many clinically important drugs widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia and in anesthesia. Nonetheless, there are significant risks associated with the long-term use of these drugs particularly related to development of tolerance and addiction. Addictive mechanisms of GABAA receptor drugs are poorly known, but recent findings suggest that those drugs may induce aberrant neuroadaptations in the brain reward circuitry. Recently, benzodiazepines, acting on synaptic GABAA receptors, and modulators of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (THIP and neurosteroids have been found to induce plasticity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine neurons and their main target projections. Furthermore, depending whether synaptic or extrasynaptic GABAA receptor populations are activated, the behavioral outcome of repeated administration seems to correlate with rewarding or aversive behavioral responses, respectively. The VTA dopamine neurons project to forebrain centers such as the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, and receive afferent projections from these brain regions and especially from the extended amygdala and lateral habenula, forming the major part of the reward and aversion circuitry. Both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA drugs inhibit the VTA GABAergic interneurons, thus activating the VTA DA neurons by disinhibition and this way inducing glutamatergic synaptic plasticity. However, the GABAA drugs failed to alter synaptic spine numbers as studied from Golgi-Cox-stained VTA dendrites. Since the GABAergic drugs are known to depress the brain metabolism and gene expression, their likely way of inducing neuroplasticity in mature neurons is by disinhibiting the principal neurons, which remains to be rigorously tested for a number of clinically important anxiolytics, sedatives and anesthetics in different parts of

  6. Synaptic Neurotransmission Depression in Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons and Cannabinoid-Associated Addictive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Han, Jing; Jia, Lintao; Maillet, Jean-Christian; Bai, Guang; Xu, Lin; Jia, Zhengping; Zheng, Qiaohua; Zhang, Wandong; Monette, Robert; Merali, Zul; Zhu, Zhou; Wang, Wei; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is an association of compulsive drug use with long-term associative learning/memory. Multiple forms of learning/memory are primarily subserved by activity- or experience-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent studies suggest LTP expression in locally activated glutamate synapses onto dopamine neurons (local Glu-DA synapses) of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) following a single or chronic exposure to many drugs of abuse, whereas a single exposure to cannabinoid did not significantly affect synaptic plasticity at these synapses. It is unknown whether chronic exposure of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids), the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, induce LTP or LTD at these synapses. More importantly, whether such alterations in VTA synaptic plasticity causatively contribute to drug addictive behavior has not previously been addressed. Here we show in rats that chronic cannabinoid exposure activates VTA cannabinoid CB1 receptors to induce transient neurotransmission depression at VTA local Glu-DA synapses through activation of NMDA receptors and subsequent endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits. A GluR2-derived peptide blocks cannabinoid-induced VTA synaptic depression and conditioned place preference, i.e., learning to associate drug exposure with environmental cues. These data not only provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression at VTA dopamine circuitry requires GluR2 endocytosis, but also suggest an essential contribution of such synaptic depression to cannabinoid-associated addictive learning, in addition to pointing to novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. PMID:21187978

  7. The Functional Anatomy of Nerves Innervating the Ventral Grooved Blubber of Fin Whales (Balaenoptera Physalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Wayne; Petersen, Hannes; Adams, Arlo; Lillie, Margo A; Shadwick, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Nerves that supply the floor of the oral cavity in rorqual whales are extensible to accommodate the dramatic changes in tissue dimensions that occur during "lunge feeding" in this group. We report here that the large nerves innervating the muscle component of the ventral grooved blubber (VGB) in fin whales are branches of cranial nerve VII (facial nerve). Therefore, the muscles of the VGB are homologous to second branchial arch derived muscles, which in humans include the muscles of "facial expression." We speculate, based on the presence of numerous foramina on the dorsolateral surface of the mandibular bones, that general sensation from the VGB likely is carried by branches of the mandibular division (V3) of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve), and that these small branches travel in the lipid-rich layer directly underlying the skin. We show that intercostal and phrenic nerves, which are not extensible, have a different wall and nerve core morphology than the large VGB nerves that are branches of VII. Although these VGB nerves are known to have two levels of waviness, the intercostal and phrenic nerves have only one in which the nerve fascicles in the nerve core are moderately wavy. In addition, the VGB nerves have inner and outer parts to their walls with numerous large elastin fibers in the outer part, whereas intercostal and phrenic nerves have single walls formed predominantly of collagen. Our results illustrate that overall nerve morphology depends greatly on location and the forces to which the structures are exposed. Anat Rec, 300:1963-1972, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spatial attention modulates visual gamma oscillations across the human ventral stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazzini, Lorenzo; Singh, Krish D

    2018-02-01

    Oscillatory synchronization in the gamma frequency range has been proposed as a neuronal mechanism to prioritize processing of relevant stimuli over competing ones. Recent studies in animals found that selective spatial attention enhanced gamma-band synchronization in high-order visual areas (V4) and increased the gamma peak frequency in V1. The existence of such mechanisms in the human visual system is yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we used MEG, in combination with an optimised stimulus design, to record visual gamma oscillations from human early visual cortex, while participants performed a visuospatial attention cueing task. First, we reconstructed virtual sensors in V1/V2, where gamma oscillations were strongly induced by visual stimulation alone. Second, following the results of a statistical comparison between conditions of attention, we reconstructed cortical activity also in inferior occipital-temporal regions (V4). The results indicated that gamma amplitude was modulated by spatial attention across the cortical hierarchy, both in the early visual cortex and in higher-order regions of the ventral visual pathway. In contrast, we found no evidence for an increase in the gamma peak frequency in V1/V2 with attention. The gamma response tended to peak earlier in V1/V2 than in V4 by approximately 70 ms, consistent with a feed-forward role of gamma-band activity in propagating sensory representations across the visual cortical hierarchy. Together, these findings suggest that differences in experimental design or methodology can account for the inconsistencies in previous animal and human studies. Furthermore, our results are in line with the hypothesis of enhanced gamma-band synchronization as an attentional mechanism in the human visual cortex. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  10. Comparative analysis of open and robotic transversus abdominis release for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; Alrefai, Sameer; Vy, Michelle; Mabe, Micah; Del Prado, Paul A R; Clingempeel, Natasha L

    2018-02-01

    Transversus abdominis release (TAR) is a safe, effective strategy to repair complex ventral incisional hernia (VIH); however, open TAR (o-TAR) often necessitates prolonged hospitalization. Robot-assisted TAR (r-TAR) may benefit short-term outcomes and shorten convalescence. This study compares 90-day outcomes of o-TAR and r-TAR for VIH repair. A single-center, retrospective review of patients who underwent o-TAR or r-TAR for VIH from 2015 to 2016 was conducted. Patient and hernia characteristics, operative data, and 90-day outcomes were compared. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay, and secondary metrics were morbidity, surgical site events, and readmission. Overall, 102 patients were identified (76 o-TAR and 26 r-TAR). Patients were comparable regarding age, gender, body mass index, and the presence of co-morbidities. Diabetes was more common in the open group (22.3 vs. 0%, P = 0.01). Most VIH defects were midline (89.5 vs. 83%, P = 0.47) and recurrent (52.6 vs. 58.3%, P = 0.65). Hernia characteristics were similar regarding mean defect size (260 ± 209 vs. 235 ± 107 cm 2 , P = 0.55), mesh removal, and type/size mesh implanted. Average operative time was longer in the r-TAR cohort (287 ± 121 vs. 365 ± 78 min, P VIH offers the short-term benefits of low morbidity and decreased hospital length of stay compared to open TAR.

  11. Classification and valuation of postoperative complications in a randomized trial of open versus laparoscopic ventral herniorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaafarani, H M A; Hur, K; Campasano, M; Reda, D J; Itani, K M F

    2010-06-01

    Generic instruments used for the valuation of health states (e.g., EuroQol) often lack sensitivity to notable differences that are relevant to